WorldWideScience

Sample records for complex developmental testing

  1. Rethinking developmental toxicity testing: Evolution or revolution?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scialli, Anthony R; Daston, George; Chen, Connie; Coder, Prägati S; Euling, Susan Y; Foreman, Jennifer; Hoberman, Alan M; Hui, Julia; Knudsen, Thomas; Makris, Susan L; Morford, LaRonda; Piersma, Aldert H; Stanislaus, Dinesh; Thompson, Kary E

    2018-01-01

    Current developmental toxicity testing adheres largely to protocols suggested in 1966 involving the administration of test compound to pregnant laboratory animals. After more than 50 years of embryo-fetal development testing, are we ready to consider a different approach to human developmental

  2. Validating a Spanish Developmental Spelling Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferroli, Lou; Krajenta, Marilyn

    The creation and validation of a Spanish version of an English developmental spelling test (DST) is described. An introductory section reviews related literature on the rationale for and construction of DSTs, spelling development in the early grades, and Spanish-English bilingual education. Differences between the English and Spanish test versions…

  3. Developmental immunotoxicity testing of 4-methyl anisole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonk, Elisa C M; Verhoef, Aart; Gremmer, Eric R; van Loveren, Henk; Piersma, Aldert H

    2015-07-01

    The developmental immunotoxicity of 4-methyl anisole (4MA) was investigated in the rat. Four study designs were used, with either premating or post-weaning onset of exposure, continued to postnatal day 50, and with or without additional oral gavage of pups from postnatal day 10 onward. Reduced litter size (benchmark dose lower confidence limit (BMDL) 80mg/kg bw/day) was the most sensitive developmental parameter, with pup relative organ weight effects observed at similar BMDLs, in the absence of maternal toxicity. Eosinophil numbers were reduced at lower doses (BMDL 16mg/kg bw/day). KLH challenge resulted in increased IL-13 and TNF-α responses, and variably reduced IgG production (BMDL 27mg/kg bw/day). T4 levels were reduced by 11% at maximum with a BMDL of 73mg/kg bw/day. Differences between exposure cohorts were limited and were considered to be without biological significance. This study shows that 4MA induces developmental immunotoxicity at doses below those inducing developmental and general toxicity. These observations being independent of the study designs applied suggest that the post-weaning period, included in all designs, is the most relevant sensitive period for inducing 4MA mediated developmental immunotoxicity. Moreover, this study stresses the importance of including developmental immunotoxicity testing by default in regulatory toxicology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Complexity of Developmental Predictions from Dual Process Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanovich, Keith E.; West, Richard F.; Toplak, Maggie E.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing developmental predictions from dual-process theories is more complex than is commonly realized. Overly simplified predictions drawn from such models may lead to premature rejection of the dual process approach as one of many tools for understanding cognitive development. Misleading predictions can be avoided by paying attention to several…

  5. Testing inferences in developmental evolution: the forensic evidence principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Hans C E; Wagner, Günter P

    2012-09-01

    Developmental evolution (DE) examines the influence of developmental mechanisms on biological evolution. Here we consider the question: "what is the evidence that allows us to decide whether a certain developmental scenario for an evolutionary change is in fact "correct" or at least falsifiable?" We argue that the comparative method linked with what we call the "forensic evidence principle" (FEP) is sufficient to conduct rigorous tests of DE scenarios. The FEP states that different genetically mediated developmental causes of an evolutionary transformation will leave different signatures in the development of the derived character. Although similar inference rules have been used in practically every empirical science, we expand this approach here in two ways: (1) we justify the validity of this principle with reference to a well-known result from mathematical physics, known as the symmetry principle, and (2) propose a specific form of the FEP for DE: given two or more developmental explanations for a certain evolutionary event, say an evolutionary novelty, then the evidence discriminating between these hypotheses will be found in the most proximal internal drivers of the derived character. Hence, a detailed description of the ancestral and derived states, and their most proximal developmental drivers are necessary to discriminate between various evolutionary developmental hypotheses. We discuss how this stepwise order of testing is necessary, establishes a formal test, and how skipping this order of examination may violate a more accurate examination of DE. We illustrate the approach with an example from avian digit evolution. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Program Helps Design Tests Of Developmental Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hops, Jonathan

    1994-01-01

    Computer program called "A Formal Test Representation Language and Tool for Functional Test Designs" (TRL) provides automatic software tool and formal language used to implement category-partition method and produce specification of test cases in testing phase of development of software. Category-partition method useful in defining input, outputs, and purpose of test-design phase of development and combines benefits of choosing normal cases having error-exposing properties. Traceability maintained quite easily by creating test design for each objective in test plan. Effort to transform test cases into procedures simplified by use of automatic software tool to create cases based on test design. Method enables rapid elimination of undesired test cases from consideration and facilitates review of test designs by peer groups. Written in C language.

  7. Developmental evaluation applying complexity concepts to enhance innovation and use

    CERN Document Server

    Patton, Michael Quinn

    2011-01-01

    Developmental evaluation (DE) offers a powerful approach to monitoring and supporting social innovations by working in partnership with program decision makers. In this book, eminent authority Michael Quinn Patton shows how to conduct evaluations within a DE framework. Patton draws on insights about complex dynamic systems, uncertainty, nonlinearity, and emergence. He illustrates how DE can be used for a range of purposes: ongoing program development, adapting effective principles of practice to local contexts, generating innovations and taking them to scale, and facilitating rapid response in crisis situations. Students and practicing evaluators will appreciate the book's extensive case examples and stories, cartoons, clear writing style, "closer look" sidebars, and summary tables. Provided is essential guidance for making evaluations useful, practical, and credible in support of social change.

  8. 40 CFR 799.9355 - TSCA reproduction/developmental toxicity screening test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... developmental defects should not be used. Healthy virgin animals, not subjected to previous experimental..., except legal holidays. (1) OECD (1995). Reproduction/Developmental Toxicity Screening Test, OECD 421...

  9. Complex Dynamics in Academics' Developmental Processes in Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautwein, Caroline; Nückles, Matthias; Merkt, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Improving teaching in higher education is a concern for universities worldwide. This study explored academics' developmental processes in teaching using episodic interviews and teaching portfolios. Eight academics in the context of teaching development reported changes in their teaching and change triggers. Thematic analyses revealed seven areas…

  10. High Frequency Vibration Based Fatigue Testing of Developmental Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holycross, Casey M.; Srinivasan, Raghavan; George, Tommy J.; Tamirisakandala, Seshacharyulu; Russ, Stephan M.

    Many fatigue test methods have been previously developed to rapidly evaluate fatigue behavior. This increased test speed can come at some expense, since these methods may require non-standard specimen geometry or increased facility and equipment capability. One such method, developed by George et al, involves a base-excited plate specimen driven into a high frequency bending resonant mode. This resonant mode is of sufficient frequency (typically 1200 to 1700 Hertz) to accumulate 107 cycles in a few hours. One of the main limitations of this test method is that fatigue cracking is almost certainly guaranteed to be surface initiated at regions of high stress. This brings into question the validity of the fatigue test results, as compared to more traditional uniaxial, smooth-bar testing, since high stresses are subjecting only a small volume to fatigue damage. This limitation also brings into question the suitability of this method to screen developmental alloys, should their initiation life be governed by subsurface flaws. However, if applicable, the rapid generation of fatigue data using this method would facilitate faster design iterations, identifying more quickly, material and manufacturing process deficiencies. The developmental alloy used in this study was a powder metallurgy boron-modified Ti-6Al-4V, a new alloy currently being considered for gas turbine engine fan blades. Plate specimens were subjected to fully reversed bending fatigue. Results are compared with existing data from commercially available Ti-6Al-4V using both vibration based and more traditional fatigue test methods.

  11. The South African developmental landscape: restricted potentials or expansive, complex adaptive opportunities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C J Burman

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that the South African developmental landscape is currently locked into an overly technical, path dependent paradigm that is unlikely to be capable of embracing the complex challenges identified by the recent National Development Plan. The article explores the internal logic of the existing path dependent, technical condition from the perspective of complexity, in the context of the Department of Science and Technology’s Fifth Grand Challenge and “continuous change”. It is argued that drawing ideas from complexity into future developmental trajectories can add value to the National Development Plan: Vision 2030, but to do so will require dynamic mind-set shifts across multiple developmental scales and interfaces if new approaches to managing development that embraces complexity, rather than denies it, is to emerge. Keywords: development; complexity; path dependency; epistemological vigilance; sense-making; National Development Plan Disciplines: Complexity Studies; Transdisciplinary studies; Management studies; Public management; Political studies; Economics; Development Studies

  12. LEARNING AND MEMORY TESTS IN DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY TESTING: A CROSS-LABORATORY COMPARISON OF CONTROL DATA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US EPA Developmental Neurotoxicity (DNT) Study Test Guideline (OPPTS 870.6300) calls for functional tests to assess the impact of chemicals on cognitive function in offspring following maternal exposure. A test of associative learning and memory is to be conducted around th...

  13. Design and validation of an ontology-driven animal-free testing strategy for developmental neurotoxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessel, Ellen V S; Staal, Yvonne C M; Piersma, Aldert H

    2018-03-13

    Developmental neurotoxicity entails one of the most complex areas in toxicology. Animal studies provide only limited information as to human relevance. A multitude of alternative models have been developed over the years, providing insights into mechanisms of action. We give an overview of fundamental processes in neural tube formation, brain development and neural specification, aiming at illustrating complexity rather than comprehensiveness. We also give a flavor of the wealth of alternative methods in this area. Given the impressive progress in mechanistic knowledge of human biology and toxicology, the time is right for a conceptual approach for designing testing strategies that cover the integral mechanistic landscape of developmental neurotoxicity. The ontology approach provides a framework for defining this landscape, upon which an integral in silico model for predicting toxicity can be built. It subsequently directs the selection of in vitro assays for rate-limiting events in the biological network, to feed parameter tuning in the model, leading to prediction of the toxicological outcome. Validation of such models requires primary attention to coverage of the biological domain, rather than classical predictive value of individual tests. Proofs of concept for such an approach are already available. The challenge is in mining modern biology, toxicology and chemical information to feed intelligent designs, which will define testing strategies for neurodevelopmental toxicity testing. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Post-adolescent developmental changes in cortical complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Sandu, Anca-Larisa; Izard, Edouard; Specht, Karsten; Beneventi, Harald; Lundervold, Arvid; Ystad, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Post-adolescence is known to be a period of general maturation and development in the human brain. In brain imaging, volumetric and morphologic cortical grey-matter changes can easily be assessed, but the analysis of cortical complexity seems to have been broadly neglected for this age interval. Methods: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to acquire structural brain images. The study involved 17 adolescents (mean age 14.1 ± 0.27, 11 girls) who were compared with 1...

  15. Child and Adolescent Use of Mobile Phones: An Unparalleled Complex Developmental Phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zheng

    2018-01-01

    This article addresses why children's use of mobile phones is an unparalleled complex developmental phenomenon in hopes of providing a broad context for this special section. It first outlines mobile phones as a sophisticated personalized and multifunction technology. Then it presents mobile phone use by children as an unparalleled complex developmental phenomenon on the basis of its four behavioral elements, two mobile cultures, and two developmental processes. It further illustrates the existing knowledge about children's mobile phones use that has been accumulated over the past 23 years and highlights 12 most studied topics, especially distracted driving and radiation exposure. It concludes with three types of scientific contributions made by the 12 articles in the special section. © 2017 The Author. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  16. Post-adolescent developmental changes in cortical complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandu, Anca-Larisa; Izard, Edouard; Specht, Karsten; Beneventi, Harald; Lundervold, Arvid; Ystad, Martin

    2014-11-27

    Post-adolescence is known to be a period of general maturation and development in the human brain. In brain imaging, volumetric and morphologic cortical grey-matter changes can easily be assessed, but the analysis of cortical complexity seems to have been broadly neglected for this age interval. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to acquire structural brain images. The study involved 17 adolescents (mean age 14.1 ± 0.27, 11 girls) who were compared with 14 young adults (mean age 24.24 ± 2.76, 7 women) for measures of brain complexity (fractal dimension--FD), grey matter (GM) volume and surface-area of cortical ribbon. FD was calculated using box-counting and Minkowski-Bouligand methods; FD and GM volume were measured for the whole brain, each hemisphere and lobes: frontal, occipital, parietal and temporal. The results show that the adults have a lower cortical complexity than the adolescents, which was significant for whole brain, left and right hemisphere, frontal and parietal lobes for both genders; and only for males in left temporal lobe. The GM volume was smaller in men than in boys for almost all measurements, and smaller in women than in girls just for right parietal lobe. A significant Pearson correlation was found between FD and GM volume for whole brain and each hemisphere in both genders. The decrease of the GM surface-area was significant in post-adolescence for males, not for females. During post-adolescence there are common changes in cortical complexity in the same regions for both genders, but there are also gender specific changes in some cortical areas. The sex differences from different cortical measurements (FD, GM volume and surface-area of cortical ribbon) could suggest a maturation delay in specific brain regions for each gender in relation to the other and might be explained through the functional role of the corresponding regions reflected in gender difference of developed abilities.

  17. State Complexity of Testing Divisibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Charlier

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Under some mild assumptions, we study the state complexity of the trim minimal automaton accepting the greedy representations of the multiples of m >= 2 for a wide class of linear numeration systems. As an example, the number of states of the trim minimal automaton accepting the greedy representations of the multiples of m in the Fibonacci system is exactly 2m^2.

  18. Complex Testing of the Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Adrijana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the process of examining bridges. AB road bridge, founded on the columns by the Karpoš system and damaged due to erosive action of the river, is given as an example. The first tests of the bridge are conducted on the impact load of V 300, because of the appearance of longitudinal cracks. The results of the columns testing are presented in this paper, as well as the rehabilitation measures thus increasing the load capacity of the column.

  19. Poster Presentation: Optical Test of NGST Developmental Mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadaway, James B.; Geary, Joseph; Reardon, Patrick; Peters, Bruce; Keidel, John; Chavers, Greg

    2000-01-01

    An Optical Testing System (OTS) has been developed to measure the figure and radius of curvature of NGST developmental mirrors in the vacuum, cryogenic environment of the X-Ray Calibration Facility (XRCF) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The OTS consists of a WaveScope Shack-Hartmann sensor from Adaptive Optics Associates as the main instrument, a Point Diffraction Interferometer (PDI), a Point Spread Function (PSF) imager, an alignment system, a Leica Disto Pro distance measurement instrument, and a laser source palette (632.8 nm wavelength) that is fiber-coupled to the sensor instruments. All of the instruments except the laser source palette are located on a single breadboard known as the Wavefront Sensor Pallet (WSP). The WSP is located on top of a 5-DOF motion system located at the center of curvature of the test mirror. Two PC's are used to control the OTS. The error in the figure measurement is dominated by the WaveScope's measurement error. An analysis using the absolute wavefront gradient error of 1/50 wave P-V (at 0.6328 microns) provided by the manufacturer leads to a total surface figure measurement error of approximately 1/100 wave rms. This easily meets the requirement of 1/10 wave P-V. The error in radius of curvature is dominated by the Leica's absolute measurement error of VI.5 mm and the focus setting error of Vi.4 mm, giving an overall error of V2 mm. The OTS is currently being used to test the NGST Mirror System Demonstrators (NMSD's) and the Subscale Beryllium Mirror Demonstrator (SBNM).

  20. Enhancing the applicability and predictability of the embryonic stem cell test for developmental toxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, E.

    2012-01-01

    Within the full risk assessment of a chemical, developmental toxicity testing is one of the endpoints that require the highest percentage of experimental animals. With the high number of experimental animals, cost and time involved in in vivo developmental toxicity testing there is an urgent need

  1. Developmental trauma, complex PTSD, and the current proposal of DSM-5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedat Sar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates representation of clinical consequences of developmental psychological trauma in the current proposal of DSM-5. Despite intensive efforts by its proponents for two decades, it is not known yet if Complex PTSD will take a place in the final version of DSM-5. Recognition of dissociative character of several symptom dimensions and introduction of items about negative affects such as shame and guilt imply an indirect improvement toward better coverage of the consequences of developmental trauma in the existing category of PTSD. As disorders with highest prevalence of chronic traumatization in early years of life, dissociative disorders and personality disorder of borderline type are maintained as DSM-5 categories; however, recognition of a separate type of trauma-related personality disorder is unlikely. While a preschooler age variant of PTSD is under consideration, the proposed diagnosis of Developmental Trauma Disorder (child version of Complex PTSD has not secured a place in the DSM-5 yet. We welcome considerations of subsuming Adjustment Disorders, Acute Stress Disorder, PTSD, and Dissociative Disorders under one rubric, i.e., Section of Trauma, Stress, or Event Related Disorders. Given the current conceptualization of DSM-5, this paper proposes Complex PTSD to be a subtype of the DSM-5 PTSD. Composition of a trauma-related disorders section would facilitate integration of knowledge and expertise about interrelated and overlapping consequences of trauma.For the abstract or full text in other languages, please see Supplementary files under Reading Tools online

  2. Global developmental delay in guanidionacetate methyltransferase deficiency : differences in formal testing and clinical observation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbruggen, Krijn T.; Knijff, Wilma A.; Soorani-Lunsing, Roelineke J.; Sijens, Paul E.; Verhoeven, Nanda M.; Salomons, Gajja S.; Goorhuis-Brouwer, Siena M.; van Spronsen, Francjan J.

    Guanidinoacetate N-methyltransferase (GAMT) deficiency is a defect in the biosynthesis of creatine (Cr). So far, reports have not focused on the description of developmental abilities in this disorder. Here, we present the result of formal testing of developmental abilities in a GAMT-deficient

  3. Developmental toxicity of thyroid-active compounds in a zebrafish embryotoxicity test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jomaa, B.; Hermsen, S.A.B.; Kessels, M.Y.; Berg, van den J.H.J.; Peijenburg, A.C.M.; Aarts, J.M.M.J.G.; Piersma, A.H.; Rietjens, I.

    2014-01-01

    Zebrafish embryos were exposed to concentration ranges of selected thyroid-active model compounds in order to assess the applicability of zebrafish-based developmental scoring systems within an alternative testing strategy to detect the developmental toxicity of thyroid-active compounds. Model

  4. Simple Mindreading Abilities Predict Complex Theory of Mind: Developmental Delay in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, Maria Chiara; Mazza, Monica; Mariano, Melania; Peretti, Sara; Dimitriou, Dagmara; Masedu, Francesco; Valenti, Marco; Franco, Fabia

    2017-01-01

    Theory of mind (ToM) is impaired in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The aims of this study were to: (i) examine the developmental trajectories of ToM abilities in two different mentalizing tasks in children with ASD compared to TD children; and (ii) to assess if a ToM simple test known as eyes-test could predict performance on…

  5. Contribution of parenting to complex syntax development in preschool children with developmental delays or typical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, C T; Baker, B L; Blacher, J

    2018-05-10

    Despite studies of how parent-child interactions relate to early child language development, few have examined the continued contribution of parenting to more complex language skills through the preschool years. The current study explored how positive and negative parenting behaviours relate to growth in complex syntax learning from child age 3 to age 4 years, for children with typical development or developmental delays (DDs). Participants were children with or without DD (N = 60) participating in a longitudinal study of development. Parent-child interactions were transcribed and coded for parenting domains and child language. Multiple regression analyses were used to identify the contribution of parenting to complex syntax growth in children with typical development or DD. Analyses supported a final model, F(9,50) = 11.90, P < .001, including a significant three-way interaction between positive parenting behaviours, negative parenting behaviours and child delay status. This model explained 68.16% of the variance in children's complex syntax at age 4. Simple two-way interactions indicated differing effects of parenting variables for children with or without DD. Results have implications for understanding of complex syntax acquisition in young children, as well as implications for interventions. © 2018 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Comparison of the mouse Embryonic Stem cell Test, the rat Whole Embryo Culture and the Zebrafish Embryotoxicity Test as alternative methods for developmental toxicity testing of six 1,2,4-triazoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong, Esther de; Barenys, Marta; Hermsen, Sanne A.B.; Verhoef, Aart; Ossendorp, Bernadette C.; Bessems, Jos G.M.; Piersma, Aldert H.

    2011-01-01

    The relatively high experimental animal use in developmental toxicity testing has stimulated the search for alternatives that are less animal intensive. Three widely studied alternative assays are the mouse Embryonic Stem cell Test (EST), the Zebrafish Embryotoxicity Test (ZET) and the rat postimplantation Whole Embryo Culture (WEC). The goal of this study was to determine their efficacy in assessing the relative developmental toxicity of six 1,2,4-triazole compounds, flusilazole, hexaconazole, cyproconazole, triadimefon, myclobutanil and triticonazole. For this purpose, we analyzed effects and relative potencies of the compounds in and among the alternative assays and compared the findings to their known in vivo developmental toxicity. Triazoles are antifungal agents used in agriculture and medicine, some of which are known to induce craniofacial and limb abnormalities in rodents. The WEC showed a general pattern of teratogenic effects, typical of exposure to triazoles, mainly consisting of reduction and fusion of the first and second branchial arches, which are in accordance with the craniofacial malformations reported after in vivo exposure. In the EST all triazole compounds inhibited cardiomyocyte differentiation concentration-dependently. Overall, the ZET gave the best correlation with the relative in vivo developmental toxicities of the tested compounds, closely followed by the EST. The relative potencies observed in the WEC showed the lowest correlation with the in vivo developmental toxicity data. These differences in the efficacy between the test systems might be due to differences in compound kinetics, in developmental stages represented and in the relative complexity of the alternative assays.

  7. Different Mi-2 complexes for various developmental functions in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Passannante

    Full Text Available Biochemical purifications from mammalian cells and Xenopus oocytes revealed that vertebrate Mi-2 proteins reside in multisubunit NuRD (Nucleosome Remodeling and Deacetylase complexes. Since all NuRD subunits are highly conserved in the genomes of C. elegans and Drosophila, it was suggested that NuRD complexes also exist in invertebrates. Recently, a novel dMec complex, composed of dMi-2 and dMEP-1 was identified in Drosophila. The genome of C. elegans encodes two highly homologous Mi-2 orthologues, LET-418 and CHD-3. Here we demonstrate that these proteins define at least three different protein complexes, two distinct NuRD complexes and one MEC complex. The two canonical NuRD complexes share the same core subunits HDA-1/HDAC, LIN-53/RbAp and LIN-40/MTA, but differ in their Mi-2 orthologues LET-418 or CHD-3. LET-418 but not CHD-3, interacts with the Krüppel-like protein MEP-1 in a distinct complex, the MEC complex. Based on microarrays analyses, we propose that MEC constitutes an important LET-418 containing regulatory complex during C. elegans embryonic and early larval development. It is required for the repression of germline potential in somatic cells and acts when blastomeres are still dividing and differentiating. The two NuRD complexes may not be important for the early development, but may act later during postembryonic development. Altogether, our data suggest a considerable complexity in the composition, the developmental function and the tissue-specificity of the different C. elegans Mi-2 complexes.

  8. Simulation study on effects of signaling network structure on the developmental increase in complexity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keranen, Soile V.E.

    2003-04-02

    The developmental increase in structural complexity in multicellular life forms depends on local, often non-periodic differences in gene expression. These depend on a network of gene-gene interactions coded within the organismal genome. To better understand how genomic information generates complex expression patterns, I have modeled the pattern forming behavior of small artificial genomes in virtual blastoderm embryos. I varied several basic properties of these genomic signaling networks, such as the number of genes, the distributions of positive (inductive) and negative (repressive) interactions, and the strengths of gene-gene interactions, and analyzed their effects on developmental pattern formation. The results show how even simple genomes can generate complex non-periodic patterns under suitable conditions. They also show how the frequency of complex patterns depended on the numbers and relative arrangements of positive and negative interactions. For example, negative co-regulation of signaling pathway components increased the likelihood of (complex) patterns relative to differential negative regulation of the pathway components. Interestingly, neither quantitative differences either in strengths of signaling interactions nor multiple response thresholds to signal concentration (as in morphogen gradients) were essential for formation of multiple, spatially unique cell types. Thus, with combinatorial code of gene regulation and hierarchical signaling interactions, it is theoretically possible to organize metazoan embryogenesis with just a small fraction of the metazoan genome. Because even small networks can generate complex patterns when they contain a suitable set of connections, evolution of metazoan complexity may have depended more on selection for favourable configurations of signaling interactions than on the increase in numbers of regulatory genes.

  9. Developmental assessment of RELAP5/MOD3 using the semiscale natural circulation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, K.E.

    1990-01-01

    A code development effort creating RELAP5/MOD3 from RELAP5/MOD2 has been completed. Upon completion, a developmental assessment task was performed. One of the problems used for the developmental assessment was the Semiscale Natural Circulation Test. Calculated results from RELAP5/MOD3 are compared to measured data and previously calculated results from RELAP5/MOD2. 10 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  10. Perspective on a Modified Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity Testing Strategy for Cancer Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prell, Rodney A; Halpern, Wendy G; Rao, Gautham K

    2016-05-01

    The intent of cancer immunotherapy (CIT) is to generate and enhance T-cell responses against tumors. The tumor microenvironment establishes several inhibitory pathways that lead to suppression of the local immune response, which is permissive for tumor growth. The efficacy of different CITs, alone and in combination, stems from reinvigorating the tumor immune response via several mechanisms, including costimulatory agonists, checkpoint inhibitors, and vaccines. However, immune responses to other antigens (self and foreign) may also be enhanced, resulting in potentially undesired effects. In outbred mammalian pregnancies, the fetus expresses paternally derived alloantigens that are recognized as foreign by the maternal immune system. If unchecked or enhanced, maternal immunity to these alloantigens represents a developmental and reproductive risk and thus is a general liability for cancer immunotherapeutic molecules. We propose a tiered approach to confirm this mechanistic reproductive liability for CIT molecules. A rodent allopregnancy model is based on breeding 2 different strains of mice so that paternally derived alloantigens are expressed by the fetus. When tested with a cross-reactive biotherapeutic, small molecule drug, or surrogate molecule, this model should reveal on-target reproductive liabilities if the pathway is involved in maintaining pregnancy. Alternatively, allopregnancy models with genetically modified mice can be interrogated for exquisitely specific biotherapeutics with restricted species reactivity. The allopregnancy model represents a relatively straightforward approach to confirm an expected on-target reproductive risk for CIT molecules. For biotherapeutics, it could potentially replace more complex developmental and reproductive toxicity testing in nonhuman primates when a pregnancy hazard is confirmed or expected. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Probability in reasoning: a developmental test on conditionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrouillet, Pierre; Gauffroy, Caroline

    2015-04-01

    Probabilistic theories have been claimed to constitute a new paradigm for the psychology of reasoning. A key assumption of these theories is captured by what they call the Equation, the hypothesis that the meaning of the conditional is probabilistic in nature and that the probability of If p then q is the conditional probability, in such a way that P(if p then q)=P(q|p). Using the probabilistic truth-table task in which participants are required to evaluate the probability of If p then q sentences, the present study explored the pervasiveness of the Equation through ages (from early adolescence to adulthood), types of conditionals (basic, causal, and inducements) and contents. The results reveal that the Equation is a late developmental achievement only endorsed by a narrow majority of educated adults for certain types of conditionals depending on the content they involve. Age-related changes in evaluating the probability of all the conditionals studied closely mirror the development of truth-value judgements observed in previous studies with traditional truth-table tasks. We argue that our modified mental model theory can account for this development, and hence for the findings related with the probability task, which do not consequently support the probabilistic approach of human reasoning over alternative theories. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Design and validation of an ontology-driven animal-free testing strategy for developmental neurotoxicity testing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessel, Ellen V S; Staal, Yvonne C M; Piersma, Aldert H

    2018-01-01

    Developmental neurotoxicity entails one of the most complex areas in toxicology. Animal studies provide only limited information as to human relevance. A multitude of alternative models have been developed over the years, providing insights into mechanisms of action. We give an overview of

  13. Simple Mindreading Abilities Predict Complex Theory of Mind: Developmental Delay in Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, Maria Chiara; Mazza, Monica; Mariano, Melania; Peretti, Sara; Dimitriou, Dagmara; Masedu, Francesco; Valenti, Marco; Franco, Fabia

    2017-09-01

    Theory of mind (ToM) is impaired in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The aims of this study were to: (i) examine the developmental trajectories of ToM abilities in two different mentalizing tasks in children with ASD compared to TD children; and (ii) to assess if a ToM simple test known as eyes-test could predict performance on the more advanced ToM task, i.e. comic strip test. Based on a sample of 37 children with ASD and 55 TD children, our results revealed slower development at varying rates in all ToM measures in children with ASD, with delayed onset compared to TD children. These results could stimulate new treatments for social abilities, which would lessen the social deficit in ASD.

  14. HTI CONE PENETROMETER PROBES PREPARATION DEVELOPMENTAL TESTING REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IWATATE, D.F.

    1998-10-26

    The HTI subsurface characterization task will use the Hanford Cone Penetrometer platform (CPP) to deploy soil sensor and sampling probes into the vadose zone/soils around AX-104 during FY-99. This report provides the data and information compiled during vendor field development tests and laboratory/bench checkout. This document is a vendor deliverable item identified in the ARA Statement of Work HNF-2881, Revision 1. This version of the DTR includes to-be-determined items and some incomplete sections. The Rev. 0 is being released to support the concurrent task of procedure preparation and Qualification Test Plan preparation. Revision 1 is planned to contain all data and information.

  15. Individual Meaning and Increasing Complexity: Contributions of Sigmund Freud and Rene Spitz to Developmental Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emde, Robert N.

    1992-01-01

    Considers contributions of Sigmund Freud and Rene Spitz to developmental psychology. Freud's contributions include his observations about play, perspectives on developmental processes, and ideas about unconscious mental activity. Spitz's contributions include his assessments of infants, perspectives on developmental processes, and his concept of…

  16. In vitro developmental toxicity test detects inhibition of stem cell differentiation by silica nanoparticles.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, M.V.; Annema, W.; Salvati, A.; Lesniak, A.; Elsaesser, A.; Barnes, C.; McKerr, G.; Howard, C.; Lynch, I.; Dawson, K.; Piersma, A.H.; de Jong, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    While research into the potential toxic properties of nanomaterials is now increasing, the area of developmental toxicity has remained relatively uninvestigated. The embryonic stem cell test is an in vitro screening assay used to investigate the embryotoxic potential of chemicals by determining

  17. A Test of Motor (Not Executive) Planning in Developmental Coordination Disorder and Autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Swieten, Lisa M.; van Bergen, Elsje; Williams, Justin H G; Wilson, Andrew D.; Plumb, Mandy S.; Kent, Samuel W.; Mon-Williams, Mark A.

    Grip selection tasks have been used to test "planning" in both autism and developmental coordination disorder (DCD). We differentiate between motor and executive planning and present a modified motor planning task. Participants grasped a cylinder in 1 of 2 orientations before turning it clockwise or

  18. A test of motor (not executive) planning in developmental coordination disorder and autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Swieten, L.M.; van Bergen, E.; Williams, J.H.G.; Wilson, A.D.; Plumb, M.S.; Kent, S.W.; Mon-Williams, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Grip selection tasks have been used to test "planning" in both autism and developmental coordination disorder (DCD). We differentiate between motor and executive planning and present a modified motor planning task. Participants grasped a cylinder in 1 of 2 orientations before turning it clockwise or

  19. Advancing the Science of Developmental Neurotoxicity (DNT) Testing for Better Safety Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bal-Price, Anna; Coecke, Sandra; Costa, Lucio

    2012-01-01

    Bal-Price AK, Coecke S, Costa L, Crofton KM, Fritsche E, Goldberg A, Grandjean P, Lein PJ, Li A, Lucchini R, Mundy WR, Padilla S, Persico A, Seiler AEM, Kreysa J. Conference Report: Advancing the Science of Developmental Neurotoxicity (DNT) Testing for Better Safety Evaluation. Altex 2012: 29: 202-15....

  20. Arithmetic Abilities in Children with Developmental Dyslexia: Performance on French ZAREKI-R Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq-Quaegebeur, Maryse; Casalis, Séverine; Vilette, Bruno; Lemaitre, Marie-Pierre; Vallée, Louis

    2018-01-01

    A high comorbidity between reading and arithmetic disabilities has already been reported. The present study aims at identifying more precisely patterns of arithmetic performance in children with developmental dyslexia, defined with severe and specific criteria. By means of a standardized test of achievement in mathematics ("Calculation and…

  1. Utilization of genetic testing among children with developmental disabilities in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiely B

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bridget Kiely, Sujit Vettam, Andrew Adesman Division of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, Department of Pediatrics, Steven and Alexandra Cohen Children’s Medical Center of New York, New Hyde Park, NY, USA Purpose: Several professional societies recommend that genetic testing be routinely included in the etiologic workup of children with developmental disabilities. The aim of this study was to determine the rate at which genetic testing is performed in this population, based on data from a nationally representative survey.Methods: Data were analyzed from the Survey of Pathways to Diagnosis and Services, a telephone-based survey of parents and guardians of US school-age children with current or past developmental conditions. This study included 3,371 respondents who indicated that their child had an autism spectrum disorder (ASD, intellectual disability (ID, and/or developmental delay (DD at the time of survey administration. History of genetic testing was assessed based on report by the parent/s. Children were divided into the following five mutually exclusive condition groups: ASD with ID; ASD with DD, without ID; ASD only, without ID or DD; ID without ASD; and DD only, without ID or ASD. Logistic regression was used to assess the demographic correlates of genetic testing, to compare the rates of genetic testing across groups, and to examine associations between genetic testing and use of other health-care services.Results: Overall, 32% of this sample had a history of genetic testing, including 34% of all children with ASD and 43% of those with ID. After adjusting for demographics, children with ASD + ID were more than seven times as likely as those with ASD only, and more than twice as likely as those who had ID without ASD, to have undergone genetic testing. Prior specialist care (developmental pediatrician or neurologist and access to all needed providers within the previous year were associated with higher odds of genetic testing

  2. [Family violence and mental health in adolescence: complex trauma as a developmental disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciutello, Cosimo; Cheli, Mariagnese; Montenegro, Maria Elena; Campieri, Michela; Fini, Andrea; Pincanelli, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    To highlight the harmfulness and pervasive of early and repeated exposure to family violence from the theoretical perspective of complex trauma as a developmental disorder. A study carried out on a sample of 22 adolescents between the ages of 15 and 18, who have been entrusted to Il Faro Bologna, a Specialist Centre for child abuse and neglect. Specific areas of psychological functioning were examined. According to the NCTSN these areas are considered vulnerable to violence in primary relationships and crucial for future mental health. They are attachment, self-concept, affect regulation, cognition and behavioural control. The data was correlated with the different forms of maltreatment and the main risk factors detected in the family environment and was collected by means of clinical interviews, family and social histories, structured interviews and self-reports recommended by the NASMHPD. The data highlights a correlation between the psychic functions examined and exposure to family violence, distortion of parental empathy and parental responsibility failure. The study indicates the need: a) to raise clinical awareness of the consequences of complex trauma on development; b) to adopt specific diagnostic tools for evaluating post-traumatic outcomes; c) to carry out regular screening in order to explore histories of maltreatment in patients cared for by mental health services.

  3. Syntactic Complexity Effects of Russian Relative Clause Sentences in Children with and without Developmental Language Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhlin, Natalia; Kornilov, Sergey A; Kornilova, Tatiana V; Grigorenko, Elena L

    2016-01-01

    We investigated relative clause (RC) comprehension in 44 Russian-speaking children with typical language (TD) and developmental language disorder (DLD); M age = 10.67, SD = 2.84, and 22 adults. Flexible word order and morphological case in Russian allowed us to isolate factors that are obscured in English, helping us to identify sources of syntactic complexity and evaluate their roles in RC comprehension by children with typical language and their peers with DLD. We administered a working memory and an RC comprehension (picture-choice) task, which contained subject- and object-gap center-embedded and right branching RCs. The TD group, but not adults, demonstrated the effects of gap, embedding, and case. Their lower accuracy relative to adults was not fully attributable to differences in working memory. The DLD group displayed lower than TD children overall accuracy, accounted for by their lower working memory scores. While the effect of gap and embedding on their performance was not different from what was found for the TD group, children with DLD exhibited a diminished effect of case, suggesting reduced sensitivity to morphological case markers as processing cues. The implications of these results to theories of syntactic complexity and core deficits in DLD are discussed.

  4. Environmental assessment report: Nuclear Test Technology Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonnessen, K.; Tewes, H.A.

    1982-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (USDOE) is planning to construct and operate a structure, designated the Nuclear Test Technology Complex (NTTC), on a site located west of and adjacent to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The NTTC is designed to house 350 nuclear test program personnel, and will accommodate the needs of the entire staff of the continuing Nuclear Test Program (NTP). The project has three phases: land acquisition, facility construction and facility operation. The purpose of this environmental assessment report is to describe the activities associated with the three phases of the NTTC project and to evaluate potential environmental disruptions. The project site is located in a rural area of southeastern Alameda County, California, where the primary land use is agriculture; however, the County has zoned the area for industrial development. The environmental impacts of the project include surface disturbance, high noise levels, possible increases in site erosion, and decreased air quality. These impacts will occur primarily during the construction phase of the NTTC project and can be mitigated in part by measures proposed in this report

  5. Time-Resolved and Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Complex Cognitive Processes and their Role in Disorders like Developmental Dyscalculia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mórocz, István Akos; Janoos, Firdaus; van Gelderen, Peter; Manor, David; Karni, Avi; Breznitz, Zvia; von Aster, Michael; Kushnir, Tammar; Shalev, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to report on the importance and challenges of a time-resolved and spatio-temporal analysis of fMRI data from complex cognitive processes and associated disorders using a study on developmental dyscalculia (DD). Participants underwent fMRI while judging the incorrectness of multiplication results, and the data were analyzed using a sequence of methods, each of which progressively provided more a detailed picture of the spatio-temporal aspect of this disease. Healthy subjects and subjects with DD performed alike behaviorally though they exhibited parietal disparities using traditional voxel-based group analyses. Further and more detailed differences, however, surfaced with a time-resolved examination of the neural responses during the experiment. While performing inter-group comparisons, a third group of subjects with dyslexia (DL) but with no arithmetic difficulties was included to test the specificity of the analysis and strengthen the statistical base with overall fifty-eight subjects. Surprisingly, the analysis showed a functional dissimilarity during an initial reading phase for the group of dyslexic but otherwise normal subjects, with respect to controls, even though only numerical digits and no alphabetic characters were presented. Thus our results suggest that time-resolved multi-variate analysis of complex experimental paradigms has the ability to yield powerful new clinical insights about abnormal brain function. Similarly, a detailed compilation of aberrations in the functional cascade may have much greater potential to delineate the core processing problems in mental disorders. PMID:22368322

  6. Chromosomal microarrays testing in children with developmental disabilities and congenital anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Lay-Son

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Clinical use of microarray-based techniques for the analysis of many developmental disorders has emerged during the last decade. Thus, chromosomal microarray has been positioned as a first-tier test. This study reports the first experience in a Chilean cohort. METHODS: Chilean patients with developmental disabilities and congenital anomalies were studied with a high-density microarray (CytoScan(tm HD Array, Affymetrix, Inc., Santa Clara, CA, USA. Patients had previous cytogenetic studies with either a normal result or a poorly characterized anomaly. RESULTS: This study tested 40 patients selected by two or more criteria, including: major congenital anomalies, facial dysmorphism, developmental delay, and intellectual disability. Copy number variants (CNVs were found in 72.5% of patients, while a pathogenic CNV was found in 25% of patients and a CNV of uncertain clinical significance was found in 2.5% of patients. CONCLUSION: Chromosomal microarray analysis is a useful and powerful tool for diagnosis of developmental diseases, by allowing accurate diagnosis, improving the diagnosis rate, and discovering new etiologies. The higher cost is a limitation for widespread use in this setting.

  7. Bilingualism and performance on two widely used developmental neuropsychological test batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Linda C; Soveri, Anna; Räsänen, Pekka; Kärnä, Antti; Delatte, Sonia; Lagerström, Emma; Mård, Lena; Steffansson, Mikaela; Lehtonen, Minna; Laine, Matti

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of bilingualism on the two widely used developmental neuropsychological test batteries Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) and A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment, Second Edition (NEPSY-II) in children. The sample consisted of 100 Finland-Swedish children in two age groups. About half (n = 52) of the participants were early simultaneous bilinguals, and the other half (n = 48) were monolinguals. As no Finland-Swedish versions of the tests are available at the moment, both tests were translated and adapted to suit this population. The results revealed no difference in the performance between bilingual and monolingual children. This speaks against a cognitive advantage in bilingual children and indicates that development of separate norms for monolingual and bilingual children is not needed for clinical use.

  8. A Retrospective Performance Assessment of the Developmental Neurotoxicity Study in Support of OECD Test Guideline 426

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makris, Susan L.; Raffaele, Kathleen; Allen, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We conducted a review of the history and performance of developmental neurotoxicity mic (DNT) testing in support of the finalization and implementation of Organisation of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) DNT test guideline 426 (TG 426). INFORMATION SOURCES AND ANALYSIS......: In this review we summarize extensive scientific efforts that form the foundation for this testing paradigm, including basic neurotoxicology research, interlaboratory collaborative studies, expert workshops, and validation studies, and we address the relevance, applicability, and use of the DNT study in risk...... and international acceptance of new or updated test methods for hazard characterization. Multiple independent, expert scientific peer reviews affirm these conclusions....

  9. The Plant Circadian Clock: From a Simple Timekeeper to a Complex Developmental Manager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Sabrina E; Kay, Steve A

    2016-12-01

    The plant circadian clock allows organisms to anticipate the predictable changes in the environment by adjusting their developmental and physiological traits. In the last few years, it was determined that responses known to be regulated by the oscillator are also able to modulate clock performance. These feedback loops and their multilayer communications create a complex web, and confer on the clock network a role that exceeds the measurement of time. In this article, we discuss the current knowledge of the wiring of the clock, including the interplay with metabolism, hormone, and stress pathways in the model species Arabidopsis thaliana We outline the importance of this system in crop agricultural traits, highlighting the identification of natural alleles that alter the pace of the timekeeper. We report evidence supporting the understanding of the circadian clock as a master regulator of plant life, and we hypothesize on its relevant role in the adaptability to the environment and the impact on the fitness of most organisms. Copyright © 2016 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  10. Integrating family work into the treatment of young people with severe and complex depression: a developmentally focused model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Simon; Halperin, Stephen; Blaikie, Simon; Monson, Katherine; Stefaniak, Rachel; Phelan, Mark; Davey, Christopher

    2018-04-01

    Although models of family intervention are clearly articulated in the child and early adolescent literature, there is less clarity regarding family intervention approaches in later adolescence and emerging adulthood. This study provides the rationale and intervention framework for a developmentally sensitive model of time-limited family work in the outpatient treatment of complex youth depression (15-25 years). Derived from current practice in the Youth Mood Clinic (YMC) at Orygen Youth Health, Melbourne, a stepped model of family intervention is discussed. YMC aims to provide comprehensive orientation, assessment and education to all families. For some, a family-based intervention, delivered either by the treating team or through the integration of a specialist family worker, offers an important adjunct in supporting the recovery of the young person. Developmental phases and challenges experienced by the young person with respect to family/caregiver involvement are discussed in the context of two case studies. A developmentally sensitive model is presented with particular attention to the developmental needs and preferences of young people. Formal evaluation of this model is required. Evaluation perspectives should include young people, caregivers, the broader family system (i.e. siblings) and the treating team (i.e. case manager, doctor and family worker) incorporating outcome measurement. Such work determines how best to apply a time-limited family-based intervention approach in strengthening family/caregiver relationships as part of the young person's recovery from severe and complex depression. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  11. Developmentally regulated expression and complex processing of barley pri-microRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruszka Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs regulate gene expression via mRNA cleavage or translation inhibition. In spite of barley being a cereal of great economic importance, very little data is available concerning its miRNA biogenesis. There are 69 barley miRNA and 67 pre-miRNA sequences available in the miRBase (release 19. However, no barley pri-miRNA and MIR gene structures have been shown experimentally. In the present paper, we examine the biogenesis of selected barley miRNAs and the developmental regulation of their pri-miRNA processing to learn more about miRNA maturation in barely. Results To investigate the organization of barley microRNA genes, nine microRNAs - 156g, 159b, 166n, 168a-5p/168a-3p, 171e, 397b-3p, 1120, and 1126 - were selected. Two of the studied miRNAs originate from one MIR168a-5p/168a-3p gene. The presence of all miRNAs was confirmed using a Northern blot approach. The miRNAs are encoded by genes with diverse organizations, representing mostly independent transcription units with or without introns. The intron-containing miRNA transcripts undergo complex splicing events to generate various spliced isoforms. We identified miRNAs that were encoded within introns of the noncoding genes MIR156g and MIR1126. Interestingly, the intron that encodes miR156g is spliced less efficiently than the intron encoding miR1126 from their specific precursors. miR397b-3p was detected in barley as a most probable functional miRNA, in contrast to rice where it has been identified as a complementary partner miRNA*. In the case of miR168a-5p/168a-3p, we found the generation of stable, mature molecules from both pre-miRNA arms, confirming evolutionary conservation of the stability of both species, as shown in rice and maize. We suggest that miR1120, located within the 3′ UTR of a protein-coding gene and described as a functional miRNA in wheat, may represent a siRNA generated from a mariner-like transposable element. Conclusions Seven of the

  12. Aerobic capacity of Peruvian Quechua: a test of the developmental adaptation hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyamu, Melisa; Rivera-Chira, María; Brutsaert, Tom D

    2015-03-01

    High altitude natives are reported to have outstanding work capacity in spite of the challenge of oxygen transport and delivery in hypoxia. To evaluate the developmental effect of lifelong exposure to hypoxia on aerobic capacity, VO2peak was measured on two groups of Peruvian Quechua subjects (18-35 years), who differed in their developmental exposure to altitude. Male and female volunteers were recruited in Lima, Peru (150 m), and were divided in two groups, based on their developmental exposure to hypoxia, those: a) Born at sea-level individuals (BSL), with no developmental exposure to hypoxia (n = 34) and b) Born at high-altitude individuals (BHA) with full developmental exposure to hypoxia (n = 32), but who migrated to sea-level as adults (>16-years-old). Tests were conducted both in normoxia (BP = 750 mm Hg) and normobaric hypoxia at sea-level (BP = 750 mm Hg, FiO2  = 0.12, equivalent to 4,449 m), after a 2-month training period (in order to control for initial differences in physical fitness) at sea-level. BHA had a significantly higher VO2peak at hypoxia (40.31 ± 1.0 ml/min/kg) as compared to BSL (35.78 ± 0.96 ml/min/kg, P = 0.001), adjusting for sex. The decrease of VO2peak at HA relative to SL (ΔVO2peak ) was not different between groups, controlling for baseline levels (VO2peak at sea-level) and sex (BHA = 0.35 ± 0.04 l/min, BSL = 0.44 ± 0.04 l/min; P = 0.12). Forced vital capacity (controlling for height) and the residuals of VO2peak (controlling for weight) had a significant association in the BHA group only (r = 0.155; P = 0.031). In sum, results indicate that developmental exposure to altitude constitutes an important factor to determine superior exercise performance. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. CLINICAL AND PHARMACOECONOMIC REASONABILITY OF USING PROBIOTIC ENTEROCOCCUS STRAIN FOR THE COMPLEX DEVELOPMENTAL CARE PROGRAM FOR PREMATURE INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Gonchar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Possibilities of using probiotic enterococci in premature neonates undergoing inpatient antibacterial therapy remains understudied. The article is aimed at analyzing clinical and pharmacoeconomic reasonability of using probiotic Enterococcus faecium L3 strain in premature infants with very low body weight in the framework of complex inpatient developmental care. Patients and methods. 55 children randomized into 2 groups were observed: the control group (n = 26 was undergoing standard developmental care program, the primary group (n = 29 was introduced liquid probiotic Enterococcus faecium L3 strain (titer — 108 CFU/ml or more (0.5 ml TID for 14 days after attaining the enteral feeding volume of 5.0 ml. Results. Analysis of the clinical symptoms characteristic of non-smooth course of developmental care over premature infants helped to reveal higher frequency of infectious complications in the control group children than in the primary group (14 [53.8%] vs. 6 [20.7%]; p < 0.05. Acute food intolerance was observed less frequently in the primary group than in the control group (6 [20.7%] vs. 10 [38.5%], p > 0.05. The primary group's children featured significant decrease in the frequency of monocytosis, positive changes of intestinal microbiotic composition (increase in the amount of bifidum bacteria, lactobacilli, enterococci, decrease in the amount of Clostridium difficile and antibiotic-resistant clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae strains. Conclusion. Favorable outcome of developmental care over premature infants (absence of infectious complications was less expensive in the primary group's children.

  14. A Neuropsychological Approach of Developmental Dyscalculia and a Screening Test Via a Web Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Christos Zygouris

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditional definitions of Developmental Dyscalculia state that a child must substantially underachieve on mathematical abilities tests relative to the level expected given age, education and intelligence. However, cognitive developmental neuropsychological studies nowadays suggest that not only core numerical but also cognitive skills of children with developmental dyscalculia present deficits. The main aim of the research protocol was to construct a battery of six tests that can be delivered by computer in order to screen children’s arithmetic and cognitive skills. The hypothesis of the study was that children that are already diagnosed by paper and pencil tests as dyscalculic will present lower scores and larger time latencies not only in arithmetical but also in executive function tasks. A total of 134 right handed children (74 male and 60 female, age range 8 – 12 years participated in this study. The students with disorders in mathematics (N= 67, 37 male and 30 female age range 8 – 12 years M= 10.15 SD=1.10 had a statement of dyscalculia after assessment at a Centre of Diagnosis, Assessment and Support, as it is required by Greek Law. A comparison group without any learning disabilities was individually matched with the dyscalculic group according to age, sex and grade (N=67, 37 male and 30 female, age range 8 – 12 years old, M=10.24 SD=1.12. Statistical analysis revealed that children with dyscalculia had statistically significant lower mean scores of correct answers and larger time latencies in all tasks compared to their average peers that participated in the comparison group.`

  15. Phased array ultrasound testing on complex geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuan Arif Tuan Mat; Khazali Mohd Zin

    2009-01-01

    Phase array ultrasonic inspection is used to investigate its response to complex welded joints geometry. A 5 MHz probe with 64 linear array elements was employed to scan mild steel T-joint, nozzle and node samples. These samples contain many defects such as cracks, lack of penetration and lack of fusion. Ultrasonic respond is analysed and viewed using the Tomoview software. The results show the actual phase array images on respective types of defect. (author)

  16. B Complex Test Control Center (TCC) #4210

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The TCC is a dual control room facility for the B-1 and B-2 Test Positions on the B-Stand. The TCC houses continually-updated, state-of-the-art Data Acquisition and...

  17. Bet-hedging as a complex interaction among developmental instability, environmental heterogeneity, dispersal, and life-history strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiner, Samuel M

    2014-02-01

    One potential evolutionary response to environmental heterogeneity is the production of randomly variable offspring through developmental instability, a type of bet-hedging. I used an individual-based, genetically explicit model to examine the evolution of developmental instability. The model considered both temporal and spatial heterogeneity alone and in combination, the effect of migration pattern (stepping stone vs. island), and life-history strategy. I confirmed that temporal heterogeneity alone requires a threshold amount of variation to select for a substantial amount of developmental instability. For spatial heterogeneity only, the response to selection on developmental instability depended on the life-history strategy and the form and pattern of dispersal with the greatest response for island migration when selection occurred before dispersal. Both spatial and temporal variation alone select for similar amounts of instability, but in combination resulted in substantially more instability than either alone. Local adaptation traded off against bet-hedging, but not in a simple linear fashion. I found higher-order interactions between life-history patterns, dispersal rates, dispersal patterns, and environmental heterogeneity that are not explainable by simple intuition. We need additional modeling efforts to understand these interactions and empirical tests that explicitly account for all of these factors.

  18. UNDERTAKING POSITIVE CONTROL STUDIES AS PART OF DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY TESTING: A REPORT FROM THE ILSI RESEARCH FOUNDATION/RISK SCIENCE INSTITUTE EXPERT WORKING GROUP ON NEURODEVELOPMENTAL ENDPOINTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developmental neurotoxicity testing involves functional and neurohistological assessments in offspring during and following maternal and/or neonatal exposure. Data from positive control studies are an integral component in developmental neurotoxicity risk assessments. Positive ...

  19. Developmental dysplasia of hip screening using ortolani and barlow testing on breech delivered neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Ar; Yusof, Zakaria; Munajat, I; Lee, Naa; Zaki, Nik

    2011-11-01

    We conducted this study to compare the specificity and sensitivity of the Ortolani and Barlow tests performed by dedicated examiners, and to ascertain the incidence of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) in breech babies. A dedicated examiner underwent specific training and testing by a paediatric orthopaedic surgeon. Routine examiners were medical officers who had basic training in medical school and were briefly trained by their superiors. The dedicated examiner examined 170 babies. Thirty babies including 5 babies with positive tests (according to the dedicated examiner) were examined by a blinded routine examiner. RESULTS of Ortolani and Barlow tests on 30 babies were compared with ultrasound examination by blinded radiologist. Five babies had positive Ortolani and Barlow tests. The routine examiner did not detect positive Ortolani and Barlow tests. The incidence of positive Ortolani and Barlow tests among breech babies was 2.8%. Result of Ortolani and Barlow tests by dedicated hip screener were better than results performed by routine examiner. Ortolani and Barlow, Dedicated Examiner, Routine Examiner, Breech, Ultrasound.

  20. International STakeholder NETwork (ISTNET): creating a developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) testing road map for regulatory purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal-Price, Anna; Crofton, Kevin M; Leist, Marcel; Allen, Sandra; Arand, Michael; Buetler, Timo; Delrue, Nathalie; FitzGerald, Rex E; Hartung, Thomas; Heinonen, Tuula; Hogberg, Helena; Bennekou, Susanne Hougaard; Lichtensteiger, Walter; Oggier, Daniela; Paparella, Martin; Axelstad, Marta; Piersma, Aldert; Rached, Eva; Schilter, Benoît; Schmuck, Gabriele; Stoppini, Luc; Tongiorgi, Enrico; Tiramani, Manuela; Monnet-Tschudi, Florianne; Wilks, Martin F; Ylikomi, Timo; Fritsche, Ellen

    2015-02-01

    A major problem in developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) risk assessment is the lack of toxicological hazard information for most compounds. Therefore, new approaches are being considered to provide adequate experimental data that allow regulatory decisions. This process requires a matching of regulatory needs on the one hand and the opportunities provided by new test systems and methods on the other hand. Alignment of academically and industrially driven assay development with regulatory needs in the field of DNT is a core mission of the International STakeholder NETwork (ISTNET) in DNT testing. The first meeting of ISTNET was held in Zurich on 23-24 January 2014 in order to explore the concept of adverse outcome pathway (AOP) to practical DNT testing. AOPs were considered promising tools to promote test systems development according to regulatory needs. Moreover, the AOP concept was identified as an important guiding principle to assemble predictive integrated testing strategies (ITSs) for DNT. The recommendations on a road map towards AOP-based DNT testing is considered a stepwise approach, operating initially with incomplete AOPs for compound grouping, and focussing on key events of neurodevelopment. Next steps to be considered in follow-up activities are the use of case studies to further apply the AOP concept in regulatory DNT testing, making use of AOP intersections (common key events) for economic development of screening assays, and addressing the transition from qualitative descriptions to quantitative network modelling.

  1. Developing the Observatory Test of Capacity, Performance, and Developmental Disregard (OTCPDD for Children with Cerebral Palsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan-Chun Liu

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable and valid instrument, named the Observatory Test of Capacity, Performance, and Developmental Disregard (OTCPDD, for measuring the amount and quality of use of affected upper limb functions in the daily routines of children with CP.Forty-eight participants (24 children with CP and 24 matched typically developing children were recruited. The OTCPDD was administered twice (the spontaneous use condition first, followed by the forced use condition on children with CP. Their parents were asked to complete the Pediatric Motor Activity Log-Revised (PMAL-R. The internal consistency, the intrarater and interrater reliabilities, and the convergent and discriminate validities were measured.The internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha and the intrarater and interrater reliabilities were higher than 0.9 for all of the OTCPDD scores. The convergent validity was confirmed by significant correlations between the OTCPDD and the PMAL-R. For the discriminant validity, significant differences (p<0.05 were found between children with CP and typically developing children.The results support that the OTCPDD is a reliable and valid observation-based assessment. The OTCPDD, which uses bimanual daily living activities, is able to represent the children's general affected hand functions (including capacity, performance, and developmental disregard in their daily routines.

  2. Basal tissue structure in the earliest euconodonts: Testing hypotheses of developmental plasticity in euconodont phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, X.-P.; Donoghue, P.C.J.; Repetski, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    The hypothesis that conodonts are vertebrates rests solely on evidence of soft tissue anatomy. This has been corroborated by microstructural, topological and developmental evidence of homology between conodont and vertebrate hard tissues. However, these conclusions have been reached on the basis of evidence from highly derived euconodont taxa and the degree to which they are representative of plesiomorphic euconodonts remains an open question. Furthermore, the range of variation in tissue types comprising the euconodont basal body has been used to establish a hypothesis of developmental plasticity early in the phylogeny of the clade, and a model of diminishing potentiality in the evolution of development systems. The microstructural fabrics of the basal tissues of the earliest euconodonts (presumed to be the most plesiomorphic) are examined to test these two hypotheses. It is found that the range of microstructural variation observed hitherto was already apparent among plesiomorphic euconodonts. Thus, established histological data are representative of the most plesiomorphic euconodonts. However, although there is evidence of a range in microstructural fabrics, these are compatible with the dentine tissue system alone, and the degree of variation is compatible with that seen in clades of comparable diversity. ?? The Palaeontological Association.

  3. Dynamic Testing : Measuring Inductive Reasoning in Children With Developmental Disabilities and Mild Cognitive Impairments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevenson, C.E.; Resing, W.C.M.; Bosma, T.

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the use of dynamic testing based on a graduated prompts techniques training in a clinical educational setting. We examined the question of whether it would be possible to administer a four session dynamic test to a specific group of children with complex

  4. Design and Developmental Research on the VV&A of Complex Simulation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Verification, Validation and Accreditation (VV&A of a complex simulation system is a complex systems engineering. Based on the brief introduction to the concept of VV&A, this paper puts forward its design principles, approaches and basic contents, expounds the typical developing process and predicts its up-to-date technology developing trend of complex simulation system.

  5. Transgenic Mouse Models Transferred into the Test Tube: New Perspectives for Developmental Toxicity Testing In Vitro?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugler, Josephine; Luch, Andreas; Oelgeschläger, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Despite our increasing understanding of molecular mechanisms controlling embryogenesis, the identification and characterization of teratogenic substances still heavily relies on animal testing. Embryonic development depends on cell-autonomous and non-autonomous processes including spatiotemporally regulated extracellular signaling activities. These have been elucidated in transgenic mouse models harboring easily detectable reporter genes under the control of evolutionarily conserved signaling cascades. We propose combining these transgenic mouse models and cells derived thereof with existing alternative toxicological testing strategies. This would enable the plausibility of in vitro data to be verified in light of in vivo data and, ultimately, facilitate regulatory acceptance of in vitro test methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Intelligence Tests with Higher G-Loadings Show Higher Correlations with Body Symmetry: Evidence for a General Fitness Factor Mediated by Developmental Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokosch, M.D.; Yeo, R.A.; Miller, G.F.

    2005-01-01

    Just as body symmetry reveals developmental stability at the morphological level, general intelligence may reveal developmental stability at the level of brain development and cognitive functioning. These two forms of developmental stability may overlap by tapping into a ''general fitness factor.'' If so, then intellectual tests with higher…

  7. Testing for developmental neurotoxicity using a battery of in vitro assays for key cellular events in neurodevelopment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrill, Joshua A; Freudenrich, Theresa; Wallace, Kathleen; Ball, Kenneth; Shafer, Timothy J; Mundy, William R

    2018-04-05

    Medium- to high-throughput in vitro assays that recapitulate the critical processes of nervous system development have been proposed as a means to facilitate rapid testing and identification of chemicals which may affect brain development. In vivo neurodevelopment is a complex progression of distinct cellular processes. Therefore, batteries of in vitro assays that model and quantify effects on a variety of neurodevelopmental processes have the potential to identify chemicals which may affect brain development at different developmental stages. In the present study, the results of concentration-response screening of 67 reference chemicals in a battery of high content imaging and microplate reader-based assays that evaluate neural progenitor cell proliferation, neural proginitor cell apoptosis, neurite initiation/outgrowth, neurite maturation and synaptogenesis are summarized and compared. The assay battery had a high degree of combined sensitivity (87%) for categorizing chemicals known to affect neurodevelopment as active and a moderate degree of combined specificity (71%) for categorizing chemicals not associated with affects on neurodevelopment as inactive. The combined sensitivity of the assay battery was higher compared to any individual assay while the combined specificity of the assay battery was lower compared to any individual assay. When selectivity of effects for a neurodevelopmental endpoint as compared to general cytotoxicity was taken into account, the combined sensitivity of the assay battery decreased (68%) while the combined specificity increased (93%). The identity and potency of chemicals identified as active varied across the assay battery, underscoring the need for use of a combination of diverse in vitro models to comprehensively screen chemicals and identify those which potentially affect neurodevelopment. Overall, these data indicate that a battery of assays which address many different processes in nervous system development may be used to

  8. Low Bone Mineral Density Risk Factors and Testing Patterns in Institutionalized Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Mailee; Campagna, Elizabeth J.; Jensen, Kristin M.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Adults with intellectual or developmental disability (ID/DD) have multiple risks for low bone mineral density (BMD) without formal guidelines to guide testing. We sought to identify risk factors and patterns of BMD testing among institutionalized adults with ID/DD. Methods: We evaluated risk factors for low BMD (Z-/T-score < -1) and…

  9. A Field Study of Participant Reactions to a Developmental Assessment Centre: Testing an organisational justice model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael M Harris

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Although assessment centres are being increasingly employed for developmental purposes, there has been a dearth of research regarding them. We investigated an organisational justice theory model suggested by Cohen-Charash and Spector (2001 in this relatively novel context. The model included antecedents (e.g., perceived validity, organisational justice perceptions (i.e., distributive justice and procedural justice, and one outcome (i.e., feedback utility perceptions. Most of our hypotheses were supported, suggesting much evidence for this model. The predicted effect for perceived fakability was not supported. Contrary to our hypothesis, distributive justice perceptions were at least as important as procedural justice perceptions in predicting feedback utility perceptions. A direct test of the effect of context on organisational justice theory is recommended.

  10. In vitro developmental toxicity test detects inhibition of stem cell differentiation by silica nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Margriet V.D.Z.; Annema, Wijtske; Salvati, Anna; Lesniak, Anna; Elsaesser, Andreas; Barnes, Clifford; McKerr, George; Howard, C. Vyvyan; Lynch, Iseult; Dawson, Kenneth A.; Piersma, Aldert H.; Jong, Wim H. de

    2009-01-01

    While research into the potential toxic properties of nanomaterials is now increasing, the area of developmental toxicity has remained relatively uninvestigated. The embryonic stem cell test is an in vitro screening assay used to investigate the embryotoxic potential of chemicals by determining their ability to inhibit differentiation of embryonic stem cells into spontaneously contracting cardiomyocytes. Four well characterized silica nanoparticles of various sizes were used to investigate whether nanomaterials are capable of inhibition of differentiation in the embryonic stem cell test. Nanoparticle size distributions and dispersion characteristics were determined before and during incubation in the stem cell culture medium by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering. Mouse embryonic stem cells were exposed to silica nanoparticles at concentrations ranging from 1 to 100 μg/ml. The embryonic stem cell test detected a concentration dependent inhibition of differentiation of stem cells into contracting cardiomyocytes by two silica nanoparticles of primary size 10 (TEM 11) and 30 (TEM 34) nm while two other particles of primary size 80 (TEM 34) and 400 (TEM 248) nm had no effect up to the highest concentration tested. Inhibition of differentiation of stem cells occurred below cytotoxic concentrations, indicating a specific effect of the particles on the differentiation of the embryonic stem cells. The impaired differentiation of stem cells by such widely used particles warrants further investigation into the potential of these nanoparticles to migrate into the uterus, placenta and embryo and their possible effects on embryogenesis.

  11. Significance tests for functional data with complex dependence structure

    KAUST Repository

    Staicu, Ana-Maria; Lahiri, Soumen N.; Carroll, Raymond J.

    2015-01-01

    We propose an L (2)-norm based global testing procedure for the null hypothesis that multiple group mean functions are equal, for functional data with complex dependence structure. Specifically, we consider the setting of functional data with a

  12. Adaptation and Preliminary Testing of the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (DCDQ) for Children in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Priya; Gabbard, Carl

    2017-05-01

    While Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) has gained worldwide attention, in India it is relatively unknown. The revised DCD Questionnaire (DCDQ'07) is one of the most utilized screening tools for DCD. The aim of this study was to translate the DCDQ'07 into the Hindi language (DCDQ-Hindi) and test its basic psychometric properties. The DCDQ'07 was translated following guidelines for cross cultural adaptation of instruments. Parents of 1100 children (5-15 years) completed the DCDQ-Hindi, of which 955 were considered for data analysis and 60 were retested randomly after 3 weeks for test-retest reliability. The DCDQ-Hindi showed high internal consistency (α = .86) and moderate test-retest reliability (.73). Confirmatory factor analysis showed equivalence to the DCDQ'07. The% probable DCD using DCDQ'07 cutoff scores (≤57) ranged from 22% to 68%. Using more stringent cutoffs (≤36) it ranged from 5% to 9%. Significant difference was seen for gender (p < .05) in subset 1(gross-motor skills) total scores. The DCDQ-Hindi reveals promise for initial identification of Hindi speaking Indian children with DCD. Based on more stringent cut-off scores, the "probable prevalence" of children with risk of DCD in India appears to be around 6-7%. Research with larger sample and comparison with the MABC-2 or equivalent is needed.

  13. Comparing three novel endpoints for developmental osteotoxicity in the embryonic stem cell test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieden, Nicole I. zur; Davis, Lesley A.; Rancourt, Derrick E.

    2010-01-01

    Birth defects belong to the most serious side effects of pharmaceutical compounds or environmental chemicals. In vivo, teratogens most often affect the normal development of bones, causing growth retardation, limb defects or craniofacial malformations. The embryonic stem cell test (EST) is one of the most promising models that allow the in vitro prediction of embryotoxicity, with one of its endpoints being bone tissue development. The present study was designed to describe three novel inexpensive endpoints to assess developmental osteotoxicity using the model compounds penicillin G (non-teratogenic), 5-fluorouracil (strong teratogen) and all-trans retinoic acid (bone teratogen). These three endpoints were: quantification of matrix incorporated calcium by (1) morphometric analysis and (2) measurement of calcium levels as well as (3) activity of alkaline phosphatase, an enzyme involved in matrix calcification. To evaluate our data, we have compared the concentration curves and resulting ID 50 s of the new endpoints with mRNA expression for osteocalcin. Osteocalcin is an exclusive marker found only in mineralized tissues, is regulated upon compound treatment and reliably predicts the potential of a chemical entity acting as a bone teratogen. By comparing the new endpoints to quantitative expression of osteocalcin, which we previously identified as suitable to detect developmental osteotoxicity, we were ultimately able to illustrate IMAGE analysis and Ca 2+ deposition assays as two reliable novel endpoints for the EST. This is of particular importance for routine industrial assessment of novel compounds as these two new endpoints may substitute previously used molecular read-out methods, which are often costly and time-consuming.

  14. Developmental exposure to a complex PAH mixture causes persistent behavioral effects in naive Fundulus heteroclitus (killifish) but not in a population of PAH-adapted killifish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D R; Bailey, J M; Oliveri, A N; Levin, E D; Di Giulio, R T

    2016-01-01

    Acute exposures to some individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and complex PAH mixtures are known to cause cardiac malformations and edema in the developing fish embryo. However, the heart is not the only organ impacted by developmental PAH exposure. The developing brain is also affected, resulting in lasting behavioral dysfunction. While acute exposures to some PAHs are teratogenically lethal in fish, little is known about the later life consequences of early life, lower dose subteratogenic PAH exposures. We sought to determine and characterize the long-term behavioral consequences of subteratogenic developmental PAH mixture exposure in both naive killifish and PAH-adapted killifish using sediment pore water derived from the Atlantic Wood Industries Superfund Site. Killifish offspring were embryonically treated with two low-level PAH mixture dilutions of Elizabeth River sediment extract (ERSE) (TPAH 5.04 μg/L and 50.4 μg/L) at 24h post fertilization. Following exposure, killifish were raised to larval, juvenile, and adult life stages and subjected to a series of behavioral tests including: a locomotor activity test (4 days post-hatch), a sensorimotor response tap/habituation test (3 months post hatch), and a novel tank diving and exploration test (3months post hatch). Killifish were also monitored for survival at 1, 2, and 5 months over 5-month rearing period. Developmental PAH exposure caused short-term as well as persistent behavioral impairments in naive killifish. In contrast, the PAH-adapted killifish did not show behavioral alterations following PAH exposure. PAH mixture exposure caused increased mortality in reference killifish over time; yet, the PAH-adapted killifish, while demonstrating long-term rearing mortality, had no significant changes in mortality associated with ERSE exposure. This study demonstrated that early embryonic exposure to PAH-contaminated sediment pore water caused long-term locomotor and behavioral alterations in

  15. The Mediator complex of Caenorhabditis elegans: insights into the developmental and physiological roles of a conserved transcriptional coregulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grants, Jennifer M; Goh, Grace Y S; Taubert, Stefan

    2015-02-27

    The Mediator multiprotein complex ('Mediator') is an important transcriptional coregulator that is evolutionarily conserved throughout eukaryotes. Although some Mediator subunits are essential for the transcription of all protein-coding genes, others influence the expression of only subsets of genes and participate selectively in cellular signaling pathways. Here, we review the current knowledge of Mediator subunit function in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a metazoan in which established and emerging genetic technologies facilitate the study of developmental and physiological regulation in vivo. In this nematode, unbiased genetic screens have revealed critical roles for Mediator components in core developmental pathways such as epidermal growth factor (EGF) and Wnt/β-catenin signaling. More recently, important roles for C. elegans Mediator subunits have emerged in the regulation of lipid metabolism and of systemic stress responses, engaging conserved transcription factors such as nuclear hormone receptors (NHRs). We emphasize instances where similar functions for individual Mediator subunits exist in mammals, highlighting parallels between Mediator subunit action in nematode development and in human cancer biology. We also discuss a parallel between the association of the Mediator subunit MED12 with several human disorders and the role of its C. elegans ortholog mdt-12 as a regulatory hub that interacts with numerous signaling pathways. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  16. Gender-associated differences in the psychosocial and developmental outcome in patients affected with the bladder exstrophy-epispadias complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Celine; Reutter, Heiko M; Grässer, Melanie F; Fisch, Margit; Noeker, Meinolf

    2006-02-01

    To identify problems in the long-term psychosocial and developmental outcome specific to patients with the bladder exstrophy-epispadias complex (BEEC), using a self-developed semi-structured questionnaire, as there are various techniques of reconstruction to repair BEEC but to date neither patients nor surgeons have a clear answer about which type gives the most acceptable long-term results. Increasingly many patients with BEEC reach adulthood and wish to have sexual relationships and families. To date, no studies have used disease-specific psychological instruments to measure the psychosocial status of patients with BEEC. Thus we contacted 208 patients with BEEC, and 122 were enrolled, covering the complete spectrum of the BEEC. The data assessed included the surgical reconstruction, subjective assessment of continence, developmental milestones, school performance and career, overall satisfaction in life, disease-specific fears and partnership experiences in patients aged >18 years. We compared affected females and males to assess gender-associated differences in quality of life. Affected females had more close friendships, fewer disadvantages in relation to healthy female peers and more partnerships than the males. Family planning seemed to be less of a problem in affected females. There were no gender differences in the adjustments within school and professional career, which was very good in general. Future studies are needed to assess the disease-specific anxieties, considering gender-specific differences.

  17. A Rhodium(III) Complex as an Inhibitor of Neural Precursor Cell Expressed, Developmentally Down-Regulated 8-Activating Enzyme with in Vivo Activity against Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Hai-Jing; Wang, Wanhe; Kang, Tian-Shu; Yan, Hui; Yang, Yali; Xu, Lipeng; Wang, Yuqiang; Ma, Dik-Lung; Leung, Chung-Hang

    2017-01-12

    We report herein the identification of the rhodium(III) complex [Rh(phq) 2 (MOPIP)] + (1) as a potent and selective ATP-competitive neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally down-regulated 8 (NEDD8)-activating enzyme (NAE) inhibitor. Structure-activity relationship analysis indicated that the overall organometallic design of complex 1 was important for anti-inflammatory activity. Complex 1 showed promising anti-inflammatory activity in vivo for the potential treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.

  18. Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neuron as a human model for testing environmentally induced developmental neurotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons as a human model for testing environmentally induced developmental neurotoxicity Ingrid L. Druwe1, Timothy J. Shafer2, Kathleen Wallace2, Pablo Valdivia3 ,and William R. Mundy2. 1University of North Carolina, Curriculum in Toxicology...

  19. Psychometric Characteristics of a Measure of Emotional Dispositions Developed to Test a Developmental Propensity Model of Conduct Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahey, Benjamin B.; Applegate, Brooks; Chronis, Andrea M.; Jones, Heather A.; Williams, Stephanie Hall; Loney, Jan; Waldman, Irwin D.

    2008-01-01

    Lahey and Waldman proposed a developmental propensity model in which three dimensions of children's emotional dispositions are hypothesized to transact with the environment to influence risk for conduct disorder, heterogeneity in conduct disorder, and comorbidity with other disorders. To prepare for future tests of this model, a new measure of…

  20. Conceptual and Developmental Analysis of Mental Models: An Example with Complex Change Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Louise

    Defining better implicit models of children's actions in a series of situations is of paramount importance to understanding how knowledge is constructed. The objective of this study was to analyze the implicit mental models used by children in complex change problems to understand the stability of the models and their evolution with the child's…

  1. Developmental Eye Movement (DEM Test Norms for Mandarin Chinese-Speaking Chinese Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yachun Xie

    Full Text Available The Developmental Eye Movement (DEM test is commonly used as a clinical visual-verbal ocular motor assessment tool to screen and diagnose reading problems at the onset. No established norm exists for using the DEM test with Mandarin Chinese-speaking Chinese children. This study aims to establish the normative values of the DEM test for the Mandarin Chinese-speaking population in China; it also aims to compare the values with three other published norms for English-, Spanish-, and Cantonese-speaking Chinese children. A random stratified sampling method was used to recruit children from eight kindergartens and eight primary schools in the main urban and suburban areas of Nanjing. A total of 1,425 Mandarin Chinese-speaking children aged 5 to 12 years took the DEM test in Mandarin Chinese. A digital recorder was used to record the process. All of the subjects completed a symptomatology survey, and their DEM scores were determined by a trained tester. The scores were computed using the formula in the DEM manual, except that the "vertical scores" were adjusted by taking the vertical errors into consideration. The results were compared with the three other published norms. In our subjects, a general decrease with age was observed for the four eye movement indexes: vertical score, adjusted horizontal score, ratio, and total error. For both the vertical and adjusted horizontal scores, the Mandarin Chinese-speaking children completed the tests much more quickly than the norms for English- and Spanish-speaking children. However, the same group completed the test slightly more slowly than the norms for Cantonese-speaking children. The differences in the means were significant (P0.05; compared with Spanish-speaking children, the scores were statistically significant (P0.05. DEM norms may be affected by differences in language, cultural, and educational systems among various ethnicities. The norms of the DEM test are proposed for use with Mandarin Chinese

  2. Reduced cortical complexity in children with Prader-Willi Syndrome and its association with cognitive impairment and developmental delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukoshe, Akvile; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C; van der Lugt, Aad; White, Tonya

    2014-01-01

    Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) is a complex neurogenetic disorder with symptoms involving not only hypothalamic, but also a global, central nervous system dysfunction. Previously, qualitative studies reported polymicrogyria in adults with PWS. However, there have been no quantitative neuroimaging studies of cortical morphology in PWS and no studies to date in children with PWS. Thus, our aim was to investigate and quantify cortical complexity in children with PWS compared to healthy controls. In addition, we investigated differences between genetic subtypes of PWS and the relationship between cortical complexity and intelligence within the PWS group. High-resolution structural magnetic resonance images were acquired in 24 children with genetically confirmed PWS (12 carrying a deletion (DEL), 12 with maternal uniparental disomy (mUPD)) and 11 age- and sex-matched typically developing siblings as healthy controls. Local gyrification index (lGI) was obtained using the FreeSurfer software suite. Four large clusters, two in each hemisphere, comprising frontal, parietal and temporal lobes, had lower lGI in children with PWS, compared to healthy controls. Clusters with lower lGI also had significantly lower cortical surface area in children with PWS. No differences in cortical thickness of the clusters were found between the PWS and healthy controls. lGI correlated significantly with cortical surface area, but not with cortical thickness. Within the PWS group, lGI in both hemispheres correlated with Total IQ and Verbal IQ, but not with Performance IQ. Children with mUPD, compared to children with DEL, had two small clusters with lower lGI in the right hemisphere. lGI of these clusters correlated with cortical surface area, but not with cortical thickness or IQ. These results suggest that lower cortical complexity in children with PWS partially underlies cognitive impairment and developmental delay, probably due to alterations in gene networks that play a prominent role in

  3. Reduced cortical complexity in children with Prader-Willi Syndrome and its association with cognitive impairment and developmental delay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akvile Lukoshe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS is a complex neurogenetic disorder with symptoms involving not only hypothalamic, but also a global, central nervous system dysfunction. Previously, qualitative studies reported polymicrogyria in adults with PWS. However, there have been no quantitative neuroimaging studies of cortical morphology in PWS and no studies to date in children with PWS. Thus, our aim was to investigate and quantify cortical complexity in children with PWS compared to healthy controls. In addition, we investigated differences between genetic subtypes of PWS and the relationship between cortical complexity and intelligence within the PWS group. METHODS: High-resolution structural magnetic resonance images were acquired in 24 children with genetically confirmed PWS (12 carrying a deletion (DEL, 12 with maternal uniparental disomy (mUPD and 11 age- and sex-matched typically developing siblings as healthy controls. Local gyrification index (lGI was obtained using the FreeSurfer software suite. RESULTS: Four large clusters, two in each hemisphere, comprising frontal, parietal and temporal lobes, had lower lGI in children with PWS, compared to healthy controls. Clusters with lower lGI also had significantly lower cortical surface area in children with PWS. No differences in cortical thickness of the clusters were found between the PWS and healthy controls. lGI correlated significantly with cortical surface area, but not with cortical thickness. Within the PWS group, lGI in both hemispheres correlated with Total IQ and Verbal IQ, but not with Performance IQ. Children with mUPD, compared to children with DEL, had two small clusters with lower lGI in the right hemisphere. lGI of these clusters correlated with cortical surface area, but not with cortical thickness or IQ. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that lower cortical complexity in children with PWS partially underlies cognitive impairment and developmental delay, probably due to

  4. Pathways to psychosis: a comparison of the pervasive developmental disorder subtype Multiple Complex Developmental Disorder and the "At Risk Mental State"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprong, M.; Becker, H. E.; Schothorst, P. F.; Swaab, H.; Ziermans, T. B.; Dingemans, P. M.; Linszen, D.; van Engeland, H.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The comparison of high-risk populations with different developmental pathways to psychosis may lend more insight into the heterogeneity of the manifestation of the psychotic syndrome, and possible differing etiological pathways. AIM: To compare high-risk traits and symptoms in two

  5. Pathways to psychosis : A comparison of the pervasive developmental disorder subtype multiple complex developmental disorder and the "At Risk Mental State"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprong, M.; Becker, H. E.; Schothorst, P. F.; Swaab, H.; Ziermans, T. B.; Dingemans, P. M.; Linszen, D.; van Engeland, I.

    Background: The comparison of high-risk populations with different developmental pathways to psychosis may lend more insight into the heterogeneity of the manifestation of the psychotic syndrome, and possible differing etiological pathways. Aim: To compare high-risk traits and symptoms in two

  6. Significance tests for functional data with complex dependence structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staicu, Ana-Maria; Lahiri, Soumen N; Carroll, Raymond J

    2015-01-01

    We propose an L 2 -norm based global testing procedure for the null hypothesis that multiple group mean functions are equal, for functional data with complex dependence structure. Specifically, we consider the setting of functional data with a multilevel structure of the form groups-clusters or subjects-units, where the unit-level profiles are spatially correlated within the cluster, and the cluster-level data are independent. Orthogonal series expansions are used to approximate the group mean functions and the test statistic is estimated using the basis coefficients. The asymptotic null distribution of the test statistic is developed, under mild regularity conditions. To our knowledge this is the first work that studies hypothesis testing, when data have such complex multilevel functional and spatial structure. Two small-sample alternatives, including a novel block bootstrap for functional data, are proposed, and their performance is examined in simulation studies. The paper concludes with an illustration of a motivating experiment.

  7. Significance tests for functional data with complex dependence structure

    KAUST Repository

    Staicu, Ana-Maria

    2015-01-01

    We propose an L (2)-norm based global testing procedure for the null hypothesis that multiple group mean functions are equal, for functional data with complex dependence structure. Specifically, we consider the setting of functional data with a multilevel structure of the form groups-clusters or subjects-units, where the unit-level profiles are spatially correlated within the cluster, and the cluster-level data are independent. Orthogonal series expansions are used to approximate the group mean functions and the test statistic is estimated using the basis coefficients. The asymptotic null distribution of the test statistic is developed, under mild regularity conditions. To our knowledge this is the first work that studies hypothesis testing, when data have such complex multilevel functional and spatial structure. Two small-sample alternatives, including a novel block bootstrap for functional data, are proposed, and their performance is examined in simulation studies. The paper concludes with an illustration of a motivating experiment.

  8. Developmental changes of morphology in the basolateral complex of the rabbit amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagalska-Majewska, Hanna; Luczyńska, Anna; Wójcik, Sławomir; Dziewiatkowski, Jerzy; Kurlapska, Renata; Moryś, Janusz

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to follow topographical and morphological changes in the development of the amygdaloid basolateral complex (BLC) in the rabbit. The material consists of 35 brains of New Zealand rabbits of both sexes, divided into 7 age groups (P2-P90). In cresyl violet preparations BLC is already well visible on P2 and is composed of the lateral (divided into dorsolateral and ventromedial divisions), basolateral and homogenous basomedial nuclei. On about the 7th postnatal day it is possible to divide the basomedial nucleus (BM) into dorsal (Bmd) and ventral (BMv) divisions. The topography and subdivisions set on P7 are maintained in further periods of life. The morphology of neurons (shape, dendrites, staining) changes significantly until P21 in all BLC nuclei. Our results indicate that BLC achieves morphological maturity relatively late, which is probably connected with a long creation of emotional memory and regulation of emotional behaviour.

  9. Kolmogorov complexity, pseudorandom generators and statistical models testing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šindelář, Jan; Boček, Pavel

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 6 (2002), s. 747-759 ISSN 0023-5954 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/99/1564 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : Kolmogorov complexity * pseudorandom generators * statistical models testing Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.341, year: 2002

  10. Integration and test plans for complex manufacturing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boumen, R.

    2007-01-01

    The integration and test phases that are part of the development and manufacturing of complex manufacturing systems are costly and time consuming. As time-to-market is becoming increasingly important, it is crucial to keep these phases as short as possible, whilemaintaining system quality. This is

  11. Developmental Scaffolding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giorgi, Franco; Bruni, Luis Emilio

    2015-01-01

    . Within the developmental hierarchy, each module yields an inter-level relationship that makes it possible for the scaffolding to mediate the production of selectable variations. Awide range of genetic, cellular and morphological mechanisms allows the scaffolding to integrate these modular variations...... to the complexity of sign recognition proper of a cellular community. In this semiotic perspective, the apparent goal directness of any developmental strategy should no longer be accounted for by a predetermined genetic program, but by the gradual definition of the relationships selected amongst the ones...

  12. [Diagnostic evaluation of the developmental level in children identified at risk of delay through the Child Development Evaluation Test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzoli-Córdoba, Antonio; Campos-Maldonado, Martha Carmen; Vélez-Andrade, Víctor Hugo; Delgado-Ginebra, Ismael; Baqueiro-Hernández, César Iván; Villasís-Keever, Miguel Ángel; Reyes-Morales, Hortensia; Ojeda-Lara, Lucía; Davis-Martínez, Erika Berenice; O'Shea-Cuevas, Gabriel; Aceves-Villagrán, Daniel; Carrasco-Mendoza, Joaquín; Villagrán-Muñoz, Víctor Manuel; Halley-Castillo, Elizabeth; Sidonio-Aguayo, Beatriz; Palma-Tavera, Josuha Alexander; Muñoz-Hernández, Onofre

    The Child Development Evaluation (or CDE Test) was developed in Mexico as a screening tool for child developmental problems. It yields three possible results: normal, slow development or risk of delay. The modified version was elaborated using the information obtained during the validation study but its properties according to the base population are not known. The objective of this work was to establish diagnostic confirmation of developmental delay in children 16- to 59-months of age previously identified as having risk of delay through the CDE Test in primary care facilities. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in one Mexican state. CDE test was administered to 11,455 children 16- to 59-months of age from December/2013 to March/2014. The eligible population represented the 6.2% of the children (n=714) who were identified at risk of delay through the CDE Test. For inclusion in the study, a block randomization stratified by sex and age group was performed. Each participant included in the study had a diagnostic evaluation using the Battelle Development Inventory, 2 nd edition. From the 355 participants included with risk of delay, 65.9% were male and 80.2% were from rural areas; 6.5% were false positives (Total Development Quotient ˃90) and 6.8% did not have any domain with delay (Domain Developmental Quotient <80). The proportion of delay for each domain was as follows: communication 82.5%; cognitive 80.8%; social-personal 33.8%; motor 55.5%; and adaptive 41.7%. There were significant differences in the percentages of delay both by age and by domain/subdomain evaluated. In 93.2% of the participants, developmental delay was corroborated in at least one domain evaluated. Copyright © 2015 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  13. Human embryonic stem cell-derived test systems for developmental neurotoxicity: A transcriptomics approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krug, A.K.; Kolde, R.; Gaspar, J.A.; Rempel, E.; Balmer, N.V.; Meganathan, K.; Vojnits, K.; Baquié, M.; Waldmann, T.; Ensenat-Waser, R.; Jagtap, S.; Evans, R.M.; Julien, S.; Peterson, H.; Zagoura, D.; Kadereit, S.; Gerhard, D.; Sotiriadou, I.; Heke, M.; Natarajan, K.; Henry, M.; Winkler, J.; Marchan, R.; Stoppini, L.; Bosgra, S.; Westerhout, J.; Verwei, M.; Vilo, J.; Kortenkamp, A.; Hescheler, J.; Hothorn, L.; Bremer, S.; Thriel, C. van; Krause, K.-H.; Hengstler, J.G.; Rahnenführer, J.; Leist, M.; Sachinidis, A.

    2013-01-01

    Developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) and many forms of reproductive toxicity (RT) often manifest themselves in functional deficits that are not necessarily based on cell death, but rather on minor changes relating to cell differentiation or communication. The fields of DNT/RT would greatly benefit from

  14. Subtypes of Developmental Dyslexia: Testing the Predictions of the Dual-Route and Connectionist Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Robin L.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Olson, Richard K.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the phonological and surface subtypes of developmental dyslexia in light of competing predictions made by two computational models of single word reading, the Dual-Route Cascaded Model (DRC; Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001) and Harm and Seidenberg's connectionist model (HS model; Harm & Seidenberg, 1999). The…

  15. Developmental change of visuo-spatial working memory in children: quantitative evaluation through an Advanced Trail Making Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokubo, Naomi; Inagaki, Masumi; Gunji, Atsuko; Kobayashi, Tomoka; Ohta, Hidenobu; Kajimoto, Osami; Kaga, Makiko

    2012-11-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the developmental change in Visuo-Spatial Working Memory (VSWM) in typically developed children using a specially designed Advanced Trail Making Test for children (ATMT-C). We developed a new method for evaluating VSWM efficiency in children using a modified version ATMT to suit their shorter sustained attention. The ATMT-C consists of two parts; a number-based ATMT and a hiragana (Japanese phonogram)-based ATMT, both employing symbols familiar to young children. A total of 94 healthy participants (6-28 years of age) were enrolled in this study. A non-linear developmental change of VSWM efficiency was observed in the results from the ATMT-C. In the number-based ATMT, children under 8 years of age showed a relatively rapid increase in VSWM efficiency while older children (9-12 years) had a more gradual increase in VSWM efficiency. Results from the hiragana-based ATMT-C showed a slightly delayed increase pattern in VSWM efficiency compared to the pattern from the number-based ATMT. There were no significant differences in VSWM efficiency for gender, handedness and test order. VSWM in children gradually matures in a non steady-state manner and there is an important stage for VSWM maturation before reaching 12 years of age. VSWM efficiency may also vary depending on developmental condition of its cognitive subsystems. Copyright © 2012 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Consensus statement on the need for innovation, transition and implementation of developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) testing for regulatory purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritsche, Ellen; Grandjean, Philippe; Crofton, Kevin M

    2018-01-01

    in the environment, with high uncertainty concerning their developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) potential. Closing this data gap with the current test guideline approach is not feasible, because the in vivo bioassays are far too resource-intensive concerning time, money and number of animals. A variety of in vitro...... methods are now available, that have the potential to close this data gap by permitting mode-of-action-based DNT testing employing human stem cells-derived neuronal/glial models. In vitro DNT data together with in silico approaches will in the future allow development of predictive models for DNT effects...

  17. Electrodermal complexity during the Stroop colour word test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetlak, Miroslav; Bob, Petr; Cernik, Michal; Kukleta, Miloslav

    2010-01-15

    Several recent studies suggest that quantitative description of signal complexity using algorithms of nonlinear analysis could uncover new information about the autonomic system that is not reflected using common methods applied to measures of autonomic activity. With this aim we have performed complexity analysis of electrodermal activity (EDA) assessed in 106 healthy university students during rest conditions and non-conflicting and conflicting Stroop task. Complexity analysis applied to EDA was performed using Skinner's algorithm for pointwise correlation dimension (PD2). Results have shown that EDA responses during the Stroop Colour Word test are related to significantly increased or decreased complexity. Particularly significant result is that PD2 has a unique ability to predict to an extent the change in EDA response to stress i.e. that subjects with low initial PD2 tended to respond to experimental stress by its increase and subjects with high initial PD2 values tended to respond by its decrease. This response was not found in EDA measures where increase of the EDA presented predominant response to experimental stress in majority of the subjects. These findings suggest that PD2 is more sensitive to subtle aspects of functionally and spatially distributed modulatory influences of various parts of the brain that are involved in the EDA modulation and provides novel information in comparison to traditional methods.

  18. The application of latent curve analysis to testing developmental theories in intervention research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, P J; Muthén, B O

    1999-08-01

    The effectiveness of a prevention or intervention program has traditionally been assessed using time-specific comparisons of mean levels between the treatment and the control groups. However, many times the behavior targeted by the intervention is naturally developing over time, and the goal of the treatment is to alter this natural or normative developmental trajectory. Examining time-specific mean levels can be both limiting and potentially misleading when the behavior of interest is developing systematically over time. It is argued here that there are both theoretical and statistical advantages associated with recasting intervention treatment effects in terms of normative and altered developmental trajectories. The recently developed technique of latent curve (LC) analysis is reviewed and extended to a true experimental design setting in which subjects are randomly assigned to a treatment intervention or a control condition. LC models are applied to both artificially generated and real intervention data sets to evaluate the efficacy of an intervention program. Not only do the LC models provide a more comprehensive understanding of the treatment and control group developmental processes compared to more traditional fixed-effects models, but LC models have greater statistical power to detect a given treatment effect. Finally, the LC models are modified to allow for the computation of specific power estimates under a variety of conditions and assumptions that can provide much needed information for the planning and design of more powerful but cost-efficient intervention programs for the future.

  19. Assessment of neuro-optometric rehabilitation using the Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) test in adults with acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Neera; Ciuffreda, Kenneth Joseph

    This pilot study sought to determine the efficacy of using the Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) test in the adult, acquired brain injury (ABI) population to quantify clinically the effects of controlled, laboratory-performed, oculomotor-based vision therapy/vision rehabilitation. Nine adult subjects with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and five with stroke were assessed before and after an eight-week, computer-based, versional oculomotor (fixation, saccades, pursuit, and simulated reading) training program (9.6h total). The protocol incorporated a cross-over, interventional design with and without the addition of auditory feedback regarding two-dimensional eye position. The clinical outcome measure was the Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) test score (ratio, errors) taken before, midway, and immediately following training. For the DEM ratio parameter, improvements were found in 80-89% of the subjects. For the DEM error parameter, improvements were found in 100% of the subjects. Incorporation of the auditory feedback component revealed a trend toward enhanced performance. The findings were similar for both DEM parameters, as well as for incorporation of the auditory feedback, in both diagnostic groups. The results of the present study demonstrated considerable improvements in the DEM test scores following the oculomotor-based training, thus reflecting more time-optimal and accurate saccadic tracking after the training. The DEM test should be considered as another clinical test of global saccadic tracking performance in the ABI population. Copyright © 2017 Spanish General Council of Optometry. All rights reserved.

  20. The era of 3Rs implementation in developmental and reproductive toxicity (DART) testing: Current overview and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beekhuijzen, Manon

    2017-09-01

    Since adoption of the first globally implemented guidelines for developmental and reproductive toxicity (DART) testing for pharmaceuticals, industrial chemicals and agrochemicals, many years passed without major updates. However in recent years, significant changes in these guidelines have been made or are being implemented. These changes have been guided by the ethical drive to reduce, refine and replace (3R) animal testing, as well as the addition of endocrine disruptor relevant endpoints. Recent applied improvements have focused on reduction and refinement. Ongoing scientific and technical innovations will provide the means for replacement of animal testing in the future and will improve predictivity in humans. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of ongoing global DART endeavors in respect to the 3Rs, with an outlook towards future advances in DART testing aspiring to reduce animal testing to a minimum and the supreme ambition towards animal-free hazard and risk assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Risk factor assessment to anticipate performance in the National Developmental Screening Test in children from a disadvantaged area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Alejandro; Pazos, Gustavo

    2016-02-01

    Identifying children at risk of failing the National Developmental Screening Test by combining prevalences of children suspected of having inapparent developmental disorders (IDDs) and associated risk factors (RFs) would allow to save resources. 1. To estimate the prevalence of children suspected of having IDDs. 2. To identify associated RFs. 3. To assess three methods developed based on observed RFs and propose a pre-screening procedure. The National Developmental Screening Test was administered to 60 randomly selected children aged between 2 and 4 years old from a socioeconomically disadvantaged area from Puerto Madryn. Twenty-four biological and socioenvironmental outcome measures were assessed in order to identify potential RFs using bivariate and multivariate analyses. The likelihood of failing the screening test was estimated as follows: 1. a multivariate logistic regression model was developed; 2. a relationship was established between the number of RFs present in each child and the percentage of children who failed the test; 3. these two methods were combined. The prevalence of children suspected of having IDDs was 55.0% (95% confidence interval: 42.4%-67.6%). Six RFs were initially identified using the bivariate approach. Three of them (maternal education, number of health checkups and Z scores for height-for-age, and maternal age) were included in the logistic regression model, which has a greater explanatory power. The third method included in the assessment showed greater sensitivity and specificity (85% and 79%, respectively). The estimated prevalence of children suspected of having IDDs was four times higher than the national standards. Seven RFs were identified. Combining the analysis of risk factor accumulation and a multivariate model provides a firm basis for developing a sensitive, specific and practical pre-screening procedure for socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  2. A COMPUTERIZED DIAGNOSTIC COMPLEX FOR RELIABILITY TESTING OF ELECTRIC MACHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.О. Somka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To develop a diagnostic complex meeting the criteria and requirements for carrying out accelerated reliability test and realizing the basic modes of electric machines operation and performance of the posed problems necessary in the process of such test. Methodology. To determine and forecast the indices of electric machines reliability in accordance with the statistic data of repair plants we have conditionally divided them into structural parts that are most likely to fail. We have preliminarily assessed the state of each of these parts, which includes revelation of faults and deviations of technical and geometric parameters. We have determined the analyzed electric machine controlled parameters used for assessment of quantitative characteristics of reliability of these parts and electric machines on the whole. Results. As a result of the research, we have substantiated the structure of a computerized complex for electric machines reliability test. It allows us to change thermal and vibration actions without violation of the physics of the processes of aging and wearing of the basic structural parts and elements material. The above mentioned makes it possible to considerably reduce time spent on carrying out electric machines reliability tests and improve trustworthiness of the data obtained as a result of their performance. Originality. A special feature of determination of the controlled parameters consists in removal of vibration components in the idle mode and after disconnection of the analyzed electric machine from the power supply with the aim of singling out the vibration electromagnetic component, fixing the degree of sparking and bend of the shaft by means of phototechnique and local determination of structural parts temperature provided by corresponding location of thermal sensors. Practical value. We have offered a scheme of location of thermal and vibration sensors, which allows improvement of parameters measuring accuracy

  3. The Bicycle Drawing Test: What Does It Measure in Developmentally Typical Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannoni, Eleonora; Di Norcia, Anna; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Di Giunta, Laura

    2015-10-01

    To verify the dimensionality of Bicycle Drawing Test (BDT), we applied the coding system of Greenberg, Rodriguez, and Sesta to bicycle drawings made by 295 boys and 320 girls (6-10 years old) with typical development, and submitted the data to item analysis, exploratory factor analysis, and confirmatory factor analysis. These analyses confirmed only two of the original four dimensions of the BDT: spatial reasoning and visual-motor control. The scores in these two factors were correlated with the Colored Progressive Matrices, the Rey Complex Figure (Copy and Memory) and with the teachers' ratings in mathematics, language, and drawing. The correlations, albeit moderate in magnitude, were consistent with the hypothesized convergent and discriminant validity. After checking for measurement invariance across gender and age, we conducted two analyses of variance, the first of which showed a significant difference between younger children (6-8 years old) and older children (9-10 years old); the analysis of variance by gender did not yield significant differences. These data enhance the usefulness of the BDT as a measure of separate cognitive components, but do not support its use as a measure of mechanical reasoning. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Genome Transfer Prevents Fragmentation and Restores Developmental Potential of Developmentally Compromised Postovulatory Aged Mouse Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsutoshi Yamada

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Changes in oocyte quality can have great impact on the developmental potential of early embryos. Here we test whether nuclear genome transfer from a developmentally incompetent to a developmentally competent oocyte can restore developmental potential. Using in vitro oocyte aging as a model system we performed nuclear transfer in mouse oocytes at metaphase II or at the first interphase, and observed that development to the blastocyst stage and to term was as efficient as in control embryos. The increased developmental potential is explained primarily by correction of abnormal cytokinesis at anaphase of meiosis and mitosis, by a reduction in chromosome segregation errors, and by normalization of the localization of chromosome passenger complex components survivin and cyclin B1. These observations demonstrate that developmental decline is primarily due to abnormal function of cytoplasmic factors involved in cytokinesis, while the genome remains developmentally fully competent.

  5. Precursors of adolescent substance use from early childhood and early adolescence: testing a developmental cascade model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitnick, Stephanie L; Shaw, Daniel S; Hyde, Luke W

    2014-02-01

    This study examined developmentally salient risk and protective factors of adolescent substance use assessed during early childhood and early adolescence using a sample of 310 low-income boys. Child problem behavior and proximal family risk and protective factors (i.e., parenting and maternal depression) during early childhood, as well as child and family factors and peer deviant behavior during adolescence, were explored as potential precursors to later substance use during adolescence using structural equation modeling. Results revealed that early childhood risk and protective factors (i.e., child externalizing problems, mothers' depressive symptomatology, and nurturant parenting) were indirectly related to substance use at the age of 17 via risk and protective factors during early and middle adolescence (i.e., parental knowledge and externalizing problems). The implications of these findings for early prevention and intervention are discussed.

  6. Morphological and histomorphological structures of testes and ovaries in early developmental stages of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Hiroki; Kirino, Yohei; Katsuma, Susumu; Aoki, Fugaku; Suzuki, Masataka G

    2016-01-01

    The gonad develops as a testis in male or an ovary in female. In the silkworm, B. mori , little is known about testis and ovary in the embryonic stages and early larval stages. In this study, we performed morphological and histomorphological observations of ovaries and testes from the late embryonic stage to the 1st instar larval stage. Results obtained with lack of accurate information on sex of examined individuals may be misleading, thus we performed phenotypic observations of gonads by utilizing sex-limited strain that enables us to easily discriminate female embryos from male ones based on those egg colors. In testis, four testicular follicles were clearly observed in the testis at the first instar larval stage, and boundary layers were formed between the testicular follicles. At the late embryonic stage, the testis consisted of four testicular follicles, while the boundary layers were still obscure. In ovary, four ovarioles were easily recognizable in the ovary at the first instar larval stage, and boundary layers were formed between the ovarioles. However, in the late embryonic stage, it was quite difficult to identify four ovarioles. Morphological characteristics were almost similar between testis and ovary in early developmental stages. Our present study demonstrates that the most reliable difference between testis and ovary in early developmental stages is the attaching point of the duct. Formation and development of the duct may be sensitive to the sex-determining signal and display sexual dimorphism in early embryonic stages.

  7. Comments from the Developmental Neurotoxicology Committee of the Japanese Teratology Society on the OECD Guideline for the Testing of Chemicals, Proposal for a New Guideline 426, Developmental Neurotoxicity Study, Draft Document (October 2006 version), and on the Draft Document of the Retrospective Performance Assessment of the Draft Test Guideline 426 on Developmental Neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ema, Makoto; Fukui, Yoshihiro; Aoyama, Hiroaki; Fujiwara, Michio; Fuji, Junichiro; Inouye, Minoru; Iwase, Takayuki; Kihara, Takahide; Oi, Akihide; Otani, Hiroki; Shinomiya, Mitsuhiro; Sugioka, Kozo; Yamano, Tsunekazu; Yamashita, Keisuke H; Tanimura, Takashi

    2007-06-01

    In October 2006, a new revision of the draft guideline (OECD Guideline for the Testing of Chemicals, Proposal for a New Guideline 426. Developmental Neurotoxicity Study) and Draft Document of the Retrospective Performance Assessment (RPA) of the Draft Test Guideline 426 on Developmental Neurotoxicity were distributed following incorporation of the results of the Expert Consultation Meeting in Tokyo on May 24-26, 2005. The draft guideline consists of 50 paragraphs and an appendix with 102 references; and the draft RPA consists of 37 paragraphs with 109 references. National coordinators were requested to arrange for national expert reviews of these draft documents in their member countries. Members of the Developmental Neurotoxicology (DNT) Committee of the Japanese Teratology Society (JTS) reviewed, discussed, and commented on the draft Test Guideline Proposal. The DNT Committee of the JTS also commented on the draft document of the RPA. These comments were sent to the OECD Secretariat. The DNT Committee of the JTS expects the comments to be useful for the finalization of these draft documents.

  8. Developmental testing of partially volatile neutron shields for high-performance shipping casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, R.B.; Allen, G.C.; Rack, H.J.; Joseph, B.J.; Dupree, S.A.

    1980-01-01

    Results of the phase one tests have demonstrated that the neutron-shielding concept described in this paper is a viable design option for spent fuel shipping casks. The tests have shown that the Boro-silicone 236 shield is superior to the other shield materials considered. Repeated TGA, aging and fire tests demonstrated the reliability of the data. A second phase of the test program is now being pursued where the Boro-silicone 236 is injected into all-steel slab sections, and cured in place. 5 tables

  9. International STakeholder NETwork (ISTNET): creating a developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) testing road map for regulatory purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bal-Price, Anna; Crofton, Kevin M.; Leist, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    . The first meeting of ISTNET was held in Zurich on 23-24 January 2014 in order to explore the concept of adverse outcome pathway (AOP) to practical DNT testing. AOPs were considered promising tools to promote test systems development according to regulatory needs. Moreover, the AOP concept was identified...... as an important guiding principle to assemble predictive integrated testing strategies (ITSs) for DNT. The recommendations on a road map towards AOP-based DNT testing is considered a stepwise approach, operating initially with incomplete AOPs for compound grouping, and focussing on key events of neurodevelopment...

  10. Reference compounds for alternative test methods to indicate developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) potential of chemicals: example lists and criteria for their selection and use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aschner, Michael; Ceccatelli, Sandra; Daneshian, Mardas; Fritsche, Ellen; Hasiwa, Nina; Hartung, Thomas; Hogberg, Helena T; Leist, Marcel; Li, Abby; Mundi, William R; Padilla, Stephanie; Piersma, Aldert H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/071276947; Bal-Price, Anna; Seiler, Andrea; Westerink, Remco H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/239425952; Zimmer, Bastian; Lein, Pamela J

    2017-01-01

    There is a paucity of information concerning the developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) hazard posed by industrial and environmental chemicals. New testing approaches will most likely be based on batteries of alternative and complementary (non-animal) tests. As DNT is assumed to result from the

  11. Can the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Test Be the "Gold Standard" for the Motor Assessment of Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venetsanou, Fotini; Kambas, Antonis; Ellinoudis, Theodoros; Fatouros, Ioannis; Giannakidou, Dimitra; Kourtessis, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) is an important risk factor in the development of children that can have a significant academic and social impact. This reinforces the need for its timely identification using appropriate assessment methods and accurate screening tests. The commonly used standardized motor test for the DCD identification…

  12. Counting DNA: estimating the complexity of a test tube of DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulhammer, D; Lipton, R J; Landweber, L F

    1999-10-01

    We consider the problem of estimation of the 'complexity' of a test tube of DNA. The complexity of a test tube is the number of different kinds of strands of DNA in the test tube. It is quite easy to estimate the number of total strands in a test tube, especially if the strands are all the same length. Estimation of the complexity is much less clear. We propose a simple kind of DNA computation that can estimate the complexity.

  13. Interpreting in vitro developmental toxicity test battery results: The consideration of toxicokinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosgra, S.; Westerhout, J.

    2015-01-01

    In the EU collaborative project ChemScreen an alternative, in vitro assay-based test strategy was developed to screen compounds for reproductive toxicity. A toxicokinetic modeling approach was used to allow quantitative comparison between effective concentrations in the in vitro test battery and

  14. Assessment of neuro-optometric rehabilitation using the Developmental Eye Movement (DEM test in adults with acquired brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neera Kapoor

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This pilot study sought to determine the efficacy of using the Developmental Eye Movement (DEM test in the adult, acquired brain injury (ABI population to quantify clinically the effects of controlled, laboratory-performed, oculomotor-based vision therapy/vision rehabilitation. Methods: Nine adult subjects with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI and five with stroke were assessed before and after an eight-week, computer-based, versional oculomotor (fixation, saccades, pursuit, and simulated reading training program (9.6 h total. The protocol incorporated a cross-over, interventional design with and without the addition of auditory feedback regarding two-dimensional eye position. The clinical outcome measure was the Developmental Eye Movement (DEM test score (ratio, errors taken before, midway, and immediately following training. Results: For the DEM ratio parameter, improvements were found in 80–89% of the subjects. For the DEM error parameter, improvements were found in 100% of the subjects. Incorporation of the auditory feedback component revealed a trend toward enhanced performance. The findings were similar for both DEM parameters, as well as for incorporation of the auditory feedback, in both diagnostic groups. Discussion: The results of the present study demonstrated considerable improvements in the DEM test scores following the oculomotor-based training, thus reflecting more time-optimal and accurate saccadic tracking after the training. The DEM test should be considered as another clinical test of global saccadic tracking performance in the ABI population. Resumen: Objetivo: Este estudio piloto trató de determinar la eficacia del uso de la prueba DEM (Developmental Eye Movement en la población adulta con daño cerebral adquirido (DCA para cuantificar clínicamente los efectos de la rehabilitación/terapia visual controlada, realizada en laboratorio, y de carácter oculomotor. Métodos: Se valoraron nueve sujetos adultos con

  15. Analysis and test of a 16-foot radial rib reflector developmental model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchenough, Shawn A.

    1989-01-01

    Analytical and experimental modal tests were performed to determine the vibrational characteristics of a 16-foot diameter radial rib reflector model. Single rib analyses and experimental tests provided preliminary information relating to the reflector. A finite element model predicted mode shapes and frequencies of the reflector. The analyses correlated well with the experimental tests, verifying the modeling method used. The results indicate that five related, characteristic mode shapes form a group. The frequencies of the modes are determined by the relative phase of the radial ribs.

  16. AN INTELLIGENT REPRODUCTIVE AND DEVELOPMENTAL TESTING PARADIGM FOR THE 21ST CENTURY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addressing the chemical evaluation bottleneck that currently exists can only be achieved through progressive changes to the current testing paradigm. The primary resources for addressing these issues lie in computational toxicology, a field enriched by recent advances in computer...

  17. Sensitivity of continuous performance test (CPT) at age 14years to developmental methylmercury exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julvez, Jordi; Debes, Frodi; Weihe, Pal

    2010-01-01

    Hit Reaction Time latencies (HRT) in the Continuous Performance Test (CPT) measure the speed of visual information processing. The latencies may involve different neuropsychological functions depending on the time from test initiation, i.e., first orientation, learning and habituation, then cogni......Hit Reaction Time latencies (HRT) in the Continuous Performance Test (CPT) measure the speed of visual information processing. The latencies may involve different neuropsychological functions depending on the time from test initiation, i.e., first orientation, learning and habituation......, then cognitive processing and focused attention, and finally sustained attention as the dominant demand. Prenatal methylmercury exposure is associated with increased reaction time (RT) latencies. We therefore examined the association of methylmercury exposure with the average HRT at age 14years at three...

  18. Developmental test report, assessment of XT-70E percussion drill rig operation in tank farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougherty, L.F.

    1996-01-01

    The following report documents the testing of the XT-70E percussion drill rig for use in the 241-SX Tank Farm. The test is necessary to support evaluation of the safety and authorization level of the proposed activity of installing up to three new drywells in the 241- SX Tank Farm. The proposed activity plans to install drywells by percussion drilling 7 inch O.D./6 inch I.D. pipe in close proximity of underground storage tanks and associated equipment. The load transmitted from the drill rig's percussion hammer through the ground to the tank structure and equipment is not known and therefore testing is required to ensure the activity is safe and authorized

  19. A simple spatial working memory and attention test on paired symbols shows developmental deficits in schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wei; Zhang, Kai; Sun, Jinhua; Ma, Lina; Jesse, Forrest Fabian; Teng, Xiaochun; Zhou, Ying; Bao, Hechen; Chen, Shiqing; Wang, Shuai; Yang, Beimeng; Chu, Xixia; Ding, Wenhua; Du, Yasong; Cheng, Zaohuo; Wu, Bin; Chen, Shanguang; He, Guang; He, Lin; Chen, Xiaoping; Li, Weidong

    2013-01-01

    People with neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia often display deficits in spatial working memory and attention. Evaluating working memory and attention in schizophrenia patients is usually based on traditional tasks and the interviewer's judgment. We developed a simple Spatial Working Memory and Attention Test on Paired Symbols (SWAPS). It takes only several minutes to complete, comprising 101 trials for each subject. In this study, we tested 72 schizophrenia patients and 188 healthy volunteers in China. In a healthy control group with ages ranging from 12 to 60, the efficiency score (accuracy divided by reaction time) reached a peak in the 20-27 age range and then declined with increasing age. Importantly, schizophrenia patients failed to display this developmental trend in the same age range and adults had significant deficits compared to the control group. Our data suggests that this simple Spatial Working Memory and Attention Test on Paired Symbols can be a useful tool for studies of spatial working memory and attention in neuropsychiatric disorders.

  20. A Simple Spatial Working Memory and Attention Test on Paired Symbols Shows Developmental Deficits in Schizophrenia Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Song

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available People with neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia often display deficits in spatial working memory and attention. Evaluating working memory and attention in schizophrenia patients is usually based on traditional tasks and the interviewer’s judgment. We developed a simple Spatial Working Memory and Attention Test on Paired Symbols (SWAPS. It takes only several minutes to complete, comprising 101 trials for each subject. In this study, we tested 72 schizophrenia patients and 188 healthy volunteers in China. In a healthy control group with ages ranging from 12 to 60, the efficiency score (accuracy divided by reaction time reached a peak in the 20–27 age range and then declined with increasing age. Importantly, schizophrenia patients failed to display this developmental trend in the same age range and adults had significant deficits compared to the control group. Our data suggests that this simple Spatial Working Memory and Attention Test on Paired Symbols can be a useful tool for studies of spatial working memory and attention in neuropsychiatric disorders.

  1. Auditory and Visual Differences in Time Perception? An Investigation from a Developmental Perspective with Neuropsychological Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelanti, Pierre S.; Droit-Volet, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    Adults and children (5- and 8-year-olds) performed a temporal bisection task with either auditory or visual signals and either a short (0.5-1.0s) or long (4.0-8.0s) duration range. Their working memory and attentional capacities were assessed by a series of neuropsychological tests administered in both the auditory and visual modalities. Results…

  2. Developmental Differences in Recall and Recognition: The Relationship between Rehearsal and Memory as Test Expectation Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naus, Mary J.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    An overt rehearsal procedure was used to study the relationship between 48 third- and 48 sixth-grade children's rehearsal strategies and their memory performance under difficult conditions of test expectation. This study addressed the question of why active rehearsal content results in superior recall performances. (MS)

  3. F 35 JOINT STRIKE FIGHTER DOD Needs to Complete Developmental Testing Before Making Significant New Investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    aircraft currently in production , 82 are United States aircraft and 60 are for international partners or foreign military sales . Aircraft Manufacturing... review team. As a result, development funds increased, test aircraft were added, the schedule was extended, and the early production rate decreased...the Navy’s initial operational capability, and delay the program’s full rate production decision, currently planned for April 2019. Assumptions

  4. Structural complexity and developmental stage after an intermediate-scale wind disturbance on an upland Quercus stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauren E. Cox; Justin L. Hart; Callie J. Schweitzer; Daniel C. Dey

    2017-01-01

    Promoting stand structural complexity is an increasingly popular silvicultural objective, as complex structures are hypothesized to be more resistant and resilient to perturbations. On April 20, 2011 in Lawrence County, Alabama, an EF1 tornado tracked 5 km, leaving a patchwork mosaic of disturbed areas. In summer 2014, we established a 100 m × 200 m (2 ha) rectangular...

  5. Performance on Functional Strength Measurement and Muscle Power Sprint Test confirm poor anaerobic capacity in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aertssen, Wendy F M; Ferguson, Gillian D; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C M

    2016-12-01

    There is little and conflicting information about anaerobic performance and functional strength in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). To investigate anaerobic capacity and functional strength in children with a clinical diagnosis of DCD (clin-DCD) and if differences were larger in older (age 7-10 years) compared to younger children (age 4-6 years). Furthermore to determine the percentage of children with clin-DCD that scored Strength Measurement. A clin-DCD group (36 boys, 11 girls, mean age: 7y 1mo, SD=2y 1mo) and a typically developing group (TD) (57 boys, 53 girls, mean age: 7y 5mo, SD=1y 10mo) were compared on Muscle Power Sprint Test (MPST) and Functional Strength Measurement (FSM). Children with clin-DCD performed poorer on the MPST and FSM, especially on the muscle endurance items of the FSM. The differences were larger in the older children compared to the younger on the cluster muscle endurance and the FSM total score. Over 50% of clin-DCD group scored tested on items requiring fast repetitive movements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evo-Devo insights from pathological networks: exploring craniosynostosis as a developmental mechanism for modularity and complexity in the human skull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve-Altava, Borja; Rasskin-Gutman, Diego

    2015-07-20

    Bone fusion has occurred repeatedly during skull evolution in all tetrapod lineages, leading to a reduction in the number of bones and an increase in their morphological complexity. The ontogeny of the human skull includes also bone fusions as part of its normal developmental process. However, several disruptions might cause premature closure of cranial sutures (craniosynostosis), reducing the number of bones and producing new skull growth patterns that causes shape changes. Here, we compare skull network models of a normal newborn with different craniosynostosis conditions, the normal adult stage, and phylogenetically reconstructed forms of a primitive tetrapod, a synapsid, and a placental mammal. Changes in morphological complexity of newborn-to-synostosed skulls are two to three times less than in newborn-to-adult; and even smaller when we compare them to the increases among the reconstructed ancestors in the evolutionary transitions. In addition, normal, synostosed, and adult human skulls show the same connectivity modules: facial and cranial. Differences arise in the internal structure of these modules. In the adult skull the facial module has an internal hierarchical organization, whereas the cranial module has a regular network organization. However, all newborn forms, normal and synostosed, do not reach such kind of internal organization. We conclude that the subtle changes in skull complexity at the developmental scale can change the modular substructure of the newborn skull to more integrated modules in the adult skull, but is not enough to generate radical changes as it occurs at a macroevolutionary scale. The timing of closure of craniofacial sutures, together with the conserved patterns of morphological modularity, highlights a potential relation between the premature fusion of bones and the evolution of the shape of the skull in hominids.

  7. Developmental differences in explicit and implicit conceptual memory tests: a processing view account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauzéon, Hélène; Déjos, Marie; Lestage, Philippe; Arvind Pala, Prashant; N'kaoua, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    The present study addressed contradictory results in childhood literature about conceptual priming. Based on the processing view, two forms of conceptual priming were investigated across two experiments in children aged from 7 to 16: associative priming (using the free-association test) and relational (categorical) priming (using the categorical exemplar generation test) as well as their explicit memory measure counterparts (the associative-cued recall and the category-cued recall). Experiment 1 compared age differences in associative and relational (categorical) priming. Experiment 2 focused on relational (categorical) priming with manipulations of blocked/unblocked words per category. The results showed that (a) associative priming was unchanged in children aged from 7 to 16, whereas relational (categorical) priming improved from 7-9 to 13-16 years old, and (b) age differences in relational (categorical) priming still occurred under unblocked conditions and blocked condition, while age differences in explicit measures were reduced under blocked conditions. These findings were discussed in line with the debate between the system and processing view and in terms of knowledge and automaticity development.

  8. Operational test report for 2706-T complex liquid transfer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BENZEL, H.R.

    1999-01-01

    This document is the Operational Test Report (OTR). It enters the Record Copy of the W-259 Operational Test Procedure (HNF-3610) into the document retrieval system. Additionally, the OTR summarizes significant issues associated with testing the 2706-T waste liquid transfer and storage system

  9. Relationship between the quality of children's handwriting and the Beery Buktenica developmental test of visuomotor integration after one year of writing tuition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duiser, I.H.; van der Kamp, J.; Ledebt, A.; Savelsbergh, G.J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We examined whether the three subtests of the Beery Buktenica developmental test of visuomotor integration predicted quality of handwriting across and within groups of boys and girls classified as proficient, at risk or non-proficient writers according to the Concise Assessment Scale for

  10. Zebrafish embryotoxicity test for developmental (neuro)toxicity : Demo case of an integrated screening approach system using anti-epileptic drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beker van Woudenberg, Anna; Snel, Cor; Rijkmans, Eke; De Groot, Didima; Bouma, Marga; Hermsen, Sanne; Piersma, Aldert; Menke, Aswin; Wolterbeek, André

    2014-01-01

    To improve the predictability of the zebrafish embryotoxicity test (ZET) for developmental (neuro)toxicity screening, we used a multiple-endpoints strategy, including morphology, motor activity (MA), histopathology and kinetics. The model compounds used were antiepileptic drugs (AEDs): valproic acid

  11. Zebrafish embryotoxicity test for developmental (neuro)toxicity: Demo case of an integrated screening approach system using anti-epileptic drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beker van Woudenberg, A.; Snel, C.; Rijkmans, E.; Groot, D. de; Bouma, M.; Hermsen, S.; Piersma, A.; Menke, A.; Wolterbeek, A.

    2014-01-01

    To improve the predictability of the zebrafish embryotoxicity test (ZET) for developmental (neuro)toxicity screening, we used a multiple-endpoints strategy, including morphology, motor activity (MA), histopathology and kinetics. The model compounds used were antiepileptic drugs (AEDs): valproic acid

  12. Is the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Developmental Screening Test, Valid and Reliable for Persian Speaking Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani, Farin; Azari, Nadia; Vameghi, Roshanak; Sajedi, Firoozeh; Shahshahani, Soheila; Karimi, Hossein; Kraskian, Adis; Shahrokhi, Amin; Teymouri, Robab; Gharib, Masoud

    2016-10-01

    Advances in perinatal and neonatal care have substantially improved the survival of at-risk infants over the past two decades. The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of the Bayley Scales of infant and toddler developmental Screening test in Persian-speaking children. This was a cross-sectional prospective study of 403 children aged 1 - 42-months. The Bayley scales screening instrument, which consists of five domains (cognitive, receptive, and expressive communication and fine and gross motor items), was used to measure infants' and toddlers' development. The psychometric properties examined included the face and content validity of the scale, in addition to cultural and linguistic modifications to the scale and its test-retest and inter-rater reliability. An expert team changed some of the test items relating to cultural and linguistic issues. In almost all the age groups, cultural or linguistic changes were made to items in the communication domains. According to Cronbach's alpha for internal consistency, the reliability of the cognitive scale was r = 0.79, and the reliability of the receptive scale was r = 0.76. The reliability for expressive communication, fine motor, and gross motor scales was r = 0.81, r = 0.80, and r = 0.81, respectively. The construct validity of the tests was confirmed using a factor analysis and comparison of the mean scores of the age groups. The intra- and inter-rater reliabilities of the Bayley Scales were good-to-excellent. The results indicated that the Bayley Scales had a high level of reliability in the present study. Thus, the scale can be used in a Persian population.

  13. Testing Models for the Contributions of Genes and Environment to Developmental Change in Adolescent Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Nathan A; Eaves, Lindon J; Maes, Hermine; Silberg, Judy L

    2015-07-01

    We tested two models to identify the genetic and environmental processes underlying longitudinal changes in depression among adolescents. The first assumes that observed changes in covariance structure result from the unfolding of inherent, random individual differences in the overall levels and rates of change in depression over time (random growth curves). The second assumes that observed changes are due to time-specific random effects (innovations) accumulating over time (autoregressive effects). We found little evidence of age-specific genetic effects or persistent genetic innovations. Instead, genetic effects are consistent with a gradual unfolding in the liability to depression and rates of change with increasing age. Likewise, the environment also creates significant individual differences in overall levels of depression and rates of change. However, there are also time-specific environmental experiences that persist with fidelity. The implications of these differing genetic and environmental mechanisms in the etiology of depression are considered.

  14. Test procedures and instructions for Hanford complexant concentrate supernatant cesium removal using CST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, D.W.

    1997-01-08

    This document provides specific test procedures and instructions to implement the test plan for the preparation and conduct of a cesium removal test, using Hanford Complexant Concentrate supernatant liquor from tank 241-AN-107, in a bench-scale column. The cesium sorbent to be tested is crystalline silicotitanate. The test plan for which this provides instructions is WHC-SD-RE-TP-023, Hanford Complexant Concentrate Supernatant Cesium Removal Test Plan.

  15. Computational Modeling and Simulation of Developmental Toxicity: what can we learn from a virtual embryo? (RIVM, Brussels)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity (DART) testing is important for assessing the potential consequences of drug and chemical exposure on human health and well-being. Complexity of pregnancy and the reproductive cycle makes DART testing challenging and costly for traditional ...

  16. 20170312 - Computer Simulation of Developmental ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rationale: Recent progress in systems toxicology and synthetic biology have paved the way to new thinking about in vitro/in silico modeling of developmental processes and toxicities, both for embryological and reproductive impacts. Novel in vitro platforms such as 3D organotypic culture models, engineered microscale tissues and complex microphysiological systems (MPS), together with computational models and computer simulation of tissue dynamics, lend themselves to a integrated testing strategies for predictive toxicology. As these emergent methodologies continue to evolve, they must be integrally tied to maternal/fetal physiology and toxicity of the developing individual across early lifestage transitions, from fertilization to birth, through puberty and beyond. Scope: This symposium will focus on how the novel technology platforms can help now and in the future, with in vitro/in silico modeling of complex biological systems for developmental and reproductive toxicity issues, and translating systems models into integrative testing strategies. The symposium is based on three main organizing principles: (1) that novel in vitro platforms with human cells configured in nascent tissue architectures with a native microphysiological environments yield mechanistic understanding of developmental and reproductive impacts of drug/chemical exposures; (2) that novel in silico platforms with high-throughput screening (HTS) data, biologically-inspired computational models of

  17. Denver Developmental Test Findings and their Relationship with Sociodemographic Variables in a Large Community Sample of 0-4-Year-Old Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelikkiran, Seyhan; Bozkurt, Hasan; Coşkun, Murat

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of developmental problems and relationship with sociodemographic variables in a community sample of young children. Participants included 1000 children (558 males, 442 females, age range 1-48 months, mean 18.4 months, SD 7.8 months). Children were referred generally by their parents for developmental evaluation and consultation in response to a public announcement in a district area in Istanbul, Turkey. An interview form and the Denver Developmental Screening Test II (DDST) were used for sociodemographic data and developmental evaluation. The χ 2 test and Pearson's correlation test were used for data analysis. Seven hundred forty-one out of 1000 children (74.1%) had normal, 140 (14%) had risky, and 119 (11.9%) had abnormal findings on the DDST results. The probability of abnormal findings on the DDST results was significantly higher in males (p=0.003), the 2-4-year-old group (pone child (p=0.001), consanguineous marriages (p0.05). Sociodemographic factors have a noteworthy impact on development. Determining these factors is important especially during the first years of life.

  18. Testing the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease Hypothesis for Psychopathology Using Family-Based Quasi-Experimental Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Onofrio, Brian M.; Class, Quetzal A.; Lahey, Benjamin B.; Larsson, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    The Developmental Origin of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypothesis is a broad theoretical framework that emphasizes how early risk factors have a causal influence on psychopathology. Researchers have raised concerns about the causal interpretation of statistical associations between early risk factors and later psychopathology because most existing studies have been unable to rule out the possibility of environmental and genetic confounding. In this paper we illustrate how family-based quasi-experimental designs can test the DOHaD hypothesis by ruling out alternative hypotheses. We review the logic underlying sibling-comparison, co-twin control, offspring of siblings/twins, adoption, and in vitro fertilization designs. We then present results from studies using these designs focused on broad indices of fetal development (low birth weight and gestational age) and a particular teratogen, smoking during pregnancy. The results provide mixed support for the DOHaD hypothesis for psychopathology, illustrating the critical need to use design features that rule out unmeasured confounding. PMID:25364377

  19. Prospective Power Calculations for the Four Lab Study of A Multigenerational Reproductive/Developmental Toxicity Rodent Bioassay Using A Complex Mixture of Disinfection By-Products in the Low-Response Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Ellen Simmons

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In complex mixture toxicology, there is growing emphasis on testing environmentally representative doses that improve the relevance of results for health risk assessment, but are typically much lower than those used in traditional toxicology studies. Traditional experimental designs with typical sample sizes may have insufficient statistical power to detect effects caused by environmentally relevant doses. Proper study design, with adequate statistical power, is critical to ensuring that experimental results are useful for environmental health risk assessment. Studies with environmentally realistic complex mixtures have practical constraints on sample concentration factor and sample volume as well as the number of animals that can be accommodated. This article describes methodology for calculation of statistical power for non-independent observations for a multigenerational rodent reproductive/developmental bioassay. The use of the methodology is illustrated using the U.S. EPA’s Four Lab study in which rodents were exposed to chlorinated water concentrates containing complex mixtures of drinking water disinfection by-products. Possible experimental designs included two single-block designs and a two-block design. Considering the possible study designs and constraints, a design of two blocks of 100 females with a 40:60 ratio of control:treated animals and a significance level of 0.05 yielded maximum prospective power (~90% to detect pup weight decreases, while providing the most power to detect increased prenatal loss.

  20. Prospective Power Calculations for the Four Lab Study of A Multigenerational Reproductive/Developmental Toxicity Rodent Bioassay Using A Complex Mixture of Disinfection By-Products in the Low-Response Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingus, Cheryl A.; Teuschler, Linda K.; Rice, Glenn E.; Simmons, Jane Ellen; Narotsky, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    In complex mixture toxicology, there is growing emphasis on testing environmentally representative doses that improve the relevance of results for health risk assessment, but are typically much lower than those used in traditional toxicology studies. Traditional experimental designs with typical sample sizes may have insufficient statistical power to detect effects caused by environmentally relevant doses. Proper study design, with adequate statistical power, is critical to ensuring that experimental results are useful for environmental health risk assessment. Studies with environmentally realistic complex mixtures have practical constraints on sample concentration factor and sample volume as well as the number of animals that can be accommodated. This article describes methodology for calculation of statistical power for non-independent observations for a multigenerational rodent reproductive/developmental bioassay. The use of the methodology is illustrated using the U.S. EPA’s Four Lab study in which rodents were exposed to chlorinated water concentrates containing complex mixtures of drinking water disinfection by-products. Possible experimental designs included two single-block designs and a two-block design. Considering the possible study designs and constraints, a design of two blocks of 100 females with a 40:60 ratio of control:treated animals and a significance level of 0.05 yielded maximum prospective power (~90%) to detect pup weight decreases, while providing the most power to detect increased prenatal loss. PMID:22073030

  1. Reduced cortical complexity in children with prader-willi syndrome and its association with cognitive impairment and developmental delay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Lukoshe (Akvile); A.C.S. Hokken-Koelega (Anita); A. van der Lugt (Aad); T.J.H. White (Tonya)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) is a complex neurogenetic disorder with symptoms involving not only hypothalamic, but also a global, central nervous system dysfunction. Previously, qualitative studies reported polymicrogyria in adults with PWS. However, there have been no

  2. Safety assessment document for the dynamic test complex (Building 836)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odell, B.N.; Pfeifer, H.E.

    1981-01-01

    A safety assessment was performed to determine if potential accidents at the 836 Complex at Site 300 could present undue hazards to the general public, personnel at Site 300, or have an adverse effect on the environment. The credible accidents that might have an effect on these facilities or have off-site consequences were considered. These were earthquake, extreme wind (including missiles), lightning, flood, criticality, high explosive (H) detonation that disperses uranium and beryllium, spontaneous oxidation of plutonium, explosions due to finely divided particles, and a fire

  3. Safety assessment document for the dynamic test complex (Building 836)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odell, B.N.; Pfeifer, H.E.

    1981-11-24

    A safety assessment was performed to determine if potential accidents at the 836 Complex at Site 300 could present undue hazards to the general public, personnel at Site 300, or have an adverse effect on the environment. The credible accidents that might have an effect on these facilities or have off-site consequences were considered. These were earthquake, extreme wind (including missiles), lightning, flood, criticality, high explosive (H) detonation that disperses uranium and beryllium, spontaneous oxidation of plutonium, explosions due to finely divided particles, and a fire.

  4. Life Span Developmental Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Eryilmaz

    2011-01-01

    The Life Span Developmental Approach examines development of individuals which occurs from birth to death. Life span developmental approach is a multi-disciplinary approach related with disciplines like psychology, psychiatry, sociology, anthropology and geriatrics that indicates the fact that development is not completed in adulthood, it continues during the life course. Development is a complex process that consists of dying and death. This approach carefully investigates the development of...

  5. Improving the utility of the fine motor skills subscale of the comprehensive developmental inventory for infants and toddlers: a computerized adaptive test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Yu; Tung, Li-Chen; Chou, Yeh-Tai; Chou, Willy; Chen, Kuan-Lin; Hsieh, Ching-Lin

    2017-07-27

    This study aimed at improving the utility of the fine motor subscale of the comprehensive developmental inventory for infants and toddlers (CDIIT) by developing a computerized adaptive test of fine motor skills. We built an item bank for the computerized adaptive test of fine motor skills using the fine motor subscale of the CDIIT items fitting the Rasch model. We also examined the psychometric properties and efficiency of the computerized adaptive test of fine motor skills with simulated computerized adaptive tests. Data from 1742 children with suspected developmental delays were retrieved. The mean scores of the fine motor subscale of the CDIIT increased along with age groups (mean scores = 1.36-36.97). The computerized adaptive test of fine motor skills contains 31 items meeting the Rasch model's assumptions (infit mean square = 0.57-1.21, outfit mean square = 0.11-1.17). For children of 6-71 months, the computerized adaptive test of fine motor skills had high Rasch person reliability (average reliability >0.90), high concurrent validity (rs = 0.67-0.99), adequate to excellent diagnostic accuracy (area under receiver operating characteristic = 0.71-1.00), and large responsiveness (effect size = 1.05-3.93). The computerized adaptive test of fine motor skills used 48-84% fewer items than the fine motor subscale of the CDIIT. The computerized adaptive test of fine motor skills used fewer items for assessment but was as reliable and valid as the fine motor subscale of the CDIIT. Implications for Rehabilitation We developed a computerized adaptive test based on the comprehensive developmental inventory for infants and toddlers (CDIIT) for assessing fine motor skills. The computerized adaptive test has been shown to be efficient because it uses fewer items than the original measure and automatically presents the results right after the test is completed. The computerized adaptive test is as reliable and valid as the CDIIT.

  6. Detection of complex hemoglobinopathies: recommendations on screening and DNA testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Baysal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The following recommendations should be taken into account during the evaluation and elucidation of the complex hemoglobinopathies: a in complex hemoglobinopathies performing DNA studies on all family members might be essential; b complex gene-gene interactions offer major diagnostic challenges both at the technical and clinical level; c hematological & DNA analyses must be run in parallel. Some cases may be straight forward but others may require indepth DNA work-up; d co-inheritance of a-thalassemia offers added challenge as it may affect phenotype significantly; e sickle cell anemia (SS, co-inherited with a-thal, can be a phenocopy of Sβ0-thal. The HbA2 increase can be mistaken for Sβ-thal. DNA Sequencing is imperative; f only a selected number of normal MCV, MCH, borderline HbA2 cases must be referred for DNA analysis. However, in certain cases, following hematological and family evaluation, the β and d genes may need to be sequenced; g DNA Sequencing will increasingly become the method of choice for screening and DNA mutation analysis. However, new methods like MLPA-which analyzes gene dosage- must be used more commonly to rule out deletion mutants to avoid false negative sequencing results; h these recommendations should be reviewed every 2-3 years reflecting new methods, new findings and new findings from ethnic groups. 诊断和说明复杂血红蛋白病时,建议考虑以下几点: a)针对复杂的血红蛋白病,有必要对所有家庭成员开展DNA研究;b 复杂的基因-基因交互作用可能使诊断在技术和临床层面上颇受挑战;c 血液和DNA分析须同时进行。 有些病例简单,但另外一些病例可能需要开展深层次的DNA检查;d 由于α型地中海贫血可能严重影响表型,α型地中海贫血的共同继承特征更具挑战;e 共同继承α型地中海贫血的镰状细胞贫血(SS),可以作为Sβ0型地中海贫血的显型。 HbA2增

  7. Comparison of the Reynell Developmental Language Scale II and the Galker test of word-recognition-in-noise in Danish day-care children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lous, Jørgen; Glenn Lauritsen, Maj Britt

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To search for predictive factors for language development measured by two receptive language tests for children, the Galker test (a word-recognition-in-noise test) testing hearing and vocabulary, and the Danish version of Reynell Developmental Language Scale (2nd revision, RDLS II) test...... in terms of the degree to which variables were able to predict test scores at the age of three to five years. Methods: All children aged three and five years attending 20 day-care centres for children without cognitive development issues from the Municipality of Hillerød, Denmark, were invited......, a language comprehension test. The study analysed if information about background variables and parents and pre-school teachers was predictive for test scores; if earlier middle ear disease, actual hearing loss and tympanometry was important for language development; and if the two receptive tests differed...

  8. The classification of motor neuron defects in the zebrafish embryo toxicity test (ZFET) as an animal alternative approach to assess developmental neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muth-Köhne, Elke; Wichmann, Arne; Delov, Vera; Fenske, Martina

    2012-07-01

    Rodents are widely used to test the developmental neurotoxicity potential of chemical substances. The regulatory test procedures are elaborate and the requirement of numerous animals is ethically disputable. Therefore, non-animal alternatives are highly desirable, but appropriate test systems that meet regulatory demands are not yet available. Hence, we have developed a new developmental neurotoxicity assay based on specific whole-mount immunostainings of primary and secondary motor neurons (using the monoclonal antibodies znp1 and zn8) in zebrafish embryos. By classifying the motor neuron defects, we evaluated the severity of the neurotoxic damage to individual primary and secondary motor neurons caused by chemical exposure and determined the corresponding effect concentration values (EC₅₀). In a proof-of-principle study, we investigated the effects of three model compounds thiocyclam, cartap and disulfiram, which show some neurotoxicity-indicating effects in vertebrates, and the positive controls ethanol and nicotine and the negative controls 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA) and triclosan. As a quantitative measure of the neurotoxic potential of the test compounds, we calculated the ratios of the EC₅₀ values for motor neuron defects and the cumulative malformations, as determined in a zebrafish embryo toxicity test (zFET). Based on this index, disulfiram was classified as the most potent and thiocyclam as the least potent developmental neurotoxin. The index also confirmed the control compounds as positive and negative neurotoxicants. Our findings demonstrate that this index can be used to reliably distinguish between neurotoxic and non-neurotoxic chemicals and provide a sound estimate for the neurodevelopmental hazard potential of a chemical. The demonstrated method can be a feasible approach to reduce the number of animals used in developmental neurotoxicity evaluation procedures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. 42 CFR 493.1453 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; clinical consultant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; clinical consultant. The laboratory must have a... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; clinical consultant. 493.1453 Section 493.1453 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID...

  10. Prenatal developmental toxicity testing of petroleum substances: Application of the mouse embryonic stem cell test (EST) to compare in vitro potencies with potencies observed in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamelia, Lenny; Louisse, Jochem; de Haan, Laura; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Boogaard, Peter J

    2017-10-01

    Prenatal developmental toxicity (PDT) as observed with some petroleum substances (PS) has been associated with the presence of 3-7 ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In the present study, the applicability of ES-D3 cell differentiation assay of the EST to evaluate in vitro embryotoxicity potencies of PS and gas-to-liquid (GTL) products as compared to their in vivo potencies was investigated. DMSO-extracts of a range of PS, containing different amounts of PAHs, and GTL-products, which are devoid of PAHs, were tested in the ES-D3 cell proliferation and differentiation assays of the EST. The results show that PS inhibited the differentiation of ES-D3 cells into cardiomyocytes in a concentration-dependent manner at non-cytotoxic concentrations, and that their potency was proportional to their PAH content. In contrast, as expected, GTL-products did not inhibit ES-D3 cell viability or differentiation at all. The in vitro PDT potencies were compared to published in vivo PDT studies, and a good correlation was found between in vitro and in vivo results (R 2 =0.97). To conclude, our results support the hypothesis that PAHs are the primary inducers of the PDT in PS. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Safety assessment document for the Dynamic Test Complex B854

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odell, B.N.; Pfeifer, H.E.

    1981-01-01

    A safety assessment was performed to determine if potential accidents at the 854 Complex at Site 300 could present undue hazards to the general public, personnel at Site 300, or have an adverse effect on the environment. The credible accidents that might have an effect on these facilities or have off-site consequences were considered. These were earthquake, extreme wind (including missiles), lightning, flood, criticality, high explosive (HE) detonation that disperses uranium and beryllium, spontaneous oxidation of plutonium, explosions due to finely divided particles, and a fire. Seismic and extreme wind (including missiles) analyses indicate that the buildings are basically sound. The lightning protection system is in the process of being upgraded to meet AMCR 385-100. These buildings are located high above the dry creek bed so that a flood is improbable. The probability of high explosive detonation involving plutonium is very remote since the radioactive materials are encased and plutonium and HE are not permitted concurrently in the same area at Site 300. (The exception to this policy is that explosive actuating devices are sometimes located in assemblies containing fissile materials. However, an accidental actuation will not affect the safe containment of the plutonium within the assembly.) There is a remote possibility of an HE explosion involving uranium and beryllium since these are permitted in the same area.The possibility of a criticality accident is very remote since the fissile materials are doubly encased in stout metal containers. All operations involving these materials are independently reviewed and inspected by the Criticality Safety Office. It was determined that a fire was unlikely due to the low fire loading and the absence of ignition sources. It was also determined that the consequences of any accidents were reduced by the remote location of these facilities, their design, and by administrative controls

  12. High-speed instrumentation complex for car crash testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranov, S. V.; Gorin, I. M.; Drozhbin, Yu. A.; Kuznetsov, A. A.; Ponomaryov, A. M.; Semyonov, V. B.; Udalov, V. V.

    1993-01-01

    One of the most important car checking problems consists in safety testing which includes trials for different types of collision, e.g., frontal and lateral. This allows us to study deformations of the automobile and its parts during the impact. To obtain reliable data on overloading, acceleration, deformation, force load on the car's body as well as on the anthropomorphic dummies inside it, use is made of rather a great number of different techniques. Highly informative among them is high-speed cine recording which allows us to register variations that occur during a fraction of a second, and then to reproduce with variable rate the frame images obtained. This makes it possible to study the impact parameters variations much more accurately.

  13. DLGS97/SAP97 is developmentally upregulated and is required for complex adult behaviors and synapse morphology and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Topaz, Carolina; Urra, Francisco; Barría, Romina; Albornoz, Valeria; Ugalde, Diego; Thomas, Ulrich; Gundelfinger, Eckart D; Delgado, Ricardo; Kukuljan, Manuel; Sanxaridis, Parthena D; Tsunoda, Susan; Ceriani, M Fernanda; Budnik, Vivian; Sierralta, Jimena

    2008-01-02

    The synaptic membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) scaffolding protein family is thought to play key roles in synapse assembly and synaptic plasticity. Evidence supporting these roles in vivo is scarce, as a consequence of gene redundancy in mammals. The genome of Drosophila contains only one MAGUK gene, discs large (dlg), from which two major proteins originate: DLGA [PSD95 (postsynaptic density 95)-like] and DLGS97 [SAP97 (synapse-associated protein)-like]. These differ only by the inclusion in DLGS97 of an L27 domain, important for the formation of supramolecular assemblies. Known dlg mutations affect both forms and are lethal at larval stages attributable to tumoral overgrowth of epithelia. We generated independent null mutations for each, dlgA and dlgS97. These allowed unveiling of a shift in expression during the development of the nervous system: predominant expression of DLGA in the embryo, balanced expression of both during larval stages, and almost exclusive DLGS97 expression in the adult brain. Loss of embryonic DLGS97 does not alter the development of the nervous system. At larval stages, DLGA and DLGS97 fulfill both unique and partially redundant functions in the neuromuscular junction. Contrary to dlg and dlgA mutants, dlgS97 mutants are viable to adulthood, but they exhibit marked alterations in complex behaviors such as phototaxis, circadian activity, and courtship, whereas simpler behaviors like locomotion and odor and light perception are spared. We propose that the increased repertoire of associations of a synaptic scaffold protein given by an additional domain of protein-protein interaction underlies its ability to integrate molecular networks required for complex functions in adult synapses.

  14. Action Memorandum for Decommissioning the Engineering Test Reactor Complex under the Idaho Cleanup Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A. B. Culp

    2007-01-01

    This Action Memorandum documents the selected alternative for decommissioning of the Engineering Test Reactor at the Idaho National Laboratory under the Idaho Cleanup Project. Since the missions of the Engineering Test Reactor Complex have been completed, an engineering evaluation/cost analysis that evaluated alternatives to accomplish the decommissioning of the Engineering Test Reactor Complex was prepared and released for public comment. The scope of this Action Memorandum is to encompass the final end state of the Complex and disposal of the Engineering Test Reactor vessel. The selected removal action includes removing and disposing of the vessel at the Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility and demolishing the reactor building to ground surface

  15. Life Span Developmental Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Eryilmaz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Life Span Developmental Approach examines development of individuals which occurs from birth to death. Life span developmental approach is a multi-disciplinary approach related with disciplines like psychology, psychiatry, sociology, anthropology and geriatrics that indicates the fact that development is not completed in adulthood, it continues during the life course. Development is a complex process that consists of dying and death. This approach carefully investigates the development of individuals with respect to developmental stages. This developmental approach suggests that scientific disciplines should not explain developmental facts only with age changes. Along with aging, cognitive, biological, and socioemotional development throughout life should also be considered to provide a reasonable and acceptable context, guideposts, and reasonable expectations for the person. There are three important subjects whom life span developmental approach deals with. These are nature vs nurture, continuity vs discontinuity, and change vs stability. Researchers using life span developmental approach gather and produce knowledge on these three most important domains of individual development with their unique scientific methodology.

  16. Structural and functional characterizations of SsgB, a conserved activator of developmental cell division in morphologically complex actinomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qingping; Traag, Bjørn A; Willemse, Joost; McMullan, Daniel; Miller, Mitchell D; Elsliger, Marc-André; Abdubek, Polat; Astakhova, Tamara; Axelrod, Herbert L; Bakolitsa, Constantina; Carlton, Dennis; Chen, Connie; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Clayton, Thomas; Das, Debanu; Deller, Marc C; Duan, Lian; Ellrott, Kyle; Ernst, Dustin; Farr, Carol L; Feuerhelm, Julie; Grant, Joanna C; Grzechnik, Anna; Grzechnik, Slawomir K; Han, Gye Won; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Jin, Kevin K; Klock, Heath E; Knuth, Mark W; Kozbial, Piotr; Krishna, S Sri; Kumar, Abhinav; Marciano, David; Minor, Wladek; Mommaas, A Mieke; Morse, Andrew T; Nigoghossian, Edward; Nopakun, Amanda; Okach, Linda; Oommachen, Silvya; Paulsen, Jessica; Puckett, Christina; Reyes, Ron; Rife, Christopher L; Sefcovic, Natasha; Tien, Henry J; Trame, Christine B; van den Bedem, Henry; Wang, Shuren; Weekes, Dana; Hodgson, Keith O; Wooley, John; Deacon, Ashley M; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A; Wilson, Ian A; van Wezel, Gilles P

    2009-09-11

    SsgA-like proteins (SALPs) are a family of homologous cell division-related proteins that occur exclusively in morphologically complex actinomycetes. We show that SsgB, a subfamily of SALPs, is the archetypal SALP that is functionally conserved in all sporulating actinomycetes. Sporulation-specific cell division of Streptomyces coelicolor ssgB mutants is restored by introduction of distant ssgB orthologues from other actinomycetes. Interestingly, the number of septa (and spores) of the complemented null mutants is dictated by the specific ssgB orthologue that is expressed. The crystal structure of the SsgB from Thermobifida fusca was determined at 2.6 A resolution and represents the first structure for this family. The structure revealed similarities to a class of eukaryotic "whirly" single-stranded DNA/RNA-binding proteins. However, the electro-negative surface of the SALPs suggests that neither SsgB nor any of the other SALPs are likely to interact with nucleotide substrates. Instead, we show that a conserved hydrophobic surface is likely to be important for SALP function and suggest that proteins are the likely binding partners.

  17. Structural and Functional Characterizations of SsgB, a Conserved Activator of Developmental Cell Division in Morphologically Complex Actinomycetes*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qingping; Traag, Bjørn A.; Willemse, Joost; McMullan, Daniel; Miller, Mitchell D.; Elsliger, Marc-André; Abdubek, Polat; Astakhova, Tamara; Axelrod, Herbert L.; Bakolitsa, Constantina; Carlton, Dennis; Chen, Connie; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Clayton, Thomas; Das, Debanu; Deller, Marc C.; Duan, Lian; Ellrott, Kyle; Ernst, Dustin; Farr, Carol L.; Feuerhelm, Julie; Grant, Joanna C.; Grzechnik, Anna; Grzechnik, Slawomir K.; Han, Gye Won; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Jin, Kevin K.; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Kozbial, Piotr; Krishna, S. Sri; Kumar, Abhinav; Marciano, David; Minor, Wladek; Mommaas, A. Mieke; Morse, Andrew T.; Nigoghossian, Edward; Nopakun, Amanda; Okach, Linda; Oommachen, Silvya; Paulsen, Jessica; Puckett, Christina; Reyes, Ron; Rife, Christopher L.; Sefcovic, Natasha; Tien, Henry J.; Trame, Christine B.; van den Bedem, Henry; Wang, Shuren; Weekes, Dana; Hodgson, Keith O.; Wooley, John; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian A.; van Wezel, Gilles P.

    2009-01-01

    SsgA-like proteins (SALPs) are a family of homologous cell division-related proteins that occur exclusively in morphologically complex actinomycetes. We show that SsgB, a subfamily of SALPs, is the archetypal SALP that is functionally conserved in all sporulating actinomycetes. Sporulation-specific cell division of Streptomyces coelicolor ssgB mutants is restored by introduction of distant ssgB orthologues from other actinomycetes. Interestingly, the number of septa (and spores) of the complemented null mutants is dictated by the specific ssgB orthologue that is expressed. The crystal structure of the SsgB from Thermobifida fusca was determined at 2.6 Å resolution and represents the first structure for this family. The structure revealed similarities to a class of eukaryotic “whirly” single-stranded DNA/RNA-binding proteins. However, the electro-negative surface of the SALPs suggests that neither SsgB nor any of the other SALPs are likely to interact with nucleotide substrates. Instead, we show that a conserved hydrophobic surface is likely to be important for SALP function and suggest that proteins are the likely binding partners. PMID:19567872

  18. A Reliability Test of a Complex System Based on Empirical Likelihood

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Yan; Fu, Liya; Zhang, Jun; Hui, Yongchang

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the reliability of a complex system described by minimal paths, an empirical likelihood method is proposed to solve the reliability test problem when the subsystem distributions are unknown. Furthermore, we provide a reliability test statistic of the complex system and extract the limit distribution of the test statistic. Therefore, we can obtain the confidence interval for reliability and make statistical inferences. The simulation studies also demonstrate the theorem results.

  19. Progressive and Regressive Developmental Changes in Neural Substrates for Face Processing: Testing Specific Predictions of the Interactive Specialization Account

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Jane E.; Gathers, Ann D.; Bhatt, Ramesh S.

    2011-01-01

    Face processing undergoes a fairly protracted developmental time course but the neural underpinnings are not well understood. Prior fMRI studies have only examined progressive changes (i.e. increases in specialization in certain regions with age), which would be predicted by both the Interactive Specialization (IS) and maturational theories of…

  20. Markers of murine embryonic and neural stem cells, neurons and astrocytes: reference points for developmental neurotoxicity testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) is a significant concern for environmental chemicals, as well as for food and drug constituents. The sensitivity of animal-based DNT models is unclear, and they are expensive and time consuming. Murine embryonic stem cells (mESC) recapitulate sev...

  1. [Reliability for detection of developmental problems using the semaphore from the Child Development Evaluation test: Is a yellow result different from a red result?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzoli-Córdoba, Antonio; Ortega-Ríosvelasco, Fernando; Villasís-Keever, Miguel Ángel; Pizarro-Castellanos, Mariel; Buenrostro-Márquez, Guillermo; Aceves-Villagrán, Daniel; O'Shea-Cuevas, Gabriel; Muñoz-Hernández, Onofre

    The Child Development Evaluation (CDE) is a screening tool designed and validated in Mexico for detecting developmental problems. The result is expressed through a semaphore. In the CDE test, both yellow and red results are considered positive, although a different intervention is proposed for each. The aim of this work was to evaluate the reliability of the CDE test to discriminate between children with yellow/red result based on the developmental domain quotient (DDQ) obtained through the Battelle Development Inventory, 2nd edition (in Spanish) (BDI-2). The information was obtained for the study from the validation. Children with a normal (green) result in the CDE were excluded. Two different cut-off points of the DDQ were used (BDI-2): social: 20.1% vs. 28.9%; and adaptive: 6.9% vs. 20.4%. The semaphore result yellow/red allows identifying different magnitudes of delay in developmental domains or subdomains, supporting the recommendation of different interventions for each one. Copyright © 2014 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  2. Clinical, developmental and molecular update on Cornelia de Lange syndrome and the cohesin complex: abstracts from the 2014 Scientific and Educational Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Antonie D; Calof, Anne L; Lander, Arthur D; Gerton, Jennifer L; Krantz, Ian D; Dorsett, Dale; Deardorff, Matthew A; Blagowidow, Natalie; Yokomori, Kyoko; Shirahige, Katsuhiko; Santos, Rosaysela; Woodman, Julie; Megee, Paul C; O'Connor, Julia T; Egense, Alena; Noon, Sarah; Belote, Maurice; Goodban, Marjorie T; Hansen, Blake D; Timmons, Jenni Glad; Musio, Antonio; Ishman, Stacey L; Bryan, Yvon; Wu, Yaning; Bettini, Laura R; Mehta, Devanshi; Zakari, Musinu; Mills, Jason A; Srivastava, Siddharth; Haaland, Richard E

    2015-06-01

    Cornelia de Lange Syndrome (CdLS) is the most common example of disorders of the cohesin complex, or cohesinopathies. There are a myriad of clinical issues facing individuals with CdLS, particularly in the neurodevelopmental system, which also have implications for the parents and caretakers, involved professionals, therapists, and schools. Basic research in developmental and cell biology on cohesin is showing significant progress, with improved understanding of the mechanisms and the possibility of potential therapeutics. The following abstracts are presentations from the 6th Cornelia de Lange Syndrome Scientific and Educational Symposium, which took place on June 25-26, 2014, in conjunction with the Cornelia de Lange Syndrome Foundation National Meeting in Costa Mesa, CA. The Research Committee of the CdLS Foundation organizes the meeting, reviews and accepts abstracts, and subsequently disseminates the information to the families through members of the Clinical Advisory Board. In addition to the scientific and clinical discussions, there were educationally focused talks related to practical aspects of behavior and development. AMA CME credits were provided by Greater Baltimore Medical Center, Baltimore, MD. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Does plant architectural complexity increase with increasing habitat complexity? A test with a pioneer shrub in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAO Silveira

    Full Text Available Understanding variation in plant traits in heterogeneous habitats is important to predict responses to changing environments, but trait-environment associations are poorly known along ecological gradients. We tested the hypothesis that plant architectural complexity increases with habitat complexity along a soil fertility gradient in a Cerrado (Neotropical savanna area in southeastern Brazil. Plant architecture and productivity (estimated as the total number of healthy infructescences of Miconia albicans (SW. Triana were examined in three types of vegetation which together form a natural gradient of increasing soil fertility, tree density and canopy cover: grasslands (campo sujo, CS, shrublands (cerrado sensu strico, CE and woodlands (cerradão, CD. As expected, plants growing at the CS were shorter and had a lower branching pattern, whereas plants at the CD were the tallest. Unexpectedly, however, CD plants did not show higher architectural complexity compared to CE plants. Higher architectural similarity between CE and CD plants compared to similarity between CS and CE plants suggests reduced expression of functional architectural traits under shade. Plants growing at the CE produced more quaternary shoots, leading to a larger number of infructescences. This higher plant productivity in CE indicates that trait variation in ecological gradients is more complex than previously thought. Nematode-induced galls accounted for fruit destruction in 76.5% infructescences across physiognomies, but percentage of attack was poorly related to architectural variables. Our data suggest shade-induced limitation in M. albicans architecture, and point to complex phenotypic variation in heterogeneous habitats in Neotropical savannas.

  4. Differentiating human NT2/D1 neurospheres as a versatile in vitro 3D model system for developmental neurotoxicity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, E.J.; Woehrling, E.K.; Prince, M.; Coleman, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    Developmental neurotoxicity is a major issue in human health and may have lasting neurological implications. In this preliminary study we exposed differentiating Ntera2/clone D1 (NT2/D1) cell neurospheres to known human teratogens classed as non-embryotoxic (acrylamide), weakly embryotoxic (lithium, valproic acid) and strongly embryotoxic (hydroxyurea) as listed by European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) and examined endpoints of cell viability and neuronal protein marker expression specific to the central nervous system, to identify developmental neurotoxins. Following induction of neuronal differentiation, valproic acid had the most significant effect on neurogenesis, in terms of reduced viability and decreased neuronal markers. Lithium had least effect on viability and did not significantly alter the expression of neuronal markers. Hydroxyurea significantly reduced cell viability but did not affect neuronal protein marker expression. Acrylamide reduced neurosphere viability but did not affect neuronal protein marker expression. Overall, this NT2/D1-based neurosphere model of neurogenesis, may provide the basis for a model of developmental neurotoxicity in vitro

  5. Predictive value of developmental testing in the second year for cognitive development at five years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alastair G Sutcliffe

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available There is mixed evidence about the predictive validity of the Griffiths mental developmental scales. This study aimed to assess the predictive value of developmental assessments of children in their second year using the Griffiths mental development scales for neuro-developmental status at five years using the Wechsler preschool and primary scale of intelligence, revised (WPPSI-R. In a longitudinal study 253 children were assessed in their second year of life using the Griffiths scales and again at five years using the WPPSI-R. The scores were compared and the predictability of the WPPSI-R outcome on the basis of Griffiths scores was assessed. The WPPSI-R full scale IQ and the performance IQ at age five could be predicted moderately by the Griffiths general quotient (GQ and by the personal/social scale. The Griffiths GQ was not a significant predictor of verbal IQ at age 5. The Griffiths performance scale predicted subsequent WPPSI-R performance IQ, and marginally the Full Scale IQ. For the early identification of children at risk for language delay, the Griffiths scales may not be suitable. However, a shortened form would be useful to predict overall cognitive development from the second year to school entry, focussing on the personal-social and performance scales.

  6. In honor of the Teratology Society's 50th anniversary: The role of Teratology Society members in the development and evolution of in vivo developmental toxicity test guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyl, Rochelle W

    2010-06-01

    Members of the Teratology Society (established in 1960) were involved in the first governmental developmental and reproductive toxicity testing guidelines (1966) by FDA following the thalidomide epidemic, followed by other national and international governmental testing guidelines. The Segment II (developmental toxicity) study design, described in rodents and rabbits, has evolved with additional enhanced endpoints and better descriptions, mechanistic insights, range-finding studies, and toxico/pharmacokinetic ADME information (especially for pharmaceuticals). Society members were also involved in the development of the current screening assays and tests for endocrine disruptors (beginning in 1996) and are now involved with developing new testing guidelines (e.g., the extended one-generation protocol), and evaluating the current test guidelines and new initiatives under ILSI/HESI sponsorship. New initiatives include ToxCast from the U.S. EPA to screen, prioritize, and predict toxic chemicals by high throughput and high-content in vitro assays, bioinformation, and modeling to reduce (or eliminate) in vivo whole animal studies. Our Society and its journal have played vital roles in the scientific and regulatory accomplishments in birth defects research over the past 50 years and will continue to do so in the future. Happy 50th anniversary! (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Automated X-ray television complex for testing large dynamic objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusev, E.A.; Luk'yanenko, Eh.A.; Chelnokov, V.B.; Kuleshov, V.K.; Alkhimov, Yu.V.

    1992-01-01

    An automated X-ray television complex on the base of matrix gas-dischage large-area (2.1x1.0 m) converter for testing large cargoes and containers, as well as for inductrial article diagnostics is described. The complex pulsed operation with the 512 kbytes television digital memory unit provides for testing dynamic objects under minimal doses (20-100 μR)

  8. Reading in developmental prosopagnosia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Klargaard, Solja K; Petersen, Anders

    2018-01-01

    exposure durations (targeting the word superiority effect), and d) text reading. RESULTS: Participants with developmental prosopagnosia performed strikingly similar to controls across the four reading tasks. Formal analysis revealed a significant dissociation between word and face recognition......, that is, impaired reading in developmental prosopagnosia. METHOD: We tested 10 adults with developmental prosopagnosia and 20 matched controls. All participants completed the Cambridge Face Memory Test, the Cambridge Face Perception test and a Face recognition questionnaire used to quantify everyday face...... recognition experience. Reading was measured in four experimental tasks, testing different levels of letter, word, and text reading: (a) single word reading with words of varying length,(b) vocal response times in single letter and short word naming, (c) recognition of single letters and short words at brief...

  9. Trisomy 21 and facial developmental instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbuck, John M; Cole, Theodore M; Reeves, Roger H; Richtsmeier, Joan T

    2013-05-01

    The most common live-born human aneuploidy is trisomy 21, which causes Down syndrome (DS). Dosage imbalance of genes on chromosome 21 (Hsa21) affects complex gene-regulatory interactions and alters development to produce a wide range of phenotypes, including characteristic facial dysmorphology. Little is known about how trisomy 21 alters craniofacial morphogenesis to create this characteristic appearance. Proponents of the "amplified developmental instability" hypothesis argue that trisomy 21 causes a generalized genetic imbalance that disrupts evolutionarily conserved developmental pathways by decreasing developmental homeostasis and precision throughout development. Based on this model, we test the hypothesis that DS faces exhibit increased developmental instability relative to euploid individuals. Developmental instability was assessed by a statistical analysis of fluctuating asymmetry. We compared the magnitude and patterns of fluctuating asymmetry among siblings using three-dimensional coordinate locations of 20 anatomic landmarks collected from facial surface reconstructions in four age-matched samples ranging from 4 to 12 years: (1) DS individuals (n = 55); (2) biological siblings of DS individuals (n = 55); 3) and 4) two samples of typically developing individuals (n = 55 for each sample), who are euploid siblings and age-matched to the DS individuals and their euploid siblings (samples 1 and 2). Identification in the DS sample of facial prominences exhibiting increased fluctuating asymmetry during facial morphogenesis provides evidence for increased developmental instability in DS faces. We found the highest developmental instability in facial structures derived from the mandibular prominence and lowest in facial regions derived from the frontal prominence. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Developmental Immunotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal models suggest that the immature immune system is more susceptible to xenobiotics than the fully mature system, and sequelae of developmental immunotoxicant exposure may be persistent well into adulthood. Immune maturation may be delayed by xenobiotic exposure and recover...

  11. 42 CFR 493.1467 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... testing; cytology general supervisor. 493.1467 Section 493.1467 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE....1467 Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor. For the subspecialty of cytology, the laboratory must have a general supervisor who meets the qualification...

  12. Developmental toxicity studies with 6 forms of titanium dioxide test materials (3 pigment-different grade & 3 nanoscale) demonstrate an absence of effects in orally-exposed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warheit, D B; Boatman, R; Brown, S C

    2015-12-01

    Six different commercial forms and sizes of titanium dioxide particles were tested in separate developmental toxicity assays. The three pigment-grade (pg) or 3 ultrafine (uf)/nanoscale (anatase and/or rutile) titanium dioxide (TiO2) particle-types were evaluated for potential maternal and developmental toxicity in pregnant rats by two different laboratories. All studies were conducted according to OECD Guideline 414 (Prenatal Developmental Toxicity Study). In addition, all test materials were robustly characterized. The BET surface areas of the pg and uf samples ranged from 7 to 17 m(2)/g and 50-82 m(2)/g respectively (see Table 1). The test substances were formulated in sterile water. In all of the studies, the formulations were administered by oral gavage to time-mated rats daily beginning around the time of implantation and continuing until the day prior to expected parturition. In 3 of the studies (uf-1, uf-3, & pg-1), the formulations were administered to Crl:CD(SD) rats beginning on gestation day (GD) 6 through GD 20. In 3 additional studies (uf-2, and pg-2, pg-3 TiO2 particles), the formulations were administered to Wistar rats beginning on GD 5 through 19. The dose levels used in all studies were 0, 100, 300, or 1000 mg/kg/day; control group animals were administered the vehicle. During the in-life portions of the studies, body weights, food consumption, and clinical observations before and after dosing were collected on a daily basis. All dams were euthanized just prior to expected parturition (GD 21 for Crl:CD(SD) rats and GD 20 for Wistar rats). The gross necropsies included an examination and description of uterine contents including counts of corpora lutea, implantation sites, resorptions, and live and dead fetuses. All live fetuses were sexed, weighed, and examined externally and euthanized. Following euthanasia, fresh visceral and head examinations were performed on selected fetuses. The fetal carcasses were then processed and examined for skeletal

  13. Relationship between the quality of children's handwriting and the Beery Buktenica developmental test of visuomotor integration after one year of writing tuition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duiser, Ivonne H F; van der Kamp, John; Ledebt, Annick; Savelsbergh, Geert J P

    2014-04-01

    We examined whether the three subtests of the Beery Buktenica developmental test of visuomotor integration predicted quality of handwriting across and within groups of boys and girls classified as proficient, at risk or non-proficient writers according to the Concise Assessment Scale for Children's Handwriting. The Beery Buktenica developmental test of visuomotor integration and the Concise Assessment Scale for Children's Handwriting tests were administered to 240 grade 2 children. Proficient writers scored better on the visuomotor integration subtest than non-proficient writers, while proficient and at risk writers scored better than non-proficient writers on the motor coordination subtest. No differences were found on the visual perception subtest. Girls were more often classified as proficient writers than boys, and they scored better on the motor coordination subtest. Across groups, regression indicated that gender and both the visuomotor integration subtest and the motor coordination subtest were significant predictors for the quality of handwriting (i.e., accounted for 17% of the variance). After one year of writing tuition, the visuomotor integration subtest (and to a lesser extent the motor coordination subtest) but not the visual perception subtest significant relates to quality of children's handwriting as measured with the Concise Assessment Scale for Children's Handwriting. However, the relatively little variance explained also points to other abilities and/or task constraints that underlie quality of handwriting. © 2013 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  14. Topographic processing in developmental prosopagnosia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klargaard, Solja K.; Starrfelt, Randi; Petersen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    deficit in visual processing or visual short-term memory. Interestingly, a classical dissociation could be demonstrated between impaired face memory and preserved topographic memory in two developmental prosopagnosics. We conclude that impairments in topographic memory tend to co-occur with developmental......Anecdotal evidence suggests a relation between impaired spatial (navigational) processing and developmental prosopagnosia. To address this formally, we tested two aspects of topographic processing – that is, perception and memory of mountain landscapes shown from different viewpoints. Participants...

  15. Application of complex programmable logic devices in memory radiation effects test system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yonghong; He Chaohui; Yang Hailiang; He Baoping

    2005-01-01

    The application of the complex programmable logic device (CPLD) in electronics is emphatically discussed. The method of using software MAX + plus II and CPLD are introduced. A new test system for memory radiation effects is established by using CPLD devices-EPM7128C84-15. The old test system's function are realized and, moreover, a number of small scale integrated circuits are reduced and the test system's reliability is improved. (authors)

  16. Listening into the Dark: An Essay Testing the Validity and Efficacy of Collaborative Developmental Action Inquiry for Describing and Encouraging Transformations of Self, Society, and Scientific Inquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R. Torbert

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Collaborative Developmental Action Inquiry (CDAI is introduced as a meta-paradigmatic approach to social science and social action that encompasses seven other more familiar paradigms (e.g., Behaviorism, Empirical Positivism, and Postmodern Interpretivism and that triangulates among third-person, objectivity-seeking social scientific inquiry, second-person, transformational, mutuality-seeking political inquiry, and first-person, adult, spiritual inquiry and consciousness development in the emerging present. CDAI tests findings, not only against third-person criteria of validity as do quantitative, positivist studies and qualitative, interpretive studies, but also against first- and second-person criteria of validity, as well as criteria of efficacy in action. CDAI introduces the possibility of treating, not just formal third-person studies, but any and all activities in one’s daily life in an inquiring manner. The aim of this differently-scientific approach is not only theoretical, generalizable knowledge, but also knowledge that generates increasingly timely action in particular cases in the relationships that mean the most to the inquirer. To illustrate and explain why the CDAI approach can explain unusually high percentages of the variance in whether or not organizations actually transform, all three types of validity-testing are applied to a specific study of intended transformation in ten organizations. The ten organization study found that adding together the performance of each organization’s CEO and lead consultant pn a reliable, well-validated measure of developmental action-logic, predicted 59% of the variance, beyond the .01 level, in whether and how the organization transformed (as rated by three scorers who achieved between .90 and 1.0 reliability. The essay concludes with a comparison between the Empirical Positivist paradigm of inquiry and the Collaborative Developmental Action Inquiry paradigm.

  17. Hardware-Software Complex for Functional and Parametric Tests of ARM Microcontrollers STM32F1XX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egorov Aleksey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the hardware-software complex for functional and parametric tests of ARM microcontrollers STM32F1XX. The complex is based on PXI devices by National Instruments and LabVIEW software environment. Data exchange procedure between a microcontroller under test and the complex hardware is describes. Some test results are also presented.

  18. After Action Report: Advanced Test Reactor Complex 2015 Evaluated Drill October 6, 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, Forest Howard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Complex, operated by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) conducted an evaluated drill on October 6, 2015, to allow the ATR Complex emergency response organization (ERO) to demonstrate the ability to respond to and mitigate an emergency by implementing the requirements of DOE O 151.1C, “Comprehensive Emergency Management System.”

  19. Developmental toxicology: adequacy of current methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, P W

    1998-01-01

    Toxicology embraces several disciplines such as carcinogenicity, mutagenicity and reproductive toxicity. Reproductive toxicology is concerned with possible effects of substances on the reproductive process, i.e. on sexual organs and their functions, endocrine regulation, fertilization, transport of the fertilized ovum, implantation, and embryonic, fetal and postnatal development, until the end-differentiation of the organs is achieved. Reproductive toxicology is divided into areas related to male and female fertility, and developmental toxicology. Developmental toxicology can be further broken down into prenatal and postnatal toxicology. Today, much new information is available about the origins of developmental disorders resulting from chemical exposure. While these findings seem to promise important new developments in methodology and research, there is a danger of losing sight of the precepts and principles established in the light of existing knowledge. There is also a danger that we may fail to correct shortcomings in our existing procedures and practice. The aim of this presentation is to emphasize the importance of testing substances for their impact in advance of their use and to underline that we must use the best existing tools for carrying out risk assessments. Moreover, it needs to be stressed that there are many substances that are never assessed with respect to reproductive and developmental toxicity. Similarly, our programmes for post-marketing surveillance with respect to developmental toxicology are grossly inadequate. Our ability to identify risks to normal development and reproduction would be much improved, first if a number of straightforward precepts were always followed and second, if we had a clearer understanding of what we mean by risk and acceptable levels of risk in the context of development. Other aims of this paper are: to stress the complexity of the different stages of normal prenatal development; to note the principles that are

  20. Developmental Kindergarten Program Evaluation Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blois, George T.; Cushing, Katherine S.

    The evaluation of the Developmental Kindergarten (DK) Program at the Harrison School District #2, Colorado Springs, Colorado, involved pre- and post-testing of student academic gains and interviewing of principals and teachers. The program aimed to provide developmentally appropriate activities for students believed to be "at risk" of…

  1. Developmental delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrition support is essential for the care of the child with developmental delay. After a thorough evaluation, an individualized intervention plan that accounts for the child’s nutrition status, feeding ability, and medical condition may be determined. Nutrition assessments may be performed at leas...

  2. Developmental Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Niels; Hvid, Helge; Kristensen, Tage Søndergaard

    2003-01-01

    Human Deveoplment and Working Life - Work for Welfare explores whether the development of human resources at company level can improve individuals' quality of life, companies' possibilities of development, and welfare and democracy in society. Chapter two discuss the concept "developmental work...

  3. Computer Simulation of Developmental Processes and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rationale: Recent progress in systems toxicology and synthetic biology have paved the way to new thinking about in vitro/in silico modeling of developmental processes and toxicities, both for embryological and reproductive impacts. Novel in vitro platforms such as 3D organotypic culture models, engineered microscale tissues and complex microphysiological systems (MPS), together with computational models and computer simulation of tissue dynamics, lend themselves to a integrated testing strategies for predictive toxicology. As these emergent methodologies continue to evolve, they must be integrally tied to maternal/fetal physiology and toxicity of the developing individual across early lifestage transitions, from fertilization to birth, through puberty and beyond. Scope: This symposium will focus on how the novel technology platforms can help now and in the future, with in vitro/in silico modeling of complex biological systems for developmental and reproductive toxicity issues, and translating systems models into integrative testing strategies. The symposium is based on three main organizing principles: (1) that novel in vitro platforms with human cells configured in nascent tissue architectures with a native microphysiological environments yield mechanistic understanding of developmental and reproductive impacts of drug/chemical exposures; (2) that novel in silico platforms with high-throughput screening (HTS) data, biologically-inspired computational models of

  4. Evaluation of a bovine antibody test for diagnosing Mycobacterium avium complex in patients with cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Tavs; Pressler, Tacjana; Katzenstein, Terese L.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to test a commercial bovine enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for investigating antibody activity against Mycobacterium avium complex. Methods: All patients at the Copenhagen Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Center who had culture for nontuberculous mycobacteria...... before and after culture conversion was performed in case patients. Results: Out of 286 included subjects, six had clinical M. avium complex pulmonary disease at the time of sera sampling. These patients presented with higher antibody test values (P-value ... at ruling out pulmonary disease. Screening sera from patients with CF could guide clinicians to focus attention on patients at higher risk of M. avium complex pulmonary disease. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2017;52:34–40....

  5. 42 CFR 493.1415 - Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; clinical consultant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... § 493.1415 Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; clinical consultant. The laboratory must have a clinical consultant who meets the qualification requirements of § 493.1417 of this... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing moderate...

  6. Diagnostic accuracy of physical examination tests of the ankle/foot complex: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwieterman, Braun; Haas, Deniele; Columber, Kirby; Knupp, Darren; Cook, Chad

    2013-08-01

    Orthopedic special tests of the ankle/foot complex are routinely used during the physical examination process in order to help diagnose ankle/lower leg pathologies. The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of ankle/lower leg special tests. A search of the current literature was conducted using PubMed, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, ProQuest Nursing and Allied Health Sources, Scopus, and Cochrane Library. Studies were eligible if they included the following: 1) a diagnostic clinical test of musculoskeletal pathology in the ankle/foot complex, 2) description of the clinical test or tests, 3) a report of the diagnostic accuracy of the clinical test (e.g. sensitivity and specificity), and 4) an acceptable reference standard for comparison. The quality of included studies was determined by two independent reviewers using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2 (QUADAS-2) tool. Nine diagnostic accuracy studies met the inclusion criteria for this systematic review; analyzing a total of 16 special tests of the ankle/foot complex. After assessment using the QUADAS-2, only one study had low risk of bias and low concerns regarding applicability. Most ankle/lower leg orthopedic special tests are confirmatory in nature and are best utilized at the end of the physical examination. Most of the studies included in this systematic review demonstrate notable biases, which suggest that results and recommendations in this review should be taken as a guide rather than an outright standard. There is need for future research with more stringent study design criteria so that more accurate diagnostic power of ankle/lower leg special tests can be determined. 3a.

  7. Attentional networks in developmental dyscalculia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henik Avishai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Very little is known about attention deficits in developmental dyscalculia, hence, this study was designed to provide the missing information. We examined attention abilities of participants suffering from developmental dyscalculia using the attention networks test - interactions. This test was designed to examine three different attention networks--executive function, orienting and alerting--and the interactions between them. Methods Fourteen university students that were diagnosed as suffering from developmental dyscalculia--intelligence and reading abilities in the normal range and no indication of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder--and 14 matched controls were tested using the attention networks test - interactions. All participants were given preliminary tests to measure mathematical abilities, reading, attention and intelligence. Results The results revealed deficits in the alerting network--a larger alerting effect--and in the executive function networks--a larger congruity effect in developmental dyscalculia participants. The interaction between the alerting and executive function networks was also modulated by group. In addition, developmental dyscalculia participants were slower to respond in the non-cued conditions. Conclusions These results imply specific attentional deficits in pure developmental dyscalculia. Namely, those with developmental dyscalculia seem to be deficient in the executive function and alertness networks. They suffer from difficulty in recruiting attention, in addition to the deficits in numerical processing.

  8. Attentional networks in developmental dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askenazi, Sarit; Henik, Avishai

    2010-01-07

    Very little is known about attention deficits in developmental dyscalculia, hence, this study was designed to provide the missing information. We examined attention abilities of participants suffering from developmental dyscalculia using the attention networks test - interactions. This test was designed to examine three different attention networks--executive function, orienting and alerting--and the interactions between them. Fourteen university students that were diagnosed as suffering from developmental dyscalculia--intelligence and reading abilities in the normal range and no indication of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder--and 14 matched controls were tested using the attention networks test-interactions. All participants were given preliminary tests to measure mathematical abilities, reading, attention and intelligence. The results revealed deficits in the alerting network--a larger alerting effect--and in the executive function networks--a larger congruity effect in developmental dyscalculia participants. The interaction between the alerting and executive function networks was also modulated by group. In addition, developmental dyscalculia participants were slower to respond in the non-cued conditions. These results imply specific attentional deficits in pure developmental dyscalculia. Namely, those with developmental dyscalculia seem to be deficient in the executive function and alertness networks. They suffer from difficulty in recruiting attention, in addition to the deficits in numerical processing.

  9. Relationship between the Handball-Specific Complex-Test and Intermittent Field Test performance in professional players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermassi, Souhail; Hoffmeyer, Birgit; Irlenbusch, Lars; Fieseler, Georg; Noack, Frank; Delank, Karl-Stefan; Gabbett, Tim J; Souhaiel Chelly, Mohamed; Schwesig, René

    2018-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between the Handball Complex-Test (HBCT) and two selected field performance tests (the repeated sprint ability [RSA], and the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test) in elite handball players. Nineteen handball players (age: 25.7±5.1 years) were drawn from the First Professional German League. The HBCT consists of four activity series (AS): agility parcours, defensive action, sprint (10 m, 20 m) and throw-on-goal parcours; these activities were completed twice, with five active pauses of 30-35 s, and a follow-up of recovery over the subsequent 10 minutes. The RSA comprised 6 x (15+15 m) sprints starting every 20 s; scoring noted best time (RSAbest), total time (RSATT) and decrement (RSAdec). In the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recover, we recorded the total distance covered (TD). Heart rates (HR) were recorded throughout and recovery was assessed for measurements immediately post-test (R0) and 10 minutes after completing the test (R10). A strong correlation was found between HBCT and fastest 10 m and 20 m RSA sprint times (r=0.811, r=0.815, respectively). Also, the HBCT total 10 m and 20 m sprint times showed a strong positive association with RSATT (r=0.70; r=0.63, respectively), and the RSA heart rate post-test was strongly correlated with the HBCT heart rate after round two (r=0.865). Data from the match-specific HBCT Test shows a strong positive association with other more generic intermittent field test measurements. These observations support the validity of using the generic tests to monitor current fitness and responses to training in team handball players.

  10. Complexity testing techniques for time series data: A comprehensive literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Ling; Lv, Huiling; Yang, Fengmei; Yu, Lean

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A literature review of complexity testing techniques for time series data is provided. • Complexity measurements can generally fall into fractality, methods derived from nonlinear dynamics and entropy. • Different types investigate time series data from different perspectives. • Measures, applications and future studies for each type are presented. - Abstract: Complexity may be one of the most important measurements for analysing time series data; it covers or is at least closely related to different data characteristics within nonlinear system theory. This paper provides a comprehensive literature review examining the complexity testing techniques for time series data. According to different features, the complexity measurements for time series data can be divided into three primary groups, i.e., fractality (mono- or multi-fractality) for self-similarity (or system memorability or long-term persistence), methods derived from nonlinear dynamics (via attractor invariants or diagram descriptions) for attractor properties in phase-space, and entropy (structural or dynamical entropy) for the disorder state of a nonlinear system. These estimations analyse time series dynamics from different perspectives but are closely related to or even dependent on each other at the same time. In particular, a weaker self-similarity, a more complex structure of attractor, and a higher-level disorder state of a system consistently indicate that the observed time series data are at a higher level of complexity. Accordingly, this paper presents a historical tour of the important measures and works for each group, as well as ground-breaking and recent applications and future research directions.

  11. A broadband variable-temperature test system for complex permittivity measurements of solid and powder materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunpeng; Li, En; Zhang, Jing; Yu, Chengyong; Zheng, Hu; Guo, Gaofeng

    2018-02-01

    A microwave test system to measure the complex permittivity of solid and powder materials as a function of temperature has been developed. The system is based on a TM0n0 multi-mode cylindrical cavity with a slotting structure, which provides purer test modes compared to a traditional cavity. To ensure the safety, effectiveness, and longevity, heating and testing are carried out separately and the sample can move between two functional areas through an Alundum tube. Induction heating and a pneumatic platform are employed to, respectively, shorten the heating and cooling time of the sample. The single trigger function of the vector network analyzer is added to test software to suppress the drift of the resonance peak during testing. Complex permittivity is calculated by the rigorous field theoretical solution considering multilayer media loading. The variation of the cavity equivalent radius caused by the sample insertion holes is discussed in detail, and its influence to the test result is analyzed. The calibration method for the complex permittivity of the Alundum tube and quartz vial (for loading powder sample), which vary with the temperature, is given. The feasibility of the system has been verified by measuring different samples in a wide range of relative permittivity and loss tangent, and variable-temperature test results of fused quartz and SiO2 powder up to 1500 °C are compared with published data. The results indicate that the presented system is reliable and accurate. The stability of the system is verified by repeated and long-term tests, and error analysis is presented to estimate the error incurred due to the uncertainties in different error sources.

  12. Testing holographic conjectures of complexity with Born-Infeld black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Jun; Wang, Peng; Yang, Haitang [Sichuan University, Center for Theoretical Physics, College of Physical Science and Technology, Chengdu (China)

    2017-12-15

    In this paper, we use Born-Infeld black holes to test two recent holographic conjectures of complexity, the ''Complexity = Action'' (CA) duality and ''Complexity = Volume 2.0'' (CV) duality. The complexity of a boundary state is identified with the action of the Wheeler-deWitt patch in CA duality, while this complexity is identified with the spacetime volume of the WdW patch in CV duality. In particular, we check whether the Born-Infeld black holes violate the generalized Lloyd bound: C ≤ (2)/(πℎ) [(M - QΦ) - (M - QΦ){sub gs}], where gs stands for the ground state for a given electrostatic potential. We find that the ground states are either some extremal black hole or regular spacetime with nonvanishing charges. For Born-Infeld black holes, we compute the action growth rate at the late-time limit and obtain the complexities in CA and CV dualities. Near extremality, the generalized Lloyd bound is violated in both dualities. Near the charged regular spacetime, this bound is satisfied in CV duality but violated in CA duality. When moving away from the ground state on a constant potential curve, the generalized Lloyd bound tends to be saturated from below in CA duality. (orig.)

  13. StudTest – A Platform Supporting Complex and Interactive Knowledge Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlado Glavinić

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the model and prototype implementation of a knowledge assessment framework based on problem management components. In order to support student testing with complex problem types and enable usage of rich graphical user interfaces for solution entry, we have developed an e-examination model in which the core concept is a component that can generate complex questions and evaluate students' solutions with additional explanation generation, which we named prlet. The respective system implementation is described, which can operate under heavy loads.

  14. The Management of Developmental Apraxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubbay, S. S.

    1978-01-01

    Of 39 children (5-12 years old) with developmental apraxia and agnosia, who were assessed neurologically, 19 were also given simple standarized tests of motor ability. Journal availability: see EC 112 661. (Author/SBH)

  15. A Comparison of Multidimensional Item Selection Methods in Simple and Complex Test Designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eren Halil ÖZBERK

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In contrast with the previous studies, this study employed various test designs (simple and complex which allow the evaluation of the overall ability score estimations across multiple real test conditions. In this study, four factors were manipulated, namely the test design, number of items per dimension, correlation between dimensions and item selection methods. Using the generated item and ability parameters, dichotomous item responses were generated in by using M3PL compensatory multidimensional IRT model with specified correlations. MCAT composite ability score accuracy was evaluated using absolute bias (ABSBIAS, correlation and the root mean square error (RMSE between true and estimated ability scores. The results suggest that the multidimensional test structure, number of item per dimension and correlation between dimensions had significant effect on item selection methods for the overall score estimations. For simple structure test design it was found that V1 item selection has the lowest absolute bias estimations for both long and short tests while estimating overall scores. As the model gets complex KL item selection method performed better than other two item selection method.

  16. Screening tests for hazard classification of complex waste materials – Selection of methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weltens, R.; Vanermen, G.; Tirez, K.; Robbens, J.; Deprez, K.; Michiels, L.

    2012-01-01

    In this study we describe the development of an alternative methodology for hazard characterization of waste materials. Such an alternative methodology for hazard assessment of complex waste materials is urgently needed, because the lack of a validated instrument leads to arbitrary hazard classification of such complex waste materials. False classification can lead to human and environmental health risks and also has important financial consequences for the waste owner. The Hazardous Waste Directive (HWD) describes the methodology for hazard classification of waste materials. For mirror entries the HWD classification is based upon the hazardous properties (H1–15) of the waste which can be assessed from the hazardous properties of individual identified waste compounds or – if not all compounds are identified – from test results of hazard assessment tests performed on the waste material itself. For the latter the HWD recommends toxicity tests that were initially designed for risk assessment of chemicals in consumer products (pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, biocides, food, etc.). These tests (often using mammals) are not designed nor suitable for the hazard characterization of waste materials. With the present study we want to contribute to the development of an alternative and transparent test strategy for hazard assessment of complex wastes that is in line with the HWD principles for waste classification. It is necessary to cope with this important shortcoming in hazardous waste classification and to demonstrate that alternative methods are available that can be used for hazard assessment of waste materials. Next, by describing the pros and cons of the available methods, and by identifying the needs for additional or further development of test methods, we hope to stimulate research efforts and development in this direction. In this paper we describe promising techniques and argument on the test selection for the pilot study that we have performed on different

  17. Towards an internationally harmonized test method for reproductive and developmental effects of endocrine disrupters in marine copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusk, Kresten Ole; Wollenberger, Leah

    2007-01-01

    with marine copepods (Acartia tonsa, Nitocra spinipes, Tisbe battagliai, and Amphiascus tenuiremis). The present paper gives an overview on the endocrine system of crustaceans with special emphasis on development and reproduction, which are targets for endocrine disruption, and reviews available methods......New and updated methods to detect and characterize endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are urgently needed for the purpose of environmental risk assessment since these substances are often not detected using existing chronic toxicity tests. Numerous reports on the effects of EDCs on crustacean...... development and reproduction have been published and the development of life-cycle tests with crustaceans has been prioritized within the OECD work program for endocrine disrupter testing and assessment. As a result, Sweden, and Denmark initiated a proposal for development of a full life-cycle test...

  18. Recessive loss-of-function mutations in AP4S1 cause mild fever-sensitive seizures, developmental delay and spastic paraplegia through loss of AP-4 complex assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hardies, Katia; May, Patrick; Djémié, Tania

    2015-01-01

    We report two siblings with infantile onset seizures, severe developmental delay and spastic paraplegia, in whom whole-genome sequencing revealed compound heterozygous mutations in the AP4S1 gene, encoding the σ subunit of the adaptor protein complex 4 (AP-4). The effect of the predicted loss-of-...... in reported patients, highlighting that seizures are part of the clinical manifestation of the AP-4 deficiency syndrome. We also hypothesize that endosomal trafficking is a common theme between heritable spastic paraplegia and some inherited epilepsies....

  19. The inferiority complex in paranoia readdressed. A study with the Implicit Association Test

    OpenAIRE

    von Collani, Gernot; Werner, Ronny; Moritz, Steffen

    2006-01-01

    It has been theorised that patients with persecutory delusions display a lack of covert self-esteem (formerly termed the 'inferiority complex'), while at the same time displaying normal or even heightened levels of explicit self-esteem. However, the empirical basis for this assumption is inconsistent. Methods. In view of apparent shortcomings of prior studies to assess implicit self-esteem, the Implicit Association Test was utilised to readdress this theory. The Rosenberg scale served as an i...

  20. Development and Testing the Technology of Complex Transformation of Carbohydrates from Vegetable Raw Materials into Bioethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. Tsygankov

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Results of development and testing the tentative technology of sweet sorghum and finger millet processing into bioethanol are described. The carbohydrates content and range of the studied vegetable biomass as the raw material is defined. Bioethanol potential output from sugar sorghum and finger millet carbohydrates and key technological parameters of preparation of both types of vegetable raw material for alcohol fermentation are defined. The concept of the tentative technology of bioethanol production from carbohydrate raw material of the first and second generations is offered. Testing of complex transformation of carbohydrates from vegetable raw materials into bioethanol is performed.

  1. Chimpanzees show a developmental increase in susceptibility to contagious yawning: a test of the effect of ontogeny and emotional closeness on yawn contagion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elainie Alenkær Madsen

    Full Text Available Contagious yawning has been reported for humans, dogs and several non-human primate species, and associated with empathy in humans and other primates. Still, the function, development and underlying mechanisms of contagious yawning remain unclear. Humans and dogs show a developmental increase in susceptibility to yawn contagion, with children showing an increase around the age of four, when also empathy-related behaviours and accurate identification of others' emotions begin to clearly evince. Explicit tests of yawn contagion in non-human apes have only involved adult individuals and examined the existence of conspecific yawn contagion. Here we report the first study of heterospecific contagious yawning in primates, and the ontogeny of susceptibility thereto in chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes verus. We examined whether emotional closeness, defined as attachment history with the yawning model, affected the strength of contagion, and compared the contagiousness of yawning to nose-wiping. Thirty-three orphaned chimpanzees observed an unfamiliar and familiar human (their surrogate human mother yawn, gape and nose-wipe. Yawning, but not nose-wiping, was contagious for juvenile chimpanzees, while infants were immune to contagion. Like humans and dogs, chimpanzees are subject to a developmental trend in susceptibility to contagious yawning, and respond to heterospecific yawn stimuli. Emotional closeness with the model did not affect contagion. The familiarity-biased social modulatory effect on yawn contagion previously found among some adult primates, seem to only emerge later in development, or be limited to interactions with conspecifics. The influence of the 'chameleon effect', targeted vs. generalised empathy, perspective-taking and visual attention on contagious yawning is discussed.

  2. In vitro to in vivo extrapolation of effective dosimetry in developmental toxicity testing : Application of a generic PBK modelling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fragki, Styliani; Piersma, Aldert H; Rorije, Emiel; Zeilmaker, Marco J

    2017-01-01

    Incorporation of kinetics to quantitative in vitro to in vivo extrapolations (QIVIVE) is a key step for the realization of a non-animal testing paradigm, in the sphere of regulatory toxicology. The use of Physiologically-Based Kinetic (PBK) modelling for determining systemic doses of chemicals at

  3. In vitro to in vivo extrapolation of effective dosimetry in developmental toxicity testing: Application of a generic PBK modelling approach.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fragki, Styliani; Piersma, Aldert H; Rorije, Emiel; Zeilmaker, Marco J

    2017-01-01

    Incorporation of kinetics to quantitative in vitro to in vivo extrapolations (QIVIVE) is a key step for the realization of a non-animal testing paradigm, in the sphere of regulatory toxicology. The use of Physiologically-Based Kinetic (PBK) modelling for determining systemic doses of chemicals at

  4. An Empirical Study of the Weigl-Goldstein-Scheerer Color-Form Test According to a Developmental Frame of Reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Helen; Lewin, Isaac

    1982-01-01

    Analyzed the Weigl-Goldstein-Scheerer Color-Form Test using a sample of Danish children. Distinguished three dimensions: configuration of sorting, verbalization of the sorting principle, and the flexibility of switching sorting principle. The three dimensions proved themselves to constitute the a-priori-defined gradients. Results indicated a…

  5. Prevention of the wind migration of Semipalatinsk test site contaminated topsoil by inter-polymer complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudaibergenov, S.E.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: It is well known that Semipalatinsk Test Site has been contaminated by radionuclides mainly as a result of atmospheric, aboveground and underground intensive nuclear tests during more than 40 years. Survey of residual radioactivity in the soil at ten Semipalatinsk Test Site areas showed that a great number of Plutonium-239, 240, Strontium-90 and Cesium-137 are concentrated in the depth of soil layer 0-8 cm. The residual radioactivity within the Semipalatinsk Test Site is tightly bound to the topsoil as a result of extreme heating and melting of the soils during the tests. The maximal amount of radionuclides is accumulated on the fine soil particles having 0.1-1.0 mm size. Wind erosion is responsible for suspension of contaminated soil particles in the air and further spreading of contamination far away. For instance, dust particles of diameter 0,05-0,1 mm are dropped within a couple of kilometers of the erosion site, while particles of about 0.005-0.01 mm diameter can move hundreds and thousands of kilometers. According to the results of the Institute of Radiation Safety and Ecology, Kazakhstan, in “Degelen” massive, where the intensive nuclear tests were carried out, the concentration of radionuclides in air increases for Sr-90 up to 5 times, for Pu-239,240 up to 100-250 times during the elevation of thin dust from the ground surface. In this connection agglomeration of thin dust containing radionuclides is of primary importance to protect the population from inhalation of re-suspended dust. Inter-polymer complexes are water-insoluble, moisture and gas permeable substances that form a “cobweb” on the surface of soil particles and consequently leading to formation of protective crust. Inter-polymer complexes enhance the intrusion of water into the soil, resulting in increased soil moisture to promote seed germination and plant growth. Inter-polymer complexes are also able to accumulate radionuclides via inclusion of metal ions into the Inter

  6. Topographical memory analyzed in mice using the Hamlet test, a novel complex maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouzier, Lucie; Gilabert, Damien; Rossel, Mireille; Trousse, Françoise; Maurice, Tangui

    2018-03-01

    The Hamlet test is an innovative device providing a complex environment for testing topographic memory in mice. Animals were trained in groups for weeks in a small village with a central agora, streets expanding from it towards five functionalized houses, where they can drink, eat, hide, run, interact with a stranger mouse. Memory was tested by depriving mice from water or food and analyzing their ability to locate the Drink/Eat house. Exploration and memory were analyzed in different strains, gender, and after different training periods and delays. After 2 weeks training, differences in exploration patterns were observed between strains, but not gender. Neuroanatomical structures activated by training, identified using FosB/ΔFosB immunolabelling, showed an involvement of the hippocampus-subiculum-parahippocampal gyrus axis and dopaminergic structures. Training increased hippocampal neurogenesis (cell proliferation and neuronal maturation) and modified the amnesic efficacy of muscarinic or nicotinic cholinergic antagonists. Moreover, topographical disorientation in Alzheimer's disease was addressed using intracerebroventricular injection of amyloid β 25-35 peptide in trained mice. When retested after 7 days, Aβ 25-35 -treated mice showed memory impairment. The Hamlet test specifically allows analysis of topographical memory in mice, based on complex environment. It offers an innovative tool for various ethological or pharmacological research needs. For instance, it allowed to examine topographical disorientation, a warning sign in Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Complex febrile seizures: study of the associated pathology and practical use of complementary tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzosa López, R; Ramos Fernández, J M; Martínez Antón, J; Espinosa Fernández, M G; Urda Cardona, A

    2014-06-01

    Although one third of febrile seizures are complex, a consensus has still not been reached on how to manage them, as is the case with simple febrile seizures. The objective of this study is to estimate the usefulness of complementary examinations and the risk of associated serious intracranial pathology. A retrospective review was conducted from 2003 until 2011 on patients from 6 months to 6 years presenting with a complex febrile seizure admitted to a tertiary care hospital, excluding the cases with previous neurological disease. Epidemiological and clinic variables were collected, as well as complementary tests and complications. We found 65 patients (31 females and 34 males), of whom 44 had repeated seizures in the first 24 hours, with 15 having focal seizures. The vast majority (90%) of the recurrences occurred before 15 hours. The mean age was 20.7 months and temperature was 39.1 ± 0.12°C. None of the patients had severe intracranial pathology. The electroencephalogram gave no helpful information for the diagnosis. Neuroimaging was normal in all studied cases. The incidence of complications in complex febrile seizure in our series did not justify the systematic admission or the systematic study with complementary tests when the neurological examination was normal. The routine electroencephalogram does not appear to be justified. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Configuration color vision tests: the interaction between aging and the complexity of figure-ground segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, T; Pollack, R H

    1984-09-01

    A cross-sectional study comparing response time and the percentage of items correctly identified in three color vision tests (Pflügertrident, HRR-AO pseudoisochromatic plates, and AO pseudoisochromatic plates) was carried out on 72 women (12 in each decade) ranging from ages 20 to 79 years. Overall, time scores increased across the age groups. Analysis of the correctness scores indicated that the AO pseudoisochromatic plates requiring the identification of numbers was more difficult than the other tests which consisted of geometric forms or the letter E. This differential difficulty increased as a function of age. There was no indication of color defect per se which led to the conclusion that figure complexity may be the key variable determining performance. The results were similar to those obtained by Lee and Pollack (1978) in their study of the Embedded Figures Test.

  9. Face ethnicity and measurement reliability affect face recognition performance in developmental prosopagnosia: evidence from the Cambridge Face Memory Test-Australian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKone, Elinor; Hall, Ashleigh; Pidcock, Madeleine; Palermo, Romina; Wilkinson, Ross B; Rivolta, Davide; Yovel, Galit; Davis, Joshua M; O'Connor, Kirsty B

    2011-03-01

    The Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT, Duchaine & Nakayama, 2006) provides a validated format for testing novel face learning and has been a crucial instrument in the diagnosis of developmental prosopagnosia. Yet, some individuals who report everyday face recognition symptoms consistent with prosopagnosia, and are impaired on famous face tasks, perform normally on the CFMT. Possible reasons include measurement error, CFMT assessment of memory only at short delays, and a face set whose ethnicity is matched to only some Caucasian groups. We develop the "CFMT-Australian" (CFMT-Aus), which complements the CFMT-original by using ethnicity better matched to a different European subpopulation. Results confirm reliability (.88) and validity (convergent, divergent using cars, inversion effects). We show that face ethnicity within a race has subtle but clear effects on face processing even in normal participants (includes cross-over interaction for face ethnicity by perceiver country of origin in distinctiveness ratings). We show that CFMT-Aus clarifies diagnosis of prosopagnosia in 6 previously ambiguous cases. In 3 cases, this appears due to the better ethnic match to prosopagnosics. We also show that face memory at short (<3-min), 20-min, and 24-hr delays taps overlapping processes in normal participants. There is some suggestion that a form of prosopagnosia may exist that is long delay only and/or reflects failure to benefit from face repetition. © 2011 Psychology Press, an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business

  10. Idealized tropical cyclone simulations of intermediate complexity: A test case for AGCMs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Reed

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces a moist, deterministic test case of intermediate complexity for Atmospheric General Circulation Models (AGCMs. We suggest pairing an AGCM dynamical core with simple physical parameterizations to test the evolution of a single, idealized, initially weak vortex into a tropical cyclone. The initial conditions are based on an initial vortex seed that is in gradient-wind and hydrostatic balance. The suggested ``simple-physics'' package consists of parameterizations of bulk aerodynamic surface fluxes for moisture, sensible heat and momentum, boundary layer diffusion, and large-scale condensation. Such a configuration includes the important driving mechanisms for tropical cyclones, and leads to a rapid intensification of the initial vortex over a forecast period of ten days. The simple-physics test paradigm is not limited to tropical cyclones, and can be universally applied to other flow fields. The physical parameterizations are described in detail to foster model intercomparisons.The characteristics of the intermediate-complexity test case are demonstrated with the help of four hydrostatic dynamical cores that are part of the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM 5 developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR. In particular, these are the Finite-Volume, Spectral Element, and spectral transform Eulerian and semi-Lagrangian dynamical cores that are coupled to the simple-physics suite. The simulations show that despite the simplicity of the physics forcings the models develop the tropical cyclone at horizontal grid spacings of about 55 km and finer. The simple-physics simulations reveal essential differences in the storm's structure and strength due to the choice of the dynamical core. Similar differences are also seen in complex full-physics aqua-planet experiments with CAM 5 which serve as a motivator for this work. The results suggest that differences in complex full-physics simulations can be, at least

  11. An Approach for Systematic In-the-Loop Simulations for Development and Test of a Complex Mechatronic Embedded System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soltani Nehzad, Amir; Lukkien, Johan J.; Mak, Rudolf H.; Verhoeven, Richard; van den Heuvel, Martijn M.H.P.; Skavhaug, A.; Guiochet, J.; Schoitsch, E.; Bitsch, F.

    2016-01-01

    Simulations are widely used in the engineering workflow of complex mechatronic embedded systems in various domains, such as healthcare, railway, automotive and aerospace, for analyzing, testing and validating purposes. This paper focuses on the development and test of the control software of complex

  12. PERMANGANATE FIXATION OF THE GOLGI COMPLEX AND OTHER CYTOPLASMIC STRUCTURES OF MAMMALIAN TESTES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollenhauer, Hilton H.; Zebrun, William

    1960-01-01

    Observations on the fine structure of KMnO4-fixed testes of small mammals (guinea pig, rat, and mouse) reveal certain morphological differences between the spermatogenic and Sertoli cells which have not been demonstrated in the same tissue fixed with OsO4. Aggregates of minute circular profiles, much smaller than the spherical Golgi vesicles, are described in close association with the Golgi complex of developing spermatids. Groups of dense flattened vesicles, individually surrounded by a membrane of different dimensions than that which bounds most of the other cell organelles, appear dispersed within the cytoplasm of some spermatogenic cells. Flattened vesicles of greater density than those belonging to the Golgi complex are reported confined to the inner Golgi zone of developing guinea pig spermatids between the Golgi cisternae and the head cap. The profiles of endoplasmic reticulum within spermatocytes appear shorter, wider, and more tortuous than those of Sertoli cells. Minute cytoplasmic particles approximately 300 A in diameter and of high electron opacity appear randomly disposed in some Sertoli cells. Groups of irregular-shaped ovoid bodies within the developing spermatids are described as resembling portions of cytoplasm from closely adjacent spermatids. Interpretation is presented regarding the fine structure of KMnO4-fixed testes in view of what has already been reported for mammalian testes fixed in OsO4. PMID:13771855

  13. Ultrasonic non-destructive testing of pieces of complex geometry with a flexible phased array transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatillon; Cattiaux; Serre; Roy

    2000-03-01

    Ultrasonic non-destructive testing of components of complex geometry in the nuclear industry faces several difficulties: sensitivity variations due to unmatched contact, inaccurate localization of defects due to variations of transducer orientation, and uncovered area of the component. To improve the performances of such testing and defect characterization, we propose a new concept of ultrasonic contact phased array transducer. The phased array transducer has a flexible radiating surface able to fit the actual surface of the piece to optimize the contact and thus the sensitivity of the test. To control the transmitted field, and therefore to improve the defect characterization, a delay law optimizing algorithm is developed. To assess the capability of such a transducer, the Champ-Sons model, developed at the French Atomic Energy Commission for predicting field radiated by arbitrary transducers into pieces, has to be extended to sources directly in contact with pieces of complex geometry. The good behavior of this new type of probe predicted by computations is experimentally validated with a jointed transducer positioned on pieces of various profiles.

  14. AUTOMATED MEASURING COMPLEX FOR ACCEPTANCE TESTING OF DC AND UNDULATED-CURRENT TRACTION MOTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Drubetskyi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In the paper it is necessary: 1 to familiarize the reader with the modern classification of measurement and diagnostics, familiarize with problems of automating the measurement of basic parameters during program execution of qualification tests of traction motors; 2 to make recommendations to improve the measurement ac-curacy, reduce labor intensity of work for carrying out measurements, and reduce the requirements for the qualification of the staff; 3 to provide practical implementation of measurement system, built on the basis of the practical recommendations contained in the article. Methodology. The work presents the classification of measurement and diagnostic tools. The author considered a list of equipment that can be used in measurement systems, as well as third-party options for measuring complex and measuring complex using stand management system. Their functional schemes were proposed. The author compared the advantages and disadvantages of these schemes to make recommendations on areas of their optimal use. Findings. Having analyzed the functional scheme of measuring systems, it was found that the use of the control system microcontroller as a measuring complex is expedient if the measurements have largely a test process control function. The use of a third-party measuring complex is more appropriate in cases when it is required: to eliminate dependence on the stand management system, to provide high mobility and reduce the requirements for the qualification of the staff. Originality. The work presents a brief over-view of the measurement means. The author developed the functional schemes of measuring systems using stand management system and third-party measuring complex, proposed the criteria for evaluating their optimal use. Practical value. Based on the proposed functional diagram, the measuring system on National Instruments hard-ware and software basis was set up. The sensors by LEM Company were used as primary

  15. Improving the Thermal Testing Technology of Technological Equipment of Autonomous Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Chugunkov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The environmental conditions of autonomous objects of different-purpose technical complexes are in close relationship with increased values of operating temperatures. This requires thermal pretesting of the process equipment. The publication [1] considers the thermal test conditions in which the equipment elements under test are placed in a heated water tank covered by the globe insulators where, under automatic temperature control using a block of heaters, they are then kept for a specified period of time at a specified temperature range. Such an approach to the thermal tests of equipment allows us to reduce, but not eliminate completely the mass flows of water from evaporation with reducing power consumption of test equipment.Despite the results achieved, even a little bit of water vapor available when conducting the thermal tests may cause a failure of equipment. Therefore, there is a need in test equipment modernization for complete eliminating the fluxes of mass water and better power consumption in the test process. To this end, it is proposed to place a three-layer bubble wrap on the open surface of water.To justify an efficiency of the proposed option was developed a mathematical model of heat and mass transfer processes that occur during thermal tests, taking into account the geometric and thermo-physical characteristics of test tank, polymer film, and equipment. Using the laws and equations of heat and mass transfer enabled us to determine the required capacities for heating the tank with water and equipment to the required temperature range for a specified time, as well as the mass flows of water when evaporating from the tank surface.The efficiency of the three-layer bubble film as compared with the globe insulators as the elements for covering the test tank the surface has been analysed on the basis of the results obtained.The proposed film coating allowed almost complete elimination of evaporation losses of water mass and almost 8

  16. Instrumentation measurement and testing complex for detection and identification of radioactive materials using the emitted radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samossadny, V.T.; Dmitrenko, V.V.; Kadlin, V.V.; Kolesnikov, S.V.; Ulin, S.E.; Grachev, V.M.; Vlasik, K.F.; Dedenko, G.L.; Novikov, D.V.; Uteshev, Z.M.

    2006-01-01

    Simultaneous measurement of neutron and gamma radiation is a very usefull method for effective nuclear materials identification and control. The gamma-ray-neutron complex described in the paper is based on two multi-layer 3 He neutrons detectors and two High Pressure Xenon gamma-ray spectrometers assembled in one unit. All these detectors were callibrated on neutron and gamma-ray sources. The main characteristics of the instrumentation , its testing results and gamma-ray and neutron radiation parameters, which have been measured are represented in the paper. The gamma-neutron sources and fissile materials reliable detection and identification capability was demonstrated

  17. Morphometric analysis of human embryos to predict developmental competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziebe, Søren

    2013-01-01

    pregnancy test, no matter what we choose in the laboratory. Still, both with the increasing complexity of infertile patients treated today and the important focus on reducing multiple pregnancies, it becomes increasingly important to improve our ability to predict the developmental competence of each embryo....... This involves an improved understanding of the basic biology controlling early embryonic development and, over the years, many groups have tried to identify parameters reflecting embryonic competence....

  18. Deposition Velocities of Non-Newtonian Slurries in Pipelines: Complex Simulant Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poloski, Adam P.; Bonebrake, Michael L.; Casella, Andrew M.; Johnson, Michael D.; Toth, James J.; Adkins, Harold E.; Chun, Jaehun; Denslow, Kayte M.; Luna, Maria; Tingey, Joel M.

    2009-07-01

    ) was performed at each yield stress condition. Unlike the previous simulant, the sizes and densities of the particles that can deposit in the piping are a result of the simulant precipitation process; there is expected to be a complex mixture of particles of various sizes and densities that make it difficult to predict a stability map. The objective of the testing is to observe whether behavior consistent with the stability-map concept occurs in complex simulants with mixtures of different sizes and densities.

  19. Central Coherence in Eating Disorders: A Synthesis of Studies Using the Rey Osterrieth Complex Figure Test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Lang

    Full Text Available Large variability in tests and differences in scoring systems used to study central coherence in eating disorders may lead to different interpretations, inconsistent findings and between study discrepancies. This study aimed to address inconsistencies by collating data from several studies from the same research group that used the Rey Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (Rey Figure in order to produce norms to provide benchmark data for future studies.Data was collated from 984 participants in total. Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, recovered Anorexia Nervosa, unaffected family members and healthy controls were compared using the Rey Figure.Poor global processing was observed across all current eating disorder sub-groups and in unaffected relatives. There was no difference in performance between recovered AN and HC groups.This is the largest dataset reported in the literature and supports previous studies implicating poor global processing across eating disorders using the Rey Figure. It provides robust normative data useful for future studies.

  20. Testing and interfacing intelligent power supplies for the Los Alamos National Laboratory Accelerator Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturrock, J.C.; Cohen, S.; Weintraub, B.L.; Hayden, D.J.; Archuleta, S.F.

    1992-01-01

    New high-current, high-precision microprocessor-controlled power supplies, built by Alpha Scientific Electronics of Hayward, CA, have been installed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Accelerator Complex. Each unit has sophisticated microprocessor control on-board and communicates via RS-422 (serial communications). The units use a high level ASCII-based control protocol. Performance tests were conducted to verify adherence to specification and to ascertain ultimate long-term stability. The ''front-end'' software used by the accelerator control system has been written to accommodate these new devices. The supplies are interfaced to the control system through a terminal server port connected to the site-wide ediernet backbone. Test design and results as well as details of the software implementation for the analog and digital control of the supplies through the accelerator control system are presented

  1. Dynamic testing of young children with (severe) disabilities : Presentation as part of symposium: Dynamic testing in children – language and speech problems or developmental disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Linda

    2015-01-01

    A main disadvantage of static tests is that they do not take into account differences between children in chances they have had to learn and develop. Dynamic assessment is a way to take into account these differences and assess which skills a child can learn in which speed and which support it needs

  2. Does structural complexity determine the morphology of assemblages? An experimental test on three continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Heloise; Parr, Catherine L

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how species will respond to global change depends on our ability to distinguish generalities from idiosyncrasies. For diverse, but poorly known taxa, such as insects, species traits may provide a short-cut to predicting species turnover. We tested whether ant traits respond consistently to habitat complexity across geographically independent ant assemblages, using an experimental approach and baits. We repeated our study in six paired simple and complex habitats on three continents with distinct ant faunas. We also compared traits amongst ants with different foraging strategies. We hypothesised that ants would be larger, broader, have longer legs and more dorsally positioned eyes in simpler habitats. In agreement with predictions, ants had longer femurs and dorsally positioned eyes in simple habitats. This pattern was most pronounced for ants that discovered resources. Body size and pronotum width responded as predicted for experimental treatments, but were inconsistent across continents. Monopolising ants were smaller, with shorter femurs than those that occupied or discovered resources. Consistent responses for several traits suggest that many, but not all, aspects of morphology respond predictably to habitat complexity, and that foraging strategy is linked with morphology. Some traits thus have the potential to be used to predict the direction of species turnover, changes in foraging strategy and, potentially, evolution in response to changes in habitat structure.

  3. Does structural complexity determine the morphology of assemblages? An experimental test on three continents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloise Gibb

    Full Text Available Understanding how species will respond to global change depends on our ability to distinguish generalities from idiosyncrasies. For diverse, but poorly known taxa, such as insects, species traits may provide a short-cut to predicting species turnover. We tested whether ant traits respond consistently to habitat complexity across geographically independent ant assemblages, using an experimental approach and baits. We repeated our study in six paired simple and complex habitats on three continents with distinct ant faunas. We also compared traits amongst ants with different foraging strategies. We hypothesised that ants would be larger, broader, have longer legs and more dorsally positioned eyes in simpler habitats. In agreement with predictions, ants had longer femurs and dorsally positioned eyes in simple habitats. This pattern was most pronounced for ants that discovered resources. Body size and pronotum width responded as predicted for experimental treatments, but were inconsistent across continents. Monopolising ants were smaller, with shorter femurs than those that occupied or discovered resources. Consistent responses for several traits suggest that many, but not all, aspects of morphology respond predictably to habitat complexity, and that foraging strategy is linked with morphology. Some traits thus have the potential to be used to predict the direction of species turnover, changes in foraging strategy and, potentially, evolution in response to changes in habitat structure.

  4. Tests of the Attachment and Developmental Dynamic Systems Theory of Crime (ADDSTOC): Toward a Differential RDoC Diagnostic and Treatment Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Marc A; Zeid, Dana

    2018-01-01

    The Attachment and Developmental Dynamic Systems Theory of Crime was tested on 206 male inmates. They completed measures tapping attachments, clinical issues, adverse childhood events, peer crime, and crime addictions. A significant path model was found, going from insecure parental attachments to adverse childhood events, and then on to the behavioral crime addiction and criminal peers scales. Peer crime was also predicted by insecure parent attachments and the crime addiction scale. Finally, the crime addiction, peer crime, and insecure parental attachment scales predicted frequencies of criminal behavior. The model also fit a sample of 239 female inmates. The notions of crime addiction, in this context of adverse events and insecure parental attachments, offered newer and more powerful explanations than previously offered by social learning theories on why some individuals are more likely to associate with peers engaging in criminal behavior, and also how these combine to predict degrees of criminal behavior. By moving beyond main effects models, it was found that a focus on systems of interactions was robust in theory and application. However, profile data from the Attachment and Clinical Issues Questionnaire showed that individual differences in Research Domain Criteria diagnoses are fundamental to treatment settings. Such approaches to reducing rates of recidivism and substance abuse should also enhance outcomes in many domains, including HIV prevention, costs to health care, and at the same time increase overall public safety.

  5. Exploratory behaviour in the open field test adapted for larval zebrafish: impact of environmental complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Farooq; Richardson, Michael K

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to develop and characterize a novel (standard) open field test adapted for larval zebrafish. We also developed and characterized a variant of the same assay consisting of a colour-enriched open field; this was used to assess the impact of environmental complexity on patterns of exploratory behaviours as well to determine natural colour preference/avoidance. We report the following main findings: (1) zebrafish larvae display characteristic patterns of exploratory behaviours in the standard open field, such as thigmotaxis/centre avoidance; (2) environmental complexity (i.e. presence of colours) differentially affects patterns of exploratory behaviours and greatly attenuates natural zone preference; (3) larvae displayed the ability to discriminate colours. As reported previously in adult zebrafish, larvae showed avoidance towards blue and black; however, in contrast to the reported adult behaviour, larvae displayed avoidance towards red. Avoidance towards yellow and preference for green and orange are shown for the first time, (4) compared to standard open field tests, exposure to the colour-enriched open field resulted in an enhanced expression of anxiety-like behaviours. To conclude, we not only developed and adapted a traditional rodent behavioural assay that serves as a gold standard in preclinical drug screening, but we also provide a version of the same test that affords the possibility to investigate the impact of environmental stress on behaviour in larval zebrafish while representing the first test for assessment of natural colour preference/avoidance in larval zebrafish. In the future, these assays will improve preclinical drug screening methodologies towards the goal to uncover novel drugs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: insert SI title. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Testing complex animal cognition: Concept learning, proactive interference, and list memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Anthony A

    2018-01-01

    This article describes an approach for assessing and comparing complex cognition in rhesus monkeys and pigeons by training them in a sequence of synergistic tasks, each yielding a whole function for enhanced comparisons. These species were trained in similar same/different tasks with expanding training sets (8, 16, 32, 64, 128 … 1024 pictures) followed by novel-stimulus transfer eventually resulting in full abstract-concept learning. Concept-learning functions revealed better rhesus transfer throughout and full concept learning at the 128 set, versus pigeons at the 256 set. They were then tested in delayed same/different tasks for proactive interference by inserting occasional tests within trial-unique sessions where the test stimulus matched a previous sample stimulus (1, 2, 4, 8, 16 trials prior). Proactive-interference functions revealed time-based interference for pigeons (1, 10 s delays), but event-based interference for rhesus (no effect of 1, 10, 20 s delays). They were then tested in list-memory tasks by expanding the sample to four samples in trial-unique sessions (minimizing proactive interference). The four-item, list-memory functions revealed strong recency memory at short delays, gradually changing to strong primacy memory at long delays over 30 s for rhesus, and 10 s for pigeons. Other species comparisons and future directions are discussed. © 2018 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  7. Equivalence Testing of Complex Particle Size Distribution Profiles Based on Earth Mover's Distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Meng; Jiang, Xiaohui; Absar, Mohammad; Choi, Stephanie; Kozak, Darby; Shen, Meiyu; Weng, Yu-Ting; Zhao, Liang; Lionberger, Robert

    2018-04-12

    Particle size distribution (PSD) is an important property of particulates in drug products. In the evaluation of generic drug products formulated as suspensions, emulsions, and liposomes, the PSD comparisons between a test product and the branded product can provide useful information regarding in vitro and in vivo performance. Historically, the FDA has recommended the population bioequivalence (PBE) statistical approach to compare the PSD descriptors D50 and SPAN from test and reference products to support product equivalence. In this study, the earth mover's distance (EMD) is proposed as a new metric for comparing PSD particularly when the PSD profile exhibits complex distribution (e.g., multiple peaks) that is not accurately described by the D50 and SPAN descriptor. EMD is a statistical metric that measures the discrepancy (distance) between size distribution profiles without a prior assumption of the distribution. PBE is then adopted to perform statistical test to establish equivalence based on the calculated EMD distances. Simulations show that proposed EMD-based approach is effective in comparing test and reference profiles for equivalence testing and is superior compared to commonly used distance measures, e.g., Euclidean and Kolmogorov-Smirnov distances. The proposed approach was demonstrated by evaluating equivalence of cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion PSDs that were manufactured under different conditions. Our results show that proposed approach can effectively pass an equivalent product (e.g., reference product against itself) and reject an inequivalent product (e.g., reference product against negative control), thus suggesting its usefulness in supporting bioequivalence determination of a test product to the reference product which both possess multimodal PSDs.

  8. Complex evaluation of ecology situation and soil productivity of Semipalatinsk nuclear test site, perspectives of use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebed', L.; Ptiskaya, L.; Lyashenko; Pisak, R.

    1996-01-01

    Objective of the Project. The goal of the project is complex evaluation of environmental resources at the former Semipalatinsk Test Site and perspectives of their cultivation with taking into account radioactive pollution. Scope of Activities. The following main works at the territory of the former Semipalatinsk Test Site: - estimate of climate, climatic resources and their changes; - organization and realization of complex visual and tool-making air survey (geo botanical, utter satellite spectrometric, radiometric); - reception and computer treatment of space information; - organization and realization of surface expedition field works (radiometric measurements and geo botanical observations); - realization of laboratory analysis for exposure of radio nucleus content in soil, plant and water; - treatment of materials of geo botanical survey, construction of plant and soil maps; - treatment of materials of aero spectrometric and space survey, calculation of vegetation cover productivity, drawing up of computer maps; - assessment of desert and steppe zone vegetation dynamic under artificial and climate impact.Expected Results. The following main investigation results will be obtained first for the territory of Semipalatinsk Test Site and area around it. 1. Objective modern characteristics of radioactive land pollution. Distribution of radio nucleus in soil and vegetation cover. 2. Modern characteristics climatic resources assessment under possible climate change. 3. New maps of vegetation and soil cover, biological and feed productivity of the lands of the polygon at the scale 1:100 000 -1:1 500 000 taking into account climatic resources of the region. 4. Dynamics of desert and steppe zone vegetation assessment under radiation impact and possible climate change. 5. Features of vegetation restoration under constant radiation influence. 6. Basis of perspectives of land cultivation in the Semipalatinsk polygon area and recommendation on rehabilitation soil and

  9. Developmental dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucian, Karin; von Aster, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Numerical skills are essential in our everyday life, and impairments in the development of number processing and calculation have a negative impact on schooling and professional careers. Approximately 3 to 6 % of children are affected from specific disorders of numerical understanding (developmental dyscalculia (DD)). Impaired development of number processing skills in these children is characterized by problems in various aspects of numeracy as well as alterations of brain activation and brain structure. Moreover, DD is assumed to be a very heterogeneous disorder putting special challenges to define homogeneous diagnostic criteria. Finally, interdisciplinary perspectives from psychology, neuroscience and education can contribute to the design for interventions, and although results are still sparse, they are promising and have shown positive effects on behaviour as well as brain function. In the current review, we are going to give an overview about typical and atypical development of numerical abilities at the behavioural and neuronal level. Furthermore, current status and obstacles in the definition and diagnostics of DD are discussed, and finally, relevant points that should be considered to make an intervention as successful as possible are summarized.

  10. The influence of study design and sex-differences on results from developmental neurotoxicity studies of bisphenol A: implications for toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beronius, Anna; Johansson, Niklas; Rudén, Christina; Hanberg, Annika

    2013-09-06

    Developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) of bisphenol A (BPA) has been investigated in a large number of studies. However, there are discrepancies in the results reported between the studies. The aim of this study was to identify and analyze factors that may contribute to these differences and to assess whether there are sex-differences in the sensitivity of certain endpoints or tests used in DNT-studies. Forty-four DNT studies of BPA were identified from the open literature. Details about study design and results from each study, as well as the criteria for DNT testing according to the standardized OECD test guideline (TG) 426, were collected in a database. This enabled systematic and detailed comparisons between studies as well as to the criteria and recommendations stated in TG 426. Multivariate analyses were also used to investigate how different factors of the study design contributed to differences in study results. The analyses showed behavioral effects were often observed for endpoints that are not required according to OECD TG 426, such as anxiety-related, social and sexual behaviors, especially at very low doses and in female offspring. On the other hand relatively few studies observed any effects on motor activity, which is commonly used in screening for neurotoxic effects in regulatory testing. However, varied and to some extent seemingly contradictory results have been reported in these studies, especially for endpoints related to motor activity and anxiety and exploration. Many studies were also poorly reported, limiting these analyses. No strong conclusions could be drawn from the multivariate analyses. A few factors of study design, such as the size of the dose and number of dose levels used and the use of litter or individual pup as statistical unit seemed to have some influence on study results. In conclusion, this analysis suggests that DNT-studies conducted according to the standardized OECD TG 426 may overlook sensitive effects of BPA, and possibly

  11. Vapor compression heat pump system field tests at the tech complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Van D.

    1985-11-01

    The Tennessee Energy Conservation In Housing (TECH) complex has been utilized since 1977 as a field test site for several novel and conventional heat pump systems for space conditioning and water heating. Systems tested include the Annual Cycle Energy System (ACES), solar assisted heat pumps (SAHP) both parallel and series, two conventional air-to-air heat pumps, an air-to-air heat pump with desuperheater water heater, and horizontal coil and multiple shallow vertical coil ground-coupled heat pumps (GCHP). A direct comparison of the measured annual performance of the test systems was not possible. However, a cursory examination revealed that the ACES had the best performance, however, its high cost makes it unlikely that it will achieve wide-spread use. Costs for the SAHP systems are similar to those of the ACES but their performance is not as good. Integration of water heating and space conditioning functions with a desuperheater yielded significant efficiency improvement at modest cost. The GCHP systems performed much better for heating than for cooling and may well be the most efficient alternative for residences in cold climates.

  12. Measuring Software Test Verification for Complex Workpieces based on Virtual Gear Measuring Instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Peili

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Validity and correctness test verification of the measuring software has been a thorny issue hindering the development of Gear Measuring Instrument (GMI. The main reason is that the software itself is difficult to separate from the rest of the measurement system for independent evaluation. This paper presents a Virtual Gear Measuring Instrument (VGMI to independently validate the measuring software. The triangular patch model with accurately controlled precision was taken as the virtual workpiece and a universal collision detection model was established. The whole process simulation of workpiece measurement is implemented by VGMI replacing GMI and the measuring software is tested in the proposed virtual environment. Taking involute profile measurement procedure as an example, the validity of the software is evaluated based on the simulation results; meanwhile, experiments using the same measuring software are carried out on the involute master in a GMI. The experiment results indicate a consistency of tooth profile deviation and calibration results, thus verifying the accuracy of gear measuring system which includes the measurement procedures. It is shown that the VGMI presented can be applied in the validation of measuring software, providing a new ideal platform for testing of complex workpiece-measuring software without calibrated artifacts.

  13. Environmental assessment report: Nuclear Test Technology Complex. [Construction and operation of proposed facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonnessen, K.; Tewes, H.A.

    1982-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (USDOE) is planning to construct and operate a structure, designated the Nuclear Test Technology Complex (NTTC), on a site located west of and adjacent to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The NTTC is designed to house 350 nuclear test program personnel, and will accommodate the needs of the entire staff of the continuing Nuclear Test Program (NTP). The project has three phases: land acquisition, facility construction and facility operation. The purpose of this environmental assessment report is to describe the activities associated with the three phases of the NTTC project and to evaluate potential environmental disruptions. The project site is located in a rural area of southeastern Alameda County, California, where the primary land use is agriculture; however, the County has zoned the area for industrial development. The environmental impacts of the project include surface disturbance, high noise levels, possible increases in site erosion, and decreased air quality. These impacts will occur primarily during the construction phase of the NTTC project and can be mitigated in part by measures proposed in this report.

  14. Hypoxic Challenge Testing (Fitness to Fly) in children with complex congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Nitha; Doughty, Victoria L; Starling, Luke; Franklin, Rodney C; Ward, Simon; Daubeney, Piers E F; Balfour-Lynn, Ian M

    2018-02-14

    Commercial airplanes fly with an equivalent cabin fraction of inspired oxygen of 0.15, leading to reduced oxygen saturation (SpO 2 ) in passengers. How this affects children with complex congenital heart disease (CHD) is unknown. We conducted Hypoxic Challenge Testing (HCT) to assess need for inflight supplemental oxygen. Children aged heart rate, QT interval corrected for heart rate and partial pressure of carbon dioxide measured transcutaneously (PtcCO 2 ). A test failed when children with (1) normal baseline SpO 2 desaturated to 85%, (2) baseline SpO 2 85%-94% desaturated by 15% of baseline; and (3) baseline SpO 2 75%-84% desaturated to 70%. There were 68 children, mean age 3.3 years (range 10 weeks-14.5 years). Children with normal (n=36) baseline SpO 2 desaturated from median 99% to 91%, Pheart rate and QT interval corrected for heart rate were unaffected by the hypoxic state. This is the first evidence to help guide which children with CHD need a preflight HCT. We suggest all children with an actual or potential R-L shunt should be tested. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Feasibility of using microbiology diagnostic tests of moderate or high complexity at the point - of - care in a delivery suite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, J W; Milner, P J; Edwards, E H; Daniels, J P; Khan, K S

    2012-07-01

    Point-of-care testing (POCT) is one of the fastest growing sectors of laboratory diagnostics. Most tests in routine use are haematology or biochemistry tests that are of low complexity. Microbiology POCT has been constrained by a lack of tests that are both accurate and of low complexity. We describe our experience of the practical issues around using more complex POCT for detection of Group B streptococci (GBS) in swabs from labouring women. We evaluated two tests for their feasibility in POCT: an optical immune assay (Biostar OIA Strep B, Inverness Medical, Princetown, NJ) and a PCR (IDI-Strep B, Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA), which have been categorised as being of moderate and high complexity, respectively. A total of 12 unqualified midwifery assistants (MA) were trained to undertake testing on the delivery suite. A systematic approach to the introduction and management of POC testing was used. Modelling showed that the probability of test results being available within a clinically useful timescale was high. However, in the clinical setting, we found it impossible to maintain reliable availability of trained testers. Implementation of more complex POC testing is technically feasible, but it is expensive, and may be difficult to achieve in a busy delivery suite.

  16. Generation of Long-time Complex Signals for Testing the Instruments for Detection of Voltage Quality Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Živanović, Dragan; Simić, Milan; Kokolanski, Zivko; Denić, Dragan; Dimcev, Vladimir

    2018-04-01

    Software supported procedure for generation of long-time complex test sentences, suitable for testing the instruments for detection of standard voltage quality (VQ) disturbances is presented in this paper. This solution for test signal generation includes significant improvements of computer-based signal generator presented and described in the previously published paper [1]. The generator is based on virtual instrumentation software for defining the basic signal parameters, data acquisition card NI 6343, and power amplifier for amplification of output voltage level to the nominal RMS voltage value of 230 V. Definition of basic signal parameters in LabVIEW application software is supported using Script files, which allows simple repetition of specific test signals and combination of more different test sequences in the complex composite test waveform. The basic advantage of this generator compared to the similar solutions for signal generation is the possibility for long-time test sequence generation according to predefined complex test scenarios, including various combinations of VQ disturbances defined in accordance with the European standard EN50160. Experimental verification of the presented signal generator capability is performed by testing the commercial power quality analyzer Fluke 435 Series II. In this paper are shown some characteristic complex test signals with various disturbances and logged data obtained from the tested power quality analyzer.

  17. Gas spark switches with increased operating life for Marx generator of lightning test complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bykov, Yu. A.; Krastelev, E. G., E-mail: ekrastelev@yandex.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperature (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    A new design of gas spark switches with an increased operating life and stable dynamic characteristics for the Marx generator of the lightning test complex has been developed. The switches are characterized by the following parameters in the mode of operation: voltage up to 80 kV, discharge current up to 50 kA, flowing charge up to 3.5 C/pulse. An increased operating life is achieved by using torus-shaped electrodes with increased working surface area and a trigger electrode in the form of a thick disk with a hole located between them. Low breakdown delay time and high stability of breakdown voltage under dynamic conditions are provided by gas preionization in the spark gap using UV radiation of an additional corona discharge in the axial region.

  18. Corrective action investigation plan for CAU No. 424: Area 3 Landfill Complex, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    This Correction Action Investigation Plan contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at the Area 3 Landfill Complex, CAU No. 424, which is located at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, included in the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 255 kilometers (140 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, nevada. The CAU 424 is comprised of eight individual landfill sites that are located around and within the perimeter of the Area 3 Compound. Due to the unregulated disposal activities commonly associated with early landfill operations, an investigation will be conducted at each CAS to complete the following tasks: identify the presence and nature of possible contaminant migration from the landfills; determine the vertical and lateral extent of possible contaminant migration; ascertain the potential impact to human health and the environment; and provide sufficient information and data to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective action strategies for each CAS

  19. Interactive ultrasonic field simulations for complex non-destructive testing configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, Navnina

    2016-01-01

    Cone tomography is a well established inspection technique for industrial inspection purposes. The generation of scattering noise is inherent to the physical phenomena involved, and occurs both inside the material and the detector. This leads to the apparition of various blurring effects in 2D projections and to reconstruction errors when this effect is not properly taken into account. This works proposes an evolution of the scattering kernel superposition method, aiming at correcting these scattering effect directly in the 2D projections, before the reconstruction process. It consists in fitting analytical kernels that are used to generate realistic scattering contributions, which are in turn subtracted from the 2D projections. The proposed method has been tested using experimental data in cases involving complex materials and different levels of energy. Finally, a joint use of simulated and experimental data is described in the last chapter, in order to enhance the scattering kernels estimation. (author) [fr

  20. Endogenous Versus Exogenous Shocks in Complex Networks: An Empirical Test Using Book Sale Rankings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sornette, D.; Deschâtres, F.; Gilbert, T.; Ageon, Y.

    2004-11-01

    We study the precursory and recovery signatures accompanying shocks in complex networks, that we test on a unique database of the Amazon.com ranking of book sales. We find clear distinguishing signatures classifying two types of sales peaks. Exogenous peaks occur abruptly and are followed by a power law relaxation, while endogenous peaks occur after a progressively accelerating power law growth followed by an approximately symmetrical power law relaxation which is slower than for exogenous peaks. These results are rationalized quantitatively by a simple model of epidemic propagation of interactions with long memory within a network of acquaintances. The observed relaxation of sales implies that the sales dynamics is dominated by cascades rather than by the direct effects of news or advertisements, indicating that the social network is close to critical.

  1. Design Implementation and Testing of a VLSI High Performance ASIC for Extracting the Phase of a Complex Signal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Altmeyer, Ronald

    2002-01-01

    This thesis documents the research, circuit design, and simulation testing of a VLSI ASIC which extracts phase angle information from a complex sampled signal using the arctangent relationship: (phi=tan/-1 (Q/1...

  2. Complex Parts, Complex Data: Why You Need to Understand What Radiation Single Event Testing Data Does and Doesn't Show and the Implications Thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Berg, Melanie D.

    2015-01-01

    Electronic parts (integrated circuits) have grown in complexity such that determining all failure modes and risks from single particle event testing is impossible. In this presentation, the authors will present why this is so and provide some realism on what this means. Its all about understanding actual risks and not making assumptions.

  3. Selecting a cutoff point for a developmental screening test based on overall diagnostic indices and total expected utilities of professional preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hua-Fang; Cheng, Ling-Yee; Hsieh, Wu-Shiun; Yang, Ming-Chin

    2010-03-01

    A cutoff point in a test with sounded validity and professional preferences can help to make an accurate clinical decision. This study aimed to determine a cutoff point between two strategies for a developmental screening checklist (referred to as Taipei II). Cutoff point A was set as one or more item failed and cutoff point B was set as two or more items failed or one or more marked item failed. This study was based on the total expected utilities of professional preferences and overall diagnostic indices. A self-administered questionnaire was developed to collect the estimated utility from professionals involved in early childhood interventions (n = 81) regarding four screening outcomes (probabilities of true positive, false positive, true negative, or false negative) and costs. The total expected utilities were calculated from the probabilities of four screening outcomes and utility values. The diagnostic odds ratio was higher for strategy B (695 and 209, respectively) than that of strategy A (184 and 150, respectively) when using the Taipei II on children under 3 years of age and age 3 and over. Strategy B also had a higher median total expected utilities score than strategy A (0.78 vs. 0.72 for children or = 3). If only one cutoff point can be chosen, the authors suggest that clinicians should choose cutoff point B when using the Taipei II for screening. However, two cutoff points of Taipei II, a combination of strategy A and B, can also be used clinically. 2010 Formosan Medical Association & Elsevier. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Role of Fas-Mediated Apoptosis and Follicle-Stimulating Hormone on the Developmental Capacity of Bovine Cumulus Oocyte Complexes in Vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pomar, F.J.; Roelen, B.A.J.; Slot, K.A.; Tol, van H.T.A.; Colenbrander, B.; Teerds, K.J.

    2004-01-01

    Follicular atresia is believed to be largely regulated by apoptosis. To further understand how apoptosis can affect cumulus cells and oocytes we have evaluated the incidence and regulation of apoptosis affecting bovine cumulus oocyte complexes in vitro. Expression of components of the Fas signaling

  5. Item-saving assessment of self-care performance in children with developmental disabilities: A prospective caregiver-report computerized adaptive test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng-Te; Chen, Yu-Lan; Lin, Yu-Ching; Hsieh, Ching-Lin; Tzeng, Jeng-Yi

    2018-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to construct a computerized adaptive test (CAT) for measuring self-care performance (the CAT-SC) in children with developmental disabilities (DD) aged from 6 months to 12 years in a content-inclusive, precise, and efficient fashion. Methods The study was divided into 3 phases: (1) item bank development, (2) item testing, and (3) a simulation study to determine the stopping rules for the administration of the CAT-SC. A total of 215 caregivers of children with DD were interviewed with the 73-item CAT-SC item bank. An item response theory model was adopted for examining the construct validity to estimate item parameters after investigation of the unidimensionality, equality of slope parameters, item fitness, and differential item functioning (DIF). In the last phase, the reliability and concurrent validity of the CAT-SC were evaluated. Results The final CAT-SC item bank contained 56 items. The stopping rules suggested were (a) reliability coefficient greater than 0.9 or (b) 14 items administered. The results of simulation also showed that 85% of the estimated self-care performance scores would reach a reliability higher than 0.9 with a mean test length of 8.5 items, and the mean reliability for the rest was 0.86. Administering the CAT-SC could reduce the number of items administered by 75% to 84%. In addition, self-care performances estimated by the CAT-SC and the full item bank were very similar to each other (Pearson r = 0.98). Conclusion The newly developed CAT-SC can efficiently measure self-care performance in children with DD whose performances are comparable to those of TD children aged from 6 months to 12 years as precisely as the whole item bank. The item bank of the CAT-SC has good reliability and a unidimensional self-care construct, and the CAT can estimate self-care performance with less than 25% of the items in the item bank. Therefore, the CAT-SC could be useful for measuring self-care performance in children with

  6. Evolution of the bHLH genes involved in stomatal development: implications for the expansion of developmental complexity of stomata in land plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Hua Ran

    Full Text Available Stomata play significant roles in plant evolution. A trio of closely related basic Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH subgroup Ia genes, SPCH, MUTE and FAMA, mediate sequential steps of stomatal development, and their functions may be conserved in land plants. However, the evolutionary history of the putative SPCH/MUTE/FAMA genes is still greatly controversial, especially the phylogenetic positions of the bHLH Ia members from basal land plants. To better understand the evolutionary pattern and functional diversity of the bHLH genes involved in stomatal development, we made a comprehensive evolutionary analysis of the homologous genes from 54 species representing the major lineages of green plants. The phylogenetic analysis indicated: (1 All bHLH Ia genes from the two basal land plants Physcomitrella and Selaginella were closely related to the FAMA genes of seed plants; and (2 the gymnosperm 'SPCH' genes were sister to a clade comprising the angiosperm SPCH and MUTE genes, while the FAMA genes of gymnosperms and angiosperms had a sister relationship. The revealed phylogenetic relationships are also supported by the distribution of gene structures and previous functional studies. Therefore, we deduce that the function of FAMA might be ancestral in the bHLH Ia subgroup. In addition, the gymnosperm "SPCH" genes may represent an ancestral state and have a dual function of SPCH and MUTE, two genes that could have originated from a duplication event in the common ancestor of angiosperms. Moreover, in angiosperms, SPCHs have experienced more duplications and harbor more copies than MUTEs and FAMAs, which, together with variation of the stomatal development in the entry division, implies that SPCH might have contributed greatly to the diversity of stomatal development. Based on the above, we proposed a model for the correlation between the evolution of stomatal development and the genes involved in this developmental process in land plants.

  7. Xylogenesis in zinnia (Zinnia elegans) cell cultures: unravelling the regulatory steps in a complex developmental programmed cell death event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakimova, Elena T; Woltering, Ernst J

    2017-04-01

    Physiological and molecular studies support the view that xylogenesis can largely be determined as a specific form of vacuolar programmed cell death (PCD). The studies in xylogenic zinnia cell culture have led to many breakthroughs in xylogenesis research and provided a background for investigations in other experimental models in vitro and in planta . This review discusses the most essential earlier and recent findings on the regulation of xylem elements differentiation and PCD in zinnia and other xylogenic systems. Xylogenesis (the formation of water conducting vascular tissue) is a paradigm of plant developmental PCD. The xylem vessels are composed of fused tracheary elements (TEs)-dead, hollow cells with patterned lignified secondary cell walls. They result from the differentiation of the procambium and cambium cells and undergo cell death to become functional post-mortem. The TE differentiation proceeds through a well-coordinated sequence of events in which differentiation and the programmed cellular demise are intimately connected. For years a classical experimental model for studies on xylogenesis was the xylogenic zinnia (Zinnia elegans) cell culture derived from leaf mesophyll cells that, upon induction by cytokinin and auxin, transdifferentiate into TEs. This cell system has been proven very efficient for investigations on the regulatory components of xylem differentiation which has led to many discoveries on the mechanisms of xylogenesis. The knowledge gained from this system has potentiated studies in other xylogenic cultures in vitro and in planta. The present review summarises the previous and latest findings on the hormonal and biochemical signalling, metabolic pathways and molecular and gene determinants underlying the regulation of xylem vessels differentiation in zinnia cell culture. Highlighted are breakthroughs achieved through the use of xylogenic systems from other species and newly introduced tools and analytical approaches to study the

  8. Performance of children with developmental dyslexia on high and low topological entropy artificial grammar learning task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katan, Pesia; Kahta, Shani; Sasson, Ayelet; Schiff, Rachel

    2017-07-01

    Graph complexity as measured by topological entropy has been previously shown to affect performance on artificial grammar learning tasks among typically developing children. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of graph complexity on implicit sequential learning among children with developmental dyslexia. Our goal was to determine whether children's performance depends on the complexity level of the grammar system learned. We conducted two artificial grammar learning experiments that compared performance of children with developmental dyslexia with that of age- and reading level-matched controls. Experiment 1 was a high topological entropy artificial grammar learning task that aimed to establish implicit learning phenomena in children with developmental dyslexia using previously published experimental conditions. Experiment 2 is a lower topological entropy variant of that task. Results indicated that given a high topological entropy grammar system, children with developmental dyslexia who were similar to the reading age-matched control group had substantial difficulty in performing the task as compared to typically developing children, who exhibited intact implicit learning of the grammar. On the other hand, when tested on a lower topological entropy grammar system, all groups performed above chance level, indicating that children with developmental dyslexia were able to identify rules from a given grammar system. The results reinforced the significance of graph complexity when experimenting with artificial grammar learning tasks, particularly with dyslexic participants.

  9. Interactive ultrasonic field simulations for complex non-destructive testing configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chouh, Hamza

    2016-01-01

    In order to fulfill increasing reliability and safety requirements, non-destructive testing techniques are constantly evolving and so does their complexity. Consequently, simulation is an essential part of their design. We developed a tool for the simulation of the ultrasonic field radiated by any planar probes into non-destructive testing configurations involving meshed geometries without prominent edges, isotropic and anisotropic, homogeneous and heterogeneous materials, and wave trajectories that can include reflections and transmissions. We approximate the ultrasonic wave fronts by using polynomial interpolators that are local to ultrasonic ray pencils. They are obtained using a surface research algorithm based on pencil tracing and successive subdivisions. Their interpolators enable the computation of the necessary quantities for the impulse responses on each point of a sampling of the transducer surface that fulfills the Shannon criterion. By doing so, we can compute a global impulse response which, when convolved with the excitation signal of the transducer, results in the ultrasonic field. The usage of task parallelism and of SIMD instructions on the most computationally expensive steps yields an important performance boost. Finally, we developed a tool for progressive visualization of field images. It benefits from an image reconstruction technique and schedules field computations in order to accelerate convergence towards the final image. (author) [fr

  10. THE COMPLEX OF STANDS FOR TESTING THE AIR CUSHION CHASSIS OF AIRCRAFT AND VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with a set of stands made in NIMK TSAGI for testing and creating the air cushion chassis for the aircraft and vehicles. It allows to fully embrace the process of developing and constructing the air cushion chassis for air- craft and solve problems relating to peculiarities of such aircraft on the takeoff, landing and movement in the elementary prepared and unprepared soil runways, flat terrain and water areas. The complex includes: the experimental installation to study aeroelasticity phenomena of the chassis in the extending and retracting process with simulation of aircraft and ekran- oplane takeoff and landing modes in the air flow, including the wind tunnels; the experimental stand with vertical screen for testing of ekranoplane models in T-5 wind tunnel of NIMC TsAGI, permitting to simultaneously vary the model’s posi- tion relatively to the screen, roll, pitch (angle of attack, and banking; mobile experimental stand with contact crawler gear, for experimental determination and comparative evaluation of the chassis with different patterns of formation and air cush- ion fences for all-year-round testing in natural conditions at elementary-prepared and unprepared sites and water areas. Based on mathematical simulation of flow past in the wind tunnel the possibility of use booth stand with vertical screen and experimental installation to study aeroelasticity phenomena of the chassis for experimental studies, respectively, by defini- tion of the aerodynamic characteristics of forces and moments of the air cushion aircraft and ekranoplanes models and the research of phenomena of aeroelasticity of flexible fencing is substantiated.

  11. Recessive loss-of-function mutations in AP4S1 cause mild fever-sensitive seizures, developmental delay and spastic paraplegia through loss of AP-4 complex assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardies, Katia; May, Patrick; Djémié, Tania; Tarta-Arsene, Oana; Deconinck, Tine; Craiu, Dana; Helbig, Ingo; Suls, Arvid; Balling, Rudy; Weckhuysen, Sarah; De Jonghe, Peter; Hirst, Jennifer; Afawi, Zaid; Barisic, Nina; Baulac, Stéphanie; Caglayan, Hande; Depienne, Christel; De Kovel, Carolien G.F.; Dimova, Petia; Guerrero-López, Rosa; Guerrini, Renzo; Hjalgrim, Helle; Hoffman-Zacharska, Dorota; Jahn, Johanna; Klein, Karl Martin; Koeleman, Bobby P.C.; Leguern, Eric; Lehesjoki, Anna-Elina; Lemke, Johannes; Lerche, Holger; Marini, Carla; Muhle, Hiltrud; Rosenow, Felix; Serratosa, Jose M.; Møller, Rikke S.; Stephani, Ulrich; Striano, Pasquale; Talvik, Tiina; Von Spiczak, Sarah; Weber, Yvonne; Zara, Federico

    2015-01-01

    We report two siblings with infantile onset seizures, severe developmental delay and spastic paraplegia, in whom whole-genome sequencing revealed compound heterozygous mutations in the AP4S1 gene, encoding the σ subunit of the adaptor protein complex 4 (AP-4). The effect of the predicted loss-of-function variants (p.Gln46Profs*9 and p.Arg97*) was further investigated in a patient's fibroblast cell line. We show that the premature stop mutations in AP4S1 result in a reduction of all AP-4 subunits and loss of AP-4 complex assembly. Recruitment of the AP-4 accessory protein tepsin, to the membrane was also abolished. In retrospect, the clinical phenotype in the family is consistent with previous reports of the AP-4 deficiency syndrome. Our study reports the second family with mutations in AP4S1 and describes the first two patients with loss of AP4S1 and seizures. We further discuss seizure phenotypes in reported patients, highlighting that seizures are part of the clinical manifestation of the AP-4 deficiency syndrome. We also hypothesize that endosomal trafficking is a common theme between heritable spastic paraplegia and some inherited epilepsies. PMID:25552650

  12. The application of mouse and human embryonic stem cells with transcriptomics in alternative developmental toxicity tests : A bridge from model species to man

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulpen, S.H.W.

    2015-01-01

    During life humans are exposed to diverse hazardous compounds, which can have toxicological effects. Reproductive and developmental toxicology are research areas dedicated to the study of the potential of a compound to affect male and female fertility, and development of the embryo and fetus during

  13. Test Review: Beaver, J. M., & Carter, M. A. (2006). "The Developmental Reading Assessment--Second Edition" (DRA2). Upper Saddle River, NJ--Pearson

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Allison M.; Christ, Theodore J.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the "Developmental Reading Assessment--Second Edition" (DRA2), a teacher-administered assessment that identifies students' instructional level, along with their strengths and weaknesses in reading. Once teachers calculate and interpret scores, the data can purportedly be used to inform, and possibly individualize,…

  14. Members of an R2R3-MYB transcription factor family in Petunia are developmentally and environmentally regulated to control complex floral and vegetative pigmentation patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Nick W; Lewis, David H; Zhang, Huaibi; Schwinn, Kathy E; Jameson, Paula E; Davies, Kevin M

    2011-03-01

    We present an investigation of anthocyanin regulation over the entire petunia plant, determining the mechanisms governing complex floral pigmentation patterning and environmentally induced vegetative anthocyanin synthesis. DEEP PURPLE (DPL) and PURPLE HAZE (PHZ) encode members of the R2R3-MYB transcription factor family that regulate anthocyanin synthesis in petunia, and control anthocyanin production in vegetative tissues and contribute to floral pigmentation. In addition to these two MYB factors, the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) factor ANTHOCYANIN1 (AN1) and WD-repeat protein AN11, are also essential for vegetative pigmentation. The induction of anthocyanins in vegetative tissues by high light was tightly correlated to the induction of transcripts for PHZ and AN1. Interestingly, transcripts for PhMYB27, a putative R2R3-MYB active repressor, were highly expressed during non-inductive shade conditions and repressed during high light. The competitive inhibitor PhMYBx (R3-MYB) was expressed under high light, which may provide feedback repression. In floral tissues DPL regulates vein-associated anthocyanin pigmentation in the flower tube, while PHZ determines light-induced anthocyanin accumulation on exposed petal surfaces (bud-blush). A model is presented suggesting how complex floral and vegetative pigmentation patterns are derived in petunia in terms of MYB, bHLH and WDR co-regulators. © 2011 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Standing of nucleic acid testing strategies in veterinary diagnosis laboratories to uncover Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Pedro; Botelho, Ana; Couto, Isabel; Viveiros, Miguel; Inácio, João

    2014-01-01

    Nucleic acid testing (NAT) designate any molecular approach used for the detection, identification, and characterization of pathogenic microorganisms, enabling the rapid, specific, and sensitive diagnostic of infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis. These assays have been widely used since the 90s of the last century in human clinical laboratories and, subsequently, also in veterinary diagnostics. Most NAT strategies are based in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and its several enhancements and variations. From the conventional PCR, real-time PCR and its combinations, isothermal DNA amplification, to the nanotechnologies, here we review how the NAT assays have been applied to decipher if and which member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex is present in a clinical sample. Recent advances in DNA sequencing also brought new challenges and have made possible to generate rapidly and at a low cost, large amounts of sequence data. This revolution with the high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies makes whole genome sequencing (WGS) and metagenomics the trendiest NAT strategies, today. The ranking of NAT techniques in the field of clinical diagnostics is rising, and we provide a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis with our view of the use of molecular diagnostics for detecting tuberculosis in veterinary laboratories, notwithstanding the gold standard being still the classical culture of the agent. The complementary use of both classical and molecular diagnostics approaches is recommended to speed the diagnostic, enabling a fast decision by competent authorities and rapid tackling of the disease. PMID:25988157

  16. DnaSAM: Software to perform neutrality testing for large datasets with complex null models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Andrew J; Liechty, John D; Tearse, Brandon R; Pande, Barnaly; Neale, David B

    2010-05-01

    Patterns of DNA sequence polymorphisms can be used to understand the processes of demography and adaptation within natural populations. High-throughput generation of DNA sequence data has historically been the bottleneck with respect to data processing and experimental inference. Advances in marker technologies have largely solved this problem. Currently, the limiting step is computational, with most molecular population genetic software allowing a gene-by-gene analysis through a graphical user interface. An easy-to-use analysis program that allows both high-throughput processing of multiple sequence alignments along with the flexibility to simulate data under complex demographic scenarios is currently lacking. We introduce a new program, named DnaSAM, which allows high-throughput estimation of DNA sequence diversity and neutrality statistics from experimental data along with the ability to test those statistics via Monte Carlo coalescent simulations. These simulations are conducted using the ms program, which is able to incorporate several genetic parameters (e.g. recombination) and demographic scenarios (e.g. population bottlenecks). The output is a set of diversity and neutrality statistics with associated probability values under a user-specified null model that are stored in easy to manipulate text file. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Future Directions in Sleep and Developmental Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Lisa J

    2017-01-01

    It is critical for psychologists to gain a better understanding about the intersection between sleep and developmental psychopathology. However, while many strive to answer the question of whether sleep causes developmental psychopathology, or vice versa, ultimately the relationship between sleep and developmental psychopathology is complex and dynamic. This article considers future directions in the field of clinical child and adolescent psychology that go beyond this mechanistic question, highlighting areas important to address for clinicians and researchers who strive to better understand how best to serve children and adolescents with developmental psychopathology. Questions are presented about what is normal in terms of sleep across development, the role of individual variability in terms of sleep needs and vulnerability to sleep loss, and how sleep may serve as a risk or resilience factor for developmental psychopathology, concluding with considerations for interventions.

  18. Testing and Analysis of Complex Structures to Improve CalcuRep

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Verhoeven, Stephan

    2000-01-01

    ...: The contractor shall investigate the performance of bonded composite repairs to complex metal aircraft structures in comparison with analytical predictions in order to verify new analytical models...

  19. Bringing content understanding into usability testing in complex application domains—a case study in eHealth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simon Bruntse; Rasmussen, Claire Kirchert; Frøkjær, Erik

    2017-01-01

    A usability evaluation technique, Cooperative Usability Testing with Questions of Understanding (CUT with QU) intended to illuminate users’ ability to understand the content information of an application is proposed. In complex application domains as for instance the eHealth domain, this issue...... the participation of four physiotherapists and four clients in a period of 3.5 months, it was demonstrated how CUT with QU can complement conventional usability testing and provide insight into users’ challenges with understanding of a new complex eHealth application. More experiments in other complex application...... domains involving different kinds of users and evaluators are needed before we can tell whether CUT with QU is an effective usability testing technique of wider applicability. Performing CUT with QU is very demanding by drawing heavily on the evaluators’ ability to respond effectively to openings...

  20. Neurobehavioural effects of developmental toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Landrigan, Philip J

    2014-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental disabilities, including autism, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, dyslexia, and other cognitive impairments, affect millions of children worldwide, and some diagnoses seem to be increasing in frequency. Industrial chemicals that injure the developing brain are among...... the known causes for this rise in prevalence. In 2006, we did a systematic review and identified five industrial chemicals as developmental neurotoxicants: lead, methylmercury, polychlorinated biphenyls, arsenic, and toluene. Since 2006, epidemiological studies have documented six additional developmental...... chemicals should not be presumed to be safe to brain development, and chemicals in existing use and all new chemicals must therefore be tested for developmental neurotoxicity. To coordinate these efforts and to accelerate translation of science into prevention, we propose the urgent formation of a new...

  1. Bioregenerative Life Support Systems Test Complex (Bio-Plex) Food Processing System: A Dual System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchonok, Michele; Vittadini, Elena; Peterson, Laurie J.; Swango, Beverly E.; Toerne, Mary E.; Russo, Dane M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A Bioregenerative Life Support Test Complex, BIO-Plex, is currently being constructed at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, TX. This facility will attempt to answer the questions involved in developing a lunar or planetary base. The Food Processing System (FPS) of the BIO-Plex is responsible for supplying food to the crew in coordination with the chosen mission scenario. Long duration space missions require development of both a Transit Food System and of a Lunar or Planetary Food System. These two systems are intrinsically different since the first one will be utilized in the transit vehicle in microgravity conditions with mostly resupplied foods, while the second will be used in conditions of partial gravity (hypogravity) to process foods from crops grown in the facility. The Transit Food System will consist of prepackaged food of extended shelf life. It will be supplemented with salad crops that will be consumed fresh. Microgravity imposes significant limitation on the ability to handle food and allows only for minimal processing. The challenge is to develop food systems similar to the International Space Station or Shuttle Food Systems but with a shelf life of 3 - 5 years. The Lunar or Planetary Food System will allow for food processing of crops due to the presence of some gravitational force (1/6 to 1/3 that of Earth). Crops such as wheat, soybean, rice, potato, peanut, and salad crops, will be processed to final products to provide a nutritious and acceptable diet for the crew. Not only are constraints imposed on the FPS from the crops (e.g., crop variation, availability, storage and shelf-life) but also significant requirements are present for the crew meals (e.g., RDA, high quality, safety, variety). The FPS becomes a fulcrum creating the right connection from crops to crew meals while dealing with issues of integration within a closed self-regenerative system (e.g., safe processing, waste production, volumes, air contaminations, water usage, etc

  2. Age-Dependent Developmental Response to Temperature: An Examination of the Rarely Tested Phenomenon in Two Species (Gypsy Moth (Lymantria dispar and Winter Moth (Operophtera brumata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Gray

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The pervading paradigm in insect phenology models is that the response to a given temperature does not vary within a life stage. The developmental rate functions that have been developed for general use, or for specific insects, have for the most part been temperature-dependent but not age-dependent, except where age is an ordinal variable designating the larval instar. Age dependence, where age is a continuous variable, is not often reported (or investigated, and is rarely included in phenology models. I provide a short review of the seldom-investigated phenomenon of age dependence in developmental response to temperature, and compare the derivation of the winter moth egg phenology model by Salis et al. to the derivation of another egg phenology model with age-dependent responses to temperature I discuss some probable reasons for the discrepancies (acknowledged by Salis et al. between modelled and observed developmental rates of the winter moth, and discuss the contribution that geographically robust phenology models can make to estimates of species distributions.

  3. The Impact of Complexity on the Expertise Reversal Effect: Experimental Evidence from Testing Accounting Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blayney, Paul; Kalyuga, Slava; Sweller, John

    2016-01-01

    Element interactivity is a central concept of cognitive load theory that defines the complexity of a learning task. The reduction of task complexity through a temporary segmentation or isolation of interacting elements was investigated with 104 students randomly assigned to an interacting elements group, where participants were required to deal…

  4. The Domain of Developmental Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroufe, L. Alan; Rutter, Michael

    1984-01-01

    Describes how developmental psychopathology differs from related disciplines, including abnormal psychology, psychiatry, clinical child psychology, and developmental psychology. Points out propositions underlying a developmental perspective and discusses implications for research in developmental psychopathology. (Author/RH)

  5. Developmental neuroimaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehaene-Lambertz, G. [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot (CEA/DSV/DRM), INSERM U562, 91 - Orsay (France)

    2006-07-01

    Cognitive capacities, such as language, mathematics, music, etc... are highly developed in humans as compared to animals. Numerous studies have found precursors of these capacities in infants: For example, infants are able to discriminate sentences in different languages (Mehler et al., 1988), distinguish sets of objects based on their numerosity (Feigenson et al., 2002) or recognize known faces (Bushnell, 1982). These abilities are not very different from those of other animals. Monkeys are also able to discriminate two human languages (Ramus et al., 2000), two quantities of items (Hauser et al., 2002), or respond to particular faces (Parr et al., 2000). In a few years, however, children surpass these animals. To explain the development of the cognitive capacities of our species, our approach consists in studying the initial stages of cerebral organization during the first months of life in order to characterize the critical parameters that allow infants to take advantage of their environment to achieve the adults' cognitive sophistication. Thanks to the recent progress of brain imaging, it is now possible to examine cerebral functioning of the very young child in entire security. In our team, we used two complementary methods: event-related potentials (ERPs) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (f MRI). ERPs, used since numerous years in infants, consist of the recording of the brain electrical activity consecutive to the presentation of a stimulus. By using a careful experimental design, it is possible to infer the succession of processing stages that the stimulus follows and to measure their latency (Dehaene-Lambertz and Dehaene, 1994; Gliga and Dehaene-Lambertz, 2006). High-density ERPs system allows also to record even small topographical differences between conditions and thus to infer that the underlying network s involved in the tested conditions are different. With this method, we have decomposed syllable perception in infants and underscore a

  6. Developmental neuroimaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehaene-Lambertz, G.

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive capacities, such as language, mathematics, music, etc... are highly developed in humans as compared to animals. Numerous studies have found precursors of these capacities in infants: For example, infants are able to discriminate sentences in different languages (Mehler et al., 1988), distinguish sets of objects based on their numerosity (Feigenson et al., 2002) or recognize known faces (Bushnell, 1982). These abilities are not very different from those of other animals. Monkeys are also able to discriminate two human languages (Ramus et al., 2000), two quantities of items (Hauser et al., 2002), or respond to particular faces (Parr et al., 2000). In a few years, however, children surpass these animals. To explain the development of the cognitive capacities of our species, our approach consists in studying the initial stages of cerebral organization during the first months of life in order to characterize the critical parameters that allow infants to take advantage of their environment to achieve the adults' cognitive sophistication. Thanks to the recent progress of brain imaging, it is now possible to examine cerebral functioning of the very young child in entire security. In our team, we used two complementary methods: event-related potentials (ERPs) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (f MRI). ERPs, used since numerous years in infants, consist of the recording of the brain electrical activity consecutive to the presentation of a stimulus. By using a careful experimental design, it is possible to infer the succession of processing stages that the stimulus follows and to measure their latency (Dehaene-Lambertz and Dehaene, 1994; Gliga and Dehaene-Lambertz, 2006). High-density ERPs system allows also to record even small topographical differences between conditions and thus to infer that the underlying network s involved in the tested conditions are different. With this method, we have decomposed syllable perception in infants and underscore a

  7. A systems biology approach to predictive developmental neurotoxicity of a larvicide used in the prevention of Zika virus transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Audouze, Karine; Taboureau, Olivier; Grandjean, Philippe

    2018-01-01

    The need to prevent developmental brain disorders has led to an increased interest in efficient neurotoxicity testing. When an epidemic of microcephaly occurred in Brazil, Zika virus infection was soon identified as the likely culprit. However, the pathogenesis appeared to be complex, and a larvi......The need to prevent developmental brain disorders has led to an increased interest in efficient neurotoxicity testing. When an epidemic of microcephaly occurred in Brazil, Zika virus infection was soon identified as the likely culprit. However, the pathogenesis appeared to be complex...... the potential developmental neurotoxicity, and we applied this method to examine the larvicide pyriproxyfen widely used in the prevention of Zika virus transmission. Our computational model covered a wide range of possible pathways providing mechanistic hypotheses between pyriproxyfen and neurological disorders...

  8. Current status of developmental neurotoxicity: regulatory view

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hass, Ulla

    2003-01-01

    in the testing strategy for new and existing substances, and biocides. Hopefully, this will lead to an improved database for risk assessment of potential developmental neurotoxicants. However, the regulatory authorities and toxicologists will also be faced with the challenge that decisions have to be made......The need for developmental neurotoxicity testing has been recognized for decades and guidelines are available, as the USEPA guideline and the OECD draft TG 426. Regulatory testing of industrial chemicals for developmental neurotoxicity is required to some extent, especially for pesticides in the US....... Until recently, however, developmental neurotoxicity testing of industrial chemicals has not been a clear regulatory requirement in EU, probably due to the lack of an accepted OECD TG. The revised EU Technical Guidance Document for Risk Assessment (EU-TGD) has now included the OECD draft TG 426...

  9. Bringing content understanding into usability testing in complex application domains—a case study in eHealth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simon Bruntse; Rasmussen, Claire Kirchert; Frøkjær, Erik

    2017-01-01

    A usability evaluation technique, Cooperative Usability Testing with Questions of Understanding (CUT with QU) intended to illuminate users’ ability to understand the content information of an application is proposed. In complex application domains as for instance the eHealth domain, this issue...... of users’ content understanding is sometimes crucial, and thus should be carefully evaluated. Unfortunately, conventional usability evaluation techniques do not address challenges of content understanding. In a case study within eHealth, specifically the setting of a rehabilitation clinic involving...... the participation of four physiotherapists and four clients in a period of 3.5 months, it was demonstrated how CUT with QU can complement conventional usability testing and provide insight into users’ challenges with understanding of a new complex eHealth application. More experiments in other complex application...

  10. International Semiotics: Item Difficulty and the Complexity of Science Item Illustrations in the PISA-2009 International Test Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Wang, Chao; Shade, Chelsey

    2016-01-01

    We examined multimodality (the representation of information in multiple semiotic modes) in the context of international test comparisons. Using Program of International Student Assessment (PISA)-2009 data, we examined the correlation of the difficulty of science items and the complexity of their illustrations. We observed statistically…

  11. Electronic load as part of the test complex of the power processing unit of electric and plasma propulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Chubov, S. V.; Soldatov, Aleksey Ivanovich

    2017-01-01

    This article provides the advantages and technical solutions for the use of electronic loads as part of a testing complex of power and management systems of electric and plasma propulsion of three types. The paper shows the parameters that were applied to select the electronic loads and describes their functionality.

  12. Developmental programming of happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Louis A; Fortier, Paz; Lahat, Ayelet; Tang, Alva; Mathewson, Karen J; Saigal, Saroj; Boyle, Michael H; Van Lieshout, Ryan J

    2017-09-01

    Being born at an extremely low birth weight (ELBW; programming hypotheses. Interfacing prenatal programming and differential susceptibility hypotheses, we tested whether individuals with ELBW in different childhood rearing environments showed different attention biases to positive and negative facial emotions in adulthood. Using the oldest known, prospectively followed cohort of ELBW survivors, we found that relative to normal birth weight controls (NBW; >2,500 grams), ELBW survivors displayed the highest and lowest attention bias to happy faces at age 30-35, depending on whether their total family income at age 8 was relatively low (environmental match) or high (environmental mismatch), respectively. This bias to happy faces was associated with a reduced likelihood of emotional problems. Findings suggest that differential susceptibility to positive emotions may be prenatally programmed, with effects lasting into adulthood. We discuss implications for integrating prenatal programming and differential susceptibility hypotheses, and the developmental origins of postnatal plasticity and resilience. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Testing the effect of habitat structure and complexity on nekton assemblages using experimental oyster reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Austin T.; LaPeyre, Megan K.; Kimball, Matthew E.; Rozas, Lawrence P.

    2011-01-01

    Structurally complex habitats are often associated with more diverse and abundant species assemblages in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Biogenic reefs formed by the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) are complex in nature and are recognized for their potential habitat value in estuarine systems along the US Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts. Few studies, however, have examined the response of nekton to structural complexity within oyster reefs. We used a quantitative sampling technique to examine how the presence and complexity of experimental oyster reefs influence the abundance, biomass, and distribution of nekton by sampling reefs 4 months and 16 months post-construction. Experimental oyster reefs were colonized immediately by resident fishes and decapod crustaceans, and reefs supported a distinct nekton assemblage compared to mud-bottom habitat. Neither increased reef complexity, nor age of the experimental reef resulted in further changes in nekton assemblages or increases in nekton abundance or diversity. The presence of oyster reefs per se was the most important factor determining nekton usage.

  14. Research on Design and Simulation of Biaxial Tensile-Bending Complex Mechanical Performance Test Apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailian Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to realize a micro-mechanic performance test of biaxial tensile-bending-combined loading and solve the problem of incompatibility of test apparatus and observation apparatus, novel biaxial-combined tensile-bending micro-mechanical performance test apparatus was designed. The working principle and major functions of key constituent parts of test apparatus, including the servo drive unit, clamping unit and test system, were introduced. Based on the finite element method, biaxial tensile and tension-bending-combined mechanical performances of the test-piece were studied as guidance to learn the distribution of elastic deformation and plastic deformation of all sites of the test-piece and to better plan test regions. Finally, this test apparatus was used to conduct a biaxial tensile test under different pre-bending loading and a tensile test at different rates; the image of the fracture of the test-piece was acquired by a scanning electron microscope and analyzed. It was indicated that as the pre-bending force rises, the elastic deformation phase would gradually shorten and the slope of the elastic deformation phase curve would slightly rise so that a yield limit would appear ahead of time. Bending speed could exert a positive and beneficial influence on tensile strength but weaken fracture elongation. If bending speed is appropriately raised, more ideal anti-tensile strength could be obtained, but fracture elongation would decline.

  15. Development of test for determining olfactory investigation of complex odours in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørvang, Maria Vilain; Jensen, Margit Bak; Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm

    2017-01-01

    , with order of odour presentation balanced among animals. Duration of sniffing (muzzle in proximity or contact with) the test bucket as well as the occurrence of licking or biting the test bucket were recorded by direct observation. All animals sniffed an odour (i.e. the test bucket) less when presented...

  16. Towards a Framework for Generating Tests to Satisfy Complex Code Coverage in Java Pathfinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Matt

    2009-01-01

    We present work on a prototype tool based on the JavaPathfinder (JPF) model checker for automatically generating tests satisfying the MC/DC code coverage criterion. Using the Eclipse IDE, developers and testers can quickly instrument Java source code with JPF annotations covering all MC/DC coverage obligations, and JPF can then be used to automatically generate tests that satisfy these obligations. The prototype extension to JPF enables various tasks useful in automatic test generation to be performed, such as test suite reduction and execution of generated tests.

  17. Spermatozoa isolated from cat testes retain their structural integrity as well as a developmental potential after refrigeration for up to 7 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buarpung, Sirirak; Tharasanit, Theerawat; Thongkittidilok, Chommanart; Comizzoli, Pierre; Techakumphu, Mongkol

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the efficiency of preservation media for isolated feline testicular spermatozoa as well as the concentrations of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on: (1) the membrane (sperm membrane integrity (SMI)) and DNA integrity of spermatozoa; and (2) the developmental potential of spermatozoa after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Isolated cat spermatozoa were stored in HEPES-M199 medium (HM) or Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline (DPBS) at 4°C for up to 7 days. Results indicated that HM maintained a better SMI than DPBS throughout the storage periods (P > 0.05). When spermatozoa were stored in HM supplemented with BSA at different concentrations (4, 8 or 16 mg/ml), SMI obtained from HM containing 8 and 16 mg/ml BSA was higher than with 4 mg/ml BSA (P 0.05). In summary, cat spermatozoa immediately isolated from testicular tissue can be stored as a suspension in basic buffered medium at 4°C for up to 7 days. BSA supplementation into the medium improves membrane integrity of the spermatozoa during cold storage. Testicular spermatozoa stored in HM containing 16 mg/ml BSA retained full in vitro developmental potential after ICSI, similar to that of fresh controls even though DNA integrity had slightly declined.

  18. Reproductive and developmental toxicology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gupta, Ramesh C

    2011-01-01

    .... Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology is a comprehensive and authoritative resource providing the latest literature enriched with relevant references describing every aspect of this area of science...

  19. Developmental trends in adaptive memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otgaar, Henry; Howe, Mark L; Smeets, Tom; Garner, Sarah R

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that memory is enhanced when information is processed for fitness-related purposes. The main objective of the current experiments was to test developmental trends in the evolutionary foundation of memory using different types of stimuli and paradigms. In Experiment 1, 11-year-olds and adults were presented with neutral, negative, and survival-related DRM word lists. We found a memory benefit for the survival-related words and showed that false memories were more likely to be elicited for the survival-related word lists than for the other lists. Experiment 2 examined developmental trends in the survival processing paradigm using neutral, negative, and survival-related pictures. A survival processing advantage was found for survival-related pictures in adults, for negative pictures in 11/12-year-olds, and for neutral pictures in 7/8-year-olds. In Experiment 3, 11/12-year-olds and adults had to imagine the standard survival scenario or an adapted survival condition (or pleasantness condition) that was designed to reduce the possibilities for elaborative processing. We found superior memory retention for both survival scenarios in children and adults. Collectively, our results evidently show that the survival processing advantage is developmentally invariant and that certain proximate mechanisms (elaboration and distinctiveness) underlie these developmental trends.

  20. Secure equality and greater-than tests with sublinear online complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipmaa, Helger; Toft, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    Secure multiparty computation (MPC) allows multiple parties to evaluate functions without disclosing the private inputs. Secure comparisons (testing equality and greater-than) are important primitives required by many MPC applications. We propose two equality tests for ℓ-bit values with O(1) online...

  1. Making System Dynamics Cool II : New Hot Teaching and Testing Cases of Increasing Complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruyt, E.

    2010-01-01

    This follow-up paper presents several actual cases for testing and teaching System Dynamics. The cases were developed between April 2009 and January 2010 for the Introductory System Dynamics courses at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands. They can be used for teaching and testing

  2. Testing a Firefly-Inspired Synchronization Algorithm in a Complex Wireless Sensor Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Chuangbo; Song, Ping; Yang, Cheng; Liu, Xiongjun

    2017-03-08

    Data acquisition is the foundation of soft sensor and data fusion. Distributed data acquisition and its synchronization are the important technologies to ensure the accuracy of soft sensors. As a research topic in bionic science, the firefly-inspired algorithm has attracted widespread attention as a new synchronization method. Aiming at reducing the design difficulty of firefly-inspired synchronization algorithms for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) with complex topologies, this paper presents a firefly-inspired synchronization algorithm based on a multiscale discrete phase model that can optimize the performance tradeoff between the network scalability and synchronization capability in a complex wireless sensor network. The synchronization process can be regarded as a Markov state transition, which ensures the stability of this algorithm. Compared with the Miroll and Steven model and Reachback Firefly Algorithm, the proposed algorithm obtains better stability and performance. Finally, its practicality has been experimentally confirmed using 30 nodes in a real multi-hop topology with low quality links.

  3. Complex fragments from excited actinide nuclei. A new test of the finite range model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarantities, D.G.; Bowman, D.R.; Wozniak, G.J.; Charity, R.J.; Liu, Z.H.; McDonald, R.J.; McMahan, M.A.; Moretto, L.G.

    1989-01-01

    Complex fragments ranging in charge from 7 ≤ Z ≤ 45 have been detected in binary coincidence following the reaction of 8.4 MeV/u 232 Th+ 12 C, and are shown to arise from the binary decay of a 244 Cm compound nucleus. This work confirms earlier radiochemical observations of very light fragments in the fission fragment mass distribution, establishes their binary character, and interprets their yield in terms of finite range potential energy barriers. (orig.)

  4. Complex fragments from excited actinide nuclei: A new test of the finite range model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarantities, D.G.; Bowman, D.R.; Wozniak, G.J.; Charity, R.J.; Liu, Z.H.; McDonald, R.J.; McMahan, M.A.; Moretto, L.G.

    1988-05-01

    Complex fragments ranging in charge from 7≤Z≤45 have been detected in binary coincidence following the reaction of 8.4 MeV/u 232 Th+ 12 C, and are shown to arise from the binary decay of a 244 Cm compound nucleus. This work confirms earlier radiochemical observations of very light fragments in the fission fragment mass distribution, establishes their binary character, and interprets their yield in terms of finite range potential energy barriers. 15 refs., 3 figs

  5. Computer Simulation of Embryonic Systems: What can a virtual embryo teach us about developmental toxicity? Microcephaly: Computational and organotypic modeling of a complex human birth defect (seminar and lecture - Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    (1) Standard practice for assessing developmental toxicity is the observation of apical endpoints (intrauterine death, fetal growth retardation, structural malformations) in pregnant rats/rabbits following exposure during organogenesis. EPA’s computational toxicology research pro...

  6. Construct validity of the pediatric evaluation of disability inventory computer adaptive test (PEDI-CAT) in children with medical complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Helene M; Fragala-Pinkham, Maria A; Rosen, Elaine L; O'Brien, Jane E

    2017-11-01

    To assess construct (convergent and divergent) validity of the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory Computer Adaptive Test (PEDI-CAT) in a sample of children with complex medical conditions. Demographics, clinical information, PEDI-CAT normative score, and the Post-Acute Acuity Rating for Children (PAARC) level were collected for all post-acute hospital admissions (n = 110) from 1 April 2015 to 1 March 2016. Correlations between the PEDI-CAT Daily Activities, Mobility, and Social/Cognitive domain scores for the total sample and across three age groups (infant, preschool, and school-age) were calculated. Differences in mean PEDI-CAT scores for each domain across two groups, children with "Less Complexity," or "More Complexity" based on PAARC level were examined. All correlations for the total sample and age subgroups were statistically significant and trends across age groups were evident with the stronger associations between domains for the infant group. Significant differences were found between mean PEDI-CAT Daily Activities, Mobility, and Social/Cognitive normative scores across the two complexity groups with children in the "Less Complex" group having higher PEDI-CAT scores for all domains. This study provides evidence indicating the PEDI-CAT can be used with confidence in capturing and differentiating children's level of function in a post-acute care setting. Implications for Rehabilitation The PEDI-CAT is measure of function for children with a variety of conditions and can be used in any clinical setting. Convergent validity of the PEDI-CAT's Daily Activities, Mobility, and Social/Cognitive domains was significant and particularly strong for infants and young children with medical complexity. The PEDI-CAT was able to discriminate groups of children with differing levels of medical complexity admitted to a pediatric post-acute care hospital.

  7. "Think aloud" and "Near live" usability testing of two complex clinical decision support tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Safiya; Mishuris, Rebecca; O'Connell, Alexander; Feldstein, David; Hess, Rachel; Smith, Paul; McCullagh, Lauren; McGinn, Thomas; Mann, Devin

    2017-10-01

    Low provider adoption continues to be a significant barrier to realizing the potential of clinical decision support. "Think Aloud" and "Near Live" usability testing were conducted on two clinical decision support tools. Each was composed of an alert, a clinical prediction rule which estimated risk of either group A Streptococcus pharyngitis or pneumonia and an automatic order set based on risk. The objective of this study was to further understanding of the facilitators of usability and to evaluate the types of additional information gained from proceeding to "Near Live" testing after completing "Think Aloud". This was a qualitative observational study conducted at a large academic health care system with 12 primary care providers. During "Think Aloud" testing, participants were provided with written clinical scenarios and asked to verbalize their thought process while interacting with the tool. During "Near Live" testing participants interacted with a mock patient. Morae usability software was used to record full screen capture and audio during every session. Participant comments were placed into coding categories and analyzed for generalizable themes. Themes were compared across usability methods. "Think Aloud" and "Near Live" usability testing generated similar themes under the coding categories visibility, workflow, content, understand-ability and navigation. However, they generated significantly different themes under the coding categories usability, practical usefulness and medical usefulness. During both types of testing participants found the tool easier to use when important text was distinct in its appearance, alerts were passive and appropriately timed, content was up to date, language was clear and simple, and each component of the tool included obvious indicators of next steps. Participant comments reflected higher expectations for usability and usefulness during "Near Live" testing. For example, visit aids, such as automatically generated order sets

  8. Developmental Perspectives on Nutrition and Obesity From Gestation to Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Terry T.; Esposito, Layla; Fisher, Jennifer O.; Mennella, Julie A.; Hoelscher, Deanna M.

    2009-01-01

    Obesity results from a complex combination of factors that act at many stages throughout a person's life. Therefore, examining childhood nutrition and obesity from a developmental perspective is warranted. A developmental perspective recognizes the cumulative effects of factors that contribute to eating behavior and obesity, including biological and socioenvironmental factors that are relevant at different stages of development. A developmental perspective considers family, school, and commun...

  9. Intraspecific hybridization, developmental stability and fitness in Drosophila mercatorum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, D.H.; Pertoldi, C.; Scali, V.

    2002-01-01

    One of the possible effects of intraspecific hybridization is outbreeding depression, due to a breakdown of coadapted gene complexes, which can lead to reduced fitness and decreased developmental stability in hybrids. Alternatively, increased fitness and increased developmental stability in hybrids...... (hybrid vigour) may be a result of hybridization, probably due to increased heterozygosity. Developmental stability is assumed to be correlated with fitness and is commonly measured as fluctuating asymmetry or phenotypic variance. Drosophila mercatorum is capable of reproducing sexually, but also...

  10. 2015 Annual Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Michael George [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This report describes conditions and information, as required by the state of Idaho, Department of Environmental Quality Reuse Permit I-161-02, for the Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Ponds located at Idaho National Laboratory from November 1, 2014–October 31, 2015. The effective date of Reuse Permit I-161-02 is November 20, 2014 with an expiration date of November 19, 2019.

  11. 2015 Annual Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Michael George

    2016-01-01

    This report describes conditions and information, as required by the state of Idaho, Department of Environmental Quality Reuse Permit I-161-02, for the Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Ponds located at Idaho National Laboratory from November 1, 2014-October 31, 2015. The effective date of Reuse Permit I-161-02 is November 20, 2014 with an expiration date of November 19, 2019.

  12. Radiochemical data collected on events from which radioactivity escaped beyond the borders of the Nevada test range complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, H.G.

    1981-01-01

    This report identifies all nuclear events in Nevada that are known to have sent radioactivity beyond the borders of the test range complex. There have been 177 such tests, representing seven different types: nuclear detonations in the atmosphere, nuclear excavation events, nuclear safety events, underground nuclear events that inadvertently seeped or vented to the atmosphere, dispersion of plutonium and/or uranium by chemical high explosives, nuclear rocket engine tests, and nuclear ramjet engine tests. The source term for each of these events is given, together with the data base from which it was derived (except where the data are classified). The computer programs used for organizing and processing the data base and calculating radionuclide production are described and included, together with the input and output data and details of the calculations. This is the basic formation needed to make computer modeling studies of the fallout from any of these 177 events

  13. Robotic system for non-destructive testing of complex shaped objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavalerov, B. V.; Fayzrakhmanov, R. A.; Murzakaev, R. T.; Polyakov, A. N.; Artemev, V. V.

    2018-03-01

    This article describes the positioning system of defectoscopic equipment for nondestructive examination of complex shaped parts made of polymer composite materials. The purpose of the system and features of the investigated objects are described. The rationale for the development of the system and the range of problems it solves are presented. The solution of the kinematics problem for a 5-DOF manipulator is considered. The original algorithms for solving the kinematics problem are demonstrated. Methods for resolving collisions for a manipulator system are described. The results obtained in the course of experiments and studies are presented.

  14. Distinguishing epigenetic marks of developmental and imprinting regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McEwen Kirsten R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The field of epigenetics is developing rapidly, however we are only beginning to comprehend the complexity of its influence on gene regulation. Using genomic imprinting as a model we examine epigenetic profiles associated with different forms of gene regulation. Imprinting refers to the expression of a gene from only one of the chromosome homologues in a parental-origin-specific manner. This is dependent on heritable germline epigenetic control at a cis-acting imprinting control region that influences local epigenetic states. Epigenetic modifications associated with imprinting regulation can be compared to those associated with the more canonical developmental regulation, important for processes such as differentiation and tissue specificity. Here we test the hypothesis that these two mechanisms are associated with different histone modification enrichment patterns. Results Using high-throughput data extraction with subsequent analysis, we have found that particular histone modifications are more likely to be associated with either imprinting repression or developmental repression of imprinted genes. H3K9me3 and H4K20me3 are together enriched at imprinted genes with differentially methylated promoters and do not show a correlation with developmental regulation. H3K27me3 and H3K4me3, however, are more often associated with developmental regulation. We find that imprinted genes are subject to developmental regulation through bivalency with H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 enrichment on the same allele. Furthermore, a specific tri-mark signature comprising H3K4me3, H3K9me3 and H4K20me3 has been identified at all imprinting control regions. Conclusion A large amount of data is produced from whole-genome expression and epigenetic profiling studies of cellular material. We have shown that such publicly available data can be mined and analysed in order to generate novel findings for categories of genes or regulatory elements. Comparing two

  15. Comments from the Behavioral Teratology Committee of the Japanese Teratology Society on OECD guideline for the testing of chemicals, proposal for a new guideline 426, developmental neurotoxicity study, draft document (September 2003).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Yoshihiro; Ema, Makoto; Fujiwara, Michio; Higuchi, Hashihiro; Inouye, Minoru; Iwase, Takayuki; Kihara, Takahide; Nishimura, Tatsuya; Oi, Akihide; Ooshima, Yojiro; Otani, Hiroki; Shinomiya, Mitsuhiro; Sugioka, Kozo; Yamano, Tsunekazu; Yamashita, Keisuke H; Tanimura, Takashi

    2004-09-01

    In September 2003, a new revision of the draft guideline (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD] Guideline for the Testing of Chemicals, Proposal for a New Guideline 426, Developmental Neurotoxicity Study) was distributed. The draft guideline consists of 51 paragraphs and an appendix. The National Coordinators were requested to arrange national expert reviews of the guideline proposal in their member countries. The member of the Behavioral Teratology (BT) Committee of the Japanese Teratology Society (JTS) reviewed, discussed and commented on the draft Test Guideline proposal. The BT Committee of the JTS also commented that the International Collaborative Study to validate this protocol should be definitely performed. These comments were sent to the OECD Secretariat. The BT Committee of the JTS expects that the comments are useful for further discussion.

  16. Complex test of the C-PORCA 5.0 using HELIOS calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pos, I.; Nemes, I.; Patai-Szabo, S.

    2001-01-01

    Testing of C-PORCA 5.0 model using HELIOS calculation was performed. The basis of tests was a 30-degree core sector of WWER-440 containing differently burned fuel assemblies. Both with HELIOS and C-PORCA code one assembly burnup was calculated in infinite lattice assumption. Then differently burned fuel moved to a 30-degree core sector. Finally a 30-degree core was calculated and the HELIOS and C-PORCA results were compared. The comparison used in a validation procedure of C-PORCA model during introduction of higher enriched fuel to Paks units (Authors)

  17. Using Neural Progenitor Cells in High-Throughput Screens for Developmental Neurotoxicants: Triumphs and Tragedies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current protocols for developmental neurotoxicity testing are insufficient to test thousands of commercial chemicals. Thus, development of highthroughput screens (HTS) to detect and prioritize chemicals that may cause developmental neurotoxicity is needed to improve protection of...

  18. A developmental approach to mentalizing communities: I. A model for social change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twemlow, Stuart W; Fonagy, Peter; Sacco, Frank C

    2005-01-01

    A developmental model is proposed applying attachment theory to complex social systems to promote social change. The idea of mentalizing communities is outlined with a proposal for three projects testing the model: ways to reduce bullying and create a peaceful climate in schools, projects to promote compassion in cities by a focus of end-of-life care, and a mentalization-based intervention into parenting style of borderline and substance abusing parents.

  19. Relationships between the handball-specific complex test, non-specific field tests and the match performance score in elite professional handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermassi, Souhail; Chelly, Mohamed-Souhaiel; Wollny, Rainer; Hoffmeyer, Birgit; Fieseler, Georg; Schulze, Stephan; Irlenbusch, Lars; Delank, Karl-Stefan; Shephard, Roy J; Bartels, Thomas; Schwesig, René

    2018-06-01

    This study assessed the validity of the handball-specific complex test (HBCT) and two non-specific field tests in professional elite handball athletes, using the match performance score (MPS) as the gold standard of performance. Thirteen elite male handball players (age: 27.4±4.8 years; premier German league) performed the HBCT, the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery (YYIR) test and a repeated shuttle sprint ability (RSA) test at the beginning of pre-season training. The RSA results were evaluated in terms of best time, total time, and fatigue decrement. Heart rates (HR) were assessed at selected times throughout all tests; the recovery HR was measured immediately post-test and 10 minutes later. The match performance score was based on various handball specific parameters (e.g., field goals, assists, steals, blocks, and technical mistakes) as seen during all matches of the immediately subsequent season (2015/2016). The parameters of run 1, run 2, and HR recovery at minutes 6 and 10 of the RSA test all showed a variance of more than 10% (range: 11-15%). However, the variance of scores for the YYIR test was much smaller (range: 1-7%). The resting HR (r2=0.18), HR recovery at minute 10 (r2=0.10), lactate concentration at rest (r2=0.17), recovery of heart rate from 0 to 10 minutes (r2=0.15), and velocity of second throw at first trial (r2=0.37) were the most valid HBCT parameters. Much effort is necessary to assess MPS and to develop valid tests. Speed and the rate of functional recovery seem the best predictors of competitive performance for elite handball players.

  20. An Association Between Functional Polymorphisms of the Interleukin 1 Gene Complex and Schizophrenia Using Transmission Disequilibrium Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapelski, Pawel; Skibinska, Maria; Maciukiewicz, Malgorzata; Pawlak, Joanna; Dmitrzak-Weglarz, Monika; Szczepankiewicz, Aleksandra; Zaremba, Dorota; Twarowska-Hauser, Joanna

    2016-12-01

    IL1 gene complex has been implicated in the etiology of schizophrenia. To assess whether IL1 gene complex is associated with susceptibility to schizophrenia in Polish population we conducted family-based study. Functional polymorphisms from IL1A (rs1800587, rs17561, rs11677416), IL1B (rs1143634, rs1143643, rs16944, rs4848306, rs1143623, rs1143633, rs1143627) and IL1RN (rs419598, rs315952, rs9005, rs4251961) genes were genotyped in 143 trio with schizophrenia. Statistical analysis was performed using transmission disequilibrium test. We have found a trend toward an association of rs1143627, rs16944, rs1143623 in IL1B gene with the risk of schizophrenia. Our results show a protective effect of allele T of rs4251961 in IL1RN against schizophrenia. We also performed haplotype analysis of IL1 gene complex and found a trend toward an association with schizophrenia of GAGG haplotype (rs1143627, rs16944, rs1143623, rs4848306) in IL1B gene, haplotypes: TG (rs315952, rs9005) and TT (rs4251961, rs419598) in IL1RN. Haplotype CT (rs4251961, rs419598) in IL1RN was found to be associated with schizophrenia. After correction for multiple testing associations did not reach significance level. Our results might support theory that polymorphisms of interleukin 1 complex genes (rs1143627, rs16944, rs1143623, rs4848306 in IL1B gene and rs4251961, rs419598, rs315952, rs9005 in IL1RN gene) are involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, however, none of the results reach significance level after correction for multiple testing.

  1. Dynamic control of the lumbopelvic complex; lack of reliability of established test procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Marius; Lund, Hans; Bliddal, Henning

    2007-01-01

    used in order to account for learning effects. Intraclass correlation coefficients were low for the sitting (0.54) and supported standing positions (0.36). In the standing position, a significant difference between test and retest was observed (P = 0.003) and further reliability analysis was therefore...

  2. .i.Aspergillus viridinutans./i. complex: polyphasic taxonomy, mating behaviour and antifungal susceptibility testing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dudová, Z.; Hubka, V.; Svobodová, L.; Hamal, P.; Nováková, Alena; Matsuzawa, T.; Yaguchi, T.; Kubátová, A.; Kolařík, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 56, Suppl. 3 (2013), s. 162-163 ISSN 0933-7407. [Trends in Medical Mycology /6./. 11.10.2013-14.10.2013, Copenhagen] Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : Aspergillus viridinutans * polyphasic taxonomy * mating behaviour * antifungal susceptibility testing Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  3. Test Area C-80 Complex Final Range Environmental Assessment, Revision 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-14

    to intense noise might contribute to the development and aggravation of stress -related conditions such as high blood pressure, coronary disease...produced by test and training missions and their associated expendables. Noise may directly inconvenience and/or stress humans and some wildlife...Sherman’s fox squirrel Sciuris niger shermani Phragmites Phragmites australis American alligator Alligator mississippiensis White cedar Chamaecyparis

  4. Degenerative action on mice and rat testes of polyspermine and its complexes with RNase A

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matoušek, Josef; Tománek, M.; Vottariello, F.; Morbio, M.; Gotte, G.; Libonati, M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 5, - (2007), s. 195-207 ISSN 1214-021X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA521/06/1149 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : aspermatogenesis * cell degeneration * testes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  5. Chaos and Complexities Theories. Superposition and Standardized Testing: Are We Coming or Going?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Susan

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the possibility of using the principle of "superposition of states" (commonly illustrated by Schrodinger's Cat experiment) to understand the process of using standardized testing to measure a student's learning. Comparisons from literature, neuroscience, and Schema Theory will be used to expound upon the…

  6. Uncovering and testing the fuzzy clusters based on lumped Markov chain in complex network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Fan; Jianbin, Xie; Jinlong, Wang; Jinshuai, Qu

    2013-01-01

    Identifying clusters, namely groups of nodes with comparatively strong internal connectivity, is a fundamental task for deeply understanding the structure and function of a network. By means of a lumped Markov chain model of a random walker, we propose two novel ways of inferring the lumped markov transition matrix. Furthermore, some useful results are proposed based on the analysis of the properties of the lumped Markov process. To find the best partition of complex networks, a novel framework including two algorithms for network partition based on the optimal lumped Markovian dynamics is derived to solve this problem. The algorithms are constructed to minimize the objective function under this framework. It is demonstrated by the simulation experiments that our algorithms can efficiently determine the probabilities with which a node belongs to different clusters during the learning process and naturally supports the fuzzy partition. Moreover, they are successfully applied to real-world network, including the social interactions between members of a karate club.

  7. Usability Testing of a Complex Clinical Decision Support Tool in the Emergency Department: Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press, Anne; McCullagh, Lauren; Khan, Sundas; Schachter, Andy; Pardo, Salvatore; McGinn, Thomas

    2015-09-10

    As the electronic health record (EHR) becomes the preferred documentation tool across medical practices, health care organizations are pushing for clinical decision support systems (CDSS) to help bring clinical decision support (CDS) tools to the forefront of patient-physician interactions. A CDSS is integrated into the EHR and allows physicians to easily utilize CDS tools. However, often CDSS are integrated into the EHR without an initial phase of usability testing, resulting in poor adoption rates. Usability testing is important because it evaluates a CDSS by testing it on actual users. This paper outlines the usability phase of a study, which will test the impact of integration of the Wells CDSS for pulmonary embolism (PE) diagnosis into a large urban emergency department, where workflow is often chaotic and high stakes decisions are frequently made. We hypothesize that conducting usability testing prior to integration of the Wells score into an emergency room EHR will result in increased adoption rates by physicians. The objective of the study was to conduct usability testing for the integration of the Wells clinical prediction rule into a tertiary care center's emergency department EHR. We conducted usability testing of a CDS tool in the emergency department EHR. The CDS tool consisted of the Wells rule for PE in the form of a calculator and was triggered off computed tomography (CT) orders or patients' chief complaint. The study was conducted at a tertiary hospital in Queens, New York. There were seven residents that were recruited and participated in two phases of usability testing. The usability testing employed a "think aloud" method and "near-live" clinical simulation, where care providers interacted with standardized patients enacting a clinical scenario. Both phases were audiotaped, video-taped, and had screen-capture software activated for onscreen recordings. Phase I: Data from the "think-aloud" phase of the study showed an overall positive outlook on

  8. Developmental plasticity: re-conceiving the genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Sonia E

    2017-10-06

    In recent decades, the phenotype of an organism (i.e. its traits and behaviour) has been studied as the outcome of a developmental 'programme' coded in its genotype. This deterministic view is implicit in the Modern Synthesis approach to adaptive evolution as a sorting process among genetic variants. Studies of developmental pathways have revealed that genotypes are in fact differently expressed depending on environmental conditions. Accordingly, the genotype can be understood as a repertoire of potential developmental outcomes or norm of reaction. Reconceiving the genotype as an environmental response repertoire rather than a fixed developmental programme leads to three critical evolutionary insights. First, plastic responses to specific conditions often comprise functionally appropriate trait adjustments, resulting in an individual-level, developmental mode of adaptive variation. Second, because genotypes are differently expressed depending on the environment, the genetic diversity available to natural selection is itself environmentally contingent. Finally, environmental influences on development can extend across multiple generations via cytoplasmic and epigenetic factors transmitted to progeny individuals, altering their responses to their own, immediate environmental conditions and, in some cases, leading to inherited but non-genetic adaptations. Together, these insights suggest a more nuanced understanding of the genotype and its evolutionary role, as well as a shift in research focus to investigating the complex developmental interactions among genotypes, environments and previous environments.

  9. Operation of the UKK-2 facility for tube complex testing and way of its further improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogarkov, N.V.; Senyutkin, P.A.; Silaev, A.N.; Topychkanov, V.V.

    1987-01-01

    The UKK-2 ultrasonic 8-channel facility for complex control is designed for control of continuity, wall thickness of 0.3-1.0 mm, inner diameter of tubes and external diameter of 7-15 mm. Utilization of UKK-2 increased reliability of control, stabilized tube quality at a higher level, increased control efficiency 2-3 times. The most noticeable shortcomings of the UKK-2 are as follows: impossibility of differential separation of tubes rejected by sizes, by rectifiable and nonrectifiable rejects as well as absence of devices for mechanized loading, unloading and grading the tubes. The flowsheet, design and technological shortcomings of the facility are discovered during its operation. Ways of further improvement of the facility are as follows: development of the system for control result analysis on the basis of a microcomputer, equipment with devices for loading, unloading and grading the tubes; development of more reliable electron devices and units, means of automated diagnostics and automated tuning, increase of the level of metrological provision, improvement of hardware and software of the facility

  10. Anatomical Thin Titanium Mesh Plate Structural Optimization for Zygomatic-Maxillary Complex Fracture under Fatigue Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Tzu Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study performs a structural optimization of anatomical thin titanium mesh (ATTM plate and optimal designed ATTM plate fabricated using additive manufacturing (AM to verify its stabilization under fatigue testing. Finite element (FE analysis was used to simulate the structural bending resistance of a regular ATTM plate. The Taguchi method was employed to identify the significance of each design factor in controlling the deflection and determine an optimal combination of designed factors. The optimal designed ATTM plate with patient-matched facial contour was fabricated using AM and applied to a ZMC comminuted fracture to evaluate the resting maxillary micromotion/strain under fatigue testing. The Taguchi analysis found that the ATTM plate required a designed internal hole distance to be 0.9 mm, internal hole diameter to be 1 mm, plate thickness to be 0.8 mm, and plate height to be 10 mm. The designed plate thickness factor primarily dominated the bending resistance up to 78% importance. The averaged micromotion (displacement and strain of the maxillary bone showed that ZMC fracture fixation using the miniplate was significantly higher than those using the AM optimal designed ATTM plate. This study concluded that the optimal designed ATTM plate with enough strength to resist the bending effect can be obtained by combining FE and Taguchi analyses. The optimal designed ATTM plate with patient-matched facial contour fabricated using AM provides superior stabilization for ZMC comminuted fractured bone segments.

  11. Fault Modeling and Testing for Analog Circuits in Complex Space Based on Supply Current and Output Voltage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhi Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the modeling of fault for analog circuits. A two-dimensional (2D fault model is first proposed based on collaborative analysis of supply current and output voltage. This model is a family of circle loci on the complex plane, and it simplifies greatly the algorithms for test point selection and potential fault simulations, which are primary difficulties in fault diagnosis of analog circuits. Furthermore, in order to reduce the difficulty of fault location, an improved fault model in three-dimensional (3D complex space is proposed, which achieves a far better fault detection ratio (FDR against measurement error and parametric tolerance. To address the problem of fault masking in both 2D and 3D fault models, this paper proposes an effective design for testability (DFT method. By adding redundant bypassing-components in the circuit under test (CUT, this method achieves excellent fault isolation ratio (FIR in ambiguity group isolation. The efficacy of the proposed model and testing method is validated through experimental results provided in this paper.

  12. Safety assessment document for the environmental test complex (Building 834) at Site 300

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odell, B.N.; Pfeifer, H.E.

    1981-01-01

    A safety assessment was performed to determine if accidents occurring at the 834 Complex at Site 300 could present undue hazards to the general public, personnel at Site 300, or have an adverse effect on the environment. The credible accidents that might have an effect on these facilities or have off-site consequences were considered. These were earthquake, extreme wind (including missiles), lightning, flood, criticality, high explosive (HE) detonation that disperses uranium and beryllium, spontaneous oxidation of plutonium, explosions due to finely divided particles, and a fire. Seismic and extreme wind (including missiles) analyses indicate that the buildings are basically sound. (However, there are a few recommendations to further enhance the structural integrity of these facilities). Additional lightning protection for these facilities is being installed. These buildings are located high above the dry creek bed so that a flood is improbable. A criticality or a high explosive detonation involving plutonium is very remote since the radioactive materials are encased and plutonium and HE are not permitted concurrently in the same area at Site 300. (The exceptions to this policy are that explosive actuating devices are sometimes located in assemblies containing fissile materials. However, a planned or accidental actuation will not effect the safe containment of the fissile material within the assembly). Even though the possibility of an HE explosion involving uranium and beryllium is remote, the off-site lung doses were calculated and found to be below the accepted standards. It was determined that a fire was unlikely due to the low fire loading and the absence of ignition sources. It was also determined that the consequences of any accidents were reduced by the remote location of these facilities, their design, and by administrative controls

  13. Development and testing of an implementation strategy for a complex housing intervention: protocol for a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Dennis P; Young, Jeani; Ahonen, Emily; Xu, Huiping; Henderson, Macey; Shuman, Valery; Tolliver, Randi

    2014-10-17

    There is currently a lack of scientifically designed and tested implementation strategies. Such strategies are particularly important for highly complex interventions that require coordination between multiple parts to be successful. This paper presents a protocol for the development and testing of an implementation strategy for a complex intervention known as the Housing First model (HFM). Housing First is an evidence-based practice for chronically homeless individuals demonstrated to significantly improve a number of outcomes. Drawing on practices demonstrated to be useful in implementation and e-learning theory, our team is currently adapting a face-to-face implementation strategy so that it can be delivered over a distance. Research activities will be divided between Chicago and Central Indiana, two areas with significantly different barriers to HFM implementation. Ten housing providers (five from Chicago and five from Indiana) will be recruited to conduct an alpha test of each of four e-learning modules as they are developed. Providers will be requested to keep a detailed log of their experience completing the modules and participate in one of two focus groups. After refining the modules based on alpha test results, we will test the strategy among a sample of four housing organizations (two from Chicago and two from Indiana). We will collect and analyze both qualitative and quantitative data from administration and staff. Measures of interest include causal factors affecting implementation, training outcomes, and implementation outcomes. This project is an important first step in the development of an evidence-based implementation strategy to increase scalability and impact of the HFM. The project also has strong potential to increase limited scientific knowledge regarding implementation strategies in general.

  14. Perceptual skills of children with developmental coordination disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoemaker, M.M.; van der Wees, M.; Flapper, B.; Verheij-Jansen, N.; Scholten-Jaegers, S.; Geuze, R.H.

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether children with a Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) experience problems in the processing of visual, proprioceptive or tactile information. Different aspects of visual perception were tested with the Developmental Test of Visual Perception

  15. Evaluation of Complex Toxicity of Canbon Nanotubes and Sodium Pentachlorophenol Based on Earthworm Coelomocytes Test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    Full Text Available As a standard testing organism in soil ecosystems, the earthworm Eisenia fetida has been used widely in toxicity studies. However, tests at the individual level are time- and animal-consuming, with limited sensitivity. Earthworm coelomocytes are important for the assimilation and elimination of exogenous compounds and play a key role in the processes of phagocytosis and inflammation. In this study, we explored an optimal condition to culture coelomocytes of E. fetida in vitro and investigated the cytotoxicity of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs and sodium pentachlorophenol (PCP-Na using coelomocytes via evaluating lethal toxicity, oxidative stress, membrane damage, and DNA damage. The results showed that coelomocytes can be successfully cultured in vitro in primary under the RPMI-1640 medium with 2-4×104 cells/well (1-2×105 cells/mL in 96-well plates at 25°C without CO2. Both MWCNTs and PCP-Na could cause oxidative damage and produce ROS, an evidence for lipid peroxidation with MDA generation and SOD and CAT activity inhibition at high stress. The two chemicals could separately damage the cell membrane structure, increasing permeability and inhibiting mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP. In addition, our results indicate that PCP-Na may be adsorbed onto MWCNTs and its toxicity on earthworm was accordingly alleviated, while a synergetic effect was revealed when PCP-Na and MWCNTs were added separately. In summary, coelomocyte toxicity in in vitro analysis is a sensitive method for detecting the adverse effects of carbon nanotubes combined with various pollutants.

  16. A Developmental Learning Approach of Mobile Manipulator via Playing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiqi Wu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by infant development theories, a robotic developmental model combined with game elements is proposed in this paper. This model does not require the definition of specific developmental goals for the robot, but the developmental goals are implied in the goals of a series of game tasks. The games are characterized into a sequence of game modes based on the complexity of the game tasks from simple to complex, and the task complexity is determined by the applications of developmental constraints. Given a current mode, the robot switches to play in a more complicated game mode when it cannot find any new salient stimuli in the current mode. By doing so, the robot gradually achieves it developmental goals by playing different modes of games. In the experiment, the game was instantiated into a mobile robot with the playing task of picking up toys, and the game is designed with a simple game mode and a complex game mode. A developmental algorithm, “Lift-Constraint, Act and Saturate,” is employed to drive the mobile robot move from the simple mode to the complex one. The experimental results show that the mobile manipulator is able to successfully learn the mobile grasping ability after playing simple and complex games, which is promising in developing robotic abilities to solve complex tasks using games.

  17. Development of fast scattering model of complex shape target for seminatural tests of onboard proximity radars in real time mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Likhoedenko Andrei K.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Problems of creation of models of real time of complex shape targets on the basis of use of their polygonal models are considered. Formulas for radar cross section of multipoint model of target and power of input signal of onboard radar are described. Technique of semi-natural tests of onboard radar detector on the base of multipoint model of target is proposed. Results of digital simulation of input signals of the onboard radar detector of the target from the aerodynamic target on the basis of their multipoint models are given.

  18. An innovative approach to sampling complex industrial emissions for use in animal toxicity tests: application to iron casting operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, W G; Scholz, R C; Moorman, W J

    1983-03-01

    Sampling of complex mixtures of airborne contaminants for chronic animal toxicity tests often involves numerous sampling devices, requires extensive sampling time, and yields forms of collected materials unsuitable for administration to animals. A method is described which used a high volume, wet venturi scrubber for collection of respirable fractions of emissions from iron foundry casting operations. The construction and operation of the sampler are presented along with collection efficiency data and its application to the preparation of large quantities of samples to be administered to animals by intratracheal instillation.

  19. Reproductive and developmental toxicology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gupta, Ramesh C

    2011-01-01

    .... With a special focus on placental toxicity, this book is the only available reference to connect the three key risk stages, and is the only resource to include reproductive and developmental toxicity in domestic animals, fish, and wildlife.

  20. Developmental coordination disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developmental coordination disorder can lead to: Learning problems Low self-esteem resulting from poor ability at sports and teasing by other children Repeated injuries Weight gain as a result of not wanting to participate ...

  1. Facts about Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... play, learn, speak, behave, and move (for example, crawling and walking). Children develop at their own pace, ... person’s lifetime. Most developmental disabilities begin before a baby is born, but some can happen after birth ...

  2. Tests over time: Evaluating the currency of normative data in a complex multilingual environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brebner, Chris; Chandler Yeo, Helen; Goh, Magdeline Meilin; Kam, Karryn Wanlin; Yeo, Wendy Su Fen

    2015-04-23

    Assessment of oral language skills is challenging in multilingual environments. With language policies promoting increased use of English and reduction of dialectal varieties of languages, rapid changes in language further confound assessment. This study explores the currency of normative data on an expressive language screening tool in English for English-Mandarin bilingual Singaporean children. Spoken language samples in English from 101 pre-school children were compared with those from 481 children in the original data collection in 2002. Scores for expressive vocabulary and morphosyntax were compared for the two main language groups. Results indicate that the normative data for English-dominant children are still current. The data for younger Mandarin-dominant children showed improved test scores, indicating improvement in expressive morphosyntax in English. English language competency has changed over time for Mandarin-dominant children in Singapore, likely due to the influence of language policy on language use. This is a particular challenge in multilingual environments. Current literature emphasizes the need to develop language assessments specific to populations and language groups for standardized assessments to be valid and reliable. These results demonstrate the need to monitor normative data and characteristics of language over time and to update standardized language assessments accordingly.

  3. Belowground biotic complexity drives aboveground dynamics: a test of the soil community feedback model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergast, Thomas H; Burke, David J; Carson, Walter P

    2013-03-01

    Feedbacks between soil communities and plants may determine abundance and diversity in plant communities by influencing fitness and competitive outcomes. We tested the core hypotheses of soil community feedback theory: plant species culture distinct soil communities that alter plant performance and the outcome of interspecific competition. We applied this framework to inform the repeated dominance of Solidago canadensis in old-field communities. In glasshouse experiments, we examined the effects of soil communities on four plant species' performance in monoculture and outcomes of interspecific competition. We used terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis to infer differences in the soil communities associated with these plant species. Soil community origin had strong effects on plant performance, changed the intensity of interspecific competition and even reversed whether plant species were limited by conspecifics or heterospecifics. These plant-soil feedbacks are strong enough to upend winners and losers in classic competition models. Plant species cultured significantly different mycorrhizal fungal and bacterial soil communities, indicating that these feedbacks are likely microbiotic in nature. In old-fields and other plant communities, these soil feedbacks appear common, fundamentally alter the intensity and nature of plant competition and potentially maintain diversity while facilitating the dominance of So. canadensis. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Seismic behavior of breakwaters on complex ground by numerical tests: Liquefaction and post liquefaction ground settlements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Linlin; Zhang, Feng; Bao, Xiaohua; Shi, Zhenming; Ye, Guanlin; Ling, Xianzhang

    2018-04-01

    A large number of breakwaters have been constructed along coasts to protect humans and infrastructures from tsunamis. There is a risk that foundation soils of these structures may liquefy, or partially liquefy during the earthquake preceding a tsunami, which would greatly reduce the structures' capacity to resist the tsunami. It is necessary to consider not only the soil's liquefaction behavior due to earthquake motions but also its post-liquefaction behavior because this behavior will affect the breakwater's capacity to resist an incoming tsunami. In this study, numerical tests based on a sophisticated constitutive model and a soil-water coupled finite element method are used to predict the mechanical behavior of breakwaters and the surrounding soils. Two real breakwaters subjected to two different seismic excitations are examined through numerical simulation. The simulation results show that, earthquakes affect not only the immediate behavior of breakwaters and the surrounding soils but also their long-term settlements due to post-earthquake consolidation. A soil profile with thick clayey layers beneath liquefied soil is more vulnerable to tsunami than a soil profile with only sandy layers. Therefore, quantitatively evaluating the seismic behavior of breakwaters and surrounding soils is important for the design of breakwater structures to resist tsunamis.

  5. When should we test for voltage-gated potassium channel complex antibodies? A retrospective case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, B J; Steele, T; Ellul, M A; Kirby, E; Duale, A; Kier, G; Crooks, D; Jacob, A; Solomon, T; Michael, B D

    2016-11-01

    Patients with voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC)-complex antibodies are increasingly recognized as having central, peripheral or combined phenotypes. With increasing awareness, more patients are tested and the clinical spectrum is expanding. Consequently, clinicians may be uncertain as to which patients should or should not be tested. Previous studies have identified common clinical features, but none has looked at the usefulness of these in predicting seropositive disease. We conducted a case-control study of patients tested for VGKC-complex antibodies over 10years at a regional tertiary neurology centre determining which clinical/biochemical features were associated with antibody-positive disease. We found a marked increase in the numbers tested, although the percentage positive remained low. Antibody titre was highest in central disease (pVGKC-disease (p=0.01). Seizures were present in 11 (69%) of those with VGKC-disease versus three (18%) without (odds ratio [OR] 10.3, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.0-52.7, p=0.005). There was an inverse correlation between the antibody titre and serum sodium. A multivariate model selected seizures and hyponatraemia as predictive of VGKC disease (sensitivity 75% and specificity 82%); faciobrachial dystonic movements were specific but insensitive. Interestingly serum alkaline phosphatase was higher in those with VGKC-disease (p=0.016) and highest in those with peripheral disease (p=0.015). An ALP>70u/L was strongly associated with antibody positivity (OR 4.11 95% CI: 1.43-11.8, p=0.007) with a sensitivity of 74.2%. The presence of seizures, faciobrachial movements, and hyponatraemia should raise suspicion of VGKC-disease; alkaline phosphatase may represent a novel biomarker, particularly in those with peripheral disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. III. FROM SMALL TO BIG: METHODS FOR INCORPORATING LARGE SCALE DATA INTO DEVELOPMENTAL SCIENCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis-Kean, Pamela E; Jager, Justin

    2017-06-01

    For decades, developmental science has been based primarily on relatively small-scale data collections with children and families. Part of the reason for the dominance of this type of data collection is the complexity of collecting cognitive and social data on infants and small children. These small data sets are limited in both power to detect differences and the demographic diversity to generalize clearly and broadly. Thus, in this chapter we will discuss the value of using existing large-scale data sets to tests the complex questions of child development and how to develop future large-scale data sets that are both representative and can answer the important questions of developmental scientists. © 2017 The Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  7. Tibial and fibular developmental fields defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoury, N.J.; Haddad, M.C.; Hourani, M.H.

    1999-01-01

    Malformations of the lower limbs are rare and heterogeneous anomalies. To explain the diversity and complexity of these abnormalities, authors introduced the concept of tibial and fibular developmental fields. Defects in these fields are responsible for different malformations, which have been described, to our knowledge, in only one report in the radiology literature. We present a case of a newborn with femoral bifurcation, absent fibulae and talar bones, ankle and foot malformations, and associated atrial septal defect. Our case is an example of defects in both fibular and tibial developmental fields. (orig.)

  8. Dynamics of interaction between complement-fixing antibody/dsDNA immune complexes and erythrocytes. In vitro studies and potential general applications to clinical immune complex testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.P.; Horgan, C.; Hooper, M.; Burge, J.

    1985-01-01

    Soluble antibody/ 3 H-double-stranded PM2 DNA (dsDNA) immune complexes were briefly opsonized with complement and then allowed to bind to human erythrocytes (via complement receptors). The cells were washed and subsequently a volume of autologous blood in a variety of media was added, and the release of the bound immune complexes from the erythrocytes was studied as a function of temperature and time. After 1-2 h, the majority of the bound immune complexes were not released into the serum during blood clotting at either 37 degrees C or room temperature, but there was a considerably greater release of the immune complexes into the plasma of blood that was anticoagulated with EDTA. Similar results were obtained using various conditions of opsonization and also using complexes that contained lower molecular weight dsDNA. Thus, the kinetics of release of these antibody/dsDNA immune complexes differed substantially from the kinetics of release of antibody/bovine serum albumin complexes that was reported by others. Studies using the solution phase C1q immune complex binding assay confirmed that in approximately half of the SLE samples that were positive for immune complexes, there was a significantly higher level of detectable immune complexes in plasma vs. serum. Freshly drawn erythrocytes from some SLE patients exhibiting this plasma/serum discrepancy had IgG antigen on their surface that was released by incubation in EDTA plasma. Thus, the higher levels of immune complexes observed in EDTA plasma vs. serum using the C1q assay may often reflect the existence of immune complexes circulating in vivo bound to erythrocytes

  9. Complex Approach to Thyroid Screening In Regions Adjacent to the Semipalatinsk Test Site Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhumadilov, Zh.Sh.; Musinov, D.R.; Vasikovsky, G.G.; Bobokhidze, D.A.; Zhigitaev, T.K.; Abisheva, G.N.

    1998-01-01

    It has been well documented that the thyroid gland is one of the most radiosensitive of organs, especially when exposure occurs during childhood. It is known as well that childhood exposure to radioactive iodine increases thyroid cancer risk. Conducting thyroid screening in regions adjacent to the Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS) area is very important for medical examination, data management and thyroid dose reconstruction. Our experience of thyroid screening based on our screening projects in Kurchatov and several regions adjacent to STS (more than 4,000 screened patients) allowed to work out the most appropriate screening protocol. A retrospective analysis of the results of surgical treatment of the 7,271 patients with thyroid abnormalities in the Semipalatinsk, Pavlodar and Ust-Kamenogorsk regions of Kazakstan and study the histological staging of 7,271 surgically removed thyroid glands was preceded by our thyroid screening projects. Ours is the first study in the Semipalatinsk region that covers the period 1966-1998.Taking into account the onset of population effective doses during 1962, it was decided to distinguish 6 periods of observation. It is known that basic effective equivalent doses for the majority of the region's population were established by radioactive events in the period 1949-1962. This explains our focus on the year 1962, but thyroid dose reconstruction matter as well as other radiation related problems are still in the progress. We need to get the accurate dosimetry data. Selection of study subjects based on the appropriate criteria needed to be adjusted and clarified in accordance with the main goal of the project and radiation related information. All specialists involved in the thyroid screening project, data management, data analyses and interpretation of the results must be trained and must be highly qualified specialists in this field of science and practice. The experiences in Nagasaki, Hiroshima and Chernobyl, and discussions with

  10. Good distractions: Testing the effects of listening to an audiobook on driving performance in simple and complex road environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowosielski, Robert J; Trick, Lana M; Toxopeus, Ryan

    2018-02-01

    Distracted driving (driving while performing a secondary task) causes many collisions. Most research on distracted driving has focused on operating a cell-phone, but distracted driving can include eating while driving, conversing with passengers or listening to music or audiobooks. Although the research has focused on the deleterious effects of distraction, there may be situations where distraction improves driving performance. Fatigue and boredom are also associated with collision risk and it is possible that secondary tasks can help alleviate the effects of fatigue and boredom. Furthermore, it has been found that individuals with high levels of executive functioning as measured by the OSPAN (Operation Span) task show better driving while multitasking. In this study, licensed drivers were tested in a driving simulator (a car body surrounded by screens) that simulated simple or complex roads. Road complexity was manipulated by increasing traffic, scenery, and the number of curves in the drive. Participants either drove, or drove while listening to an audiobook. Driving performance was measured in terms of braking response time to hazards (HRT): the time required to brake in response to pedestrians or vehicles that suddenly emerged from the periphery into the path of the vehicle, speed, standard deviation of speed, standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP). Overall, braking times to hazards were higher on the complex drive than the simple one, though the effects of secondary tasks such as audiobooks were especially deleterious on the complex drive. In contrast, on the simple drive, driving while listening to an audiobook lead to faster HRT. We found evidence that individuals with high OSPAN scores had faster HRTs when listening to an audiobook. These results suggest that there are environmental and individual factors behind difference in the allocation of attention while listening to audiobooks while driving. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Regression-based approach for testing the association between multi-region haplotype configuration and complex trait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Hongbo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is quite common that the genetic architecture of complex traits involves many genes and their interactions. Therefore, dealing with multiple unlinked genomic regions simultaneously is desirable. Results In this paper we develop a regression-based approach to assess the interactions of haplotypes that belong to different unlinked regions, and we use score statistics to test the null hypothesis of non-genetic association. Additionally, multiple marker combinations at each unlinked region are considered. The multiple tests are settled via the minP approach. The P value of the "best" multi-region multi-marker configuration is corrected via Monte-Carlo simulations. Through simulation studies, we assess the performance of the proposed approach and demonstrate its validity and power in testing for haplotype interaction association. Conclusion Our simulations showed that, for binary trait without covariates, our proposed methods prove to be equal and even more powerful than htr and hapcc which are part of the FAMHAP program. Additionally, our model can be applied to a wider variety of traits and allow adjustment for other covariates. To test the validity, our methods are applied to analyze the association between four unlinked candidate genes and pig meat quality.

  12. Tests of high-resolution simulations over a region of complex terrain in Southeast coast of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Sin Chan; Luís Gomes, Jorge; Ristic, Ivan; Mesinger, Fedor; Sueiro, Gustavo; Andrade, Diego; Lima-e-Silva, Pedro Paulo

    2013-04-01

    The Eta Model is used operationally by INPE at the Centre for Weather Forecasts and Climate Studies (CPTEC) to produce weather forecasts over South America since 1997. The model has gone through upgrades along these years. In order to prepare the model for operational higher resolution forecasts, the model is configured and tested over a region of complex topography located near the coast of Southeast Brazil. The model domain includes the two Brazilians cities, Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo, urban areas, preserved tropical forest, pasture fields, and complex terrain where it can rise from sea level up to about 1000 m. Accurate near-surface wind direction and magnitude are needed for the power plant emergency plan. Besides, the region suffers from frequent events of floods and landslides, therefore accurate local forecasts are required for disaster warnings. The objective of this work is to carry out a series of numerical experiments to test and evaluate high resolution simulations in this complex area. Verification of model runs uses observations taken from the nuclear power plant and higher resolution reanalyses data. The runs were tested in a period when flow was predominately forced by local conditions and in a period forced by frontal passage. The Eta Model was configured initially with 2-km horizontal resolution and 50 layers. The Eta-2km is a second nesting, it is driven by Eta-15km, which in its turn is driven by Era-Interim reanalyses. The series of experiments consists of replacing surface layer stability function, adjusting cloud microphysics scheme parameters, further increasing vertical and horizontal resolutions. By replacing the stability function for the stable conditions substantially increased the katabatic winds and verified better against the tower wind data. Precipitation produced by the model was excessive in the region. Increasing vertical resolution to 60 layers caused a further increase in precipitation production. This excessive

  13. Estimating diagnostic test accuracies for Brachyspira hyodysenteriae accounting for the complexities of population structure in food animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Hartnack

    Full Text Available For swine dysentery, which is caused by Brachyspira hyodysenteriae infection and is an economically important disease in intensive pig production systems worldwide, a perfect or error-free diagnostic test ("gold standard" is not available. In the absence of a gold standard, Bayesian latent class modelling is a well-established methodology for robust diagnostic test evaluation. In contrast to risk factor studies in food animals, where adjustment for within group correlations is both usual and required for good statistical practice, diagnostic test evaluation studies rarely take such clustering aspects into account, which can result in misleading results. The aim of the present study was to estimate test accuracies of a PCR originally designed for use as a confirmatory test, displaying a high diagnostic specificity, and cultural examination for B. hyodysenteriae. This estimation was conducted based on results of 239 samples from 103 herds originating from routine diagnostic sampling. Using Bayesian latent class modelling comprising of a hierarchical beta-binomial approach (which allowed prevalence across individual herds to vary as herd level random effect, robust estimates for the sensitivities of PCR and culture, as well as for the specificity of PCR, were obtained. The estimated diagnostic sensitivity of PCR (95% CI and culture were 73.2% (62.3; 82.9 and 88.6% (74.9; 99.3, respectively. The estimated specificity of the PCR was 96.2% (90.9; 99.8. For test evaluation studies, a Bayesian latent class approach is well suited for addressing the considerable complexities of population structure in food animals.

  14. Predicting the risk of developmental toxicity from in vitro assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spielmann, Horst

    2005-01-01

    Reproductive toxicity refers to the adverse effects of a substance on any aspect of the reproductive cycle, including the impairment of reproductive function, the induction of adverse effects in the embryo, such as growth retardation, malformations, and death. Due to the complexity of the mammalian reproductive cycle, it is impossible to model the whole cycle in a single in vitro system in order to detect chemical effects on mammalian reproduction. However, the cycle can be broken down in its biological components which may be studied individually or in combination. This approach has the advantage that the target tissue/organ of a developmental toxicant can be identified. In specific areas of developmental toxicity, a number of useful and promising in vitro models are already available. The individual tests may be used as building blocks of a tiered testing strategy. So far, research has focused on developing and validating tests covering only a few components of the reproductive cycle, in particular organogenesis of the embryo, reflecting important concerns for teratogenic chemicals. During the last three decades, a number of established models and promising new developments have emerged that will be discussed, e.g. culture of mammalian embryos and embryonic cells and tissues and the use of embryonic stem cells

  15. Transgenerational developmental programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, Catherine E; Ozanne, Susan E

    2014-01-01

    The concept of developmental programming suggests that the early life environment influences offspring characteristics in later life, including the propensity to develop diseases such as the metabolic syndrome. There is now growing evidence that the effects of developmental programming may also manifest in further generations without further suboptimal exposure. This review considers the evidence, primarily from rodent models, for effects persisting to subsequent generations, and evaluates the mechanisms by which developmental programming may be transmitted to further generations. In particular, we focus on the potential role of the intrauterine environment in contributing to a developmentally programmed phenotype in subsequent generations. The literature was systematically searched at http://pubmed.org and http://scholar.google.com to identify published findings regarding transgenerational (F2 and beyond) developmental programming effects in human populations and animal models. Transmission of programming effects is often viewed as a form of epigenetic inheritance, either via the maternal or paternal line. Evidence exists for both germline and somatic inheritance of epigenetic modifications which may be responsible for phenotypic changes in further generations. However, there is increasing evidence for the role of both extra-genomic components of the zygote and the interaction of the developing conceptus with the intrauterine environment in propagating programming effects. The contribution of a suboptimal reproductive tract environment or maternal adaptations to pregnancy may be critical to inheritance of programming effects via the maternal line. As the effects of age exacerbate the programmed metabolic phenotype, advancing maternal age may increase the likelihood of developmental programming effects being transmitted to further generations. We suggest that developmental programming effects could be propagated through the maternal line de novo in generations

  16. Assessing the Developmental Neurotoxicity of 27 ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assessing the Developmental Neurotoxicity of 27 Organophosphorus Pesticides Using a Zebrafish Behavioral Assay, Waalkes, M., Hunter, D.L., Jarema, K., Mundy, W., and S. Padilla. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is evaluating methods to screen and prioritize organophosphorus pesticides for developmental neurotoxicity. As such, we are exploring a behavioral testing paradigm that can assess the effects of sublethal and subteratogenic concentrations of developmental neurotoxicants on zebrafish (Danio rerio). This in vivo assay quantifies the locomotor response to light stimuli under tandem light and dark conditions in a 96-well plate using a video tracking system on 6 day post fertilization zebrafish larvae. Each of twenty-seven organophosphorus pesticides was tested for their developmental neurotoxic potential by exposing zebrafish embryos/larvae to the pesticide at several concentrations (≤ 100 μM nominal concentration) during the first five days of development, followed by 24 hours of depuration and then behavioral testing. Approximately 22% of the chemicals (Acephate, Dichlorvos, Diazoxon, Bensulide,Tribufos, Tebupirimfos) did not produce any behavioral changes after developmental exposure, while many (Malaoxon Fosthiazate, Dimethoate, Dicrotophos, Ethoprop, Malathion, Naled, Diazinon, Methamidophos, Terbufos, Trichlorfon, Phorate, Pirimiphos-methyl, Profenofos, Z-Tetrachlorvinphos, Chlorpyrifos, Coumaphos, Phosmet, Omethoate) produced changes in swi

  17. A category approach to predicting the developmental (neuro) toxicity of organotin compounds: The value of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryotoxicity test (ZET)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beker van Woudenberg, A.; Wolterbeek, A.; Brake, L. te; Snel, C.; Menke, A.; Rubingh, C.; Groot, D. de; Kroese, D.

    2013-01-01

    Zebrafish embryos were exposed to different organotin compounds during very early development (<100. h post fertilization). Morphology, histopathology and swimming activity (in a motor activity test) were the endpoints analyzed. DBTC was, by far, the most embryotoxic compound at all time points and

  18. Developmental Testing of Liquid and Gaseous/Vaporous Decontamination on Bacterial Spores and Other Biological Warfare Agents on Military Relevant Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-11

    Vaporous Decontamination on Bacterial Spores and Other Biological Warfare Agents on Military-Relevant Surfaces 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT... DECONTAMINATION ON BACTERIAL SPORES AND OTHER BIOLOGICAL WARFARE AGENTS ON MILITARY-RELEVANT SURFACES Page Paragraph 1. SCOPE...surfaces before and after decontamination . The protocol in this TOP is based on the developed test methodologies from Edgewood Chemical Biological

  19. Clinical efficacy of anti-glycopeptidolipid-core IgA test for diagnosing Mycobacterium avium complex infection in lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Takanori; Araya, Jun; Yoshii, Yutaka; Shimizu, Kenichiro; Hara, Hiromichi; Nakayama, Katsutoshi; Kuwano, Kazuyoshi

    2015-11-01

    It is difficult to verify the bacteriological diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection. The anti-glycopeptidolipid (GPL)-core IgA antibody test was recently developed as a diagnostic method for MAC pulmonary disease. Only a few studies evaluate its clinical efficacy. We conducted retrospective evaluations of clinical characteristics of patients suspected of MAC infection to explore the usefulness of the anti-GPL-core IgA antibody test. We retrospectively evaluated 296 patients who were suspected to have MAC infection and underwent anti-GPL-core IgA antibody test between March 2013 and July 2014 in Jikei University hospital. A total of 29 patients were diagnosed with 'definite MAC' based on the American Thoracic Society (ATS) criteria with multiple identifications of MAC. On the other hand, 106 patients were diagnosed with other pulmonary diseases than MAC. The sensitivity and specificity of anti-GPL-core IgA antibody test for MAC diagnosis were 58.6% and 98.1%, respectively. The definite MAC group showed no significant differences in strains, treatment history or number of segments involved. The duration of MAC disease in the positive-antibody group was significantly longer than in the negative-antibody group (P = 0.046). A significant increase in the false-negative rate was observed in patients with malignant disease (P = 0.029). The anti-GPL-core IgA antibody test demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of MAC infection especially in patients without malignant diseases. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  20. Topological Characteristics of the Hong Kong Stock Market: A Test-based P-threshold Approach to Understanding Network Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ronghua; Wong, Wing-Keung; Chen, Guanrong; Huang, Shuo

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we analyze the relationship among stock networks by focusing on the statistically reliable connectivity between financial time series, which accurately reflects the underlying pure stock structure. To do so, we firstly filter out the effect of market index on the correlations between paired stocks, and then take a t-test based P-threshold approach to lessening the complexity of the stock network based on the P values. We demonstrate the superiority of its performance in understanding network complexity by examining the Hong Kong stock market. By comparing with other filtering methods, we find that the P-threshold approach extracts purely and significantly correlated stock pairs, which reflect the well-defined hierarchical structure of the market. In analyzing the dynamic stock networks with fixed-size moving windows, our results show that three global financial crises, covered by the long-range time series, can be distinguishingly indicated from the network topological and evolutionary perspectives. In addition, we find that the assortativity coefficient can manifest the financial crises and therefore can serve as a good indicator of the financial market development.

  1. Evaluation of the Sensititre MycoTB plate for susceptibility testing of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex against first- and second-line agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Leslie; Jude, Kurt P; Clark, Shirley L; Dionne, Kim; Merson, Ryan; Boyer, Ana; Parrish, Nicole M; Wengenack, Nancy L

    2012-11-01

    The Sensititre MycoTB plate (TREK Diagnostic Systems, Cleveland, OH) uses a microtiter plate MIC format for susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates against first- and second-line antituberculosis agents. Categorical agreement versus the agar proportion method for 122 M. tuberculosis complex isolates was 94% to 100%.

  2. Storage for the Fast Flux Test Facility unirradiated fuel in the Plutonium Finishing Plant Complex, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This Environmental Assessment evaluates the proposed action to relocate and store unirradiated Fast Flux Test Facility fuel in the Plutonium Finishing Plant Complex on the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. The US Department of Energy has decided to cease fuel fabrication activities in the 308 Building in the 300 Area. This decision was based on a safety concern over the ability of the fuel fabrication portion of the 308 Building to withstand a seismic event. The proposed action to relocate and store the fuel is based on the savings that could be realized by consolidating security costs associated with storage of the fuel. While the 308 Building belowgrade fuel storage areas are not at jeopardy by a seismic event, the US Department of Energy is proposing to cease storage operations along with the related fabrication operations. The US Department of Energy proposes to remove the unirradiated fuel pins and fuel assemblies from the 308 Building and store them in Room 192A, within the 234-5Z Building, a part of the Plutonium Finishing Plant Complex, located in the 200 West Area. Minor modifications to Room 192A would be required to accommodate placement of the fuel. The US Department of Energy estimates that removing all of the fuel from the 308 Building would save $6.5 million annually in security expenditures for the Fast Flux Test Facility. Environmental impacts of construction, relocation, and operation of the proposed action and alternatives were evaluated. This evaluation concluded that the proposed action would have no significant impacts on the human environment

  3. Male-mediated developmental toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Anderson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Male-mediated developmental toxicity has been of concern for many years. The public became aware of male-mediated developmental toxicity in the early 1990s when it was reported that men working at Sellafield might be causing leukemia in their children. Human and animal studies have contributed to our current understanding of male-mediated effects. Animal studies in the 1980s and 1990s suggested that genetic damage after radiation and chemical exposure might be transmitted to offspring. With the increasing understanding that there is histone retention and modification, protamine incorporation into the chromatin and DNA methylation in mature sperm and that spermatozoal RNA transcripts can play important roles in the epigenetic state of sperm, heritable studies began to be viewed differently. Recent reports using molecular approaches have demonstrated that DNA damage can be transmitted to babies from smoking fathers, and expanded simple tandem repeats minisatellite mutations were found in the germline of fathers who were exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster. In epidemiological studies, it is possible to clarify whether damage is transmitted to the sons after exposure of the fathers. Paternally transmitted damage to the offspring is now recognized as a complex issue with genetic as well as epigenetic components.

  4. Siting Report for Theater Missile Defense Mid-Range Test Launch Complex at Ft. Wingate Depot Activity, NM: Based on Sit Survey, 14-18 February 1994

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1994-01-01

    This study is provided to assess the capability of Ft. Wingate Depot Activity to act as a Ballistic Missile Defense Test Support Complex for the launch of target missiles toward White Sands Missile Range...

  5. The Developmental Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Niels; Hvid, Helge

    2001-01-01

    AbstractIn the nineties, the concept of the developmental work (DW) has become a significant point of orientation for the actors on Danish labour market. The DW has moved the focus of the labour market from wages and working time towards work and production. For employees, the DW promises...... developmental possibilities, influence and responsibility, but also greater social responsibility for the firm. For firms, the DW promises increased competitiveness and better products. In this paper we present the concept of the DW as one which encourages the development of work, production and organisation...... of the firm and show that the DW is different from mainstream management concepts, as the DW...

  6. Toddler Developmental Delays After Extensive Hospitalization: Primary Care Practitioner Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, Dana C; Sadler, Lois S

    2015-01-01

    This review investigated developmental delays toddlers may encounter after a lengthy pediatric hospitalization (30 days or greater). Physical, motor, cognitive, and psychosocial development of children aged 1 to 3 years was reviewed to raise awareness of factors associated with developmental delay after extensive hospitalization. Findings from the literature suggest that neonatal and pediatric intensive care unit (NICU/PICU) graduates are most at risk for developmental delays, but even non-critical hospital stays interrupt development to some extent. Primary care practitioners (PCPs) may be able to minimize risk for delays through the use of formal developmental screening tests and parent report surveys. References and resources are described for developmental assessment to help clinicians recognize delays and to educate families about optimal toddler development interventions. Pediatric PCPs play a leading role in coordinating health and developmental services for the young child following an extensive hospital stay.

  7. Developing and testing a new method “Theme-situations” for the diagnostics of psychological readiness to developmental conflict resolution in youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Gorlova

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe the procedure of development of the author's method for the study of psychological readiness to development conflict management in youth, consisting of three parts, which use the method of projection to varying degrees. The method involves diagnosis of development conflict management in adolescence and actualization of the basic contradictions of adolescence, associated with the importance of the following topics to a maturing individual: setting long-term goals, choice of professional self-realization, partner choice in a romantic relationship, solving the existential questions. The method involves identification of strategies to solve these conflicts by young people (asserting own position and “existential” type of answer to the existential question. It has been tested on the retest reliability and construct validity and showed a wide range of connections to the scales of many well-known psycho-diagnostic tools.

  8. Assessment of the Developmental Toxicity of Epidermal Growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine whether epidermal growth factor (EGF) is involved in reproductive developmental toxicity, using the embryonic stem cell test (EST), as well as ascertain how EGF influences embryonic development. Methods: To predict developmental toxicity on the basis of reducing cell viability and inhibition of ...

  9. Cognitive Profiling and Preliminary Subtyping in Chinese Developmental Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Chan, David Wai-Ock; Lee, Suk-Han; Tsang, Suk-Man; Luan, Vivian Hui

    2004-01-01

    The present study examined the cognitive profile and subtypes of developmental dyslexia in a nonalphabetic script, Chinese. One hundred and forty-seven Chinese primary school children with developmental dyslexia were tested on a number of literacy and cognitive tasks. The results showed that rapid naming deficit and orthographic deficit were the…

  10. Developmental constraint of insect audition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strauß Johannes

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insect ears contain very different numbers of sensory cells, from only one sensory cell in some moths to thousands of sensory cells, e.g. in cicadas. These differences still await functional explanation and especially the large numbers in cicadas remain puzzling. Insects of the different orders have distinct developmental sequences for the generation of auditory organs. These sensory cells might have different functions depending on the developmental stages. Here we propose that constraints arising during development are also important for the design of insect ears and might influence cell numbers of the adults. Presentation of the hypothesis We propose that the functional requirements of the subadult stages determine the adult complement of sensory units in the auditory system of cicadas. The hypothetical larval sensory organ should function as a vibration receiver, representing a functional caenogenesis. Testing the hypothesis Experiments at different levels have to be designed to test the hypothesis. Firstly, the neuroanatomy of the larval sense organ should be analyzed to detail. Secondly, the function should be unraveled neurophysiologically and behaviorally. Thirdly, the persistence of the sensory cells and the rebuilding of the sensory organ to the adult should be investigated. Implications of the hypothesis Usually, the evolution of insect ears is viewed with respect to physiological and neuronal mechanisms of sound perception. This view should be extended to the development of sense organs. Functional requirements during postembryonic development may act as constraints for the evolution of adult organs, as exemplified with the auditory system of cicadas.

  11. Biologic surveys for the Sandia National Laboratories, Coyote Canyon Test Complex, Kirtland Air Force Base, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, R.M. [4115 Allen Dr., Kingsville, TX (United States); Knight, P.J. [Marron and Associates, Inc., Corrales, NM (United States)

    1994-05-25

    This report provides results of a comprehensive biologic survey performed in Coyote Canyon Test Complex (CCTC), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Bernalillo County, New Mexico, which was conducted during the spring and summer of 1992 and 1993. CCTC is sited on land owned by the Department of Energy (DOE) and Kirtland Air Force Base and managed by SNL. The survey covered 3,760 acres of land, most of which is rarely disturbed by CCTC operations. Absence of grazing by livestock and possibly native ungulates, and relative to the general condition of private range lands throughout New Mexico, and relative to other grazing lands in central New Mexico. Widely dispersed, low intensity use by SNL as well as prohibition of grazing has probably contributed to abundance of special status species such as grama grass cactus within the CCTC area. This report evaluates threatened and endangered species found in the area, as well as comprehensive assessment of biologic habitats. Included are analyses of potential impacts and mitigative measures designed to reduce or eliminate potential impacts. Included is a summary of CCTC program and testing activities.

  12. Effect of Developmental Stimulation Program on the Developmental Measures of Toddlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe Ghayebie

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The variability in the developmental skills is reduced after the first three years of life; therefore, it is necessary to identify and manage early developmental delays. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of developmental stimulation program on the developmental measures of the toddlers. Method: The present randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 31 toddlers aged 1-3 years residing at Ali Asghar Foster Care Center within 2016-2017. Developmental interventions were carried out based on the modified guidelines of West Virginia Early Learning Standards Framework for eight weeks (three 2-hour sessions a week. The interventions included a range of age- and developmental-specific activities described in the given guidelines. Child development age was measured based on motor dimensions (i.e., gross and fine and language development (i.e., receptive and expressive before and after the intervention. The data were analyzed in SPSS software (version 11 using independent t-test and Chi-square test. Results: The mean ages of the participants in the control and intervention groups were 19.9±5.5 and 20±6.02, respectively (P=0.62. The mean ages of receptive language development (P=0.003, expressive language development (P

  13. Developmental assessment of RELAP5/MOD3.1 with separate-effect and integral test experiments: model changes and options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytis, G.T.

    1996-04-01

    A summary of modifications and options introduced in RELAP5/MOD3.1 (R5M3.1) is presented and it is shown that the predicting capabilities of the modified version of the code are greatly improved, while the general philosophy we followed in arriving at these modifications is also outlined. These changes which are the same ones we implemented in the past in the version 7j of the code, include 2 different heat transfer packages (one of them activated during reflooding), modification of the low mass-flux Groeneveld CHF look-up table and of the dispersed flow interfacial area (and shear) as well as of the criterion for transition into and out from this regime, almost complete elimination of the under-relaxation schemes of the interfacial closure coefficients etc. The modified R5M3.1 code is assessed against a number of separate-effect and integral test experiments and in contrast to the frozen version, is shown to result in physically sound predictions which are much closer to the measurements, while almost all the predicted variables are free of unphysical spurious oscillations. The modifications introduced solve a number of problems associated with the frozen version of the code and result in a version which can be confidently used both for SB-LOCA and LB-LOCA analyses. (author) 7 figs., 20 refs

  14. Arguments from Developmental Order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöckle-Schobel, Richard

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I investigate a special type of argument regarding the role of development in theorizing about psychological processes and cognitive capacities. Among the issues that developmental psychologists study, discovering the ontogenetic trajectory of mechanisms or capacities underpinning our cognitive functions ranks highly. The order in which functions are developed or capacities are acquired is a matter of debate between competing psychological theories, and also philosophical conceptions of the mind - getting the role and the significance of the different steps in this order right could be seen as an important virtue of such theories. Thus, a special kind of strategy in arguments between competing philosophical or psychological theories is using developmental order in arguing for or against a given psychological claim. In this article, I will introduce an analysis of arguments from developmental order, which come in two general types: arguments emphasizing the importance of the early cognitive processes and arguments emphasizing the late cognitive processes. I will discuss their role in one of the central tools for evaluating scientific theories, namely in making inferences to the best explanation. I will argue that appeal to developmental order is, by itself, an insufficient criterion for theory choice and has to be part of an argument based on other core explanatory or empirical virtues. I will end by proposing a more concerted study of philosophical issues concerning (cognitive) development, and I will present some topics that also pertain to a full-fledged 'philosophy of development.'

  15. Developmental Education Evaluation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry-Miller, Mitzi; And Others

    A developmental education evaluation model designed to be used at a multi-unit urban community college is described. The purpose of the design was to determine the cost effectiveness/worth of programs in order to initiate self-improvement. A needs assessment was conducted by interviewing and taping the responses of students, faculty, staff, and…

  16. Arguments from Developmental Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard eStöckle-Schobel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I investigate a special type of argument regarding the role of development in theorising about psychological processes and cognitive capacities. Among the issues that developmental psychologists study, discovering the ontogenetic trajectory of mechanisms or capacities underpinning our cognitive functions ranks highly. The order in which functions are developed or capacities are acquired is a matter of debate between competing psychological theories, and also philosophical conceptions of the mind – getting the role and the significance of the different steps in this order right could be seen as an important virtue of such theories.Thus, a special kind of strategy in arguments between competing philosophical or psychological theories is using developmental order in arguing for or against a given psychological claim. In this article, I will introduce an analysis of arguments from developmental order, which come in two general types: arguments emphasising the importance of the early cognitive processes and arguments emphasising the late cognitive processes. I will discuss their role in one of the central tools for evaluating scientific theories, namely in making inferences to the best explanation. I will argue that appeal to developmental order is, by itself, an insufficient criterion for theory choice and has to be part of an argument based on other core explanatory or empirical virtues. I will end by proposing a more concerted study of philosophical issues concerning (cognitive development, and I will present some topics that also pertain to a full-fledged ‘philosophy of development’.

  17. Developmental paediatric anaesthetic pharmacology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing

    2015-01-01

    Safe and effective drug therapy in neonates, infants and children require detailed knowledge about the ontogeny of drug disposition and action as well how these interact with genetics and co-morbidity of children. Recent advances in developmental pharmacology in children follow the increased...

  18. Predikce poruch učení pomocí testu komplexní imitace pohybu Prediction of learning difficulties with the test of complex imitation of movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Ozbič

    2008-05-01

    can lead to faster intervention resulting in the progress of children with DCD in their movement abilities. This research has shown that on the basis of twenty tasks of the Bergès-Lézine's test of the complex imitation of movement/gestures, we can predict which children have some learning difficulties and which do not. Particularly we wish to emphasize three tasks (12, 17 and 20 where children had to cross the vertical midline of their bodies. These three tasks involve bilateral coordination. Children with DCD signs face problems in spatial orientation and in complex imitation of movement/gestures. On the basis of great differences, found in tasks where pupils had to cross the vertical midline of their bodies and rotate their palms, children can be classified into two groups (with and without motor and learning difficulties.

  19. The covariant form of Maxwell equations for the fast simulation of the eddy current non destructive testing of complex specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caire, Francois

    2014-01-01

    This PhD work concerns the development of fast numerical tools, dedicated to the computation of the electromagnetic interaction between a low frequency 3D current source and a complex conductor, presenting rough interfaces and/or conductivity variations. The main application concerns the simulation of the Eddy Current nondestructive testing process applied to complex specimens. Indeed, the semi-analytical models available today are restricted to canonical geometries. The proposed method is based on the covariant form of Maxwell's equations, which translates the physical equations and relationships in a non-orthogonal coordinate system depending on the geometry of the specimen. Historically, this method (Curvilinear Coordinate Method, CCM or C-method) has been developed in the framework of optical applications, particularly for the characterization of diffraction gratings. Here, we transpose this formalism into the quasi-static regime and we extend the Second Order Vector Potential formalism, initially dedicated to orthonormal curvilinear coordinates systems, to general curvilinear coordinate systems. Thanks to this change of base, we are able to determine numerically a set of modal solutions of the source-free Maxwell equations in the new coordinate system introduced, and this allows us to represent the unknown fields as modal expansions in source-free domains. Then, the coefficients of these expansions are computed by introducing the source fields and by enforcing the boundary conditions that the total fields must verify at interfaces between the different media. In order to tackle the case of a layered conductor presenting rough interfaces, the generalized SOVP formalism is coupled with a recursive routine called the S-matrix algorithm. On the other hand, the application case of a complex shape specimen with depth-varying physical properties is treated by coupling the modal method we developed with a high-order numerical method: pseudo-spectral method. The

  20. Identification of a rare de novo three-way complex t(5;20;8(q31;p11.2;p21 with microdeletions on 5q31.2, 5q31.3, and 8p23.2 in a patient with hearing loss and global developmental delay: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bejjani Bassem A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complex chromosome rearrangements (CCRs, which involve more than two breakpoints on two or more chromosomes, are uncommon occurrences. Although most CCRs appear balanced at the level of the light microscope, many demonstrate cryptic, submicroscopic imbalances at the translocation breakpoints. Results We report a female with hearing loss and global developmental delay with a complex three-way unbalanced translocation (5;20;8(q31;p11.2;p21 resulting in microdeletions on 5q31.2, 5q31.3, and 8p23.2 identified by karyotyping, microarray analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Discussion The microdeletion of bands 8p23.2 may be associated with the hearing impairment. Furthermore, the characterization of this patient's chromosomal abnormalities demonstrates the importance of integrated technologies within contemporary cytogenetics laboratories.

  1. Developmentalism: An Obscure but Pervasive Restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Stone

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite continuing criticism of public education, experimentally demonstrated and field tested teaching methods have been ignored, rejected, and abandoned. Instead of a stable consensus regarding best teaching practices, there seems only an unending succession of innovations. A longstanding educational doctrine appears to underlie this anomalous state of affairs. Termed developmentalism, it presumes "natural" ontogenesis to be optimal and it requires experimentally demonstrated teaching practices to overcome a presumption that they interfere with an optimal developmental trajectory. It also discourages teachers and parents from asserting themselves with children. Instead of effective interventions, it seeks the preservation of a postulated natural perfection. Developmentalism's rich history is expressed in a literature extending over 400 years. Its notable exponents include Jean Jacques Rousseau, John Dewey, and Jean Piaget; and its most recent expressions include "developmentally appropriate practice" and "constructivism." In the years during which it gained ascendance, developmentalism served as a basis for rejecting harsh and inhumane teaching methods. Today it impedes efforts to hold schools accountable for student academic achievement.

  2. A developmental cascade perspective of paediatric obesity: a conceptual model and scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Justin D; Egan, Kaitlyn N; Montaño, Zorash; Dawson-McClure, Spring; Jake-Schoffman, Danielle E; Larson, Madeline; St George, Sara M

    2018-04-05

    Considering the immense challenge of preventing obesity, the time has come to reconceptualise the way we study the obesity development in childhood. The developmental cascade model offers a longitudinal framework to elucidate the way cumulative consequences and spreading effects of risk and protective factors, across and within biopsychosocial spheres and phases of development, can propel individuals towards obesity. In this article, we use a theory-driven model-building approach and a scoping review that included 310 published studies to propose a developmental cascade model of paediatric obesity. The proposed model provides a basis for testing hypothesised cascades with multiple intervening variables and complex longitudinal processes. Moreover, the model informs future research by resolving seemingly contradictory findings on pathways to obesity previously thought to be distinct (low self-esteem, consuming sugary foods, and poor sleep cause obesity) that are actually processes working together over time (low self-esteem causes consumption of sugary foods which disrupts sleep quality and contributes to obesity). The findings of such inquiries can aid in identifying the timing and specific targets of preventive interventions across and within developmental phases. The implications of such a cascade model of paediatric obesity for health psychology and developmental and prevention sciences are discussed.

  3. Dampened hippocampal oscillations and enhanced spindle activity in an asymptomatic model of developmental cortical malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena eCid

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Developmental cortical malformations comprise a large spectrum of histopathological brain abnormalities and syndromes. Their genetic, developmental and clinical complexity suggests they should be better understood in terms of the complementary action of independently timed perturbations (i.e. the multiple-hit hypothesis. However, understanding the underlying biological processes remains puzzling. Here we induced developmental cortical malformations in offspring, after intraventricular injection of methylazoxymethanol (MAM in utero in mice. We combined extensive histological and electrophysiological studies to characterize the model. We found that MAM injections at E14 and E15 induced a range of cortical and hippocampal malformations resembling histological alterations of specific genetic mutations and transplacental mitotoxic agent injections. However, in contrast to most of these models, intraventricularly MAM-injected mice remained asymptomatic and showed no clear epilepsy-related phenotype as tested in long-term chronic recordings and with pharmacological manipulations. Instead, they exhibited a non-specific reduction of hippocampal-related brain oscillations (mostly in CA1; including theta, gamma and HFOs; and enhanced thalamocortical spindle activity during non-REM sleep. These data suggest that developmental cortical malformations do not necessarily correlate with epileptiform activity. We propose that the intraventricular in utero MAM approach exhibiting a range of rhythmopathies is a suitable model for multiple-hit studies of associated neurological disorders.

  4. 2016 Annual Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Michael George [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This report describes conditions and information, as required by the state of Idaho, Department of Environmental Quality Reuse Permit I-161-02, for the Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Ponds located at Idaho National Laboratory from November 1, 2015–October 31, 2016. The effective date of Reuse Permit I-161-02 is November 20, 2014 with an expiration date of November 19, 2019. This report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Permit required groundwater monitoring data • Status of compliance activities • Issues • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts. During the 2016 permit year, 180.99 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Ponds. This is well below the maximum annual permit limit of 375 million gallons. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest in well USGS-065, which is the closest downgradient well to the Cold Waste Ponds. Sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations decrease rapidly as the distance downgradient from the Cold Waste Ponds increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are significantly higher in well USGS-065 than in the other monitoring wells, both parameters remained below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in well USGS-065. The facility was in compliance with the Reuse Permit during the 2016 permit year.

  5. Reconstruction of hyperspectral reflectance for optically complex turbid inland lakes: test of a new scheme and implications for inversion algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Deyong; Hu, Chuanmin; Qiu, Zhongfeng; Wang, Shengqiang

    2015-06-01

    A new scheme has been proposed by Lee et al. (2014) to reconstruct hyperspectral (400 - 700 nm, 5 nm resolution) remote sensing reflectance (Rrs(λ), sr-1) of representative global waters using measurements at 15 spectral bands. This study tested its applicability to optically complex turbid inland waters in China, where Rrs(λ) are typically much higher than those used in Lee et al. (2014). Strong interdependence of Rrs(λ) between neighboring bands (≤ 10 nm interval) was confirmed, with Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) mostly above 0.98. The scheme of Lee et al. (2014) for Rrs(λ) re-construction with its original global parameterization worked well with this data set, while new parameterization showed improvement in reducing uncertainties in the reconstructed Rrs(λ). Mean absolute error (MAERrs(λi)) in the reconstructed Rrs(λ) was mostly -1 between 400 and 700nm, and mean relative error (MRERrs(λi)) was rs(λ) spectra. When Rrs(λ) at the MODIS bands were used to reconstruct the hyperspectral Rrs(λ), MAERrs(λi) was -1 and MRERrs(λi) was rs(λ) at the MERIS bands were used, MAERrs(λi) in the reconstructed hyperspectral Rrs(λ) was -1 and MRERrs(λi) was rs(λ) data using spectral bands that may not exist on satellite sensors.

  6. A comprehensive custom panel design for routine hereditary cancer testing: preserving control, improving diagnostics and revealing a complex variation landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Elisabeth; Gel, Bernat; Rosas, Inma; Tornero, Eva; Santín, Sheila; Pluvinet, Raquel; Velasco, Juan; Sumoy, Lauro; Del Valle, Jesús; Perucho, Manuel; Blanco, Ignacio; Navarro, Matilde; Brunet, Joan; Pineda, Marta; Feliubadaló, Lidia; Capellá, Gabi; Lázaro, Conxi; Serra, Eduard

    2017-01-04

    We wanted to implement an NGS strategy to globally analyze hereditary cancer with diagnostic quality while retaining the same degree of understanding and control we had in pre-NGS strategies. To do this, we developed the I2HCP panel, a custom bait library covering 122 hereditary cancer genes. We improved bait design, tested different NGS platforms and created a clinically driven custom data analysis pipeline. The I2HCP panel was developed using a training set of hereditary colorectal cancer, hereditary breast and ovarian cancer and neurofibromatosis patients and reached an accuracy, analytical sensitivity and specificity greater than 99%, which was maintained in a validation set. I2HCP changed our diagnostic approach, involving clinicians and a genetic diagnostics team from panel design to reporting. The new strategy improved diagnostic sensitivity, solved uncertain clinical diagnoses and identified mutations in new genes. We assessed the genetic variation in the complete set of hereditary cancer genes, revealing a complex variation landscape that coexists with the disease-causing mutation. We developed, validated and implemented a custom NGS-based strategy for hereditary cancer diagnostics that improved our previous workflows. Additionally, the existence of a rich genetic variation in hereditary cancer genes favors the use of this panel to investigate their role in cancer risk.

  7. Development and improvement of synthetic imaging methods for non-destructive ultrasonic testing of complex industrial components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannouf, S.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this thesis was, initially, to evaluate phased array methods for ultrasonic Non Destructive Testing (NDT) in order to propose optimizations, or to develop new alternative methods. In particular, this works deals with the detection of defects in complex geometries and/or materials parts. The TFM (Total Focusing Method) algorithm provides high resolution images and several representations of a same defect thanks to different reconstruction modes. These properties have been exploited judiciously in order to propose an adaptive imaging method in immersion configuration. We showed that TFM imaging can be used to characterize more precisely the defects. However, this method presents two major drawbacks: the large amount of data to be processed and a low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), especially in noisy materials. We developed solutions to these two problems. To overcome the limitation caused by the large number of signals to be processed, we propose an algorithm that defines the sparse array to activate. As for the low SNR, it can be now improved by use of virtual sources and a new filtering method based on the DORT method (Decomposition of the Time Reversal Operator). (author) [fr

  8. 2016 Annual Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Michael George

    2017-01-01

    This report describes conditions and information, as required by the state of Idaho, Department of Environmental Quality Reuse Permit I-161-02, for the Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Ponds located at Idaho National Laboratory from November 1, 2015-October 31, 2016. The effective date of Reuse Permit I-161-02 is November 20, 2014 with an expiration date of November 19, 2019. This report contains the following information: · Facility and system description · Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates · Permit required groundwater monitoring data · Status of compliance activities · Issues · Discussion of the facility's environmental impacts. During the 2016 permit year, 180.99 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Ponds. This is well below the maximum annual permit limit of 375 million gallons. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest in well USGS-065, which is the closest downgradient well to the Cold Waste Ponds. Sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations decrease rapidly as the distance downgradient from the Cold Waste Ponds increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are significantly higher in well USGS-065 than in the other monitoring wells, both parameters remained below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in well USGS-065. The facility was in compliance with the Reuse Permit during the 2016 permit year.

  9. 2010 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Mike

    2011-01-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2009 through October 31, 2010. The report contains the following information: (1) Facility and system description; (2) Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates; (3) Groundwater monitoring data; (4) Status of compliance activities; and (5) Discussion of the facility's environmental impacts. During the 2010 permit year, approximately 164 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the down gradient monitoring wells.

  10. 2011 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Mike

    2012-01-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2010 through October 31, 2011. The report contains the following information: Facility and system description Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates Groundwater monitoring data Status of compliance activities Noncompliance and other issues Discussion of the facility's environmental impacts During the 2011 permit year, approximately 166 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. This is well below the maximum annual permit limit of 375 million gallons. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the down gradient monitoring wells.

  11. Developmentalism and progress in Argentina: a Marxist contribution

    OpenAIRE

    Aníbal Pablo Jáuregui

    2016-01-01

    Developmentalism as a political ideology unnerved much of the Latin American pattern of the 1950s and 1960. While many times it can be understood as the mere adaptation of Keynesianism and development economics to regional conditions, their ideological sources were much more complex. Its hybrid configuration contained a mixture of nationalism, development economics, along with Marxism and positivism. Among the ideologists of Argentine developmentalism, we want to study the contribution of an ...

  12. Aplicação dos testes de padrão temporal em crianças com gagueira desenvolvimental persistente Application of temporal pattern tests in children with persistent developmental stuttering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosimeire da Silva

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: caracterizar e comparar o desempenho das crianças com diagnóstico de gagueira nos testes de padrão temporal, com crianças sem queixas e/ou sinais de transtornos psiquiátricos ou neurológicos, dificuldades de fala, audição, linguagem e/ou aprendizagem. MÉTODO: participaram 30 crianças entre 9 e 12 anos de idade, de ambos os gêneros, divididas em dois grupos: GI - 15 crianças com gagueira desenvolvimental persistente; GII - 15 crianças sem queixas e/ou sinais de transtornos psiquiátricos ou neurológicos, dificuldades de fala, audição, linguagem e/ou aprendizagem. Para avaliação do processamento auditivo temporal, foi aplicado os Testes Tonais de Padrão de Frequência (PPS-Pitch Pattern Sequence Test e Testes Tonais de Padrão de Duração (DPS - Duration Pattern Sequence Test. RESULTADOS: o grupo II apresentou desempenho superior no teste de padrão de frequência e de padrão de duração quando comparado ao grupo I. Os resultados indicaram que houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre os grupos estudados. CONCLUSÃO: os participantes do grupo I apresentaram desempenho alterado nos testes de padrão temporal, o que indica que existe relação entre a gagueira e o transtorno do processamento auditivo.PURPOSE: to characterize and compare the performance of children with diagnosis of stuttering under temporal pattern tests with the performance of children without complaints. METHOD: we evaluated 30 children between 9 and 12-year old, both genders, divided in two groups: GI - 15 children with persistent development stuttering; GII - 15 children without complaints and/or signals of psychiatric or neurological upheavals, speech, hearing, language and/or learning difficulties. To evaluate the auditory processing we applied Pitch Pattern Sequence Test (PPS and Duration Pattern Sequence Test (DPS. RESULTS: group II showed a better performance on PPS and DPS tests when compared with group I. The results indicated

  13. NIDCAP and developmental care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Haumont

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal mortality in very low birth weight infants has dramatically decreased during the last decades. However, 15-25% of these infants will show neurodevelopmental impairment later on. The aim of implementing early developmental care (EDC, emerged as a new field in neonatology, is to create an intervention program designed to provide support for optimal neurobehavioral development during this highly vulnerable period of brain growth. The theoretical framework, which underlies the approach, is supported by research in different scientific fields, including neuroscience, psychology, medicine and nursing. EDC utilizes a range of medical and nursing interventions that aim to decrease the stress of preterm neonates in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs. The Neonatal Individualized Developmental Care Assessment Program (NIDCAP is an integrated and holistic form of family-centered developmental care. Changing the traditional NICU towards an EDC-NICU includes training nursing and medical staff, investing in their quality and most importantly keeping parents in proximity to the infants. The new challenge of modern neonatology is to restore the mother-infant dyad applying “couplet care” starting at birth until discharge. Most of the European NICUs apply some elements of EDC, but it is more consistent in northern Europe. The development of NIDCAP training centers in Europe demonstrates the evolution of care. It is likely that future research and intervention programs will optimize our practices. Developmental care could prove to be an important recent step in improving outcome in extremely preterm neonates. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in Neonatology Guest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou

  14. Attainment of gross motor milestones in children with Down syndrome in Kosovo - developmental perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beqaj, Samire; Jusaj, Njomza; Živković, Vujica

    2017-08-01

    Aim To investigate the age (in months) at which motor skills are developed in children with Down syndrome (DS), and compare it to the age of the development of the same skills in both, children with typical development (TD), and children with DS reported by four other studies. Methods Sixteen children (7 girls and 9 boys) were monthly assessed for the development of nineteen motor skills between 2008 and 2011. The mean ages when the skills were accomplished were presented using descriptive statistics. Independent T-samples test (significance skills. No significant difference was found between developmental age in children from the present study and children with DS from other studies. Conclusion The rate of attainment of motor skills is delayed in children with DS in comparison to children with TD, however, the developmental sequence is the same. The delayed development is more prominent in more complex skills. Copyright© by the Medical Assotiation of Zenica-Doboj Canton.

  15. Biomarkers of adult and developmental neurotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slikker, William; Bowyer, John F.

    2005-01-01

    Neurotoxicity may be defined as any adverse effect on the structure or function of the central and/or peripheral nervous system by a biological, chemical, or physical agent. A multidisciplinary approach is necessary to assess adult and developmental neurotoxicity due to the complex and diverse functions of the nervous system. The overall strategy for understanding developmental neurotoxicity is based on two assumptions: (1) significant differences in the adult versus the developing nervous system susceptibility to neurotoxicity exist and they are often developmental stage dependent; (2) a multidisciplinary approach using neurobiological, including gene expression assays, neurophysiological, neuropathological, and behavioral function is necessary for a precise assessment of neurotoxicity. Application of genomic approaches to developmental studies must use the same criteria for evaluating microarray studies as those in adults including consideration of reproducibility, statistical analysis, homogenous cell populations, and confirmation with non-array methods. A study using amphetamine to induce neurotoxicity supports the following: (1) gene expression data can help define neurotoxic mechanism(s) (2) gene expression changes can be useful biomarkers of effect, and (3) the site-selective nature of gene expression in the nervous system may mandate assessment of selective cell populations

  16. Short faces, big tongues: developmental origin of the human chin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Coquerelle

    Full Text Available During the course of human evolution, the retraction of the face underneath the braincase, and closer to the cervical column, has reduced the horizontal dimension of the vocal tract. By contrast, the relative size of the tongue has not been reduced, implying a rearrangement of the space at the back of the vocal tract to allow breathing and swallowing. This may have left a morphological signature such as a chin (mental prominence that can potentially be interpreted in Homo. Long considered an autopomorphic trait of Homo sapiens, various extinct hominins show different forms of mental prominence. These features may be the evolutionary by-product of equivalent developmental constraints correlated with an enlarged tongue. In order to investigate developmental mechanisms related to this hypothesis, we compare modern 34 human infants against 8 chimpanzee fetuses, whom development of the mandibular symphysis passes through similar stages. The study sets out to test that the shared ontogenetic shape changes of the symphysis observed in both species are driven by the same factor--space restriction at the back of the vocal tract and the associated arrangement of the tongue and hyoid bone. We apply geometric morphometric methods to extensive three-dimensional anatomical landmarks and semilandmarks configuration, capturing the geometry of the cervico-craniofacial complex including the hyoid bone, tongue muscle and the mandible. We demonstrate that in both species, the forward displacement of the mental region derives from the arrangement of the tongue and hyoid bone, in order to cope with the relative horizontal narrowing of the oral cavity. Because humans and chimpanzees share this pattern of developmental integration, the different forms of mental prominence seen in some extinct hominids likely originate from equivalent ontogenetic constraints. Variations in this process could account for similar morphologies.

  17. Evolutionary and developmental modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacquaniti, Francesco; Ivanenko, Yuri P; d'Avella, Andrea; Zelik, Karl E; Zago, Myrka

    2013-01-01

    The identification of biological modules at the systems level often follows top-down decomposition of a task goal, or bottom-up decomposition of multidimensional data arrays into basic elements or patterns representing shared features. These approaches traditionally have been applied to mature, fully developed systems. Here we review some results from two other perspectives on modularity, namely the developmental and evolutionary perspective. There is growing evidence that modular units of development were highly preserved and recombined during evolution. We first consider a few examples of modules well identifiable from morphology. Next we consider the more difficult issue of identifying functional developmental modules. We dwell especially on modular control of locomotion to argue that the building blocks used to construct different locomotor behaviors are similar across several animal species, presumably related to ancestral neural networks of command. A recurrent theme from comparative studies is that the developmental addition of new premotor modules underlies the postnatal acquisition and refinement of several different motor behaviors in vertebrates.

  18. Solid-phase enzyme immunoassay or radioimmunoassay for the detection of immune complexes based on their recognition by conglutinin: conglutinin-binding test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casali, P.; Bossus, A.; Carpentier, N.A.; Lambert, P.H.

    1977-01-01

    Bovine conglutinin was used in a solid-phase assay for the detection of immune complexes. In a first step, the tested serum sample was incubated in polypropylene tubes coated with conglutinin to allow C3-coated immune complexes to bind to solid-phase conglutinin. In a second step, the conglutinin-bound complexes were detected using an enzyme-conjugated or radiolabelled anti-immunoglobulin antibody. The conglutinin-binding (KgB) test did not suffer from the interference of DNA, heparin or endotoxins. Its limit of sensitivity for aggregated IgG was 3 μg/ml undiluted human serum. Immune complexes prepared in vitro using tetanus toxoid, or DNA, and corresponding antibodies in human sera could be detected at various antigen/antibody ratios and at antibody concentrations lower than 8 μg/ml. The KgB test allowed for the detection of immune complexes in sera from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, idiopathic vasculitis, leprosy and leukemia. These sera were also tested using the 125 I-labelled Clq-binding activity (BA) test and the KgB test simultaneously, and a significant rank order correlation was observed. In patients with leukemia, a significant correlation was observed using three tests, KgB, 125 I-labelled Clq BA and Raji-cell radioimmunoassay (RIA). Therefore, the KgB test appears as a simple and reproducible method, utilizing a very stable reagent, with a sensitivity and specificity comparable to the other tests studied and allowing for clinical application. (author)

  19. Testing developmental pathways to antisocial personality problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Diamantopoulou; F.C. Verhulst (Frank); J. van der Ende (Jan)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis study examined the development of antisocial personality problems (APP) in young adulthood from disruptive behaviors and internalizing problems in childhood and adolescence. Parent ratings of 507 children's (aged 6-8 years) symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder,

  20. Testing Developmental Pathways to Antisocial Personality Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamantopoulou, Sofia; Verhulst, Frank C.; van der Ende, Jan

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the development of antisocial personality problems (APP) in young adulthood from disruptive behaviors and internalizing problems in childhood and adolescence. Parent ratings of 507 children's (aged 6-8 years) symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and anxiety, were linked to…

  1. Evolutionary Developmental Robotics: Improving Morphology and Control of Physical Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujovic, Vuk; Rosendo, Andre; Brodbeck, Luzius; Iida, Fumiya

    2017-01-01

    Evolutionary algorithms have previously been applied to the design of morphology and control of robots. The design space for such tasks can be very complex, which can prevent evolution from efficiently discovering fit solutions. In this article we introduce an evolutionary-developmental (evo-devo) experiment with real-world robots. It allows robots to grow their leg size to simulate ontogenetic morphological changes, and this is the first time that such an experiment has been performed in the physical world. To test diverse robot morphologies, robot legs of variable shapes were generated during the evolutionary process and autonomously built using additive fabrication. We present two cases with evo-devo experiments and one with evolution, and we hypothesize that the addition of a developmental stage can be used within robotics to improve performance. Moreover, our results show that a nonlinear system-environment interaction exists, which explains the nontrivial locomotion patterns observed. In the future, robots will be present in our daily lives, and this work introduces for the first time physical robots that evolve and grow while interacting with the environment.

  2. [Developmental changes in visuospatial working memory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Makio; Takeuchi, Akihito; Morooka, Teruko; Ogino, Tatsuya; Ohtsuka, Yoko

    2010-07-01

    We investigated the developmental changes in visuospatial working memory using the Visuospatial Span Task (VST) and the Matrix Visuospatial Working Memory Test (VSWMT). VST is a short-term storage task, while VSWMT is a complex dual task. VSWMT requires the use of storage, processing, and selective attention, all of which are thought to be supported by the central executive (Baddeley). The subjects of this study were 60 typically developing children (43 boys and 17 girls) aged 6-14 years (average 10.4 years). For each task we evaluated span scores and the number of total passed trials, and investigated the changes that occurred with age. To further elucidate age-related changes in visuospatial working memory, we divided the subjects into three age groups (Group A: 6-8 years, Group B: 9-11 years, and Group C: 12-14 years of age), and statistically evaluated the differences between the groups. In both tasks, span scores and the number of total passed trials showed definite age-related changes from 6 to 14 years of age. Span scores and the number of total passed trials in VSMWT continued to increase until adolescence, with significant differences between the three age groups, while those in VST increased significantly between Groups A and B (the number of total passed trials only) and between Groups A and C (span scores and the number of total passed trials); there was no significant difference between Groups B and C, however. These results suggest that the network of the brain involved in visuospatial working memory gradually matures during early school years and adolescence, and that the basic mechanisms of this network exist by 6-7 years of age. Our results also show that VST and VSWMT are suitable tests for the evaluation of visuospatial working memory in childhood and adolescence.

  3. Defining the Locus of Developmental Differences in Children's Causal Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.

    1975-01-01

    Five experiments were performed in the area of children's causal reasoning to validate a previously reported developmental difference, to examine the role of a possible mediating mechanism, and to test a number of competing theoretical interpretations. (GO)

  4. Assessment of the Developmental Toxicity of Epidermal Growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    developmental toxicity, using the embryonic stem cell test (EST), as well as ascertain how EGF ... differentiation of embryonic stem cells, EST was used to assess changes in different blastodermic ..... However, as an extraneous drug, it is worth.

  5. A multi-step approach for testing non-toxic amphiphilic antifouling coatings against marine microfouling at different levels of biological complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zecher, Karsten; Aitha, Vishwa Prasad; Heuer, Kirsten; Ahlers, Herbert; Roland, Katrin; Fiedel, Michael; Philipp, Bodo

    2018-03-01

    Marine biofouling on artificial surfaces such as ship hulls or fish farming nets causes enormous economic damage. The time for the developmental process of antifouling coatings can be shortened by reliable laboratory assays. For designing such test systems, it is important that toxic effects can be excluded, that multiple parameters can be addressed simultaneously and that mechanistic aspects can be included. In this study, a multi-step approach for testing antifouling coatings was established employing photoautotrophic biofilm formation of marine microorganisms in micro- and mesoscoms. Degree and pattern of biofilm formation was determined by quantification of chlorophyll fluorescence. For the microcosms, co-cultures of diatoms and a heterotrophic bacterium were exposed to fouling-release coatings. For the mesocosms, a novel device was developed that permits parallel quantification of a multitude of coatings under defined conditions with varying degrees of shear stress. Additionally, the antifouling coatings were tested for leaching of potential compounds and finally tested in sea trials. This multistep-approach revealed that the individual steps led to consistent results regarding antifouling activity of the coatings. Furthermore, the novel mesocosm system can be employed for advanced antifouling analysis including metagenomic approaches for determination of microbial diversity attaching to different coatings under changing shear forces. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Visual-Constructional Ability in Individuals with Severe Obesity: Rey Complex Figure Test Accuracy and the Q-Score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna L. Sargénius

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to investigate visual-construction and organizational strategy among individuals with severe obesity, as measured by the Rey Complex Figure Test (RCFT, and to examine the validity of the Q-score as a measure for the quality of performance on the RCFT. Ninety-six non-demented morbidly obese (MO patients and 100 healthy controls (HC completed the RCFT. Their performance was calculated by applying the standard scoring criteria. The quality of the copying process was evaluated per the directions of the Q-score scoring system. Results revealed that the MO did not perform significantly lower than the HC on Copy accuracy (mean difference −0.302, CI −1.374 to 0.769, p = 0.579. In contrast, the groups did statistically differ from each other, with MO performing poorer than the HC on the Q-score (mean −1.784, CI −3.237 to −0.331, p = 0.016 and the Unit points (mean −1.409, CI −2.291 to −0.528, p = 0.002, but not on the Order points score (mean −0.351, CI −0.994 to 0.293, p = 0.284. Differences on the Unit score and the Q-score were slightly reduced when adjusting for gender, age, and education. This study presents evidence supporting the presence of inefficiency in visuospatial constructional ability among MO patients. We believe we have found an indication that the Q-score captures a wider range of cognitive processes that are not described by traditional scoring methods. Rather than considering accuracy and placement of the different elements only, the Q-score focuses more on how the subject has approached the task.

  7. Cryptic Genetic Variation in Evolutionary Developmental Genetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalise B. Paaby

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary developmental genetics has traditionally been conducted by two groups: Molecular evolutionists who emphasize divergence between species or higher taxa, and quantitative geneticists who study variation within species. Neither approach really comes to grips with the complexities of evolutionary transitions, particularly in light of the realization from genome-wide association studies that most complex traits fit an infinitesimal architecture, being influenced by thousands of loci. This paper discusses robustness, plasticity and lability, phenomena that we argue potentiate major evolutionary changes and provide a bridge between the conceptual treatments of macro- and micro-evolution. We offer cryptic genetic variation and conditional neutrality as mechanisms by which standing genetic variation can lead to developmental system drift and, sheltered within canalized processes, may facilitate developmental transitions and the evolution of novelty. Synthesis of the two dominant perspectives will require recognition that adaptation, divergence, drift and stability all depend on similar underlying quantitative genetic processes—processes that cannot be fully observed in continuously varying visible traits.

  8. Solid-phase enzyme immunoassay or radioimmunoassay for the detection of immune complexes based on their recognition by conglutinin: conglutinin-binding test. A comparative study with /sup 125/I-labelled Clq binding and Raji-cell RIA tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casali, P; Bossus, A; Carpentier, N A; Lambert, P H [Hopital Cantonal Geneve (Switzerland)

    1977-01-01

    Bovine conglutinin was used in a solid-phase assay for the detection of immune complexes. In a first step, the tested serum sample was incubated in polypropylene tubes coated with conglutinin to allow C3-coated immune complexes to bind to solid-phase conglutinin. In a second step, the conglutinin-bound complexes were detected using an enzyme-conjugated or radiolabelled anti-immunoglobulin antibody. The conglutinin-binding (KgB) test did not suffer from the interference of DNA, heparin or endotoxins. Its limit of sensitivity for aggregated IgG was 3 ..mu..g/ml undiluted human serum. Immune complexes prepared in vitro using tetanus toxoid, or DNA, and corresponding antibodies in human sera could be detected at various antigen/antibody ratios and at antibody concentrations lower than 8 ..mu..g/ml. The KgB test allowed for the detection of immune complexes in sera from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, idiopathic vasculitis, leprosy and leukemia. These sera were also tested using the /sup 125/I-labelled Clq-binding activity (BA) test and the KgB test simultaneously, and a significant rank order correlation was observed. In patients with leukemia, a significant correlation was observed using three tests, KgB, /sup 125/I-labelled Clq BA and Raji-cell radioimmunoassay (RIA). Therefore, the KgB test appears as a simple and reproducible method, utilizing a very stable reagent, with a sensitivity and specificity comparable to the other tests studied and allowing for clinical application.

  9. Decadal predictions of Southern Ocean sea ice : testing different initialization methods with an Earth-system Model of Intermediate Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunz, Violette; Goosse, Hugues; Dubinkina, Svetlana

    2013-04-01

    The sea ice extent in the Southern Ocean has increased since 1979 but the causes of this expansion have not been firmly identified. In particular, the contribution of internal variability and external forcing to this positive trend has not been fully established. In this region, the lack of observations and the overestimation of internal variability of the sea ice by contemporary General Circulation Models (GCMs) make it difficult to understand the behaviour of the sea ice. Nevertheless, if its evolution is governed by the internal variability of the system and if this internal variability is in some way predictable, a suitable initialization method should lead to simulations results that better fit the reality. Current GCMs decadal predictions are generally initialized through a nudging towards some observed fields. This relatively simple method does not seem to be appropriated to the initialization of sea ice in the Southern Ocean. The present study aims at identifying an initialization method that could improve the quality of the predictions of Southern Ocean sea ice at decadal timescales. We use LOVECLIM, an Earth-system Model of Intermediate Complexity that allows us to perform, within a reasonable computational time, the large amount of simulations required to test systematically different initialization procedures. These involve three data assimilation methods: a nudging, a particle filter and an efficient particle filter. In a first step, simulations are performed in an idealized framework, i.e. data from a reference simulation of LOVECLIM are used instead of observations, herein after called pseudo-observations. In this configuration, the internal variability of the model obviously agrees with the one of the pseudo-observations. This allows us to get rid of the issues related to the overestimation of the internal variability by models compared to the observed one. This way, we can work out a suitable methodology to assess the efficiency of the

  10. Completion summary for boreholes USGS 140 and USGS 141 near the Advanced Test Reactor Complex, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twining, Brian V.; Bartholomay, Roy C.; Hodges, Mary K.V.

    2014-01-01

    organic compounds, stable isotopes, and radionuclides. Water samples from both wells indicated that concentrations of tritium, sulfate, and chromium were affected by wastewater disposal practices at the Advanced Test Reactor Complex. Most constituents in water from wells USGS 140 and USGS 141 had concentrations similar to concentrations in well USGS 136, which is upgradient from wells USGS 140 and USGS 141.

  11. DEVELOPMENTAL TAXONOMY OF CONDUCT DISORDER

    OpenAIRE

    Jelena Kostić; Milkica Nešić; Jasminka Marković; Miodrag Stanković

    2015-01-01

    Conduct disorder is a heterogeneous disorder in terms of etiology, course and prognosis, and currently, there is no singular model that would describe the development of the disorder. The results of empirical research on males confirm this heterogeneity, as they point out to two possible developmental pathways: childhood-onset and adolescentonset type. This paper presents the basic elements of developmental taxonomic theory which argues that there are two different developmental pathways to c...

  12. Brain morphology of the threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) varies inconsistently with respect to habitat complexity: A test of the Clever Foraging Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Newaz I; Thompson, Cole; Bolnick, Daniel I; Stuart, Yoel E

    2017-05-01

    The Clever Foraging Hypothesis asserts that organisms living in a more spatially complex environment will have a greater neurological capacity for cognitive processes related to spatial memory, navigation, and foraging. Because the telencephalon is often associated with spatial memory and navigation tasks, this hypothesis predicts a positive association between telencephalon size and environmental complexity. The association between habitat complexity and brain size has been supported by comparative studies across multiple species but has not been widely studied at the within-species level. We tested for covariation between environmental complexity and neuroanatomy of threespine stickleback ( Gasterosteus aculeatus ) collected from 15 pairs of lakes and their parapatric streams on Vancouver Island. In most pairs, neuroanatomy differed between the adjoining lake and stream populations. However, the magnitude and direction of this difference were inconsistent between watersheds and did not covary strongly with measures of within-site environmental heterogeneity. Overall, we find weak support for the Clever Foraging Hypothesis in our study.

  13. Developmental plasticity: Friend or foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Karin B

    2017-01-01

    Developmental plasticity - the concept that adaptation to changing and unfavorable environmental conditions are possible but may come at the price of compromised health potentials - has evolutionary grounding as it facilitates survival but dissents with fundamental evolutionary principles in that it may advance the lesser fit. It is an important cornerstone of the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD). Unlike evolutionary adaptation developmental plasticity may be short-lived and restricted to one or few generations and inheritance is uncertain. Potential mechanisms include epigenetic modifications adopted in utero which may not transmit to the next generation; future insights may allow adjustments of the outcomes of developmental plasticity.

  14. Qualitative methodology in developmental psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin; Mey, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative methodology presently is gaining increasing recognition in developmental psychology. Although the founders of developmental psychology to a large extent already used qualitative procedures, the field was long dominated by a (post) positivistic quantitative paradigm. The increasing rec...... in qualitative research offers a promising avenue to advance the field in this direction.......Qualitative methodology presently is gaining increasing recognition in developmental psychology. Although the founders of developmental psychology to a large extent already used qualitative procedures, the field was long dominated by a (post) positivistic quantitative paradigm. The increasing...

  15. Building a developmental toxicity ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Nancy; Boobis, Alan; Burgoon, Lyle; Carney, Edward; Currie, Richard; Fritsche, Ellen; Knudsen, Thomas; Laffont, Madeleine; Piersma, Aldert H; Poole, Alan; Schneider, Steffen; Daston, George

    2018-04-03

    As more information is generated about modes of action for developmental toxicity and more data are generated using high-throughput and high-content technologies, it is becoming necessary to organize that information. This report discussed the need for a systematic representation of knowledge about developmental toxicity (i.e., an ontology) and proposes a method to build one based on knowledge of developmental biology and mode of action/ adverse outcome pathways in developmental toxicity. This report is the result of a consensus working group developing a plan to create an ontology for developmental toxicity that spans multiple levels of biological organization. This report provide a description of some of the challenges in building a developmental toxicity ontology and outlines a proposed methodology to meet those challenges. As the ontology is built on currently available web-based resources, a review of these resources is provided. Case studies on one of the most well-understood morphogens and developmental toxicants, retinoic acid, are presented as examples of how such an ontology might be developed. This report outlines an approach to construct a developmental toxicity ontology. Such an ontology will facilitate computer-based prediction of substances likely to induce human developmental toxicity. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Acute and Developmental Behavioral Effects of Flame ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    As polybrominated diphenyl ethers are phased out, numerous compounds are emerging as potential replacement flame retardants for use in consumer and electronic products. Little is known, however, about the neurobehavioral toxicity of these replacements. This study evaluated the neurobehavioral effects of acute or developmental exposure to t-butylphenyl diphenyl phosphate (BPDP), 2-ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate (EHDP), isodecyl diphenyl phosphate (IDDP), isopropylated phenyl phosphate (IPP), tricresyl phosphate (TMPP; also abbreviated TCP), triphenyl phosphate (TPHP; also abbreviated TPP), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris (1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCIPP; also abbreviated TDCPP), tri-o-cresyl phosphate (TOCP), and 2,2-,4,4’-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae. Larvae (n≈24 per dose per compound) were exposed to test compounds (0.4 - 120 µM) at sub-teratogenic concentrations either developmentally or acutely, and locomotor activity was assessed at 6 days post fertilization. When given developmentally, all chemicals except BPDP, IDDP and TBBPA produced behavioral effects. When given acutely, all chemicals produced behavioral effects, with TPHP, TBBPA, EHDP, IPP, and BPDP eliciting the most effects at the most concentrations. The results indicate that these replacement flame retardants may have developmental or pharmacological effects on the vertebrate nervous system. This study

  17. Developmental immunotoxicology of lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietert, Rodney R.; Lee, Ji-Eun; Hussain, Irshad; Piepenbrink, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The heavy metal, lead, is a known developmental immunotoxicant that has been shown to produce immune alterations in humans as well as other species. Unlike many compounds that exert adverse immune effects, lead exposure at low to moderate levels does not produce widespread loss of immune cells. In contrast, changes resulting from lead exposure are subtle at the immune cell population level but, nevertheless, can be functionally dramatic. A hallmark of lead-induced immunotoxicity is a pronounced shift in the balance in T helper cell function toward T helper 2 responses at the expense of T helper 1 functions. This bias alters the nature and range of immune responses that can be produced thereby influencing host susceptibility to various diseases. Immunotoxic responses to lead appear to differ across life stages not only quantitatively with regard to dose response, but also qualitatively in terms of the spectrum of immune alterations. Experimental studies in several lab animal species suggest the latter stages of gestation are a period of considerable sensitivity for lead-induced immunotoxicity. This review describes the basic characteristics of lead-induced immunotoxicity emphasizing experimental animal results. It also provides a framework for the consideration of toxicant exposure effects across life stages. The existence of and probable basis for developmental windows of immune hyper-susceptibility are presented. Finally, the potential for lead to serve as a perinatal risk factor for childhood asthma as well as other diseases is considered

  18. Effects of Cognitive Complexity and Emotional Upset on Processing Supportive Messages: Two Tests of a Dual-Process Theory of Supportive Communication Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodie, Graham D.; Burleson, Brant R.; Holmstrom, Amanda J.; McCullough, Jennifer D.; Rack, Jessica J.; Hanasono, Lisa K.; Rosier, Jennifer G.

    2011-01-01

    We report tests of hypotheses derived from a theory of supportive communication outcomes that maintains the effects of supportive messages are moderated by factors influencing the motivation and ability to process these messages. Participants in two studies completed a measure of cognitive complexity, which provided an assessment of processing…

  19. Developmental Exposure to Valproate or Ethanol Alters Locomotor Activity and Retino-Tectal Projection Area in Zebrafish Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given the minimal developmental neurotoxicity data available for the large number of new and existing chemicals, there is a critical need for alternative methods to identify and prioritize chemicals for further testing. We outline a developmental neurotoxicity screening approach ...

  20. Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers.......Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers....

  1. Developmental perspectives on nutrition and obesity from gestation to adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Layla; Fisher, Jennifer O; Mennella, Julie A; Hoelscher, Deanna M; Huang, Terry T

    2009-07-01

    Obesity results from a complex combination of factors that act at many stages throughout a person's life. Therefore, examining childhood nutrition and obesity from a developmental perspective is warranted. A developmental perspective recognizes the cumulative effects of factors that contribute to eating behavior and obesity, including biological and socioenvironmental factors that are relevant at different stages of development. A developmental perspective considers family, school, and community context. During gestation, risk factors for obesity include maternal diet, overweight, and smoking. In early childhood, feeding practices, taste acquisition, and eating in the absence of hunger must be considered. As children become more independent during middle childhood and adolescence, school nutrition, food marketing, and social networks become focal points for obesity prevention or intervention. Combining a multilevel approach with a developmental perspective can inform more effective and sustainable strategies for obesity prevention.

  2. I. DEVELOPMENTAL METHODOLOGY AS A CENTRAL SUBDISCIPLINE OF DEVELOPMENTAL SCIENCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, Noel A

    2017-06-01

    This first chapter introduces the main goals of the monograph and previews the remaining chapters. The goals of this monograph are to provide summaries of our current understanding of advanced developmental methodologies, provide information that can advance our understanding of human development, identify shortcomings in our understanding of developmental methodology, and serve as a flagpost for organizing developmental methodology as a subdiscipline within the broader field of developmental science. The remaining chapters in this monograph address issues in design (sampling and big data), longitudinal data analysis, and issues of replication and research accumulation. The final chapter describes the history of developmental methodology, considers how the previous chapters in this monograph fit within this subdiscipline, and offers recommendations for further advancement. © 2017 The Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  3. Constructivist developmental theory is needed in developmental neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsalidou, Marie; Pascual-Leone, Juan

    2016-12-01

    Neuroscience techniques provide an open window previously unavailable to the origin of thoughts and actions in children. Developmental cognitive neuroscience is booming, and knowledge from human brain mapping is finding its way into education and pediatric practice. Promises of application in developmental cognitive neuroscience rests however on better theory-guided data interpretation. Massive amounts of neuroimaging data from children are being processed, yet published studies often do not frame their work within developmental models—in detriment, we believe, to progress in this field. Here we describe some core challenges in interpreting the data from developmental cognitive neuroscience, and advocate the use of constructivist developmental theories of human cognition with a neuroscience interpretation.

  4. Not New, but Nearly Forgotten: The Testing Effect Decreases or Even Disappears as the Complexity of Learning Materials Increases

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gog, Tamara; Sweller, John

    2015-01-01

    The testing effect is a finding from cognitive psychology with relevance for education. It shows that after an initial study period, taking a practice test improves long-term retention compared to not taking a test and--more interestingly--compared to restudying the learning material. Boundary conditions of the effect that have received attention…

  5. A test statistic in the complex Wishart distribution and its application to change detection in polarimetric SAR data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conradsen, Knut; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Schou, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    . Based on this distribution, a test statistic for equality of two such matrices and an associated asymptotic probability for obtaining a smaller value of the test statistic are derived and applied successfully to change detection in polarimetric SAR data. In a case study, EMISAR L-band data from April 17...... to HH, VV, or HV data alone, the derived test statistic reduces to the well-known gamma likelihood-ratio test statistic. The derived test statistic and the associated significance value can be applied as a line or edge detector in fully polarimetric SAR data also....

  6. Developmentally Appropriate Peace Education Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewsader, Joellen; Myers-Walls, Judith A.

    2017-01-01

    Peace education has been offered to children for decades, but those curricula have been only minimally guided by children's developmental stages and needs. In this article, the authors apply their research on children's developmental understanding of peace along with peace education principles and Vygotsky's sociocultural theory to present…

  7. Developmental colour agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zandvoort, Martine J E; Nijboer, Tanja C W; de Haan, Edward

    2007-08-01

    Colour agnosia concerns the inability to recognise colours despite intact colour perception, semantic memory for colour information, and colour naming. Patients with selective colour agnosia have been described and the deficit is associated with left hemisphere damage. Here we report a case study of a 43-year-old man who was referred to us with a stroke in his right cerebellar hemisphere. During the standard assessment it transpired that he was unable to name coloured patches. Detailed assessment of his colour processing showed that he suffers from a selective colour agnosia. As he claimed to have had this problem all his life, and the fact that the infratentorial infarct that he had incurred was in an area far away from the brain structures that are known to be involved in colour processing, we suggest that he is the first reported case of developmental colour agnosia.

  8. Decontamination and decommissioning of the EBR-I complex. Topical report No. 3. NAK disposal pilot plant test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commander, J.C.; Lewis, L.; Hammer, R.

    1975-06-01

    Decontamination and decommissioning of the Experimental Breeder Reactor No. 1 (EBR-I) requires processing of the primary coolant, an eutectic solution of sodium and potassium (NaK), remaining in the EBR-I primary and secondary coolant systems. While developing design criteria for the NaK processing system, reasonable justification was provided for the development of a pilot test plant for field testing some of the process concepts and proposed hardware. The objective of this activity was to prove the process concept on a low-cost, small-scale test bed. The pilot test plant criteria provided a general description of the test including: the purpose, location, description of test equipment available, waste disposal requirements, and a flow diagram and conceptual equipment layout. The pilot plant test operations procedure provided a detailed step-by-step procedure for operation of the pilot plant to obtain the desired test data and operational experience. It also spelled out the safety precautions to be used by operating personnel, including the requirement for alkali metals training certification, use of protective clothing, availability of fire protection equipment, and caustic handling procedures. The pilot plant test was performed on May 16, 1974. During the test, 32.5 gallons or 240 lb of NaK was successfully converted to caustic by reaction with water in a caustic solution. (auth)

  9. [Neurotransmission in developmental disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Yoshihiro

    2008-11-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) is a heterogeneous developmental disorder with an etiology that is not fully understood. AD/HD has been considered to occur due to a disturbance in cathecholaminergic neurotransmission, with particular emphasis on dopamine. The neurotransmission of dopamine in subcortical regions such as the basal ganglia and limbic areas is synaptic; on the other hand, dopamine neurotransmission in the frontal cortex is quite different, because there are very few dopamine transporters (DAT) in the frontal cortex that allow dopamine to diffuse away from the dopamine synapse ("volume transmission"). It is now clear that noradrenergic neurons play a key regulatory role in dopaminergic function in the frontal cortex. Furthermore, serotonergic neurons exert an inhibitory effect on midbrain dopamine cell bodies, and they have an influence on dopamine release in terminal regions. There is accumulating neurobiological evidence pointing toward a role of the serotonin system in AD/HD. The etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is still unclear, but information from genetics, neuropathology, brain imaging, and basic neuroscience has provided insights into the understanding of this developmental disorder. In addition to abnormal circuitry in specific limbic and neocortical areas of the cerebral cortex, impairments in brainstem, cerebellar, thalamic, and basal ganglia connections have been reported. Numerous studies have pointed to abnormalities in serotonin and glutamate neurotransmission. Three important aspects involved in the pathophysiology of ASD have been proposed. The first is cell migration, the second is unbalanced excitatory-inhibitory networks, and the third is synapse formation and pruning, the key factors being reelin, neurexin, and neuroligin. Serotonin is considered to play an important role in all of these aspects of the pathophysiology of ASD. Finally, I would like to emphasize that it is crucial in the field of child

  10. Feasibility study in the application of optical signal analysis to non-destructive testing of complex structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, B.; Brown, H.

    1974-01-01

    Advantages of the large time bandwidth product of optical processing are presented. Experiments were performed to study the feasibility of the use of optical spectral analysis for detection of flaws in structural elements excited by random noise. Photographic and electronic methods of comparison of complex spectra were developed. Limitations were explored, and suggestions for further work are offered.

  11. Scale Development and Initial Tests of the Multidimensional Complex Adaptive Leadership Scale for School Principals: An Exploratory Mixed Method Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özen, Hamit; Turan, Selahattin

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to develop the scale of the Complex Adaptive Leadership for School Principals (CAL-SP) and examine its psychometric properties. This was an exploratory mixed method research design (ES-MMD). Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used to develop and assess psychometric properties of the questionnaire. This study…

  12. Complex biological testing of ground water quality in the area of sewage settler filtration fields of JSC 'Almaty Kanty'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetrinskaya, N.I.; Goldobina, E.A.; Kosmukhambetov, A.R.; Kulikova, O.V.; Kozlova, N.V.; Ismailova, Zh.B.

    2001-01-01

    Results are given on the ground water ecological quality estimation of operating survey boreholes of JSC 'Almaty Kanty' industrial enterprise filtration fields using different methods of biological testing. Proved that various biological objects reacted differently onto the toxins present in the water. Concealment of toxic effect was performed at short-period testing at several testing objects (stimulation). Revealed during long period tests, that ground water from all the boreholes surveyed is not ecologically clean and pure, and can bring damage for ecosystem of water reservoirs adjacent and sources of drinking water if migration happens. (author)

  13. Mammalian developmental genetics in the twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artzt, Karen

    2012-12-01

    This Perspectives is a review of the breathtaking history of mammalian genetics in the past century and, in particular, of the ways in which genetic thinking has illuminated aspects of mouse development. To illustrate the power of that thinking, selected hypothesis-driven experiments and technical advances are discussed. Also included in this account are the beginnings of mouse genetics at the Bussey Institute, Columbia University, and The Jackson Laboratory and a retrospective discussion of one of the classic problems in developmental genetics, the T/t complex and its genetic enigmas.

  14. Evaluation of a rapid radiometric differentiation test for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex by selective inhibition with p-nitro-alpha-acetylamino-beta-hydroxypropiophenone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laszlo, A.; Siddiqi, S.H.

    1984-01-01

    This study is an evaluation of a rapid technique for the differentiation of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex from other mycobacteria, using p-nitro-alpha-acetylamino-beta- hydroxypropiophenone (NAP) as a selective inhibitory agent. A total of 416 coded cultures, 234 cultures belonging to the M. tuberculosis complex and 182 cultures belonging to 35 other mycobacterial species, were tested in two laboratories for p-nitro-alpha-acetylamino-beta- hydroxypropiophenone inhibition to concentrations of 5 and 10 micrograms of NAP per ml in Middlebrook 7H12 liquid medium. Two testing modes were compared: the indirect, in which a large bacterial inoculum was used from an isolated culture on a solid medium, and the direct, which used a small inoculum from 7H12 medium. A decrease or no increase in daily 14 CO 2 output as measured by a BACTEC system was considered evidence of inhibition. The data presented show that a concentration of 5 micrograms of NAP per ml can effectively separate the M. tuberculosis complex from other mycobacterial species in 4 to 6 days. The direct test data show that, unlike other conventional biochemical tests, it does not require a heavy inoculum of mycobacteria and can therefore be performed soon after growth is detected by the radiometric method

  15. Testing candidate genes for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in fruit flies using a high throughput assay for complex behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Palle Duun; Madsen, Lisbeth Strøm; Arvidson, Sandra Marie Neumann

    2016-01-01

    Fruit flies are important model organisms for functional testing of candidate genes in multiple disciplines, including the study of human diseases. Here we use a high-throughput locomotor activity assay to test the response on activity behavior of gene disruption in Drosophila melanogaster. The aim...

  16. Retrieval Can Increase or Decrease Suggestibility Depending on How Memory Is Tested: The Importance of Source Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jason C. K.; Wilford, Miko M.; Hughes, Katharine L.

    2012-01-01

    Taking an intervening test between learning episodes can enhance later source recollection. Paradoxically, testing can also increase people's susceptibility to the misinformation effect--a finding termed retrieval-enhanced suggestibility (RES, Chan, Thomas, & Bulevich, 2009). We conducted three experiments to examine this apparent contradiction.…

  17. Immune-mediated steroid-responsive epileptic spasms and epileptic encephalopathy associated with VGKC-complex antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, Jehan; Brenner, Tanja; Gill, Deepak; Troedson, Christopher; Sinclair, Adriane J; Brilot, Fabienne; Vincent, Angela; Lang, Bethan; Dale, Russell C

    2011-11-01

    Autoantibodies that bind to voltage-gated potassium-channel complex proteins (VGKC-complex antibodies) occur frequently in adults with limbic encephalitis presenting with cognitive impairment and seizures. Recently, VGKC-complex antibodies have been described in a few children with limbic encephalitis, and children with unexplained encephalitis presenting with status epilepticus. We report a case of infantile-onset epileptic spasms and developmental delay compatible with epileptic encephalopathy. Our patient was a female infant, aged 4 months at presentation. She had evidence of immune activation in the central nervous system with elevated cerebrospinal fluid neopterin and mirrored oligoclonal bands, which prompted testing for autoantibodies. VGKC-complex antibodies were elevated (201 pmol/L, normalVGKC-complex antibodies might represent a marker of immune therapy responsiveness in a subgroup of patients with infantile epileptic encephalopathy. © The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2011 Mac Keith Press.

  18. OCULAR DISORDERS IN CHILDREN WITH DEVELOPMENTAL DELAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meera Suresh Joshi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In India, an estimated 1.5-2.5% children below 2 years of age are developmentally delayed. A higher incidence of ocular disability is seen in these children, refractive errors and strabismus being most common. These can add to the overall burden of health as most of them have developmental comorbidities. The aim of the study is to study the ocular disorders in children with developmental delay. MATERIALS AND METHODS We studied 112 children between the 2-12 years of age diagnosed to have developmental delay. All the subjects underwent a detailed ophthalmic evaluation including visual acuity testing using Snellen’s charts (3m and 6m and Log MAR charts (recorded as per Snellen’s vision testing to maintain uniformity, cycloplegic refraction, torchlight and slit-lamp evaluation and dilated fundus examination. The data was tabulated and represented using bar diagrams, Pie charts and graphs. The results were expressed as percentages. Design-Cross-sectional, observational study. RESULTS 66 boys and 46 girls (total 112 were evaluated. The mean age of the study population was 7.8 years ± 2.4 SD. The aetiology of developmental delay was cerebral palsy (64%, Down syndrome (22%, autism (7%, intellectual disability (4.5% and 1 case each of congenital hypothyroidism and ataxia telangiectasia. The prevalence of ocular disorders was found to be 84.8%, which was slightly higher in girls (87% as compared to boys (83%. Refractive error (79.5% was the commonest ocular disorder followed by strabismus (46.4%. Astigmatism (44.6% was the commonest refractive error, which was divided into myopic astigmatism (19.6%, hyperopic astigmatism (13.8% and mixed astigmatism (11.2%. Simple hyperopia was seen in 21.9% subjects and simple myopia in 12.1%. Exotropia (52% was commoner than esotropia (48%. Other ocular abnormalities included optic atrophy, nystagmus, epicanthal folds, cataract, mongoloid slant, ptosis, telecanthus, conjunctival telangiectasia and

  19. Developing software to "track and catch" missed follow-up of abnormal test results in a complex sociotechnical environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M; Murphy, D; Laxmisan, A; Sittig, D; Reis, B; Esquivel, A; Singh, H

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal test results do not always receive timely follow-up, even when providers are notified through electronic health record (EHR)-based alerts. High workload, alert fatigue, and other demands on attention disrupt a provider's prospective memory for tasks required to initiate follow-up. Thus, EHR-based tracking and reminding functionalities are needed to improve follow-up. The purpose of this study was to develop a decision-support software prototype enabling individual and system-wide tracking of abnormal test result alerts lacking follow-up, and to conduct formative evaluations, including usability testing. We developed a working prototype software system, the Alert Watch And Response Engine (AWARE), to detect abnormal test result alerts lacking documented follow-up, and to present context-specific reminders to providers. Development and testing took place within the VA's EHR and focused on four cancer-related abnormal test results. Design concepts emphasized mitigating the effects of high workload and alert fatigue while being minimally intrusive. We conducted a multifaceted formative evaluation of the software, addressing fit within the larger socio-technical system. Evaluations included usability testing with the prototype and interview questions about organizational and workflow factors. Participants included 23 physicians, 9 clinical information technology specialists, and 8 quality/safety managers. Evaluation results indicated that our software prototype fit within the technical environment and clinical workflow, and physicians were able to use it successfully. Quality/safety managers reported that the tool would be useful in future quality assurance activities to detect patients who lack documented follow-up. Additionally, we successfully installed the software on the local facility's "test" EHR system, thus demonstrating technical compatibility. To address the factors involved in missed test results, we developed a software prototype to account for

  20. The psychological complexity of predictive testing for late onset neurogenetic diseases and hereditary cancers: implications for multidisciplinary counselling and for genetic education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers-Kiebooms, G; Welkenhuysen, M; Claes, E; Decruyenaere, M; Denayer, L

    2000-09-01

    Increasing knowledge about the human genome has resulted in the availability of a steadily increasing number of predictive DNA-tests for two major categories of diseases: neurogenetic diseases and hereditary cancers. The psychological complexity of predictive testing for these late onset diseases requires careful consideration. It is the main aim of the present paper to describe this psychological complexity, which necessitates an adequate and systematic multidisciplinary approach, including psychological counselling, as well as ongoing education of professionals and of the general public. Predictive testing for neurogenetic diseases--in an adequate counselling context--so far elicits optimism regarding the short- and mid-term impact of the predictive test result. The psychosocial impact has been most widely studied for Huntington's disease. Longitudinal studies are of the utmost importance in evaluating the long-term impact of predictive testing for neurogenetic diseases on the tested person and his/her family. Given the more recent experience with predictive DNA-testing for hereditary cancers, fewer published scientific data are available. Longitudinal research on the mid- and long-term psychological impact of the predictive test result is essential. Decision making regarding health surveillance or preventive surgery after being detected as a carrier of one of the relevant mutations should receive special attention. Tailoring the professional approach--inside and outside genetic centres--to the families' needs is a continuous challenge. Even if a continuous effort is made, several important questions remain unanswered, last but not least the question regarding the best strategy to guarantee that the availability of predictive genetic testing results in a reduction of suffering caused by genetic disease and in an improvement of the quality of life of families confronted with genetic disease.

  1. Attention Dysfunction Subtypes of Developmental Dyslexia

    OpenAIRE

    Lewandowska, Monika; Milner, Rafał; Ganc, Małgorzata; Włodarczyk, Elżbieta; Skarżyński, Henryk

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies indicate that many different aspects of attention are impaired in children diagnosed with developmental dyslexia (DD). The objective of the present study was to identify cognitive profiles of DD on the basis of attentional test performance. Material/Methods 78 children with DD (30 girls, 48 boys, mean age of 12 years ±8 months) and 32 age- and sex-matched non-dyslexic children (14 girls, 18 boys) were examined using a battery of standardized tests of reading, phono...

  2. Mapping the Developmental Constraints on Working Memory Span Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, Donna M.; Jarrold, Christopher; Baddeley, Alan D.; Gunn, Deborah M.; Leigh, Eleanor

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the constraints underlying developmental improvements in complex working memory span performance among 120 children of between 6 and 10 years of age. Independent measures of processing efficiency, storage capacity, rehearsal speed, and basic speed of processing were assessed to determine their contribution to age-related…

  3. Knowledge Cannot Explain the Developmental Growth of Working Memory Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Nelson; Ricker, Timothy J.; Clark, Katherine M.; Hinrichs, Garrett A.; Glass, Bret A.

    2015-01-01

    According to some views of cognitive growth, the development of working memory capacity can account for increases in the complexity of cognition. It has been difficult to ascertain, though, that there actually is developmental growth in capacity that cannot be attributed to other developing factors. Here we assess the role of item familiarity. We…

  4. The control and automation of a complex experimental plant: The Sesta test facility; L`automazione di un impiuanto sperimentale complesso: La stazione di Sesta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maini, Michele; Prandoni, Walter [ENEL Spa, Cologno Monzese (Italy). Polo Elettrico e Automazione. Unita` Robotica

    1997-05-01

    The running of complex experimental plants in the field of energetic sources involves a strong component of automation. Since they are unique and innovative plants there are not well defined ways to run them. So it is necessary to design the automation each time and then to select the proper resources for the implementation. The plant for the testing of gas turbine components of Sesta is an important example of this type of approach.

  5. Mapping the developmental constraints on working memory span performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, Donna M; Jarrold, Christopher; Baddeley, Alan D; Gunn, Deborah M; Leigh, Eleanor

    2005-07-01

    This study investigated the constraints underlying developmental improvements in complex working memory span performance among 120 children of between 6 and 10 years of age. Independent measures of processing efficiency, storage capacity, rehearsal speed, and basic speed of processing were assessed to determine their contribution to age-related variance in complex span. Results showed that developmental improvements in complex span were driven by 2 age-related but separable factors: 1 associated with general speed of processing and 1 associated with storage ability. In addition, there was an age-related contribution shared between working memory, processing speed, and storage ability that was important for higher level cognition. These results pose a challenge for models of complex span performance that emphasize the importance of processing speed alone.

  6. Developmental psychopathology in an era of molecular genetics and neuroimaging: A developmental neurogenetics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Luke W

    2015-05-01

    The emerging field of neurogenetics seeks to model the complex pathways from gene to brain to behavior. This field has focused on imaging genetics techniques that examine how variability in common genetic polymorphisms predict differences in brain structure and function. These studies are informed by other complimentary techniques (e.g., animal models and multimodal imaging) and have recently begun to incorporate the environment through examination of Imaging Gene × Environment interactions. Though neurogenetics has the potential to inform our understanding of the development of psychopathology, there has been little integration between principles of neurogenetics and developmental psychopathology. The paper describes a neurogenetics and Imaging Gene × Environment approach and how these approaches have been usefully applied to the study of psychopathology. Six tenets of developmental psychopathology (the structure of phenotypes, the importance of exploring mechanisms, the conditional nature of risk, the complexity of multilevel pathways, the role of development, and the importance of who is studied) are identified, and how these principles can further neurogenetics applications to understanding the development of psychopathology is discussed. A major issue of this piece is how neurogenetics and current imaging and molecular genetics approaches can be incorporated into developmental psychopathology perspectives with a goal of providing models for better understanding pathways from among genes, environments, the brain, and behavior.

  7. Testing complex networks of interaction at the onset of the Near Eastern Neolithic using modelling of obsidian exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Juan José; Ortega, David; Campos, Daniel; Khalidi, Lamya; Méndez, Vicenç

    2015-06-06

    In this paper, we explore the conditions that led to the origins and development of the Near Eastern Neolithic using mathematical modelling of obsidian exchange. The analysis presented expands on previous research, which established that the down-the-line model could not explain long-distance obsidian distribution across the Near East during this period. Drawing from outcomes of new simulations and their comparison with archaeological data, we provide results that illuminate the presence of complex networks of interaction among the earliest farming societies. We explore a network prototype of obsidian exchange with distant links which replicates the long-distance movement of ideas, goods and people during the Early Neolithic. Our results support the idea that during the first (Pre-Pottery Neolithic A) and second (Pre-Pottery Neolithic B) phases of the Early Neolithic, the complexity of obsidian exchange networks gradually increased. We propose then a refined model (the optimized distant link model) whereby long-distance exchange was largely operated by certain interconnected villages, resulting in the appearance of a relatively homogeneous Neolithic cultural sphere. We hypothesize that the appearance of complex interaction and exchange networks reduced risks of isolation caused by restricted mobility as groups settled and argue that these networks partially triggered and were crucial for the success of the Neolithic Revolution. Communities became highly dynamic through the sharing of experiences and objects, while the networks that developed acted as a repository of innovations, limiting the risk of involution. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Test of complex effective interaction by folding analysis of 32S elastic scattering on s-d shell nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilwes, B.; Bilwes, R.; Diaz, J.; Ferrero, J.L.; Pacheco, J.C.; Ruiz, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    Experimental data of elastic scattering between nuclei of various structures on a large energy scale has been analyzed in the framework of the folding model by use of the complex effective interaction of Faessler et al (1981). A general good reproduction of the data is obtained if renormalization coefficients for the real and the imaginary parts of the optical potential are introduced. The application of the dispersion relation of Mahaux et al (1986) allows to reproduce the observed energy dependence of the real part of the potential

  9. Detection of immune complexes in sera of dogs with rheumatic and neoplastic diseases by 125I-Clq binding test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terman, D.S.; Moore, D.; Collins, J.; Johnston, B.; Person, D.; Templeton, J.; Poser, R.; Quinby, F.

    1979-01-01

    Some canine rheumatic and neoplastic diseases bear a striking clinical and serological resemblance to their counterparts in man. In the present study, human 125 I-Clq was employed in a radioimmunoassay for detection of immune complexes in sera of normal dogs and those with rheumatic and neoplastic diseases. Human 125 I-Clq showed binding of 16.7 +- 5.73% in a group of normal dog sera with binding of 32.5 +- 17.3% and 43.0 +- 16.0% in sera of dogs with rheumatic and neoplastic diseases. respectively. Human 125 I-Clq bound similar quantities of heat-aggregated canine and human gamma-globulin over a broad range of concentrations and human 125 I-Clq binding in canine sera was effectively inhibited by similar quantities of heat aggregated canine and human gamma-globulin. Seven of 12 dogs with elevated levels of Clq binding had active clinical and serological rheumatic disease (SLE or rheumatoid arthritis), while none of 7 dogs with values within the normal range had active clinical disease. All 5 dogs with widespread osteogenic sarcoma and all 4 dogs with high grade adenocarcinoma of the mammary gland had elevated Clq binding values while 2 animals with low grade malignancies without evident metastases did not. Thus, it appears that human 125 I-Clq may be employed to assay immune complexes in canine sera and may be a valuable technique for the study of dogs with various rheumatic and neoplastic diseases. (author)

  10. Managing Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maylath, Bruce; Vandepitte, Sonia; Minacori, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    and into French. The complexity of the undertaking proved to be a central element in the students' learning, as the collaboration closely resembles the complexity of international documentation workplaces of language service providers. © Association of Teachers of Technical Writing.......This article discusses the largest and most complex international learning-by-doing project to date- a project involving translation from Danish and Dutch into English and editing into American English alongside a project involving writing, usability testing, and translation from English into Dutch...

  11. The power of an ontology-driven developmental toxicity database for data mining and computational modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modeling of developmental toxicology presents a significant challenge to computational toxicology due to endpoint complexity and lack of data coverage. These challenges largely account for the relatively few modeling successes using the structure–activity relationship (SAR) parad...

  12. Developmental transcriptome of Aplysia californica'

    KAUST Repository

    Heyland, Andreas; Vue, Zer; Voolstra, Christian R.; Medina, Mó nica; Moroz, Leonid L.

    2010-01-01

    developmental transcriptome with similar studies in the zebra fish Danio rerio, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and other studies on molluscs suggests an overall highly divergent pattern of gene regulatory mechanisms

  13. PREVALENCE AND EFFECT OF DEVELOPMENTAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uvp

    among children might even be higher, as medical and educational systems frequently fail to ... formally diagnosed, but rather described by their teachers as lazy or ..... Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire for Brazilian children.

  14. Nonlinear Growth Curves in Developmental Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Kevin J.; Ram, Nilam; Hamagami, Fumiaki

    2011-01-01

    Developmentalists are often interested in understanding change processes and growth models are the most common analytic tool for examining such processes. Nonlinear growth curves are especially valuable to developmentalists because the defining characteristics of the growth process such as initial levels, rates of change during growth spurts, and asymptotic levels can be estimated. A variety of growth models are described beginning with the linear growth model and moving to nonlinear models of varying complexity. A detailed discussion of nonlinear models is provided, highlighting the added insights into complex developmental processes associated with their use. A collection of growth models are fit to repeated measures of height from participants of the Berkeley Growth and Guidance Studies from early childhood through adulthood. PMID:21824131

  15. Continuing harmonization of terminology and innovations for methodologies in developmental toxicology: Report of the 8th Berlin Workshop on Developmental Toxicity, 14-16 May 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solecki, Roland; Rauch, Martina; Gall, Andrea; Buschmann, Jochen; Clark, Ruth; Fuchs, Antje; Kan, Haidong; Heinrich, Verena; Kellner, Rupert; Knudsen, Thomas B; Li, Weihua; Makris, Susan L; Ooshima, Yojiro; Paumgartten, Francisco; Piersma, Aldert H; Schönfelder, Gilbert; Oelgeschläger, Michael; Schaefer, Christof; Shiota, Kohei; Ulbrich, Beate; Ding, Xuncheng; Chahoud, Ibrahim

    2015-11-01

    This article is a report of the 8th Berlin Workshop on Developmental Toxicity held in May 2014. The main aim of the workshop was the continuing harmonization of terminology and innovations for methodologies used in the assessment of embryo- and fetotoxic findings. The following main topics were discussed: harmonized categorization of external, skeletal, visceral and materno-fetal findings into malformations, variations and grey zone anomalies, aspects of developmental anomalies in humans and laboratory animals, and innovations for new methodologies in developmental toxicology. The application of Version 2 terminology in the DevTox database was considered as a useful improvement in the categorization of developmental anomalies. Participants concluded that initiation of a project for comparative assessments of developmental anomalies in humans and laboratory animals could support regulatory risk assessment and university-based training. Improvement of new methodological approaches for alternatives to animal testing should be triggered for a better understanding of developmental outcomes. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Implementation and Testing of Advanced Surface Boundary Conditions Over Complex Terrain in A Semi-idealized Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Epifanio, C.

    2017-12-01

    In numerical prediction models, the interaction between the Earth's surface and the atmosphere is typically accounted for in terms of surface layer parameterizations, whose main job is to specify turbulent fluxes of heat, moisture and momentum across the lower boundary of the model domain. In the case of a domain with complex geometry, implementing the flux conditions (particularly the tensor stress condition) at the boundary can be somewhat subtle, and there has been a notable history of confusion in the CFD community over how to formulate and impose such conditions generally. In the atmospheric case, modelers have largely been able to avoid these complications, at least until recently, by assuming that the terrain resolved at typical model resolutions is fairly gentle, in the sense of having relatively shallow slopes. This in turn allows the flux conditions to be imposed as if the lower boundary were essentially flat. Unfortunately, while this flat-boundary assumption is acceptable for coarse resolutions, as grids become more refined and the geometry of the resolved terrain becomes more complex, the appproach is less justified. With this in mind, the goal of our present study is to explore the implementation and usage of the full, unapproximated version of the turbulent flux/stress conditions in atmospheric models, thus taking full account of the complex geometry of the resolved terrain. We propose to implement the conditions using a semi-idealized model developed by Epifanio (2007), in which the discretized boundary conditions are reduced to a large, sparse-matrix problem. The emphasis will be on fluxes of momentum, as the tensor nature of this flux makes the associated stress condition more difficult to impose, although the flux conditions for heat and moisture will be considered as well. With the resulotion of 90 meters, some of the results show that the typical differences between flat-boundary cases and full/stress cases are on the order of 10%, with extreme

  17. Increasing chlamydia screening tests in general practice: a modified Zelen prospective Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial evaluating a complex intervention based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, Cliodna A M; Hogan, Angela H; Ricketts, Ellie J; Wallace, Louise; Oliver, Isabel; Campbell, Rona; Kalwij, Sebastian; O'Connell, Elaine; Charlett, Andre

    2014-05-01

    To determine if a structured complex intervention increases opportunistic chlamydia screening testing of patients aged 15-24 years attending English general practitioner (GP) practices. A prospective, Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial with a modified Zelen design involving 160 practices in South West England in 2010. The intervention was based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). It comprised of practice-based education with up to two additional contacts to increase the importance of screening to GP staff and their confidence to offer tests through skill development (including videos). Practical resources (targets, posters, invitation cards, computer reminders, newsletters including feedback) aimed to actively influence social cognitions of staff, increasing their testing intention. Data from 76 intervention and 81 control practices were analysed. In intervention practices, chlamydia screening test rates were 2.43/100 15-24-year-olds registered preintervention, 4.34 during intervention and 3.46 postintervention; controls testing rates were 2.61/100 registered patients prior intervention, 3.0 during intervention and 2.82 postintervention. During the intervention period, testing in intervention practices was 1.76 times as great (CI 1.24 to 2.48) as controls; this persisted for 9 months postintervention (1.57 times as great, CI 1.27 to 2.30). Chlamydia infections detected increased in intervention practices from 2.1/1000 registered 15-24-year-olds prior intervention to 2.5 during the intervention compared with 2.0 and 2.3/1000 in controls (Estimated Rate Ratio intervention versus controls 1.4 (CI 1.01 to 1.93). This complex intervention doubled chlamydia screening tests in fully engaged practices. The modified Zelen design gave realistic measures of practice full engagement (63%) and efficacy of this educational intervention in general practice; it should be used more often. The trial was registered on the UK Clinical Research Network Study Portfolio database

  18. Fired up or burned out? How developmental challenge differentially impacts leader behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtright, Stephen H; Colbert, Amy E; Choi, Daejeong

    2014-07-01

    Leadership development research has largely drawn on experiential and enactive learning theories to explore the positive effects of developmental challenge on leaders. In contrast, we examined potential positive and negative effects of developmental challenge (i.e., challenging job assignments) on leader behavior through an alternative theoretical lens--transactional stress theory. We predicted, on one hand, that developmental challenge may be associated with higher leader engagement and transformational leadership behavior; however, developmental challenge also has the potential to be associated with higher leader emotional exhaustion and laissez-faire leadership behavior. We further proposed that leadership self-efficacy (LSE) moderates these potential effects of developmental challenge and helps explain why leaders react either positively or negatively to developmental challenge. We tested our hypotheses in a sample of 153 leaders and 631 direct reports at a Fortune 500 company. Findings supported positive relationships among developmental challenge, leader engagement, and transformational leadership. However, we also found support for significant relationships among developmental challenge, emotional exhaustion, and laissez-faire leadership. Additionally, leaders lower in LSE were more likely to encounter the negative effects of developmental challenge by experiencing increased emotional exhaustion and displaying laissez-faire leadership behaviors. Our study contributes to theory and practice by elucidating a "dark side" of developmental challenge, identifying LSE as a moderator of the negative effects of developmental challenge, identifying antecedents of transformational and laissez-faire leadership behaviors, and investigating demands and stress in leadership roles.

  19. Developmental toxicity of engineered nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Karin S.; Hansen, Jitka S.; Jackson, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Study of air pollution indicates that minute particles may adversely interfere with pregnancy and fetal development. As engineering of nanoparticles have emerged, so has concern that these might interfere with reproductive and developmental functions. This is because nanotechnology may potentially...... increase the overall particle burden in air and introduce particles with novel characteristics and surface reactivity. To evaluate safety for pregnant women, we have studied developmental toxicity of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs), following exposure of pregnant mice by inhalation (ENPs of titanium...

  20. Initiating a Developmental Motor Skills Program for Identified Primary Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harville, Valerie Terrill

    A physical education specialist at an elementary school in one of the fastest growing sections of the country developed and implemented a developmental motor skills program for primary school students. The program focused on: (1) developing a method of referring students for testing; (2) providing a specialized motor diagnostic test; (3) improving…

  1. Developmental Exposure to an Environmental PCB Mixture ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developmental PCB exposure impairs hearing and induces brainstem audiogenic seizures in adult offspring. The degree to which this enhanced susceptibility to seizure is manifest in other brain regions has not been examined. Thus, electrical kindling of the amygdala was used to evaluate the effect of developmental exposure to an environmentally relevant PCB mixture on seizure susceptibility in the rat. Female Long-Evans rats were dosed orally with 0 or 6 mg/kg/day of the PCB mixture dissolved in corn oil vehicle during the perinatal period. On postnatal day (PND) 21, pups were weaned, and two males from each litter were randomly selected for the kindling study. As adults, the male rats were implanted bilaterally with electrodes in the basolateral amygdala. For each animal, afterdischarge (AD) thresholds in the amygdala were determined on the first day of testing followed by once daily stimulation at a standard 200 µA stimulus intensity until three stage 5 generalized seizures (GS) ensued. Developmental PCB exposure did not affect the AD threshold or total cumulative AD duration, but PCB exposure did increase the latency to behavioral manifestations of seizure propagation. PCB exposed animals required significantly more stimulations to reach stage 2 seizures compared to control animals, indicating an attenuated focal (amygdala) excitability. A delay in kindling progression from a focally stimulated limbic site stands in contrast to our previous finding of increase

  2. Recent advances in mathematical modeling of developmental abnormalities using mechanistic information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavlock, R J

    1997-01-01

    During the last several years, significant changes in the risk assessment process for developmental toxicity of environmental contaminants have begun to emerge. The first of these changes is the development and beginning use of statistically based dose-response models [the benchmark dose (BMD) approach] that better utilize data derived from existing testing approaches. Accompanying this change is the greater emphasis placed on understanding and using mechanistic information to yield more accurate, reliable, and less uncertain risk assessments. The next stage in the evolution of risk assessment will be the use of biologically based dose-response (BBDR) models that begin to build into the statistically based models factors related to the underlying kinetic, biochemical, and/or physiologic processes perturbed by a toxicant. Such models are now emerging from several research laboratories. The introduction of quantitative models and the incorporation of biologic information into them has pointed to the need for even more sophisticated modifications for which we offer the term embryologically based dose-response (EBDR) models. Because these models would be based upon the understanding of normal morphogenesis, they represent a quantum leap in our thinking, but their complexity presents daunting challenges both to the developmental biologist and the developmental toxicologist. Implementation of these models will require extensive communication between developmental toxicologists, molecular embryologists, and biomathematicians. The remarkable progress in the understanding of mammalian embryonic development at the molecular level that has occurred over the last decade combined with advances in computing power and computational models should eventually enable these as yet hypothetical models to be brought into use.

  3. Annual research review: Rare genotypes and childhood psychopathology--uncovering diverse developmental mechanisms of ADHD risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scerif, Gaia; Baker, Kate

    2015-03-01

    Through the increased availability and sophistication of genetic testing, it is now possible to identify causal diagnoses in a growing proportion of children with neurodevelopmental disorders. In addition to developmental delay and intellectual disability, many genetic disorders are associated with high risks of psychopathology, which curtail the wellbeing of affected individuals and their families. Beyond the identification of significant clinical needs, understanding the diverse pathways from rare genetic mutations to cognitive dysfunction and emotional-behavioural disturbance has theoretical and practical utility. We overview (based on a strategic search of the literature) the state-of-the-art on causal mechanisms leading to one of the most common childhood behavioural diagnoses - attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) - in the context of specific genetic disorders. We focus on new insights emerging from the mapping of causal pathways from identified genetic differences to neuronal biology, brain abnormalities, cognitive processing differences and ultimately behavioural symptoms of ADHD. First, ADHD research in the context of rare genotypes highlights the complexity of multilevel mechanisms contributing to psychopathology risk. Second, comparisons between genetic disorders associated with similar psychopathology risks can elucidate convergent or distinct mechanisms at each level of analysis, which may inform therapeutic interventions and prognosis. Third, genetic disorders provide an unparalleled opportunity to observe dynamic developmental interactions between neurocognitive risk and behavioural symptoms. Fourth, variation in expression of psychopathology risk within each genetic disorder points to putative moderating and protective factors within the genome and the environment. A common imperative emerging within psychopathology research is the need to investigate mechanistically how developmental trajectories converge or diverge between and within

  4. Performances on Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test and Rey Complex Figure Test in a healthy, elderly Danish sample--reference data and validity issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Asmus; Stokholm, Jette; Jørgensen, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    . The RCFT copy score was significantly related to age and the DART score. On RCFT recall a highly significant difference was found between persons who could make a faultless copy and persons with incomplete copy performance. Thus, this study presents separate data for RCFT recall scores according...... to the subjects' copying performance (in separate tables for age and education groups). For all measures on both RAVLT and RCFT wide distributions of scores were found and the impact of this broad score range on the tests' discriminative validity is discussed. RAVLT performances for elderly were similar...... to previous published meta-norms, but the included sample of elderly Danes performed better on RCFT (copy and recall) than elderly from the United States....

  5. Developmental Science: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of developmental science is to describe, explain, and optimize intraindividual changes in adaptive developmental regulations and, as well, interindividual differences in such relations, across life. The history of developmental science is reviewed and its current foci, which are framed by relational developmental systems models that…

  6. Rapid, automated, nonradiometric susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex to four first-line antituberculous drugs used in standard short-course chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Isik Somuncu; Thomsen, Vibeke Østergaard; Marjamäki, Merja

    2004-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of drug-resistant tuberculosis necessitates rapid and accurate susceptibility testing. The nonradiometric BACTEC Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube 960 (MGIT) system for susceptibility testing was evaluated on 222 clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates...... for isoniazid, rifampin, and ethambutol. Fifty-seven of the isolates were tested for pyrazinamide. Results were compared to those of radiometric BACTEC 460 system and discrepancies were resolved by the agar proportion method. We found an overall agreement of 99.0% for isoniazid, 99.5% for rifampin, 98.......2% for ethambutol, and 100% for pyrazinamide. After resolution of discrepancies, MGIT yielded no false susceptibility for rifampin and isoniazid. Although turnaround times were comparable, MGIT provides an advantage as inoculation can be done on any weekday as the growth is monitored automatically. The automated...

  7. A Flexible Computational Framework Using R and Map-Reduce for Permutation Tests of Massive Genetic Analysis of Complex Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahjani, Behrang; Toor, Salman; Nettelblad, Carl; Holmgren, Sverker

    2017-01-01

    In quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping significance of putative QTL is often determined using permutation testing. The computational needs to calculate the significance level are immense, 10 4 up to 10 8 or even more permutations can be needed. We have previously introduced the PruneDIRECT algorithm for multiple QTL scan with epistatic interactions. This algorithm has specific strengths for permutation testing. Here, we present a flexible, parallel computing framework for identifying multiple interacting QTL using the PruneDIRECT algorithm which uses the map-reduce model as implemented in Hadoop. The framework is implemented in R, a widely used software tool among geneticists. This enables users to rearrange algorithmic steps to adapt genetic models, search algorithms, and parallelization steps to their needs in a flexible way. Our work underlines the maturity of accessing distributed parallel computing for computationally demanding bioinformatics applications through building workflows within existing scientific environments. We investigate the PruneDIRECT algorithm, comparing its performance to exhaustive search and DIRECT algorithm using our framework on a public cloud resource. We find that PruneDIRECT is vastly superior for permutation testing, and perform 2 ×10 5 permutations for a 2D QTL problem in 15 hours, using 100 cloud processes. We show that our framework scales out almost linearly for a 3D QTL search.

  8. Testing all six person-oriented principles in dynamic factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Peter C M

    2010-05-01

    All six person-oriented principles identified by Sterba and Bauer's Keynote Article can be tested by means of dynamic factor analysis in its current form. In particular, it is shown how complex interactions and interindividual differences/intraindividual change can be tested in this way. In addition, the necessity to use single-subject methods in the analysis of developmental processes is emphasized, and attention is drawn to the possibility to optimally treat developmental psychopathology by means of new computational techniques that can be integrated with dynamic factor analysis.

  9. Sub-Scale Orion Parachute Test Results from the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex 80- By 120-ft Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brian P.; Greathouse, James S.; Powell, Jessica M.; Ross, James C.; Schairer, Edward T.; Kushner, Laura; Porter, Barry J.; Goulding, Patrick W., II; Zwicker, Matthew L.; Mollmann, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    A two-week test campaign was conducted in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex 80 x 120-ft Wind Tunnel in support of Orion parachute pendulum mitigation activities. The test gathered static aerodynamic data using an instrumented, 3-tether system attached to the parachute vent in combination with an instrumented parachute riser. Dynamic data was also gathered by releasing the tether system and measuring canopy performance using photogrammetry. Several canopy configurations were tested and compared against the current Orion parachute design to understand changes in drag performance and aerodynamic stability. These configurations included canopies with varying levels and locations of geometric porosity as well as sails with increased levels of fullness. In total, 37 runs were completed for a total of 392 data points. Immediately after the end of the testing campaign a down-select decision was made based on preliminary data to support follow-on sub-scale air drop testing. A summary of a more rigorous analysis of the test data is also presented.

  10. Deposited power in a complex device by gamma radiation of test reactors; experiments and calculations carried out at SILOE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petitcolas, H.; Besson, A.; Bevilacqua, A.; Cosoli, G.

    1984-09-01

    Eight samples, which represent different materials used in testing reactors, were irradiated in the device ''CYRANO'' placed in the water reflector at different distances from the reactor core. The power dissipated in the device was measured by the ''CYRANO'' equipment itself, whereas the calorimeter juxtaposed served to monitor the gamma flux. Parallel to each experiment, the power deposited in the samples, the device materials and the calorimeter was calculated by the code MERCURE 4. The measured values were compared with the calculated ones, both in relative and in absolute values, for each sample and for each distance in the reflector. The comparison shows very good agreement [fr

  11. Borehole Logging and Slug Tests for Evaluating the Applicability of Electrical Resistivity Tomography for Groundwater Exploration in Nampula Complex, Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farisse Chirindja

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In Nampula province, Mozambique, there is a high number of water wells considered as having failed for having too low a pumping yield. Two Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT measurement campaigns were conducted in the area for evaluating the reasons of failures. However, in some cases it was difficult to verify and interpret the ERT results by only using the inadequate lithological description presented in drilling reports. In this paper the integration of borehole logging and slug testing is presented as a solution to add more information and to enhance the interpretation of ERT models. The borehole logging tool measured resistivity, magnetic susceptibility and natural gamma. The logging results proved that the ERT models are accurate in estimating the resistivity for basement (>1400 Ωm, fractured layer (220–1400 Ωm, semi-weathered layer with clay accumulation (10–220 Ωm, and weathered and leached layer (220–2700 Ωm. The slug testing gave results of high hydraulic conductivity (K values where the ERT indicates well-developed weathered and fractured layers, and low K values where these are less developed. The borehole interpretation can be extrapolated using the ERT model to give a geometric characterization of the aquifer. Therefore, the implementation of the ERT method in groundwater exploration is encouraged.

  12. The Transmission Disequilibrium/Heterogeneity Test with Parental-Genotype Reconstruction for Refined Genetic Mapping of Complex Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Han

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In linkage analysis for mapping genetic diseases, the transmission/disequilibrium test (TDT uses the linkage disequilibrium (LD between some marker and trait loci for precise genetic mapping while avoiding confounding due to population stratification. The sib-TDT (S-TDT and combined-TDT (C-TDT proposed by Spielman and Ewens can combine data from families with and without parental marker genotypes (PMGs. For some families with missing PMG, the reconstruction-combined TDT (RC-TDT proposed by Knapp may be used to reconstruct missing parental genotypes from the genotypes of their offspring to increase power and to correct for potential bias. In this paper, we propose a further extension of the RC-TDT, called the reconstruction-combined transmission disequilibrium/heterogeneity (RC-TDH test, to take into account the identical-by-descent (IBD sharing information in addition to the LD information. It can effectively utilize families with missing or incomplete parental genetic marker information. An application of this proposed method to Genetic Analysis Workshop 14 (GAW14 data sets and extensive simulation studies suggest that this approach may further increase statistical power which is particularly valuable when LD is unknown and/or when some or all PMGs are not available.

  13. Qualitative and Quantitative Detection of Botulinum Neurotoxins from Complex Matrices: Results of the First International Proficiency Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Worbs

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the EU project EQuATox, a first international proficiency test (PT on the detection and quantification of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT was conducted. Sample materials included BoNT serotypes A, B and E spiked into buffer, milk, meat extract and serum. Different methods were applied by the participants combining different principles of detection, identification and quantification. Based on qualitative assays, 95% of all results reported were correct. Successful strategies for BoNT detection were based on a combination of complementary immunological, MS-based and functional methods or on suitable functional in vivo/in vitro approaches (mouse bioassay, hemidiaphragm assay and Endopep-MS assay. Quantification of BoNT/A, BoNT/B and BoNT/E was performed by 48% of participating laboratories. It turned out that precise quantification of BoNT was difficult, resulting in a substantial scatter of quantitative data. This was especially true for results obtained by the mouse bioassay which is currently considered as “gold standard” for BoNT detection. The results clearly demonstrate the urgent need for certified BoNT reference materials and the development of methods replacing animal testing. In this context, the BoNT PT provided the valuable information that both the Endopep-MS assay and the hemidiaphragm assay delivered quantitative results superior to the mouse bioassay.

  14. Forest, Trees, Dynamics: Results from a novel Wisconsin Card Sorting Test variant Protocol for Studying Global-Local Attention and Complex Cognitive Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eCowley

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundRecognition of objects and their context relies heavily on the integrated functioning of global and local visual processing. In a realistic setting such as work, this processing becomes a sustained activity, implying a consequent interaction with executive functions.MotivationThere have been many studies of either global-local attention or executive functions; however it is relatively novel to combine these processes to study a more ecological form of attention. We aim to explore the phenomenon of global-local processing during a task requiring sustained attention and working memory.MethodsWe develop and test a novel protocol for global-local dissociation, with task structure including phases of divided ('rule search' and selective ('rule found' attention, based on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task.We test it in a laboratory study with 25 participants, and report on behaviour measures (physiological data was also gathered, but not reported here. We develop novel stimuli with more naturalistic levels of information and noise, based primarily on face photographs, with consequently more ecological validity.ResultsWe report behavioural results indicating that sustained difficulty when participants test their hypotheses impacts matching-task performance, and diminishes the global precedence effect. Results also show a dissociation between subjectively experienced difficulty and objective dimension of performance, and establish the internal validity of the protocol.ContributionWe contribute an advance in the state of the art for testing global-local attention processes in concert with complex cognition. With three results we establish a connection between global-local dissociation and aspects of complex cognition. Our protocol also improves ecological validity and opens options for testing additional interactions in future work.

  15. Structuring and capturing of radioactive strontium-90 from the polluted soil of Semipalatinsk nuclear test site by inter-polymer complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bimendina, L.A.; Kudaibergenov, S.E.; Orazzhanova, L.K.; Yashkarova, M.G.; Kaliaskarova, B.

    2002-01-01

    The model and experiments on application of polymer-polymer complexes stabilized by hydrogen and ionic bonds for structuring of Semipalatinsk nuclear test site soils in order to prevent the wind and water erosion of radionuclides from contaminated soil are considered. It is expected that the treatment by inter-polymer complexes (IPC) would cause the structuring of soil particle. Besides IPSs are able to form thin films on the soil particles surface, aggregate and considerably protect the migration of radionuclides. Both the water soluble polymer-polyacrylic acid (PAA), polyethylene glycol (PEG), poly-N,N,-dimethyldiallylammonium chloride (PDMDAACI) and the PAA-PEG, PAA-PDMDAACI inter-polymer complexes were used as structuring agents. The treatment of soil particles was carried out by two methods: the first method is uniform splash of polymer solution and mixing with soil; the second one is pouring of soil surface by polymer solution. The obtained results are summarized as follows: - Optimal concentration of polymer solutions are arranged between 10 -4 -10 -2 mol·l -1 . The best results corresponds to concentration 10 -2 mol·l -1 ; - Pouring of soil surface is most preferential in comparison with splash of polymer solution and mixing with soil; - Both the individual polymers (PAA, PEG and PDMDAACI) and the PAA-PEG, PAA-PDMDAACI inter-polymer complexes show the structuring effect. However the best results were observed for IPC solution. The best structuring effect has been obtained for equimolar [PAA]:[PEG]=1:1 complex solution with 10 -2 mol·l -1 and at p H=3.0 when the IPC solution is poured through the soil surface. The similar results were obtained for [PAA]:[PDMDAACI]=1:1 system. The capillary moisture capacity and water stability at optimal soil treatment conditions of soil is given. Since PAA, PEG and PAA-PEG complexes form polymer-metal complexes with Sr 2+ ions the possibility of capture of soil radionuclides by means of binding into the complex particles

  16. DWI and complex brain network analysis predicts vascular cognitive impairment in spontaneous hypertensive rats undergoing executive function tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier eLópez-Gil

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The identification of biomarkers of vascular cognitive impairment is urgent for its early diagnosis. The aim of this study was to detect and monitor changes in brain structure and connectivity, and to correlate them with the decline in executive function. We examined the feasibility of early diagnostic magnetic resonance imaging to predict cognitive impairment before onset in an animal model of chronic hypertension: Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats. Cognitive performance was tested in an operant conditioning paradigm that evaluated learning, memory and behavioral flexibility skills. Behavioral tests were coupled with longitudinal diffusion weighted imaging acquired with 126 diffusion gradient directions and 0.3 mm3 isometric resolution at 10, 14, 18, 22, 26 and 40 weeks after birth. Diffusion weighted imaging was analyzed in 2 different ways, by regional characterization of diffusion tensor imaging indices, and by assessing changes in structural brain network organization based on Q-Ball tractography. Already at the first evaluated times, diffusion tensor imaging scalar maps revealed significant differences in many regions, suggesting loss of integrity in white and grey matter of spontaneously hypertensive rats when compared to normotensive control rats. In addition, graph theory analysis of the structural brain network demonstrated a significant decrease of hierarchical modularity, global and local efficacy, with predictive value as shown by regional 3-fold cross validation study. Moreover, these decreases were significantly correlated with the behavioral performance deficits observed at subsequent time points, suggesting that the diffusion weighted imaging and connectivity studies can unravel neuroimaging alterations even overt signs of cognitive impairment become apparent.

  17. Methodology Research on Evaluating the Developmental and Retentive Capacity Level of Human Single -joint Muscular Power in Mode of Isotonic Test%应用等张模式测定人体单关节肌群功率发展与保持能力的方法学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐红旗; 张欣; 冉令华; 杨帆; 史冀鹏; 王安利; 郑秀瑗

    2011-01-01

    人体肌肉功率的发展与保持能力在完成生产劳动、日常体力活动和体育运动中具有重要的作用.本文以12名健康普通大学生为研究对象,运用模拟仿真测试评价训练系统( BTE PrimusRS)的等张测量模式来探讨人体单关节肌群功率发展与保持能力的测评方法.结果表明BTE PrimusRS系统能客观、准确地评价人体单关节肌群功率发展与保持能力的水平;此等张测试模式下,50%等长峰值肌力(或力矩)的阻力负荷设置较为合理;等长峰值肌力应采用非爆发式静力性测量模式获得.%The developmental and retentive capacity of muscular power is of great importance to human endeavor in productive labor, physical activities of daily living and sports events. Twelve healthy college students volunteered to participate in this study; the purpose was to explore the measurement method about the developmental and retentive capacity of human single -joint muscular power, combined with the mode of isotonic test on BTE PrimusRS system. The results show that BTE PrimusRS system could objectively and accurately evaluate the developmental and retentive capacity level of human single -joint muscular power. The reasonable load resistance was 50% of the isometric peak strength or torque (IPS or IPT) in the isotonic test; the mode of isometric peak strength (IPS) should be non -explosively static.

  18. Predictions of tracer transport in interwell tracer tests at the C-Hole complex. Yucca Mountain site characterization project report milestone 4077

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimus, P.W.

    1996-09-01

    This report presents predictions of tracer transport in interwell tracer tests that are to be conducted at the C-Hole complex at the Nevada Test Site on behalf of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. The predictions are used to make specific recommendations about the manner in which the tracer test should be conducted to best satisfy the needs of the Project. The objective of he tracer tests is to study flow and species transport under saturated conditions in the fractured tuffs near Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the site of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository. The potential repository will be located in the unsaturated zone within Yucca Mountain. The saturated zone beneath and around the mountain represents the final barrier to transport to the accessible environment that radionuclides will encounter if they breach the engineered barriers within the repository and the barriers to flow and transport provided by the unsaturated zone. Background information on the C-Holes is provided in Section 1.1, and the planned tracer testing program is discussed in Section 1.2

  19. Automatically produced FRP beams with embedded FOS in complex geometry: process, material compatibility, micromechanical analysis, and performance tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabler, Markus; Tkachenko, Viktoriya; Küppers, Simon; Kuka, Georg G.; Habel, Wolfgang R.; Milwich, Markus; Knippers, Jan

    2012-04-01

    The main goal of the presented work was to evolve a multifunctional beam composed out of fiber reinforced plastics (FRP) and an embedded optical fiber with various fiber Bragg grating sensors (FBG). These beams are developed for the use as structural member for bridges or industrial applications. It is now possible to realize large scale cross sections, the embedding is part of a fully automated process and jumpers can be omitted in order to not negatively influence the laminate. The development includes the smart placement and layout of the optical fibers in the cross section, reliable strain transfer, and finally the coupling of the embedded fibers after production. Micromechanical tests and analysis were carried out to evaluate the performance of the sensor. The work was funded by the German ministry of economics and technology (funding scheme ZIM). Next to the authors of this contribution, Melanie Book with Röchling Engineering Plastics KG (Haren/Germany; Katharina Frey with SAERTEX GmbH & Co. KG (Saerbeck/Germany) were part of the research group.

  20. Unravelling the Complexity of Inherited Retinal Dystrophies Molecular Testing: Added Value of Targeted Next-Generation Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Bernardis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess the clinical utility of targeted Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS for the diagnosis of Inherited Retinal Dystrophies (IRDs, a total of 109 subjects were enrolled in the study, including 88 IRD affected probands and 21 healthy relatives. Clinical diagnoses included Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP, Leber Congenital Amaurosis (LCA, Stargardt Disease (STGD, Best Macular Dystrophy (BMD, Usher Syndrome (USH, and other IRDs with undefined clinical diagnosis. Participants underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination followed by genetic counseling. A custom AmpliSeq™ panel of 72 IRD-related genes was designed for the analysis and tested using Ion semiconductor Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS. Potential disease-causing mutations were identified in 59.1% of probands, comprising mutations in 16 genes. The highest diagnostic yields were achieved for BMD, LCA, USH, and STGD patients, whereas RP confirmed its high genetic heterogeneity. Causative mutations were identified in 17.6% of probands with undefined diagnosis. Revision of the initial diagnosis was performed for 9.6% of genetically diagnosed patients. This study demonstrates that NGS represents a comprehensive cost-effective approach for IRDs molecular diagnosis. The identification of the genetic alterations underlying the phenotype enabled the clinicians to achieve a more accurate diagnosis. The results emphasize the importance of molecular diagnosis coupled with clinic information to unravel the extensive phenotypic heterogeneity of these diseases.

  1. Analysis of Single-Hole and Cross-Hole Tracer Tests Conducted at the Nye County Earl Warning Drilling Program Well Complex, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A. Umari; J.D. Earle; M.F. Fahy

    2006-01-01

    As part of the effort to understand the flow and transport characteristics downgradient from the proposed high-level radioactive waste geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, single- and cross-hole tracer tests were conducted from December 2004 through October 2005 in boreholes at the Nye County 22 well complex. The results were analyzed for transport properties using both numerical and analytical solutions of the governing advection dispersion equation. Preliminary results indicate effective flow porosity values ranging from 1.0 x 10 -2 for an individual flow path to 2.0 x 10 -1 for composite flow paths, longitudinal dispersivity ranging from 0.3 to 3 m, and a transverse horizontal dispersivity of 0.03 m. Individual flow paths identified from the cross-hole testing indicate some solute diffusion into the stagnant portion of the alluvial aquifer

  2. DEVELOPMENTAL TAXONOMY OF CONDUCT DISORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Kostić

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Conduct disorder is a heterogeneous disorder in terms of etiology, course and prognosis, and currently, there is no singular model that would describe the development of the disorder. The results of empirical research on males confirm this heterogeneity, as they point out to two possible developmental pathways: childhood-onset and adolescentonset type. This paper presents the basic elements of developmental taxonomic theory which argues that there are two different developmental pathways to conduct disorder which have different causes and serve as the basis for the current typology of conduct disorders in the classification systems. Such a typology of conduct disorders in the diagnostic classification allows better understanding, prognosis and choice of treatment.

  3. Developmental analytic view on narcissism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Matjan Štuhec

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Narcissistic pathology is connected to the pathology of the self. This article makes an overview of definitions of developmental analytic theories and stops with Kohut, Kernberg, Masterson, Auerbach and Mollon. The self is understood as a separate personality structure and has its own developmental line. Narcissism is a personality disorder that has its roots in preodipal developmental phases, mostly in the practicing and rapprochement subphase and in the oedipal phase as well. Recent research shows that the oedipal phase and the relation between the mother, the child's father (or her partner in general and the child is crucial for the maintenance of the pathological narcissism. Mothers who do not believe in a satisfying relationship with a man in general, keep the child in the dyadic position and do not support the development of the child's own identity.

  4. The power of gene-based rare variant methods to detect disease-associated variation and test hypotheses about complex disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loukas Moutsianas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Genome and exome sequencing in large cohorts enables characterization of the role of rare variation in complex diseases. Success in this endeavor, however, requires investigators to test a diverse array of genetic hypotheses which differ in the number, frequency and effect sizes of underlying causal variants. In this study, we evaluated the power of gene-based association methods to interrogate such hypotheses, and examined the implications for study design. We developed a flexible simulation approach, using 1000 Genomes data, to (a generate sequence variation at human genes in up to 10K case-control samples, and (b quantify the statistical power of a panel of widely used gene-based association tests under a variety of allelic architectures, locus effect sizes, and significance thresholds. For loci explaining ~1% of phenotypic variance underlying a common dichotomous trait, we find that all methods have low absolute power to achieve exome-wide significance (~5-20% power at α = 2.5 × 10(-6 in 3K individuals; even in 10K samples, power is modest (~60%. The combined application of multiple methods increases sensitivity, but does so at the expense of a higher false positive rate. MiST, SKAT-O, and KBAC have the highest individual mean power across simulated datasets, but we observe wide architecture-dependent variability in the individual loci detected by each test, suggesting that inferences about disease architecture from analysis of sequencing studies can differ depending on which methods are used. Our results imply that tens of thousands of individuals, extensive functional annotation, or highly targeted hypothesis testing will be required to confidently detect or exclude rare variant signals at complex disease loci.

  5. Sensitivity analysis of a complex, proposed geologic waste disposal system using the Fourier Amplitude Sensitivity Test method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yichi; Mohanty, Sitakanta

    2001-01-01

    The Fourier Amplitude Sensitivity Test (FAST) method has been used to perform a sensitivity analysis of a computer model developed for conducting total system performance assessment of the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA. The computer model has a large number of random input parameters with assigned probability density functions, which may or may not be uniform, for representing data uncertainty. The FAST method, which was previously applied to models with parameters represented by the uniform probability distribution function only, has been modified to be applied to models with nonuniform probability distribution functions. Using an example problem with a small input parameter set, several aspects of the FAST method, such as the effects of integer frequency sets and random phase shifts in the functional transformations, and the number of discrete sampling points (equivalent to the number of model executions) on the ranking of the input parameters have been investigated. Because the number of input parameters of the computer model under investigation is too large to be handled by the FAST method, less important input parameters were first screened out using the Morris method. The FAST method was then used to rank the remaining parameters. The validity of the parameter ranking by the FAST method was verified using the conditional complementary cumulative distribution function (CCDF) of the output. The CCDF results revealed that the introduction of random phase shifts into the functional transformations, proposed by previous investigators to disrupt the repetitiveness of search curves, does not necessarily improve the sensitivity analysis results because it destroys the orthogonality of the trigonometric functions, which is required for Fourier analysis

  6. Developmental Color Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Rosslyn; Little, Angela C.

    1975-01-01

    A sample of 107 subjects including kindergarteners, fifth graders, high school sophomores, parents of kindergarteners, and master artists were presented with a 108-item color perception test to investigate surface color perception at these age levels. A set of surface color perception rules was generated. (GO)

  7. Developmental orthopaedic diseases in foals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Şİrİn, Özlem; Alkan, Zeki

    2010-01-01

    Developmental Orthopaedic Diseases (DOD) is seen frequently in horses which completed their maturity. Osteochondrosis, physitis, angular limb deformities, flexural deformities, juvenil arthritis, cervical vertebral anomalies, cuboidal bone abnormalities are problems investigated under Developmental Orthopaedic Diseases title. This diseases can develop single or some together in fast growing, heavy animals (especially Arabian and English Thoroughbreds). Multifactorial causes of this diseases etiopathogenesis can be listed as genetic predisposition, trauma, nutrition, vitamins/minerals and endocrine disorders. But the exact causes of these diseases are not known. In this review detailed information are given about the diseases mentioned above

  8. Supplemental Environmental Baseline Survey for Proposed Land Use Permit Modification for Expansion of the Dynamic Explosive Test Site (DETS) 9940 Main Complex Parking Lot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peek, Dennis W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The “subject property” is comprised of a parcel of land within the Kirtland Military Reservation, Bernalillo County, New Mexico, as shown on the map in Appendix B of this document. The land requirement for the parking lot addition to the 9940 Main Complex is approximately 2.7 acres. The scope of this Supplemental Environmental Baseline Survey (SEBS) is for the parking lot addition land transfer only. For details on the original 9940 Main Complex see Environmental Baseline Survey, Land Use Permit Request for the 9940 Complex PERM/0-KI-00-0001, August 21, 2003, and for details on the 9940 Complex Expansion see Environmental Baseline Survey, Proposed Land Use Permit Expansion for 9940 DETS Complex, June 24, 2009. The 2.7-acre parcel of land for the new parking lot, which is the subject of this EBS (also referred to as the “subject property”), is adjacent to the southwest boundary of the original 12.3- acre 9940 Main Complex. No testing is known to have taken place on the subject property site. The only activity known to have taken place was the burial of overhead utility lines in 2014. Adjacent to the subject property, the 9940 Main Complex was originally a 12.3-acre site used by the Department of Energy (DOE) under a land use permit from the United States Air Force (USAF). Historical use of the site, dating from 1964, included arming, fusing, and firing of explosives and testing of explosives systems components. In the late 1970s and early 1980s experiments at the 9940 Main Complex shifted toward reactor safety issues. From 1983 to 1988, fuel coolant interaction (FCI) experiments were conducted, as were experiments with conventional high explosives (HE). Today, the land is used for training of the Nuclear Emergency Response community and for research on energetic materials. In 2009, the original complex was expanded to include four additional 20-acre areas: 9940 Training South, 9940 Training East, T-Range 6, and Training West Landing Zone. The proposed use of

  9. Results of Hydraulic Tests in Miocene Tuffaceous Rocks at the C-Hole Complex, 1995 to 1997, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldon, Arthur L.; Umari, Amjad M.A.; Fahy, Michael F.; Earle, John D.; Gemmell, James M.; Darnell, Jon

    2002-01-01

    Four hydraulic tests were conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey at the C-hole complex at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, between May 1995 and November 1997. These tests were conducted as part of ongoing investigations to determine the hydrologic and geologic suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential site for permanent underground storage of high-level nuclear waste. The C-hole complex consists of three 900-meter-deep boreholes that are 30.4 to 76.6 meters apart. The C-holes are completed in fractured, variably welded tuffaceous rocks of Miocene age. Six hydrogeologic intervals occur within the saturated zone in these boreholes - the Calico Hills, Prow Pass, Upper Bullfrog, Lower Bullfrog, Upper Tram, and Lower Tram intervals. The Lower Bullfrog and Upper Tram intervals contributed about 90 percent of the flow during hydraulic tests. The four hydraulic tests conducted from 1995 to 1997 lasted 4 to 553 days. Discharge from the pumping well, UE-25 c #3, ranged from 8.49 to 22.5 liters per second in different tests. Two to seven observation wells, 30 to 3,526 meters from the pumping well, were used in different tests. Observation wells included UE-25 c #1, UE-25 c #2, UE-25 ONC-1, USW H-4, UE-25 WT #14, and UE-25 WT #3 in the tuffaceous rocks and UE-25 p #1 in Paleozoic carbonate rocks. In all hydraulic tests, drawdown in the pumping well was rapid and large (2.9-11 meters). Attributable mostly to frictional head loss and borehole-skin effects, this drawdown could not be used to analyze hydraulic properties. Drawdown and recovery in intervals of UE-25 c #1 and UE-25 c #2 and in other observation wells typically was less than 51 centimeters. These data were analyzed. Hydrogeologic intervals in the C-holes have layered heterogeneity related to faults and fracture zones. Transmissivity, hydraulic conductivity, and storativity generally increase downhole. Transmissivity ranges from 4 to 1,600 meters squared per day; hydraulic conductivity ranges from 0.1 to 50 meters per day

  10. Spanish normative studies in young adults (NEURONORMA young adults project): norms for the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (copy and memory) and Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomo, R; Casals-Coll, M; Sánchez-Benavides, G; Quintana, M; Manero, R M; Rognoni, T; Calvo, L; Aranciva, F; Tamayo, F; Peña-Casanova, J

    2013-05-01

    The Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (ROCF) and the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT) are widely used in clinical practice. The ROCF assesses visual perception, constructional praxis, and visuo-spatial memory. The FCSRT assesses verbal learning and memory. In this study, as part of the Spanish normative studies project in young adults (NEURONORMA young adults), we present age- and education-adjusted normative data for both tests obtained by using linear regression techniques. The sample consisted of 179 healthy participants ranging in age from 18 to 49 years. We provide tables for converting raw scores to scaled scores in addition to tables with scores adjusted by socio-demographic factors. The results showed that education affects scores for some of the memory tests and the figure-copying task. Age was only found to have an effect on the performance of visuo-spatial memory tests, and the effect of sex was negligible. The normative data obtained will be extremely useful in the clinical neuropsychological evaluation of young Spanish adults. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Developmental effects of corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Frøystad, Mona

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally, typical measures of corruption have been broad, composite indices which are often meant to measure overall corruption level in a country. In this thesis I study how different types of corruption can have different effects on development, measured by GDP growth, GDP per capita growth and GDP per capita. Thereby, I wanted to see if some types of corruption could be concluded as more damaging than others. I have discussed and empirically tested the consequences of corruption in pu...

  12. Developmental stage of strongyle eggs affects the outcome variations of real-time PCR analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulla Vestergaard; Haakansson, I. T.; Roust, Tina

    2013-01-01

    extent developmental stages can affect the variation of diagnostic test results. This study investigated the influence of developmental stages of strongyle eggs on the variation real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results. Mixed species strongyle eggs were obtained from the faeces of a naturally...

  13. Adaptive developmental assessment of young children with cognitive and/or functional impairments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, L.; Ruiter, S.A.J.; Timmerman, M.E.; Van der Meulen, B.F.; Ruijssenaars, A.J.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    The instrument being developed aims to give additional and more refined information about the developmental course of a child with a cognitive and / or functional impairment than is possible with existing tests. It will help tune interventions to the developmental course and potentials of a child.

  14. Brief Report: Developmental Change in Theory of Mind Abilities in Children with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Shelly; Joseph, Robert M.; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2003-01-01

    A longitudinal study investigated developmental change in theory of mind among 57 children (ages 4-14) with autism. Theory of mind tests were administered on an initial visit and one year later. Data indicated significant developmental improvement in theory of mind ability, which was primarily related to the children's language ability. (Contains…

  15. Speech Perception and Short-Term Memory Deficits in Persistent Developmental Speech Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Mary Kay; Barac-Cikoja, Dragana; Finnegan, Kimberly; Jeffries, Neal; Ludlow, Christy L.

    2006-01-01

    Children with developmental speech disorders may have additional deficits in speech perception and/or short-term memory. To determine whether these are only transient developmental delays that can accompany the disorder in childhood or persist as part of the speech disorder, adults with a persistent familial speech disorder were tested on speech…

  16. Dynamic changes in energy metabolism upon embryonic stem cell differentiation support developmental toxicant identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dartel, van D.A.M.; Schulpen, S.H.; Theunissen, P.T.; Bunschoten, A.; Piersma, A.H.; Keijer, J.

    2014-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESC) are widely used to study embryonic development and to identify developmental toxicants. Particularly, the embryonic stem cell test (EST) is well known as in vitro model to identify developmental toxicants. Although it is clear that energy metabolism plays a crucial role in

  17. Social Support Is Associated with Blood Pressure Responses in Parents Caring for Children with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Stephen; Whiteley, Jenny

    2012-01-01

    The present study tested whether parents caring for children with developmental disabilities would have higher blood pressure compared to parents of typically developing children (controls). It also examined the psychosocial factors underlying this observation. Thirty-five parents of children with developmental disability and thirty controls…

  18. Developmental regulation and complex organization of the promoter ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    melanogaster binds to a variety of RNA-binding proteins involved in nuclear RNA ... lopmental stage and environmental conditions. ... for healthy growth. .... for an hour at 22°C to allow synthesis of the heat shock .... system with very low .... magnification to show the presence of hsrω transcripts in the rows of muscle nuclei.

  19. The diversification of developmental biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Nathan; Dietrich, Michael R; Alomepe, Beverly S; Antrim, Amelia F; ByrneSim, Bay Lauris; He, Yi

    2015-10-01

    In the 1960s, "developmental biology" became the dominant term to describe some of the research that had previously been included under the rubrics of embryology, growth, morphology, and physiology. As scientific societies formed under this new label, a new discipline took shape. Historians, however, have a number of different perspectives on what changes led to this new field of developmental biology and how the field itself was constituted during this period. Using the General Embryological Information Service, a global index of post-World War II development-related research, we have documented and visualized significant changes in the kinds of research that occurred as this new field formed. In particular, our analysis supports the claim that the transition toward developmental biology was marked by a growth in new topics and forms of research. Although many historians privilege the role of molecular biology and/or the molecularization of biology in general during this formative period, we have found that the influence of molecular biology is not sufficient to account for the wide range of new research that constituted developmental biology at the time. Overall, our work creates a robust characterization of the changes that occurred with regard to research on growth and development in the decades following World War II and provides a context for future work on the specific drivers of those changes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Transforming Developmental Education in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Developmental Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, with support from the Texas Legislature, the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board has funded various developmental education initiatives, including research and evaluation efforts, to help Texas public institutions of higher education provide more effective programs and services to underprepared students. Based on evaluation…

  1. Developmental principles: fact or fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durston, A J

    2012-01-01

    While still at school, most of us are deeply impressed by the underlying principles that so beautifully explain why the chemical elements are ordered as they are in the periodic table, and may wonder, with the theoretician Brian Goodwin, "whether there might be equally powerful principles that account for the awe-inspiring diversity of body forms in the living realm". We have considered the arguments for developmental principles, conclude that they do exist and have specifically identified features that may generate principles associated with Hox patterning of the main body axis in bilaterian metazoa in general and in the vertebrates in particular. We wonder whether this exercise serves any purpose. The features we discuss were already known to us as parts of developmental mechanisms and defining developmental principles (how, and at which level?) adds no insight. We also see little profit in the proposal by Goodwin that there are principles outside the emerging genetic mechanisms that need to be taken into account. The emerging developmental genetic hierarchies already reveal a wealth of interesting phenomena, whatever we choose to call them.

  2. Developmental Principles: Fact or Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Durston

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While still at school, most of us are deeply impressed by the underlying principles that so beautifully explain why the chemical elements are ordered as they are in the periodic table, and may wonder, with the theoretician Brian Goodwin, “whether there might be equally powerful principles that account for the awe-inspiring diversity of body forms in the living realm”. We have considered the arguments for developmental principles, conclude that they do exist and have specifically identified features that may generate principles associated with Hox patterning of the main body axis in bilaterian metazoa in general and in the vertebrates in particular. We wonder whether this exercise serves any purpose. The features we discuss were already known to us as parts of developmental mechanisms and defining developmental principles (how, and at which level? adds no insight. We also see little profit in the proposal by Goodwin that there are principles outside the emerging genetic mechanisms that need to be taken into account. The emerging developmental genetic hierarchies already reveal a wealth of interesting phenomena, whatever we choose to call them.

  3. Measuring Developmental Students' Mathematics Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yanqing

    2016-01-01

    This study conducted an item-level analysis of mathematics anxiety and examined the dimensionality of mathematics anxiety in a sample of developmental mathematics students (N = 162) by Multi-dimensional Random Coefficients Multinominal Logit Model (MRCMLM). The results indicate a moderately correlated factor structure of mathematics anxiety (r =…

  4. Developmental dyscalculia: a dysconnection syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucian, Karin; Ashkenazi, Simone Schwizer; Hänggi, Jürgen; Rotzer, Stephanie; Jäncke, Lutz; Martin, Ernst; von Aster, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Numerical understanding is important for everyday life. For children with developmental dyscalculia (DD), numbers and magnitudes present profound problems which are thought to be based upon neuronal impairments of key regions for numerical understanding. The aim of the present study was to investigate possible differences in white matter fibre integrity between children with DD and controls using diffusion tensor imaging. White matter integrity and behavioural measures were evaluated in 15 children with developmental dyscalculia aged around 10 years and 15 matched controls. The main finding, obtained by a whole brain group comparison, revealed reduced fractional anisotropy in the superior longitudinal fasciculus in children with developmental dyscalculia. In addition, a region of interest analysis exhibited prominent deficits in fibres of the superior longitudinal fasciculus adjacent to the intraparietal sulcus, which is thought to be the core region for number processing. To conclude, our results outline deficient fibre projection between parietal, temporal and frontal regions in children with developmental dyscalculia, and therefore raise the question of whether dyscalculia can be seen as a dysconnection syndrome. Since the superior longitudinal fasciculus is involved in the integration and control of distributed brain processes, the present results highlight the importance of considering broader domain-general mechanisms in the diagnosis and therapy of dyscalculia.

  5. Neuropsychological Aspects of Developmental Dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalev, R. S.; Manor, O.; Gross-Tsur, V.

    1997-01-01

    Classification of arithmetic disorders is predicated on neuropsychological features and associated learning disabilities. Assesses the compatibility of these classifications on a nonreferred, population-based cohort of children (N=139) with developmental dyscalculia. Concludes that children with dyscalculia and disabilities in reading and/or…

  6. Developmental control of cell division

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxem, M. (Mike)

    2002-01-01

    During development of multicellular organisms, cell divisions need to be coordinated with the developmental program of the entire organism. Although the mechanisms that drive cells through the division cycle are well understood, very little is known about the pathways that link extracellular signals

  7. Student Development and Developmental Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champaigne, John

    1982-01-01

    Reviews the nine-stage Perry Scheme of Intellectual and Ethical Development, detailing three major student orientations--dualism, multiplicity, and commitments in relativism. Suggests techniques developmental educators can use to communicate with, support, and challenge students to promote intellectual development. Underscores the importance of…

  8. Gender and Agreement Processing in Children with Developmental Language Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhlin, Natalia; Kornilov, Sergey A.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments tested whether Russian-speaking children with Developmental Language Disorder (DLD) are sensitive to gender agreement when performing a gender decision task. In Experiment 1, the presence of overt gender agreement between verbs and/or adjectival modifiers and postverbal subject nouns memory was varied. In Experiment 2, agreement…

  9. Developmental neurotoxicity after toluene inhalation exposure in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hass, Ulla; Lund, Søren Peter; Hougaard, Karin Sørig

    1999-01-01

    Rats were exposed to 1200 ppm or 0 ppm toluene (CAS 108-88-3) for 6 h per day from day 7 of pregnancy until day 18 postnatally. Developmental and neurobehavioral effects in the offspring were investigated using a test battery including assessment of functions similar to those in the proposed OECD...

  10. Can evolution of sexual dimorphism be triggered by developmental temperatures?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ketola, Tarmo; Kristensen, Torsten Nygård; Kellermann, Vanessa M

    2012-01-01

    were split into four different developmental temperatures: two constant temperature treatments of 25 and 30oC and two cycling temperatures with means of 25 and 30oC, respectively. After emergence, we tested heat shock tolerance of adult flies. We found that sexual dimorphism was strongly affected...

  11. Predictors of Developmental Outcomes for Infants Who Are Medically Fragile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy B.; Boyce, Glenna C.

    This paper presents results of a preliminary study which evaluated medical birth data as potential predictors of developmental outcome, and developed and tested an instrument designed for this purpose. Forty low birthweight children, all of whom had experienced neonatal intraventricular hemorrhage, were evaluated at school age (66 months) on the…

  12. Numerical Estimation in Adults with and without Developmental Dyscalculia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejias, Sandrine; Gregoire, Jacques; Noel, Marie-Pascale

    2012-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that developmental dyscalculia (DD) is either due to a defect of the approximate number system (ANS) or to an impaired access between that system and symbolic numbers. Several studies have tested these two hypotheses in children with DD but none has dealt with adults who had experienced DD as children. This study aimed to…

  13. Neurobehavioral impairments caused by developmental imidacloprid exposure in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Emily B; Bailey, Jordan M; Oliveri, Anthony N; Levin, Edward D

    2015-01-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides are becoming more widely applied as organophosphate (OP) insecticides are decreasing in use. Because of their relative specificity to insect nicotinic receptors, they are thought to have reduced risk of neurotoxicity in vertebrates. However, there is scant published literature concerning the neurobehavioral effects of developmental exposure of vertebrates to neonicotinoids. Using zebrafish, we investigated the neurobehavioral effects of developmental exposure to imidacloprid, a prototypic neonicotinoid pesticide. Nicotine was also administered for comparison. Zebrafish were exposed via immersion in aqueous solutions containing 45 μM or 60 μM of imidacloprid or nicotine (or vehicle control) from 4h to 5d post fertilization. The functional effects of developmental exposure to both imidacloprid and nicotine were assessed in larvae using an activity assay and during adolescence and adulthood using a battery of neurobehavioral assays, including assessment of sensorimotor response and habituation in a tactile startle test, novel tank swimming, and shoaling behavior. In larvae, developmental imidacloprid exposure at both doses significantly decreased swimming activity. The 5D strains of zebrafish were more sensitive to both nicotine and imidacloprid than the AB* strain. In adolescent and adult fish, developmental exposure to imidacloprid significantly decreased novel tank exploration and increased sensorimotor response to startle stimuli. While nicotine did not affect novel tank swimming, it increased sensorimotor response to startle stimuli at the low dose. No effects of either compound were found on shoaling behavior or habituation to a startling stimulus. Early developmental exposure to imidacloprid has both early-life and persisting effects on neurobehavioral function in zebrafish. Its developmental neurotoxicity should be further investigated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Letter and Colour Matching Tasks: Parametric Measures of Developmental Working Memory Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara L. Powell

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the mediating role of interference in developmental assessments of working memory (WM capacity across childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood. One hundred and forty-two participants completed two versions of visuospatial (colour matching task, CMT and verbal (letter matching task, LMT WM tasks, which systematically varied cognitive load in a high and low interference condition. Results showed similar developmental trajectories across high interference contexts (CMT- and LMT-Complex and divergent developmental growth patterns across low interference contexts (CMT- and LMT-Simple. Performance on tasks requiring greater cognitive control was in closer agreement with developmental predictions relative to simple recall guided tasks that rely solely on the storage components of WM. These findings suggest that developmental WM capacity, as measured by the CMT and LMT paradigms, can be better quantified using high interference contexts, in both content domains, and demonstrate steady increases in WM through to mid-adolescence.

  15. Screening, intervention and outcome in autism and other developmental disorders: the role of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernell, Elisabeth; Wilson, Philip; Hadjikhani, Nouchine; Bourgeron, Thomas; Neville, Brian; Taylor, David; Minnis, Helen; Gillberg, Christopher

    2014-08-01

    We draw attention to a number of important considerations in the arguments about screening and outcome of intervention in children with autism and other developmental disorders. Autism screening in itself never provides a final clinical diagnosis, but may well identify developmental deviations indicative of autism-or of other developmental disorders-that should lead to referral for further clinical assessment. Decisions regarding population or clinic screening cannot be allowed to be based on the fact that prospective longitudinal RCT designs over decades could never be performed in complex developmental disorders. We propose an alternative approach. Early screening for autism and other developmental disorders is likely to be of high societal importance and should be promoted and rigorously evaluated.

  16. Analysis of three sets of SWIW tracer test data using a two-population complex fracture model for matrix diffusion and sorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doughty, Christine; Chin-Fu Tsang

    2009-03-01

    This study has been undertaken to obtain a better understanding of the processes underlying retention of radionuclides in fractured rock by using different model conceptualisations when interpreting SWIW tests. In particular the aim is to infer the diffusion and sorption parameters from the SWIW test data by matching tracer breakthrough curves (BTC) with a complex fracture model. The model employs two populations for diffusion and sorption. One population represents the semi-infinite rock matrix and the other represents finite blocks that can become saturated, thereafter accepting no further diffusion or sorption. For the non-sorbing tracer uranine, both the finite and the semi-infinite populations play a distinct role in controlling BTC. For the sorbing tracers Cs and Rb the finite population does not saturate, but acts essentially semi-infinite, thus the BTC behaviour is comparable to that obtained for a model containing only a semi-infinite rock matrix. The ability to match BTC for both sorbing and non-sorbing tracers for these three different SWIW data sets demonstrates that the two-population complex fracture model may be useful to analyze SWIW tracer test data in general. One of the two populations should be the semi-infinite rock matrix and the other finite blocks that can saturate. The latter can represent either rock blocks within the fracture, a fracture skin zone or stagnation zones. Three representative SWIW tracer tests recently conducted by SKB have been analyzed with a complex fracture model employing two populations for diffusion and sorption, one population being the semi-infinite rock matrix and the other, finite blocks. The results show that by adjusting diffusion and sorption parameters of the model, a good match with field data is obtained for BTC of both conservative and non-conservative tracers simultaneously. For non-sorbing tracer uranine, both the finite and the semi-infinite populations play a distinct role in controlling BTC. At early

  17. Assessment of the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex mobility with the Trunk-Pelvis-Hip Angle test: intraobserver reliability and differences in ranges of motion between girls with idiopathic scoliosis and their healthy counterparts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stępień Agnieszka

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Trunk-Pelvis-Hip Angle (TPHA test is used for assessing the mobility of lumbo-pelvic-hip complex. The aim of the research was to assess the intraobserver reliability of the TPHA test in girls with and without idiopathic scoliosis and to compare the test values obtained by the girls in both groups.

  18. What Is a Developmental-Behavioral Pediatrician?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... social worker. Developmental-behavioral pediatricians work closely with parents, families, and schools. Developmental-behavioral pediatricians understand that children’s development and behavior happen first and foremost in the ...

  19. 29 CFR 1902.33 - Developmental period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... consideration of developmental changes by OSHA. Generally, whenever a State completes a developmental step, it must submit the resulting plan change as a supplement to its plan to OSHA for approval. OSHA's approval...

  20. Ethiopia: A Democratic Developmental State?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fesseha Mulu Gebremariam

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The ruling Ethiopia People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF in its notable second reform appraisal held in the aftermath of the 2005 national election concluded that the utmost priority of the government should be realizing fastest and sustainable economic growth that fairly benefits its citizens’ unless the very existence of the country wouldn’t be guaranteed. Given the history of poverty reduction in developing countries, particularly in Africa, EPRDF realized that it is unthinkable to eradicate poverty from Ethiopia adopting neo-liberalism. Above all, the miraculous economic transformation of the South East Asian countries like South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore and Hong Kong has proved that there is another way to development, not just neo-liberalism. Accordingly, EPRDF, after examining South Korea’s and Taiwan’s history of economic development in particular where both countries have had a large section of rural population unlike Hong Kong and Singapore where both are urban, found ‘developmental state’ relevant to Ethiopia. However, unlike these countries which were originally under non-democratic regimes where their leaders fear the rural peasant and external aggression from their communist rivals, EPRDF has had a great support of rural and urban population with no imminent foreign threat(s, and decided to execute the ideology rather under the umbrella of democracy. Therefore, employing secondary sources, this desk study aims to analyze whether Ethiopia is a ‘democratic developmental state?’ And, concludes that given the practices of the government vis-a-vis the principles of democracy and developmental state, Ethiopia couldn’t be taken as best model for democratic developmental state, rather emerging developmental state.