Evaluation of decommissioning alternatives for the Pilot Plant Complex, Aberdeen Proving Ground
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Rueda, J.; Zimmerman, R.E.
1995-09-01
This report presents an evaluation of four decommissioning alternatives for the Pilot Plant Complex (PPC), an inactive chemical weapons research, development, and production facility consisting of nine buildings located in the Edgewood Area of the Aberdeen Proving Ground in Maryland. Decommissioning the PPC involves six steps: (1) assessing existing conditions; (2) dismantling the aboveground portions of the buildings (including the floor slabs, paved roads, and sidewalks within the PPC); (3) reducing the size of the demolition debris and sealing the debris in containers for later testing and evaluation; (4) testing and evaluating the debris; (5) conducting site operation and maintenance activities; and (6) recycling or disposing of the debris with or without prior treatment, as appropriate.
Unexploded ordnance issues at Aberdeen Proving Ground: Background information
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rosenblatt, D.H.
1996-11-01
This document summarizes currently available information about the presence and significance of unexploded ordnance (UXO) in the two main areas of Aberdeen Proving Ground: Aberdeen Area and Edgewood Area. Known UXO in the land ranges of the Aberdeen Area consists entirely of conventional munitions. The Edgewood Area contains, in addition to conventional munitions, a significant quantity of chemical-munition UXO, which is reflected in the presence of chemical agent decomposition products in Edgewood Area ground-water samples. It may be concluded from current information that the UXO at Aberdeen Proving Ground has not adversely affected the environment through release of toxic substances to the public domain, especially not by water pathways, and is not likely to do so in the near future. Nevertheless, modest but periodic monitoring of groundwater and nearby surface waters would be a prudent policy.
33 CFR 334.140 - Chesapeake Bay; U.S. Army Proving Ground Reservation, Aberdeen, Md.
2010-07-01
....140 Chesapeake Bay; U.S. Army Proving Ground Reservation, Aberdeen, Md. (a) Restricted area defined. The following indicates the limits of the waters of or adjacent to the Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, and inside of which boundaries will lie the restricted area known as the Aberdeen Proving...
2013-10-01
...; Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed..., within the existing restricted areas R-4001A and R- 4001B, at the U.S. Army's Aberdeen Proving Ground in... nonparticipating aircraft from a hazard to navigation in the Aberdeen Proving Ground airspace. DATES: Comments......
Environmental geophysics, offshore Bush River Peninsula, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland
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Miller, S.F.; Kuecher, G.J.; Davies, B.E. [and others
1995-11-01
Geophysical studies in shallow waters adjacent to the Bush River Peninsula, Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, have delineated the extent of waste disposal sites and established a hydrogeologic framework, which may control contaminant transport offshore. These studies indicate that during the Pleistocene Epoch, alternating stands of high and low sea levels resulted in a complex pattern of shallow channel-fill deposits around the Bush River Peninsula. Ground-penetrating radar studies reveal paleochannels greater than 50 ft deep. Some of the paleochannels are also imaged with marine seismic reflection. Conductivity highs measured with the EM-31 are also indicative of paleochannels. This paleochannel depositional system is environmentally significant because it may control the shallow groundwater flow regime beneath the peninsula. Magnetic, conductivity, and side-scan sonar anomalies outline anthropogenic anomalies in the study area. On the basis of geophysical data, underwater anthropogenic materials do exist in some isolated areas, but large-scale offshore dumping has not occurred in the area studied.
Contamination source review for Building E3162, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland
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Miller, G.A.; Draugelis, A.K.; Rueda, J.; Zimmerman, R.E.
1995-09-01
This report was prepared by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to document the results of a contamination source review for Building E3162 at the Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) in Maryland. The report may be used to assist the US Army in planning for the future use or disposition of this building. The review included a historical records search, physical inspection, photographic documentation, geophysical investigation, and collection of air samples. The field investigations were performed by ANL during 1994 and 1995. Building E3162 (APG designation) is part of the Medical Research Laboratories Building E3160 Complex. This research laboratory complex is located west of Kings Creek, east of the airfield and Ricketts Point Road, and south of Kings Creek Road in the Edgewood Area of APG. The original structures in the E3160 Complex were constructed during World War 2. The complex was originally used as a medical research laboratory. Much of the research involved wound assessment involving chemical warfare agents. Building E3162 was used as a holding and study area for animals involved in non-agent burns. The building was constructed in 1952, placed on inactive status in 1983, and remains unoccupied. Analytical results from these air samples revealed no distinguishable difference in hydrocarbon and chlorinated solvent levels between the two background samples and the sample taken inside Building E3162.
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Hlohowskyj, I.; Hayse, J.; Kuperman, R.; Van Lonkhuyzen, R.
2000-02-25
The Environmental Management Division of the U.S. Army Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation (RI) and feasibility study (FS) of the J-Field area at APG, pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. As part of that activity, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted an ecological risk assessment (ERA) of the J-Field site. This report presents the results of that assessment.
Environmental geophysics at the Southern Bush River Peninsula, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland
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Davies, B.E.; Miller, S.F.; McGinnis, L.D. [and others
1995-05-01
Geophysical studies have been conducted at five sites in the southern Bush River Peninsula in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The goals of the studies were to identify areas containing buried metallic objects and to provide diagnostic signatures of the hydrogeologic framework of the site. These studies indicate that, during the Pleistocene Epoch, alternating stands of high and low sea level resulted in a complex pattern of channel-fill deposits. Paleochannels of various sizes and orientations have been mapped throughout the study area by means of ground-penetrating radar and EM-31 techniques. The EM-31 paleochannel signatures are represented onshore either by conductivity highs or lows, depending on the depths and facies of the fill sequences. A companion study shows the features as conductivity highs where they extend offshore. This erosional and depositional system is environmentally significant because of the role it plays in the shallow groundwater flow regime beneath the site. Magnetic and electromagnetic anomalies outline surficial and buried debris throughout the areas surveyed. On the basis of geophysical measurements, large-scale (i.e., tens of feet) landfilling has not been found in the southern Bush River Peninsula, though smaller-scale dumping of metallic debris and/or munitions cannot be ruled out.
Initial building investigations at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland: Objectives and methodology
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Brubaker, K.L.; Dougherty, J.M.; McGinnis, L.D.
1994-12-01
As part of an environmental-contamination source-definition program at Aberdeen Proving Ground, detailed internal and external inspections of 23 potentially contaminated buildings are being conducted to describe and characterize the state of each building as it currently exists and to identify areas potentially contaminated with toxic or other hazardous substances. In addition, a detailed geophysical investigation is being conducted in the vicinity of each target building to locate and identify subsurface structures, associated with former building operations, that are potential sources of contamination. This report describes the objectives of the initial building inspections, including the geophysical investigations, and discusses the methodology that has been developed to achieve these objectives.
Oliveros, J.P.; Gernhardt, Patrice
1989-01-01
This report is a compilation of hydrologic and geologic data collected for the period April 1986 through March 1988 for the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Geologic data include lithologic logs for 73 sites and geophysical logs for 71 sites. Hydrologic data consist of hydrographs and synoptic water level measurements. The hydrographs were taken from eight wells that were equipped with continuous water level recorders, and the synoptic water-level measurements were made four times during the study. Well-construction data also are included for 149 observation wells. (USGS)
Ecological survey of M-Field, Edgewood Area Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland
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Downs, J.L.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Fitzner, R.E.; Rogers, L.E.
1991-12-01
An ecological survey was conducted on M-Field, at the Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. M-Field is used routinely to test army smokes and obscurants, including brass flakes, carbon fibers, and fog oils. The field has been used for testing purposes for the past 40 years, but little documented history is available. Under current environmental regulations, the test field must be assessed periodically to document the presence or potential use of the area by threatened and endangered species. The M-Field area is approximately 370 acres and is part of the US Army`s Edgewood Area at Aberdeen Proving Ground in Harford County, Maryland. The grass-covered field is primarily lowlands with elevations from about 1.0 to 8 m above sea level, and several buildings and structures are present on the field. The ecological assessment of M-Field was conducted in three stages, beginning with a preliminary site visit in May to assess sampling requirements. Two field site visits were made June 3--7, and August 12--15, 1991, to identify the biota existing on the site. Data were gathered on vegetation, small mammals, invertebrates, birds, large mammals, amphibians, and reptiles.
Ecological survey of M-Field, Edgewood Area Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland
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Downs, J.L.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Fitzner, R.E.; Rogers, L.E.
1991-12-01
An ecological survey was conducted on M-Field, at the Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. M-Field is used routinely to test army smokes and obscurants, including brass flakes, carbon fibers, and fog oils. The field has been used for testing purposes for the past 40 years, but little documented history is available. Under current environmental regulations, the test field must be assessed periodically to document the presence or potential use of the area by threatened and endangered species. The M-Field area is approximately 370 acres and is part of the US Army's Edgewood Area at Aberdeen Proving Ground in Harford County, Maryland. The grass-covered field is primarily lowlands with elevations from about 1.0 to 8 m above sea level, and several buildings and structures are present on the field. The ecological assessment of M-Field was conducted in three stages, beginning with a preliminary site visit in May to assess sampling requirements. Two field site visits were made June 3--7, and August 12--15, 1991, to identify the biota existing on the site. Data were gathered on vegetation, small mammals, invertebrates, birds, large mammals, amphibians, and reptiles.
Stromdahl, E Y; Randolph, M P; O'Brien, J J; Gutierrez, A G
2000-05-01
Human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME) is a sometimes fatal, emerging tick-borne disease caused by the bacterium Ehrlichia chaffeensis. It is frequently misdiagnosed because its symptoms mimic those of the flu. Current evidence indicates that Amblyomma americanum (L.), the lone star tick, is the major vector of HME. To determine if E. chaffeensis is present in ticks at Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, questing A. americanum ticks were collected from 33 sites. Nucleic acid was extracted from 34 adult and 81 nymphal pools. Sequences diagnostic for E. chaffeensis from three different loci (16S rRNA, 120-kDa protein, and a variable-length polymerase chain reaction [PCR] target, or VLPT) were targeted for amplification by the PCR. Fifty-two percent of the collection sites yielded pools infected with E. chaffeensis, confirming the presence and widespread distribution of E. chaffeensis at Aberdeen Proving Ground. Analysis with the both the 120-kDa protein primers and the VLPT primers showed that genetic variance exists. A novel combination of variance for the two loci was detected in two tick pools. The pathogenic implications of genetic variation in E. chaffeensis are as yet unknown.
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Kennedy, P.L.; Clements, W.H.; Myers, O.B.; Bestgen, H.T.; Jenkins, D.G. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Fishery and Wildlife Biology
1995-01-01
This report represents an evaluation of depleted uranium (DU) introduced into the environment at the Aberdeen Proving Grounds (APG), Maryland and Yuma Proving Grounds (YPG) Arizona. This was a cooperative project between the Environmental Sciences and Statistical Analyses Groups at LANL and with the Department of Fishery and Wildlife Biology at Colorado State University. The project represents a unique approach to assessing the environmental impact of DU in two dissimilar ecosystems. Ecological exposure models were created for each ecosystem and sensitivity/uncertainty analyses were conducted to identify exposure pathways which were most influential in the fate and transport of DU in the environment. Research included field sampling, field exposure experiment, and laboratory experiments. The first section addresses DU at the APG site. Chapter topics include bioenergetics-based food web model; field exposure experiments; bioconcentration by phytoplankton and the toxicity of U to zooplankton; physical processes governing the desorption of uranium from sediment to water; transfer of uranium from sediment to benthic invertebrates; spead of adsorpion by benthic invertebrates; uptake of uranium by fish. The final section of the report addresses DU at the YPG site. Chapters include the following information: Du transport processes and pathway model; field studies of performance of exposure model; uptake and elimination rates for kangaroo rates; chemical toxicity in kangaroo rat kidneys.
Lorah, Michelle M.; Olsen, Lisa D.; Smith, Barrett L.; Johnson, Mark A.; Fleck, William B.
1997-01-01
Ground-water contaminant plumes that are flowing toward or currently discharging to wetland areas present unique remediation problems because of the hydrologic connections between ground water and surface water and the sensitive habitats in wetlands. Because wetlands typically have a large diversity of microorganisms and redox conditions that could enhance biodegradation, they are ideal environments for natural attenuation of organic contaminants, which is a treatment method that would leave the ecosystem largely undisturbed and be cost effective. During 1992-97, the U.S. Geological Survey investigated the natural attenuation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOC's) in a contaminant plume that discharges from a sand aquifer to a freshwater tidal wetland along the West Branch Canal Creek at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Characterization of the hydrogeology and geochemistry along flowpaths in the wetland area and determination of the occurrence and rates of biodegradation and sorption show that natural attenuation could be a feasible remediation method for the contaminant plume that extends along the West Branch Canal Creek.
Hydrogeology and soil gas at J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland
Hughes, W.B.
1993-01-01
Disposal of chemical warfare agents, munitions, and industrial chemicals in J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, has contaminated soil, groundwater and surface water. Seven exploratory borings and 38 observation wells were drilled to define the hydrogeologic framework at J-Field and to determine the type, extent, and movement of contaminants. The geologic units beneath J-Field consist of Coastal Plain sediments of the Cretaceous Patapsco Formation and Pleistocene Talbot Formation. The Patapsco Formation contains several laterally discontinuous aquifers and confining units. The Pleistocene deposits were divided into 3 hydrogeologic units--a surficial aquifer, a confining unit, and a confined aquifer. Water in the surficial aquifer flows laterally from topographically high areas to discharge areas in marshes and streams, and vertically to the underlying confined aquifer. In offshore areas, water flows from the deeper confined aquifers upward toward discharge areas in the Gunpowder River and Chesapeake Bay. Analyses of soil-gas samples showed high relative-flux values of chlorinated solvents, phthalates, and hydrocarbons at the toxic-materials disposal area, white-phosphorus disposal area, and riot-control-agent disposal area. The highest flux values were located downgradient of the toxic materials and white phosphorus disposal areas, indicating that groundwater contaminants are moving from source areas beneath the disposal pits toward discharge points in the marshes and estuaries. Elevated relative-flux values were measured upgradient and downgradient of the riot-control agent disposal area, and possibly result from soil and (or) groundwater contamination.
Hydrogeologic and chemical data for the O-Field area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland
Nemoff, P.R.; Vroblesky, D.A.
1989-01-01
O-Field, located at the Edgewood area of Aberdeen Proving Ground , Maryland, was periodically used for disposal of munitions, waste chemicals, and chemical-warfare agents from World War II through the 1950' s. This report includes various physical, geologic, chemical, and hydrologic data obtained from well-core, groundwater, surface water, and bottom-sediment sampling sites at and near the O-Field disposal area. The data are presented in tables and hydrographs. Three site-location maps are also included. Well-core data include lithologic logs for 11 well- cluster sites, grain-size distributions, various chemical characteristics, and confining unit characteristics. Groundwater data include groundwater chemistry, method blanks for volatile organic carbon, available data on volatile and base/neutral organics, and compilation of corresponding method blanks, chemical-warfare agents, explosive-related products, radionuclides, herbicides, and groundwater levels. Surface-water data include field-measured characteristics; concentrations of various inorganic constituents including arsenic; selected organic constituents with method blanks; detection limits of organics; and a compilation of information on corresponding acids, volatiles, and semivolatiles. Bottom- sediment data include inorganic properties and constituents; organic chemistry; detection limits for organic chemicals; a compilation of information on acids, volatiles, and semivolatiles; and method blanks corresponding to acids, volatiles, and semivolatiles. A set of 15 water- level hydrographs for the period March 1986 through September 1987 also is included in the report. (USGS)
Review of analytical results from the proposed agent disposal facility site, Aberdeen Proving Ground
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Brubaker, K.L.; Reed, L.L.; Myers, S.W.; Shepard, L.T.; Sydelko, T.G.
1997-09-01
Argonne National Laboratory reviewed the analytical results from 57 composite soil samples collected in the Bush River area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. A suite of 16 analytical tests involving 11 different SW-846 methods was used to detect a wide range of organic and inorganic contaminants. One method (BTEX) was considered redundant, and two {open_quotes}single-number{close_quotes} methods (TPH and TOX) were found to lack the required specificity to yield unambiguous results, especially in a preliminary investigation. Volatile analytes detected at the site include 1, 1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, trichloroethylene, and tetrachloroethylene, all of which probably represent residual site contamination from past activities. Other volatile analytes detected include toluene, tridecane, methylene chloride, and trichlorofluoromethane. These compounds are probably not associated with site contamination but likely represent cross-contamination or, in the case of tridecane, a naturally occurring material. Semivolatile analytes detected include three different phthalates and low part-per-billion amounts of the pesticide DDT and its degradation product DDE. The pesticide could represent residual site contamination from past activities, and the phthalates are likely due, in part, to cross-contamination during sample handling. A number of high-molecular-weight hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon derivatives were detected and were probably naturally occurring compounds. 4 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.
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Yuen, C. R.; Martino, L. E.; Biang, R. P.; Chang, Y. S.; Dolak, D.; Van Lonkhuyzen, R. A.; Patton, T. L.; Prasad, S.; Quinn, J.; Rosenblatt, D. H.; Vercellone, J.; Wang, Y. Y.
2000-03-14
This report presents the results of the remedial investigation (RI) conducted at J-Field in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), a U.S. Army installation located in Harford County, Maryland. Since 1917, activities in the Edgewood Area have included the development, manufacture, and testing of chemical agents and munitions and the subsequent destruction of these materials at J-Field by open burning and open detonation. These activities have raised concerns about environmental contamination at J-Field. This RI was conducted by the Environmental Conservation and Restoration Division, Directorate of Safety, Health and Environmental Division of APG, pursuant to requirements outlined under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended (CERCLA). The RI was accomplished according to the procedures developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1988). The RI provides a comprehensive evaluation of the site conditions, nature of contaminants present, extent of contamination, potential release mechanisms and migration pathways, affected populations, and risks to human health and the environment. This information will be used as the basis for the design and implementation of remedial actions to be performed during the remedial action phase, which will follow the feasibility study (FS) for J-Field.
Contamination source review for Building E1489, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland
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Billmark, K.A.; Hayes, D.C.; Draugelis, A.K. [and others
1995-09-01
This report was prepared by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to document the results of a contamination source review of Building E1489 at the Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) in Maryland. This report may be used to assist the U.S. Army-in planning for the future use or disposition of this building. The review included a historical records search, physical inspection, photographic documentation, and geophysical investigation. The field investigations were performed in 1994-1995. Building E1489 located in J-Field on the Gunpowder Peninsula in APG`s Edgewood Area housed a power generator that supplied electricity to a nearby observation tower. Building E1489 and the generator were abandoned in 1974, demolished by APG personnel and removed from real estate records. A physical inspection and photographic documentation of Building E1489 were completed by ANL staff during November 1994. In 1994, ANL staff conducted geophysical surveys in the immediate vicinity of Building E1489 by using several nonintrusive methods. Survey results suggest the presence of some underground objects near Building E1489, but they do not provide conclusive evidence of the source of geophysical anomalies observed during the survey. No air monitoring was conducted at the site, and no information on underground storage tanks associated with Building E1489 was available.
Contamination source review for Building E6891, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland
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Zellmer, S.D.; Draugelis, A.K.; Rueda, J.; Zimmerman, R.E.
1995-09-01
The US Army Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) commissioned Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to conduct a contamination source review to identify and define areas of toxic or hazardous contaminants and to assess the physical condition and accessibility of various APG buildings. This report provides the results of the contamination source review for Building E6891. The information obtained from this review may be used to assist the US Army in planning for the future use or disposition of the buildings. The contamination source review consisted of the following tasks: historical records search, physical inspection, photographic documentation, geophysical investigation, and collection of air samples. This building is part of the Lauderick Creek Concrete Slab Test Site, located in the Lauderick Creek Area in the Edgewood Area. Many of the APG facilities constructed between 1917 and the 1960s are no longer used because of obsolescence and their poor state of repair. Because many of these buildings were used for research, development, testing, and/or pilot-scale production of chemical warfare agents and other military substances the potential exists` for portions of the buildings to be contaminated with these substances, their degradation products, and other laboratory or industrial chemicals. These buildings and associated structures or appurtenances may contribute to environmental concerns at APG.
Contamination source review for Building E3180, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland
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Zellmer, S.D.; Smits, M.P.; Rueda, J.; Zimmerman, R.E.
1995-09-01
This report was prepared by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to document the results of a contamination source review of Building E3180 at the Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) in Maryland. The report may be used to assist the US Army in planning for the future use or disposition of this building. The review included a historical records search, physical inspection, photographic documentation, geophysical investigation, collection of air samples, and review of available records regarding underground storage tanks associated with Building E3180. The field investigations were performed by ANL during 1994. Building,E3180 (current APG designation) is located near the eastern end of Kings Creek Road, north of Kings Creek, and about 0.5 miles east of the airstrip within APG`s Edgewood Area. The building was constructed in 1944 as a facsimile of a Japanese pillbox and used for the development of flame weapons systems until 1957 (EAI Corporation 1989). The building was not used from 1957 until 1965, when it was converted and used as a flame and incendiary laboratory. During the 1970s, the building was converted to a machine (metal) shop and used for that purpose until 1988.
Contamination source review for Building E2370, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland
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O`Reilly, D.P.; Glennon, M.A.; Draugelis, A.K.; Rueda, J.; Zimmerman, R.E.
1995-09-01
The US Army Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) commissioned Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to conduct a contamination source review to identify and define areas of toxic or hazardous contaminants and to assess the physical condition and accessibility of APG buildings. The information obtained from this review may be used to assist the US Army in planning for the future use or disposition of the buildings. The contamination source review consisted of the following tasks: historical records search, physical inspection, photographic documentation, and geophysical investigation. This report provides the results of the contamination source review for Building E2370. Many of the APG facilities constructed between 1917 and the 1960s are no longer used because of obsolescence and their poor state of repair. Because many of these buildings were used for research, development, testing, and/or pilot-scale production of chemical warfare agents and other military substances, the potential exists for portions of the buildings to be contaminated with these substances, their degradation products, and other laboratory or industrial chemicals. These buildings and associated structures or appurtenances may contribute to environmental concerns at APG.
Potential health impacts from range fires at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland.
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Willians, G.P.; Hermes, A.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Hartmann, H.M.; Tomasko, D.
1998-03-01
This study uses atmospheric dispersion computer models to evaluate the potential for human health impacts from exposure to contaminants that could be dispersed by fires on the testing ranges at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. It was designed as a screening study and does not estimate actual human health risks. Considered are five contaminants possibly present in the soil and vegetation from past human activities at APG--lead, arsenic, trichloroethylene (TCE), depleted uranium (DU), and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT); and two chemical warfare agents that could be released from unexploded ordnance rounds heated in a range fire--mustard and phosgene. For comparison, dispersion of two naturally occurring compounds that could be released by burning of uncontaminated vegetation--vinyl acetate and 2-furaldehyde--is also examined. Data from previous studies on soil contamination at APG are used in conjunction with conservative estimates about plant uptake of contaminants, atmospheric conditions, and size and frequency of range fires at APG to estimate dispersion and possible human exposure. The results are compared with US Environmental Protection Agency action levels. The comparisons indicate that for all of the anthropogenic contaminants except arsenic and mustard, exposure levels would be at least an order of magnitude lower than the corresponding action levels. Because of the compoundingly conservative nature of the assumptions made, they conclude that the potential for significant human health risks from range fires is low. The authors recommend that future efforts be directed at fire management and control, rather than at conducting additional studies to more accurately estimate actual human health risk from range fires.
Contamination source review for Building E5032, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland
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Booher, M.N.; O`Reilly, D.P.; Smits, M.P. [and others
1995-09-01
This report by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) documents results of a contamination source review of Building E5032 at the Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) in Maryland. The review included a historical records search, physical inspection, photographic documentation, geophysical investigation, and review of available records regarding underground storage tanks associated with Building E5032. The field investigations were performed by ANL during 1994 and 1995. Building E5032 (APG designation), originally known as Building 99, is located at the northwest comer of the intersection of Hoadley Road and Magnolia Road in the Edgewood Area of APG. It was constructed during World War I as an incendiary bomb filling plant and in 1920s and 1930s maintained as a filling facility. During World War II the building was a pilot plant for the development of a dry white phosphorus filling process. Since then the building has been used for white phosphorus filling pilot studies. Most of the dry filling methods were developed in Building E5032 between 1965 and 1970. Other filling operations in Building E5032 have included mustard during the period shortly after World War II and triethyl aluminum (TEA) during the late 1960s and early 1970s. During the World War II period, the building was connected to the sanitary sewer system with one large and at least one small interior sump. There are also seven sumps adjacent to the exterior of the building: two on the west elevation, four near the four bays on the south elevation, and one at the northeast corner of the building. All of these sumps are connected with the chemical sewer system and received most, if not all, of the production operation wastewater. The discharge from this system was released into the east branch of Canal Creek; the discharge pipe was located southeast of Building E5032. There are no records indicating the use of Building E5032 after 1974, and it is assumed that the building has been out of service since that time.
Work plan for conducting an ecological risk assessment at J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland
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Hlohowskyj, I.; Hayse, J.; Kuperman, R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.] [and others
1995-03-01
The Environmental Management Division of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation and feasibility study (RI/FS) of the J-Field area at APG pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. J-Field is within the Edgewood Area of APG in Harford County, Maryland, and activities at the Edgewood Area since World War II have included the development, manufacture, testing, and destruction of chemical agents and munitions. The J-Field site was used to destroy chemical agents and munitions by open burning and open detonation. This work plan presents the approach proposed to conduct an ecological risk assessment (ERA) as part of the RI/FS program at J-Field. This work plan identifies the locations and types of field studies proposed for each area of concern (AOC), the laboratory studies proposed to evaluate toxicity of media, and the methodology to be used in estimating doses to ecological receptors and discusses the approach that will be used to estimate and evaluate ecological risks at J-Field. Eight AOCs have been identified at J-Field, and the proposed ERA is designed to evaluate the potential for adverse impacts to ecological receptors from contaminated media at each AOC, as well as over the entire J-Field site. The proposed ERA approach consists of three major phases, incorporating field and laboratory studies as well as modeling. Phase 1 includes biotic surveys of the aquatic and terrestrial habitats, biological tissue sampling and analysis, and media toxicity testing at each AOC and appropriate reference locations. Phase 2 includes definitive toxicity testing of media from areas of known or suspected contamination or of media for which the Phase 1 results indicate toxicity or adverse ecological effects. In Phase 3, the uptake models initially developed in Phase 2 will be finalized, and contaminant dose to each receptor from all complete pathways will be estimated.
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McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.; Daudt, C.R.; Thompson, M.D.; Borden, H.; Benson, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Reclamation Engineering and Geosciences Section; Wrobel, J. [Directorate of Safety, Health, and Environment, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)
1994-05-01
Plans to demolish and remediate the Pilot Plant complex in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground have served to initiate a series of nonintrusive, environmental-geophysical studies. The studies are assisting in the location and identification of pipes, tanks, trenches, and liquid waste in the subsurface. Multiple databases have been integrated to provide support for detection of underground utilities and to determine the stratigraphy and lithology of the subsurface. The studies were conducted within the double security fence and exterior to the double fence, down gradient toward the west branch of Canal Creek. To determine if contaminants found in the creek were associated with the Pilot Plant, both the east and west banks were included in the study area. Magnetic, conductivity, inductive emf, and ground-penetrating-radar anomalies outline buried pipes, trenches, and various pieces of hardware associated with building activities. Ground-penetrating-radar imagery also defines a paleovalley cut 30 ft into Potomac Group sediments of Cretaceous age. The paleovalley crosses the site between Building E5654 and the Pilot Plant fence. The valley is environmentally significant because it may control the pathways of contaminants. The Pilot Plant complex was used to manufacture CC2 Impregnite and incapacitating agents; it also served as a production facility for nerve agents.
Hydrogeologic, soil, and water-quality data for j-field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, 1989-94
Phelan, D.J.
1996-01-01
Disposal of chemical-warfare agents, munitions, and industrial chemicals in J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, has resulted in ground-water, surface-water, and soil contamination. This report presents data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from Novembr 1989 through September 1994 as part of a remedial investigation of J-Field in response to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Hydrogeologic data, soil-gas and soil-quality data, and water-qualtiy data are included.
Optimization of ground-water withdrawal at the old O-Field area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland
Banks, William S.L.; Dillow, Jonathan J.A.
2001-01-01
The U.S. Army disposed of chemical agents, laboratory materials, and unexploded ordnance at the Old O-Field landfill at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, beginning prior to World War II and continuing until at least the 1950?s. Soil, ground water, surface water, and wetland sediments in the Old O-Field area were contaminated by the disposal of these materials. The site is in the Atlantic Coastal Plain, and is characterized by a complex series of Pleistocene and Holocene sediments formed in various fluvial, estuarine, and marine-marginal hydrogeologic environments. A previously constructed transient finite-difference ground-water-flow model was used to simulate ground-water flow and the effects of a pump-and-treat remediation system designed to prevent contaminated ground water from flowing into Watson Creek (a tidal estuary and a tributary to the Gunpowder River). The remediation system consists of 14 extraction wells located between the Old O-Field landfill and Watson Creek.Linear programming techniques were applied to the results of the flow-model simulations to identify optimal pumping strategies for the remediation system. The optimal management objective is to minimize total withdrawal from the water-table aquifer, while adhering to the following constraints: (1) ground-water flow from the landfill should be prevented from reaching Watson Creek, (2) no extraction pump should be operated at a rate that exceeds its capacity, and (3) no extraction pump should be operated at a rate below its minimum capacity, the minimum rate at which an Old O-Field pump can function. Water withdrawal is minimized by varying the rate and frequency of pumping at each of the 14 extraction wells over time. This minimizes the costs of both pumping and water treatment, thus providing the least-cost remediation alternative while simultaneously meeting all operating constraints.The optimal strategy identified using this objective and constraint set involved operating 13 of the 14
Tenbus, F.J.; Fleck, W.B.
1996-01-01
Ground water in the east-central part of Graces Quarters, a former open-air chemical-agent test facility at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, is contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds. The U.S. Geological Survey's finite- difference model was used to help understand ground-water flow and simulate the effects of alternative remedial actions to clean up the ground water. Scenarios to simulate unstressed conditions and three extraction well con- figurations were used to compare alternative remedial actions on the contaminant plume. The scenarios indicate that contaminants could migrate from their present location to wetland areas within 10 years under unstressed conditions. Pumping 7 gal/min (gallons per minute) from one well upgradient of the plume will not result in containment or removal of the highest contaminant concentrations. Pumping 7 gal/min from three wells along the central axis of the plume should result in containment and removal of dissolved contami- nants, as should pumping 7 gal/min from three wells at the leading edge of the plume while injecting 7 gal/min back into an upgradient well.
Donnelly, Colleen A.; Tenbus, Fredrick J.
1998-01-01
Water-level data and interpretations from previous hydrogeological studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, were compared to determine similarities and differences among the aquifers. Because the sediments that comprise the shallow aquifers are discontinuous, the shallow ground-water-flow systems are local rather than extensive across the Edgewood Area. Hydrogeologic cross sections, hydrographs of water levels, and vertical gradients calculated from previous studies in the Canal Creek area, Graces Quarters, the O-Field area, Carroll Island, and the J-Field area, over periods of record ranging from 1 to 10 years during 1986-97, were used to determine recharge and discharge areas, connections between aquifers, and hydrologic responses of aquifers to natural and anthropogenic stress. Each of the aquifers in the study areas exhibited variation of hydraulic head that was attributed to seasonal changes in recharge. Upward hydraulic gradients and seasonal reversals of vertical hydraulic gradients between aquifers indicate the potential for local ground-water discharge from most of the aquifers that were studied in the Edgewood Area. Hydraulic head in individual aquifers in Graces Quarters and Carroll Island responded to offsite pumping during part of the period of record. Hydraulic head in most of the confined aquifers responded to tidal loading effects from nearby estuaries.
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Ebinger, M.H.; Beckman, R.J.; Myers, O.B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Kennedy, P.L.; Clements, W.; Bestgen, H.T. [Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Fishery and Wildlife Biology
1996-09-01
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immediate and long-term consequences of depleted uranium (DU) in the environment at Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) and Yuma Proving Ground (YPG) for the Test and Evaluation Command (TECOM) of the US Army. Specifically, we examined the potential for adverse radiological and toxicological effects to humans and ecosystems caused by exposure to DU at both installations. We developed contaminant transport models of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems at APG and terrestrial ecosystems at YPG to assess potential adverse effects from DU exposure. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses of the initial models showed the portions of the models that most influenced predicted DU concentrations, and the results of the sensitivity analyses were fundamental tools in designing field sampling campaigns at both installations. Results of uranium (U) isotope analyses of field samples provided data to evaluate the source of U in the environment and the toxicological and radiological doses to different ecosystem components and to humans. Probabilistic doses were estimated from the field data, and DU was identified in several components of the food chain at APG and YPG. Dose estimates from APG data indicated that U or DU uptake was insufficient to cause adverse toxicological or radiological effects. Dose estimates from YPG data indicated that U or DU uptake is insufficient to cause radiological effects in ecosystem components or in humans, but toxicological effects in small mammals (e.g., kangaroo rats and pocket mice) may occur from U or DU ingestion. The results of this study were used to modify environmental radiation monitoring plans at APG and YPG to ensure collection of adequate data for ongoing ecological and human health risk assessments.
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Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, L.D.; Benson, M.A.; Borden, H.M.; Padar, C.A.
1994-12-01
Geophysical surveying around Building E5032 using three new continuously recording geophysical instruments - two types of electromagnetic induction instruments and a cesium vapor magnetometer that were unavailable at the time of the original survey - has provided additional information for defining the location of buried debris, vaults, tanks, and the drainage/sump system near the building. The dominant geophysical signature around Building E5032 consists of a complex pattern of linear magnetic, electrical-conductivity, and electromagnetic field anomalies that appear to be associated with drainage/sewer systems, ditches, past railway activity, the location for Building T5033 (old number 99A), and the probable location of Building 91. Integrated analysis of data acquired using the three techniques, plus a review of the existing ground-penetrating-radar data, allow a more thorough definition of the sources for the observed anomalies.
Hydrogeology and water quality in the Graces Quarters area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland
Tenbus, Frederick J.; Blomquist, Joel D.
1995-01-01
Graces Quarters was used for open-air testing of chemical-warfare agents from the late 1940's until 1971. Testing and disposal activities have resulted in the contamination of ground water and surface water. The hydrogeology and water quality were examined at three test areas, four disposal sites, a bunker, and a service area on Graces Quarters. Methods of investigation included surface and borehole geophysics, water-quality sampling, water- level measurement, and hydrologic testing. The hydrogeologic framework is complex and consists of a discontinuous surficial aquifer, one or more upper confining units, and a confined aquifer system. Directions of ground-water flow vary spatially and temporally, and results of site investigations show that ground-water flow is controlled by the geology of the area. The ground water and surface water at Graces Quarters generally are unmineralized; the ground water is mildly acidic (median pH is 5.38) and poorly buffered. Inorganic constituents in excess of certain Federal drinking-water regulations and ambient water-quality criteria were detected at some sites, but they probably were present naturally. Volatile and semivolatile organic com- pounds were detected in the ground water and surface water at seven of the nine sites that were investi- gated. Concentrations of organic compounds at two of the nine sites exceeded Federal drinking-water regulations. Volatile compounds in concentrations as high as 6,000 m/L (micrograms per liter) were detected in the ground water at the site known as the primary test area. Concentrations of volatile compounds detected in the other areas ranged from 0.57 to 17 m/L.
Olsen, Lisa D.; Spencer, Tracey A.
2000-01-01
The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected 13 surface-water samples and 3 replicates from 5 sites in the West Branch Canal Creek area at Aberdeen Proving Ground from February through August 1999, as a part of an investigation of ground-water contamination and natural attenuation processes. The samples were analyzed for volatile organic compounds, including trichloroethylene, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, carbon tetrachloride, and chloroform, which are the four major contaminants that were detected in ground water in the Canal Creek area in earlier USGS studies. Field blanks were collected during the sampling period to assess sample bias. Field replicates were used to assess sample variability, which was expressed as relative percent difference. The mean variability of the surface-water replicate analyses was larger (35.4 percent) than the mean variability of ground-water replicate analyses (14.6 percent) determined for West Branch Canal Creek from 1995 through 1996. The higher variability in surface-water analyses is probably due to heterogeneities in the composition of the surface water rather than differences in sampling or analytical procedures. The most frequently detected volatile organic compound was 1,1,2,2- tetrachloroethane, which was detected in every sample and in two of the replicates. The surface-water contamination is likely the result of cross-media transfer of contaminants from the ground water and sediments along the West Branch Canal Creek. The full extent of surface-water contamination in West Branch Canal Creek and the locations of probable contaminant sources cannot be determined from this limited set of data. Tidal mixing, creek flow patterns, and potential effects of a drought that occurred during the sampling period also complicate the evaluation of surface-water contamination.
Banks, W.S.; Smith, B.S.; Donnelly, C.A.
1996-01-01
The U.S. Army disposed chemical agents, laboratory materials, and unexploded ordnance at O-Field in the Edgewood area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, from before World War II until at least the 1950's. Soil, ground water, surface water,and wetland sediments in the O-Field area were contaminated from the disposal activity. A ground-water-flow model of the O-Field area was constructed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 1989 to simulate flow in the central and southern part of the Gunpowder Neck. The USGS began an additional study of the contamination in the O-Field area in cooperation with the U.S. Army in 1990 to (1) further define the hydrogeologic framework of the O-Field area, (2) characterize the hydraulic properties of the aquifers and confining units, and (3) define ground-water flow paths at O-Field based on the current data and simulations of ground-water flow. A water-table aquifer, an upper confining unit, and an upper confined aquifer comprise the shallow ground-water aquifer system of the O-Field area. A lower confining unit, through which ground-water movement is negligible, is considered a lower boundary to the shallow aquifer system. These units are all part of the Pleistocene Talbot Formation. The model developed in the previous study was redesigned using the data collected during this study and emphasized New O-Field. The current steady-state model was calibrated to water levels of June 1993. The rate of ground-water flow calculated by the model was approximately 0.48 feet per day (ft/d) and the rate determined from chlorofluorocarbon dates was approximately 0.39 ft/d.
Hughes, W.B.
1995-01-01
J-Field, located in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md, has been used since World War II to test and dispose of explosives, chemical warfare agents, and industrial chemicals resulting in ground-water, surface-water, and soil contami- nation. The U.S. Geological Survey finite-difference model was used to better understand ground-water flow at the site and to simulate the effects of remedial actions. A surficial aquifer and a confined aquifer were simulated with the model. A confining unit separates these units and is represented by leakance between the layers. The area modeled is 3.65 mi2; the model was constructed with a variably spaced 40 X 38 grid. The horizontal and lower boundaries of the model are all no-flow boundaries. Steady-state conditions were used. Ground water at the areas under investigation flows from disposal pit areas toward discharge areas in adjacent estuaries or wetlands. Simulations indicate that capping disposal areas with an impermeable cover effectively slows advective ground water flow by 0.7 to 0.5 times. Barriers to lateral ground-water flow were simulated and effectively prevented the movement of ground water toward discharge areas. Extraction wells were simulated as a way to contain ground-water contamination and to extract ground water for treatment. Two wells pumping 5 gallons per minute each at the toxic-materials disposal area and a single well pumping 2.5 gallons per minute at the riot-control-agent disposal area effectively contained contamination at these sites. A combi- nation of barriers to horizontal flow east and south of the toxic-materials disposal area, and a single extraction well pumping at 5 gallons per minute can extract contaminated ground water and prevent pumpage of marsh water.
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Benioff, P.; Biang, R.; Dolak, D.; Dunn, C.; Martino, L.; Patton, T.; Wang, Y.; Yuen, C.
1995-03-01
The Environmental Management Division (EMD) of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation and feasibility study (RI/FS) of the J-Field area at APG pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. J-Field is within the Edgewood Area of APG in Harford County, Maryland (Figure 1. 1). Since World War II activities in the Edgewood Area have included the development, manufacture, testing, and destruction of chemical agents and munitions. These materials were destroyed at J-Field by open burning and open detonation (OB/OD). Considerable archival information about J-Field exists as a result of efforts by APG staff to characterize the hazards associated with the site. Contamination of J-Field was first detected during an environmental survey of the Edgewood Area conducted in 1977 and 1978 by the US Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency (USATHAMA) (predecessor to the US Army Environmental Center [AEC]). As part of a subsequent USATHAMA -environmental survey, 11 wells were installed and sampled at J-Field. Contamination at J-Field was also detected during a munitions disposal survey conducted by Princeton Aqua Science in 1983. The Princeton Aqua Science investigation involved the installation and sampling of nine wells and the collection and analysis of surficial and deep composite soil samples. In 1986, a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permit (MD3-21-002-1355) requiring a basewide RCRA Facility Assessment (RFA) and a hydrogeologic assessment of J-Field was issued by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In 1987, the US Geological Survey (USGS) began a two-phased hydrogeologic assessment in data were collected to model, groundwater flow at J-Field. Soil gas investigations were conducted, several well clusters were installed, a groundwater flow model was developed, and groundwater and surface water monitoring programs were established that continue today.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Biang, C.; Benioff, P.; Martino, L.; Patton, T.
1995-03-01
The Environmental Management Division (EMD) of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation and feasibility study (RI/FS) of the J-Field area at APG pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended (CERCIA). J-Field is within the Edgewood Area of APG in Harford County, Maryland. Since World War II, activities in the Edgewood Area have included the development, manufacture, testing, and destruction of chemical agents and munitions. These materials were destroyed at J-Field by open burning and open detonation (OB/OD). Considerable archival information about J-Field exists as a result of efforts by APG staff to characterize the hazards associated with the site. Contamination of J-Field was first detected during an environmental survey of the Edgewood Area conducted in 1977 and 1978 by the US Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency (USATHAMA)(predecessor to the US Army Environmental Center). As part of a subsequent USATHAMA environmental survey, 11 wells were installed and sampled at J-Field. Contamination at J-Field was also detected during a munitions disposal survey conducted by Princeton Aqua Science in 1983. The Princeton Aqua Science investigation involved the installation and sampling of nine wells and the collection and analysis of surficial and deep composite soil samples. In 1986, a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permit (MD3-21-0021355) requiring a basewide RCRA Facility Assessment (RFA) and a hydrogeologic assessment of J-Field was issued by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In 1987, the US Geological Survey (USGS) began a two-phased hydrogeologic assessment in which data were collected to model groundwater flow at J-Field. Soil gas investigations were conducted, several well clusters were installed, a groundwater flow model was developed, and groundwater and surface water monitoring programs were established that continue today-
1989-11-01
with side effects, including pulmonary edema . The objective of this study was to determine if the pulmonary edema was cardiogenic or noncardio- genic...Proeedings ~FL gof the .1Workshop on Acute Lung Injury and Pulmonary Edema 4-5 May 1989a Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland I7 21 Sponsored by the...TITLE (include Security Classification) (U) Proceedings of the" Workshop on Acute Lung Injury and Pulmonary Edema , May 1989 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) David
Phelan, Daniel J.; Olsen, Lisa D.; Senus, Michael P.; Spencer, Tracey A.
2001-01-01
The purpose of this report is to describe the occurrence and distribution of volatile organic compounds in surface-water samples collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, from November 1999 through September 2000. The report describes the differences between years with below normal and normal precipitation, the effects of seasons, tide stages, and location on volatile organic compound concentrations in surface water, and provides estimates of volatile organic concentration loads to the tidal Gunpowder River. Eighty-four environmental samples from 20 surface-water sites were analyzed. As many as 13 different volatile organic compounds were detected in the samples. Concentrations of volatile organic compounds in surface-water samples ranged from below the reporting limit of 0.5 micrograms per liter to a maximum of 50.2 micrograms per liter for chloroform. Chloroform was detected most frequently, and was found in 55 percent of the environmental samples that were analyzed for volatile organic compounds (46 of 84 samples). Carbon tetrachloride was detected in 56 percent of the surface-water samples in the tidal part of the creek (34 of 61 samples), but was only detected in 3 of 23 samples in the nontidal part of the creek. 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane was detected in 43 percent of the tidal samples (26 of 61 samples), but was detected at only two nontidal sites and only during November 1999. Three samples were collected from the tidal Gunpowder River about 300 feet from the mouth of Canal Creek in May 2000, and none of the samples contained volatile organic compound concentrations above detection levels. Volatile organic compound concentrations in surface water were highest in the reaches of the creek adjacent to the areas with the highest known levels of ground-water contamination. The load of total volatile organic compounds from Canal Creek to the Gunpowder River is approximately 1.85 pounds per day (0
Spencer, Tracey A.; Phelan, Daniel J.; Olsen, Lisa D.; Lorah, Michelle M.
2001-01-01
This report presents ground-water and surface-water quality data from samples collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from November 1999 through May 2001 at West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The report also provides a description of the sampling and analytical methods that were used to collect and analyze the samples, and includes an evaluation of the quality-assurance data. The ground-water sampling network included two 4-inch wells, two 2-inch wells, sixteen 1-inch piezometers, one hundred thirteen 0.75-inch piezometers, two 0.25-inch flexible-tubing piezo-meters, twenty-seven 0.25-inch piezometers, and forty-two multi-level monitoring system depths at six sites. Ground-water profiler samples were collected from nine sites at 34 depths. In addition, passive-diffusion-bag samplers were deployed at four sites, and porous-membrane sampling devices were installed in the upper sediment at five sites. Surface-water samples were collected from 20 sites. Samples were collected from wells and 0.75-inch piezometers for measurement of field parameters and reduction-oxidation constituents, and analysis of inorganic and organic constituents, during three sampling events in March?April and June?August 2000, and May 2001. Surface-water samples were collected from November 1999 through September 2000 during five sampling events for analysis of organic constituents. Ground-water profiler samples were collected in April?May 2000, and analyzed for field measure-ments, reduction-oxidation constituents, and inorganic constituents and organic constituents. Passive-diffusion-bag samplers were installed in September 2000, and samples were analyzed for organic constituents. Multi-level monitoring system samples were collected and analyzed for field measurements and reduction-oxidation con-stituents, inorganic constituents, and organic con-stituents in March?April and June?August 2000. Field measurements and organic constituents were collected from 0.25-inch
Tenbus, Frederick J.; Fleck, William B.
2001-01-01
Military activity at Graces Quarters, a former open-air chemical-agent facility at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, has resulted in ground-water contamination by chlorinated hydrocarbons. As part of a ground-water remediation feasibility study, a three-dimensional model was constructed to simulate transport of four chlorinated hydrocarbons (1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, trichloroethene, carbon tetrachloride, and chloroform) that are components of a contaminant plume in the surficial and middle aquifers underlying the east-central part of Graces Quarters. The model was calibrated to steady-state hydraulic head at 58 observation wells and to the concentration of 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane in 58 observation wells and 101direct-push probe samples from the mid-1990s. Simulations using the same basic model with minor adjustments were then run for each of the other plume constituents. The error statistics between the simulated and measured concentrations of each of the constituents compared favorably to the error statisticst,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane calibration. Model simulations were used in conjunction with contaminant concentration data to examine the sources and degradation of the plume constituents. It was determined from this that mixed contaminant sources with no ambient degradation was the best approach for simulating multi-species solute transport at the site. Forward simulations were run to show potential solute transport 30 years and 100 years into the future with and without source removal. Although forward simulations are subject to uncertainty, they can be useful for illustrating various aspects of the conceptual model and its implementation. The forward simulation with no source removal indicates that contaminants would spread throughout various parts of the surficial and middle aquifers, with the100-year simulation showing potential discharge areas in either the marshes at the end of the Graces Quarters peninsula or just offshore in the estuaries. The
Lorah, M.M.; Vroblesky, D.A.
1989-01-01
Groundwater chemical data were collected from November 1986 through April 1987 in the first phase of a 5-year study to assess the possibility of groundwater contamination in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Water samples were collected from 87 observation wells screened in Coastal Plain sediments; 59 samples were collected from the Canal Creek aquifer, 18 from the overlying surficial aquifer, and 10 from the lower confined aquifer. Dissolved solids, chloride, iron, manganese, fluoride, mercury, and chromium are present in concentrations that exceed the Federal maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Elevated chloride and dissolved-solids concentrations appear to be related from contaminant plumes but also could result from brackish-water intrusion. Excessive concentrations of iron and manganese were the most extensive water quality problems found among the inorganic constituents and are derived from natural dissolution of minerals and oxide coatings in the aquifer sediments. Volatile organic compounds are present in the Canal Creek and surficial aquifers, but samples from the lower confined aquifer do not show any evidence of contamination by inorganic or organic chemicals. The volatile organic contaminants detected in the groundwater and their maximum concentrations (in micrograms/L) include 1,1,2,2- tetrachloroethane (9,000); carbon tetrachloride (480); chloroform (460); 1,1,2-trichloroethane (80); 1,2-dichloroethane (990); 1,1-dichloroethane (3.1); tetrachloroethylene (100); trichloroethylene (1,800); 1,2-trans- dichloroethylene (1,200); 1,1-dichloroethylene (4.4); vinyl chloride (140); benzene (70); and chlorobenzene (39). On the basis of information on past activities in the study area, some sources of the volatile organic compounds include: (1) decontaminants and degreasers; (2) clothing-impregnating operations; (3) the manufacture of impregnite material; (4) the manufacture of tear gas; and (5) fuels used in garages and at
Majcher, Emily H.; Phelan, Daniel J.; Lorah, Michelle M.; McGinty, Angela L.
2007-01-01
Wetlands act as natural transition zones between ground water and surface water, characterized by the complex interdependency of hydrology, chemical and physical properties, and biotic effects. Although field and laboratory demonstrations have shown efficient natural attenuation processes in the non-seep wetland areas and stream bottom sediments of West Branch Canal Creek, chlorinated volatile organic compounds are present in a freshwater tidal creek at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Volatile organic compound concentrations in surface water indicate that in some areas of the wetland, preferential flow paths or seeps allow transport of organic compounds from the contaminated sand aquifer to the overlying surface water without undergoing natural attenuation. From 2002 through 2004, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Environmental Conservation and Restoration Division of the U.S. Army Garrison, Aberdeen Proving Ground, characterized preferential ground-water seepage as part of an ongoing investigation of contaminant distribution and natural attenuation processes in wetlands at this site. Seep areas were discrete and spatially consistent during thermal infrared surveys in 2002, 2003, and 2004 throughout West Branch Canal Creek wetlands. In these seep areas, temperature measurements in shallow pore water and sediment more closely resembled those in ground water than those in nearby surface water. Generally, pore water in seep areas contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds had lower methane and greater volatile organic compound concentrations than pore water in non-seep wetland sediments. The volatile organic compounds detected in shallow pore water in seeps were spatially similar to the dominant volatile organic compounds in the underlying Canal Creek aquifer, with both parent and anaerobic daughter compounds detected. Seep locations characterized as focused seeps contained the highest concentrations of chlorinated parent compounds
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Patton, T.; Benioff, P.; Biang, C.; Butler, J. [and others
1996-06-01
The Environmental Management Division of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation and feasibility study of the J-Field area at APG pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended (CERCLA). J-Field is located within the Edgewood Area of APG in Harford County, Maryland. Since World War II, activities in the Edgewood Area have included the development, manufacture, testing, and destruction of chemical agents and munitions. These materials were destroyed at J-Field by open burning/open detonation. Portions of J-Field continue to be used for the detonation and disposal of unexploded ordnance (UXO) by open burning/open detonation under authority of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.
Lorah, Michelle M.; Voytek, Mary A.; Spencer, Tracey A.
2003-01-01
A preliminary assessment of the microbial communities and biodegradation processes for chlorinated volatile organic compounds was con-ducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in wetlands at the Cluster 13, Lauderick Creek area at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The U.S. Geological Survey collected wetland sediment samples from 11 sites in the Lauderick Creek area for microbial analyses, and used existing data to evaluate biodegradation processes and rates. The bacterial and methanogen communities in the Lauderick Creek wetland sediments were similar to those observed in a previous U.S. Geological Survey study at the West Branch Canal Creek wet-land area, Aberdeen Proving Ground. Evaluation of the degradation rate of 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane and the daughter compounds produced also showed similar results for the two wetlands. How-ever, a vertical profile of contaminant concentra-tions in the wetlands was available at only one site in the Lauderick Creek area, and flow velocities in the wetland sediment are unknown. To better evaluate natural attenuation processes and rates in the wetland sediments at Lauderick Creek, chemi-cal and hydrologic measurements are needed along ground-water flowpaths in the wetland at additional sites and during different seasons. Nat-ural attenuation in the wetlands, enhanced biore-mediation, and constructed wetlands could be feasible remediation methods for the chlorinated volatile organic compounds discharging in the Lauderick Creek area. The similarities in the microbial communities and biodegradation pro-cesses at the Lauderick Creek and West Branch Canal Creek areas indicate that enhanced bioreme-diation techniques currently being developed for the West Branch Canal Creek wetland area would be transferable to this area.
Phelan, Daniel J.; Senus, Michael P.; Olsen, Lisa D.
2001-01-01
This report presents lithologic and groundwater- quality data collected during April and May 2000 in the remote areas of the tidal wetland of West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Contamination of the Canal Creek aquifer with volatile organic compounds has been documented in previous investigations of the area. This study was conducted to investigate areas that were previously inaccessible because of deep mud and shallow water, and to support ongoing investigations of the fate and transport of volatile organic compounds in the Canal Creek aquifer. A unique vibracore drill rig mounted on a hovercraft was used for drilling and groundwater sampling. Continuous cores of the wetland sediment and of the Canal Creek aquifer were collected at five sites. Attempts to sample ground water were made by use of a continuous profiler at 12 sites, without well installation, at a total of 81 depths within the aquifer. Of those 81 attempts, only 34 sampling depths produced enough water to collect samples. Ground-water samples from two sites had the highest concentrations of volatile organic compounds?with total volatile organic compound concentrations in the upper part of the aquifer ranging from about 15,000 to 50,000 micrograms per liter. Ground-water samples from five sites had much lower total volatile organic compound concentrations (95 to 2,100 micrograms per liter), whereas two sites were essentially not contaminated, with total volatile organic compound concentrations less than or equal to 5 micrograms per liter.
Lorah, Michelle M.; Clark, Jeffrey S.
1996-01-01
Chemical manufacturing, munitions filling, and other military-support activities have resulted in the contamination of ground water, surface water, and soil in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Chlorinated volatile organic compounds, including 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane and trichloroethylene, are widespread ground-water contaminants in two aquifers that are composed of unconsolidated sand and gravel. Distribution and fate of chlorinated organic compounds in the ground water has been affected by the movement and dissolution of solvents in their dense immiscible phase and by microbial degradation under anaerobic conditions. Detection of volatile organic contaminants in adjacent surface water indicates that shallow contaminated ground water discharges to surface water. Semivolatile organic compounds, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, are the most prevalent organic contaminants in soils. Various trace elements, such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, and zinc, were found in elevated concentrations in ground water, surface water, and soil. Simulations with a ground-water-flow model and particle tracker postprocessor show that, without remedial pumpage, the contaminants will eventually migrate to Canal Creek and Gunpowder River. Simulations indicate that remedial pumpage of 2.0 million gallons per day from existing wells is needed to capture all particles originating in the contaminant plumes. Simulated pumpage from offsite wells screened in a lower confined aquifer does not affect the flow of contaminated ground water in the Canal Creek area.
Spencer, Tracey A.; Olsen, Lisa D.; Lorah, Michelle M.; Mount, Mastin M.
2000-01-01
This report presents water-quality data for ground-water and surface-water samples and water-level data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from October 1998 through September 1999 at West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The report also provides a description of the sampling and analytical methods that were used to collect and analyze the samples, and includes an evaluation of the quality-assurance data. The ground-water sampling network includes 88 wells or piezometers, including four 2-inch wells, two 4-inch wells, thirty 0.75-inch piezo-meters, and fifty-two 0.25-inch piezometers. Water levels were measured in 105 wells or piezometers. Surface-water samples were collected at five sites. Samples were collected from wells and 0.75-inch piezometers for measurement of field parameters, and analysis of inorganic and organic constituents during three sampling rounds: March, May through June, and July through August of 1999. Inorganic constituents and organic constituents were analyzed in samples collected from 0.25-inch piezometers during three sampling rounds in February through March, May, and September of 1999. Water levels were measured in October and November of 1998, and in February and May of 1999. Surface-water samples were collected between February and August of 1999 for analysis of organic constituents.
Senus, Michael P.; Tenbus, Frederick J.
2000-01-01
This report presents lithologic and ground-water-quality data collected during April and May 2000 in the remote areas of the tidal wetland of West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Contamination of the Canal Creek aquifer with volatile organic compounds has been documented in previous investigations of the area. This study was conducted to investigate areas that were previously inaccessible because of deep mud and shallow water, and to support ongoing investigations of the fate and transport of volatile organic compounds in the Canal Creek aquifer. A unique vibracore drill rig mounted on a hovercraft was used for drilling and ground-water sampling. Continuous cores of the wetland sediment and of the Canal Creek aquifer were collected at five sites. Attempts to sample ground water were made by use of a continuous profiler at 12 sites, without well installation, at a total of 81 depths within the aquifer. Of those 81 attempts, only 34 sampling depths produced enough water to collect samples. Ground-water samples from two sites had the highest concentrations of volatile organic compounds?with total volatile organic compound concentrations in the upper part of the aquifer ranging from about 15,000 to 50,000 micrograms per liter. Ground-water samples from five sites had much lower total volatile organic compound concentrations (95 to 2,100 micrograms per liter), whereas two sites were essentially not contaminated, with total volatile organic compound concentrations less than or equal to 5 micrograms per liter.
Jones, E.J.P.; Voytek, M.A.; Lorah, M.M.
2004-01-01
1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane (TeCA) contaminated groundwater at the Aberdeen Proving Ground discharges through an anaerobic wetland in West Branch Canal Creek, MD, where dechlorination occurred. Two microbially mediated pathways, dichloroelimination and hydrogenolysis, account for most of the TeCA degradation at this site. The dichloroelimination pathways led to the formation of vinyl chloride (VC), a recalcitrant carcinogen of great concern. The effect of adding Fe(III) to TeCA-amended microcosms of wetland sediment was studied. Differences were identified in the TeCA degradation pathway between microcosms treated with amorphous ferric oxyhydroxide (AFO-treated) and untreated (no AFO) microcosms. TeCA degradation was accompanied by a lower accumulation of VC in AFO-treated microcosms than no AFO microcosms. The microcosm incubations and subsequent experiments with the microcosm materials showed that AFO treatment resulted in lower production of VC by shifting TeCA degradation from dichloroelimination pathways to production of a greater proportion of chlorinated ethane products, and decreasing the microbial capability to produce VC from 1,2-dichloroethylene. VC degradation was not stimulated in the presence of Fe(III). Rather, VC degradation occurred readily under methanogenic conditions and was inhibited under Fe(III)-reducing conditions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rosenblatt, D.H.; Brubaker, K.L.
1991-12-01
Aberdeen Proving Ground Building E5032 is scheduled for decommissioning, that is, for demolition. Because the building was formerly used for small-scale operations with incendiary and toxic chemical agents, it presents unusual concerns for occupational and public health safety during the demolition. For this reason, an anticipatory risk assessment was conducted, taking into consideration the building`s history, properties of potential residual contaminants (particularly chemical and incendiary agents), and assumptions relating to meteorological conditions and envisioned modes of demolition. Safe maximum levels in concrete floors for the worst case were estimated to be: white phosphorus, 3200 mg/kg; mustard, 94 mg/kg; nerve agent GA (tabun), 6 mg/kg; cyanide, 500 mg/kg; and sulfide, 1400 mg/kg. These values will serve as planning guidance for the activities to follow. It is emphasized that the estimates must be reviewed, and perhaps revised, after sampling and analysis are completed, the demolition methodology is chosen, and dust emissions are measured under operating conditions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rosenblatt, D.H.; Brubaker, K.L.
1991-12-01
Aberdeen Proving Ground Building E5032 is scheduled for decommissioning, that is, for demolition. Because the building was formerly used for small-scale operations with incendiary and toxic chemical agents, it presents unusual concerns for occupational and public health safety during the demolition. For this reason, an anticipatory risk assessment was conducted, taking into consideration the building's history, properties of potential residual contaminants (particularly chemical and incendiary agents), and assumptions relating to meteorological conditions and envisioned modes of demolition. Safe maximum levels in concrete floors for the worst case were estimated to be: white phosphorus, 3200 mg/kg; mustard, 94 mg/kg; nerve agent GA (tabun), 6 mg/kg; cyanide, 500 mg/kg; and sulfide, 1400 mg/kg. These values will serve as planning guidance for the activities to follow. It is emphasized that the estimates must be reviewed, and perhaps revised, after sampling and analysis are completed, the demolition methodology is chosen, and dust emissions are measured under operating conditions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bromenshenk, J.J.; Smith, G.C.
1998-03-01
Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) have been shown to be multi-media monitors of chemical exposures and resultant effects. This five-year project has developed an automated system to assess in real-time colony behavioral responses to stressors, both anthropogenic and natural, including inclement weather. Field trials at the Aberdeen Proving Ground-Edgewood included the Old O Field and J field landfills, the Canal Creek and Bush River areas, and a Churchville, MD reference site. Preliminary results show varying concentrations of bioavailable inorganic elements and chlorinated hydrocarbons in bee colonies from all Maryland sites. Industrial solvents in the air inside beehives exhibited the greatest between site differences, with the highest levels occurring in hives near landfills at Old O Field, J Field, and at some sites in the Bush River and Canal Creek areas. Compared to 1996, the 1997 levels of solvents in Old O Field hives decreased by an order of magnitude, and colony performance significantly improved, probably as a consequence of capping the landfill. Recent chemical monitoring accomplishments include development of a new apparatus to quantitatively calibrate TD/GC/MS analysis, a QA/QC assessment of factors that limit the precision of these analyses, and confirmation of transport of aqueous contaminants into the hive. Real-time effects monitoring advances include development of an extensive array of software tools for automated data display, inspection, and numerical analysis and the ability to deliver data from remote locations in real time through Internet or Intranet connections.
Olsen, Lisa D.; Tenbus, Frederick J.
2005-01-01
A natural-gradient ground-water tracer test was designed and conducted in a tidal freshwater wetland at West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The objectives of the test were to characterize solute transport at the site, obtain data to more accurately determine the ground-water velocity in the upper wetland sediments, and to compare a conservative, ionic tracer (bromide) to a volatile tracer (sulfur hexafluoride) to ascertain whether volatilization could be an important process in attenuating volatile organic compounds in the ground water. The tracer test was conducted within the upper peat unit of a layer of wetland sediments that also includes a lower clayey unit; the combined layer overlies an aquifer. The area selected for the test was thought to have an above-average rate of ground-water discharge based on ground-water head distributions and near-surface detections of volatile organic compounds measured in previous studies. Because ground-water velocities in the wetland sediments were expected to be slow compared to the underlying aquifer, the test was designed to be conducted on a small scale. Ninety-seven ?-inch-diameter inverted-screen stainless-steel piezometers were installed in a cylindrical array within approximately 25 cubic feet (2.3 cubic meters) of wetland sediments, in an area with a vertically upward hydraulic gradient. Fluorescein dye was used to qualitatively evaluate the hydrologic integrity of the tracer array before the start of the tracer test, including verifying the absence of hydraulic short-circuiting due to nonnatural vertical conduits potentially created during piezometer installation. Bromide and sulfur hexafluoride tracers (0.139 liter of solution containing 100,000 milligrams per liter of bromide ion and 23.3 milligrams per liter of sulfur hexafluoride) were co-injected and monitored to generate a dataset that could be used to evaluate solute transport in three dimensions. Piezometers were sampled 2 to 15 times
Majcher, Emily H.; Lorah, Michelle M.; Phelan, Daniel J.; McGinty, Angela L.
2009-01-01
Because of a lack of available in situ remediation methods for sensitive wetland environments where contaminated groundwater discharges, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Garrison, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, conceived, designed, and pilot tested a permeable reactive mat that can be placed horizontally at the groundwater/surface-water interface. Development of the reactive mat was part of an enhanced bioremediation study in a tidal wetland area along West Branch Canal Creek at Aberdeen Proving Ground, where localized areas of preferential discharge (seeps) transport groundwater contaminated with carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, tetrachloroethene, trichloroethene, and 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane from the Canal Creek aquifer to land surface. The reactive mat consisted of a mixture of commercially available organic- and nutrient-rich peat and compost that was bioaugmented with a dechlorinating microbial consortium, WBC-2, developed for this study. Due to elevated chlorinated methane concentrations in the pilot test site, a layer of zero-valent iron mixed with the peat and compost was added at the base of the reactive mat to promote simultaneous abiotic and biotic degradation. The reactive mat for the pilot test area was designed to optimize chlorinated volatile organic compound degradation efficiency without altering the geotechnical and hydraulic characteristics, or creating undesirable water quality in the surrounding wetland area, which is referred to in this report as achieving geotechnical, hydraulic, and water-quality compatibility. Optimization of degradation efficiency was achieved through the selection of a sustainable organic reactive matrix, electron donor, and bioaugmentation method. Consideration of geotechnical compatibility through design calculations of bearing capacity, settlement, and geotextile selection showed that a 2- to 3-feet tolerable thickness of the mat was possible, with 0.17 feet settlement predicted for
Lorah, Michelle M.; Majcher, Emily H.; Jones, Elizabeth J.; Voytek, Mary A.
2008-01-01
Chlorinated solvents, including 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, tetrachloroethene, trichloroethene, carbon tetrachloride, and chloroform, are reaching land surface in localized areas of focused ground-water discharge (seeps) in a wetland and tidal creek in the West Branch Canal Creek area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. In cooperation with the U.S. Army Garrison, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, the U.S. Geological Survey is developing enhanced bioremediation methods that simulate the natural anaerobic degradation that occurs without intervention in non-seep areas of the wetland. A combination of natural attenuation and enhanced bioremediation could provide a remedy for the discharging ground-water plumes that would minimize disturbance to the sensitive wetland ecosystem. Biostimulation (addition of organic substrate or nutrients) and bioaugmentation (addition of microbial consortium), applied either by direct injection at depth in the wetland sediments or by construction of a permeable reactive mat at the seep surface, were tested as possible methods to enhance anaerobic degradation in the seep areas. For the first phase of developing enhanced bioremediation methods for the contaminant mixtures in the seeps, laboratory studies were conducted to develop a microbial consortium to degrade 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane and its chlorinated daughter products under anaerobic conditions, and to test biostimulation and bioaugmentation of wetland sediment and reactive mat matrices in microcosms. The individual components required for the direct injection and reactive mat methods were then combined in column experiments to test them under groundwater- flow rates and contaminant concentrations observed in the field. Results showed that both direct injection and the reactive mat are promising remediation methods, although the success of direct injection likely would depend on adequately distributing and maintaining organic substrate throughout the wetland sediment in the seep
Phelan, Daniel J.; Fleck, William B.; Lorah, Michelle M.; Olsen, Lisa D.
2002-01-01
Since 1917, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland has been the primary chemical-warfare research and development center for the U.S. Army. Ground-water contamination has been documented in the Canal Creek aquifer because of past disposal of chemical and ordnance manufacturing waste. Comprehensive sampling for volatile organic compounds in ground water by the U.S. Geological Survey in the West Branch Canal Creek area was done in June?October 1995 and June?August 2000. The purpose of this report is (1) to compare volatile organic compound concentrations and determine changes in the ground-water contaminant plumes along two cross sections between 1995 and 2000, and (2) to incorporate data from new piezometers sampled in spring 2001 into the plume descriptions. Along the southern cross section, total concentrations of volatile organic compounds in 1995 were determined to be highest in the landfill area east of the wetland (5,200 micrograms per liter), and concentrations were next highest deep in the aquifer near the center of the wetland (3,300 micrograms per liter at 35 feet below land surface). When new piezometers were sampled in 2001, higher carbon tetrachloride and chloroform concentrations (2,000 and 2,900 micrograms per liter) were detected deep in the aquifer 38 feet below land surface, west of the 1995 sampling. A deep area in the aquifer close to the eastern edge of the wetland and a shallow area just east of the creek channel showed declines in total volatile organic compound concentrations of more than 25 percent, whereas between those two areas, con-centrations generally showed an increase of greater than 25 percent between 1995 and 2000. Along the northern cross section, total concentrations of volatile organic compounds in ground water in both 1995 and 2000 were determined to be highest (greater than 2,000 micrograms per liter) in piezometers located on the east side of the section, farthest from the creek channel, and concentrations were progressively lower
The Complexity of Proving the Discrete Jordan Curve Theorem
Nguyen, Phuong; Cook, Stephen
2010-01-01
The Jordan Curve Theorem (JCT) states that a simple closed curve divides the plane into exactly two connected regions. We formalize and prove the theorem in the context of grid graphs, under different input settings, in theories of bounded arithmetic that correspond to small complexity classes. The theory $V^0(2)$ (corresponding to $AC^0(2)$) proves that any set of edges that form disjoint cycles divides the grid into at least two regions. The theory $V^0$ (corresponding to $AC^0$) proves tha...
Vroblesky, Don A.; Lorah, Michelle M.; Oliveros, James P.
1995-01-01
Disposal of munitions and chemical-warfare substances has introduced inorganic and organic contaminants to the ground water, surface water, and bottom sediment at O-Field, in the Edgewood area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Contaminants include chloride, arsenic, transition metals, chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic compounds, and organosulfur and organophosphorus compounds. The hydrologic effects of several remedial actions were estimated by use of a ground-water-flow model. The remedial actions examined were an impermeable covering, encapsulation, subsurface barriers, a ground-water drain, pumping of wells to manage water levels or to remove contaminated ground water for treatment, and no action.
1990-06-01
at BRL, Aberdeen, Maryland 1988. 2 Lee P P Thermochimica &.a. i2Z, ppl-16, 1986. Back M H 3 Lee P P Thermochimica Acta 121, pp89-100, 1988. Back M H...4 Gray P Oxidation And Combustion Reviews Z, Lee P R ppl-183, 1967. 5 Townsend D I Thermochimica Acta 7, ppl-30, 1980. Tou J C 6 Townsend D I I. Chem...USA, 1987. 8 Bunyan P F RARDE Memorandum 9/89, 1989. 9 Bunyan P F Thermochimica Acta J3, pp335-344, 1988. 10 Bunyan P F RARDE Memorandum 4/88, 1988. 11
The Complexity of Proving the Discrete Jordan Curve Theorem
Nguyen, Phuong
2010-01-01
The Jordan Curve Theorem (JCT) states that a simple closed curve divides the plane into exactly two connected regions. We formalize and prove the theorem in the context of grid graphs, under different input settings, in theories of bounded arithmetic that correspond to small complexity classes. The theory $V^0(2)$ (corresponding to $AC^0(2)$) proves that any set of edges that form disjoint cycles divides the grid into at least two regions. The theory $V^0$ (corresponding to $AC^0$) proves that any sequence of edges that form a simple closed curve divides the grid into exactly two regions. As a consequence, the Hex tautologies and the st-connectivity tautologies have polynomial size $AC^0(2)$-Frege-proofs, which improves results of Buss which only apply to the stronger proof system $TC^0$-Frege.
1993-06-01
elements complete this 16-element binary map of L-Alanine. (One envisions a 16-node neural network with 6 firing neurons and 10 dormnant neurons .) An...on the multipolar expansion of the electromag- netie field, our formalism proved effective not only to study single aggregates, even with rather...if L?, is the highest value of I retained in the multipolar expansions of the fields, eq. (2)-(4), and its inversion is thus responsible for the main
Lorah, Michelle M.; Voytek, Mary A.; Kirshtein, Julie D.; Jones, Elizabeth J.
2003-01-01
Defining biodegradation rates and processes is a critical part of assessing the feasibility of monitored natural attenuation as a remediation method for ground water containing organic contaminants. During 1998?2001, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a microbial study at a freshwater tidal wetland along the West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, as part of an investigation of natural attenuation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the wetland sediments. Geochemical analyses and molecular biology techniques were used to investigate factors controlling anaerobic degradation of 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane (TeCA), and to characterize the microbial communities that potentially are important in its degradation. Rapid TeCA and daughter product degradation observed in laboratory experiments and estimated with field data confirm that natural attenuation is a feasible remediation method at this site. The diverse microbial community that seems to be involved in TeCA degradation in the wetland sediments varies with changing spatial and seasonal conditions, allowing continued effective natural attenuation throughout the year. Rates of TeCA degradation in anaerobic microcosm experiments conducted with wetland sediment collected from two different sites (WB23 and WB30) and during three different seasons (March?April 1999, July?August 1999, and October?November 2000) showed little spatial variability but high seasonal variability. Initial first-order degradation rate constants for TeCA ranged from 0.10?0.01 to 0.16?0.05 per day (half-lives of 4.3 to 6.9 days) for March?April 1999 and October?November 2000 microcosms incubated at 19 degrees Celsius, whereas lower rate constants of 0 ? 0.03 and 0.06 ? 0.03 per day were obtained in July?August 1999 microcosms incubated at 19 degrees Celsius. Microbial community profiles showed that low microbial biomass and microbial diversity in the summer, possibly due to competition for nutrients by the
The complexity of proving chaoticity and the Church-Turing thesis
Calude, Cristian S.; Calude, Elena; Svozil, Karl
2010-09-01
Proving the chaoticity of some dynamical systems is equivalent to solving the hardest problems in mathematics. Conversely, classical physical systems may "compute the hard or even the incomputable" by measuring observables which correspond to computationally hard or even incomputable problems.
Hydrogeology of the Canal Creek area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland
Oliveros, J.P.; Vroblesky, D.A.
1989-01-01
Geologic and borehole geophysical logs made at 77 sites show that the hydrogeologic framework of the study area consists of a sequence of unconsolidated sediments typical of the Coastal Plain of Maryland. Three aquifers and two confining units were delineated within the study area. From the surface down, they are: (1) the surficial aquifer; (2) the upper confining unit; (3) the Canal Creek aquifer; (4) the lower confining unit; and (5) the lower confined aquifer. The aquifer materials range from fine sand to coarse sand and gravel. Clay lenses were commonly found interfingered with the sand, isolating parts of the aquifers. All the units are continuous throughout the study area except for the upper confining unit, which crops out within the study area but is absent in updip outcrops. The unit also is absent within a Pleistocene paleochannel, where it has been eroded. The surficial and Canal Creek aquifers are hydraulically connected where the upper confining unit is absent, and a substantial amount of groundwater may flow between the two aquifers. Currently, no pumping stresses are known to affect the aquifers within the study area. Under current conditions, downward vertical hydraulic gradients prevail at topographic highs, and upward gradients typically prevail near surface-water bodies. Regionally, the direction of groundwater flow in the confined aquifers is to the east and southeast. Significant water level fluctuations correspond with seasonal variations in rainfall, and minor daily fluctuations reflect tidal cycles. (USGS)
ASTAMIDS minefield detection performance at Aberdeen Proving Ground test site
Maksymonko, George B.; Breiter, Karin
1997-07-01
The airborne standoff minefield detection systems (ASTAMIDS) is an airborne imaging system designed for deployment as a modular mission payload on an unmanned aerial vehicle and capable of detecting surface and buried anti-tank mines under all-weather, day/night conditions. Its primary mission is to support a forward maneuver unit with real time intelligence regarding the existence and extent of minefields in their operational area. The ASTAMIDS development effort currently consists of two parallel technical approaches, passive thermal IR sensor technology in one case and an active multi-channel sensor utilizing passive thermal IR coregistered with a near IR laser polarization data for the other case. The minefield detection capability of this system is a result of signal processing of image data. Due to the large quantities of data generated by an imaging sensor even at modest speeds of an unmanned aerial vehicle, manual exploitation of this data is not feasible in a real time tactical environment and therefore computer aided target feature extraction is a necessity to provide detection cues. Our development efforts over the past several years have concentrated on mine and minefield detection algorithms, the hardware necessary to execute these algorithms in real time, and the tools with which to measure detection performance.
Edgewood Area - Aberdeen Proving Ground Five-Year Review
2008-10-01
The COCs in sediment (arsenic, copper, mercury, silver, zinc, and 4,4-DDE) do not pose risk to benthic organisms. ¾ The concentrations of COCs in...Contaminants in the groundwater included aluminum; antimony; arsenic; barium; beryllium; cadmium; calcium; chromium; cobalt ; copper; iron; lead; magnesium
Prove-Out RAM Assessment Report for the 155 mm M483 LAP Line at Lone Star Army Ammunition Plant
1978-11-01
C o O- -— -. ^ — M -« U. 3 II O u. _ c c ca I (\\.irifcr-ecac — ( vnar ^ecac — fv.-3’tff"-(Vi-3-irerc-"t\\.-Jccc: — ir...70 Defense Documentation Center Cameron Station Alexandria, VA 22314 71-82 Weapon System Concept Team/CSL ATTN: DRDAR-ACW Aberdeen ...Proving Cround, MD 21010 83 Technical Library ATTN: DRDAR-CLJ-L Aberdeen Proving Cround, MD 21010 84 Technical Library ATTN: DRDAR
Aberdeen City Garden: Beyond Landscape or Architecture
Jauslin, D.
2012-01-01
A team around the New York based Architects Diller, Scofidio & Renfro DS+R won a competition for the Aberdeen City Garden in January 2012 together with OLIN and Keppie Design. The proposal supported by a private deed to the city passed a public referendum in the Scottish costal town in March 2012 af
Civilian Talent Management: A Proposed Approach for the Aberdeen Proving Ground Workforce
2010-04-01
policy so that older workers will not feel compelled to retire as soon as they are eligible. Concepts such as flextime, part-time, telecommuting , and...economic environment, what role does talent management play in updating the skills of the older workers so that they can continue to be productive in a...and the changing nature of the fundamental role of the military is evidence that long-term succession planning is not likely to be productive
Tenbus, F.J.; Phillips, S.W.
1996-01-01
Carroll Island was used for open-air testing of chemical warfare agents from the late 1940's until 1971. Testing and disposal activities weresuspected of causing environmental contamination at 16 sites on the island. The hydrogeology and chemical quality of ground water, surface water, and soil at these sites were investigated with borehole logs, environmental samples, water-level measurements, and hydrologic tests. A surficial aquifer, upper confining unit, and upper confined aquifer were defined. Ground water in the surficial aquifer generally flows from the east-central part of the island toward the surface-water bodies, butgradient reversals caused by evapotranspiration can occur during dry seasons. In the confined aquifer, hydraulic gradients are low, and hydraulic head is affected by tidal loading and by seasonal pumpage from the west. Inorganic chemistry in the aquifers is affected by brackish-water intrusion from gradient reversals and by dissolution ofcarboniferous shell material in the confining unit.The concentrations of most inorganic constituents probably resulted from natural processes, but some concentrations exceeded Federal water-quality regulations and criteria. Organic compounds were detected in water and soil samples at maximum concentrations of 138 micrograms per liter (thiodiglycol in surface water) and 12 micrograms per gram (octadecanoic acid in soil).Concentrations of organic compounds in ground water exceeded Federal drinking-water regulations at two sites. The organic compounds that weredetected in environmental samples were variously attributed to natural processes, laboratory or field- sampling contamination, fallout from industrial air pollution, and historical military activities.
Remedial Investigation Work Plan for J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Benioff, P.; Biang, R.; Dolak, D.; Dunn, C.; Haffenden, R.; Martino, L.; Patton, T.; Wang, Y.; Yuen, C.
1995-03-01
The purpose of an RI/FS is to characterize the nature and extent of the risks posed by contaminants present at a site and to develop and evaluate options for remedial actions. The overall objective of the RI is to provide a comprehensive evaluation of site conditions, types and quantities of contaminants present, release mechanisms and migration pathways, target populations, and risks to human health and the environment. The information developed during the RI provides the basis for the design and implementation of remedial actions during the FS. The purpose of this RI Work Plan is to define the tasks that will direct the remedial investigation of the J-Field site at APG.
1987-04-01
will have a non-isotropic angular dependance . Thus, for free-field dosimetry, while the bubble detector results could be directly transformed * into...these experiments was the bubble dosimeter temperature dependance . In all experiments, the phantom was surrounded by a tent arrangement (see figs) in
2015-10-01
walker’s zig zag pattern...............................................................6 Fig. 7 Day 3 walker’s line horizontal pattern...m apart. Fig. 4 Day 3 walker’s heavy right wedge pattern 6 Fig. 5 Day 3 walker’s diamond pattern Fig. 6 Day 3 walker’s zig zag pattern...ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) US Army Research Laboratory ATTN: RDRL-SES-A 2800 Powder Mill Road Adelphi, MD 20783-1138 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kuperman, R.G.
1995-12-31
Despite the expansion of environmental toxicology studies over the past decade, soil ecosystems have largely been ignored in ecotoxicological studies in the United States. The objective of this project was to develop and test the efficacy of a comprehensive methodology for assessing ecological impacts of soil contamination. A hierarchical approach that integrates biotic parameters and ecosystem processes was used to give insight into the mechanisms that lead to alterations in the structure and function of soil ecosystems in contaminated areas. This approach involved (1) a thorough survey of the soil biota to determine community structure, (2) laboratory and field tests on critical ecosystem processes, (3) toxicity trials, and (4) the use of spatial analyses to provide input to the decision-making, process. This methodology appears to, offer an efficient and potentially cost-saving tool for remedial investigations of contaminated sites.
1986-01-01
is more inwardly focused on ideas, concepts, and relationship of ideas. The inventory uses the two terms as Carl Jung intended. EXTROVERT INTROVERT...preferences include extroversion and introversion . The Extrovert is primarily focused on the external world of people and activi- ties; whereas, the Introvert...edition. C. G. Jung . PSYCHOLOGICAL REFLECTIONS, Bollingen Series XXXI, Princeton University Press, 1974 edition. David Keirsey and Marilyn Bates
1988-07-01
teolmological and soimatifio issues which you will be discusing are not trivial. In foot, they define the very cutting edge of mrging biotachnologies . W...enviroument. We’ve had suocess using structures from such organism as the blue crab from the Chesapeake Bay. The crab wves its antennae about in the water...wide range of response. Data taken from the blue crab show approximately eight orders of magnitude of response to the stimulant. We have not
Assessment of Aberdeen Proving Ground - Army Contracting Command, Contract Management Processes
2015-04-11
Cavanagh, J. J., Lloyd, R., Logan, S., Schoenberg, A., Sochon, G., & Wheeler, E. (1999). The balanced scorecard for managing procurement performance...systems (2008). The Balance Scorecard approach is presented by Niven as “a carefully selected set of quantifiable measures derived from the...contract score card developed by Cullen looks further past the balance scorecard approach by assessing an organization’s contracted functions (2009
Information Management for Installation Restoration with Focus on Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland
1993-08-01
l in wflOW (C.Lp la) VMMTlme #IPfl orIR 7"N& .,nA FELLI OWIdbh.A T1st Mn.-.. p0.’ LAKE 14, TWMt mum POND P..d WIAG m-u pb u~p.RNIN WELD 0.a b a - td ...42i4St o 4601 A&.e143m. 4IMW 44J66~i 4600M 2 Md.)4kd4.4*. td / U4AVN4ini owI.0" 413664 .4.74b.*4Nmý 49T46?vd 3466 4Nm 41UW 44* 0- ftŚ 16 3=i. S~~4d34...55130 nADIo PVM... 030 SIGM~A sopmemol PVRM vmH STI Sweqim / TemomUw.. QA 2’ ~ 0iq.pm .~~mik .PM i ~m go 2.Daepmepploinbl i~ll m14, 115AM siffha alm
Stefaneas, Petros; Vandoulakis, Ioannis M.
2015-12-01
This paper outlines a logical representation of certain aspects of the process of mathematical proving that are important from the point of view of Artificial Intelligence. Our starting-point is the concept of proof-event or proving, introduced by Goguen, instead of the traditional concept of mathematical proof. The reason behind this choice is that in contrast to the traditional static concept of mathematical proof, proof-events are understood as processes, which enables their use in Artificial Intelligence in such contexts, in which problem-solving procedures and strategies are studied. We represent proof-events as problem-centered spatio-temporal processes by means of the language of the calculus of events, which captures adequately certain temporal aspects of proof-events (i.e. that they have history and form sequences of proof-events evolving in time). Further, we suggest a "loose" semantics for the proof-events, by means of Kolmogorov's calculus of problems. Finally, we expose the intented interpretations for our logical model from the fields of automated theorem-proving and Web-based collective proving.
Autonomy-Enabled Fuel Savings for Military Vehicles: Report on 2016 Aberdeen Test Center Testing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ragatz, Adam [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Prohaska, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gonder, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
2017-05-26
Fuel savings have never been the primary focus for autonomy-enabled military vehicles. However, studies have estimated that autonomy in passenger and commercial vehicles could improve fuel economy by as much as 22%-33% over various drive cycles. If even a fraction of this saving could be realized in military vehicles, significant cost savings could be realized each year through reduced fuel transport missions, reduced fuel purchases, less maintenance, fewer required personnel, and increased vehicle range. Researchers from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory installed advanced data logging equipment and instrumentation on two autonomy-enabled convoy vehicles configured with Lockheed Martin's Autonomous Mobility Applique System to determine system performance and improve on the overall vehicle control strategies of the vehicles. Initial test results from testing conducted at the U.S. Army Aberdeen Test Center at the Aberdeen Proving Grounds are included in this report. Lessons learned from in-use testing and performance results have been provided to the project partners for continued system refinement.
Combining norms to prove termination
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Genaim, S.; Codish, M.; Gallagher, John Patrick;
2002-01-01
of deriving automatically a candidate norm with which to prove termination. Instead of deriving a single, complex norm function, it is sufficient to determine a collection of simpler norms, some combination of which, leads to a proof of termination. We propose that a collection of simple norms, one for each...... of the recursive data-types in the program, is often a suitable choice. We first demonstrate the power of combining norm functions and then the adequacy of combining norms based on regular types....
Genetic characterization of Aberdeen Angus cattle using molecular markers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vasconcellos Luciana Pimentel de Mello Klocker
2003-01-01
Full Text Available Aberdeen Angus beef cattle from the Brazilian herd were studied genetically using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP of the kappa-casein - HinfI (CSN3 - HinfI, beta-lactoglobulin - HaeIII (LGB - HaeIII and growth hormone AluI (GH- AluI genes, as well as four microsatellites (TEXAN15, CSFM50, BM1224 and BM7160. The RFLP genotypes were determined using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR followed by digestion with restriction endonucleases and electrophoresis in agarose gels. With the exception of the microsatellite BM7160, which was analyzed in an automatic sequencer, the PCR products were genotyped by silver staining. The allele and genotype frequencies, heterozygosities and gene diversity were estimated. The values for these parameters of variability were comparable to other cattle breeds. The genetic relationship of the Aberdeen Angus to other breeds (Caracu, Canchim, Charolais, Guzerath, Gyr, Nelore, Santa Gertrudis and Simmental was investigated using Nei's genetic distance. Cluster analysis placed the Aberdeen Angus in an isolated group in the Bos taurus breeds branch. This fact is in agreement with the geographic origin of this breed.
Grzegorczyk, Dawid; Mulawka, Jan J.; Nieznański, Edward
In this article there are presented a few methods of proving that can be adopted for epistemic logic. Those methods are used for proving sample thesis in a certain considered epistemic logic also described briefly in this work.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Prasad, S.; Martino, L.; Patton, T.
1995-03-01
J-Field encompasses about 460 acres at the southern end of the Gunpowder Neck Peninsula in the Edgewood Area of APG (Figure 2.1). Since World War II, the Edgewood Area of APG has been used to develop, manufacture, test, and destroy chemical agents and munitions. These materials were destroyed at J-Field by open burning and open detonation (OB/OD). For the purposes of this project, J-Field has been divided into eight geographic areas or facilities that are designated as areas of concern (AOCs): the Toxic Burning Pits (TBP), the White Phosphorus Burning Pits (WPP), the Riot Control Burning Pit (RCP), the Robins Point Demolition Ground (RPDG), the Robins Point Tower Site (RPTS), the South Beach Demolition Ground (SBDG), the South Beach Trench (SBT), and the Prototype Building (PB). The scope of this project is to conduct a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) and ecological risk assessment to evaluate the impacts of past disposal activities at the J-Field site. Sampling for the RI will be carried out in three stages (I, II, and III) as detailed in the FSP. A phased approach will be used for the J-Field ecological risk assessment (ERA).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Benioff, P.; Biang, C.; Haffenden, R.; Goyette, M.; Martino, L.; Patton, T.; Yuen, C.
1995-05-01
The purpose of the feasibility study is to gather sufficient information to develop and evaluate alternative remedial actions to address contamination at J-Field in compliance with the NCP, CERCLA, and SARA. This FS Work Plan summarizes existing environmental data for each AOC and outlines the tasks to be performed to evaluate and select remedial technologies. The tasks to be performed will include (1) developing remedial action objectives and identifying response actions to meet these objectives; (2) identifying and screening remedial action technologies on the basis of effectiveness, implementability, and cost; (3) assembling technologies into comprehensive alternatives for J-Field; (4) evaluating, in detail, each alternative against the nine EPA evaluation criteria and comparing the alternatives to identify their respective strengths and weaknesses; and (5) selecting the preferred alternative for each operable unit.
1993-10-01
Paleozoic in age and consist chiefly of schist, gneiss, gabbro , 0 This information has been derived from the RFA, 1996. Jacobs Enn wtn Wo .• FINAL PROJECT...system which has supplied potable water to the area is the Van Bibber system. During World War II (WW II) a system was also used which supplied water...Imregriating plants were operated at Beach Point during and alteir World War I!; these plants were used to treat clothing with a waxy material that provides
2014-04-14
contracting rail officials lacked documentation to trace in SharePoint the work that was performed on each individual WAO to the 73 contract modifications...files shall be sufficient to constitute a complete history of the transaction.” Contracting officials stored the WAOs in a SharePoint web-based...from the SharePoint application to the contract modifications. According to Fort Huachuca contracting officials, the contract was incrementally
2012-10-19
officer , the J&A should have been documented in the Army Paperless Contract File system; however, we did not find evidence of a completed J&A in the Army... Paperless Contract File system. The contracting officer also stated that a contract specialist uploaded the electronic contract documentation to...reports or contact the Secondary Reports Distribution Unit auditnet@dodig.mil. Suggestions for Audits To suggest or request audits, contact the Office
1995-05-01
Health 7:668-67-* Baxley, M.N; Hood, R.^.; Vedel, G.C.; Harrison , W.P.; Szczech, G.M. 1981. Prenatal toxicity of orally administered sodium...1972. Teratogenic effects of sodium arsenate in mice. Arch. Er.»iron. Health 24:62-65. 18 Hood, RJX; Harrison , WJP. 1982. Effects of...Revista de la Facultad de Medicina de Torreon 12:16. (Cited in ATSDR, 1989). Schaumourg, HA. 1980. Failure to produce arsenic neurotoxicity in
2011-05-01
Chairman and CEO, an Indian mother of two daughters, as an example of a best-practice company in succession planning. Like the Army, PepsiCo recognized...senior level position, including the top position. That eventually led to PepsiCo selecting the best qualified person within the organization for the
Meeting on Solute/Solvent Interactions Held in Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland on May 29-30, 1991
1992-01-01
L.Y., Famini, G.R. J. Med. Chem. 1991, 34, 1668. 7. Kdrtum, G., Vogel, W., Andrewsson, K. Pure and Appl . Chem. 1960, 1, 190. 8. Serient, E., Dempsey, B...various types of commorA names which have been used to characterize system (eg. cat, E. coli, urease, red cell, protoplast , worm, etc.). One uses the
1993-10-01
Group, Inc., 600 Seventeenth Street, Suite 11 OON, Denver, Colorado 80202. Date: Employee’s Name: SSN: Sex : M[] F[] Age: Region: Location: Project... PREcNANc )’ INu E o P A,’, , TS , r’R-7 4D ITI- UNLTR v E T~gT E~ý ,Cav *P 4 ’MEN’ E’ u ; g Tc LAVERS’E EFNLL S OCCUR, REMTS, PM t ’jr t ’ :A’’ AND :LERUR
Software Reliability through Theorem Proving
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S.G.K. Murthy
2009-05-01
Full Text Available Improving software reliability of mission-critical systems is widely recognised as one of the major challenges. Early detection of errors in software requirements, designs and implementation, need rigorous verification and validation techniques. Several techniques comprising static and dynamic testing approaches are used to improve reliability of mission critical software; however it is hard to balance development time and budget with software reliability. Particularly using dynamic testing techniques, it is hard to ensure software reliability, as exhaustive testing is not possible. On the other hand, formal verification techniques utilise mathematical logic to prove correctness of the software based on given specifications, which in turn improves the reliability of the software. Theorem proving is a powerful formal verification technique that enhances the software reliability for missioncritical aerospace applications. This paper discusses the issues related to software reliability and theorem proving used to enhance software reliability through formal verification technique, based on the experiences with STeP tool, using the conventional and internationally accepted methodologies, models, theorem proving techniques available in the tool without proposing a new model.Defence Science Journal, 2009, 59(3, pp.314-317, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.59.1527
Geometric inequalities methods of proving
Sedrakyan, Hayk
2017-01-01
This unique collection of new and classical problems provides full coverage of geometric inequalities. Many of the 1,000 exercises are presented with detailed author-prepared-solutions, developing creativity and an arsenal of new approaches for solving mathematical problems. This book can serve teachers, high-school students, and mathematical competitors. It may also be used as supplemental reading, providing readers with new and classical methods for proving geometric inequalities. .
Proving Program Correctness. Volume V.
1981-11-01
Task 2. Proving Program Correctness (P.I.: J.C. Reynolds). This group is working towards programming languaje designs which increase the probability...certain syntactic difficulties: the natural abstract syntax is ambiguous, and syntactic correctness is violated by certain beta reductions. 3 - These...concept of a functor to express a-sp- priat : restrictions on implicit conversion functions. In a similar v-’.1n, we can use the concept of a natural
Proving the power of postselection
Yakaryilmaz, Abuzer
2011-01-01
It is a widely believed, though unproven, conjecture that the capability of postselection increases the language recognition power of both probabilistic and quantum polynomial-time computers. It is also unknown whether polynomial-time quantum machines with postselection are more powerful than their probabilistic counterparts with the same resource restrictions. We approach these problems by imposing additional constraints on the resources to be used by the computer, and are able to prove for the first time that postselection does augment the computational power of both classical and quantum computers, and that quantum does outperform probabilistic in this context, under simultaneous time and space bounds in a certain range. We also look at postselected versions of space-bounded classes, as well as those corresponding to error-free and one-sided error recognition, and provide classical characterizations. It is shown that $\\mathsf{NL}$ would equal $\\mathsf{RL}$ if the randomized machines had the postselection c...
77 FR 73042 - Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless
2012-12-07
.... Maryland 4 Buildings Aberdeen Proving Ground Aberdeen MD 21005 Landholding Agency: Army Property Number...: Secured Area Maryland 2 Buildings Aberdeen Proving Ground Aberdeen MD 21005 Landholding Agency:...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fabbri, M.; Sacripanti, A. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dip. Innovazione
1996-11-01
Gross qualitative/quantitative analysis about thermodynamical properties and thermoelastic coupling (or elastocaloric effect) of complex macroscopic structure (running shoes) is performed by infrared camera. The experimental results showed the achievability of a n industrial research project.
Proving allelopathy in crop-weed interactions
Allelopathy (plant/plant chemical warfare) is difficult to prove, especially when competition for resources is the dominant component of plant/plant interference (interference = allelopathy +competition). This paper describes experimental approaches for proving allelopathy and points out common pit...
Symbolic logic and mechanical theorem proving
Chang, Chin-Liang
1969-01-01
This book contains an introduction to symbolic logic and a thorough discussion of mechanical theorem proving and its applications. The book consists of three major parts. Chapters 2 and 3 constitute an introduction to symbolic logic. Chapters 4-9 introduce several techniques in mechanical theorem proving, and Chapters 10 an 11 show how theorem proving can be applied to various areas such as question answering, problem solving, program analysis, and program synthesis.
Ordering in mechanical geometry theorem proving
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李洪波￥
1997-01-01
Ordering in mechanical geometry theorem proving is studied from geometric viewpoint and some new ideas are proposed. For Thebault’s theorem which is the most difficult theorem that has ever been proved by Wu’ s method, a very simple proof using Wu’s method under a linear order is discovered.
Lawlor,D.A.; Batty, G D; Morton, S M B; Deary, I.J.; Macintyre, S.; Ronalds, G.; Leon, D. A.
2005-01-01
Objective: To identify the early life predictors of childhood intelligence. \\ud \\ud Design: Cohort study of 10 424 children who were born in Aberdeen (Scotland) between 1950 and 1956. \\ud \\ud Results: Social class of father around the time of birth, gravidity, maternal age, maternal physical condition, whether the child was born outside of marriage, prematurity, intrauterine growth, and childhood height were all independently associated with childhood intelligence at ages 7, 9, and 11. The ef...
2007-04-01
modified and, in 2001, was placed back in operation at barricade C to operate with an electromagnetic (EM) railgun load. On 9 February 2006, a capacitor ...MJ. 15. SUBJECT TERMS pulsed power, capacitor , railgun , armature, incident 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON...back in operation at barricade C to operate with an electromagnetic railgun load. The PPS consists of 18 250-kJ independently triggered modules
1990-10-04
with no immediate commercial market to inspire cost reduction. The Attn: SLCMArEMC, Mr. Philp -Wang Materials Technology Laboratory (MTL) has worked...fiber optic cable and imaging sensors, For additional information,- contact: Commander, U.S. Army Missile Command • Attn: AMSMI-RD.GC-T, Paul Jacobs...6 and 10 calibers. For additional information, contact: Director, U.S. Army Ballistic Research Laboratory Attn, SLCBR-LF, Charles J Nietubicz Paul
1984-06-01
Bacterlophage T7 by Mono- and Difunctional Sulphur Mustards in Relation to Cross-linking and Depurinat!on of Bacteriophage DNA. J. Mol. Biol. 39, 181-198 (1969...formulation containing 40% (w/w) NaCN and 60% (w/w) kaolin as an inert solid diluent, as contained in many fumigant formulations. (e) A comparison of...in water on intact and abraded skin. (iv) A powder formulation, containing 40% NaCN/60% kaolin (w/w), applied to dry intact skin, moist skin, and dry
Powars, D.S.
1997-01-01
A continuous core was recovered from a 961-foot- deep stratigraphic corehole at Robins Point, located at the southeastern tip of the Gunpowder Neck Peninsula, Harford County, Maryland. A 2-inch- diameter ground-water-quality observation well was installed with the screen set at a depth of 392 to 402 feet (ft). Geophysical logs obtained from thecorehole include: natural gamma, multipoint normal resistivity (16-inch and 64-inch), 4-ft-guard focused resistivity, acoustic (sonic) velocity, and caliper. Pollen analysis of 34 samples provided relativestratigraphic ages. Lithologies encountered in ascending order (surface elevation 4 ft above mean sea level), include: 72.4 ft of weatheredmetamorphic rock and saprolie, 711.4 ft of lower and upper Cretaceous fluvio-deltaic deposits, and 145.9 ft of Pleistocene and 31.3 ft of Holocene(?) fluvial and estuarine deposits. Aquifers and confining units identified include, in descending order: 41.8 ft of surficial aquifer, 90.9 ft of upper paleochannel confining unit, 28.8 ft of paleochannel confined aquifer, 15.7 ft of lower paleochannel confining unit, 123.7 ft of Upper Patapsco aquifer, 44.6 ft of Upper Patapsco confining unit, 92.8 ft of Middle Patapsco aquifer, 57.3 ft of Lower Patapsco confining unit, 151.7 ft of Lower Patapsco aquifer, 115.4 ft of Potomac confining unit, 126.4 ft of Patuxent aquifer, an aquifer of 23.4 ft of saprolite, and 48.7 ft of weathered-rock/saprolite confining unit.
1994-08-01
disks, or by homopolar motor technology. Sufficient space must be provided between layers to accommodate magnets, coils, cables, or other components...Phase Change Materials for Passive Thermal Energy Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Motor Signature Analysis Applied to Tank...adiabatic engine (5.2) or composite engine and transmission parts (3.3); the use of motor signature analysis (5.5) or chaotic time series analysis (5.8) to
1981-04-01
Kotin, "A Floquet theorem for real nonlinear systems," J. Math. Anal. Appl., 21 (1968), pp. 3&4-388. 2. P. Alexandroff and H. Hopf, " Topologie ...34 Springer. Berlin. 1935. 3. H. Hopf, "Die n-dimensionalen Sphlcen und projektiven Raume in der Topologie ," Proceedings of the International Congrezs of
1993-10-01
Powell, Robert M., Clark, Don A., and Paul , Cynthia J.; 1991, Facilitated Transport of Inorganic Contaminants in Ground Water: Part II Colloidal...Transport In "EPA Environmental Research Brief EPA/600/M-91/040", July 1991 Puls, Robert W., Powell, Robert M., Bledsoe, Bert, Clark, Don A., and Paul ...1 of 2 STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE 022 SEDIMENT AND BENTIIIC MACROINVERTEBRATESAMPLING WITH ECKMAN GRAB 1.0 Scope and Application This standard
1993-10-01
023", December 1990 Puls, Robert W., Powell, Robert M., Clark, Don A., and Paul , Cynthia J.; 1991, Facilitated Transport of Inorganic Contaminants in...Bledsoe, Bert, Clark, Don A., and Paul , Cynthia J.; 1992, Metals in Ground Water: Sampling Artifacts and Reproducibility In "Hazardous Waste & Hazardous...Revision: 3 Page: 1 of 2 STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE 022 SEDIMENT AND BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATESAMPLING WITH ECKMAN GRAB * 1.0 Scope and Application
2007-11-02
parasitic volume than polymer matrix composite shells; Gun barrels 50% lighter than steel FY01 FY02 FY03 FY04...component TRL=5 Prototype Demonstration METRIC: • Projectile shells 50% lighter than steel shells with 67% less parasitic volume than Polymer Matrix Composite technology
1988-03-01
469 o cz 700 SRS 1M KNO3 DROPLET No 3 H 0 1 VHO0 2 vH 0v w 2? z 1st 2nd 1000 1100 2100 3400 3500 4400 4500 4600 STOKES RAMAN SHIFT (cm-1) I (NO) I...Bracuti HQDA J. Lannon DAMA-ART-M SMCAR-CCH, R. Price Washington, DC 20310 SMCAR-FSS-A, L. Frauen SMCAR-FSA-S, Commander H. Liberman S US Army
1986-07-01
sickle cells due to the fact that they belong to clearly different symmetry classes in the sense discussed in this work, even at random orientations...belong to clearly distinguilshiable symmetry classes in the sense discussed here, such as to distinguish between sickle cells and normal blood cells ...IN A QUADRUPOLE TRAP Edward S. Fry, Pascal Herb and William E. White ..... ................ ... 529 MUELLER MATRIX CALCULATIONS FOR DIELECTRIC CUBES
1991-06-01
Lai, P.T Leung and K. Young, Phys.Rev.A 41, 5187(1990). 3. S. Arnold and L.M. Folan, Rev.Sci.lnst.57, 2250(1986). 4. S. Arnold and N. Hessel , Rev...LEVITATOR S. Arnold , D.E. Spock, and L.M. Folan . . . . ...... 115 MASS SPECTROMETRY OF SINGLE PARTICLES J.F. Wacker . . . . . . . . . .. .. .......... 125...DETECTION OF SINGLE MOLECULES IN LEVITATED DROPLETS W.B. Whitten, J.M. Ramsey, S. Arnold and 8.V.Bronk
1994-03-01
in Carbon Disulfide Microdroplets V 9:10 S. Arnold , N.B. Hessel (Polytechnic Univ.), Photoemission from Single Particles in an Electrodynamic...S. Arnold .................. 347 INCOHERENT SCATTERING OF SEMICLASSICAL. PARTICLES AND THE RELAXATION FUNCTION M .H. Lee...3) M. D. Barnes, W. B. Whitten, S. Arnold , and J. M. Ramsey, "Homogeneous Linewidths of Rhodamine 6G at Room Temperature from Cavity-Enhanced
Proving relations between modular graph functions
Basu, Anirban
2016-12-01
We consider modular graph functions that arise in the low energy expansion of the four graviton amplitude in type II string theory. The vertices of these graphs are the positions of insertions of vertex operators on the toroidal worldsheet, while the links are the scalar Green functions connecting the vertices. Graphs with four and five links satisfy several non-trivial relations, which have been proved recently. We prove these relations by using elementary properties of Green functions and the details of the graphs. We also prove a relation between modular graph functions with six links.
On proving syntactic properties of CPS programs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Danvy, Olivier; Dzafic, Belmina; Pfenning, Frank
1999-01-01
Higher-order program transformations raise new challenges for proving properties of their output, since they resist traditional, first-order proof techniques. In this work, we consider (1) the “one-pass” continuation-passing style (CPS) transformation, which is second-order, and (2) the occurrences...
Affect, Behavioural Schemas and the Proving Process
Selden, Annie; McKee, Kerry; Selden, John
2010-01-01
In this largely theoretical article, we discuss the relation between a kind of affect, behavioural schemas and aspects of the proving process. We begin with affect as described in the mathematics education literature, but soon narrow our focus to a particular kind of affect--nonemotional cognitive feelings. We then mention the position of feelings…
The Role of Abduction in Proving Processes
Pedemonte, Bettina; Reid, David
2011-01-01
This paper offers a typology of forms and uses of abduction that can be exploited to better analyze abduction in proving processes. Based on the work of Peirce and Eco, we describe different kinds of abductions that occur in students' mathematical activity and extend Toulmin's model of an argument as a methodological tool to describe students'…
Proving Noninterference and Functional Correctness Using Traces
1992-01-01
formulated as a trace specification,1 the traditional approach to proving a system noninterfering consists of constructing a finite state machine model of...our specification satisfies Noninterference would require developing a state machine model of the specification and unwinding conditions for the state
On proving syntactic properties of CPS programs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Danvy, Olivier; Dzafic, Belmina; Pfenning, Frank
1999-01-01
Higher-order program transformations raise new challenges for proving properties of their output, since they resist traditional, first-order proof techniques. In this work, we consider (1) the “one-pass” continuation-passing style (CPS) transformation, which is second-order, and (2) the occurrenc...... of parameters of continuations in its output. To this end, we specify the one-pass CPS transformation relationally and we use the proof technique of logical relations....
Parameterized Telescoping Proves Algebraic Independence of Sums
Schneider, Carsten
2008-01-01
Usually creative telescoping is used to derive recurrences for sums. In this article we show that the non-existence of a creative telescoping solution, and more generally, of a parameterized telescoping solution, proves algebraic independence of certain types of sums. Combining this fact with summation-theory shows transcendence of whole classes of sums. Moreover, this result throws new light on the question why, e.g., Zeilberger's algorithm fails to find a recurrence with minimal order.
On proving syntactic properties of CPS programs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Danvy, Olivier; Dzafic, Belmina; Pfenning, Frank
1999-01-01
Higher-order program transformations raise new challenges for proving properties of their output, since they resist traditional, first-order proof techniques. In this work, we consider (1) the “one-pass” continuation-passing style (CPS) transformation, which is second-order, and (2) the occurrences...... of parameters of continuations in its output. To this end, we specify the one-pass CPS transformation relationally and we use the proof technique of logical relations....
Resource Adaptive Agents in Interactive Theorem Proving
Benzmueller, Christoph
2009-01-01
We introduce a resource adaptive agent mechanism which supports the user in interactive theorem proving. The mechanism uses a two layered architecture of agent societies to suggest appropriate commands together with possible command argument instantiations. Experiments with this approach show that its effectiveness can be further improved by introducing a resource concept. In this paper we provide an abstract view on the overall mechanism, motivate the necessity of an appropriate resource concept and discuss its realization within the agent architecture.
Automated theorem proving theory and practice
Newborn, Monty
2001-01-01
As the 21st century begins, the power of our magical new tool and partner, the computer, is increasing at an astonishing rate. Computers that perform billions of operations per second are now commonplace. Multiprocessors with thousands of little computers - relatively little! -can now carry out parallel computations and solve problems in seconds that only a few years ago took days or months. Chess-playing programs are on an even footing with the world's best players. IBM's Deep Blue defeated world champion Garry Kasparov in a match several years ago. Increasingly computers are expected to be more intelligent, to reason, to be able to draw conclusions from given facts, or abstractly, to prove theorems-the subject of this book. Specifically, this book is about two theorem-proving programs, THEO and HERBY. The first four chapters contain introductory material about automated theorem proving and the two programs. This includes material on the language used to express theorems, predicate calculus, and the rules of...
Olszewski, Margaret Maria
2011-09-01
In the 1860s, Dr. Louis Thomas Jérôme Auzoux introduced a set of papier-mâché teaching models intended for use in the botanical classroom. These botanical models quickly made their way into the educational curricula of institutions around the world. Within these institutions, Auzoux's models were principally used to fulfil educational goals, but their incorporation into diverse curricula also suggests they were used to implement agendas beyond botanical instruction. This essay examines the various uses and meanings of Dr. Auzoux's botanical teaching models at the universities of Glasgow and Aberdeen in the nineteenth century. The two main conclusions of this analysis are: (1) investing in prestigious scientific collections was a way for these universities to attract fee-paying students so that better medical accommodation could be provided and (2) models were used to transmit different kinds of botanical knowledge at both universities. The style of botany at the University of Glasgow was offensive and the department there actively embraced and incorporated ideas of the emerging new botany. At Aberdeen, the style of botany was defensive and there was some hesitancy when confronting new botanical ideas.
Theorem proving support in programming language semantics
Bertot, Yves
2007-01-01
We describe several views of the semantics of a simple programming language as formal documents in the calculus of inductive constructions that can be verified by the Coq proof system. Covered aspects are natural semantics, denotational semantics, axiomatic semantics, and abstract interpretation. Descriptions as recursive functions are also provided whenever suitable, thus yielding a a verification condition generator and a static analyser that can be run inside the theorem prover for use in reflective proofs. Extraction of an interpreter from the denotational semantics is also described. All different aspects are formally proved sound with respect to the natural semantics specification.
Resolution methods in proving the program correctness
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Markoski Branko
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Program testing determines whether its behavior matches the specification, and also how it behaves in different exploitation conditions. Proving of program correctness is reduced to finding a proof for assertion that given sequence of formulas represents derivation within a formal theory of special predicted calculus. A well-known variant of this conception is described: correctness based on programming logic rules. It is shown that programming logic rules may be used in automatic resolution procedure. Illustrative examples are given, realized in prolog-like LP-language (with no restrictions to Horn's clauses and without the final failure. Basic information on LP-language are also given. It has been shown how a Pascal-program is being executed in LP-system proffer.
Theorem Proving in Intel Hardware Design
O'Leary, John
2009-01-01
For the past decade, a framework combining model checking (symbolic trajectory evaluation) and higher-order logic theorem proving has been in production use at Intel. Our tools and methodology have been used to formally verify execution cluster functionality (including floating-point operations) for a number of Intel products, including the Pentium(Registered TradeMark)4 and Core(TradeMark)i7 processors. Hardware verification in 2009 is much more challenging than it was in 1999 - today s CPU chip designs contain many processor cores and significant firmware content. This talk will attempt to distill the lessons learned over the past ten years, discuss how they apply to today s problems, outline some future directions.
PROVE-IT trial: economic analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Simona de Portu
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Introduction: the PROVE-IT (“Intensive versus moderate lipid lowering with statins after acute coronary syndromes” was a comparison of pravastatin 40 mg/die versus atorvastatin 80 mg/die in patients with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS. Aim: our aim was to investigate the economic consequence of high dose of atorvastatin vs usual-dose of pravastatin in Italian patients with a history of acute coronary syndrome. Methods: the analysis is conducted on the basis of clinical outcomes of the PROVE-IT study. We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis, comparing high dose of atorvastatin (80 mg/die versus usual-dose of pravastatin (40 mg/die in the perspective of the Italian National Health Service. We identified and quantified medical costs: drug costs according to the Italian National Therapeutic Formulary and hospitalizations were quantified based on the Italian National Health Service tariffs (2008. Effects were measured in terms of morbidity reduction (number of deaths and frequency of hospitalizations. We considered an observation period of 24 months. The costs borne after the first 12 months were discounted using an annual rate of 3%. We conducted one and multi-way sensitivity analyses on unit cost and effectiveness. Results: the cost of pravastatin or atorvastatin therapy over the 2 years period amounted to approximately 664.684 millions euro and 909.006 euro per 1,000 patients respectively. Atorvastatin was more efficacious compared to pravastatin and the overall cost of care per 1,000 patients over 24 months of follow-up was estimated at 2.58 millions euro in the pravastatin and 2.57 millions euro in the atorvastatin group, resulting into a cost saving of about 11.000 euro. Discussion: this study demonstrates that high dose atorvastatin treatment leads to a reduction of direct costs for the National Health System. Atorvastatin therapy is dominant since it is both less costly and more effective than pravastatin. Results were sensitive to
Valutazione economica dello studio PROVE-IT
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lorenzo G. Mantovani
2007-10-01
Full Text Available Introduction: the PROVE-IT (“Intensive versus moderate lipid lowering with statins after acute coronary syndromes” was a comparison of pravastatin 40 mg/die versus atorvastatin 80 mg/die in patients with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS. Aim: our aim was to investigate the economic consequence of high dose of atorvastatin vs usual-dose of pravastatin in Italian patients with a history of acute coronary syndrome. Methods: the analysis is conducted on the basis of clinical outcomes of the PROVE-IT study. We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis, comparing high dose of atorvastatin (80 mg/die versus usual-dose of pravastatin (40 mg/die in the perspective of the Italian National Health Service. We identified and quantified medical costs: drug costs according to the Italian National Therapeutic Formulary and hospitalizations were quantified based on the Italian National Health Service tariffs (2006. Effects were measured in terms of mortality and morbidity reduction (number of deaths, life years gained and frequency of hospitalizations. We considered an observation period of 24 months. The costs borne after the first 12 months were discounted using an annual rate of 3%. We conducted one and multi-way sensitivity analyses on unit cost and effectiveness. We also conducted a threshold analysis. Results: the cost of pravastatin or atorvastatin therapy over the 2 years period amounted to approximately 1.3 millions euro and 870,000 euro per 1,000 patients respectively. Atorvastatin was more efficacious compared to pravastatin and the overall cost of care per 1,000 patients over 24 months of follow-up was estimated at 3.2 millions euro in the pravastatin and 2.5 millions euro in the atorvastatin group, resulting into a cost saving of about 700,000 euro that is 27% of total costs occurred in the pravastatin group. Discussion: this study demonstrates that high does atorvastatin treatment leads to a reduction of direct costs for the National Health System
In-die job automation for PROVE
Lesnick, Ronald J., Jr.; Kim, Stephen; Waechter, Matthias; Seidel, Dirk; Mueller, Andreas; Beyer, Dirk
2011-05-01
The increasing demands for registration metrology for repeatability, accuracy, and resolution in order to be able to perform measurements in the active area on production features have prompted the development of PROVETM, the nextgeneration registration metrology tool that utilizes 193nm illumination and a metrology stage that is actively controlled in all six degrees of freedom. PROVETM addresses full in-die capability for double patterning lithography and sophisticated inverse-lithography schemes. Innovative approaches for image analysis, such as 2D correlation, have been developed to achieve this demanding goal. In order to take full advantage of the PROVETM resolution and measurement capabilities, a direct link to the mask data preparation for job automation and marker identification is inevitable. This paper describes an integrated solution using Synopsys' CATSR for extracting and preparing tool-specific job input data for PROVE. In addition to the standard marking functionalities, CATSR supports the 2D correlation method by providing reference clips in OASIS.MASK format.
2015-09-01
The main portion of the body consists of an 83-mm-diameter cylinder, which is followed by a conical boattail section. Two configurations, one with...yaw resonance for yaw enhancement. Aberdeen Proving Ground (MD): Army Research Laboratory (US); 2015. Report No.: ARL-TR-7334. Also available at
An apparatus for studying spallation neutrons in the Aberdeen Tunnel laboratory
Blyth, S C; Chen, X C; Chu, M C; Hahn, R L; Ho, T H; Hsiung, Y B; Hu, B Z; Kwan, K K; Kwok, M W; Kwok, T; Lau, Y P; Lee, K P; Leung, J K C; Leung, K Y; Lin, G L; Lin, Y C; Luk, K B; Luk, W H; Ngai, H Y; Ngan, S Y; Pun, C S J; Shih, K; Tam, Y H; Tsang, R H M; Wang, C H; Wong, C M; Wong, H L; Wong, H H C; Wong, K K; Yeh, M
2013-01-01
In this paper, we describe the design, construction and performance of an apparatus installed in the Aberdeen Tunnel laboratory in Hong Kong for studying spallation neutrons induced by cosmic-ray muons under a vertical rock overburden of 611 meter water equivalent (m.w.e.). The apparatus comprises of six horizontal layers of plastic-scintillator hodoscopes for determining the direction and position of the incident cosmic-ray muons. Sandwiched between the hodoscope planes is a neutron detector filled with 650 kg of liquid scintillator doped with about 0.06% of Gadolinium by weight for improving the e?ciency of detecting the spallation neutrons. Performance of the apparatus is also presented.
Proving Correctness for Pointer Programs in a Verifying Compiler
Kulczycki, Gregory; Singh, Amrinder
2008-01-01
This research describes a component-based approach to proving the correctness of programs involving pointer behavior. The approach supports modular reasoning and is designed to be used within the larger context of a verifying compiler. The approach consists of two parts. When a system component requires the direct manipulation of pointer operations in its implementation, we implement it using a built-in component specifically designed to capture the functional and performance behavior of pointers. When a system component requires pointer behavior via a linked data structure, we ensure that the complexities of the pointer operations are encapsulated within the data structure and are hidden to the client component. In this way, programs that rely on pointers can be verified modularly, without requiring special rules for pointers. The ultimate objective of a verifying compiler is to prove-with as little human intervention as possible-that proposed program code is correct with respect to a full behavioral specification. Full verification for software is especially important for an agency like NASA that is routinely involved in the development of mission critical systems.
Proceedings International Workshop on Strategies in Rewriting, Proving, and Programming
Kirchner, Hélène; 10.4204/EPTCS.44
2010-01-01
This volume contains selected papers from the proceedings of the First International Workshop on Strategies in Rewriting, Proving, and Programming (IWS 2010), which was held on July 9, 2010, in Edinburgh, UK. Strategies are ubiquitous in programming languages, automated deduction and reasoning systems. In the two communities of Rewriting and Programming on one side, and of Deduction and Proof engines (Provers, Assistants, Solvers) on the other side, workshops have been launched to make progress towards a deeper understanding of the nature of strategies, their descriptions, their properties, and their usage, in all kinds of computing and reasoning systems. Since more recently, strategies are also playing an important role in rewrite-based programming languages, verification tools and techniques like SAT/SMT engines or termination provers. Moreover strategies have come to be viewed more generally as expressing complex designs for control in computing, modeling, proof search, program transformation, and access c...
Recent Advances in Automated Theorem Proving on Inequalities
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨路
1999-01-01
Automated theorem proving on inequalities is always considered as a difficult topic in the area of automated reasoning.The relevant algorithms depend fundamentally on real algebra and real geometry,and the computational complexity increases very quickly with the dimension,that is,the number of parameters.Some well-known algorithms are complete theoretically but inefficient in practice,which cannot verify non-trivial propositions in batches.A dimension-decreasing algorithm presented here can treat radicals efficiently and make the dimensions the lowest. Based upon this algorithm,a generic program called “BOTTEMA”was implemented on a personal computer.More than 1000 algebraic and geometric inequalities including hundreds of open problems have been verified in this way.This makes it possible to check a finite many inequalities instead of solving a global-optimization problem.
14 CFR 91.1041 - Aircraft proving and validation tests.
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft proving and validation tests. 91... Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1041 Aircraft proving and validation tests. (a) No program... tests. However, pilot flight training may be conducted during the proving tests. (d) Validation...
DANIEL PEROTTO; ANTONIO CARLOS CUBAS; JOSÉ LUIZ MOLETTA; CARLOS LESSKIU
2000-01-01
O trabalho foi conduzido para estimar a heterose sobre os pesos ao nascimento (PNT), à desmama (P210) e ao ano (P365) e sobre os ganhos de pesos médios diários do nascimento à desmama (G210) e da desmama ao ano (G365) nas quatro primeiras gerações do sistema de cruzamentos alternados entre as raças Canchim (C) e Aberdeen Angus (A). Os dados de 1.147 bezerros nascidos de 1981 a 1998 foram analisados pelo método dos mínimos quadrados, ajustando-se um modelo linear que incluiu os efeitos linear ...
Wu, Fuli; Xu, Xuebin; Xie, Jing; Yi, Shengjie; Wang, Jian; Yang, Xiaoxia; Yang, Chaojie; Liang, Beibei; Ma, Qiuxia; Li, Hao; Song, Hongbin; Qiu, Shaofu
2016-01-01
Salmonella enterica infections continue to be a significant burden on public health worldwide. The ability of S. enterica to produce hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an important phenotypic characteristic used to screen and identify Salmonella with selective medium; however, H2S-negative Salmonella have recently emerged. In this study, the H2S phenotype of Salmonella isolates was confirmed, and the selected isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing and molecular identification by multilocus sequence typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) analysis. The phs genetic operon was also analyzed. A total of 160 S. enterica serovar Aberdeen isolates were detected between 2005 and 2013 in China. Of them, seven non-H2S-producing isolates were detected. Notably, four samples yielded four pairs of isolates with different H2S phenotypes, simultaneously. The data demonstrated that H2S-negative isolates were genetically closely related to H2S-positive isolates. Three new spacers (Abe1, Abe2, and Abe3) were identified in CRISPR locus 1 in four pairs of isolates with different H2S phenotypes from the same samples. Sequence analysis revealed a new nonsense mutation at position 208 in the phsA gene of all non-H2S-producing isolates. Additionally, we describe a new screening procedure to avoid H2S-negative Salmonella, which would normally be overlooked during laboratory and hospital screening. The prevalence of this pathogen may be underestimated; therefore, it is important to focus on improving surveillance of this organism to control its spread.
Heterose sobre os pesos de bovinos Canchim e Aberdeen Angus e de seus cruzamentos recíprocos
PEROTTO DANIEL; CUBAS ANTONIO CARLOS; MOLETTA JOSÉ LUIZ; LESSKIU CARLOS
2000-01-01
O trabalho foi conduzido para estimar a heterose sobre os pesos ao nascimento (PNT), à desmama (P210) e ao ano (P365) e sobre os ganhos de pesos médios diários do nascimento à desmama (G210) e da desmama ao ano (G365) nas quatro primeiras gerações do sistema de cruzamentos alternados entre as raças Canchim (C) e Aberdeen Angus (A). Os dados de 1.147 bezerros nascidos de 1981 a 1998 foram analisados pelo método dos mínimos quadrados, ajustando-se um modelo linear que incluiu os efeitos linear ...
Automated Theorem Proving in High-Quality Software Design
Schumann, Johann; Swanson, Keith (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
The amount and complexity of software developed during the last few years has increased tremendously. In particular, programs are being used more and more in embedded systems (from car-brakes to plant-control). Many of these applications are safety-relevant, i.e. a malfunction of hardware or software can cause severe damage or loss. Tremendous risks are typically present in the area of aviation, (nuclear) power plants or (chemical) plant control. Here, even small problems can lead to thousands of casualties and huge financial losses. Large financial risks also exist when computer systems are used in the area of telecommunication (telephone, electronic commerce) or space exploration. Computer applications in this area are not only subject to safety considerations, but also security issues are important. All these systems must be designed and developed to guarantee high quality with respect to safety and security. Even in an industrial setting which is (or at least should be) aware of the high requirements in Software Engineering, many incidents occur. For example, the Warshaw Airbus crash, was caused by an incomplete requirements specification. Uncontrolled reuse of an Ariane 4 software module was the reason for the Ariane 5 disaster. Some recent incidents in the telecommunication area, like illegal "cloning" of smart-cards of D2GSM handies, or the extraction of (secret) passwords from German T-online users show that also in this area serious flaws can happen. Due to the inherent complexity of computer systems, most authors claim that only a rigorous application of formal methods in all stages of the software life cycle can ensure high quality of the software and lead to real safe and secure systems. In this paper, we will have a look, in how far automated theorem proving can contribute to a more widespread application of formal methods and their tools, and what automated theorem provers (ATPs) must provide in order to be useful.
Yuma proving grounds automatic UXO detection using biomorphic robots
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tilden, M.W.
1996-07-01
The current variety and dispersion of Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) is a daunting technological problem for current sensory and extraction techniques. The bottom line is that the only way to insure a live UXO has been found and removed is to step on it. As this is an upsetting proposition for biological organisms like animals, farmers, or Yuma field personnel, this paper details a non-biological approach to developing inexpensive, automatic machines that will find, tag, and may eventually remove UXO from a variety of terrains by several proposed methods. The Yuma proving grounds (Arizona) has been pelted with bombs, mines, missiles, and shells since the 1940s. The idea of automatic machines that can clean up after such testing is an old one but as yet unrealized because of the daunting cost, power and complexity requirements of capable robot mechanisms. A researcher at Los Alamos National Laboratory has invented and developed a new variety of living robots that are solar powered, legged, autonomous, adaptive to massive damage, and very inexpensive. This technology, called Nervous Networks (Nv), allows for the creation of capable walking mechanisms (known as Biomorphic robots, or Biomechs for short) that rather than work from task principles use instead a survival-based design philosophy. This allows Nv based machines to continue doing work even after multiple limbs and sensors have been removed or damaged, and to dynamically negotiate complex terrains as an emergent property of their operation (fighting to proceed, as it were). They are not programmed, and indeed, the twelve transistor Nv controller keeps their electronic cost well below that of most pocket radios. It is suspected that advanced forms of these machines in huge numbers may be an interesting, capable solution to the problem of general and specific UXO identification, tagging, and removal.
2012-01-01
1572 Final Report Sky Research, Inc. January 2012 xii List of Acronyms 3D Three-Dimensional AIC Akaike Information Criterion APG Aberdeen...Proving Ground BIC Bayesian Information Criterion BOR Body of Revolution BUD Berkeley UXO Discriminator cm Centimeter CRREL Cold Regions...This model-based approach has the desirable traits (1) that it permits the use of objective statistical criteria—like the Akaike Information Criterion
The Earth is Flat, and I Can Prove It!
Klinger, Art
1998-01-01
Describes an educational program that asks students to attempt to prove that the earth is spherical and that it rotates. Presents tips to pique student interest and charts related to sensing the spin, nonrotation notions, flat earth fallacies, evidence that the earth is spherical and rotates, and the role of watersheds in proving that the earth…
14 CFR 135.145 - Aircraft proving and validation tests.
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft proving and validation tests. 135... Aircraft and Equipment § 135.145 Aircraft proving and validation tests. (a) No certificate holder may... safely and in compliance with applicable regulatory standards. Validation tests are required for...
Linear Strategy for Boolean Ring Based Theorem Proving
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WU Jinzhao; LIU Zhuojun
2000-01-01
Two inference rules are discussed in boolean ring based theorem proving, and linear strategy is developed. It is shown that both of them are complete for linear strategy. Moreover, by introducing a partial ordering on atoms, pseudo O-linear and O-linear strategies are presented. The former is complete, the latter, however, is complete for clausal theorem proving.
A New Approach for Proving or Generating Combinatorial Identities
Gonzalez, Luis
2010-01-01
A new method for proving, in an immediate way, many combinatorial identities is presented. The method is based on a simple recursive combinatorial formula involving n + 1 arbitrary real parameters. Moreover, this formula enables one not only to prove, but also generate many different combinatorial identities (not being required to know them "a…
The Earth is Flat, and I Can Prove It!
Klinger, Art
1998-01-01
Describes an educational program that asks students to attempt to prove that the earth is spherical and that it rotates. Presents tips to pique student interest and charts related to sensing the spin, nonrotation notions, flat earth fallacies, evidence that the earth is spherical and rotates, and the role of watersheds in proving that the earth…
Generating and Using Examples in the Proving Process
Sandefur, J.; Mason, J.; Stylianides, G. J.; Watson, A.
2013-01-01
We report on our analysis of data from a dataset of 26 videotapes of university students working in groups of 2 and 3 on different proving problems. Our aim is to understand the role of example generation in the proving process, focusing on deliberate changes in representation and symbol manipulation. We suggest and illustrate four aspects of…
20 CFR 219.23 - Evidence to prove death.
2010-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence to prove death. 219.23 Section 219... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.23 Evidence to prove death. (a) Preferred evidence of death. The best evidence of a person's death is— (1) A certified copy of or extract from...
The Status of Proving among US Secondary Mathematics Teachers
Kotelawala, Usha
2016-01-01
This report examines teachers' self-espoused attitudes and beliefs on proving in the secondary mathematics classroom. Conclusions were based on a questionnaire of 78 US mathematics teachers who had completed at least 2 years of teaching mathematics at the secondary level. While these teachers placed importance on proving as a general mathematical…
Preservice Mathematics Teachers' Metaphorical Perceptions towards Proof and Proving
Ersen, Zeynep Bahar
2016-01-01
Since mathematical proof and proving are in the center of mathematics; preservice mathematics teachers' perceptions against these concepts have a great importance. Therefore, the study aimed to determine preservice mathematics teachers' perceptions towards proof and proving through metaphors. The participants consisted of 192 preservice…
Proving and stability of multi-path ultrasonic flowmeters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Augenstein, D.; Griffith, B.; Cousins, T. [Caldon Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)
2003-07-01
Proving has been used not only to remove the installation effects, but also to demonstrate the continuing performance of meter systems. For Custody transfer operation, statutory requirements and good practice have led to mandatory in-situ proving of liquid flowmeters. The characteristics of conventional meters, in particular turbine meters, has made in-situ volume proving both necessary and cost effective. Newer technology meters, such as Ultrasonic Transit time meters, have demonstrated greater short-term variability in their outputs, making them appear more difficult to prove by commonly used procedures. However, the balance on the side of these technologies is the greater stability of mean meter calibration. These characteristics makes it essential to look closely at the factors affecting this short term variability for the process of proving, and to review the concept of reducing the frequency of proving. This paper identifies the factors affecting the provability of multi-path chordal ultrasonic meters. It also presents proving data for such meters, for a range of sizes, at several independent certified hydraulic laboratories around the world, as well as data from meters at various field installations. The data shows that repeatability is predictable and generally controlled by hydraulic/turbulence statistics. It shows that with the correct design these meters can be proved effectively with 'small volume provers' and ball provers in conformance with API proving standards. Calibration data presented in the paper as a comparison of calibrations over time, against conventional turbine meters shows the stability of the Ultrasonic flowmeter with variations in flow and fluid viscosity. This data leads to the conclusion that the proving regularity of these meters can be materially less than for conventional meters. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Perotto Daniel
2002-01-01
Full Text Available Foram analisados o consumo diário de matéria seca (MS por 100kg de peso vivo (CMS, a conversão alimentar (CA e o ganho de peso médio diário (GMD de 118 machos bovinos inteiros Canchim (Cn, Aberdeen Angus (Ab e cruzamentos recíprocos (CnAb (F1, 3/4Cn+1/4Ab, 5/8Cn+3/8Ab e 11/16Cn+5/16Ab e AbCn (F1, 5/8Ab+3/8Cn e 11/16Ab+5/16Cn. Esses animais foram alimentados em baias individuais por 84 a 95 dias com silagem de milho à vontade mais concentrado (17,8% de PB e 79% de NDT fornecido à base de 1% do peso vivo do animal por dia. As características foram analisadas por um modelo que incluiu os efeitos fixos de ano do confinamento, grupo genético, período e ano x período e o efeito aleatório de animal dentro de grupo genético dentro de ano. A relação MS do concentrado:MS da silagem foi incluída como co-variável no modelo. Posteriormente, as características foram analisadas por um modelo de regressão que incluiu coeficientes representando as frações esperadas de Ab nos genótipos dos animais e das mães e as heterozigoses individual e materna. As médias para CMS, CA e GMD foram 2,44kg de MS/100kg de PV/dia, 6,97kg de MS/kg de GMD e 1,435kg/dia, respectivamente. O grupo genético influenciou o CMS (P<0,01 e o GMD (P<0,06. O Ab igualou-se ao AbCn apresentando maior CMS e menor GMD que o Cn e o CnAb. Não houve heterose para qualquer das características indicando que o cruzamento alternado Cn x Ab seria igual à média das raças paternas.
von Stumm, Sophie; Macintyre, Sally; Batty, David G.; Clark, Heather; Deary, Ian J.
2010-01-01
In a birth cohort of 6281 men from Aberdeen, Scotland, social class of origin, childhood intelligence, childhood behavior disturbance and education were examined as predictors of status attainment in midlife (46 to 51 years). Social class of origin, intelligence and behavior disturbance were conceptualized as correlated predictors, whose effects…
Conceptual and numerical models of the glacial aquifer system north of Aberdeen, South Dakota
Marini, Katrina A.; Hoogestraat, Galen K.; Aurand, Katherine R.; Putnam, Larry D.
2012-01-01
This U.S. Geological Survey report documents a conceptual and numerical model of the glacial aquifer system north of Aberdeen, South Dakota, that can be used to evaluate and manage the city of Aberdeen's water resources. The glacial aquifer system in the model area includes the Elm, Middle James, and Deep James aquifers, with intervening confining units composed of glacial till. The Elm aquifer ranged in thickness from less than 1 to about 95 feet (ft), with an average thickness of about 24 ft; the Middle James aquifer ranged in thickness from less than 1 to 91 ft, with an average thickness of 13 ft; and the Deep James aquifer ranged in thickness from less than 1 to 165 ft, with an average thickness of 23 ft. The confining units between the aquifers consisted of glacial till and ranged in thickness from 0 to 280 ft. The general direction of groundwater flow in the Elm aquifer in the model area was from northwest to southeast following the topography. Groundwater flow in the Middle James aquifer was to the southeast. Sparse data indicated a fairly flat potentiometric surface for the Deep James aquifer. Horizontal hydraulic conductivity for the Elm aquifer determined from aquifer tests ranged from 97 to 418 feet per day (ft/d), and a confined storage coefficient was determined to be 2.4x10-5. Estimates of the vertical hydraulic conductivity of the sediments separating the Elm River from the Elm aquifer, determined from the analysis of temperature gradients, ranged from 0.14 to 2.48 ft/d. Average annual precipitation in the model area was 19.6 inches per year (in/yr), and agriculture was the primary land use. Recharge to the Elm aquifer was by infiltration of precipitation through overlying outwash, lake sediments, and glacial till. The annual recharge for the model area, calculated by using a soil-water-balance method for water year (WY) 1975-2009, ranged from 0.028 inch in WY 1980 to 4.52 inches in WY 1986, with a mean of 1.56 inches. The annual potential
Gershenson, Carlos
2011-01-01
The term complexity derives etymologically from the Latin plexus, which means interwoven. Intuitively, this implies that something complex is composed by elements that are difficult to separate. This difficulty arises from the relevant interactions that take place between components. This lack of separability is at odds with the classical scientific method - which has been used since the times of Galileo, Newton, Descartes, and Laplace - and has also influenced philosophy and engineering. In recent decades, the scientific study of complexity and complex systems has proposed a paradigm shift in science and philosophy, proposing novel methods that take into account relevant interactions.
Daniel Perotto; José Luiz Moletta; Antonio Carlos Cubas
1999-01-01
Foram analisadas quatorze características quantitativas das carcaças de 137 machos bovinos inteiros pertencentes aos grupos Canchim (Ca), Aberdeen Angus (Ab), 3/4Ca+1/4Ab, 3/4Ab+1/4Ca, 5/8Ca+3/8Ab e 5/8Ab+3/8Ca, nascidos na Estação Experimental Fazenda Modelo, em Ponta Grossa-PR, no período de 1988 a 1993. As médias para a idade e para o peso ao início do confinamento, duração do confinamento, idade e peso ao abate foram, respectivamente, 737 dias, 356kg, 97 dias, 834 dias e 468kg. Durante o ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Flávia de Jesus Leal
2012-03-01
Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Atualmente há um crescente interesse por instrumentos de avaliação em saúde produzidos e validados em todo o mundo. Apesar disso, ainda não temos no Brasil instrumentos que avaliem o impacto da doença venosa crônica na vida de seu portador. Para utilização dessas medidas torna-se necessária a realização da tradução e da adaptação cultural ao idioma em questão. OBJETIVO: Traduzir e adaptar culturalmente para a população brasileira o Aberdeen Varicose Veins Questionnaire (AVVQ- Brasil. MÉTODOS: O processo consistiu de duas traduções e duas retrotraduções realizadas por tradutores independentes, da avaliação das versões seguida da elaboração de versão consensual e de pré-teste comentado. RESULTADOS: Os pacientes do pré-teste eram do sexo feminino, com média de idade de 49,9 anos, média de tempo de resposta 7,73 minutos, que variou entre 4,55 minutos (tempo mínimo a 10,13 minutos (tempo máximo. Escolaridade: 20% analfabetismo funcional, 1º grau completo e 2º grau completo; 30% 1º grau incompleto; e 10% 3º grau completo. Gravidade clínica 40% C3 e C6S, 10% C2 e C5, havendo cinco termos incompreendidos na aplicação. CONCLUSÕES: A versão na língua portuguesa do Aberdeen Varicose Veins Questionnaire está traduzida e adaptada para uso na população brasileira, podendo ser utilizada após posterior análise de suas propriedades clinimétricas.BACKGROUND: Currently there is a growing interest in health assessment tools produced and validated throughout the world. Nevertheless, it is still inadequate the number of instruments that assess the impact of chronic venous disease in the life of its bearer. To use these measures it is necessary to accomplish the translation and cultural adaptation to the language in question. OBJECTIVE: Translate to Portuguese and culturally adapted for the Brazilian population the Aberdeen Varicose Veins Questionnaire (AVVQ-Brazil. METHODS: The process consisted of two
Models and Techniques for Proving Data Structure Lower Bounds
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Kasper Green
In this dissertation, we present a number of new techniques and tools for proving lower bounds on the operational time of data structures. These techniques provide new lines of attack for proving lower bounds in both the cell probe model, the group model, the pointer machine model and the I/O-mod...... for range reporting problems in the pointer machine and the I/O-model. With this technique, we tighten the gap between the known upper bound and lower bound for the most fundamental range reporting problem, orthogonal range reporting. 5......In this dissertation, we present a number of new techniques and tools for proving lower bounds on the operational time of data structures. These techniques provide new lines of attack for proving lower bounds in both the cell probe model, the group model, the pointer machine model and the I....../O-model. In all cases, we push the frontiers further by proving lower bounds higher than what could possibly be proved using previously known techniques. For the cell probe model, our results have the following consequences: The rst (lg n) query time lower bound for linear space static data structures...
1985-06-01
summarized findings or the extended analysis will also be submitted to Applied Optics for publica - tion. INTRODUCTION This article reports our first...action and Its Relacion to Particle Separation .in Coatings and Clouds (15) 2:05 Ariel (..., Lenard Cohen and Richard Haracz (Drexel University), Double
1990-08-01
spleen cells were fused with mouse myeloma cell line SP2/OAg 14 (11)., The hybridoma cell clone was detected by ELISA assay using microtiter plates coated...Under these conditions, OP’s decreased 3H-PCP binding in the channel. Since OP’s stimulated 3 H- iP6 binding in the nonactivated (ACh or CBC absent
2011-11-17
Positioning System To achieve high quality data (metric section 3.6) the ALLTEM uses a real-time kinematic ( RTK ) global positioning system ( GPS ...positioning. RTK - GPS provides consistent and georeferenced positioning. The USGS owns a Leica GPS1200 system. The Leica has a pulse-per-second (PPS) output...to the rover unit mounted on the vehicle. For ALLTEM the GPS positions are part of the header in each data record. “ RTK - Fixed” quality GPS data
African Journals Online (AJOL)
CLEMENT O BEWAJI
Schiff bases and their complex compounds have been studied for their .... establishing coordination of the N–(2 – hydroxybenzyl) - L - α - valine Schiff base ..... (1967); “Spectrophotometric Identification of Organic Compounds”, Willey, New.
Proving Light Quanta Exist in an Undergraduate Laboratory
Neel, M. S.; Thorn, J. J.; Davies, R. E.; Beck, M.
2003-05-01
While well known experiments involving phenomena such as the photoelectric effect and Compton scattering strongly suggest the existence of photons, they do not prove the existence of light quanta. For example, it is possible to explain both of the aforementioned effects using a semiclassical treatment in which the electromagnetic field is not quantized, and is instead treated as a classical wave. To prove the existence of light quanta one must perform an experiment whose results cannot be explained using classical waves. Here we have performed an experiment that cannot be explained with a classical wave theory, and which demonstrates the localization of light quanta. Namely, we prove that a single photon can only go one way when it leaves a beamsplitter. (P. Grangier, G. Roger and A. Aspect, Europhys. Lett. 1, 173 (1986).) The experimental apparatus is appropriate for an undergraduate teaching laboratory.
Mechanical Geometry Theorem Proving Based on Groebner Bases
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
吴尽昭
1997-01-01
A new method for the mechanical elementary geometry theorem proving is presented by using Groebner bases of polynomial ideals.It has two main advantages over the approach proposed in literature:(i)It is complete and not a refutational procdure;(ii) The subcases of the geometry statements which are not generally true can be differentiated clearly.
Overcoming the Obstacle of Poor Knowledge in Proving Geometry Tasks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zlatan Magajna
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Proving in school geometry is not just about validating the truth of a claim. In the school setting, the main function of the proof is to convince someone that a claim is true by providing an explanation. Students consider proving to be difficult; in fact, they find the very concept of proof demanding. Proving a claim in planar geometry involves several processes, the most salient being visual observation and deductive argumentation. These two processes are interwoven, but often poor observation hinders deductive argumentation. In the present article, we consider the possibility of overcoming the obstacle of a student’s poor observation by making use of computer-aided observation with appropriate software. We present the results of two small-scale research projects, both of which indicate that students are able to work out considerably more deductions if computer-aided observation is used. Not all students use computer-aided observation effectively in proving tasks: some find an exhaustive computer-provided list of properties confusing and are not able to choose the properties that are relevant to the task.
Proof phenomenon as a function of the phenomenology of proving.
Hipólito, Inês
2015-12-01
Kurt Gödel wrote (1964, p. 272), after he had read Husserl, that the notion of objectivity raises a question: "the question of the objective existence of the objects of mathematical intuition (which, incidentally, is an exact replica of the question of the objective existence of the outer world)". This "exact replica" brings to mind the close analogy Husserl saw between our intuition of essences in Wesensschau and of physical objects in perception. What is it like to experience a mathematical proving process? What is the ontological status of a mathematical proof? Can computer assisted provers output a proof? Taking a naturalized world account, I will assess the relationship between mathematics, the physical world and consciousness by introducing a significant conceptual distinction between proving and proof. I will propose that proving is a phenomenological conscious experience. This experience involves a combination of what Kurt Gödel called intuition, and what Husserl called intentionality. In contrast, proof is a function of that process - the mathematical phenomenon - that objectively self-presents a property in the world, and that results from a spatiotemporal unity being subject to the exact laws of nature. In this essay, I apply phenomenology to mathematical proving as a performance of consciousness, that is, a lived experience expressed and formalized in language, in which there is the possibility of formulating intersubjectively shareable meanings. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Bread crispness and morphology can be controlled by proving conditions
Primo Martin, C.; Dalen, van G.; Meinders, M.B.J.; Don, A.; Hamer, R.H.; Vliet, van T.
2010-01-01
Bread crust crispness is lost when water migrates from crumb to crust during storage. To what extent water migration is influenced by morphology is not known. Therefore, the effect of crispy rolls morphology on crust crispness was studied. Crispy rolls were prepared at three proving volumes: 300 mL
Responsibility for proving and defining in abstract algebra class
Fukawa-Connelly, Timothy
2016-07-01
There is considerable variety in inquiry-oriented instruction, but what is common is that students assume roles in mathematical activity that in a traditional, lecture-based class are either assumed by the teacher (or text) or are not visible at all in traditional math classrooms. This paper is a case study of the teaching of an inquiry-based undergraduate abstract algebra course. In particular, gives a theoretical account of the defining and proving processes. The study examines the intellectual responsibility for the processes of defining and proving that the professor devolved to the students. While the professor wanted the students to engage in all aspects of defining and proving, he was only successful at devolving responsibility for certain aspects and much more successful at devolving responsibility for proving than conjecturing or defining. This study suggests that even a well-intentioned instructor may not be able to devolve responsibility to students for some aspects of mathematical practice without using a research-based curriculum or further professional development.
Field experiment on transgenic cassava proves successful in South China
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
@@ A pioneer study on field tests of transgenic cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) by a Sino-Swiss research consortium has proved successful. The experiment was carried out in 2006 at an experimental station in Haikou, capital of south China's Hainan Province.
Dutch Plural Inflection: The Exception that Proves the Analogy
Keuleers, Emmanuel; Sandra, Dominiek; Daelemans, Walter; Gillis, Steven; Durieux, Gert; Martens, Evelyn
2007-01-01
We develop the view that inflection is driven partly by non-phonological analogy and that non-phonological information is of particular importance to the inflection of non-canonical roots, which in the view of [Marcus, G. F., Brinkmann, U., Clahsen, H., Wiese, R., & Pinker, S. (1995). "German inflection: the exception that proves the rule."…
NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cities, Towns and Villages dataset, published at 1:9600 (1in=800ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2010. It...
Pengembangan Perangkat Pembelajaran Geometri Ruang dengan Model Proving Theorem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bambang Eko Susilo
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Kemampuan berpikir kritis dan kreatif mahasiswa masih lemah. Hal ini ditemukan pada mahasiswa yang mengambil mata kuliah Geometri Ruang yaitu dalam membuktikan soal-soal pembuktian (problem to proof. Mahasiswa masih menyelesaikan secara algoritmik atau prosedural sehingga diperlukan pengembangan perangkat pembelajaran Geometri Ruang berbasis kompetensi dan konservasi dengan model Proving Theorem. Dalam penelitian ini perangkat perkuliahan yang dikembangkan yaitu Silabus, Satuan Acara Perkuliahan (SAP, Kontrak Perkuliahan, Media Pembelajaran, Bahan Ajar, Tes UTS dan UAS serta Angket Karakter Konservasi telah dilaksanakan dengan baik dengan kriteria (1 validasi perangkat pembelajaran mata kuliah Geometri ruang berbasis kompetensi dan konservasi dengan model proving theorem berkategori baik dan layak digunakan dan (2 keterlaksanaan RPP pada pembelajaran yang dikembangkan secara keseluruhan berkategori baik.Critical and creative thinking abilities of students still weak. It is found in students who take Space Geometry subjects that is in solving problems to to prove. Students still finish in algorithmic or procedural so that the required the development of Space Geometry learning tools based on competency and conservation with Proving Theorem models. This is a research development which refers to the 4-D models that have been modified for the Space Geometry learning tools, second semester academic year 2014/2015. Instruments used include validation sheet, learning tools and character assessment questionnaire. In this research, the learning tools are developed, namely Syllabus, Lesson Plan, Lecture Contract, Learning Media, Teaching Material, Tests, and Character Conservation Questionnaire had been properly implemented with the criteria (1 validation of Space Geometry learning tools based on competency and conservation with Proving Theorem models categorized good and feasible to use, and (2 the implementation of Lesson Plan on learning categorized
Protocol for a phase 1 homeopathic drug proving trial
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dahler Joern
2010-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study protocol adapts the traditional homeopathic drug proving methodology to a modern clinical trial design. Method Multi-centre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 1 trial with 30 healthy volunteers. The study consists of a seven day run-in period, a five day intervention period and a 16 day post-intervention observation period. Subjects, investigators and the statisticians are blinded from the allocation to the study arm and from the identity of the homeopathic drug. The intervention is a highly diluted homeopathic drug (potency C12 = 1024, Dose: 5 globules taken 5 times per day over a maximum period of 5 days. The placebo consists of an optically identical carrier substance (sucrose globules. Subjects document the symptoms they experience in a semi-structured online diary. The primary outcome parameter is the number of specific symptoms that characterise the intervention compared to the placebo after a period of three weeks. Secondary outcome parameters are qualitative differences in profiles of characteristic and proving symptoms and the total number of all proving symptoms. The number of symptoms will be quantitatively analysed on an intention-to-treat basis using ANCOVA with the subject's expectation and baseline values as covariates. Content analysis according to Mayring is adapted to suit the homeopathic qualitative analysis procedure. Discussion Homeopathic drug proving trials using the terminology of clinical trials according GCP and fulfilling current requirements for research under the current drug regulations is feasible. However, within the current regulations, homeopathic drug proving trials are classified as phase 1 trials, although their aim is not to explore the safety and pharmacological dynamics of the drug, but rather to find clinical indications according to the theory of homeopathy. To avoid bias, it is necessary that neither the subjects nor the investigators know the identity of
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J.S. Lopes
2009-04-01
Full Text Available Obtiveram-se fatores de correção (FC para o perímetro escrotal ao sobreano (PES para os efeitos de grupo genético (GG, heterozigose individual (HI, peso ao sobreano (PS e idade do animal à pesagem de sobreano (IDS, utilizando-se registros de peso corporal e medidas de perímetro escrotal obtidos de 11.662 tourinhos das raças Aberdeen Angus, Nelore e de produtos do cruzamento entre elas, criados nas regiões Sul, Sudeste e Centro-Oeste do Brasil, nascidos entre 1987 e 2001. Os coeficientes de regressão que geraram os FC foram estimados pelo método dos quadrados mínimos, adotando um modelo que incluiu os efeitos de grupo de contemporâneos ao sobreano (GC, GG, heterozigose materna (HM, HI, PS e IDS. Todos os efeitos incluídos no modelo foram significativos (PAdjustment factors (AF for scrotal circumference at yearling (SCY were figured out for effects of genetic group (GG, individual heterozygosis (IH, yearling weight (YW, and age of the animal at yearling weight (AYW using body weight and scrotal circumference records from 11,662 Aberdeen Angus, Nelore, and their crosses. The animals were born from 1987 to 2001 and were raised in the South East and Central West Regions of Brazil. The regression coefficients to obtain AF were estimated by least squares means method. The model included the fixed effects of contemporaneous group at yearling (CG, maternal heterozygosis (MH, IH, and the covariates YW (linear and quadratic effects and AYW (linear effect. All the factors included in the model showed significant effects (P<0.01 on SCY. The mean and standard deviation for SCY were 29.90±3.55cm. Quadratic effect of YW on SCY was also observed. Decreases in SCY with the increase in YW was found. High SCY was observed immediately after post-weaning. The YW effects on SCY were 0.06695804±0.00345000cm/kg (linear effect and -0.00005252±0.00000508cm/kg² (quadratic effect. The AYW linear effect on SCY was 0.02176450±0.00038568cm/day. The factors
Logic for computer science foundations of automatic theorem proving
Gallier, Jean H
2015-01-01
This advanced text for undergraduate and graduate students introduces mathematical logic with an emphasis on proof theory and procedures for algorithmic construction of formal proofs. The self-contained treatment is also useful for computer scientists and mathematically inclined readers interested in the formalization of proofs and basics of automatic theorem proving. Topics include propositional logic and its resolution, first-order logic, Gentzen's cut elimination theorem and applications, and Gentzen's sharpened Hauptsatz and Herbrand's theorem. Additional subjects include resolution in fir
Implementing Metamathematics as an Approach to Automatic Theorem Proving
1989-01-01
set theory the disjoint union is usually defined from the ordinary union by providing a scheme for tagging elements (see [3]). For any type A, another...in preparing this document. 31 References (1] P. Aczel. The type theoretic interpretation of constructive set theory . In Logic Coo- quium ...Amsterdam:North-Holland, 1978. [2] W. Bledsoe and D. Loveland. Automated Theorem Proving: After 25 Years. American Math Soc., 1984. [3] N. Bourbaki . Theory
Army Net Zero Prove Out. Net Zero Waster Best Practices
2014-11-18
Colorado • Fort Bliss, Texas These sites served as test beds for the Army’s Net Zero Initiative, specifically, Net Zero Water , and the Army provided...have sustainability, energy efficiency, water conservation, recycling, pollution prevention, and green procurement programs in place that they can...ARMY NET ZERO PROVE OUT Final Net Zero Water Best Practices November 18, 2014 Distribution A Approved for public release
Renewable Energy Opportunties at Dugway Proving Ground, Utah
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Orrell, Alice C.; Kora, Angela R.; Russo, Bryan J.; Horner, Jacob A.; Williamson, Jennifer L.; Weimar, Mark R.; Gorrissen, Willy J.; Nesse, Ronald J.; Dixon, Douglas R.
2010-05-31
This document provides an overview of renewable resource potential at Dugway Proving Ground, based primarily upon analysis of secondary data sources supplemented with limited on-site evaluations. This effort focuses on grid-connected generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and ground source heat pumps (GSHPs). The effort was funded by the U.S. Army Installation Management Command (IMCOM) as follow-on to the 2005 Department of Defense (DoD) Renewables Assessment.
Emmons, P.J.
1987-01-01
A complex hydrologic system exists in the glacial drift overlying the bedrock in the Aberdeen, South Dakota, area. The hydrologic system has been subdivided into three aquifers: the Elm, Middle James, and Deep James. These sand-and-gravel outwash aquifers generally are separated from each other by till or other fine-grained sediments. The Elm aquifer is the uppermost and largest of the aquifers and underlies about 204 sq mi of the study area. The maximum altitude of the top of the Elm aquifer is 1,400 ft and the minimum altitude of the bottom is 1,225 ft. The Middle James aquifer underlies about 172 sq mi of the study area. The maximum altitude of the top of the Middle James aquifer is 1,250 ft and the minimum altitude of the bottom is 1 ,150 ft. The lower-most Deep James aquifer was not evaluated. The quality of the water from the Elm and Middle James aquifer varies considerably throughout the study area. The predominant chemical constituents in the water from the aquifers are sodium and sulfate ions; however, calcium, magnesium, bicarbonate, or chloride may dominate locally. The calculated theoretical total well yield from the Elm and Middle James aquifers ranges from a minimum of 64 cu ft/sec, which may be conservative, to a maximum of 640 cu ft/sec. Based on available data, yields of 100 to 150 cu ft/sec probably can be obtained from properly sited and constructed wells. The feasibility of artificially recharging an aquifer, using the technique of water spreading, depends on the geologic and hydraulic characteristics of the aquifer and of the sediments overlying the aquifer through which the recharge water must percolate. The sites suitable for artificial recharge in the study area were defined as those areas where the average aquifer thickness was > 20 ft and the average thickness of the fine-grained sediments overlying the aquifer was < 10 ft. Using these criteria, about 14 sq mi of the study area are suitable for artificial recharge. Infiltration rates in
Brešar, Bostjan; Chepoi, Victor; Gologranc, Tanja; Osajda, Damian
2012-01-01
In this article, we introduce and investigate bucolic complexes, a common generalization of systolic complexes and of CAT(0) cubical complexes. This class of complexes is closed under Cartesian products and amalgamations over some convex subcomplexes. We study various approaches to bucolic complexes: from graph-theoretic and topological viewpoints, as well as from the point of view of geometric group theory. Bucolic complexes can be defined as locally-finite simply connected prism complexes satisfying some local combinatorial conditions. We show that bucolic complexes are contractible, and satisfy some nonpositive-curvature-like properties. In particular, we prove a version of the Cartan-Hadamard theorem, the fixed point theorem for finite group actions, and establish some results on groups acting geometrically on such complexes. We also characterize the 1-skeletons (which we call bucolic graphs) and the 2-skeletons of bucolic complexes. In particular, we prove that bucolic graphs are precisely retracts of Ca...
75 FR 31768 - Procurement List Proposed Additions and Deletions
2010-06-04
.../Location: Custodial Services, C4ISR Campus, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD. NPAs: The Chimes, Inc., Baltimore... Contracting Command, APG, Directorate of Contracting, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD. Service...
75 FR 33321 - Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless
2010-06-11
... Bldgs. Aberdeen Proving Ground Aberdeen MD 21005 Landholding Agency: Army Property Number: 21201020012...: Unutilized Reasons: Secured Area Indiana Bldg. 481 Jefferson Proving Ground Madison IN 47250...
Strategy-Enhanced Interactive Proving and Arithmetic Simplification for PVS
diVito, Ben L.
2003-01-01
We describe an approach to strategy-based proving for improved interactive deduction in specialized domains. An experimental package of strategies (tactics) and support functions called Manip has been developed for PVS to reduce the tedium of arithmetic manipulation. Included are strategies aimed at algebraic simplification of real-valued expressions. A general deduction architecture is described in which domain-specific strategies, such as those for algebraic manipulation, are supported by more generic features, such as term-access techniques applicable in arbitrary settings. An extended expression language provides access to subterms within a sequent.
Proving Nontrivial Topology of Pure Bismuth by Quantum Confinement
Ito, S.; Feng, B.; Arita, M.; Takayama, A.; Liu, R.-Y.; Someya, T.; Chen, W.-C.; Iimori, T.; Namatame, H.; Taniguchi, M.; Cheng, C.-M.; Tang, S.-J.; Komori, F.; Kobayashi, K.; Chiang, T.-C.; Matsuda, I.
2016-12-01
The topology of pure Bi is controversial because of its very small (˜10 meV ) band gap. Here we perform high-resolution angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy measurements systematically on 14-202 bilayer Bi films. Using high-quality films, we succeed in observing quantized bulk bands with energy separations down to ˜10 meV . Detailed analyses on the phase shift of the confined wave functions precisely determine the surface and bulk electronic structures, which unambiguously show nontrivial topology. The present results not only prove the fundamental property of Bi but also introduce a capability of the quantum-confinement approach.
Proving Nontrivial Topology of Pure Bismuth by Quantum Confinement.
Ito, S; Feng, B; Arita, M; Takayama, A; Liu, R-Y; Someya, T; Chen, W-C; Iimori, T; Namatame, H; Taniguchi, M; Cheng, C-M; Tang, S-J; Komori, F; Kobayashi, K; Chiang, T-C; Matsuda, I
2016-12-02
The topology of pure Bi is controversial because of its very small (∼10 meV) band gap. Here we perform high-resolution angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy measurements systematically on 14-202 bilayer Bi films. Using high-quality films, we succeed in observing quantized bulk bands with energy separations down to ∼10 meV. Detailed analyses on the phase shift of the confined wave functions precisely determine the surface and bulk electronic structures, which unambiguously show nontrivial topology. The present results not only prove the fundamental property of Bi but also introduce a capability of the quantum-confinement approach.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
Harte—Hanks旗下的美国权威市场调研机构Aberdeen Group发布了一项名为“用IT技术武装双眼：视频分析如何走进实体安防”的新研究。研究表明，在不增加全职人员的条件下，性能最好的系统所能处理的摄像机数目和报警信号，比安保人员进行判断分别多出3．3倍和21倍。通过对诸如视频分析等技术的投入，每台摄像机的费用降低了67％，并且比安保人员每天监测、排序和处理的警报多5倍以上。
A Hybrid Approach to Proving Memory Reference Monotonicity
Oancea, Cosmin E.
2013-01-01
Array references indexed by non-linear expressions or subscript arrays represent a major obstacle to compiler analysis and to automatic parallelization. Most previous proposed solutions either enhance the static analysis repertoire to recognize more patterns, to infer array-value properties, and to refine the mathematical support, or apply expensive run time analysis of memory reference traces to disambiguate these accesses. This paper presents an automated solution based on static construction of access summaries, in which the reference non-linearity problem can be solved for a large number of reference patterns by extracting arbitrarily-shaped predicates that can (in)validate the reference monotonicity property and thus (dis)prove loop independence. Experiments on six benchmarks show that our general technique for dynamic validation of the monotonicity property can cover a large class of codes, incurs minimal run-time overhead and obtains good speedups. © 2013 Springer-Verlag.
Simplified Drift Analysis for Proving Lower Bounds in Evolutionary Computation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Oliveto, Pietro S.; Witt, Carsten
2011-01-01
Drift analysis is a powerful tool used to bound the optimization time of evolutionary algorithms (EAs). Various previous works apply a drift theorem going back to Hajek in order to show exponential lower bounds on the optimization time of EAs. However, this drift theorem is tedious to read...... and to apply since it requires two bounds on the moment-generating (exponential) function of the drift. A recent work identifies a specialization of this drift theorem that is much easier to apply. Nevertheless, it is not as simple and not as general as possible. The present paper picks up Hajek’s line...... of thought to prove a drift theorem that is very easy to use in evolutionary computation. Only two conditions have to be verified, one of which holds for virtually all EAs with standard mutation. The other condition is a bound on what is really relevant, the drift. Applications show how previous analyses...
New biology of red rain extremophiles prove cometary panspermia
Louis, G; Louis, Godfrey
2003-01-01
This paper reports the extraordinary biology of the microorganisms from the mysterious red rain of Kerala, India. These chemosynthetic organisms grow optimally at an extreme high temperature of 300 degrees C in hydrothermal conditions and can metabolize inorganic and organic compounds including hydrocarbons. Stages found in their life cycle show reproduction by a special multiple fission process and the red cells found in the red rain are identified as the resting spores of these microbes. While these extreme hyperthermophiles contain proteins, our study shows the absence of DNA in these organisms, indicating a new primitive domain of life with alternate thermostable genetics. This new biology proves our earlier hypothesis that these microbes are of extraterrestrial origin and also supports our earlier argument that the mysterious red rain of Kerala is due to the cometary delivery of the red spores into the stratosphere above Kerala.
SOME EXPERIMENTALLY PROVED HERBS IN PEPTIC ULCER DISEASE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Javed Ahmad Khan et al
2012-08-01
Full Text Available Peptic ulcer is a worldwide health problem because of its high morbidity, mortality and enormous financial implication. An estimated 15,000 deaths per year occur as a consequence of complicated PUD. A large number of drugs for peptic ulcer disease are available in mainstream medicine but they are associated with numerous side effects like arrhythmias, impotence, gynaecomastia and haematopoietic changes and the recurrence is also very common. In recent times, focus on plant research has increased all over the world and a large body of evidence has been collected to show immense potential of medicinal plants used in various traditional systems. Here, an attempt is made to summarise experimentally proved herbs used in PUD during last decade.
Formal Analysis of Soft Errors using Theorem Proving
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sofiène Tahar
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Modeling and analysis of soft errors in electronic circuits has traditionally been done using computer simulations. Computer simulations cannot guarantee correctness of analysis because they utilize approximate real number representations and pseudo random numbers in the analysis and thus are not well suited for analyzing safety-critical applications. In this paper, we present a higher-order logic theorem proving based method for modeling and analysis of soft errors in electronic circuits. Our developed infrastructure includes formalized continuous random variable pairs, their Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF properties and independent standard uniform and Gaussian random variables. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach by modeling and analyzing soft errors in commonly used dynamic random access memory sense amplifier circuits.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lucas Braido Pereira
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Carcass characteristics of small and medium-frame Aberdeen Angus young steers, finished in feedlot and slaughtered with similar subcutaneous fat thickness are evaluated. The average age and live weight at the start of feedlot were respectively 298 days and 202 kg. The steers were confined during 158 days, and slaughtered with average subcutaneous fat thickness of 6.4 mm. The feed consisted of sorghum silage and concentrate at 60:40 ratio of dry matter during the first 63 days and 50:50 afterward. The frame was calculated by formula F =-11.548 + (0.4878xh - (0.0289xID + (0.0000146xID²+(0.0000759xIDxh, where h is the height and ID the age, in days. Steers with medium frame showed superiority in important marketing aspects such as warm (p Avaliaram-se as características da carcaça de novilhos Aberdeen Angus super jovens de biótipos pequeno e médio, terminados em confinamento e abatidos com semelhante espessura de gordura subcutânea. A idade e o peso vivo médio de ingresso no confinamento foram de 298 dias e 202 kg. Os animais foram confinados durante 158 dias, abatidos com espessura de gordura subcutânea média de 6,4 mm. A alimentação foi composta por silagem de sorgo e concentrado, na razão volumoso:concentrado de 60:40 na matéria seca, nos primeiros 63 dias e após, 50:50 até o abate. O biótipo foi calculado utilizando a fórmula B=-11,548 + (0,4878xh - (0,0289xID + (0,0000146xID² + (0,0000759xhxID, em que h representou a altura e o ID idade em dias. Novilhos com biótipo médio apresentaram superioridade nos aspectos importantes de comercialização, como o peso de carcaça quente (p < 0,0001 e fria (p < 0,0001. As medidas de musculosidade da carcaça como a área de longissimus dorsi em relação ao peso de carcaça fria (p = 0,0477 e de corpo vazio (0,0419 foram menores nos novilhos de biótipo médio. A conformação da carcaça, área de longissimus dorsi em cm² e espessura de coxão foram semelhantes entre os biótipos. Os
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel Perotto
1999-06-01
Full Text Available Foram analisadas quatorze características quantitativas das carcaças de 137 machos bovinos inteiros pertencentes aos grupos Canchim (Ca, Aberdeen Angus (Ab, 3/4Ca+1/4Ab, 3/4Ab+1/4Ca, 5/8Ca+3/8Ab e 5/8Ab+3/8Ca, nascidos na Estação Experimental Fazenda Modelo, em Ponta Grossa-PR, no período de 1988 a 1993. As médias para a idade e para o peso ao início do confinamento, duração do confinamento, idade e peso ao abate foram, respectivamente, 737 dias, 356kg, 97 dias, 834 dias e 468kg. Durante o confinamento, os garrotes receberam silagem de milho à vontade mais uma ração concentrada (79% de NDT, 17,8% de PB fornecida à base de 1% do peso vivo do animal por dia. Os grupos Ca e Ab diferiram entre si para todas as características, exceto para percentagem de costilhar (PEC. O Ca foi superior ao Ab para peso de carcaça quente (PCQ, rendimento de carcaça quente (RCQ, área de olho de lombo (AOL, conformação, percentagem de músculos (PEM, peso da porção comestível da carcaça (PPC e peso de carcaça quente por dia de vida ao abate (PCQ/DDV. O Ab superou o Ca quanto à espessura de gordura de cobertura (ECG e à percentagem de gordura (PEG. Houve heterose para PCQ, RCQ, AOL, PPC e PCQ/DDV. As duas gerações avançadas de cruzamentos alternados Ca x Ab apresentaram desempenho superior à média das raças paternas para PCQ, RCQ, AOL, PPC e PCQ/DDV. O desempenho de um esquema alternado de cruzamentos entre Ca e Ab seria melhor que o de qualquer dessas duas criada isoladamente.Fourteen quantitative carcass traits of 137 Canchim; 5/8 Charolais + 3/8 Zebu, (Ca, Aberdeen Angus (Ab, 3/4Ca+1/4Ab, 3/4Ab+1/4Ca, 5/8Ca+3/8Ab and 5/8Ab+3/8Ca, born at Est. Exp. Fazenda Modelo, in Ponta Grossa-PR, Brazil, from 1988 to 1993, were analyzed. Averages for age at beginning of confinement, initial weight, length of confinement period, final age and final weight were, respectively, 737 days, 356kg, 97 days, 834 days and 468kg. During the confinement period
NASA SPoRT GOES-R Proving Ground Activities
Stano, Geoffrey T.; Fuell, Kevin K.; Jedloec, Gary J.
2010-01-01
The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) program is a partner with the GOES-R Proving Ground (PG) helping prepare forecasters understand the unique products to come from the GOES-R instrument suite. SPoRT is working collaboratively with other members of the GOES-R PG team and Algorithm Working Group (AWG) scientists to develop and disseminate a suite of proxy products that address specific forecast problems for the WFOs, Regional and National Support Centers, and other NOAA users. These products draw on SPoRT s expertise with the transition and evaluation of products into operations from the MODIS instrument and the North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array (NALMA). The MODIS instrument serves as an excellent proxy for the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) that will be aboard GOES-R. SPoRT has transitioned and evaluated several multi-channel MODIS products. The true and false color products are being used in natural hazard detection by several SPoRT partners to provide better observation of land features, such as fires, smoke plumes, and snow cover. Additionally, many of SPoRT s partners are coastal offices and already benefit from the MODIS sea surface temperature composite. This, along with other surface feature observations will be developed into ABI proxy products for diagnostic use in the forecast process as well as assimilation into forecast models. In addition to the MODIS instrument, the NALMA has proven very valuable to WFOs with access to these total lightning data. These data provide situational awareness and enhanced warning decision making to improve lead times for severe thunderstorm and tornado warnings. One effort by SPoRT scientists includes a lightning threat product to create short-term model forecasts of lightning activity. Additionally, SPoRT is working with the AWG to create GLM proxy data from several of the ground based total lightning networks, such as the NALMA. The evaluation will focus on the vastly improved spatial
Why prove it again? alternative proofs in mathematical practice
Dawson, Jr , John W
2015-01-01
This monograph considers several well-known mathematical theorems and asks the question, “Why prove it again?” while examining alternative proofs. It explores the different rationales mathematicians may have for pursuing and presenting new proofs of previously established results, as well as how they judge whether two proofs of a given result are different. While a number of books have examined alternative proofs of individual theorems, this is the first that presents comparative case studies of other methods for a variety of different theorems. The author begins by laying out the criteria for distinguishing among proofs and enumerates reasons why new proofs have, for so long, played a prominent role in mathematical practice. He then outlines various purposes that alternative proofs may serve. Each chapter that follows provides a detailed case study of alternative proofs for particular theorems, including the Pythagorean Theorem, the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic, Desargues’ Theorem, the...
Pacific Proving Grounds radioisotope imprint in the Philippine Sea sediments.
Pittauer, Daniela; Roos, Per; Qiao, Jixin; Geibert, Walter; Elvert, Marcus; Fischer, Helmut W
2017-08-23
Radionuclide concentrations were studied in sediment cores taken at the continental slope of the Philippine Sea off Mindanao Island in the equatorial Western Pacific. High resolution deposition records of anthropogenic radionuclides were collected at this site. Excess (210)Pb together with excess (228)Th and anthropogenic radionuclides provided information about accumulation rates. Concentrations of Am and Pu isotopes were detected by gamma spectrometry, alpha spectrometry and ICP-MS. The Pu ratios indicate a high portion (minimum of 60%) of Pu from the Pacific Proving Grounds (PPG). This implies that the transport of PPG derived plutonium with the Mindanao Current southward is similarly effective as the previously known transport towards the north with the Kuroshio Current. The record is compared to other studies from northwest Pacific marginal seas and Lombok basin in the Indonesian Archipelago. The sediment core top was found to contain a 6 cm thick layer dominated by terrestrial organic matter, which was interpreted as a result of the 2012 Typhoon Pablo-related fast deposition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Proving the correctness of client/server software
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Eyad Alkassar; Sebastian Bogan; Wolfgang J Paul
2009-02-01
Remote procedure calls (RPCs) lie at the heart of any client/server software. Thus, formal speciﬁcation and veriﬁcation of RPC mechanisms is a prerequisite for the veriﬁcation of any such software. In this paper, we present a mathematical speciﬁcation of an RPC mechanism and we outline how to prove the correctness of an implementation — say written in C — of this mechanism at the code level. We deﬁne a formal model of user processes running concurrently under a simple operating system, which provides inter-process communication and portmapper system calls. A simple theory of non-interference permits us to use conventional sequential program analysis between system calls (within the concurrent model). An RPC mechanism is speciﬁed and the correctness proof for server implementations, using this mechanism, is outlined. To the best of our knowledge this is the ﬁrst treatment of the correctness of an entire RPC mechanism at the code level.
Heterose sobre os pesos de bovinos Canchim e Aberdeen Angus e de seus cruzamentos recíprocos
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
PEROTTO DANIEL
2000-01-01
Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido para estimar a heterose sobre os pesos ao nascimento (PNT, à desmama (P210 e ao ano (P365 e sobre os ganhos de pesos médios diários do nascimento à desmama (G210 e da desmama ao ano (G365 nas quatro primeiras gerações do sistema de cruzamentos alternados entre as raças Canchim (C e Aberdeen Angus (A. Os dados de 1.147 bezerros nascidos de 1981 a 1998 foram analisados pelo método dos mínimos quadrados, ajustando-se um modelo linear que incluiu os efeitos linear e quadrático da idade da mãe do bezerro e os efeitos fixos de sexo, grupo genético, mês e ano de nascimento do bezerro. Estimativas de heterose e de outras diferenças genéticas foram estimadas por contrastes entre médias e testadas pelo teste t. O contraste "CA" foi positivo e significativo (P<0,001 para as cinco características. O contraste F1CAF1AC teve sinal negativo e foi altamente significativo (P<0,001 para P210 e G210 e significativo (P<0,05 para P365. A geração F1 exibiu heterose de 4,8% para P210 e de 4,9% para G210. A heterose materna foi de 3,7%, 5,8%, 6,3% e 20,4%, respectivamente, para P210, G210, P365 e G365. A heterose média das terceira e quarta gerações do cruzamento alternado entre C e A foi de 4,6% para P210, 5,3% para G210 e de 3,5% para P365.
Aroeira, Carolina Naves; de Almeida Torres Filho, Robledo; Fontes, Paulo Rogério; de Lemos Souza Ramos, Alcinéia; de Miranda Gomide, Lúcio Alberto; Ladeira, Márcio Machado; Ramos, Eduardo Mendes
2017-03-01
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of freezing prior to wet aging on the color of Nellore and Aberdeen Angus cattle meat. Samples of the Longissimus thoracis muscle were subjected to two treatments: conventional aging (0, 7, 14 and 21days); and freezing (-20°C for 40days) followed by thawing and aging. Freezing promoted (Pcolor of the Nellore meat was less (Pcolor stability in vacuum-packed beef is reduced by freezing prior to aging and that reduction depends on the animal breed.
Differential dynamic logics - automated theorem proving for hybrid systems
Platzer, André
2008-01-01
Hybrid systems are models for complex physical systems and are defined as dynamical systems with interacting discrete transitions and continuous evolutions along differential equations. With the goal of developing a theoretical and practical foundation for deductive verification of hybrid systems, we introduce differential dynamic logic as a new logic with which correctness properties of hybrid systems with parameterized system dynamics can be specified and verified naturally. As a verificati...
Breaking Dense Structures: Proving Stability of Densely Structured Hybrid Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eike Möhlmann
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Abstraction and refinement is widely used in software development. Such techniques are valuable since they allow to handle even more complex systems. One key point is the ability to decompose a large system into subsystems, analyze those subsystems and deduce properties of the larger system. As cyber-physical systems tend to become more and more complex, such techniques become more appealing. In 2009, Oehlerking and Theel presented a (de-composition technique for hybrid systems. This technique is graph-based and constructs a Lyapunov function for hybrid systems having a complex discrete state space. The technique consists of (1 decomposing the underlying graph of the hybrid system into subgraphs, (2 computing multiple local Lyapunov functions for the subgraphs, and finally (3 composing the local Lyapunov functions into a piecewise Lyapunov function. A Lyapunov function can serve multiple purposes, e.g., it certifies stability or termination of a system or allows to construct invariant sets, which in turn may be used to certify safety and security. In this paper, we propose an improvement to the decomposing technique, which relaxes the graph structure before applying the decomposition technique. Our relaxation significantly reduces the connectivity of the graph by exploiting super-dense switching. The relaxation makes the decomposition technique more efficient on one hand and on the other allows to decompose a wider range of graph structures.
Proving field trials for the Sigra geosteering tool
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ian Gray; Paul Clemence; Gary Paradise; Sean Charlton; Robert Dixon; Peter Hatherly [CSIRO Exploration & Mining (Australia)
2000-06-01
Geosteering is an oilfield term that refers to directional drilling guidance systems that have on board sensors to determine the rock type either being drilled or in proximity to the drilling head. The inability to provide equivalent geosteering capabilities that could allow in-seam drill holes to maintain an intended trajectory within a coal seam is one of the outstanding problems in in-seam drilling. In 1996, Sigra and CMTE began a joint research project aimed at developing a tool to provide geosteering options for in-seam drilling. The tool was to provide a survey capability, drill torque, thrust and rpm measurements, and geophysical measurements of rock resistivity and the spectrum of the natural gamma radiation. It was intended that the tool could reside behind the drill bit and communicate through the drill string via existing communication systems or a cableless system that Sigra was proposing to develop. The development of geosteering tools has proved to be far more difficult than originally expected. There have been technical issues, issues of developing tools for the intrinsically safe environment and difficulties in being able to undertake trials on drill rigs or in holes, from either the ground surface or underground. Over AU $1,000,000 has been expended on this project and it has only been able to deliver prototype systems which require significant further development before the ultimate goal of a seeing these tools in routine use can be achieved. The results from various tests, however, are extremely encouraging and indicate that geosteering is achievable given appropriate commitment.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abdullah Şimşek
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the proportional distribution of endobronchial tuberculosis (EBTB subtypes and to evaluate the types of bronchoscopic diagnostic procedures that can prove granulomatous inflammation. Methods: This was a retrospective study of 18 HIV-negative patients with biopsy-proven EBTB treated between 2010 and 2014. Results: The most common EBTB subtypes, as classified by the bronchoscopic features, were tumorous and granular (in 22.2% for both. Sputum smear microscopy was performed in 11 patients and was positive for AFB in 4 (36.3%. Sputum culture was also performed in 11 patients and was positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in 10 (90.9%. Smear microscopy of BAL fluid (BALF was performed in 16 patients and was positive for AFB in 10 (62.5%. Culture of BALF was also performed in 16 patients and was positive for M. tuberculosis in 15 (93.7%. Culture of BALF was positive for M. tuberculosis in 93.7% of the 16 patients tested. Among the 18 patients with EBTB, granulomatous inflammation was proven by the following bronchoscopic diagnostic procedures: bronchial mucosal biopsy, in 8 (44.4%; bronchial brushing, in 7 (38.8%; fine-needle aspiration biopsy, in 2 (11.1%; and BAL, in 2 (11.1%. Bronchial anthracofibrosis was observed in 5 (27.7% of the 18 cases evaluated. Conclusions: In our sample of EBTB patients, the most common subtypes were the tumorous and granular subtypes. We recommend that sputum samples and BALF samples be evaluated by smear microscopy for AFB and by culture for M. tuberculosis, which could increase the rates of early diagnosis of EBTB. We also recommend that bronchial brushing be employed together with other bronchoscopic diagnostic procedures in patients suspected of having EBTB.
Centrality Measures of Dynamic Social Networks
2012-11-01
adapt to the disruption. In the future, I plan to incorporate these additional topics with a secondary case study of the more complex Enron data set...Army Research Laboratory: Aberdeen Proving Ground, 2012. 4. Diesner, J.; Carley, K.M. Exploration of Communication Networks from the Enron Email...Refinement of the Ali Baba Data Set; ARL-TN- 0476; U.S. Army Research Laboratory: Aberdeen Proving Ground, 2012. 16. Cohen, W. Enron Email Dataset
Fractal geometry as a new approach for proving nanosimilarity: a reflection note.
Demetzos, Costas; Pippa, Natassa
2015-04-10
Nanosimilars are considered as new medicinal outcomes combining the generic drugs and the nanocarrier as an innovative excipient, in order to evaluate them as final products. They belong to the grey area - concerning the evaluation process - between generic drugs and biosimilar medicinal products. Generic drugs are well documented and a huge number of them are in market, replacing effectively the off-patent drugs. The scientific approach for releasing them to the market is based on bioequivalence studies, which are well documented and accepted by the regulatory agencies. On the other hand, the structural complexity of biological/biotechnology-derived products demands a new approach for the approval process taking into consideration that bioequivalence studies are not considered as sufficient as in generic drugs, and new clinical trials are needed to support their approval process of the product to the market. In proportion, due to technological complexity of nanomedicines, the approaches for proving the statistical identity or the similarity for generic and biosimilar products, respectively, with those of prototypes, are not considered as effective for nanosimilar products. The aim of this note is to propose a complementary approach which can provide realistic evidences concerning the nanosimilarity, based on fractal analysis. This approach is well fit with the structural complexity of nanomedicines and smooths the difficulties for proving the similarity between off-patent and nanosimilar products. Fractal analysis could be considered as the approach that completely characterizes the physicochemical/morphological characteristics of nanosimilar products and could be proposed as a start point for a deep discussion on nanosimilarity.
2010-07-01
... Installation of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland § 552.213 Policy. (a) Aberdeen Proving Ground is a non-public forum and is open for expensive activity only under certain circumstances. Aberdeen Proving Ground is a..., and other official business. (b) On Aberdeen Proving Ground, except for activities......
Communication complexity and information complexity
Pankratov, Denis
Information complexity enables the use of information-theoretic tools in communication complexity theory. Prior to the results presented in this thesis, information complexity was mainly used for proving lower bounds and direct-sum theorems in the setting of communication complexity. We present three results that demonstrate new connections between information complexity and communication complexity. In the first contribution we thoroughly study the information complexity of the smallest nontrivial two-party function: the AND function. While computing the communication complexity of AND is trivial, computing its exact information complexity presents a major technical challenge. In overcoming this challenge, we reveal that information complexity gives rise to rich geometrical structures. Our analysis of information complexity relies on new analytic techniques and new characterizations of communication protocols. We also uncover a connection of information complexity to the theory of elliptic partial differential equations. Once we compute the exact information complexity of AND, we can compute exact communication complexity of several related functions on n-bit inputs with some additional technical work. Previous combinatorial and algebraic techniques could only prove bounds of the form theta( n). Interestingly, this level of precision is typical in the area of information theory, so our result demonstrates that this meta-property of precise bounds carries over to information complexity and in certain cases even to communication complexity. Our result does not only strengthen the lower bound on communication complexity of disjointness by making it more exact, but it also shows that information complexity provides the exact upper bound on communication complexity. In fact, this result is more general and applies to a whole class of communication problems. In the second contribution, we use self-reduction methods to prove strong lower bounds on the information
Perotto,Daniel; Moletta,José Luiz; Cubas,Antonio Carlos
1999-01-01
Foram analisadas quatorze características quantitativas das carcaças de 137 machos bovinos inteiros pertencentes aos grupos Canchim (Ca), Aberdeen Angus (Ab), 3/4Ca+1/4Ab, 3/4Ab+1/4Ca, 5/8Ca+3/8Ab e 5/8Ab+3/8Ca, nascidos na Estação Experimental Fazenda Modelo, em Ponta Grossa-PR, no período de 1988 a 1993. As médias para a idade e para o peso ao início do confinamento, duração do confinamento, idade e peso ao abate foram, respectivamente, 737 dias, 356kg, 97 dias, 834 dias e 468kg. Durante o ...
2010-07-01
... on the Installation of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland § 552.214 Procedures. (a) Any person or... Ground must submit a written request to the Commander, U.S. Army Garrison, Aberdeen Proving Ground, ATTN: STEAP-CO, 2201 Aberdeen Boulevard, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland 21005-5001. The request must...
2010-07-01
... Installation of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland § 552.212 Scope. (a) The provisions of this subpart apply to all elements of U.S. Army Garrison, Aberdeen Proving Ground (USAGAPG), and the supported organizations and activities on the Aberdeen and Edgewood Areas of Aberdeen Proving Ground. (b) The provisions...
The Mathematical Nature of Reasoning-and-Proving Opportunities in Geometry Textbooks
Otten, Samuel; Gilbertson, Nicholas J.; Males, Lorraine M.; Clark, D. Lee
2014-01-01
International calls have been made for reasoning-and-proving to permeate school mathematics. It is important that efforts to heed this call are grounded in an understanding of the opportunities to reason-and-prove that already exist, especially in secondary-level geometry where reasoning-and-proving opportunities are prevalent but not thoroughly…
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Maylath, Bruce; Vandepitte, Sonia; Minacori, Patricia
2013-01-01
This article discusses the largest and most complex international learning-by-doing project to date- a project involving translation from Danish and Dutch into English and editing into American English alongside a project involving writing, usability testing, and translation from English into Dut...... and into French. The complexity of the undertaking proved to be a central element in the students' learning, as the collaboration closely resembles the complexity of international documentation workplaces of language service providers. © Association of Teachers of Technical Writing....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rajaa Filali
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP is an application layer signaling protocol used to create, manage, and terminate sessions in an IP based network. SIP is considered as a transactional protocol. There are two main SIP transactions, the INVITE transaction and the non-INVITE transaction. The SIP INVITE transaction specification is described in an informal way in Request for Comments (RFC 3261 and modified in RFC 6026. In this paper we focus on the INVITE transaction of SIP, over reliable and unreliable transport mediums, which is used to initiate a session. In order to ensure the correctness of SIP, the INVITE transaction is modeled and verified using event-B method and its Rodin platform. The Event-B refinement concept allows an incremental development by defining the studied system at different levels of abstraction, and Rodin discharges almost all proof obligations at each level. This interaction between modeling and proving reduces the complexity and helps in assuring that the INVITE transaction SIP specification is correct, unambiguous, and easy to understand.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
In this paper, we generalize the method of mechanical theorem proving in curves to prove theorems about surfaces in differential geometry with a mechanical procedure. We improve the classical result on Wronskian determinant, which can be used to decide whether the elements in a partial differential field are linearly dependent over its constant field. Based on Wronskian determinant, we can describe the geometry statements in the surfaces by an algebraic language and then prove them by the characteristic set method.
Huang, Wenxuan; Kitchaev, Daniil A.; Dacek, Stephen T.; Rong, Ziqin; Urban, Alexander; Cao, Shan; Luo, Chuan; Ceder, Gerbrand
2016-10-01
Lattice models, also known as generalized Ising models or cluster expansions, are widely used in many areas of science and are routinely applied to the study of alloy thermodynamics, solid-solid phase transitions, magnetic and thermal properties of solids, fluid mechanics, and others. However, the problem of finding and proving the global ground state of a lattice model, which is essential for all of the aforementioned applications, has remained unresolved for relatively complex practical systems, with only a limited number of results for highly simplified systems known. In this paper, we present a practical and general algorithm that provides a provable periodically constrained ground state of a complex lattice model up to a given unit cell size and in many cases is able to prove global optimality over all other choices of unit cell. We transform the infinite-discrete-optimization problem into a pair of combinatorial optimization (MAX-SAT) and nonsmooth convex optimization (MAX-MIN) problems, which provide upper and lower bounds on the ground state energy, respectively. By systematically converging these bounds to each other, we may find and prove the exact ground state of realistic Hamiltonians whose exact solutions are difficult, if not impossible, to obtain via traditional methods. Considering that currently such practical Hamiltonians are solved using simulated annealing and genetic algorithms that are often unable to find the true global energy minimum and inherently cannot prove the optimality of their result, our paper opens the door to resolving longstanding uncertainties in lattice models of physical phenomena. An implementation of the algorithm is available at https://github.com/dkitch/maxsat-ising.
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L'équipe Scientifique Embarquée
2006-11-01
Full Text Available La croisière 48 du Glomar Challenger s'est déroulée en 1976 entre Brest et Aberdeen sur la marge septentrionale du Golfe de Gascogne et le Banc de Rockall. Les sept sites forés ont permis de comparer la structure et l'histoire géologique de deux marges de types différents, formées par rifting, l'une dans une mer épicontinentale, l'autre dans un craton. L'histoire de la subsidence a pu être établie. De nombreux hiatus ont été mis en évidence dans les séries déposées en mer profonde, dont certains sont contemporains d'événements connus sur le plateau continental. Des marnes noires riches en matière organique d'origine détritique ont été trouvées dans le golfe de Gascogne. Elles ont pu se déposer aussi bien en mer profonde que sur le plateau continental. Des mesures de paléomagnétisme, de flux de chaleur et des diagraphies ont été effectuées avec succès. Leg 48 by the Glomar Challenger took place in 1976, between Brest and Aberdeen, on the northern margin of the Bay of Biscay and the Rockall Bank. The seven drilling sites enabled a comparison ta be made of the structure and geological history of two different types of margins, both formed by rifting, one in an epicontinental sea and the other in a craton. The history of subsidence was determined. A great many gaps were revealed in the series deposited in deep water, including some that are contemporary with events known on the continental shelf. Blackshales rich in organic motter of detrital origin were found in the Bay of Biscay. They may have been deposited either in deep water or on the continental shelf. Successful paleomagnetism and heat flow measurements were made, along with well logging.
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Marilise Mesquita Horn
1999-09-01
Full Text Available Foi administrada dexametasona para indução de degeneração testicular experimental em touros de uma raça taurina pura (Aberdeen Angus e de sua sintética derivada (Brangus-Ibagé. O objetivo deste estudo foi o de averiguar a diferença de sensibilidade na função gametogênica em frente à degeneração experimental. Para tal, foram avaliados os aspectos físicos e morfológicos do sêmen. Os dados obtidos foram analisados considerando o dia de coleta e genótipo. Os resultados revelaram que os dois grupos raciais comportaram-se semelhantemente ao longo das coletas. A despeito do número de animais empregados, o uso da degeneração testicular experimental possibilitou evidenciar que não há diferença entre as duas raças quanto à intensidade da degeneração e tempo necessário para o restabelecimento do quadro espermático normal.Testicular degeneration was induced by dexamethasone injection in bulls from a European breed Aberdeen Angus and a derived synthetic crossbreed (Brangus-Ibagé. Aiming to investigate differential sensibility on gametogenic function in these genotypes, physical and morphological semen characteristics were evaluated. The data analysed considered the day of the semen samples and the breed. Our results reveal that both breeds behave similarly during the experimental period. Even considering the number of bulls used in this experiment, the employed methodology gives no evidence of any difference between breeds, intensity of degeneration or time required to the reestablishment of normal sperm frequencies after experimental induction of testicular degeneration.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arto Kalevi Huuskonen
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of silage plant species (faba bean and field pea based whole crop legume-cereals vs. grass on performance and meat quality of growing Aberdeen Angus (AA and Nordic Red (NR bulls. A 2×3 factorial design was used. The experiment comprised 30 AA and 30 NR bulls. Both breeds were randomly allotted to the three feeding treatments. The compositions (g kg-1 dry matter of diets were: 1 grass silage (650 plus rolled barley (350, 2 faba bean-wheat silage (650 plus rolled barley (350 and 3 pea-wheat silage (650 plus rolled barley (350. The experimental diets were offered as total mixed rations ad libitum. The AA bulls grew faster, had better feed conversion rates and superior dressing proportion and carcass conformation compared to the NR bulls. Replacing grass silage by whole crop legume-cereal silages in the diet did not have remarkable effects on animal performance, carcass characteristics or meat quality.
Abu Eid, Rasha; Ewan, Keith; Foley, Jennifer; Oweis, Yara; Jayasinghe, Jaya
2013-09-01
Tooth morphology has been taught at the University of Aberdeen Dental School, United Kingdom, through self-directed workshops, using online handouts and tooth models. Tooth carving sessions were recently added to introduce manual skills training through learning tooth morphology at an early stage of the dental course. The aim of this study was to assess students' perception of both teaching modalities to evaluate their usefulness and to allow further course development. The subjects of this study were first-year dental students. Students' opinions were sought upon completion of the tooth morphology sessions using a structured questionnaire that investigated their views about the effectiveness of both learning methods. The results suggest that self-directed workshops represent an effective way of learning tooth morphology; however, the students recommended further development of the course to make it more focused. Although students questioned the value of the carving sessions, they agreed that it helped to develop their manual dexterity, which was one of the main objectives of the exercise. Further review and development of the course is required in addition to follow-up of the students' performance in clinical skills to further elucidate any advantages of tooth carving to advocate it as a mode of learning.
Tan, Shanguang
2007-01-01
A new kind of numbers called Hyper Space Complex Numbers and its algebras are defined and proved. It is with good properties as the classic Complex Numbers, such as expressed in coordinates, triangular and exponent forms and following the associative and commutative laws of addition and multiplication. So the classic Complex Number is developed from in complex plane with two dimensions to in complex space with N dimensions and the number system is enlarged also.
Provability, complexity, grammars
Beklemishev, Lev; Vereshchagin, Nikolai
1999-01-01
The book contains English translations of three outstanding dissertations in mathematical logic and complexity theory. L. Beklemishev proves that all provability logics must belong to one of the four previously known classes. The dissertation of M. Pentus proves the Chomsky conjecture about the equivalence of two approaches to formal languages: the Chomsky hierarchy and the Lambek calculus. The dissertation of N. Vereshchagin describes a general framework for criteria of reversability in complexity theory.
Projectively related complex Finsler metrics
Aldea, Nicoleta
2011-01-01
In this paper we introduce in study the projectively related complex Finsler metrics. We prove the complex versions of the Rapcs\\'{a}k's theorem and characterize the weakly K\\"{a}hler and generalized Berwald projectively related complex Finsler metrics. The complex version of Hilbert's Fourth Problem is also pointed out. As an application, the projectiveness of a complex Randers metric is described.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Su Feng
2005-01-01
The paper presents three formal proving methods for generalized weakly ground terminating property, i.e.,weakly terminating property in a restricted domain of a term rewriting system, one with structural induction, one with cover-set induction, and the third without induction, and describes their mechanization based on a meta-computation model for term rewriting systems-dynamic term rewriting calculus. The methods can be applied to non-terminating, nonconfluent and/or non-left-linear term rewriting systems. They can do "forward proving" by applying propositions in the proof, as well as "backward proving" by discovering lemmas during the proof.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
FENG RuYong; YU JianPing
2008-01-01
In this paper,we generalize the method of mechanical theorem proving in curves to prove theorems about surfaces in differential geometry with a mechanical procedure.We improve the classical result on Wronskian determinant,which can be used to decide whether the elements in a partial differential field are linearly dependent over its constant field.Based on Wronskian determinant,we can describe the geometry statements in the surfaces by an algebraic language and then prove them by the characteristic set method.
Proving the AGT relation for N_f = 0,1,2 antifundamentals
Hadasz, Leszek; Suchanek, Paulina
2010-01-01
Using recursive relations satisfied by Nekrasov partition functions and by irregular conformal blocks we prove the AGT correspondence in the case of N=2 superconformal SU(2) quiver gauge theories with N_f = 0,1,2 antifundamental hypermultiplets
Proving test on the seismic reliability of nuclear power plant: PWR reactor containment vessel
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Akiyama, Hiroshi; Yoshikawa, Teiichi; Ohno, Tokue; Yoshikawa, Eiji.
1989-01-01
Seismic reliability proving tests of nuclear power plant facilities are carried out by the Nuclear Power Engineering Test Center, using the large-scale, high-performance vibration table of Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory, and sponsored by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry. In 1982, the seismic reliability proving test of a PWR containment vessel was conducted using a test component of reduced scale 1/3.7. As a result of this test, the test component proved to have structural soundness against earthquakes, and at the same time its stable function was proved by leak tests which were carried out before and after the vibration test. In 1983, the detailed analysis and evaluation of these test results were carried out, and the analysis methods for evaluating strength against earthquakes were established. The seismic analysis and evaluation on the actual containment vessel were then performed using these analysis methods, and the safety and reliability of the PWR reactor containment vessel were confirmed.
The Development of the Proving Process Within a Dynamic Geometry Environment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Danh Nam Nguyen
2012-10-01
Full Text Available In this paper we classify student’s proving level and design an interactive help system (IHS corresponding with these levels in order to investigate the development of the proving process within a dynamic geometry environment. This help system was also used to provide tertiary students with a strategy for proving and to improve their proving levels. The open-ended questions and explorative tasks in the IHS make a contribution to support students’ learning of proving, especially during the processes of realizing invariants, formulating conjectures, producing arguments, and writing proofs. This research wants to react on the well-known students’ difficulties in writing a formal proof. The hypothesis of this work is that these difficulties are based on the lack of students’ understanding the relationship between argumentation and proof. Therefore, we used Toulmin model to analyze student’s argumentation structure and examine the role of abduction in writing a deductive proof. Furthermore, this paper also provides mathematics teachers with three basic conditions for understanding the development of the proving process and teaching strategies for assisting their students in constructing formal proofs.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Williams John L
2009-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP, previously associated with meat and milk quality traits in cattle, in a population of 443 commercial Aberdeen Angus-cross beef cattle. The eight SNP, which were located within five genes: μ-calpain (CAPN1, calpastatin (CAST, leptin (LEP, growth hormone receptor (GHR and acylCoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1, are included in various commercial tests for tenderness, fatness, carcass composition and milk yield/quality. Methods A total of 27 traits were examined, 19 relating to carcass quality, such as carcass weight and fatness, one mechanical measure of tenderness, and the remaining seven were sensory traits, such as flavour and tenderness, assessed by a taste panel. Results An SNP in the CAPN1 gene, CAPN316, was significantly associated with tenderness measured by both the tenderometer and the taste panel as well as the weight of the hindquarter, where animals inheriting the CC genotype had more tender meat and heavier hindquarters. An SNP in the leptin gene, UASMS2, significantly affected overall liking, where animals with the TT genotype were assigned higher scores by the panellists. The SNP in the GHR gene was significantly associated with odour, where animals inheriting the AA genotype produced steaks with an intense odour when compared with the other genotypes. Finally, the SNP in the DGAT1 gene was associated with sirloin weight after maturation and fat depth surrounding the sirloin, with animals inheriting the AA genotype having heavier sirloins and more fat. Conclusion The results of this study confirm some previously documented associations. Furthermore, novel associations have been identified which, following validation in other populations, could be incorporated into breeding programmes to improve meat quality.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arango Ulloa Astrid Johanna
2000-06-01
Full Text Available En la presente investigación se tuvieron en cuenta 2032 observaciones para el análisis de peso al nacimiento, ganancia predestete y peso al destete y 603 para ganancia de peso posdestete y peso a los 18 meses, de machos y hembras nacidas entre 1994 y 1996 en la "Hacienda Cuba", localizada en el municipio de Montelíbano, departamento de Córboba. Para determinar la influencia de los diferentes factores genéticos y no genéticos sobre las variables estudiadas, se utilizó el programa de mínimos cuadrados de Harvey (1988. En los modelos para el peso al nacimiento, ganancia diaria predestete, peso al destete, ganancia diaria posdestete y peso a los 18 meses fueron considerados los siguientes factores: año de nacimiento, época de nacimiento, grupo genético de la cría, (Aberdeen Angus x Cebú y Cebú Comercial,sexo de la cría, mes de destete, época de destete, año de destete, mes de pesaje a los 18 meses. Según el modelo estudiado se tuvieron en cuenta como variables al destete, el peso al nacimiento y el peso ajustado al destete. La mayor parte de los factores no genéticos tuvieron efecto significativo (P<0,05, no siendo significativa la época de destete para el modelo de peso a los 18 meses.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wos, L.; McCune, W.
1988-01-01
In this paper, we offer a set of problems for evaluating the power of automated theorem-proving programs and the potential of new ideas. Since the problems published in the proceedings of the first CADE conference proved to be so useful, and since researchers are now far more disposed to implementing and testing their ideas, a new set of problems to complement those that have been widely studied is in order. In general, the new problems provide a far greater challenge for an automated theorem-proving program than those in the first set do. Indeed, to our knowledge, five of the six problems we propose for study have never been proved with a theorem-proving program. For each problem, we give a set of statements that can easily be translated into a standard set of clauses. We also state each problem in its mathematical and logical form. In many cases, we also provide a proof of the theorem from which a problem is taken so that one can measure a program's progress in its attempt to solve the problem. Two of the theorems we discuss are of especial interest in that they answer questions that had been open concerning the constructibility of two types of combinator. We also include a brief description of a new strategy for restricting the application of paramodulation. All of the problems we propose for study emphasize the role of equality. This paper is tutorial in nature.
Eliminating Redundant Search Space on Backtracking for Forward Chaining Theorem Proving
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Lifeng He; Yuyan Chao; Hidenori Itoh
2003-01-01
This paper introduces some improvements on the intelligent backtracking strategyfor forward chaining theorem proving. How to decide a minimal useful consequent atom set for a refutation derived at a node in a proof tree is discussed. In most cases, an unnecessary non-Horn clause used for forward chaining will be split only once. The increase of the search spaceby invoking unnecessary forward chaining clauses will be nearly linear, not exponential anymore.In this paper, the principle of the proposed method and its correctness are introduced. Moreover,some examples are provided to show that the proposed approach is powerful for forward chaining theorem proving.
Circular reasoning: who first proved that $C/d$ is a constant?
Richeson, David
2013-01-01
We answer the question: who first proved that $C/d$ is a constant? We argue that Archimedes proved that the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter is a constant independent of the circle and that the circumference constant equals the area constant ($C/d=A/r^{2}$). He stated neither result explicitly, but both are implied by his work. His proof required the addition of two axioms beyond those in Euclid's \\emph{Elements}; this was the first step toward a rigorous theory of arc l...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Valentin S. Fedorovsky
2015-09-01
Full Text Available The Olkhon region of the Western Pribaikalie is highly attractive for geologists due to the presence of diverse metamorphic complexes and highly complicated combinations of folded structures in this region. The Olkhon region is located within the area of the Pribaikalsky National Park of Russia. At abundant outcrops in the subject area, various geological aspects resulting from the Early Palaeozoic collision system can be studied in detail. By its parameters, the subject area can be considered a «geodynamic proving ground». In recent years, abundant aerospace materials on the area have been accumulated, and long-term field studies resulted in many discoveries and findings which encourage critical revision of the initial conceptions. The material available allows compilation of a new package of geological maps in hard and electronic versions.
Huang, Wenxuan; Dacek, Stephen; Rong, Ziqin; Urban, Alexander; Cao, Shan; Luo, Chuan; Ceder, Gerbrand
2016-01-01
Lattice models, also known as generalized Ising models or cluster expansions, are widely used in many areas of science and are routinely applied to alloy thermodynamics, solid-solid phase transitions, magnetic and thermal properties of solids, and fluid mechanics, among others. However, the problem of finding the true global ground state of a lattice model, which is essential for all of the aforementioned applications, has remained unresolved, with only a limited number of results for highly simplified systems known. In this article, we present the first general algorithm to find the exact ground states of complex lattice models and to prove their global optimality, resolving this fundamental problem in condensed matter and materials theory. We transform the infinite-discrete-optimization problem into a pair of combinatorial optimization (MAX-SAT) and non-smooth convex optimization (MAX-MIN) problems, which provide upper and lower bounds on the ground state energy respectively. By systematically converging th...
Diepeveen, N.F.B.; Jarquin-Laguna, A.
2014-01-01
In this paper the results are presented of experiments to prove an innovative concept for passive torque control of variable speed wind turbines using fluid power technology. It is demonstrated that by correctly configuring the hydraulic drive train, the wind turbine rotor operates at or near maximu
Diepeveen, N.F.B.; Jarquin-Laguna, A.
2014-01-01
In this paper the results are presented of experiments to prove an innovative concept for passive torque control of variable speed wind turbines using fluid power technology. It is demonstrated that by correctly configuring the hydraulic drive train, the wind turbine rotor operates at or near maximu
Using eternity variables to specify and prove a serializable database interface
Hesselink, Wim H.
Eternity variables are introduced to specify and verify serializability of transactions of a distributed database. Eternity variables are a new kind of auxiliary variables. They do not occur in the implementation but are used in specification and verification. Elsewhere it has been proved that
Using eternity variables to specify and prove a serializable database interface
Hesselink, Wim H.
2004-01-01
Eternity variables are introduced to specify and verify serializability of transactions of a distributed database. Eternity variables are a new kind of auxiliary variables. They do not occur in the implementation but are used in specification and verification. Elsewhere it has been proved that etern
What We Say and How We Do: Action, Gesture, and Language in Proving
Williams-Pierce, Caroline; Pier, Elizabeth L.; Walkington, Candace; Boncoddo, Rebecca; Clinton, Virginia; Alibali, Martha W.; Nathan, Mitchell J.
2017-01-01
In this Brief Report, we share the main findings from our line of research into embodied cognition and proof activities. First, attending to students' gestures during proving activities can reveal aspects of mathematics thinking not apparent in their speech, and analyzing gestures after proof production can contribute significantly to our…
Maya, Rippi; Sumarmo, Utari
2011-01-01
This paper reports findings of a post test experimental control group design conducted to investigate the role of modified Moore learning approach on improving students' mathematical understanding and proving abilities. Subjects of study were 56 undergraduate students of one state university in Bandung, who took advanced abstract algebra course.…
Social Network Processes in the Isabelle and Coq Theorem Proving Communities
Fleuriot, Jacques; Scott, Phil
2016-01-01
We identify the main actors in the Isabelle and Coq communities and describe how they affect and influence their peers. This work explores selected foundations of social networking analysis that we expect to be useful in the context of the ProofPeer project, which is developing a new model for interactive theorem proving based on collaboration and social interactions.
Searching for fixed point combinators by using automated theorem proving: A preliminary report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wos, L.; McCune, W.
1988-09-01
In this report, we establish that the use of an automated theorem- proving program to study deep questions from mathematics and logic is indeed an excellent move. Among such problems, we focus mainly on that concerning the construction of fixed point combinators---a problem considered by logicians to be significant and difficult to solve, and often computationally intensive and arduous. To be a fixed point combinator, THETA must satisfy the equation THETAx = x(THETAx) for all combinators x. The specific questions on which we focus most heavily ask, for each chosen set of combinators, whether a fixed point combinator can be constructed from the members of that set. For answering questions of this type, we present a new, sound, and efficient method, called the kernel method, which can be applied quite easily by hand and very easily by an automated theorem-proving program. For the application of the kernel method by a theorem-proving program, we illustrate the vital role that is played by both paramodulation and demodulation---two of the powerful features frequently offered by an automated theorem-proving program for treating equality as if it is ''understood.'' We also state a conjecture that, if proved, establishes the completeness of the kernel method. From what we can ascertain, this method---which relies on the introduced concepts of kernel and superkernel---offers the first systematic approach for searching for fixed point combinators. We successfully apply the new kernel method to various sets of combinators and, for the set consisting of the combinators B and W, construct an infinite set of fixed point combinators such that no two of the combinators are equal even in the presence of extensionality---a law that asserts that two combinators are equal if they behave the same. 18 refs.
2010-07-01
... Installation of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland § 552.211 Purpose. This subpart establishes policies, responsibilities, and procedures for protests, pickeing, and other similar demonstrations on the Aberdeen Proving Ground installation....
32 CFR 552.215 - Responsibilities.
2010-07-01
... Demonstrations on the Installation of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland § 552.215 Responsibilities. (a) Director, Law Enforcement and Security, U.S. Army Garrison, Aberdeen Proving Ground, will furnish police...
Complex Convexity of Orlicz Modular Sequence Spaces
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lili Chen
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The concepts of complex extreme points, complex strongly extreme points, complex strict convexity, and complex midpoint locally uniform convexity in general modular spaces are introduced. Then we prove that, for any Orlicz modular sequence space lΦ,ρ, lΦ,ρ is complex midpoint locally uniformly convex. As a corollary, lΦ,ρ is also complex strictly convex.
Keady, Sarah M; Kenny, David A; Ohlendieck, Kay; Doyle, Sean; Keane, M G; Waters, Sinéad M
2013-02-01
Bovine skeletal muscle is a tissue of significant value to the beef industry and global economy. Proteomic analyses offer the opportunity to detect molecular mechanisms regulating muscle growth and intramuscular fat accumulation. The current study aimed to investigate differences in protein abundance in skeletal muscle tissue of cattle from two breeds of contrasting maturity (early vs. late maturing), adiposity, and muscle growth potential, namely, Belgian Blue (BB) × Holstein Friesian and Aberdeen Angus (AA) × Holstein Friesian. Twenty AA (n = 10) and BB (n = 10) sired steers, the progeny of sires of either high or low genetic merit, expressed as expected progeny difference for carcass weight (EPDcwt), and bred through AI, were evaluated as 4 genetic groups, BB-High, BB-Low, AA-High, and AA-Low (n = 5 per treatment). Chemical composition analysis of M. longissimus lumborum showed greater protein and moisture and decreased lipid concentrations for BB-sired compared with AA-sired steers. To investigate the effects of both sire breed and EPDcwt on M. longissimus lumborum, proteomic analysis was performed using 2-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry. Proteins were identified from their peptide sequences, using the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and Swiss-prot databases. Metabolic enzymes involved in glycolysis (glycogen phosphorylase, phosphoglycerate mutase) and the citric acid cycle (aconitase 2, oxoglutarate dehydrogenase) were increased in AA- vs. BB-sired steers. Expression of proteins involved in cell structure, such as myosin light chain isoforms and troponins I and T, were also altered due to sire breed. Furthermore, heat shock protein β-1 and peroxiredoxin 6, involved in cell defense, had increased abundance in muscle of AA-sired relative to BB-sired steers. Protein abundance of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, enolase-3, and pyruvate kinase was greater in AA-sired animals of High compared with Low
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rippi Maya
2011-07-01
Full Text Available This paper reports findings of a post test experimental control group design conducted to investigate the role of modified Moore learning approach on improving students’ mathematical understanding and proving abilities. Subject of study were 56 undergradute students of one state university in Bandung, who took advanced abstract algebra course. Instrument of study were a set test of mathematical understanding ability, a set test of mathematical proving ability, and a set of students’ opinion scale on modified Moore learning approach. Data were analyzed by using two path ANOVA. The study found that proof construction process was more difficult than mathematical understanding task for all students, and students still posed some difficulties on constructing mathematical proof task. The study also found there were not differences between students’ abilities on mathematical understanding and on proving abilities of the both classes, and both abilities were classified as mediocre. However, in modified Moore learning approach class there were more students who got above average grades on mathematical understanding than those of conventional class. Moreover, students performed positive opinion toward modified Moore learning approach. They were active in questioning and solving problems, and in explaining their works in front of class as well, while students of conventional teaching prefered to listen to lecturer’s explanation. The study also found that there was no interaction between learning approach and students’ prior mathematics ability on mathematical understanding and proving abilities, but there were quite strong association between students’ mathematical understanding and proving abilities.Keywords: modified Moore learning approach, mathematical understanding ability, mathematical proving ability. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.2.2.751.231-250
Affine bracket algebra theory and algorithms and their applications in mechanical theorem proving
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ning ZHANG; Hong-bo LI
2007-01-01
This paper discusses two problems: one is some important theories and algorithms of affine bracket algebra; the other is about their applications in mechanical theorem proving. First we give some efficient algorithms including the boundary expanding algorithm which is a key feature in application. We analyze the characteristics of the boundary operator and this is the base for the implementation of the system. We also give some new theories or methods about the exact division, the representations and structure of affine geometry and so on. In practice, we implement the mechanical auto-proving system in Maple 10 based on the above algorithms and theories. Also we test about more than 100 examples and compare the results with the methods before.
A mixed approach for proving non-inferiority in clinical trials with binary endpoints.
Rousson, Valentin; Seifert, Burkhardt
2008-04-01
When a new treatment is compared to an established one in a randomized clinical trial, it is standard practice to statistically test for non-inferiority rather than for superiority. When the endpoint is binary, one usually compares two treatments using either an odds-ratio or a difference of proportions. In this paper, we propose a mixed approach which uses both concepts. One first defines the non-inferiority margin using an odds-ratio and one ultimately proves non-inferiority statistically using a difference of proportions. The mixed approach is shown to be more powerful than the conventional odds-ratio approach when the efficacy of the established treatment is known (with good precision) and high (e.g. with more than 56% of success). The gain of power achieved may lead in turn to a substantial reduction in the sample size needed to prove non-inferiority. The mixed approach can be generalized to ordinal endpoints.
Affine bracket algebra theory and algorithms and their applications in mechanical theorem proving
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2007-01-01
This paper discusses two problems:one is some important theories and algorithms of affine bracket algebra;the other is about their applications in mechanical theorem proving.First we give some efficient algorithms including the boundary expanding algorithm which is a key feature in application.We analyze the characteristics of the boundary operator and this is the base for the implementation of the system.We also give some new theories or methods about the exact division,the representations and structure of affine geometry and so on.In practice,we implement the mechanical auto-proving system in Maple 10 based on the above algorithms and theories.Also we test about more than 100 examples and compare the results with the methods before.
Impact of cooking, proving, and baking on the (poly)phenol content of wild blueberry.
Rodriguez-Mateos, Ana; Cifuentes-Gomez, Tania; George, Trevor W; Spencer, Jeremy P E
2014-05-07
Accumulating evidence suggests that diets rich in (poly)phenols may have positive effects on human health. Currently there is limited information regarding the effects of processing on the (poly)phenolic content of berries, in particular in processes related to the baking industry. This study investigated the impact of cooking, proving, and baking on the anthocyanin, procyanidin, flavonol, and phenolic acid contents of wild blueberry using HPLC with UV and fluorescence detection. Anthocyanin levels decreased during cooking, proving, and baking, whereas no significant changes were observed for total procyanidins. However, lower molecular weight procyanidins increased and high molecular weight oligomers decreased during the process. Quercetin and ferulic and caffeic acid levels remained constant, whereas increases were found for chlorogenic acid. Due to their possible health benefits, a better understanding of the impact of processing is important to maximize the retention of these phytochemicals in berry-containing products.
Recognizing dualizing complexes
Jorgensen, Peter
2003-01-01
Let A be a noetherian local commutative ring and let M be a suitable complex of A-modules. This paper proves that M is a dualizing complex for A if and only if the trivial extension A \\ltimes M is a Gorenstein Differential Graded Algebra. As a corollary follows that A has a dualizing complex if and only if it is a quotient of a Gorenstein local Differential Graded Algebra.
Raphael, B.; Fikes, R.; Waldinger, R.
1973-01-01
The results are summarised of a project aimed at the design and implementation of computer languages to aid in expressing problem solving procedures in several areas of artificial intelligence including automatic programming, theorem proving, and robot planning. The principal results of the project were the design and implementation of two complete systems, QA4 and QLISP, and their preliminary experimental use. The various applications of both QA4 and QLISP are given.
Concept of Operations for a Prospective "Proving Ground" in the Lunar Vicinity
Love, Stanley G.; Hill, James J.
2016-01-01
NASA is studying a "Proving Ground" near the Moon to conduct human space exploration missions in preparation for future flights to Mars. This paper describes a concept of operations ("conops") for activities in the Proving Ground, focusing on the construction and use of a mobile Cislunar Transit Habitat capable of months-long excursions within and beyond the Earth-Moon system. Key elements in the conops include the Orion spacecraft (with mission kits for docking and other specialized operations) and the Space Launch System heavy-lift rocket. Potential additions include commercial launch vehicles and logistics carriers, solar electric propulsion stages to move elements between different orbits and eventually take them on excursions to deep space, a node module with multiple docking ports, habitation and life support blocks, and international robotic and piloted lunar landers. The landers might include reusable ascent modules which could remain docked to in-space elements between lunar sorties. The architecture will include infrastructure for launch preparation, communication, mission control, and range safety. The conops describes "case studies" of notional missions chosen to guide the design of the architecture and its elements. One such mission is the delivery of a 10-ton pressurized element, co-manifested with an Orion on a Block 1B Space Launch System rocket, to the Proving Ground. With a large solar electric propulsion stage, the architecture could enable a year-long mission to land humans on a near-Earth asteroid. In the last case, after returning to near-lunar space, two of the asteroid explorers could join two crewmembers freshly arrived from Earth for a Moon landing, helping to safely quantify the risk of landing deconditioned crews on Mars. The conops also discusses aborts and contingency operations. Early return to Earth may be difficult, especially during later Proving Ground missions. While adding risk, limited-abort conditions provide needed practice
Geometry Theorem Proving by Decomposing Polynomial System into Strong Regular Sets
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yong-Bin Li; Wu Liu; Xiao-Lin Xiang
2004-01-01
This paper presents a complete method to prove geometric theorem by decomposing the corresponding polynomial system into strong regular sets, by which one can compute some components for which the geometry theorem is true and exclude other components for which the geometry theorem is false. Two examples are given to show that the geometry theorems are conditionally true for some components which are excluded by other methods.
Mechanical theorem proving in differential geometry——Local theory of surfaces
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李洪波
1997-01-01
An automated reasoning method, based on Wu’s method and calculus of differential forms, is proposed for mechanical theorem proving in local theory of space surfaces in differential geometry. The method has been used to simplify one of Chern’s theorems: "The non-trivial families of isometric surfaces having the same principal curvatures are W-surfaces." Some other theorems are also tested by this method. The proofs are generally simpler than those in differential geometry textbooks.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kandt, A.; Lowell, M.
2012-05-01
GSA's Green Proving Ground (GPG) program utilizes GSA's real estate portfolio to test and evaluate innovative and underutilized sustainable building technologies and practices. Findings are used to support the development of GSA performance specifications and inform decision making within GSA, other federal agencies, and the real estate industry. The program aims to drive innovation in environmental performance in federal buildings and help lead market transformation through deployment of new technologies.
A Transformational Approach for Proving Properties of the CHR Constraint Store
Pilozzi, Paolo; Schrijvers, Tom; Bruynooghe, Maurice
Proving termination of, or generating efficient control for Constraint Handling Rules (CHR) programs requires information about the kinds of constraints that can show up in the CHR constraint store. In contrast to Logic Programming (LP), there are not many tools available for deriving such information for CHR. Hence, instead of building analyses for CHR from scratch, we define a transformation from CHR to Prolog and reuse existing analysis tools for Prolog.
Proving and therapeutic experiments in the HomBRex basic homeopathy research database.
Van Wijk, R; Albrecht, H
2007-10-01
The HomBRex database of basic research experiments on homeopathy indexes studies on biological systems including animal, human, plant, fungi and microbial organisms. Its objective is to index proving and therapeutic experiments on the Similia Principle and the role of dilution and succussion of substances in experimental biologic systems. The database was analyzed when it contained more than 1100 experiments in more than 900 original articles. The database provides information on 732 experiments using healthy human, animal and plant systems. These experiments were divided into 'ideal' model proving (475) and prophylactic (257) categories. It also includes 397 therapeutic experiments, in which an effect of a substance was tested in a diseased or disturbed system. A large number of substances were used, including high and low dilutions and potencies-191 substances in proving, 130 in prophylactic and 112 in therapeutic experiments. In general, basic research in homeopathy does not directly investigate the Similia Principle. We conclude, that from the overwhelming variety in organisms, diseased states, and substances, only a limited number of biological systems and states should be selected to study the Similia Principle.
SPoRT's Participation in the GOES-R Proving Ground Activity
Jedlovec, Gary; Fuell, Kevin; Smith, Matthew; Stano, Geoffrey; Molthan, Andrew
2011-01-01
The next generation geostationary satellite, GOES-R, will carry two new instruments with unique atmospheric and surface observing capabilities, the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) and the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM), to study short-term weather processes. The ABI will bring enhanced multispectral observing capabilities with frequent refresh rates for regional and full disk coverage to geostationary orbit to address many existing and new forecast challenges. The GLM will, for the first time, provide the continuous monitoring of total lightning flashes over a hemispherical region from space. NOAA established the GOES-R Proving Ground activity several years ago to demonstrate the new capabilities of these instruments and to prepare forecasters for their day one use. Proving Ground partners work closely with algorithm developers and the end user community to develop and transition proxy data sets representing GOES-R observing capabilities. This close collaboration helps to maximize refine algorithms leading to the delivery of a product that effectively address a forecast challenge. The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) program has been a participant in the NOAA GOES-R Proving Ground activity by developing and disseminating selected GOES-R proxy products to collaborating WFOs and National Centers. Established in 2002 to demonstrate the weather and forecasting application of real-time EOS measurements, the SPoRT program has grown to be an end-to-end research to operations activity focused on the use of advanced NASA modeling and data assimilation approaches, nowcasting techniques, and unique high-resolution multispectral data from EOS satellites to improve short-term weather forecasts on a regional and local scale. Participation in the Proving Ground activities extends SPoRT s activities and taps its experience and expertise in diagnostic weather analysis, short-term weather forecasting, and the transition of research and experimental
75 FR 49481 - Procurement List; Additions and Deletion
2010-08-13
... (C4ISR), 4118 Susquehanna Avenue, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD. NPA: The Chimes, Inc., Baltimore, MD. Contracting Activity: Dept of the Army, XR W6BA ACA, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 6/4/2010 (75 FR 31768-31769), 6/11/2010 (75 FR 33270-33271), and......
2010-07-01
... on the Installation of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland § 552.216 Violations. (a) A person is in violation of the terms of this subpart if: (1) That person enters or remains upon Aberdeen Proving Ground..., Aberdeen Proving Ground pursuant to the terms of § 552.214; or (2) That person enters upon or remains...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tomás Weber
2009-06-01
Full Text Available Neste trabalho, foram avaliados, na fase de pós-desmama, 28.349 animais da raça Aberdeen Angus, nascidos entre os anos de 1993 e 2003 e criados em 141 fazendas. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram estimar parâmetros genéticos e avaliar a tendência genética e a fenotípica para os escores de avaliação visual (EVs, conformação (C, precocidade (P, musculatura (M e tamanho (T. Os componentes de (covariância foram estimados por REML, utilizando um modelo animal. As estimativas de herdabilidade foram: 0,13; 0,11; 0,16 e 0,13 para C, P, M e T, respectivamente. As correlações genéticas obtidas entre os escores visuais variaram de 0,01 a 0,92. As tendências genéticas e fenotípicas para C, P, M e T (pontos/ano foram: 0,0054 e 0,0189; 0,0035 e -0,0013; 0,0057 e 0,0217 e 0,0026 e -0,0016, respectivamente. As herdabilidades estimadas sugerem baixa resposta à seleção direta. As correlações genéticas entre os EVs foram altas entre C, P e M (0,79 a 0,92 e foram baixas entre estes e T (0,01 a 0,30. As tendências genéticas mostram que a seleção está promovendo ganho genético de pequena magnitude, porém, as tendências fenotípicas, com valores negativos para algumas características, indicam que deve ser dada mais atenção para as condições ambientais.There were evaluated at post weaning phase, 28.349 Aberdeen Angus breed animals, born from 1993 to 2003 on 141 farms, to estimate genetic parameters and to evaluate genetic and phenotypic trends for visual scores (EVs conformation (C, precocity (P, musculature (M and size (T. The covariance components were obtained by REML using an animal model. The heritabilities estimated were: 0.13, 0.11, 0.16 and 0.13, to C, P, M and T, respectively. The genetic correlations between the EVs range from 0.01 to 0.92. The genetic and phenotypic trends estimated for C, P, M, and T (points/year were 0.0054 and 0.0189; 0.0035 and -0.0013; 0.0057 and 0.0217; and 0.0026 and -0.0016, respectively. The
Research Objectives for Human Missions in the Proving Ground of Cis-Lunar Space
Spann, James; Niles, Paul; Eppler, Dean; Kennedy, Kriss; Lewis, Ruthan; Sullivan, Thomas
2016-07-01
Introduction: This talk will introduce the preliminary findings in support of NASA's Future Capabilities Team. In support of the ongoing studies conducted by NASA's Future Capabilities Team, we are tasked with collecting re-search objectives for the Proving Ground activities. The objectives could include but are certainly not limited to: demonstrating crew well being and performance over long duration missions, characterizing lunar volatiles, Earth monitoring, near Earth object search and identification, support of a far-side radio telescope, and measuring impact of deep space environment on biological systems. Beginning in as early as 2023, crewed missions beyond low Earth orbit will be enabled by the new capabilities of the SLS and Orion vehicles. This will initiate the "Proving Ground" phase of human exploration with Mars as an ultimate destination. The primary goal of the Proving Ground is to demonstrate the capability of suitably long dura-tion spaceflight without need of continuous support from Earth, i.e. become Earth Independent. A major component of the Proving Ground phase is to conduct research activities aimed at accomplishing major objectives selected from a wide variety of disciplines including but not limited to: Astronomy, Heliophysics, Fun-damental Physics, Planetary Science, Earth Science, Human Systems, Fundamental Space Biology, Microgravity, and In Situ Resource Utilization. Mapping and prioritizing the most important objectives from these disciplines will provide a strong foundation for establishing the architecture to be utilized in the Proving Ground. Possible Architectures: Activities and objectives will be accomplished during the Proving Ground phase using a deep space habitat. This habitat will potentially be accompanied by a power/propulsion bus capable of moving the habitat to accomplish different objectives within cis-lunar space. This architecture can also potentially support stag-ing of robotic and tele-robotic assets as well as
Lineaments and fracture traces, Jennings County and Jefferson Proving Ground, Indiana
Greeman, T.K.
1981-01-01
Jennings and several adjacent counties are economically restricted "by inadequate water supplies. The North Vernon Water Utility, supplying more than 25 percent of Jennings County's population, obtains its water from the Vernon Fork Muscatatuck River, although streamflow is less than the average daily withdrawal 69 days of the year. The U.S. Army, Jefferson Proving Ground, pipes water more than 5 miles and lifts it 375 feet for fire protection. Another Jennings County utility pipes water more than 15 miles to rural domestic consumers unable to locate sufficient ground-water supplies.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2000-01-01
A method for DNA isolation from early development of blastocyst and further analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA was developed in present study. Total DNA was prepared from interspecies reconstructed blastocyst and a giant panda specific microsatellite locus g010 was successfully amplified. DNA sequencing of the PCR product showed that two sequences of reconstructed blastocysts are the same as that of positive control giant panda. Our results prove that the nucleus of interspecies reconstructed blastocyst comes from somatic nucleus of donor giant panda.
A Simple Application of Lightweight Fusion to Proving the Equivalence of Abstract Machines
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Danvy, Olivier; Millikin, Kevin
2007-01-01
We show how Ohori and Sasano's recent lightweight fusion by fixed-point promotion provides a simple way to prove the equivalence of the two standard styles of specification of abstract machines: (1) as a transition function together with a `driver loop' implementing the iteration of this transition...... function; and (2) as a function directly iterating upon a configuration until reaching a final state, if ever. The equivalence hinges on the fact that the latter style of specification is a fused version of the former one. The need for such a simple proof is motivated by our recent work on syntactic...
Using aetnanova to formally prove that the Davis-Putnam satisfiability test is correct
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eugenio G. Omodeo
2008-05-01
Full Text Available This paper reports on using the ÆtnaNova/Referee proof-veriﬁcation system to formalize issues regarding the satisﬁability of CNF-formulae of propositional logic. We specify an “archetype” version of the Davis-Putnam-Logemann-Loveland algorithm through the THEORY of recursive functions based on a well-founded relation, and prove it to be correct.Within the same framework, and by resorting to the Zorn lemma, we develop a straightforward proof of the compactness theorem.
On the Complexity of Labeled Oriented Trees
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Stephan Rosebrock
2010-02-01
We define a notion of complexity for labeled oriented trees (LOTs) related to the bridge number in knot theory and prove that LOTs of complexity 2 are aspherical. We also present a class of LOTs of higher complexity which is aspherical, give an upper bound for the complexity of labeled oriented intervals and study the complexity of torus knots.
Kaufman, M H
2015-11-01
Between 1841 and 1845 John Struthers attended both the University of Edinburgh and some of the various Extra-mural Schools of Medicine associated with Surgeons' Hall. While a medical student he became a Member of the Hunterian Medical Society of Edinburgh and later was elected one of their Annual Presidents. He graduated with the MD Edin and obtained both the LRCS Edin and the FRCS Edin diplomas in 1845. Shortly afterwards he was invited to teach Anatomy in Dr Handyside's Extra-mural School in Edinburgh. The College of Surgeons certified him to teach Anatomy in October 1847. He had two brothers, and all three read Medicine in Edinburgh. His younger brother, Alexander, died of cholera in the Crimea in 1855 while his older brother James, who had been a bachelor all his life, practised as a Consultant Physician in Leith Hospital, Edinburgh, until his death.When associated with Dr Handyside's Extra-mural School in Edinburgh, John taught Anatomy there until he was elected to the Chair of Anatomy in Aberdeen in 1863. Much of his time was spent in Aberdeen teaching Anatomy and in upgrading the administrative facilities there. He resigned from this Chair in 1889 and subsequently was elected President of Leith Hospital from 1891 to 1897. This was in succession to his older brother, James, who had died in 1891. Later, he was elected President of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh from 1895 to 1897 and acted as its Vice-President from 1897 until his death in 1899. In 1898, Queen Victoria knighted him. His youngest son, John William Struthers, was the only one of his clinically qualified sons to survive him and subsequently was elected President of the Edinburgh College of Surgeons from 1941 to 1943.
Schulz, Simon; Angarano, Marco; Fabritius, Martin; Mülhaupt, Rolf; Dard, Michel; Obrecht, Marcel; Tomakidi, Pascal; Steinberg, Thorsten
2014-07-01
Standard preclinical assessments in vitro often have limitations regarding their transferability to human beings, mainly evoked by their nonhuman and tissue-different/nontissue-specific source. Here, we aimed at employing tissue-authentic simple and complex interactive fibroblast-epithelial cell systems and their in vivo-relevant biomarkers for preclinical in vitro assessment of nonwoven-based gelatin/polycaprolactone membranes (NBMs) for treatment of soft tissue defects. NBMs were composed of electrospun gelatin and polycaprolactone nanofiber nonwovens. Scanning electron microscopy in conjunction with actin/focal contact integrin fluorescence revealed successful adhesion and proper morphogenesis of keratinocytes and fibroblasts, along with cells' derived extracellular matrix deposits. The "feel-good factor" of cells under study on the NBM was substantiated by forming a confluent connective tissue entity, which was concomitant with a stratified epithelial equivalent. Immunohistochemistry proved tissue authenticity over time by abundance of the biomarker vimentin in the connective tissue entity, and chronological increase of keratins KRT1/10 and involucrin expression in epithelial equivalents. Suitability of the novel NBM as wound dressing was evidenced by an almost completion of epithelial wound closure in a pilot mini-pig study, after a surgical intervention-caused gingival dehiscence. In summary, preclinical assessment by tissue-authentic cell systems and the animal pilot study revealed the NBM as an encouraging therapeutic medical device for prospective clinical applications.
Reasoning in the OWL 2 Full Ontology Language using First-Order Automated Theorem Proving
Schneider, Michael
2011-01-01
OWL 2 has been standardized by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) as a family of ontology languages for the Semantic Web. The most expressive of these languages is OWL 2 Full, but to date no reasoner has been implemented for this language. Consistency and entailment checking are known to be undecidable for OWL 2 Full. We have translated a large fragment of the OWL 2 Full semantics into first-order logic, and used automated theorem proving systems to do reasoning based on this theory. The results are promising, and indicate that this approach can be applied in practice for effective OWL reasoning, beyond the capabilities of current Semantic Web reasoners. This is an extended version of a paper with the same title that has been published at CADE 2011, LNAI 6803, pp. 446-460. The extended version provides appendices with additional resources that were used in the reported evaluation.
A Synthesis of the Procedural and Declarative Styles of Interactive Theorem Proving
Wiedijk, Freek
2012-01-01
We propose a synthesis of the two proof styles of interactive theorem proving: the procedural style (where proofs are scripts of commands, like in Coq) and the declarative style (where proofs are texts in a controlled natural language, like in Isabelle/Isar). Our approach combines the advantages of the declarative style - the possibility to write formal proofs like normal mathematical text - and the procedural style - strong automation and help with shaping the proofs, including determining the statements of intermediate steps. Our approach is new, and differs significantly from the ways in which the procedural and declarative proof styles have been combined before in the Isabelle, Ssreflect and Matita systems. Our approach is generic and can be implemented on top of any procedural interactive theorem prover, regardless of its architecture and logical foundations. To show the viability of our proposed approach, we fully implemented it as a proof interface called miz3, on top of the HOL Light interactive theor...
A theorem proving framework for the formal verification of Web Services Composition
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Petros Papapanagiotou
2011-08-01
Full Text Available We present a rigorous framework for the composition of Web Services within a higher order logic theorem prover. Our approach is based on the proofs-as-processes paradigm that enables inference rules of Classical Linear Logic (CLL to be translated into pi-calculus processes. In this setting, composition is achieved by representing available web services as CLL sentences, proving the requested composite service as a conjecture, and then extracting the constructed pi-calculus term from the proof. Our framework, implemented in HOL Light, not only uses an expressive logic that allows us to incorporate multiple Web Services properties in the composition process, but also provides guarantees of soundness and correctness for the composition.
A theorem proving framework for the formal verification of Web Services Composition
Papapanagiotou, Petros; 10.4204/EPTCS.61.1
2011-01-01
We present a rigorous framework for the composition of Web Services within a higher order logic theorem prover. Our approach is based on the proofs-as-processes paradigm that enables inference rules of Classical Linear Logic (CLL) to be translated into pi-calculus processes. In this setting, composition is achieved by representing available web services as CLL sentences, proving the requested composite service as a conjecture, and then extracting the constructed pi-calculus term from the proof. Our framework, implemented in HOL Light, not only uses an expressive logic that allows us to incorporate multiple Web Services properties in the composition process, but also provides guarantees of soundness and correctness for the composition.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vandel, D.S.; Medina, S.M.; Weidner, J.R.
1994-03-01
The US Army Yuma Proving Ground (YPG), located in the southwest portion of Arizona conducts firing of projectiles into the Gunpoint (GP-20) firing range. The penetrators are composed of titanium and DU. The purpose of this project was to determine feasible cleanup technologies and disposal alternatives for the cleanup of the depleted uranium (DU) contaminated soils at YPG. The project was split up into several tasks that include (a) collecting and analyzing samples representative of the GP-20 soils, (b) evaluating the data results, (c) conducting a literature search of existing proven technologies for soil remediation, and (0) making final recommendations for implementation of this technology to the site. As a result of this study, several alternatives for the separation, treatment, and disposal procedures are identified that would result in meeting the cleanup levels defined by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for unrestricted use of soils and would result in a significant cost savings over the life of the firing range.
An Overview of NASA SPoRT GOES-R JPSS Proving Ground Testbed Activities
Berndt, Emily; Stano, Geoffrey; Fuell, Kevin; Leroy, Anita; Mcgrath, Kevin; Molthan, Andrew; Schultz, Lori; Smith, Matthew; White, Kris; Schultz, Christopher;
2017-01-01
The Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center is funded by NASA's Earth Science Division and NOAA's JPSS and GOES-R Proving Grounds to transition satellite products and capabilities to the NWS to improve short term (0-48 hr) forecasts on a regional and local scale. SPoRT currently collaborates with 30+ NWS WFOs (at least one in each NWS region) and 5 National Centers/Testbeds. SPoRT matches user-identified forecast challenges to specific products, providing access to these data in AWIPS through new plug-in development, and generating applications-based training to use the products for their needs (R20). Upon transition, SPoRT collaborates with the user to assess the product impact in a real-world environment for feedback to product developers (O2R) and to benefit their peers.
An Abstract Model for Proving Safety of Multi-lane Traffic Manoeuvres
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hilscher, Martin; Linker, Sven; Olderog, Ernst-Rüdiger
2011-01-01
We present an approach to prove safety (collision freedom) of multi-lane motorway traffic with lane-change manoeuvres. This is ultimately a hybrid verification problem due to the continuous dynamics of the cars. We abstract from the dynamics by introducing a new spatial interval logic based...... on the view of each car. To guarantee safety, we present two variants of a lane-change controller, one with perfect knowledge of the safety envelopes of neighbouring cars and one which takes only the size of the neighbouring cars into account. Based on these controllers we provide a local safety proof...... for unboundedly many cars by showing that at any moment the reserved space of each car is disjoint from the reserved space of any other car....
Combination of Model Checking and Theorem Proving to Verify Embedded Software
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XIAO Jian-yu; ZHANG De-yun; DONG Hao; CHEN Hai-quan
2005-01-01
In this paper, a scheme of combining model checking and theorem proving techniques to verify high trustworthy embedded software is proposed. The software model described in state machine of unified model language is transformed into the input modeling language of a model checker in which the model is analyzed with associated property specifications expressed in temporal logic. The software model which has been verified by model checker is then transformed into abstract specifications of a theorem prover , in which the model will be refined, verified and translated into source C code. The transformation rules from state machine to input language of model checker and abstract specifications of theorem prover are given. The experiment shows that the proposed scheme can effectively improve the development and verification of high trustworthy embedded software.
Medico-legal issues in detecting and proving the sexual abuse of children.
Indest, G F
1989-01-01
This article reviews the problem currently faced by medical and investigative personnel in detecting and proving the sexual molestation of children. The legal consequences of poor medical records are discussed. Various medical and legal issues that may present pitfalls for the examining physician are identified. The admissibility of various portions of the medical examination and report as evidence in courts of law is reviewed as well as newly emerging forensic tests and techniques for collecting medical evidence. A comprehensive summary of steps to be followed in the physical examination of a child sex abuse victim, emphasizing the importance of a strict, thorough procedure for protecting the interests of the patient, the physician and society is provided.
"Voici ce que j'ai trouve": Sophie Germain's grand plan to prove Fermat's Last Theorem
Laubenbacher, Reinhard
2008-01-01
A study of Sophie Germain's extensive manuscripts on Fermat's Last Theorem calls for a reassessment of her work in number theory. There is much in these manuscripts beyond the single theorem for Case 1 for which she is known from a published footnote by Legendre. Germain had a fully-fledged, highly developed, sophisticated plan of attack on Fermat's Last Theorem. The supporting algorithms she invented for this plan are based on theoretical concepts, ideas and results discovered independently only much later by others, and her methods are quite different from any of Legendre's. In addition to her program for proving Fermat's Last Theorem in its entirety, Germain also made major efforts at proofs for particular families of exponents. The isolation Germain worked in, due in substantial part to her difficult position as a woman, was perhaps sufficient that much of this extensive and impressive work may never have been studied and understood by anyone.
Calculus using proximities: a mathematical approach in which students can actually prove theorems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O’Donovan Richard
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Teaching and learning calculus are notoriously difficult and the didactic solutions may involve resorting to intuitive but vague definitions or informal gestures offered as proofs. The teaching literature is rife with examples of metaphors, adverb manipulations and descriptions of what happens “just before” the limit. It is then difficult to leave the domain of the mental image, thus losing the training in rigour. The author (with Karel Hrbacek and Olivier Lessmann has endeavoured a radically different approach with the objective of training students to prove theorems while preserving both intuition and mathematical rigour. Hence we change the mathematical setting rather than the didactic setting. The result (which is a by-product of nonstandard analysis has been used in several high schools in Geneva – Switzerland – for over ten years.
Galileo's Double Star: The Experiment That "Proved" the Earth Did Not Move
Graney, C M
2006-01-01
Great opportunities arise for teaching physics, astronomy, and their histories when new discoveries are made that involve concepts accessible to students at every level. Such an opportunity currently exists thanks to the fact that notes written by Galileo indicating that he observed the double star Mizar in the "Big Dipper" have recently come to light. His measurements of this star, given the scientific knowledge at the time, strongly supported the theory that the Earth was fixed in space and not moving. Had Galileo published these results, it is likely that widespread acceptance of the heliocentric theory in scientific circles would have been significantly delayed. In light of these notes, his later reference in his Dialogue to using double stars as a means of proving that the Earth was in motion is puzzling. The physics and mathematics behind Galileo's work is easily within reach of students in introductory physics and astronomy courses, so discussion of Galileo's Mizar work and its interesting implications...
Illegal use of benzodiazepines and/or zolpidem proved by hair analysis.
Kim, Jihyun; In, Sanghwan; Choi, Hwakyung; Lee, Sooyeun
2013-03-01
The abuse and misuse of benzodiazepines and zolpidem are widespread internationally. Their illegal distribution has raised their abuse to a serious level, and they are often misused in crimes. In the present study, 18 cases involving the illegal use of benzodiazepines and/or zolpidem were proved by hair analysis. The drugs were extracted from the hair samples using methanol and analyzed using LC-MS/MS. The cases were classified according to case history: five of illegal use in medical staff, eight through inappropriate or illegal distribution, and five related to drug-facilitated crimes. Among the 18 cases, zolpidem was identified in eight, alprazolam in seven, diazepam in six, and clonazepam in four. The drug concentrations ranged from drugs, programs for prescription drug monitoring and supervision of those handling these drugs are both recommended.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
叶郁; 张璞
2003-01-01
In this paper we generalize the Koszul complexes and Koszul algebras, and introduce the higherKoszul (t-Koszul) complexes and higher Koszul algebras, where t ≥ 2 is an integer. We prove that an algebra ist-Koszul if and only if its t-Koszul complex is augmented, i.e. the higher degree (≥ 1) homologies vanish. Forarbitrary t-Koszul algebra , we also give a description of the structure of the cohomology algebra Ext ( 0, 0)by using the t-Koszul complexes, where the 0 is the direct sum of the simples.
Complex group algebras of the double covers of the symmetric and alternating group
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bessenrodt, Christine; Nguyen, Hung Ngoc; Olsson, Jørn Børling
2015-01-01
We prove that the double covers of the alternating and symmetric groups are determined by their complex group algebras......We prove that the double covers of the alternating and symmetric groups are determined by their complex group algebras...
Complexity Through Nonextensivity
Bialek, W; Tishby, N; Bialek, William; Nemenman, Ilya; Tishby, Naftali
2001-01-01
The problem of defining and studying complexity of a time series has interested people for years. In the context of dynamical systems, Grassberger has suggested that a slow approach of the entropy to its extensive asymptotic limit is a sign of complexity. We investigate this idea further by information theoretic and statistical mechanics techniques and show that these arguments can be made precise, and that they generalize many previous approaches to complexity, in particular unifying ideas from the physics literature with ideas from learning and coding theory; there are even connections of this statistical approach to algorithmic or Kolmogorov complexity. Moreover, a set of simple axioms similar to those used by Shannon in his development of information theory allows us to prove that the divergent part of the subextensive component of the entropy is a unique complexity measure. We classify time series by their complexities and demonstrate that beyond the `logarithmic' complexity classes widely anticipated in...
Natural Language as a Tool for Analyzing the Proving Process: The Case of Plane Geometry Proof
Robotti, Elisabetta
2012-01-01
In the field of human cognition, language plays a special role that is connected directly to thinking and mental development (e.g., Vygotsky, "1938"). Thanks to "verbal thought", language allows humans to go beyond the limits of immediately perceived information, to form concepts and solve complex problems (Luria, "1975"). So, it appears language…
Natural Language as a Tool for Analyzing the Proving Process: The Case of Plane Geometry Proof
Robotti, Elisabetta
2012-01-01
In the field of human cognition, language plays a special role that is connected directly to thinking and mental development (e.g., Vygotsky, "1938"). Thanks to "verbal thought", language allows humans to go beyond the limits of immediately perceived information, to form concepts and solve complex problems (Luria, "1975"). So, it appears language…
2001-11-01
Associates, Yuma Proving Ground Office Sergio Obregon David Mcintyre BiuceGoff Yuma Proving Ground Aviation and Airdrop Systems Rick Douglas Bert Evans...on relatively narrow gullies, relative to the wide, braded channels of the wash test area. The Glass (2000) study area was dominated by pavement
Coelomic fluid analysis: the absolute necessity to prove its fetal origin.
Jouannic, Jean-Marie; Tachdjian, Gérard; Costa, Jean-Marc; Bénifla, Jean-Louis
2008-01-01
Coelocentesis may represent the ideal technique for early prenatal diagnosis. This study aimed to quantify the number of cells in coelomic fluid and to investigate the feasibility of interphase fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) in uncultured coelomic cells for chromosomes X and Y in 12 samples of 0.4-0.8 ml of coelomic fluid obtained by transvaginal puncture at 8-9 weeks of gestation. It was found that the density of cells in the coelomic fluid was low and variable ranging from 0 to 10,600 cells/ml. The FISH analysis failed in three cases because of the absence or remarkably low number of cells. Among the remaining nine cases, FISH analysis led to an unambiguous result in all the samples except two in whom the FISH analysis clearly demonstrated a high count of maternal cells whereas the fluid was apparently not blood stained. The presence of such maternal cells, while their source and nature remaining unexplained, stressed the question of the absolute necessity to prove the fetal origin of the cells analysed. Whatever the cytogenetic analysis performed on coelomic fluid, combining a systematic exclusion of significant maternal contamination is recommended, using multiplex polymerase chain reaction for short tandem repeat analysis to cytogenetic analyses.
Alzheimer's disease amyloid peptides interact with DNA, as proved by surface plasmon resonance.
Barrantes, Alejandro; Camero, Sergio; Garcia-Lucas, Angel; Navarro, Pedro J; Benitez, María J; Jiménez, Juan S
2012-10-01
According to the amyloid hypothesis, abnormal processing of the β-amyloid precursor protein in Alzheimer's disease patients increases the production of β-amyloid toxic peptides, which, after forming highly aggregated fibrillar structures, lead to extracellular plaques formation, neuronal loss and dementia. However, a great deal of evidence has point to intracellular small oligomers of amyloid peptides, probably transient intermediates in the process of fibrillar structures formation, as the most toxic species. In order to study the amyloid-DNA interaction, we have selected here three different forms of the amyloid peptide: Aβ1-40, Aβ25-35 and a scrambled form of Aβ25-35. Surface Plasmon Resonance was used together with UV-visible spectroscopy, Electrophoresis and Electronic Microscopy to carry out this study. Our results prove that, similarly to the full length Aβ1-42, all conformations of toxic amyloid peptides, Aβ1-40 and Aβ25-35, may bind DNA. In contrast, the scrambled form of Aβ25-35, a non-aggregating and nontoxic form of this peptide, could not bind DNA. We conclude that although the amyloid-DNA interaction is closely related to the amyloid aggregation proneness, this cannot be the only factor which determines the interaction, since small oligomers of amyloid peptides may also bind DNA if their predominant negatively charged amino acid residues are previously neutralized.
The existence of propagated sensation along the meridian proved by neuroelectrophysiology***
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jinsen Xu; Shuxia Zheng; Xiaohua Pan; Xiaoxiang Zhu; Xianglong Hu
2013-01-01
Propagated sensation along the meridian can occur when acupoints are stimulated by acupuncture or electrical impulses. In this study, participants with notable propagated sensation along the me-ridian were given electro-acupuncture at the Jianyu (LI15) acupoint of the large intestine meridian. When participants stated that the sensation reached the back of their hand, regular nervous system action discharge was examined using a physiological recording electrode placed on the superficial branch of the radial nerve. The topographical maps of brain-evoked potential in the primary cortical somatosensory area were also detected. When Guangming (GB37) acupoint in the lower limb and Hegu (LI4) acupoint in the upper limb were stimulated, subjects without propagated sensation along the meridian exhibited a high potential reaction in the corresponding area of the brain cortical so-matosensory area. For subjects with a notable propagated sensation along the meridian, the reac-tion area was larger and extended into the face representative area. These electrophysiological measures directly prove the existence of propagated sensation along the meridian, and the periph-eral stimulated site is consistent with the corresponding primary cortical somatosensory area, which presents a high potential reaction.
On Elliptic Curve Primality Proving%关于椭圆曲线素性证明
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张李军
2008-01-01
This paper describes the Atkin's elliptic curves primality proving algorithm and discusses all implementationdetails of this algorithm. Finally it gives the implemention of this algorithm by software and exhibits an example explicitly.This algorithm is implemented with software and this software is used to test some general large integers and acquire agood testing result. For the purpose of understanding this algorithm more clearly, a typical example is provided finally.%文章给出了由Atkin提出的一种非常有效的素性测试方法即椭圆曲线素性证明算法,详细讨论了具体实施该算法的所有细节,而且通过在计算机上编程获得了其软件实现,并用该软件来测试一般的大整数的素性,取得了很好的效果.为了清晰地展示该算法的过程,文章在最后给出了一个详细的算例.
Challenges and new approaches to proving the existence of muscle synergies of neural origin.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jason J Kutch
Full Text Available Muscle coordination studies repeatedly show low-dimensionality of muscle activations for a wide variety of motor tasks. The basis vectors of this low-dimensional subspace, termed muscle synergies, are hypothesized to reflect neurally-established functional muscle groupings that simplify body control. However, the muscle synergy hypothesis has been notoriously difficult to prove or falsify. We use cadaveric experiments and computational models to perform a crucial thought experiment and develop an alternative explanation of how muscle synergies could be observed without the nervous system having controlled muscles in groups. We first show that the biomechanics of the limb constrains musculotendon length changes to a low-dimensional subspace across all possible movement directions. We then show that a modest assumption--that each muscle is independently instructed to resist length change--leads to the result that electromyographic (EMG synergies will arise without the need to conclude that they are a product of neural coupling among muscles. Finally, we show that there are dimensionality-reducing constraints in the isometric production of force in a variety of directions, but that these constraints are more easily controlled for, suggesting new experimental directions. These counter-examples to current thinking clearly show how experimenters could adequately control for the constraints described here when designing experiments to test for muscle synergies--but, to the best of our knowledge, this has not yet been done.
Search for diagnostic proteins to prove authenticity of organic wheat grains (Triticum aestivum L.).
Zörb, Christian; Betsche, Thomas; Langenkämper, Georg
2009-04-01
Research comparing the biochemical composition of wheat grains from organic or conventional agriculture has used the targeted analytical approach. To obtain a more comprehensive record of the food's composition, we employed protein profiling techniques. Levels of 1049 proteins were recorded in wheat grains (Triticum aestivum L., cv. Titlis) of two growing seasons from a rigorously controlled field trial in Switzerland, containing organic and conventional plots. Levels of 25 proteins were different between organic and conventional wheat in both years. Storage proteins, enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism, a peroxidase, and proteins of unknown function were affected by the agricultural regime. Total protein content was lower in organic wheat. We consider these differences negligible with regard to nutrition in an average diet and propose that food quality of conventional and organic wheat grown in the field trial was equal. Applying various filters and calculations, one of which takes seasonal influences into account, 16 of the 25 proteins with different levels in organic and conventional wheat were retained. These 16 "diagnostic" proteins have the potential to afford a signature to prove authenticity of organic wheat.
Ultrasonic Assessment of Females with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Proved by Nerve Conduction Study
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ihsan M. Ajeena
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Introduction. Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS is the most commonly diagnosed entrapment neuropathy of the upper extremity. The objective of this study was to diagnose CTS and to assess its severity using high resolution ultrasound (HRUS depending on the results of nerve conduction study (NCS. Methods. A prospective cross-sectional study, in which HRUS was performed at 63 wrists of 35 female patients with different severity of CTS (as proved by NCS. Furthermore, 40 healthy volunteers (80 wrists underwent the same tests as the patients and have been chosen to match the patients in gender, age, and body mass index (BMI. The cross section area (CSA of the median nerve (MN was obtained using HRUS at the carpal tunnel inlet by direct tracing method. Results. There was a significant difference in the CSA of the MN at the tunnel inlet in CTS patients when compared with the control group. In fact, the CSA of the control group showed a significant difference from each of patients subgroups. Furthermore, a significant difference in the CSA was seen in between these subgroups. In conclusion, the US examination of the MN seems to be a promising method in diagnosing and grading of carpal tunnel syndrome.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ebinger, M.H. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Oxenburg, T.P. [Army Test and Evaluation Command, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)
1997-02-01
Jefferson Proving Ground was used by the US Army Test and Evaluation Command for testing of depleted uranium munitions and closed in 1995 under the Base Realignment and Closure Act. As part of the closure of JPG, assessments of potential adverse health effects to humans and the ecosystem were conducted. This paper integrates recent information obtained from site characterization surveys at JPG with environmental monitoring data collected from 1983 through 1994 during DU testing. Three exposure scenarios were evaluated for potential adverse effects to human health: an occasional use scenario and two farming scenarios. Human exposure was minimal from occasional use, but significant risk were predicted from the farming scenarios when contaminated groundwater was used by site occupants. The human health risk assessments do not consider the significant risk posed by accidents with unexploded ordnance. Exposures of white-tailed deer to DU were also estimated in this study, and exposure rates result in no significant increase in either toxicological or radiological risks. The results of this study indicate that remediation of the DU impact area would not substantially reduce already low risks to humans and the ecosystem, and that managed access to JPG is a reasonable model for future land use options.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Robison, W.L.; Brunk, J.A.; Jokela, T.A.
2000-03-21
{sup 207}Bi (t{sub 1/2}=32.2 y) was generated by activation of weapons material during a few ''clean'' nuclear tests at the U.S. Western Pacific Proving Grounds of Enewetak and Bikini Atolls. The radionuclides first appeared in the Enewetak environment during 1958 and in the environment of Bikini during 1956. Crater sediments from Bikini with high levels of {sup 207}Bi were analyzed by gamma spectrometry in an attempt to determine the relative concentrations of {sup 208}Bi (t{sup 1/2} = 3.68 x 10{sup 5} y). The bismuth isotopes were probably generated during the ''clean'', 9.3 Mt Poplar test held on 7/12/58. The atom ratio of {sup 208}Bi to {sup 207}Bi (R value) ranges from {approx}12 to over 200 in sections of core sediments from the largest nuclear crater at Bikini atoll. The presence of bismuth in the device is suggested to account for R values in excess of 10.
Dietz, Bart; van Knippenberg, Daan; Hirst, Giles; Restubog, Simon Lloyd D
2015-11-01
Performance-prove goal orientation affects performance because it drives people to try to outperform others. A proper understanding of the performance-motivating potential of performance-prove goal orientation requires, however, that we consider the question of whom people desire to outperform. In a multilevel analysis of this issue, we propose that the shared team identification of a team plays an important moderating role here, directing the performance-motivating influence of performance-prove goal orientation to either the team level or the individual level of performance. A multilevel study of salespeople nested in teams supports this proposition, showing that performance-prove goal orientation motivates team performance more with higher shared team identification, whereas performance-prove goal orientation motivates individual performance more with lower shared team identification. Establishing the robustness of these findings, a second study replicates them with individual and team performance in an educational context. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
The role of cultural group selection in explaining human cooperation is a hard case to prove.
Mace, Ruth; Silva, Antonio S
2016-01-01
We believe cultural group selection is an elegant theoretical framework to study the evolution of complex human behaviours, including large-scale cooperation. However, the empirical evidence on key theoretical issues - such as levels of within- and between-group variation and effects of intergroup competition - is so far patchy, with no clear case where all the relevant assumptions and predictions of cultural group selection are met, to the exclusion of other explanations.
JPSS Preparations at the Satellite Proving Ground for Marine, Precipitation, and Satellite Analysis
Folmer, M. J.; Berndt, E.; Clark, J.; Orrison, A.; Kibler, J.; Sienkiewicz, J. M.; Nelson, J. A., Jr.; Goldberg, M.
2016-12-01
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Satellite Proving Ground (PG) for Marine, Precipitation, and Satellite Analysis (MPS) has been demonstrating and evaluating Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) products along with other polar-orbiting satellite platforms in preparation for the Joint Polar Satellite System - 1 (JPSS-1) launch in March 2017. The first S-NPP imagery was made available to the MPS PG during the evolution of Hurricane Sandy in October 2012 and has since been popular in operations. Since this event the MPS PG Satellite Liaison has been working with forecasters on ways to integrate single-channel and multispectral imagery from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)into operations to complement numerical weather prediction and geostationary satellite savvy National Weather Service (NWS) National Centers. Additional unique products have been introduced to operations to address specific forecast challenges, including the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (CIRA) Layered Precipitable Water, the National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) Snowfall Rate product, NOAA Unique Combined Atmospheric Processing System (NUCAPS) Soundings, ozone products from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), Cross-track Infrared Sounder/Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (CrIS/ATMS), and Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI). In addition, new satellite domains have been created to provide forecasters at the NWS Ocean Prediction Center and Weather Prediction Center with better quality imagery at high latitudes. This has led to research projects that are addressing forecast challenges such as tropical to extratropical transition and explosive cyclogenesis. This presentation will provide examples of how the MPS PG has been introducing and integrating
GSA's Green Proving Ground: Identifying, Testing and Evaluating Innovative Technologies; Preprint
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kandt, A.; Lowell, M.
2012-05-01
This paper will provide an overview of the GPG program and its objectives as well as a summary and status update of the 16 technologies selected for enhanced testing and evaluation in 2011. The federal government's General Services Administration's (GSA) Public Buildings Service (PBS) acquires space on behalf of the federal government through new construction and leasing, and acts as a caretaker for federal properties across the country. PBS owns or leases 9,624 assets and maintains an inventory of more than 370.2 million square feet of workspace, and as such has enormous potential for implementing energy efficient and renewable energy technologies to reduce energy and water use and associated emissions. The Green Proving Ground (GPG) program utilizes GSA's real estate portfolio to test and evaluate innovative and underutilized sustainable building technologies and practices. Findings are used to support the development of GSA performance specifications and inform decision making within GSA, other federal agencies, and the real estate industry. The program aims to drive innovation in environmental performance in federal buildings and help lead market transformation through deployment of new technologies. In 2011, the GPG program selected 16 technologies or practices for rigorous testing and evaluation. Evaluations are currently being performed in collaboration with the Department of Energy's National Laboratories, and a steady stream of results will be forthcoming throughout 2012. This paper will provide an overview of the GPG program and its objectives as well as a summary and status update of the 16 technologies selected for enhanced testing and evaluation in 2011. Lastly, it provides a general overview of the 2012 program.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ebinger, M.H.; Hansen, W.R.
1994-05-11
This Environmental Radiation Monitoring Plan (ERM) discusses sampling soils, vegetation, and biota for depleted uranium (DU) and beryllium (Be) at Yuma Proving Ground (YPG). The existing ERM plan was used and modified to more adequately assess the potential of DU and Be migration through the YPG ecosystem. The potential pathways for DU and Be migration are discussed and include soil to vegetation, soil to animals, vegetation to animals, animals to animals, and animals to man. Sample collection will show DU deposition and will be used to estimate DU migration. The number of samples from each area varies and depends on if the firing range of interest is currently used for DU testing (GP 17A) or if the range is not used currently for DU testing (GP 20). Twenty to thirty-five individual mammals or lizards will be sampled from each transect. Air samples and samples of dust in the air fall will be collected in three locations in the active ranges. Thirty to forty-five sediment samples will be collected from different locations in the arroys near the impact areas. DU and Be sampling in the Hard Impact and Soft Impact areas changed only slightly from the existing ERM. The modifications are changes in sample locations, addition of two sediment transport locations, addition of vegetation samples, mammal samples, and air sampling from three to five positions on the impact areas. Analysis of samples for DU or total U by inductively-coupled mass spectroscopy (ICP/MS), cc spectroscopy, neutron activation analysis (NAA), and kinetic phosphorimetric analysis (KPA) are discussed, and analysis for Be by ICP/MS are recommended. Acquiring total U (no isotope data) from a large number of samples and analysis of those samples with relatively high total U concentrations results in fewer isotopic identifications but more information on U distribution. From previous studies, total U concentrations greater than about 3 times natural background are usually DU by isotopic confirmation.
Casey, J.; Ji, B.; Shaoie, S.; Mardinoglu, A.; Sarathi Sen, P.; Jahn, O.; Reda, K.; Leigh, J.; Follows, M. J.; Nielsen, J.; Karl, D. M.
2016-02-01
Representatives of the oligotrophic marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus marinus are the smallest free-living photosynthetic organisms, both in terms of physical size and genome size, yet are the most abundant photoautotrophic microbes in the oceans and profoundly influence global biogeochemical cycles. Physiological and regulatory control of nutrient and light stress has been observed in MED4 in culture and in its closely related `ecotype' eMED4 in the field, however its metabolism has not been investigated in detail. We present a genome-scale metabolic network reconstruction of the high-light adapted axenic strain MED4ax ("iJCMED4") for the quantitative analysis of a range of its metabolic phenotypes. The resulting structure is a proving ground for the incorporation of enzyme kinetics, biochemical and elemental compositional data, transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolomic, and fluxomic datasets which can be implemented within a constraint-based metabolic modeling environment. The iJCMED4 stoichiometric model consists of 523 metabolic genes encoding 787 reactions with 673 unique metabolites distributed in 5 sub-cellular compartments and is mass, charge, and thermodynamically balanced. Several variants of flux balance analysis were used to simulate growth and metabolic fluxes over the diel cycle, under various stress conditions (e.g., nitrogen, phosphorus, light), and within the framework of a global biogeochemical model (DARWIN). Model simulations accurately predicted growth rates in culture under a variety of defined medium compositions and there was close agreement of photosynthetic performance, biomass and energy yields and efficiencies, and transporter fluxes for iJCMED4 and culture experiments. In addition to a nearly optimal photosynthetic quotient and central carbon metabolism efficiency, MED4 has made dramatic alterations to redox and phosphorus metabolism across biosynthetic and intermediate pathways. We propose that reductions in phosphate reaction
Generator, mechanical, smoke: For dual-purpose unit, XM56, Yuma Proving Ground, Yuma, Arizona
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Driver, C.J.; Ligotke, M.W.; Moore, E.B. Jr. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Bowers, J.F. (Dugway Proving Ground, UT (United States))
1991-10-01
The US Army Chemical Research, Development and Engineering Center (CRDEC) is planning to perform a field test of the XM56 smoke generator at the US Army Yuma Proving Ground (YPG), Arizona. The XM56, enabling the use of fog oil in combination with other materials, such as graphite flakes, is part of an effort to improve the efficiency of smoke generation and to extend the effectiveness of the resulting obscurant cloud to include the infrared spectrum. The plan field operation includes a road test and concurrent smoke- generation trials. Three M1037 vehicles with operation XM56 generators will be road-tested for 100 h. Smoke will be generated for 30 min from a single stationary XM56 four times during the road test, resulting in a total of 120 min of smoke generation. The total aerial release of obscurant materials during this test is expected to be 556 kg (1,220 lb) of fog oil and 547 kg (1,200 lb) of graphite flakes. This environmental assessment has evaluated the consequences of the proposed action. Air concentrations and surface deposition levels were estimated using an atmospheric dispersion model. Degradation of fog oil and incorporation of graphite in the soil column will limit the residual impacts of the planned action. No significant impacts to air, water, and soil quality are anticipated. risks to the environment posed by the proposed action were determined to be minimal or below levels previously found to pose measurable impacts. Cultural resources are present on YPG and have been identified in adjacent areas; therefore, off-road activities should be preceded by a cultural resource survey. A Finding of No Significant Impact is recommended. 61 refs., 1 fig.
76 FR 5142 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions
2011-01-28
... RDECOM Acquisition Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD Service Type/Location: Hospital Housekeeping... Military Sales RDECOM Contracting Center--Aberdeen (Off-site: 507 Kent Street, Utica NY) NPA:...
75 FR 13347 - Federal Property Suitable as Facilities To Assist the Homeless
2010-03-19
... asbestos/lead paint, most recent use--entomology facility, offsite use only Bldg. 1007 Ft. George G. Meade...--medical res bldg., off-site use only Bldg. E3300 Aberdeen Proving Grounds Aberdeen Co: Harford, MD...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Candaş Uygan
2014-08-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to research pre-service elementary mathematics teachers’ beliefs on meaning and features of mathematical proof, their proving processes and their reasoning process while evaluating validities of proof examples. This study is a qualitative research. Participants of the study are three pre-service elementary mathematics teachers who continue to study in a state university from Central Anatolia Region. Participants’ beliefs on proof were researched with semi-structured interview whilst proving processes and evaluation processes of proof examples were researched with clinical interviews. Interviews were recorded with video camera and data were analyzed according to qualitative methods. When beliefs on proof were analyzed, it was indicated that participants see mathematical proofs as problem solving process and exploration of source of mathematical knowledge, and believe that proofs have to be deductive, apprehensible and have to include generalizable results. Also according to opinions of all three participants, they believe that their proving abilities are insufficient. Analyze results related to proving processes indicated that pre-service teachers considered conclusions of theorems as if they are conditions of theorems and also used proving strategies uncomprehendingly in proving process. Finally, analyze results related to proof evaluation process indicated that participants assessed computer based experimental verifications as valid mathematical proofs and had mistakes when they evaluated warrants used in verifications that break axiomatical structure of proofs.Key Words: Beliefs in the context of proof, proving, proof evaluation, teacher education
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Edson Luis de Azambuja Ribeiro
2001-02-01
Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho produtivo de vacas de corte. Foram utilizadas 30 vacas da raça Aberdeen Angus e 32 da raça Charolês primíparas, prenhes no início do experimento, com bezerros puros ou mestiços Nelore. As vacas foram submetidas a diferentes tratamentos alimentares durante o inverno e a primavera: T1 - pastagem natural, T2 - pastagem cultivada por 60 dias (24 horas/dia, do início de setembro ao início de novembro, T3 - acesso à pastagem cultivada por duas horas diárias, por um período de 60 dias (de início de julho ao início de setembro, T4 - acesso à pastagem cultivada por duas horas diárias, por um período de 60 dias (de início de julho ao início de setembro, e mais 60 dias (24 horas/dia de pastagem cultivada do início de setembro ao início de novembro. As medidas de eficiência produtiva foram: EPPARTO = (P205/PVP*100; EPDESMAME = (P205/PVD*100; EPMBPARTO = (P205/PVP0,75; EPMBDESMAME = (P205/PVD0,75; e EPNDT = NDTTOTAL/P205, em que P205 é o peso ao desmame dos bezerros; PVP e PVD, os pesos das vacas ao parto e ao desmame, respectivamente; e NDTTOTAL, a exigência em energia para manutenção e produção de leite das vacas. As vacas Aberdeen Angus, com bezerros machos e aquelas com bezerros mestiços, foram mais eficientes. Vacas que utilizaram a pastagem cultivada por um período de tempo maior (T4 tiveram melhor desempenho do que aquelas que permaneceram apenas em pastagem natural(T1; as vacas dos outros tratamentos tiveram desempenhos intermediários.The objective of this work was to evaluate the productive efficiency of beef cows. Thirty Angus and 32 Charolais primiparous cows, pregnant at the beginning of the experiment with straightbred or crossbred calves, were evaluated. The cows were submitted to different feeding management during winter and spring: T1 -- Native pasture, T2 -- Cultivated pasture for 60 days (24 hours/day, from early September to early November, T3
Prospective Retinal and Optic Nerve Vitrectomy Evaluation (PROVE study: findings at 3 months
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Reddy RK
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Rahul K Reddy,1 Maziar Lalezary,1 Stephen J Kim,1 Jeffrey A Kammer,1 Rachel W Kuchtey,1 Edward F Cherney,1 Franco M Recchia,2 Karen M Joos,1 Anita Agarwal,1 Janice C Law11Department of Ophthalmology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, USA; 2Tennessee Retina, PC, Nashville, TN, USABackground: The purpose of this paper is to report the 3-month findings of the Prospective Retinal and Optic Nerve Vitrectomy Evaluation (PROVE study.Methods: Eighty eyes of 40 participants undergoing vitrectomy were enrolled. Participants underwent baseline evaluation of the study (surgical and fellow (control eye that included: intraocular pressure, central corneal thickness, gonioscopy, cup-to-disc ratio measurement, color fundus and optic disc photography, automated perimetry, and optical coherence tomography of the macula and optic nerve. Evaluation was repeated at 3 months. Main outcome measures were changes in macula and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness and intraocular pressure.Results: All participants completed follow-up. Mean cup-to-disc ratio of study and fellow eyes at baseline was 0.43 ± 0.2 and 0.46 ± 0.2, respectively, and 13% of participants had undiagnosed narrow angles. There was no significant change in intraocular pressure, cup-to-disc ratio, or pattern standard deviation in study eyes compared with baseline or fellow eyes at 3 months. Vision improved in all study eyes at 3 months compared with baseline (P = 0.013, but remained significantly worse than fellow eyes (P < 0.001. Central subfield and temporal peripapillary RNFL thickness were significantly greater in eyes with epiretinal membrane (P < 0.05, and resolution after surgery correlated with visual improvement (P < 0.05.Conclusion: The 3-month results do not indicate any increased risk for open-angle glaucoma but suggest that a relatively high percentage of eyes may be at risk of angle closure glaucoma. Temporal RNFL thickness and central subfield were increased
Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site, Scoring Record No. 943
2014-08-01
TEST AND EVALUATION COMMAND ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND, MD 21005-5001 DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED, AUGUST 2014. STANDARDIZED UXO TECHNOLOGY...DEMONSTRATION SITE SCORING RECORD NO. 943 SITE LOCATION: ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND DEMONSTRATOR: BATTELLE 100A DONNER DRIVE OAK RIDGE, TN 37830...TECHNOLOGY TYPE/PLATFORM: TEM-8G TOWED ARRAY AREAS COVERED: SMALL MUNITIONS TEST SITE PREPARED BY: U.S. ARMY ABERDEEN TEST CENTER ABERDEEN
Molthan, Andrew
2011-01-01
SPoRT is actively involved in GOES-R Proving Ground activities in a number of ways: (1) Applying the paradigm of product development, user training, and interaction to foster interaction with end users at NOAA forecast offices national centers. (2) Providing unique capabilities in collaboration with other GOES-R Proving Ground partners (a) Hybrid GOES-MODIS imagery (b) Pseudo-GLM via regional lightning mapping arrays (c) Developing new RGB imagery from EUMETSAT guidelines
Almost complex connections on almost complex manifolds with Norden metric
Teofilova, Marta
2011-01-01
A four-parametric family of linear connections preserving the almost complex structure is defined on an almost complex manifold with Norden metric. Necessary and sufficient conditions for these connections to be natural are obtained. A two-parametric family of complex connections is studied on a conformal K\\"{a}hler manifold with Norden metric. The curvature tensors of these connections are proved to coincide.
Scaling the V& V mountain: Proving Juno will succeed at Jupiter
Rocca, J.; Lord, N.; Johnson, M.; Bone, B.
Juno is a NASA New Frontiers mission managed and operated by the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), commissioned to explore the origin, interior, atmosphere, and polar magnetosphere of Jupiter. The spacecraft was developed and built by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, and its nine science instruments were developed by JPL and six national and international partner institutions. Juno launched on August 5th, 2011 starting its 5 year cruise to Jupiter and will enter an ~11 day polar orbit that will allow for science measurements while minimizing radiation. Juno is a spin-stabilized, solar-powered spacecraft with a challenging and complex mission, which included over 7,500 requirements and 900 verification activities to be completed during the integration and test campaign.
Mass spectrometric methods prove the use of beeswax and ruminant fat in late Roman cooking pots.
Kimpe, K; Jacobs, P A; Waelkens, M
2002-08-30
Lipid extracts of sherds of archaeological late Roman cooking pots were analysed using high temperature-gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer and liquid chromatography with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometer detection (LC-APCI-MS). With these advanced techniques the use of beeswax was shown through identification of the constituting alkanes, mono and diesters. The detection of high amounts of saturated triacylglycerols (TAGs) further indicated that animal fat was processed in these pots. Part of the animal fat was characterised as originating from ruminants due to the presence of trans-fatty acids. The distribution of saturated TAGs and the higher concentration of stearic acid compared to palmitic acid in the transesterified lipid extract indicated that this was sheep fat. The results illustrate how complex mixtures can be unravelled and original contents of ancient ceramic vessels can be determined using specialised analytical equipment.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Miguelangelo Ziegler Arboitte
2011-04-01
Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a influencia do biotipo pequeno e medio de novilhos Aberdeen Angus superjovens na composicao da carne do longissimus dorsi (LD. Foram utilizadas seccoes do LD de oito novilhos com biotipo pequeno e dez com biotipo medio, confinados por 158 dias, apresentando ao abate idade e peso vivo medio de 456 dias e 429 kg. A alimentacao foi constituida de silagem de sorgo e concentrado na relacao 60:40 nos primeiros 63 dias e apos 50:50 ate o abate. O biotipo foi calculado por meio da formula: B = -11,548 +(0,4878 x h - (0,0289 x ID + (0,0000146 x (ID2 + (0,0000759 x h x ID; h = altura em polegadas e ID=idade em dias. A carne do LD apresentou gordura intramuscular media (10,11 pontos; p = 0,7034, coloracao vermelha (4,33 pontos; p = 0,3724, textura com tendenciaa muito fina (4,61 pontos; p = 0,3075 e forca ao cisalhamento de 2,72 kgf cm-2 (p = 0,4009. A carne apresentou 72,27% (p = 0,4355 de umidade, 19,34% (p = 0,4150 de proteina bruta, 3,96% (p = 0,9071 de lipidios, 4,43% (p = 0,9842 de minerais e 0,25 mg 100g-1 de carne(p = 0,2375 de colesterol. Os biotipos nao influenciaram na concentracao dos acidos graxos palmitico (p = 0,0790, estearico (p = 0,2455, oleico (p = 0,3046, linoleico (p = 0,9456, ocorrendo alteracao na participacao do acido graxo miristico (. = 1,85 + 0,12B; p = 0,043. O estudo do biotipo na composicao da carne e importante para a identificacao de melhores caracteristicas nutraceuticas.The objective of this work was to assess the influence of small and medium frame scores in the meat composition of the longissimus dorsi (LD muscle of Abredeen Angus steers. We used LD sections from eight small-framed steers and ten medium-framed steers, confined for 158 days, with mean slaughter age of 457 days and 429 kg live weight. The feed was composed of sorghum silage and concentrate in a 60:40 ratio for the first 63 days, and 50:50 thereafter until slaughter. Frame wascalculated using the formula: F=-11
Vasopressin Proves Es-sense-tial: Vasopressin and the Modulation of Sensory Processing in Mammals
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Janet Kay Bester-Meredith
2015-02-01
Full Text Available As mammals develop, they encounter increasing social complexity in the surrounding world. In order to survive, mammals must show appropriate behaviors toward their mates, offspring, and same-sex conspecifics. Although the behavioral effects of the neuropeptide arginine vasopressin (AVP have been studied in a variety of social contexts, the effects of this neuropeptide on multimodal sensory processing has received less attention. AVP is widely distributed through sensory regions of the brain and has been demonstrated to modulate olfactory, auditory, gustatory, and visual processing. Here we review the evidence linking AVP to the processing of social stimuli in sensory regions of the brain and explore how sensory processing can shape behavioral responses to these stimuli. In addition, we address the interplay between hormonal and neural AVP in regulating sensory processing of social cues. Because AVP pathways show plasticity during development, early life experiences may shape life-long processing of sensory information. Furthermore, disorders of social behavior such as autism and schizophrenia that have been linked with AVP also have been linked with dysfunctions in sensory processing. Together, these studies suggest that AVP’s diversity of effects on social behavior across a variety of mammalian species may result from the effects of this neuropeptide on sensory processing.
Stable generalized complex structures
Cavalcanti, Gil R
2015-01-01
A stable generalized complex structure is one that is generically symplectic but degenerates along a real codimension two submanifold, where it defines a generalized Calabi-Yau structure. We introduce a Lie algebroid which allows us to view such structures as symplectic forms. This allows us to construct new examples of stable structures, and also to define period maps for their deformations in which the background three-form flux is either fixed or not, proving the unobstructedness of both deformation problems. We then use the same tools to establish local normal forms for the degeneracy locus and for Lagrangian branes. Applying our normal forms to the four-dimensional case, we prove that any compact stable generalized complex 4-manifold has a symplectic completion, in the sense that it can be modified near its degeneracy locus to produce a compact symplectic 4-manifold.
E-squared nine do-it-yourself energy experiments that prove your thoughts create your reality
Grout, Pam
2013-01-01
E-Squared is a lab manual with simple experiments to prove once and for all that there really is a good, loving, totally hip force in the universe. Rather than take it on faith, you are invited to conduct ten 48-hour experiments to prove each of the principles in this book. Yes, you read that right. It says prove. The experiments, each of which can be conducted with absolutely no money and very little time expenditure, demonstrate that spiritual principles are as dependable as gravity, as consistent as Newton's 2nd law of motion. For years, you've been hoping and praying that spiritual principles are true. Now, you can know.
Furinghetti, Fulvia; Morselli, Francesca
2009-01-01
It is widely recognized that purely cognitive behavior is extremely rare in performing mathematical activity: other factors, such as the affective ones, play a crucial role. In light of this observation, we present a reflection on the presence of affective and cognitive factors in the process of proving. Proof is considered as a special case of…
20 CFR 30.207 - How does a claimant prove a diagnosis of a beryllium disease covered under Part B?
2010-04-01
... beryllium disease covered under Part B? 30.207 Section 30.207 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS... Beryllium Illness Under Part B of Eeoicpa § 30.207 How does a claimant prove a diagnosis of a beryllium... employee developed a covered beryllium illness. Proof that the employee developed a covered...
... Types of Cancer > Carney Complex Request Permissions Carney Complex Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 11/2015 What is Carney complex? Carney complex is a hereditary condition associated with: ...
Radford, T
2001-01-01
For more than a decade, scientists at CERN have been hoping that a key theoretical particle called the Higgs boson, would turn up in a subatomic collision. Some of them are now though beginning to wonder if it has ever existed.
Monetary Policy Proving Effective
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2010-01-01
@@ Hu Xiaolian,Vice Governor of the People's Bank of China,the country's central bank,published an article concerning China's managed floating exchange rate regime and the effectiveness of the monetary policy on the bank's website on July 26.She pointed out monetary policy,as an important instrument of China's macroeconomic control,has faced many challenges in recent years.A more flexible exchange rate regime will help improve the effectiveness of the policy.
Monetary Policy Proving Effective
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
Hu Xiaolian,Vice Governor of the People’s Bank of China,the country’s central bank, published an article concerning China’s managed floating exchange rate regime and the effectiveness of the monetary policy on the bank’s website on July 26.She pointed out monetary policy,as an important instrument of China’s macroeconomic control,has faced many challenges in recent years.A more flexible exchange rate regime will help improve the effectiveness of the policy.Edited excerpts follow
Topological arguments for Kolmogorov complexity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexander Shen
2012-08-01
Full Text Available We present several application of simple topological arguments in problems of Kolmogorov complexity. Basically we use the standard fact from topology that the disk is simply connected. It proves to be enough to construct strings with some nontrivial algorithmic properties.
Transversals of Complex Polynomial Vector Fields
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dias, Kealey
, an important step was proving that the transversals possessed a certain characteristic. Understanding transversals might be the key to proving other polynomial vector fields are generic, and they are important in understanding bifurcations of polynomial vector fields in general. We consider two important......Vector fields in the complex plane are defined by assigning the vector determined by the value P(z) to each point z in the complex plane, where P is a polynomial of one complex variable. We consider special families of so-called rotated vector fields that are determined by a polynomial multiplied...... a concrete polynomial, it seems to take quite a bit of work to prove that it is generic, i.e. structurally stable. This has been done for a special class of degree d polynomial vector fields having simple equilibrium points at the d roots of unity, d odd. In proving that such vector fields are generic...
A. M. de Paor
1998-01-01
International audience; Hide (Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics, 1998) has produced a new mathematical model of a self-exciting homopolar dynamo driving a series- wound motor, as a continuing contribution to the theory of the geomagnetic field. By a process of exact perturbation analysis, followed by combination and partial solution of differential equations, the complete nonlinear quenching of current fluctuations reported by Hide in the case that a parameter ? has the value 1 is proved via ...
de Paor, A. M.
Hide (Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics, 1998) has produced a new mathematical model of a self-exciting homopolar dynamo driving a series- wound motor, as a continuing contribution to the theory of the geomagnetic field. By a process of exact perturbation analysis, followed by combination and partial solution of differential equations, the complete nonlinear quenching of current fluctuations reported by Hide in the case that a parameter ɛ has the value 1 is proved via the Popov theorem from feedback system stability theory.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
De Canio, G. [ENEA, Divisione Servizi Tecnologici, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy)
2000-07-01
The main experimental facilities for seismic tests at the ENEA C.R. Casaccia laboratories consist of two high performance shake table for three axial seismic tests of structures up to 10 ton mass and 3g acceleration applied at the Center of Gravity at 1m from the base table. The activities are principally devoted to the dynamic characterization and vibration tests for mechanical and aero spatial structures, and the experimental analysis of innovative systems for the seismic isolation and retrofitting of civil, industrial, and historical buildings; together with the seismic tests of sub-structures and scaled mock-ups, in order to evaluate the isolation/dissipation performance of the anti-seismic devices, and the failure modes of the structural parts of the building. [Italian] Le principali attrezzature per le prove sismiche presso i laboratori del C.R. Casaccia consistono di due tavole vibranti triassali per prove su strutture fino a 10t di peso con una accelerazione di 3g applicata al centro di gravita' posto ad 1 m di altezza dal piano della tavola. Le principali attivita' riguardano: (a) test di caratterizzazione dinamica e prove di vibrazioni per strutture meccaniche ed aerospaziali; (b) l'analisi sperimentale di sistemi innovativi per l'isolamento sismico ed il consolidamento di strutture civili, industriali e storico monumentali, e le prove sismiche di elementi strutturali e di modelli in scala per la valutazione della capacita' di dissipazione dei dispositivi antisismici e le modalita' di formazione delle fratture.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ebinger, M.H.; Hansen, W.R.
1996-10-01
This report documents the third risk assessment completed for the depleted uranium (DU) munitions testing range at Jefferson Proving Ground (JPG), Indiana, for the U.S. Army Test and Evaluation command. Jefferson Proving Ground was closed in 1995 under the Base Realignment and Closure Act and the testing mission was moved to Yuma Proving Ground. As part of the closure of JPG, assessments of potential adverse health effects to humans and the ecosystem were conducted. This report integrates recent information obtained from site characterization surveys at JPG with environmental monitoring data collected from 1983 through 1994 during DU testing. Three exposure scenarios were evaluated for potential adverse effects to human health: an occasional use scenario and two farming scenarios. Human exposure was minimal from occasional use, but significant risk were predicted from the farming scenarios when contaminated groundwater was used by site occupants. The human health risk assessments do not consider the significant risk posed by accidents with unexploded ordnance. Exposures of white-tailed deer to DU were also estimated in this study, and exposure rates result in no significant increase in either toxicological or radiological risks. The results of this study indicate that remediation of the DU impact area would not substantially reduce already low risks to humans and the ecosystem, and that managed access to JPG is a reasonable model for future land use options.
Franceschet, Massimo
2014-01-01
Complex systems and their underlying convoluted networks are ubiquitous, all we need is an eye for them. They pose problems of organized complexity which cannot be approached with a reductionist method. Complexity science and its emergent sister network science both come to grips with the inherent complexity of complex systems with an holistic strategy. The relevance of complexity, however, transcends the sciences. Complex systems and networks are the focal point of a philosophical, cultural ...
The effect of herbal formula PROVE 1 and Stevia levels in diets on diet utilization of growing pigs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kooprasert, S.
2007-05-01
Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to study the effect of 0.2% antibiotic (ascomix-s®, one kilogram of which contains lincomycin hydrochloride 44 g and sulfamethazine 110 g or 0.25% herbal formulaPROVE 1, combined with five levels of Stevia supplementation in the diets on digestibility of pigs. Two factors; 1 type of drug (0.2% antibiotic and 0.25% herbal formula PROVE 1 and 2 five Stevia levels (0,0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8% were investigated and 10 dietary treatments were used in this study. Ten related growing crossbred (Large White x Landrace barrow pigs (30±1.5 kg body weight were raised in individualmetabolism cages for three collecting periods (30, 40 and 50 kg body weight, each pig was fed one experimental diet throughout the collecting period.The results showed that pigs fed diet with either 0.2% antibiotic or 0.25% herbal formula PROVE 1 had similar digestibility of diet, crude protein (CP, fiber, ash and nitrogen free extract (NFE (89.01 vs 87.83,94.96 vs 94.23, 60.73 vs 59.03, 61.22 vs 60.44 and 93.28 vs 92.03%, respectively. Negligible differences were observed between 0 and 0.4% Stevia supplementation in diet, but levels showed better digestibility than the other levels of Stevia supplementation, and the diet with 0.4% Stevia supplementation had the highestdigestibility of diet, CP, fiber, ash and NFE (91.04, 96.43, 69.48, 70.47 and 94.07%, respectively. The diet with antibiotic combined with 0.4% Stevia had digestibility of diet, CP, fat and fiber better than the otherlevels of Stevia supplementation, especially digestibility of ash, which was significantly higher than that of diet with 0.2% Stevia, but not significantly different from the other levels of Stevia supplementation. A partof herbal formula PROVE1 combined with 0% Stevia had the highest digestibility of ash (72.90%, significantly higher than the other levels of Stevia supplementation, except the diet with herbal formula PROVE 1combined with 0.4% Stevia supplementation
Erdi, Peter
2008-01-01
This book explains why complex systems research is important in understanding the structure, function and dynamics of complex natural and social phenomena. Readers will learn the basic concepts and methods of complex system research.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. M. de Paor
1998-01-01
Full Text Available Hide (Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics, 1998 has produced a new mathematical model of a self-exciting homopolar dynamo driving a series- wound motor, as a continuing contribution to the theory of the geomagnetic field. By a process of exact perturbation analysis, followed by combination and partial solution of differential equations, the complete nonlinear quenching of current fluctuations reported by Hide in the case that a parameter ε has the value 1 is proved via the Popov theorem from feedback system stability theory.
Proving Correlation Theorem with Taylor Formula%应用 Taylor 公式证明相关定理
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张学茂; 王大增; 楚建亚
2013-01-01
With the Taylor formula, the paper has proved concavity and convexity of functions, second sufficient conditions for extreme value and the Jensen inequality of multivariate function. It has also validated two important limits and extended relative conclusion to the multivariate function.% 利用 Taylor 公式证明了函数的凹凸性、极值的第二充分条件、多元函数的 Jensen 不等式，验证了两个重要极限，并对有关的结论推广至多元函数。
Tepliakov, D. I.; Aparisi, R. R.
The specific features of a new method for investigating the energy characteristics of heliostats for a tower-type solar plant are examined. The method consists in fixing a heliostat in a certain position in the case of which the spot formed by reflected solar radiation due to the apparent motion of the sun is displaced on the surface of an instrumented screen. Midday experiments on a meridional proving ground are discussed, and the practical implementation of the fixed-heliostat method is described.
Feasibility of using damage to body armour as evidence to prove the degree of intent of wounding
Watson, Celia H.; Parker, Fiona; Horsfall, Ian; Fenne, Paul
2008-01-01
It has become standard practice for Police Authorities to issue stab resistant body armour to all officers who are placed at risk of knife assault. Subsequently if the officer is subjected to a knife attack it has been difficult to prove the degree of intent of wounding by a suspect. Arguments that no real harm could be intended, as the officer was protected by armour, are presented in court to mitigate any sentence of intent to wound. Several Police Forces have requested that damaged armour ...
-Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes of Mineral Acids
Brill, Marcel
2016-11-08
We have synthesized and characterized new gold-N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complexes derived from the deprotonation of mineral acids. The use of sulfuric acid was a particularly interesting case. These complexes were tested in known gold-catalyzed reactions, such as the hydration of alkynes and the Meyer–Schuster rearrangement. They proved to be highly efficient in both reactions.
1-Convergence of Complex Double Fourier Series
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Kulwinder Kaur; S S Bhatia; Babu Ram
2003-11-01
It is proved that the complex double Fourier series of an integrable function (, ) with coefficients {} satisfying certain conditions, will converge in 1-norm. The conditions used here are the combinations of Tauberian condition of Hardy–Karamata kind and its limiting case. This paper extends the result of Bray [1] to complex double Fourier series.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marian STAN
2015-07-01
Full Text Available The actuality of the investigated theme. Nowadays, human evolution, including his intellectual development, proves the fact that especially the creation manpower and the employment was the solution of all life’s ambitions in society. So, the fact is that in reality, man is the most important capital of the society. Also, in an individual’s life, the practice of sport plays a significant role and that’s why the initiation, the launch and the management of sports complexes activity reveal the existence of specific management features that we will identify and explain in the current study. The aim of the research refers to the elaboration of a theoretical base of the management of the sport complexes, to the pointing of the factors that influence the efficient existence and function of a sport complex in our country and to the determination of the responsibilities that have a manager who directs successfully the activity of the sport complexes. The investigation is based on theoretical methods, such as: scientific documentation, analysis, synthesis, comparison and on empirical research methods, like: study of researched literature and observation. The results of the research indicate the fact that the profitability of a sport complex must assure a particular structure to avoid the bankruptcy risk and also, that the administration of the sport complexes activity must keep in view the reliable functions of the contemporaneous management.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rosendahl, Mads
1989-01-01
One way to analyse programs is to to derive expressions for their computational behaviour. A time bound function (or worst-case complexity) gives an upper bound for the computation time as a function of the size of input. We describe a system to derive such time bounds automatically using abstrac...... interpretation. The semantics-based setting makes it possible to prove the correctness of the time bound function. The system can analyse programs in a first-order subset of Lisp and we show how the system also can be used to analyse programs in other languages....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J.S Lopes
2010-12-01
Full Text Available Com o objetivo de testar modelos genéticos alternativos ao aditivo-dominante em populações multirraciais, foram utilizadas informações do peso ao sobreano (PS de 35.931 novilhos, filhos de 752 touros e 30.535 vacas das raças Aberdeen Angus (A e Nelore (N e de diversos grupos genéticos possíveis por meio do cruzamento entre elas. Foram testados cinco diferentes modelos (M genéticos: o M1 continha o efeito genético fixo aditivo direto (AD, heterozigótico direto (HD, epistático direto (ED e aditivo-conjunto direto (ACD; o M2, igual ao M1, menos o efeito ACD; o M3, igual ao M1, menos o efeito ED; o M4, igual ao M1, menos os efeitos ED e ACD; e o M5, igual ao M1, menos os efeitos HD, ED e ACD. Os modelos foram submetidos a três métodos de análise diferentes: método dos quadrados mínimos (MQM, regressão de cumeeira (RC e máxima verossimilhança restrita (REML. O método de RC produziu estimativas de coeficientes com magnitudes e sinais explicados biologicamente. As estimativas dos efeitos, das (covariâncias, dos parâmetros e dos valores genéticos diferiram entre os modelos, indicando a importância da correta escolha do modelo de análise, devendo-se ter conhecimento prévio do fenômeno estudado e sua interpretação biológica e sempre preceder à escolha de um modelo de análise genética multirracial o estudo da relação existente entre as variáveis independentes. Importantes efeitos adicionais ao efeito AD foram acrescentados pelas inclusões dos efeitos HD e ED aos modelos de análise. A notação matemática dos efeitos ACD, aplicada atualmente na literatura e testada neste estudo, não foi capaz de explicar a complementaridade entre raças como esperado, havendo problemas com casos de multicolinearidade entre os efeitos estudados
HOLOMORPHIC HARMONIC ANALYSIS ON COMPLEX REDUCTIVE GROUPS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
An Jinpeng; Qian Min; Wang Zhengdong
2008-01-01
The authors define the holomorphic Fourier transform of holomorphic func-tions on complex reductive groups, prove some properties such as the Fourier inversion formula, and give some applications. The definition of the holomorphic Fourier transform makes use of the notion of K-admissible measures. The authors prove that K-admissible measures are abundant, and the definition of holomorphic Fourier transform is independent of the choice of K-admissible measures.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eberhardt, L.E.; Van Voris, P.
1986-08-01
In an effort to determine whether US Army activities on the Dugway Proving Ground (DPG) have had an impact on resident wildlife, intensive studies have been conducted on the biology and ecology of the black-tailed jack rabbit (Lepus californicus) since 1965. in addition, the incidence of endemic diseases in several species of resident wildlife on the DPG have been studied from the late 1950s through the mid-1970s. The objectives of this report are to: (1) compile and summarize the jack rabbit data and some of the disease information that is presently contained only in annual reports; (2) compare the DPG jack rabbit data to data available on other jack rabbit populations; and (3) analyze the data for unusual or unexplained fluctuations in population densities or in incidence of disease.
Sensitivity of Complex Networks
Angulo, Marco Tulio; Liu, Yang-Yu; Barabási, Albert-László
2016-01-01
The sensitivity (i.e. dynamic response) of complex networked systems has not been well understood, making difficult to predict whether new macroscopic dynamic behavior will emerge even if we know exactly how individual nodes behave and how they are coupled. Here we build a framework to quantify the sensitivity of complex networked system of coupled dynamic units. We characterize necessary and sufficient conditions for the emergence of new macroscopic dynamic behavior in the thermodynamic limit. We prove that these conditions are satisfied only for architectures with power-law degree distributions. Surprisingly, we find that highly connected nodes (i.e. hubs) only dominate the sensitivity of the network up to certain critical frequency.
Schultz, L. A.; Smith, M. R.; Fuell, K.; Stano, G. T.; LeRoy, A.; Berndt, E.
2015-12-01
Instruments aboard the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) series of satellites will provide imagery and other data sets relevant to operational weather forecasts. To prepare current and future weather forecasters in application of these data sets, Proving Ground activities have been established that demonstrate future JPSS capabilities through use of similar sensors aboard NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites, and the S-NPP mission. As part of these efforts, NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center in Huntsville, Alabama partners with near real-time providers of S-NPP products (e.g., NASA, UW/CIMSS, UAF/GINA, etc.) to demonstrate future capabilities of JPSS. This includes training materials and product distribution of multi-spectral false color composites of the visible, near-infrared, and infrared bands of MODIS and VIIRS. These are designed to highlight phenomena of interest to help forecasters digest the multispectral data provided by the VIIRS sensor. In addition, forecasters have been trained on the use of the VIIRS day-night band, which provides imagery of moonlit clouds, surface, and lights emitted by human activities. Hyperspectral information from the S-NPP/CrIS instrument provides thermodynamic profiles that aid in the detection of extremely cold air aloft, helping to map specific aviation hazards at high latitudes. Hyperspectral data also support the estimation of ozone concentration, which can highlight the presence of much drier stratospheric air, and map its interaction with mid-latitude or tropical cyclones to improve predictions of their strengthening or decay. Proving Ground activities are reviewed, including training materials and methods that have been provided to forecasters, and forecaster feedback on these products that has been acquired through formal, detailed assessment of their applicability to a given forecast threat or task. Future opportunities for collaborations around the delivery of training are proposed
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Efroymson, R.A.
2002-05-09
This ecological risk assessment for a testing program at Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona, is a demonstration of the Military Ecological Risk Assessment Framework (MERAF; Suter et al. 2001). The demonstration is intended to illustrate how risk assessment guidance concerning-generic military training and testing activities and guidance concerning a specific type of activity (e.g., low-altitude aircraft overflights) may be implemented at a military installation. MERAF was developed with funding from the Strategic Research and Development Program (SERDP) of the Department of Defense. Novel aspects of MERAF include: (1) the assessment of risks from physical stressors using an ecological risk assessment framework, (2) the consideration of contingent or indirect effects of stressors (e.g., population-level effects that are derived from habitat or hydrological changes), (3) the integration of risks associated with different component activities or stressors, (4) the emphasis on quantitative risk estimates and estimates of uncertainty, and (5) the modularity of design, permitting components of the framework to be used in various military risk assessments that include similar activities. The particular subject of this report is the assessment of ecological risks associated with a testing program at Cibola Range of Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona. The program involves an Apache Longbow helicopter firing Hellfire missiles at moving targets, i.e., M60-A1 tanks. Thus, the three component activities of the Apache-Hellfire test were: (1) helicopter overflight, (2) missile firing, and (3) tracked vehicle movement. The demonstration was limited, to two ecological endpoint entities (i.e., potentially susceptible and valued populations or communities): woody desert wash communities and mule deer populations. The core assessment area is composed of about 126 km{sup 2} between the Chocolate and Middle Mountains. The core time of the program is a three-week period, including fourteen days of
Game interpretation of Kolmogorov complexity
Muchnik, Andrej A; Shen, Alexander; Vereshchagin, Nikolay
2010-01-01
The Kolmogorov complexity function K can be relativized using any oracle A, and most properties of K remain true for relativized versions. In section 1 we provide an explanation for this observation by giving a game-theoretic interpretation and showing that all "natural" properties are either true for all sufficiently powerful oracles or false for all sufficiently powerful oracles. This result is a simple consequence of Martin's determinacy theorem, but its proof is instructive: it shows how one can prove statements about Kolmogorov complexity by constructing a special game and a winning strategy in this game. This technique is illustrated by several examples (total conditional complexity, bijection complexity, randomness extraction, contrasting plain and prefix complexities).
环境犯罪证明方法研究%Research of Methods to Prove Environmental Crime
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李劲
2012-01-01
环境犯罪行为迥异于一般的犯罪行为,尤其是对于污染型环境犯罪行为,确定犯罪行为与损害结果之间的因果关系相当困难。对此,国外产生了推定因果关系存在的各种理论与学说。我国现行法律规定的犯罪证明方法在环境犯罪的认定上存在着缺陷,针对我国环境犯罪案发率高但因果关系证明难度大这一现实矛盾,有必要借鉴国外相关立法,对环境犯罪适用的因果关系确定推定方法,以彰显刑法对环境资源、人身权及财产权的保护功能,实现人类社会的可持续发展。%The behaviors of environmental crime are different from the behaviors of usual crime.It＇s difficult to define the cause- and-effect relationship between criminal behaviors and damage effects,especially for the crime of polluting the environment.For this reason,foreign countries raised various theories to presume the existence of cause-and-effect relationships.Nowadays,the methods to prove criminal behaviors in our country＇s law have some defects in the identification of environmental criminals.For the realistic contradiction between high occurring rate and difficulty to prove the cause-and-effect relationship,it is necessary to draw lessons from the laws of foreign countries to apply methods of presumption the cause-and-effect relationships in environmental crime,in or- der to show the functions of protecting environmental resources, personal right and property right,and to realize the continuous de- velopment of human society.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Efroymson, Rebecca Ann [ORNL; Hargrove, William Walter [ORNL; Suter, Glenn [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
2008-01-01
A multi-stressor risk assessment was conducted at Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona, as a demonstration of the Military Ecological Risk Assessment Framework. The focus of the assessment was a testing program at Cibola Range, which involved an Apache Longbow helicopter firing Hellfire missiles at moving targets, M60-A1 tanks. This paper focuses on the wildlife risk assessment for the helicopter overflight. The primary stressors were sound and the view of the aircraft. Exposure to desert mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus crooki) was quantified using Air Force sound contour programs NOISEMAP and MR_NMAP, which gave very different results. Slant distance from helicopters to deer was also used as a measure of exposure that integrated risk from sound and view of the aircraft. Exposure-response models for the characterization of effects consisted of behavioral thresholds in sound exposure level or maximum sound level units or slant distance. Available sound thresholds were limited for desert mule deer, but a distribution of slant-distance thresholds was available for ungulates. The risk characterization used a weight-of-evidence approach and concluded that risk to mule deer behavior from the Apache overflight is uncertain, but that no risk to mule deer abundance and reproduction is expected.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jones, Daniel Steven [ORNL; Efroymson, Rebecca Ann [ORNL; Hargrove, William Walter [ORNL; Suter, Glenn [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Pater, Larry [ERDC-CERL
2008-01-01
A multiple stressor risk assessment was conducted at Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona, as a demonstration of the Military Ecological Risk Assessment Framework. The focus was a testing program at Cibola Range, which involved an Apache Longbow helicopter firing Hellfire missiles at moving targets, M60- A1 tanks. This paper describes the ecological risk assessment for the missile launch and detonation. The primary stressor associated with this activity was sound. Other minor stressors included the detonation impact, shrapnel, and fire. Exposure to desert mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus crooki) was quantified using the Army sound contour program BNOISE2, as well as distances from the explosion to deer. Few effects data were available from related studies. Exposure-response models for the characterization of effects consisted of human "disturbance" and hearing damage thresholds in units of C-weighted decibels (sound exposure level) and a distance-based No Observed Adverse Effects Level for moose and cannonfire. The risk characterization used a weight-of-evidence approach and concluded that risk to mule deer behavior from the missile firing was likely for a negligible number of deer, but that no risk to mule deer abundance and reproduction is expected.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrea Signorini
2011-07-01
Full Text Available Homeopathy is universally known as an opponent of allopathic Medicine, namely scientific medicine based on ponderal drugs and recognised mechanisms of receptor agonism and antagonism following the dose-response curve. Over time the difficulty to explain with arguments the action of homeopathic ultra-diluted remedies has led many homeopaths to distance themselves from any pharmacological knowledges. Nevertheless this position fortgets not only the modalities in which homeopathy was born and has grown, but a lot of modern changes of view in body-mind communication, cell communication, neuro-immune-endocrinology and bioelectromagnetism, that could give new reasons to treat as clinical homeopathic practice is teaching and to recognize the principle of similars as a modern pharmacological principle. These arguments, receptorial cell communication, bioelectromagnetism and body-mind unity are the bases of Homeopathy and of the Similia Principle and are all included in embryonic but sufficiently clear considerations in the fundamental book of Hahnemann, the Organon (parr. 11, 13, 15-18, 21, 22, 29-32, 63-70. Two kind of evidences confirm the pharmacological bases of SimiliaPriniciple, in vitro experiments and homeopathic pathogenetic trials on healthy volunteers, best known as provings. Even clinical homeopathic phenomena like initial aggravation and return of old symptoms confirm this pharmacological view of the Simila Principle.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lütfi İNCİKABI
2013-06-01
Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the methods to prove the validity of logical arguments used by the college students, from the department of mathematics education, and to reveal students’ reasons for selection of the method they used. Among the qualitative research designs, case study was the methodology of the current study. The participants of the study consisted of 76 students who were in their third year in college and who were registered for Introduction to Algebra course. One result of the study was that all three solution methods (classical mathematical operations, truth table, rules of inference were utilized by the students while the rules of inferences were the most preferred solution method among all. Moreover, the fact that students who applied the rules of inferences were more successful in reaching the correct solution than the rest also confirmed the efficacy of the method of rules of inferences. Another result of the study was that students’ reasons for selecting the method of rules of inferences mainly included that it requires less steps and that it is more applicable. Moreover, students utilizing the rules of inferences also stated that the rules of inferences helped them to reveal the concepts behind the logical arguments beside the fact that this method was more efficient in acquiring the solution. On the other hand, students using the truth table or classical mathematical operations techniques highlighted that their preferences were mainly due to their confidence in using these techniques since they were instructed on these techniques in their past courses.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Angel Garrido
2011-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze a few interrelated concepts about graphs, such as their degree, entropy, or their symmetry/asymmetry levels. These concepts prove useful in the study of different types of Systems, and particularly, in the analysis of Complex Networks. A System can be defined as any set of components functioning together as a whole. A systemic point of view allows us to isolate a part of the world, and so, we can focus on those aspects that interact more closely than others. Network Science analyzes the interconnections among diverse networks from different domains: physics, engineering, biology, semantics, and so on. Current developments in the quantitative analysis of Complex Networks, based on graph theory, have been rapidly translated to studies of brain network organization. The brain's systems have complex network features—such as the small-world topology, highly connected hubs and modularity. These networks are not random. The topology of many different networks shows striking similarities, such as the scale-free structure, with the degree distribution following a Power Law. How can very different systems have the same underlying topological features? Modeling and characterizing these networks, looking for their governing laws, are the current lines of research. So, we will dedicate this Special Issue paper to show measures of symmetry in Complex Networks, and highlight their close relation with measures of information and entropy.
Zhang, Songchuan; Xia, Youshen; Wang, Jun
2015-12-01
In this paper, we present a complex-valued projection neural network for solving constrained convex optimization problems of real functions with complex variables, as an extension of real-valued projection neural networks. Theoretically, by developing results on complex-valued optimization techniques, we prove that the complex-valued projection neural network is globally stable and convergent to the optimal solution. Obtained results are completely established in the complex domain and thus significantly generalize existing results of the real-valued projection neural networks. Numerical simulations are presented to confirm the obtained results and effectiveness of the proposed complex-valued projection neural network.
On the Kobayashi-Royden pseudonorm for almost complex manifolds
Kruglikov, Boris S.
1997-01-01
In this paper we define Kobayashi-Royden pseudonorm for almost complex manifolds. Its basic properties known from the complex analysis are preserved in the nonintegrable case as well. We prove that the pseudodistance induced by this pseudonorm coincides with the Kobayashi pseudodistance defined for the almost complex case earlier. We also consider a geometric application for moduli spaces of pseudoholomorphic curves.
Zhang, Songchuan; Xia, Youshen
2016-12-28
Much research has been devoted to complex-variable optimization problems due to their engineering applications. However, the complex-valued optimization method for solving complex-variable optimization problems is still an active research area. This paper proposes two efficient complex-valued optimization methods for solving constrained nonlinear optimization problems of real functions in complex variables, respectively. One solves the complex-valued nonlinear programming problem with linear equality constraints. Another solves the complex-valued nonlinear programming problem with both linear equality constraints and an ℓ₁-norm constraint. Theoretically, we prove the global convergence of the proposed two complex-valued optimization algorithms under mild conditions. The proposed two algorithms can solve the complex-valued optimization problem completely in the complex domain and significantly extend existing complex-valued optimization algorithms. Numerical results further show that the proposed two algorithms have a faster speed than several conventional real-valued optimization algorithms.
The Aberdeen Three: Two Decades Later
2012-05-01
34" ......... ,.,... ... -__ ..... _.. ..... .... _ ......,. .. _ ..... ........ ,.-....... ... )Ound Orioles, 12-0: lB u< GMTF I’F.VFN, 117·114, T(l RF:ACH NBA F’IN.’\\LS< 1 B SIZZJ Ui --"" ."" .• Probe reported on
Ajjampur, Sitara S R; Png, Chin Wen; Chia, Wan Ni; Zhang, Yongliang; Tan, Kevin S W
2016-01-01
Blastocystis spp. are widely prevalent extra cellular, non-motile anerobic protists that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract. Although Blastocystis spp. have been associated with gastrointestinal symptoms, irritable bowel syndrome and urticaria, their clinical significance has remained controversial. We established an ex vivo mouse explant model to characterize adhesion in the context of tissue architecture and presence of the mucin layer. Using confocal microscopy with tissue whole mounts and two axenic isolates of Blastocystis spp., subtype 7 with notable differences in adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells (IEC), isolate B (ST7-B) and isolate H (more adhesive, ST7-H), we showed that adhesion is both isolate dependent and tissue trophic. The more adhesive isolate, ST7-H was found to bind preferentially to the colon tissue than caecum and terminal ileum. Both isolates were also found to have mucinolytic effects. We then adapted a DSS colitis mouse model as a susceptible model to study colonization and acute infection by intra-caecal inoculation of trophic Blastocystis spp.cells. We found that the more adhesive isolate ST7-H was also a better colonizer with more mice shedding parasites and for a longer duration than ST7-B. Adhesion and colonization was also associated with increased virulence as ST7-H infected mice showed greater tissue damage than ST7-B. Both the ex vivo and in vivo models used in this study showed that Blastocystis spp. remain luminal and predominantly associated with mucin. This was further confirmed using colonic loop experiments. We were also successfully able to re-infect a second batch of mice with ST7-H isolates obtained from fecal cultures and demonstrated similar histopathological findings and tissue damage thereby coming closer to proving Koch's postulates for this parasite.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Merlin
2010-04-01
Full Text Available In questo studio sono stati caratterizzati giunti Friction Stir Welding e Linear Friction Welding su compositi a matrice in lega di alluminio e rinforzo particellare ceramico. Il processo FSW è stato applicato a due compositi ottenuti con processo fusorio, quindi estrusi e trattati termicamente T6: AA6061/20%vol.Al2O3p e AA7005/10%vol.Al2O3p. I giunti LFW sono stati invece realizzati su un composito con matrice in lega di alluminio e rinforzo particellare in carburo di silicio, ottenuto mediante metallurgia delle polveri, quindi forgiato e trattato termicamente T4: AA2124/25%vol.SiCp. Sono stati esaminati gli effetti della saldatura sullecaratteristiche microstrutturali dei giunti, avvalendosi di tecniche di microscopia ottica con analisi di immagine e di microscopia elettronica in scansione (SEM con microsonda a dispersione di energia (EDS. Sono state quindi condotte prove di resilienza con pendolo strumentato Charpy. Lo studio dei meccanismi di danneggiamento è stato effettuato mediante analisi al SEM delle superfici di frattura. Entrambi i processi di saldatura hanno portato a giunti sostanzialmente esenti da difetti. La microstruttura dei cordoni è risultata dipendente sia dalle caratteristiche microstrutturali iniziali dei compositi considerati, sia dalla tipologia di processo di saldatura. Nel caso dei compositi AA6061/20%Al2O3p e AA7005/10%Al2O3p saldati FSW si è osservato un sostanziale incremento di resilienza, rispetto al materiale base, in conseguenza dell’affinamento dei grani della matrice, della riduzione della dimensione media delle particelle di rinforzo e della loro spigolosità, indotte dal processo di saldatura. Il composito AA2124/25%SiCp saldato LFW ha presentato valori di resilienza confrontabili con quelli del materiale base, in conseguenza, soprattutto, dei limitati effetti della saldatura su dimensione e distribuzione delle particelle di rinforzo.
Thiyagalingam, Jeyarajan
2013-06-01
In this paper, we present a novel visualization technique for assisting the observation and analysis of algorithmic complexity. In comparison with conventional line graphs, this new technique is not sensitive to the units of measurement, allowing multivariate data series of different physical qualities (e.g., time, space and energy) to be juxtaposed together conveniently and consistently. It supports multivariate visualization as well as uncertainty visualization. It enables users to focus on algorithm categorization by complexity classes, while reducing visual impact caused by constants and algorithmic components that are insignificant to complexity analysis. It provides an effective means for observing the algorithmic complexity of programs with a mixture of algorithms and black-box software through visualization. Through two case studies, we demonstrate the effectiveness of complexity plots in complexity analysis in research, education and application. © 2013 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2013 The Eurographics Association and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhenhan TU; Zhonghua WANG
2013-01-01
This paper proves some uniqueness theorems for meromorphic mappings in several complex variables into the complex projective space PN(C) with truncated multiplicities,and our results improve some earlier work.
Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site, Scoring Record No. 942
2014-09-01
DEMONSTRATION SITE SCORING RECORD NO. 942 SITE LOCATION: ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND DEMONSTRATOR: BATTELLE 100A DONNER DRIVE OAK RIDGE, TN 37830...TECHNOLOGY TYPE/PLATFORM: TEM-8G TOWED ARRAY AREAS COVERED: BLIND GRID PREPARED BY: U.S. ARMY ABERDEEN TEST CENTER ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND...MD 21005-5059 SEPTEMBER 2014 Prepared for: SERDP/ESTCP MUNITIONS MANAGEMENT ARLINGTON, VA 22203 U.S. ARMY TEST AND
Cohen-Macaulay graphs and face vectors of flag complexes
Cook, David
2010-01-01
We introduce three constructions for a graph $G$ that associate to the independence complex of $G$ a flag complex whose $h$-vector is the $f$-vector of the original complex. Two of these constructions produce vertex-decomposable, hence Cohen-Macaulay, complexes. It follows that the $f$-vector of a flag complex is the $h$-vector of a vertex-decomposable flag complex. We conjecture that the converse is true and prove this for $h$-vectors of Cohen-Macaulay independence complexes of bipartite graphs. We also give several new characterisations of bipartite graphs with Cohen-Macaulay or Buchsbaum independence complexes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gys M. Loubser
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In this article, I discuss studies in complexity and its epistemological implications for systematic and practical theology. I argue that engagement with complexity does not necessarily assurea non-reductionist approach. However, if complexity is engaged transversally, it becomes possible to transcend reductionist approaches. Moreover, systematic and practical the ologians can draw on complexity in developing new ways of understanding and, therefore, new ways of describing the focus, epistemic scope and heuristic structures of systematic and practical theology. Firstly, Edgar Morin draws a distinction between restricted and general complexity based on the epistemology drawn upon in studies in complexity. Moving away from foundationalist approaches to epistemology, Morin argues for a paradigm of systems. Secondly,I discuss Kees van Kooten Niekerk�s distinction between epistemology, methodology andontology in studies in complexity and offer an example of a theological argument that drawson complexity. Thirdly, I argue for the importance of transversality in engaging complexity by drawing on the work of Wentzel van Huyssteen and Paul Cilliers. In conclusion, I argue that theologians have to be conscious of the epistemic foundations of each study in complexity, and these studies illuminate the heart of Reformed theology.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: Therefore, this article has both intradisciplinary and interdisciplinary implications. When theologians engage studies incomplexity, the epistemological roots of these studies need to be considered seeing thatresearchers in complexity draw on different epistemologies. Drawing on transversality wouldenhance such considerations. Furthermore, Edgar Morin�s and Paul Cilliers� approach tocomplexity will inform practical and theoretical considerations in church polity and unity.
The Streaming Complexity of Cycle Counting, Sorting by Reversals, and Other Problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Verbin, Elad; Yu, Wei
2011-01-01
by Gavinsky et al. to prove an exponential separation between quantum communication complexity and one-way randomized communication complexity. We are the first to introduce BHH, and to prove a lower bound for it. The hardness of the BHH problem is inherently oneway: it is easy to solve BHH using logarithmic...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Drewer-Gutland, F.; Niederstadt, T.U.; Heindel, W. [University Hospital Muenster (Germany). Inst. for Clinical Radiology; Kemmling, A. [University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Luebeck (Germany). Dept. of Neuroradiology; Ligges, S. [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Biostatistics and Clinical Research; Ritter, M.; Dziewas, R.; Ringelstein, E.B. [University Hospital Muenster (Germany). Dept. of Neurology; Hesselmann, V. [Asklepios-Clinic North, Hamburg (Germany). Radiology/Neuroradiology
2015-06-15
To prove the tissue-protecting effect of mechanical recanalization, we assessed the CT perfusion-based tissue outcome (''TO'') and correlated this imaging parameter with the 3-month clinical outcome (''CO''). 159 patients with large intracranial artery occlusions revealing mechanical recanalization were investigated by CCT, CT angiography (CTA) and CT perfusion (CTP) upon admission. For the final infarct volume, native CCT was repeated after 24h. The ''TO'' (''percentage mismatch loss'' = %ML) was defined as the difference between initial penumbral tissue on CTP and final infarct volume on follow-up CCT. We monitored the three-month modified Rankin Scale (mRS), age, bleeding occurrence, time to recanalization, TICI score and collateralization grade, infarct growth and final infarct volume. Spearman's correlation and nominal regression analysis were used to evaluate the impact of these parameters on mRS Significant correlations were found for %ML and mRS (c=0.48, p<0.001), for final infarct volume and mRS (c=0.52, p<0.001), for TICI score and mRS (c=-0.35, p<0.001), for initial infarct core and mRS (c=0.14, p=0.039) as well as for age and mRS (c=0.37, p<0.001). According to the regression analysis, %ML predicted the classification of mRS correctly in 38.5% of cases. The subclasses mRS 1 and 6 could be predicted by %ML with 86.4% and 60.9% reliability, respectively. No correlations were found for time to recanalization and mRS, for collateralization grade and mRS, and for post-interventional bleeding and mRS. Better than the TICI score, CT-based TO predicts the clinical success of mechanical recanalization, showing that not recanalization, but reperfusion should be regarded as a surrogate parameter for stroke therapy.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. A. Tenreiro Machado
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Complex systems (CS involve many elements that interact at different scales in time and space. The challenges in modeling CS led to the development of novel computational tools with applications in a wide range of scientific areas. The computational problems posed by CS exhibit intrinsic difficulties that are a major concern in Computational Complexity Theory. [...
Simons, J.
2008-01-01
This paper brings together narratology, game theory, and complexity theory to untangle the intricate nature of complex narratives in contemporary cinema. It interrogates the different terms - forking-path narratives, mind-game films, modular narratives, multiple-draft films, database narratives, puz
Preetha, A; Balikai, Bharati S; Sujatha, D; Pai, Anuradha; Ganapathy, K S
2010-01-01
Odontomas are hamartomatous lesions or malformations composed of mature enamel, dentin, and pulp. They may be compound or complex, depending on the extent of morphodifferentiation or their resemblance to normal teeth. The etiology of odontoma is unknown, although several theories have been proposed. This article describes a case of a large infected complex odontoma in the residual mandibular ridge, resulting in considerable mandibular expansion.
Leemput, van de I.A.
2016-01-01
In this thesis I use mathematical models to explore the properties of complex systems ranging from microbial nitrogen pathways and coral reefs to the human state of mind. All are examples of complex systems, defined as systems composed of a number of interconnected parts, where the systemic behavior
Analytic complexity of functions of two variables
Beloshapka, V. K.
2007-09-01
The definition of analytic complexity of an analytic function of two variables is given. It is proved that the class of functions of a chosen complexity is a differentialalgebraic set. A differential polynomial defining the functions of first class is constructed. An algorithm for obtaining relations defining an arbitrary class is described. Examples of functions are given whose order of complexity is equal to zero, one, two, and infinity. It is shown that the formal order of complexity of the Cardano and Ferrari formulas is significantly higher than their analytic complexity. The complexity classes turn out to be invariant with respect to a certain infinite-dimensional transformation pseudogroup. In this connection, we describe the orbits of the action of this pseudogroup in the jets of orders one, two, and three. The notion of complexity order is extended to plane (or “planar”) 3-webs. It is discovered that webs of complexity order one are the hexagonal webs. Some problems are posed.
Stability of Rotor Systems: A Complex Modelling Approach
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kliem, Wolfhard; Pommer, Christian; Stoustrup, Jakob
1996-01-01
A large class of rotor systems can be modelled by a complex matrix differential equation of secondorder. The angular velocity of the rotor plays the role of a parameter. We apply the Lyapunov matrix equation in a complex setting and prove two new stability results which are compared with the resu......A large class of rotor systems can be modelled by a complex matrix differential equation of secondorder. The angular velocity of the rotor plays the role of a parameter. We apply the Lyapunov matrix equation in a complex setting and prove two new stability results which are compared...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Silvia Waisse Priven
2003-01-01
Full Text Available The results of the proving of Golden Pyrite are presented here. The proving followed the protocol adopted for Brosimum gaudichaudii, further modified to adjust to our group’s demands. They are also presented a thematic study of the remedy, its reportorial rubrics, its differential diagnosis and new rubrics that ought to be added to the repertory. The experience created the need of suggesting new practical guidelines to be included in the protocol.
Fisher, Stephen D
1999-01-01
The most important topics in the theory and application of complex variables receive a thorough, coherent treatment in this introductory text. Intended for undergraduates or graduate students in science, mathematics, and engineering, this volume features hundreds of solved examples, exercises, and applications designed to foster a complete understanding of complex variables as well as an appreciation of their mathematical beauty and elegance. Prerequisites are minimal; a three-semester course in calculus will suffice to prepare students for discussions of these topics: the complex plane, basic
Complexity of trajectories in rectangular billiards
Baryshnikov, Yu
1994-01-01
To a trajectory of a billiard in a parallelogram we assign its symbolic trajectory --- the sequence of numbers of coordinate planes, to which the faces met by the trajectory are parallel. The complexity of the trajectory is the number of different words of length n occurring in it. We prove that for generic trajectories the complexity is well defined and calculate it, confirming the conjecture of Arnoux, Mauduit, Shiokawa and Tamura[AMST].
Complexity of trajectories in rectangular billiards
Baryshnikov, Yu.
1995-11-01
To a trajectory of the billiard in a cube we assign its symbolic trajectory-the sequence of numbers of coordinate planes, to which the faces met by the trajectory are parallel. The complexity of the trajectory is the number of different words of lengthn occurring in it. We prove that for generic trajectories the complexity is well defined and calculate it, confirming the conjecture of Arnoux, Mauduit, Shiokawa and Tamura [AMST].
Project risk management in complex petrochemical system
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kirin Snežana
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Investigation of risk in complex industrial systems, as well as evaluation of main factors influencing decision making and implementation process using large petrochemical company as an example, has proved the importance of successful project risk management. This is even more emphasized when analyzing systems with complex structure, i.e. with several organizational units. It has been shown that successful risk management requires modern methods, based on adequate application of statistical analysis methods.
Modern structure of marketing communications complex
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hrebenyukova Elena
2015-08-01
Full Text Available The article presents the results of the desk research, in which the current structure of the marketing communications complex was analyzed. According to the results of the content analysis of scientific and educational literature in marketing it was proved that there is a certain structural asymmetry in today's complex of marketing communication: the rejection of impersonal tools and actualization of those which make possible personalized communication with the consumer.
TO THE PROBLEM OF COMPLEX GRAIN HARVESTING
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rinas N. A.
2014-11-01
Full Text Available The ways and the methods of the solution of the problem of complex cleaning of grain crops were proved; the de-pendences of engine capacity of the Massey Ferguson tractors of 8200 series on the capacity of a thresher of the hook-on combine were received
Rhodium olefin complexes of diiminate type ligands
Willems, Sander Theodorus Hermanus
2003-01-01
The mono-anionic beta-diiminate ligand (ArNC(CH3)CHC(CH3)NAr) on several previous occasions proved useful in stabilising low coordination numbers for both early and late transition metals. In this thesis the reactivity of the rhodium olefin complexes of one of these beta-diiminate ligands (Ar = 2,6-
Complex systems modeling by cellular automata
Kroc, J.; Sloot, P.M.A.; Rabuñal Dopico, J.R.; Dorado de la Calle, J.; Pazos Sierra, A.
2009-01-01
In recent years, the notion of complex systems proved to be a very useful concept to define, describe, and study various natural phenomena observed in a vast number of scientific disciplines. Examples of scientific disciplines that highly benefit from this concept range from physics, mathematics, an
African Journals Online (AJOL)
yellow power was collected as polydatin-lecithin complex. ... performed on an Agilent 1260 HPLC system. The injection volume .... rabbits. Biomed. Pharmacother 2009; 63: 457-462. 4. Liu B, Du J, Zeng J, Chen C, Niu S. Characterization and.
Huang, Wenxuan; Dacek, Stephen; Rong, Ziqin; Ding, Zhiwei; Ceder, Gerbrand
2016-01-01
Generalized Ising models, also known as cluster expansions, are an important tool in many areas of condensed-matter physics and materials science, as they are often used in the study of lattice thermodynamics, solid-solid phase transitions, magnetic and thermal properties of solids, and fluid mechanics. However, the problem of finding the global ground state of generalized Ising model has remained unresolved, with only a limited number of results for simple systems known. We propose a method to efficiently find the periodic ground state of a generalized Ising model of arbitrary complexity by a new algorithm which we term cluster tree optimization. Importantly, we are able to show that even in the case of an aperiodic ground state, our algorithm produces a sequence of states with energy converging to the true ground state energy, with a provable bound on error. Compared to the current state-of-the-art polytope method, this algorithm eliminates the necessity of introducing an exponential number of variables to ...
Gichoya, Judy Wawira; Kohli, Marc D; Haste, Paul; Abigail, Elizabeth Mills; Johnson, Matthew S
2017-06-16
Numerous initiatives are in place to support value based care in radiology including decision support using appropriateness criteria, quality metrics like radiation dose monitoring, and efforts to improve the quality of the radiology report for consumption by referring providers. These initiatives are largely data driven. Organizations can choose to purchase proprietary registry systems, pay for software as a service solution, or deploy/build their own registry systems. Traditionally, registries are created for a single purpose like radiation dosage or specific disease tracking like diabetes registry. This results in a fragmented view of the patient, and increases overhead to maintain such single purpose registry system by requiring an alternative data entry workflow and additional infrastructure to host and maintain multiple registries for different clinical needs. This complexity is magnified in the health care enterprise whereby radiology systems usually are run parallel to other clinical systems due to the different clinical workflow for radiologists. In the new era of value based care where data needs are increasing with demand for a shorter turnaround time to provide data that can be used for information and decision making, there is a critical gap to develop registries that are more adapt to the radiology workflow with minimal overhead on resources for maintenance and setup. We share our experience of developing and implementing an open source registry system for quality improvement and research in our academic institution that is driven by our radiology workflow.
Holomorphic curvature of complex Finsler submanifolds
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
Let M be a complex n-dimensional manifold endowed with a strongly pseudoconvex complex Finsler metric F. Let M be a complex m-dimensional submanifold of M, which is endowed with the induced complex Finsler metric F. Let D be the complex Rund connection associated with (M, F). We prove that (a) the holomorphic curvature of the induced complex linear connection on (M, F) and the holomorphic curvature of the intrinsic complex Rund connection ～* on (M, F) coincide; (b) the holomorphic curvature of ～* does not exceed the holomorphic curvature of D; (c) (M, F) is totally geodesic in (M, F) if and only if a suitable contraction of the second fundamental form B(·, ·) of (M, F) vanishes, i.e., B(χ, ι) = 0. Our proofs are mainly based on the Gauss, Codazzi and Ricci equations for (M, F).
Method to evaluate and prove-the-concept of magnetic separation and/or classification of particles
Augusto, Paulo A.; Castelo-Grande, Teresa; Estévez, Angel M.; Barbosa, Domingos; Costa, Paul M.
2017-03-01
When designing new magnetic separators and/or classifiers or optimizing existing ones, it is usual to face several obstacles: the high cost of a proof of concept full laboratorial setup (including preliminary optimization procedures and/or feasibility demonstrations), time-consuming experiments, lack of flexibility of the assembled laboratorial apparatus, feed complexity, among others. In this work a method and corresponding methodology are proposed to apply in such cases, representing a low-cost, flexible and robust alternative to overcome the mentioned obstacles, from which working parameters of a laboratorial or even larger version of the device may be extrapolated. This represents a powerful tool when designing magnetic separators. In the proposed methodology by determining in one experiment the magnetic force required to separate/classify a particle in a certain point, it may be derived immediately the change in magnitude and shape of the magnetic force index (B ∇ B) that must exist to separate other particles (with the same or different magnetic susceptibility) in another point, and it is possible to estimate, for example, the optimum, maximum or minimum value of other variables affecting the competing forces (e.g. radius of the particles, fluid density, rotation velocity), and also determine the critical limits of separation by extrapolating and obtaining the magnetic force required in those limits. It represents an open field allowing determining freely the values of the main variables. This methodology and associated method also allow repeating quickly and easily the experiments with different sets of geometrical design and positions. A case study was analyzed and tested for both processes: magnetic separation and magnetic classification, with good results, that allowed to conclude about the feasibility of the system for both processes, and to determine the best configuration geometry. The main objective of the present study was to demonstrate a cheap
Com aplicar les proves paramètriques bivariades t de Student i ANOVA en SPSS. Cas pràctic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
María-José Rubio-Hurtado
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Les proves paramètriques són un tipus de proves de significació estadística que quantifiquen l'associació o independència entre una variable quantitativa i una categòrica. Les proves paramètriques són exigents amb certs requisits previs per a la seva aplicació: la distribució Normal de la variable quantitativa en els grups que es comparen, l'homogeneïtat de variàncies en les poblacions de les quals procedeixen els grups i una n mostral no inferior a 30. El seu no compliment comporta la necessitat de recórrer a proves estadístiques no paramètriques. Les proves paramètriques es classifiquen en dos: prova t (per a una mostra o per a dues mostres relacionades o independents i prova ANOVA (per a més de dues mostres independents.
77 FR 31335 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions and Deletion
2012-05-25
... Contracting Command--Aberdeen Proving Ground, Natick Contracting Division, Natick MA. NSN: 1670-01-598-5067... requirement of the Department of the Army, as aggregated by the Army Contracting Command--Aberdeen Proving Ground, Natick Contracting Division, Natick MA. Services Service Type/Location: Laundry and Dry...
77 FR 42700 - Procurement List; Additions
2012-07-20
... Contracting Command--Aberdeen Proving Ground, Natick Contracting Division, Natick MA. Comments were received...--Aberdeen Proving Ground, Natick Contracting Division, Natick MA. Services Service Type/Location: Laundry... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 5/18/2012 (77 FR 29596) and 5/25/2012 (77 FR 31335-31336), the...
Freitag, Eberhard
2005-01-01
The guiding principle of this presentation of ``Classical Complex Analysis'' is to proceed as quickly as possible to the central results while using a small number of notions and concepts from other fields. Thus the prerequisites for understanding this book are minimal; only elementary facts of calculus and algebra are required. The first four chapters cover the essential core of complex analysis: - differentiation in C (including elementary facts about conformal mappings) - integration in C (including complex line integrals, Cauchy's Integral Theorem, and the Integral Formulas) - sequences and series of analytic functions, (isolated) singularities, Laurent series, calculus of residues - construction of analytic functions: the gamma function, Weierstrass' Factorization Theorem, Mittag-Leffler Partial Fraction Decomposition, and -as a particular highlight- the Riemann Mapping Theorem, which characterizes the simply connected domains in C. Further topics included are: - the theory of elliptic functions based on...
Analysis on the Methods of Proving Definite Integral In-equality%定积分不等式证明方法探析
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
孙文婧
2013-01-01
含定积分的不等式的证明是高中数学学习中的一个重点也是难点，证明方法多种多样，本文归纳并列举了几种定积分不等式的证明方法。通过运用定积分的知识对不等式进行证明，来探析定积分在数学证明中的作用。%The proving of definite integral inequality is an impor-tant but difficult point in the learning of senior high school math-ematics, for there are various methods of proving it. This paper summarizes several methods. Through using the knowledge of definite integral in proving inequality, this paper analyzes its role in mathematics.
Test Operations Procedure (TOP) 02-2-820 Tactical Vehicle Climate Control Testing
2017-03-31
Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Test Operations Procedure (TOP) 02-2-820 Tactical Vehicle Climate Control Testing 5a...ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) U.S. Army Aberdeen Test Center ATTN: TEDT-AT-ADI 400 Colleran Road Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005-5059 8...U.S. Army Test and Evaluation Command 2202 Aberdeen Boulevard Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005-5001 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) 11
Release of DNA binary complexes from the ternary complexes by carboxymethyl poly(L-histidine).
Asayama, Shoichiro; Sudo, Miyuki; Kawakami, Hiroyoshi
2009-01-01
The DNA ternary complexes with carboxymethyl poly(L-histidine) (CM-PLH) and poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) have released the DNA binary complexes with PEI by the protonation of CM-PLH at endosomal/lysosomal pH. The dissociation of the CM-PLH from the CM-PLH/PEI/DNA ternary complexes is proved by the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) analysis between the CM-PLH and PEI. The resulting PEI/DNA binary complexes easily released DNA, as compared with the CM-PLH/PEI/DNA ternary complexes, which was examined by competitive exchange with dextran sulfate. The release of the DNA binary complexes from the ternary complexes is promising mechanism for higher transfection activity by the CM-PLH/PEI/DNA ternary complexes.
Evsukoff, Alexandre; González, Marta
2013-01-01
In the last decade we have seen the emergence of a new inter-disciplinary field focusing on the understanding of networks which are dynamic, large, open, and have a structure sometimes called random-biased. The field of Complex Networks is helping us better understand many complex phenomena such as the spread of deseases, protein interactions, social relationships, to name but a few. Studies in Complex Networks are gaining attention due to some major scientific breakthroughs proposed by network scientists helping us understand and model interactions contained in large datasets. In fact, if we could point to one event leading to the widespread use of complex network analysis is the availability of online databases. Theories of Random Graphs from Erdös and Rényi from the late 1950s led us to believe that most networks had random characteristics. The work on large online datasets told us otherwise. Starting with the work of Barabási and Albert as well as Watts and Strogatz in the late 1990s, we now know th...
The Caratheodory and Kobayashi metrics and applications in complex analysis
Krantz, Steven G.
2006-01-01
The Caratheodory and Kobayashi metrics have proved to be important tools in the function theory of several complex variables. But they are less familiar in the context of one complex variable. Our purpose here is to gather in one place the basic ideas about these important invariant metrics for domains in the plane and to provide some illuminating examples and applications.
Lp estimates for-(e)-equation on generalized complex ellipsoids
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2000-01-01
The estimate of a holomorphic supporting function for the generalized complex ellipsoid in is Cn given, This domain is not decoupled. By using this estimate, the best possible Lp estimates for the -(e)-equation and some results of function theory on generalized complex ellipsoids are proved.
COMPLEXITY OF LARGE TIME BEHAVIOUR OFEVOLUTION EQUATIONS WITH BOUNDED DATA
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2002-01-01
The authors study the asymptotic behaviour of solutions of the heat equation and a number of evolution equations using scaling techniques. It is proved that in the framework of bounded data stabilization need not occur and the general asymptotic behaviour is complex. This behaviour reflects for large times,even on compact sets,the complexity of the initial data at infinity.
Complex chemistry with complex compounds
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eichler Robert
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In recent years gas-phase chemical studies assisted by physical pre-separation allowed for the investigation of fragile single molecular species by gas-phase chromatography. The latest success with the heaviest group 6 transactinide seaborgium is highlighted. The formation of a very volatile hexacarbonyl compound Sg(CO6 was observed similarly to its lighter homologues molybdenum and tungsten. The interactions of these gaseous carbonyl complex compounds with quartz surfaces were investigated by thermochromatography. Second-generation experiments are under way to investigate the intramolecular bond between the central metal atom of the complexes and the ligands addressing the influence of relativistic effects in the heaviest compounds. Our contribution comprises some aspects of the ongoing challenging experiments as well as an outlook towards other interesting compounds related to volatile complex compounds in the gas phase.
Singular reduction of generalized complex manifolds
Goldberg, Timothy E
2010-01-01
In this paper, we develop the analogue of Sjamaar and Lerman's singular reduction of Hamiltonian symplectic manifolds in the context of Hamiltonian generalized complex manifolds (in the sense of Lin and Tolman). Specifically, we prove that if a compact Lie group acts on a generalized complex manifold in a Hamiltonian fashion, then the partition of the global quotient by orbit types induces a partition of the Lin-Tolman quotient into generalized complex manifolds. This result holds also for reduction of Hamiltonian generalized Kaehler manifolds.
COMPLEXITY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES. CONTRIBUTIONS FROM ANTHROPOLOGY
Carlos Eduardo Maldonado
2014-01-01
To be sure, the most complex sciences of all are the socalled human, i.e. social sciences. This is an intuition that goes without saying. In science in general, though, intuition is not enough. We have to as it happens. It is my contention in this paper to prove the complexity of human or social sciences in the very sense that or mathematics to be complex. The analyses and reflections are based upon a revision. At the end, I focus particularly on some contributions anthropology can make in th...
Bernoulli measure of complex admissible kneading sequences
Bruin, Henk
2012-01-01
Iterated quadratic polynomials give rise to a rich collection of different dynamical systems that are parametrized by a simple complex parameter $c$. The different dynamical features are encoded by the \\emph{kneading sequence} which is an infinite sequence over $\\{0,\\1\\}$. Not every such sequence actually occurs in complex dynamics. The set of admissible kneading sequences was described by Milnor and Thurston for real quadratic polynomials, and by the authors in the complex case. We prove that the set of admissible kneading sequences has positive Bernoulli measure within the set of sequences over $\\{0,\\1\\}$.
Synchronizability on complex networks via pinning control
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Yi Liang; Xingyuan Wang
2013-04-01
It is proved that the maximum eigenvalue sequence of the principal submatrices of coupling matrix is decreasing. The method of calculating the number of pinning nodes is given based on this theory. The findings reveal the relationship between the decreasing speed of maximum eigenvalue sequence of the principal submatrices for coupling matrix and the synchronizability on complex networks via pinning control. We discuss the synchronizability on some networks, such as scale-free networks and small-world networks. Numerical simulations show that different pinning strategies have different pinning synchronizability on the same complex network, and the synchronizability with pinning control is consistent with one without pinning control in various complex networks.
Camarinha-Matos, L.M.; Xu, L.; Afsarmanesh, H.
2012-01-01
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 13th IFIP WG 5.5 Working Conference on Virtual Enterprises, PRO-VE 2012, held in Bournemouth, UK, in October 2012. The 61 revised papers presented were carefully selected from numerous submissions. They provide a comprehensive overview of identif
2010-04-01
... duty? 30.206 Section 30.206 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ENERGY EMPLOYEES OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS COMPENSATION PROGRAM ACT OF 2000 CLAIMS FOR COMPENSATION... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does a claimant prove that the employee...
应用本体和AllegroGraph实现几何定理证明%Realization of Geometry Theorem Proving with Ontology and AllegroGraph
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
吴店年; 李云清
2014-01-01
由于传统的定理机器证明方法是基于规则的，使得定理证明出现几何信息增长迅猛，推理和计算效率低以及过程可读性差等问题。针对以上情况，提出了基于本体和AllegroGraph的几何定理证明方法。该方法通过本体构建几何定理命题模型，然后采用Prolog规则描述语言对几何定理性质进行描述，同时通过分析本体模型和规则描述的对应关系，提出定理规则半自动生成方法。最后以AllegroGraph( AG)图形数据库的推理机制为基础，完成几何定理证明。实验结果表明，将本体和AllegroGraph推理机应用于几何定理证明领域可以摆脱以往几何定理证明代数化问题，几何证明过程容易理解，同时合理地控制了信息的增长，支持定理可持续证明。%As traditional theorem mechanical proving methods are based on the rules,making the geometry theorem proving occurs rapid growth,reasoning and calculations inefficient,and process poor readability. For the above cases,a design method of the geometry theorem proving based on ontology and AllegroGraph is presented. This method constructs the model of geometric theorem proposition through ontology,and then uses the Prolog rule description language to describe the nature of geometry theorems. At the same time,through the a-nalysis of the correspondence between ontology model and rules described,propose semi-automatic method for the generation of theorem rules. Finally complete geometric theorem proving based on AllegroGraph ( AG) ,taking the reasoning mechanism of graphic database as the foundation. The experimental results show that the ontology and the AllegroGraph inference engine used in the field of geometry theo-rem proving can get rid of geometry theorem proving algebraic, geometric proof process is easy to understand, reasonably control the growth of information and support sustainable prove theorem.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chassin, David P.; Posse, Christian; Malard, Joel M.
2004-08-01
Physical analogs have shown considerable promise for understanding the behavior of complex adaptive systems, including macroeconomics, biological systems, social networks, and electric power markets. Many of today’s most challenging technical and policy questions can be reduced to a distributed economic control problem. Indeed, economically-based control of large-scale systems is founded on the conjecture that the price-based regulation (e.g., auctions, markets) results in an optimal allocation of resources and emergent optimal system control. This paper explores the state of the art in the use physical analogs for understanding the behavior of some econophysical systems and to deriving stable and robust control strategies for them. In particular we review and discussion applications of some analytic methods based on the thermodynamic metaphor according to which the interplay between system entropy and conservation laws gives rise to intuitive and governing global properties of complex systems that cannot be otherwise understood.
On Resolution Complexity of Matching Principles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dantchev, Stefan S.
Chessboard as well as for Tseitin tautologies based on rectangular grid graph. We reduce these problems to Tiling games, a concept introduced by us, which may be of interest on its own. Secondly, we find the exact Tree-Resolution complexity of the Weak Pigeon-Hole Principle. It is the most studied...... are first introduced by us, as a concept opposite to the optimal proofs. Thirdly, we prove Resolution width-size trade-offs for the Pigeon-Hole Principle. Proving the size lower bounds via the width lower bounds was known since the seminal paper of Haken, who first proved an exponential lower bound...... for the ordinary Pigeon-Hole Principle. The width-size trade-offs however were not studied at all prior to our work. Our result gives an optimal width-size trade-off for resolution in general....
PROVE-IT proved it: lower is better--pro.
Leiter, Lawrence A
2006-02-01
Data from prospective epidemiological studies and randomized controlled trials have clearly demonstrated that lower low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations are associated with the greatest reduction in cardiovascular events. Coronary artery disease mortality is lowest in epidemiological studies in those individuals with the lowest cholesterol concentrations. In angiographic studies, patients who had their cholesterol lowered had less angiographic worsening of their atherosclerosis, with those trials that had the lowest on-treatment LDL-C, and especially those that had the greatest percentage of LDL-C lowering, showed the least progression of atherosclerosis. Clinical trials have also highlighted the fact that lower LDL-C concentrations are associated with reduced risk for both a first and a subsequent coronary event with analyses showing that event rates in both primary and secondary prevention trials are directly proportional to on-treatment LDL-C concentrations. An aggressive approach to LDL-C lowering, especially in the high-risk patient, seems warranted.
Chaos and complexity by design
Roberts, Daniel A.; Yoshida, Beni
2017-04-01
We study the relationship between quantum chaos and pseudorandomness by developing probes of unitary design. A natural probe of randomness is the "frame poten-tial," which is minimized by unitary k-designs and measures the 2-norm distance between the Haar random unitary ensemble and another ensemble. A natural probe of quantum chaos is out-of-time-order (OTO) four-point correlation functions. We show that the norm squared of a generalization of out-of-time-order 2 k-point correlators is proportional to the kth frame potential, providing a quantitative connection between chaos and pseudorandomness. Additionally, we prove that these 2 k-point correlators for Pauli operators completely determine the k-fold channel of an ensemble of unitary operators. Finally, we use a counting argument to obtain a lower bound on the quantum circuit complexity in terms of the frame potential. This provides a direct link between chaos, complexity, and randomness.
Chaos and complexity by design
Roberts, Daniel A
2016-01-01
We study the relationship between quantum chaos and pseudorandomness by developing probes of unitary design. A natural probe of randomness is the "frame potential," which is minimized by unitary $k$-designs and measures the $2$-norm distance between the Haar random unitary ensemble and another ensemble. A natural probe of quantum chaos is out-of-time-order (OTO) four-point correlation functions. We show that the norm squared of a generalization of out-of-time-order $2k$-point correlators is proportional to the $k$th frame potential, providing a quantitative connection between chaos and pseudorandomness. Additionally, we prove that these $2k$-point correlators for Pauli operators completely determine the $k$-fold channel of an ensemble of unitary operators. Finally, we use a counting argument to obtain a lower bound on the quantum circuit complexity in terms of the frame potential. This provides a direct link between chaos, complexity, and randomness.
Space-bounded communication complexity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brody, Joshua Eric; Chen, Shiteng; Papakonstantinou, Periklis A.
2013-01-01
In the past thirty years, Communication Complexity has emerged as a foundational tool to proving lower bounds in many areas of computer science. Its power comes from its generality, but this generality comes at a price---no superlinear communication lower bound is possible, since a player may...... communicate his entire input. However, what if the players are limited in their ability to recall parts of their interaction? We introduce memory models for 2-party communication complexity. Our general model is as follows: two computationally unrestricted players, Alice and Bob, each have s(n) bits of memory....... When a player receives a bit of communication, he "compresses" his state. This compression may be an arbitrary function of his current memory contents, his input, and the bit of communication just received; the only restriction is that the compression must return at most s(n) bits. We obtain memory...
Taylor, Joseph L
2011-01-01
The text covers a broad spectrum between basic and advanced complex variables on the one hand and between theoretical and applied or computational material on the other hand. With careful selection of the emphasis put on the various sections, examples, and exercises, the book can be used in a one- or two-semester course for undergraduate mathematics majors, a one-semester course for engineering or physics majors, or a one-semester course for first-year mathematics graduate students. It has been tested in all three settings at the University of Utah. The exposition is clear, concise, and lively
Flanigan, Francis J
2010-01-01
A caution to mathematics professors: Complex Variables does not follow conventional outlines of course material. One reviewer noting its originality wrote: ""A standard text is often preferred [to a superior text like this] because the professor knows the order of topics and the problems, and doesn't really have to pay attention to the text. He can go to class without preparation."" Not so here-Dr. Flanigan treats this most important field of contemporary mathematics in a most unusual way. While all the material for an advanced undergraduate or first-year graduate course is covered, discussion
FEA Reports on Proved Reserves
Geotimes, 1975
1975-01-01
Explains the way in which oil and gas reserves are estimated, and the variation in these estimates according to the year of the resources' estimation and the group undertaking the survey. A recent Federal Energy Administration study suggests that recoverable oil and gas resources have limits that may be approached in the next 50 years. (MLH)
Women Prove Theil Mayoral Qualifications
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
1995-01-01
OF the 517 large and small cities in the country, more than 300 have women mayors and vice mayors. These women play an important role in the construction and development of their cities. Ordinary Chinese people like to call their local officials "father-and- mother officials," but these women
Carleson, Lennart
1993-01-01
Complex dynamics is today very much a focus of interest. Though several fine expository articles were available, by P. Blanchard and by M. Yu. Lyubich in particular, until recently there was no single source where students could find the material with proofs. For anyone in our position, gathering and organizing the material required a great deal of work going through preprints and papers and in some cases even finding a proof. We hope that the results of our efforts will be of help to others who plan to learn about complex dynamics and perhaps even lecture. Meanwhile books in the field a. re beginning to appear. The Stony Brook course notes of J. Milnor were particularly welcome and useful. Still we hope that our special emphasis on the analytic side will satisfy a need. This book is a revised and expanded version of notes based on lectures of the first author at UCLA over several \\Vinter Quarters, particularly 1986 and 1990. We owe Chris Bishop a great deal of gratitude for supervising the production of cour...
González Sistal, Ángel; Romero Colomer, P.; Manresa, Federico
2013-01-01
Aquest document descriu la integració de continguts bàsics i clínics corresponents a l'estudi de la fisiopatologia respiratòria. Aquesta experiència va suposar una importante innovació docent en relació a l'ensenyament teòrico-pràctic de les proves funcionals respiratòries
2009-09-01
the NRHP because it does not meet any criteria for listing ( Quist , 2008). The U.S. Army agreed with this recommendation and determined that...Knight Rachel Quist 75th Civil Engineering Group – Hill AFB Loni Johnson, CERC Kay Winn, CEVOR 75th Civil Engineering Group – Oasis Ronald... Quist , Rachel. 2008. Cultural Resources Management Officer, Dugway Proving Ground. Personal communication with Mary Peters, MBP Consulting
Physical Studies of Some Hydrazinobenzoic Acid Complexes
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
M.G.Abd El Wahed; S.Abd El Wanees; M. El Gamel; S.Abd El Haleem
2005-01-01
The stability constants of complexes of 2-hydrazinobenzoic acid and 4-hydrazinobenzoic acid with Ni (Ⅱ), Cu (Ⅱ),Zn (Ⅱ), Cd (Ⅱ), and Hg (Ⅱ) were determined potentiometrically at different temperatures. The thermodynamic parameters,△AG°,△AH°, and △S° were calculated and proved that the complexation process is spontaneous and endothermic. The thermodynamic functions were analyzed in terms of electrostatic and non-electrostatic components and the results reveal that ionic bonds are formed between the studied ligands and metal ions. Conductometric titration was shown that the stoichiometry of the formed complexes are M:L and M:2L. The structure of the prepared solid complexes was characterized using IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR spectroscopies as well as X-ray diffraction technique.Finally electrical conductivity of the ligands and their copper complexes was measured and shown that the ligands have a semiconductor behaviour.
47 CFR 90.371 - Dedicated short range communications service.
2010-10-01
... Activity, MD 381000N 0762300W Midway Research Center, VA 382640N 0772650W Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD... 0845815W Ft. Stewart, GA 315145N 0813655W Ft. Rucker, AL 311947N 0854255W Yuma Proving Grounds, AZ...
Mather, John C.
2012-01-01
What explains the extraordinary complexity of the observed universe, on all scales from quarks to the accelerating universe? My favorite explanation (which I certainty did not invent) ls that the fundamental laws of physics produce natural instability, energy flows, and chaos. Some call the result the Life Force, some note that the Earth is a living system itself (Gaia, a "tough bitch" according to Margulis), and some conclude that the observed complexity requires a supernatural explanation (of which we have many). But my dad was a statistician (of dairy cows) and he told me about cells and genes and evolution and chance when I was very small. So a scientist must look for me explanation of how nature's laws and statistics brought us into conscious existence. And how is that seemll"!gly Improbable events are actually happening a!1 the time? Well, the physicists have countless examples of natural instability, in which energy is released to power change from simplicity to complexity. One of the most common to see is that cooling water vapor below the freezing point produces snowflakes, no two alike, and all complex and beautiful. We see it often so we are not amazed. But physlc!sts have observed so many kinds of these changes from one structure to another (we call them phase transitions) that the Nobel Prize in 1992 could be awarded for understanding the mathematics of their common features. Now for a few examples of how the laws of nature produce the instabilities that lead to our own existence. First, the Big Bang (what an insufficient name!) apparently came from an instability, in which the "false vacuum" eventually decayed into the ordinary vacuum we have today, plus the most fundamental particles we know, the quarks and leptons. So the universe as a whole started with an instability. Then, a great expansion and cooling happened, and the loose quarks, finding themselves unstable too, bound themselves together into today's less elementary particles like protons and
Mather, John C.
2012-01-01
What explains the extraordinary complexity of the observed universe, on all scales from quarks to the accelerating universe? My favorite explanation (which I certainty did not invent) ls that the fundamental laws of physics produce natural instability, energy flows, and chaos. Some call the result the Life Force, some note that the Earth is a living system itself (Gaia, a "tough bitch" according to Margulis), and some conclude that the observed complexity requires a supernatural explanation (of which we have many). But my dad was a statistician (of dairy cows) and he told me about cells and genes and evolution and chance when I was very small. So a scientist must look for me explanation of how nature's laws and statistics brought us into conscious existence. And how is that seemll"!gly Improbable events are actually happening a!1 the time? Well, the physicists have countless examples of natural instability, in which energy is released to power change from simplicity to complexity. One of the most common to see is that cooling water vapor below the freezing point produces snowflakes, no two alike, and all complex and beautiful. We see it often so we are not amazed. But physlc!sts have observed so many kinds of these changes from one structure to another (we call them phase transitions) that the Nobel Prize in 1992 could be awarded for understanding the mathematics of their common features. Now for a few examples of how the laws of nature produce the instabilities that lead to our own existence. First, the Big Bang (what an insufficient name!) apparently came from an instability, in which the "false vacuum" eventually decayed into the ordinary vacuum we have today, plus the most fundamental particles we know, the quarks and leptons. So the universe as a whole started with an instability. Then, a great expansion and cooling happened, and the loose quarks, finding themselves unstable too, bound themselves together into today's less elementary particles like protons and
基于PHP/MySQL的网上用户验证%Proving User's Identity on Network Based on PHP/MySQL
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨媛媛; 王浩
2001-01-01
Proving user's identity on Internet is the important means of implementing web security. As the best combination of realizing dynamic web, PHP, Apache server and MySQL database are the first tools to prove user's identity. In this paper, the characters of PHP, Apache and MySQL are introduced, and the principle of accessing web database using PHP is discussed detailedly. At last, three effective methods of proving user's identity on Internet based on PHP/MySQL are presented and summarized.%指出了用户验证是实现网站安全的重要手段，而PHP语言、Apache服务器和MySQL数据库作为实现动态网站开发的最佳拍档，是实现网上用户验证的首选工具.在介绍了PHP、Apache和MySQL的特性之后，对PHP实现Web页面对数据库访问的原理作了详细的讨论，总结和提出了3种有效的基于PHP/MySQL的网上用户验证方法.
离散数学证明范式的有效性%The Discrete Mathematics Proves Effectiveness of Paradigm S-c:VMGSGMV
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
董效林
2014-01-01
According to Kuhn paradigm theory, the author puts forward the new paradigm. So far, there have been a lot of researches which apply various mathematical methods to prove paradigm. However, there is no report which uses the discrete mathematics proposition logic to prove paradigm at home and abroad. Based on the discrete mathematics proposition logic, the writer establishes the proposition, builds the propositional relationship truth table, and obtains the conditional proposition and propositional formula. Finally, the writer proves the effectiveness of the proposition S-c:VMGSGMV conjunctive normal form by the propositional calculus reasoning theory.%文章作者根据库恩范式理论，提出了新范式。到目前为止，利用各种数学方法进行范式证明的研究很多，但是，根据离散数学命题逻辑进行范式证明的研究文献，国内外均未见报道。文章作者依据离散数学命题逻辑建立了命题，构建了命题关系真值表，得出了条件命题及命题公式。最后，根据命题演算的推理理论证明了命题S-c：VMGSGMV合取范式的有效性。
Discrete complex analysis on isoradial graphs
Chelkak, Dmitry; Smirnov, Stanislav
2008-01-01
We study discrete complex analysis and potential theory on a large family of planar graphs, the so-called isoradial ones. Along with discrete analogues of several classical results, we prove uniform convergence of discrete harmonic measures, Green's functions and Poisson kernels to their continuous counterparts. Among other applications, the results can be used to establish universality of the critical Ising and other lattice models.
Complex Treatment of Sensorineural Hearing Loss
Aleksandruk, N. V.
2014-01-01
Recent data on use of Ginkgo Biloba extract in otorhinolaryngological practice were presented. The mechanism of the curative action of Ginkgo Biloba extract (vasoprotective, antioxidative, rheological, and edematous) was described. Effectiveness of Ginkgo Biloba as a part of complex treatment of sensorineural hearing loss in children was elucidated. Results of the research proved effectiveness of treatment with Ginkgo Biloba and showed perspectives of Ginkgo Biloba use in treatment programs f...
Ritt's theorem and the Heins map in hyperbolic complex manifolds
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Marco; Abate; Filippo; Bracci
2005-01-01
Let X be a Kobayashi hyperbolic complex manifold, and assume that X does not contain compact complex submanifolds of positive dimension (e.g., X Stein). We shall prove the following generalization of Ritt's theorem: every holomorphic self-map f: X →X such that f(X) is relatively compact in X has a unique fixed point τ(f) ∈ X, which is attracting. Furthermore, we shall prove that τ(f) depends holomorphically on f in a suitable sense, generalizing results by Heins, Joseph-Kwack and the second author.
Surfaces with parallel mean curvature vector in complex space forms
Fetcu, Dorel
2010-01-01
We consider a quadratic form defined on the surfaces with parallel mean curvature vector of an any dimensional complex space form and prove that its $(2,0)$-part is holomorphic. When the complex dimension of the ambient space is equal to $2$ we define a second quadratic form with the same property and then determine those surfaces with parallel mean curvature vector on which the $(2,0)$-parts of both of them vanish. We also provide a reduction of codimension theorem and prove a non-existence result for $2$-spheres with parallel mean curvature vector.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
周成泓
2009-01-01
医疗责任事实因果关系具有复杂性,其证明非一般证明方法所能解决.目前比较有效的证明方法有表见证明和间接反证,重大医疗过失时可以减轻患方的证明责任乃至实行证明责任的转换.在发生证明妨碍行为时,可以做不利于妨碍方的事实推定.此外,概率认定因果关系理论、文件义务和诊断结果之作成与确保义务理论对医疗责任事实因果关系的证明亦具有一定的作用.盖然性说和优势证据理论亦可作为适当的参考.%Due to its complexity,the factual causation based on medical liability cannot be proved by general means.At present.there ale two rather effective fact-finding methods-Prima Facie Bewies and indirect rebuttal evidence.If major medical negligence occur8,the burden of proof of patient can be reduced or switched.In the event of proof obstruction,an adverse presumption of truth can be made for the obstructor.In addition,theory of fact-finding by probability,document obligations theory and theory of making the diagnosis and ensuring re-sponsibility also play a certain role in proving the causation based on the medical liability.The theory of proba-bilities and the theory of advantageous evidence can also be used as an advisable reference.
A note on the Dirichlet problem for model complex partial differential equations
Ashyralyev, Allaberen; Karaca, Bahriye
2016-08-01
Complex model partial differential equations of arbitrary order are considered. The uniqueness of the Dirichlet problem is studied. It is proved that the Dirichlet problem for higher order of complex partial differential equations with one complex variable has infinitely many solutions.
New light on Bergman complexes by decomposing matroid types
Dlugosch, Martin
2011-01-01
Bergman complexes are polyhedral complexes associated to matroids. Faces of these complexes are certain matroids, called matroid types, too. In order to understand the structure of these faces we decompose matroid types into direct summands. Ardila/Klivans proved that the Bergman Complex of a matroid can be subdivided into the order complex of the proper part of its lattice of flats. Beyond that Feichtner/Sturmfels showed that the Bergman complex can even be subdivided to the even coarser nested set complex. We will give a much shorter and more general proof of this fact. Generalizing formulas proposed by Ardila/Klivans and Feichtner/Sturmfels for special cases, we present a decomposition into direct sums working for faces of any of these complexes. Additionally we show that it is the finest possible decomposition for faces of the Bergman complex.
Topology identification of complex dynamical networks
Zhao, Junchan; Li, Qin; Lu, Jun-An; Jiang, Zhong-Ping
2010-06-01
Recently, some researchers investigated the topology identification for complex networks via LaSalle's invariance principle. The principle cannot be directly applied to time-varying systems since the positive limit sets are generally not invariant. In this paper, we study the topology identification problem for a class of weighted complex networks with time-varying node systems. Adaptive identification laws are proposed to estimate the coupling parameters of the networks with and without communication delays. We prove that the asymptotic identification is ensured by a persistently exciting condition. Numerical simulations are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Fixed Simplex Property for Retractable Complexes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zapart Anna
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Retractable complexes are defined in this paper. It is proved that they have the fixed simplex property for simplicial maps. This implies the theorem of Wallace and the theorem of Rival and Nowakowski for finite trees: every simplicial map transforming vertices of a tree into itself has a fixed vertex or a fixed edge. This also implies the Hell and Nešetřil theorem: any endomorphism of a dismantlable graph fixes some clique. Properties of recursively contractible complexes are examined.
Entangled Husimi distribution and Complex Wavelet transformation
Hu, Li-yun
2009-01-01
Based on the proceding Letter [Int. J. Theor. Phys. 48, 1539 (2009)], we expand the relation between wavelet transformation and Husimi distribution function to the entangled case. We find that the optical complex wavelet transformation can be used to study the entangled Husimi distribution function in phase space theory of quantum optics. We prove that the entangled Husimi distribution function of a two-mode quantum state |phi> is just the modulus square of the complex wavelet transform of exp{-(|eta|^2)/2} with phi(eta)being the mother wavelet up to a Gaussian function.
Cloud Computing for Complex Performance Codes.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Appel, Gordon John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hadgu, Teklu [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Klein, Brandon Thorin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Miner, John Gifford [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2017-02-01
This report describes the use of cloud computing services for running complex public domain performance assessment problems. The work consisted of two phases: Phase 1 was to demonstrate complex codes, on several differently configured servers, could run and compute trivial small scale problems in a commercial cloud infrastructure. Phase 2 focused on proving non-trivial large scale problems could be computed in the commercial cloud environment. The cloud computing effort was successfully applied using codes of interest to the geohydrology and nuclear waste disposal modeling community.
一类三角形几何不等式的自动证明%Automated proving for class of triangle geometric inequalities
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈世平; 刘忠
2012-01-01
讨论了一类只含三角函数的三角形几何不等式的自动证明问题.运用代数方法将其有理化,在不新增加根式的条件下将问题转换为一个二元多项式不等式的证明,设计的基于胞腔分解和实根分离的算法实现了二元多项式不等式的自动证明,输出的证明过程可以手工验证或借助一些数学软件进行理解.实验表明上述算法对一大批具有相当难度,特别是关于三角函数的几何不等式十分高效,并且能够解决三角形内角的任意有理倍数函数的不等式机器证明问题.%This paper discussed the automated proving for a class of triangle geometric inequalities with only trigonometric functions. Without new radicals,it firstly transformed the original inequality to a two-variable polynomial one using algebraic method firstly. And then it implemented an algorithm based on cell decomposition and real root isolation to prove the two-varia-. Ble polynomial inequalities, and the output was readable or could be understood with the help of mathematic software. Experiments show that the above methods can prove an extensive class of geometric inequalities with great difficulty automatically and are much efficient especially for the inequalities with only trigonometric functions. Furthermore, the algorithm is suit for triangle geometric inequalities with arbitrary rational coefficients of interior angles.
Application of Ontology Reasoning in Mechanical Geometry Theorem Proving%本体推理在几何定理机器证明中的应用
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李晓霞; 陈强
2013-01-01
文中阐述了平面几何定理机器证明的基本原理及方法，针对几何定理机器证明过程中可读证明的产生，及推理信息快速增长的问题，提出了一种基于本体推理的几何定理机器证明方法。通过具体案例，描述了以Protégér软件为工具，基于WordNet重用的领域本体半自动构建方法，构建几何本体模型的过程，并结合Prolog规则进行双向推理。结果表明将本体引入几何定理机器证明是可行的，且本体推理脱离了代数形式，使得推理过程更接近自然语言的描述，同时推理效率更高。%The principle and method of the plane geometry theorem machine proving are expounded in this paper. According to the prob-lem of readability and information rapid growth in geometry theorem proving,a proving method based on ontology reasoning is proposed. Through the concrete case, the process of constructing geometric ontology models are described, which are constructed by using the Protégé tool and the method of domain ontology semi-automatic construction based on WordNet reuse,then combine the Prolog rules to reasoning. The results show the geometry theorem proving based on ontology reasoning is feasible,and the ontology reasoning is divorced from the algebraic form,which makes the reasoning process are more closer to natural language,and the efficiency more higher.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cervati, L.; Cipolletta, L.; De Andreis, L.; Indiano, E. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, RM (Italy). Dipt. Energia
1999-07-01
Starting from the existing international regulations on the test of the electric vehicles a series of specific test to carry out at the roller bench of ENEA (National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment) has been defined. The paper presents the numeric result applying such procedures to the test on an electric vehicles, whose main performances are described. [Italian] Partendo dalle normative internazionali esistenti sulla prova dei veicoli elettrici sono state definite una serie di prove specifiche da effettuare presso il banco a rulli dell'ENEA. Il presente lavoro riporta i risultati ottenuti applicando le procedure ad un veicolo elettrico. Le principali prestazioni sono messe in evidenza.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lionel R. Milgrom
2007-01-01
Full Text Available The idea of quantum entanglement is borrowed from physics and developed into an algebraic argument to explain how double-blinding randomized controlled trials could lead to failure to provide unequivocal evidence for the efficacy of homeopathy, and inability to distinguish proving and placebo groups in homeopathic pathogenic trials. By analogy with the famous double-slit experiment of quantum physics, and more modern notions of quantum information processing, these failings are understood as blinding causing information loss resulting from a kind of quantum superposition between the remedy and placebo.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pfisterer, M.; Bertel, O.; Bonetti, P.O.;
2008-01-01
Background Based on a subgroup analysis of 18-month BAsel Stent Kosten Effektivitats Trial (BASKET) outcome data, we hypothesized that very late (>12 months) stent thrombosis occurs predominantly after drug-eluting stent implantation in large native coronary vessel stenting. Methods To prove...... stent use in patients with large native vessel stenting. The 2-year death/myocardial infarction-as well as target vessel revascularization-and bleeding rates in these patients with a first-versus second-generation drug-eluting stent should demonstrate the benefit or harm of these stents compared...
项重写系统弱基终止性的归纳证明%An Inductive Proving Method for Weakly Ground Termination of Term Rewriting Systems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
冯速
2001-01-01
This paper proposes a novel method for proving weakly ground termination in a restricted domain of a term rewriting system based on structural and cover set induction. For this prupose,we introduce the concepts of base set and set of ground terms defined recursively over base sets,which plays a crucial role in the inductive method. The method can be used for non-terminating,non-confluent and/or non-linear term rewriting systems,and have application in inductive equivalence testing and program verification.
Generalized contraction resulting tripled fixed point theorems in complex valued metric spaces
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Madhu Singh
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Owning the concept of complex valued metric spaces introduced by Azam et al.[1] many authors prove several fixed point results for mappings satisfying certain contraction conditions. Coupled and tripled fixed point problems have attracted much attention in recent times. In this note, common tripled fixed point theorems for a pairs of mappings satisfying certain rational contraction in complex valued metric spaces are proved. Some illustrative examples are also given which demonstrate the validity of the hypotheses of our results.
Synchronization in complex networks with adaptive coupling
Zhang, Rong; Hu, Manfeng; Xu, Zhenyuan
2007-08-01
Generally it is very difficult to realized synchronization for some complex networks. In order to synchronize, the coupling coefficient of networks has to be very large, especially when the number of coupled nodes is larger. In this Letter, we consider the problem of synchronization in complex networks with adaptive coupling. A new concept about asymptotic stability is presented, then we proved by using the well-known LaSalle invariance principle, that the state of such a complex network can synchronize an arbitrary assigned state of an isolated node of the network as long as the feedback gain is positive. Unified system is simulated as the nodes of adaptive coupling complex networks with different topologies.
Synchronization in complex networks with adaptive coupling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang Rong [School of Science, Southern Yangtze University, Wuxi 214122 (China); School of Information Engineering, Southern Yangtze University, Wuxi 214122 (China)], E-mail: ronia62@yahoo.com; Hu Manfeng [School of Science, Southern Yangtze University, Wuxi 214122 (China); School of Information Engineering, Southern Yangtze University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Xu Zhenyuan [School of Science, Southern Yangtze University, Wuxi 214122 (China)
2007-08-20
Generally it is very difficult to realized synchronization for some complex networks. In order to synchronize, the coupling coefficient of networks has to be very large, especially when the number of coupled nodes is larger. In this Letter, we consider the problem of synchronization in complex networks with adaptive coupling. A new concept about asymptotic stability is presented, then we proved by using the well-known LaSalle invariance principle, that the state of such a complex network can synchronize an arbitrary assigned state of an isolated node of the network as long as the feedback gain is positive. Unified system is simulated as the nodes of adaptive coupling complex networks with different topologies.
A new way to prove the second Stirling formula%一种新颖的第二类Stirling数公式证明
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李新社; 姚俊萍
2014-01-01
现有的Stirling数公式证明过程繁杂且难以掌握，文中根据满射函数定义和排列组合基础理论，结合逐步淘汰原理给出了第二类Stirling 数公式的一个既简单又易接受的证明过程。该证明过程不仅给出了第二类Stirling 数公式的来源，而且从满射函数特性方面回答了其正确性。%The current methods to prove the Stirling formula are complicated .Here we present a new way to simplify the proving process for the Second Stirling Formula based on the surjective function definition ,permutation and combination and the gradual phase-out principle .Not only the source of Stirling formula is revealed but the correctness is proven from the aspect of surjective function .
用惠更斯面等效原理证明零场定理%Using Huygens' surface equivalence principle to prove the extinction theorem
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
侯维娜; 杜惠平
2006-01-01
The field equivalence principle, one of the fundamental concepts in electromagnetics, has numerous applications. However, it is not easy for people to understand it thoroughly. Especially,it is even harder to understand the extinction theorem and its realization in practice. In this article the authors use Huygens' surface equivalence principle to prove the extinction theorem, which is the fundamental concepts in electromagnetics. And this method proved to be a simple and good one in practice.%场等效原理是电磁学的基本定理之一,但场等效原理特别是零场定理很难被人理解,人们很难想象在一个区域中的场等效为原问题的场,而在另一个区域中却为零场.用惠更斯面等效原理证明了零场定理,该方法简单明了,易于理解,是一个很好的证明方法.
76 FR 18189 - Procurement List; Additions
2011-04-01
... Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD. Patricia Briscoe, Deputy Director, Business Operations Pricing and... INFORMATION: Additions On 1/28/2011 (76 FR 5142-5143), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or... Contracting Center--Aberdeen, MD, (Off-site: 507 Kent Street, Utica NY). NPA: Central Association for...
Transport optimization on complex networks
Danila, Bogdan; Marsh, John A; Bassler, Kevin E
2007-01-01
We present a comparative study of the application of a recently introduced heuristic algorithm to the optimization of transport on three major types of complex networks. The algorithm balances network traffic iteratively by minimizing the maximum node betweenness with as little path lengthening as possible. We show that by using this optimal routing, a network can sustain significantly higher traffic without jamming than in the case of shortest path routing. A formula is proved that allows quick computation of the average number of hops along the path and of the average travel times once the betweennesses of the nodes are computed. Using this formula, we show that routing optimization preserves the small-world character exhibited by networks under shortest path routing, and that it significantly reduces the average travel time on congested networks with only a negligible increase in the average travel time at low loads. Finally, we study the correlation between the weights of the links in the case of optimal ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ragazzo, P. [Consorzio per l' Acquedotto del Basso Piave, San Dona' di Piave, VE (Italy); Navazio, G. [Padua Univ., Padua (Italy). Dipt. dei Processi Chimici dell' Ingegneria; Cavadone, A. [Solvay Chimica Italia S.p.A., Milan (Italy)
2000-09-01
In a previous research, a preliminary study was carried out on the disinfection efficiency of peracetic acid (PAA), comparing it to that of other disinfectants that are typically used, in batch tests with dosage values ranging from 0.5 to 5 ppm. The study was carried out on samples of water collected from several significant points of the treatment process at the main water treatment plant in Jesolo (Venice, Italy). On the basis of results (basically positive at that time) obtained from these tests, a 400 litre/hour pilot plant was built, as a lower scale reproduction of the drink water treatment system mentioned earlier, in order to study the characteristics of PAA even in tests that could more realistically simulate the flow of water along the process. These tests essentially confirmed the kinetics of the spontaneous hydrolysis to CH{sub 3} COOH+H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and those of dismutation to CH{sub 3}COOH+O{sub 2}, with half-life time values ranging from 3 to 12 hours, depending on the characteristics of the water (especially the pH factor) and the PAA concentration values. [Italian] In un precedente lavoro e' stato effettuato un preventivo studio sull'efficienza disinfettiva dell'acido peracetico, anche in confronto con gli altri piu' usuali disinfettanti, in prove condotte in batch, con dosaggi compresi tra 0.5 e 5 ppm, su campioni di acqua prelevati dai diversi punti significativi della linea di trattamento della centrale di Jesolo (Torre Caligo), gestita dal Consorzio Acquedottistico del Basso Piave di S. Dona' di Piave (Venezia). Sulla base dei risultati, sostanzialmente positivi, e' stato costruito un impianto pilota da 400l/h, riproducente, in scala, la linea di potabilizzazione su ricordata, per studiare le caratteristiche del PAA anche in prove piu' probanti condotte in flusso. In tali prove sono state sostanzialmente riconfermate le cinetiche delle reazioni spontanee di dirolisi a CH{sub 3}COOH+H{sub 2}O{sub 2} e di
Settling the Complexity of Computing Two-Player Nash Equilibria
Chen, Xi; Teng, Shang-Hua
2007-01-01
We settle a long-standing open question in algorithmic game theory. We prove that Bimatrix, the problem of finding a Nash equilibrium in a two-player game, is complete for the complexity class PPAD Polynomial Parity Argument, Directed version) introduced by Papadimitriou in 1991. This is the first of a series of results concerning the complexity of Nash equilibria. In particular, we prove the following theorems: Bimatrix does not have a fully polynomial-time approximation scheme unless every problem in PPAD is solvable in polynomial time. The smoothed complexity of the classic Lemke-Howson algorithm and, in fact, of any algorithm for Bimatrix is not polynomial unless every problem in PPAD is solvable in randomized polynomial time. Our results demonstrate that, even in the simplest form of non-cooperative games, equilibrium computation and approximation are polynomial-time equivalent to fixed point computation. Our results also have two broad complexity implications in mathematical economics and operations res...
Periodic sequences with stable $k$-error linear complexity
Zhou, Jianqin
2011-01-01
The linear complexity of a sequence has been used as an important measure of keystream strength, hence designing a sequence which possesses high linear complexity and $k$-error linear complexity is a hot topic in cryptography and communication. Niederreiter first noticed many periodic sequences with high $k$-error linear complexity over GF(q). In this paper, the concept of stable $k$-error linear complexity is presented to study sequences with high $k$-error linear complexity. By studying linear complexity of binary sequences with period $2^n$, the method using cube theory to construct sequences with maximum stable $k$-error linear complexity is presented. It is proved that a binary sequence with period $2^n$ can be decomposed into some disjoint cubes. The cube theory is a new tool to study $k$-error linear complexity. Finally, it is proved that the maximum $k$-error linear complexity is $2^n-(2^l-1)$ over all $2^n$-periodic binary sequences, where $2^{l-1}\\le k<2^{l}$.
Quantum complexity of graph and algebraic problems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Doern, Sebastian
2008-02-04
This thesis is organized as follows: In Chapter 2 we give some basic notations, definitions and facts from linear algebra, graph theory, group theory and quantum computation. In Chapter 3 we describe three important methods for the construction of quantum algorithms. We present the quantum search algorithm by Grover, the quantum amplitude amplification and the quantum walk search technique by Magniez et al. These three tools are the basis for the development of our new quantum algorithms for graph and algebra problems. In Chapter 4 we present two tools for proving quantum query lower bounds. We present the quantum adversary method by Ambainis and the polynomial method introduced by Beals et al. The quantum adversary tool is very useful to prove good lower bounds for many graph and algebra problems. The part of the thesis containing the original results is organized in two parts. In the first part we consider the graph problems. In Chapter 5 we give a short summary of known quantum graph algorithms. In Chapter 6 to 8 we study the complexity of our new algorithms for matching problems, graph traversal and independent set problems on quantum computers. In the second part of our thesis we present new quantum algorithms for algebraic problems. In Chapter 9 to 10 we consider group testing problems and prove quantum complexity bounds for important problems from linear algebra. (orig.)
论图书馆学中的无定论问题%On the Problems to Have so Far Proved Inconclusive in Library Science
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
汤利光
2014-01-01
There are many problems to have so far proved inconclusive in library science on that continued debate has brought a certain degree of negative effect to the normal development of contemporary library science .The right way to solve these inconclusive problem of library science is to build a scientific and rational modern library philosophy.%图书馆学中存在许多无定论问题，对这些问题的持续论争已给当代图书馆学的正常发展产生了一定程度的负面效应。解决图书馆学无定论问题的正确途径是构建科学合理的现代图书馆哲学。
Oğüt, Hulisi; Raghunathan, Srinivasan; Menon, Nirup
2011-03-01
The correlated nature of security breach risks, the imperfect ability to prove loss from a breach to an insurer, and the inability of insurers and external agents to observe firms' self-protection efforts have posed significant challenges to cyber security risk management. Our analysis finds that a firm invests less than the social optimal levels in self-protection and in insurance when risks are correlated and the ability to prove loss is imperfect. We find that the appropriate social intervention policy to induce a firm to invest at socially optimal levels depends on whether insurers can verify a firm's self-protection levels. If self-protection of a firm is observable to an insurer so that it can design a contract that is contingent on the self-protection level, then self-protection and insurance behave as complements. In this case, a social planner can induce a firm to choose the socially optimal self-protection and insurance levels by offering a subsidy on self-protection. We also find that providing a subsidy on insurance does not provide a similar inducement to a firm. If self-protection of a firm is not observable to an insurer, then self-protection and insurance behave as substitutes. In this case, a social planner should tax the insurance premium to achieve socially optimal results. The results of our analysis hold regardless of whether the insurance market is perfectly competitive or not, implying that solely reforming the currently imperfect insurance market is insufficient to achieve the efficient outcome in cyber security risk management.
On the parity complexity measures of Boolean functions
Zhang,Zhiqiang; Shi, Yaoyun
2010-01-01
The parity decision tree model extends the decision tree model by allowing the computation of a parity function in one step. We prove that the deterministic parity decision tree complexity of any Boolean function is polynomially related to the non-deterministic complexity of the function or its complement. We also show that they are polynomially related to an analogue of the block sensitivity. We further study parity decision trees in their relations with an intermediate variant of the decisi...
The Complexity of Recognition of Linguistically Adequate Dependency Grammars
Neuhaus, P; Neuhaus, Peter; Broeker, Norbert
1997-01-01
Results of computational complexity exist for a wide range of phrase structure-based grammar formalisms, while there is an apparent lack of such results for dependency-based formalisms. We here adapt a result on the complexity of ID/LP-grammars to the dependency framework. Contrary to previous studies on heavily restricted dependency grammars, we prove that recognition (and thus, parsing) of linguistically adequate dependency grammars is NP-complete.
A strip array for spoligotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates.
Tu, Yiling; Zeng, Xiaohong; Li, Hui; Zheng, Rongrong; Xu, Ye; Li, Qingge
2016-03-01
A novel strip array was developed for a nine-spacer spoligotyping scheme of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). The new method was evaluated using 211 MTBC isolates and the results were fully concordant with the traditional spoligotyping approach. The strip array proved to be rapid and convenient for spoligotyping of MTBC.
Kolmogorov complexity, Lovasz local lemma and critical exponents
Rumyantsev, Andrey
2010-01-01
D. Krieger and J. Shallit have proved that every real number greater than 1 is a critical exponent of some sequence. We show how this result can be derived from some general statements about sequences whose subsequences have (almost) maximal Kolmogorov complexity. In this way one can also construct a sequence that has no "approximate" fractional powers with exponent that exceeds a given value.
On the Average-Case Complexity of Shellsort
Vitányi, P.M.B.
2015-01-01
We prove a lower bound expressed in the increment sequence on the average-case complexity (number of inversions which is proportional to the running time) of Shellsort. This lower bound is sharp in every case where it could be checked. We obtain new results e.g. determining the average-case complexi
The homotopy category of complexes of projective modules
Jorgensen, Peter
2003-01-01
The homotopy category of complexes of projective left-modules over any reasonably nice ring is proved to be a compactly generated triangulated category, and a duality is given between its subcategory of compact objects and the finite derived category of right-modules.
Stability of rotor systems: A complex modelling approach
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kliem, Wolfhard; Pommer, Christian; Stoustrup, Jakob
1998-01-01
matrices in order to describe the effect of parameters on stability. In this paper we apply the Lyapunov matrix equation in a complex setting to an equivalent system of first order and prove in this way two new stability results. We then compare the usefulness of these results with the more classical...
Toeplitz Operators with BMO Symbols of Several Complex Variables
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhong Hua HE; Guang Fu CAO
2012-01-01
In this note we prove that the boundedness and compactness of the Toeplitz operator on the Bergman space L2a (Bn) for several complex variables with a BMO1 symbol is completely determined by the boundary behavior of its Berezin transform.
Three complexity results on coloring $P_k$-free graphs
Broersma, Haitze J.; Fomin, Vedor V.; Golovach, Petr A.; Paulusma, Daniël
2013-01-01
We prove three complexity results on vertex coloring problems restricted to $P_k$-free graphs, i.e., graphs that do not contain a path on k vertices as an induced subgraph. First of all, we show that the pre-coloring extension version of 5-coloring remains NP-complete when restricted to P6-free
Phaenomenologie der religie en complexe psychologie : een methodologische bijdrage
Sierksma, Fokke
1950-01-01
Apart from the work of an occasional investigator, comparative religion has not been in contact with the psychology of the unconscious in general, and with the complex or analytical psychology of Jung in particular. In the foregoing study the author has endeavoured to prove that there is no methodol
Integrability of Lotka-Volterra Planar Complex Cubic Systems
Dukarić, Maša; Giné, Jaume
In this paper, we study the Lotka-Volterra complex cubic systems. We obtain necessary conditions of integrability for these systems with some restriction on the parameters. The sufficiency is proved for all conditions, except one which remains open, using different methods.
Bloch spaces on bounded symmetric domains in complex Banach spaces
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DENG; Fangwen
2006-01-01
We give a definition of Bloch space on bounded symmetric domains in arbitrary complex Banach space and prove such function space is a Banach space. The properties such as boundedness, compactness and closed range of composition operators on such Bloch space are studied.
On the Complexity of the Interlace Polynomial
Bläser, Markus
2007-01-01
We consider the two-variable interlace polynomial introduced by Arratia, Bollob\\'as and Sorkin. For this graph polynomial we derive two graph transformations yielding point-to-point reductions similar to the thickening transformation in the context of the Tutte polynomial. This enables us to prove that the two-variable interlace polynomial is #P-hard to evaluate at every algebraic point of R^2, except at one line, where it is trivially polynomial time computable, and four lines and two points, where the complexity is still open. As a consequence, three specializations of the two-variable interlace polynomial, the vertex-nullity interlace polynomial, the vertex-rank interlace polynomial and the independent set polynomial, are #P-hard to evaluate almost everywhere, too. For the independent set polynomial, our graph transformations allow us to prove that it is even hard to approximate at every algebraic point except at -1 and 0.
Intelligent Complex Evolutionary Agent-Based Systems
Iantovics, Barna; Enǎchescu, Cǎlin
2009-04-01
In this paper, we investigate the possibility to develop intelligent agent-based complex systems that use evolutionary learning techniques in order to adapt for the efficient solving of the problems by reorganizing their structure. For this investigation is proposed a complex multiagent system called EAMS (Evolutionary Adaptive Multiagent System), which using an evolutionary learning technique can learn different patterns of reorganization. The realized study proves that evolutionary techniques successfully can be used to create complex multiagent systems capable to intelligently reorganize their structure during their life cycle. The practical establishment of the intelligence of a computational system in generally, an agent-based system in particularly consists in how efficiently and flexibly the system can solve difficult problems.
Some results on uniform arithmetic circuit complexity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg; Valence, Mark; Barrington, David A. Mix
1994-01-01
We introduce a natural set of arithmetic expressions and define the complexity class AE to consist of all those arithmetic functions (over the fieldsF 2n) that are described by these expressions. We show that AE coincides with the class of functions that are computable with constant depth...... that if some such representation is X-uniform (where X is P or DLOGTIME), then the arithmetic complexity of a function (measured with X-uniform unbounded fan-in arithmetic circuits) is identical to the Boolean complexity of this function (measured with X-uniform threshold circuits). We show the existence...... and polynomial-size unbounded fan-in arithmetic circuits satisfying a natural uniformity constraint (DLOGTIME-uniformity). A 1-input and 1-output arithmetic function over the fieldsF2n may be identified with ann-input andn-output Boolean function when field elements are represented as bit strings. We prove...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Efroymson, Rebecca Ann [ORNL; Peterson, Mark J [ORNL; Jones, Daniel Steven [ORNL; Suter, Glenn [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
2008-01-01
An ecological risk assessment was conducted at Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona, as a demonstration of the Military Ecological Risk Assessment Framework (MERAF). The focus of the assessment was a testing program at Cibola Range, which involved an Apache Longbow helicopter firing Hellfire missiles at moving targets, i.e., M60-A1 tanks. The problem formulation for the assessment included conceptual models for three component activities of the test, helicopter overflight, missile firing, and tracked vehicle movement, and two ecological endpoint entities, woody desert wash communities and desert mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus crooki) populations. An activity-specific risk assessment framework was available to provide guidance for assessing risks associated with aircraft overflights. Key environmental features of the study area include barren desert pavement and tree-lined desert washes. The primary stressors associated with helicopter overflights were sound and the view of the aircraft. The primary stressor associated with Hellfire missile firing was sound. The principal stressor associated with tracked vehicle movement was soil disturbance, and a resulting, secondary stressor was hydrological change. Water loss to washes and wash vegetation was expected to result from increased ponding, infiltrationand/or evaporation associated with disturbances to desert pavement. A plan for estimating integrated risks from the three military activities was included in the problem formulation.
Takeuchi, Yoji; Ishihara, Ryu; Iishi, Hiroyasu; Hanaoka, Noboru; Higashino, Koji; Uedo, Noriya
2013-01-01
Background. Previously, we reported that the Flushknife (electrosurgical endoknife with a water-jet function) could reduce the operation time of colorectal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) however, suitable situation for the Flushknife was obscure. This subgroup analysis of a prospective randomized controlled trial was aimed to investigate the suitable situation for the Flushknife. Methods. A total of 48 superficial colorectal neoplasms that underwent ESD using either the Flexknife or the Flushknife in a referral center were enrolled. The differences of operation time between the Flexknife and the Flushknife groups in each subgroup (tumor size, location, and macroscopic type) were analyzed. Results. Median (95% CI) operation time calculated using survival curves was significantly shorter in the Flushknife group than in the Flexknife group (55.5 min [41, 78] versus 74.0 [57, 90] min; P = 0.039, Hazard Ratio HR: 0.53; 95% CI (0.29–0.97)). In particular, the HR in patients with laterally spreading tumors-nongranular type (LST-NG) in the Flushknife group was significantly smaller than in the Flexknife group (HR: 0.165→0.17; 95% CI (0.04–0.66)). There was a trend of decreasing HRs according to larger lesion size. Conclusions. The Flushknife proved its merits in colorectal ESD especially for the lesions which should be removed en bloc (LST-NG and large lesion). PMID:24174933
Roeder, Felix; Wachtlin, Daniel; Schulze, Ralf
2012-06-01
The availability of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and the numbers of CBCT scans rise constantly, increasing the radiation burden to the patient. A growing discussion is noticeable if a CBCT scan prior to the surgical removal of wisdom teeth may be indicated. We aimed to confirm non-inferiority with respect to damage of the inferior alveolar nerve in patients diagnosed by panoramic radiography compared to CBCT in a prospective randomized controlled multicentre trial. Sample size (number of required third molar removals) was calculated for the study and control groups as 183,474 comparing temporary and 649,036 comparing permanent neurosensory disturbances of the inferior alveolar nerve. Modifying parameter values resulted in sample sizes ranging from 39,584 to 245,724 respectively 140,024 to 869,250. To conduct a clinical study to prove a potential benefit from CBCT scans prior to surgical removal of lower wisdom teeth with respect to the most important parameter, i.e., nerval damage, is almost impossible due to the very large sample sizes required. This fact vice versa indicates that CBCT scans should only be performed in high risk wisdom tooth removals.
Brembilla-Perrot, Béatrice; Groben, Laurent; Chometon, Frédéric; Lethor, Jean Paul; Admant, Philippe; Cloez, Jean Louis; Popescu, Irina; Marchal, Cecile; Cedano, Juanico; Abdelaal, Ahmed; Huttin, Olivier; Tatar, Charif; Benzaghou, Nacima; Azman, Berivan; Terrier De La Chaise, Arnaud; Marçon, François
2009-08-01
Aims Symptoms in children are often difficult to interpret. The purpose of this study was to report the results of transoesophageal electrophysiological study (EPS) performed in children complaining of sudden onset tachycardia with normal non-invasive studies. Methods and results Eighty-two children and teenagers (mean age 15 +/- 3 years) presented with suspected but no documented paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (SVT). ECG was normal. Non-invasive studies were negative; 23 children had syncope with tachycardias. They underwent transoesophageal EPS in our out-patient clinic. The mean duration of transoesophageal EPS was 11 +/- 5 min. Electrophysiological study was negative in 25 children. AV nodal re-entrant tachycardia could be induced in 37 children, 11 of them associated with syncope. Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW) was diagnosed in five children in which atrioventricular re-entrant tachycardia was inducible. Atrioventricular re-entrant tachycardia due to a concealed AP was induced in 14 children. Verapamil-sensitive ventricular tachycardia was induced in one patient. Factors associated with tachycardia inducibility were an older age (15.5 +/- 2 vs. 14 +/- 4 years) (P children with inducible SVT, radiofrequency ablation of the re-entrant circuit was subsequently performed. Conclusion Transoesophageal EPS is a fast method for proving the nature of paroxysmal tachycardia in children and teenagers presenting with normal ECG and for demonstrating WPW syndrome not visible on standard ECG. The negative predictive value of transoesophageal EPS for the diagnosis of SVT was 100%.
Fields, Errol Lamont; Bogart, Laura M; Smith, Katherine C; Malebranche, David J; Ellen, Jonathan; Schuster, Mark A
2015-01-01
Objectives. We explored gender role strain (GRS) arising from conflict between homosexuality and cultural conceptions of masculinity among young Black men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods. We conducted a categorical analysis (a qualitative, 3-stage, iterative analysis) of data from studies conducted in 2001 to 2006, which interviewed 35 men aged 18 to 24 years in 3 New York cities and Atlanta, Georgia. Results. Participants described rigid, often antihomosexual expectations of masculinity from their families, peers, and communities. Consistent with GRS, this conflict and pressure to conform to these expectations despite their homosexuality led to psychological distress, efforts to camouflage their homosexuality, and strategies to prove their masculinity. Participants believed this conflict and the associated experience of GRS might increase HIV risk through social isolation, poor self-esteem, reduced access to HIV prevention messages, and limited parental-family involvement in sexuality development and early sexual decision-making. Conclusions. Antihomosexual expectations of masculinity isolate young Black MSM during a developmental stage when interpersonal attachments are critical. GRS may influence sexual risk behavior and HIV risk and be an important target for HIV prevention.
Weykamp, Cas; Wielders, Jos P M; Helander, Anders; Anton, Raymond F; Bianchi, Vincenza; Jeppsson, Jan-Olof; Siebelder, Carla; Whitfield, John B; Schellenberg, François
2013-05-01
Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) is a generic term that refers to the transferrin glycoforms whose concentration in blood is temporarily increased by sustained alcohol consumption. Due to high clinical specificity, CDT was proposed as a biomarker of heavy alcohol use and has been available for about 20 years. A number of methods have been developed for CDT measurement based on different analytical techniques and principles and without any harmonization or calibration to a reference method. As a consequence, neither the reference limits nor the cut-off values have been similar across assays, hampering understanding of the diagnostic value of CDT and its routine use. This prompted the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC) to initiate a Working Group on Standardization of CDT (WG-CDT). This third publication of the WG-CDT is devoted to testing the commutability of native and disialotransferrin-spiked serum panels as candidate secondary reference materials, in order to prove the harmonization potential of commercial CDT methods. The results showed that assay harmonization reduced the inter-laboratory imprecision in a network of reference laboratories running the HPLC candidate reference method. In the seven commercial methods evaluated in this study, the use of multi-level secondary calibrators of human serum origin significantly reduced the between-method imprecision. Thus, harmonization of CDT measurements by different methods can be achieved using this calibration system, opening the way for a full standardization of commercial methods against a reference method by use of certified reference materials.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yoji Takeuchi
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Background. Previously, we reported that the Flushknife (electrosurgical endoknife with a water-jet function could reduce the operation time of colorectal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD however, suitable situation for the Flushknife was obscure. This subgroup analysis of a prospective randomized controlled trial was aimed to investigate the suitable situation for the Flushknife. Methods. A total of 48 superficial colorectal neoplasms that underwent ESD using either the Flexknife or the Flushknife in a referral center were enrolled. The differences of operation time between the Flexknife and the Flushknife groups in each subgroup (tumor size, location, and macroscopic type were analyzed. Results. Median (95% CI operation time calculated using survival curves was significantly shorter in the Flushknife group than in the Flexknife group (55.5 min [41, 78] versus 74.0 [57, 90] min; , Hazard Ratio HR: 0.53; 95% CI (0.29–0.97. In particular, the HR in patients with laterally spreading tumors-nongranular type (LST-NG in the Flushknife group was significantly smaller than in the Flexknife group (HR: 0.1650.17; 95% CI (0.04–0.66. There was a trend of decreasing HRs according to larger lesion size. Conclusions. The Flushknife proved its merits in colorectal ESD especially for the lesions which should be removed en bloc (LST-NG and large lesion.
Complex Networks and Socioeconomic Applications
Almendral, Juan A.; López, Luis; Mendes, Jose F.; Sanjuán, Miguel A. F.
2003-04-01
The study and characterization of complex systems is a fruitful research area nowadays. Special attention has been paid recently to complex networks, where graph and network analysis plays an important role since they reduce a given system to a simpler problem. Using a simple model for the information flow on social networks, we show that the traditional hierarchical topologies frequently used by companies and organizations, are poorly designed in terms of efficiency. Moreover, we prove that this type of structures are the result of the individual aim of monopolizing as much information as possible within the network. As the information is an appropriate measurement of centrality, we conclude that this kind of topology is so attractive for leaders because the global influence each actor has within the network is completely determined by the hierarchical level occupied. The effect on the efficiency caused by a change in a traditional hierarchical topology is also analyzed. In particular, by introducing the possibility of communication on the same level of the hierarchy.
Minimum complexity echo state network.
Rodan, Ali; Tino, Peter
2011-01-01
Reservoir computing (RC) refers to a new class of state-space models with a fixed state transition structure (the reservoir) and an adaptable readout form the state space. The reservoir is supposed to be sufficiently complex so as to capture a large number of features of the input stream that can be exploited by the reservoir-to-output readout mapping. The field of RC has been growing rapidly with many successful applications. However, RC has been criticized for not being principled enough. Reservoir construction is largely driven by a series of randomized model-building stages, with both researchers and practitioners having to rely on a series of trials and errors. To initialize a systematic study of the field, we concentrate on one of the most popular classes of RC methods, namely echo state network, and ask: What is the minimal complexity of reservoir construction for obtaining competitive models and what is the memory capacity (MC) of such simplified reservoirs? On a number of widely used time series benchmarks of different origin and characteristics, as well as by conducting a theoretical analysis we show that a simple deterministically constructed cycle reservoir is comparable to the standard echo state network methodology. The (short-term) MC of linear cyclic reservoirs can be made arbitrarily close to the proved optimal value.
Control efficacy of complex networks
Gao, Xin-Dong; Wang, Wen-Xu; Lai, Ying-Cheng
2016-06-01
Controlling complex networks has become a forefront research area in network science and engineering. Recent efforts have led to theoretical frameworks of controllability to fully control a network through steering a minimum set of driver nodes. However, in realistic situations not every node is accessible or can be externally driven, raising the fundamental issue of control efficacy: if driving signals are applied to an arbitrary subset of nodes, how many other nodes can be controlled? We develop a framework to determine the control efficacy for undirected networks of arbitrary topology. Mathematically, based on non-singular transformation, we prove a theorem to determine rigorously the control efficacy of the network and to identify the nodes that can be controlled for any given driver nodes. Physically, we develop the picture of diffusion that views the control process as a signal diffused from input signals to the set of controllable nodes. The combination of mathematical theory and physical reasoning allows us not only to determine the control efficacy for model complex networks and a large number of empirical networks, but also to uncover phenomena in network control, e.g., hub nodes in general possess lower control centrality than an average node in undirected networks.
Crosthwaite, E.G.
1973-01-01
The results of drilling test holes to depths of approximately 1,000 feet in the Mud Lake region show that a large part of the region is underlain by both sedimentary deposits and basalt flows. At some locations, predominantly sedimentary deposits were penetrated; at others, basalt flows predominated. The so-called Mud Lake-Market Lake barrier denotes a change in geology. From the vicinity of the barrier area, as described by Stearns, Crandall, and Steward (1938, p. 111), up the water-table gradient for at least a few tens of miles, the saturated geologic section consists predominantly of beds of sediments that are intercalated with numerous basalt flows. Downgradient from the barrier, sedimentary deposits are not common and practically all the water-bearing formations are basalt, at least to the depths explored so far. Thus, the barrier is a transition zone from a sedimentary-basaltic sequence to a basaltic sequence. The sedimentary-basaltic sequence forms a complex hydrologic system in which water occurs under water-table conditions in the upper few tens of feet of saturated material and under artesian conditions in the deeper material in the southwest part of the region. The well data indicate that southwest of the barrier, artesian pressures are not significant. Southwest of the barrier, few sedimentary deposits occur in the basalt section and, as described by Mundorff, Crosthwaite, and Kilburn (1964). ground water occurs in a manner typical of the Snake Plain aquifer. In several wells, artesian pressures are higher in the deeper formations than in the shallower ones, but the reverse was found in a few wells. The available data are not adequate to describe the water-bearing characteristics of the artesian aquifer nor the effects that pumping in one zone would have on adjacent zones. The water-table aquifer yields large quantities of water to irrigation wells.
[Optimization of complex treatment of patients with severe oral leukoplakia].
Rabinovich, O F; Rabinovich, I M; Abramova, E S
2015-01-01
The aim of the study was to prove the rationale for antiviral therapy combined with surgical procedures for treatment of severe oral leukoplakia. Complex clinical and laboratory evaluation and treatment was performed in 56 patients divided in 2 groups. Control group was presented by 13 patients receiving dental treatment, local and systemic keratoplastic formulations. Main group involved 43 patients in which conventional treatment protocol was completed by antiviral therapy and surgical procedures. Leukoplakia diagnosis was based on clinical findings, histological and immunohistochemical studies as well as optic coherent tomography data. The obtained results evidently prove the necessity for including antiviral therapy and surgical procedures in treatment scheme of severe oral leukoplakia.
Molecular methods for genotyping complex copy number polymorphisms.
Cantsilieris, Stuart; Baird, Paul N; White, Stefan J
2013-02-01
Genome structural variation shows remarkable complexity with respect to copy number, sequence content and distribution. While the discovery of copy number polymorphisms (CNP) has increased exponentially in recent years, the transition from discovery to genotyping has proved challenging, particularly for CNPs embedded in complex regions of the genome. CNPs that are collectively common in the population and possess a dynamic range of copy numbers have proved the most difficult to genotype in association studies. This is in some part due to technical limitations of genotyping assays and the sequence properties of the genomic region being analyzed. Here we describe in detail the basis of a number of molecular techniques used to genotype complex CNPs, compare and contrast these approaches for determination of multi-allelic copy number, and discuss the potential application of these techniques in genetic studies.
Physical approach to complex systems
Kwapień, Jarosław; Drożdż, Stanisław
2012-06-01
Typically, complex systems are natural or social systems which consist of a large number of nonlinearly interacting elements. These systems are open, they interchange information or mass with environment and constantly modify their internal structure and patterns of activity in the process of self-organization. As a result, they are flexible and easily adapt to variable external conditions. However, the most striking property of such systems is the existence of emergent phenomena which cannot be simply derived or predicted solely from the knowledge of the systems’ structure and the interactions among their individual elements. This property points to the holistic approaches which require giving parallel descriptions of the same system on different levels of its organization. There is strong evidence-consolidated also in the present review-that different, even apparently disparate complex systems can have astonishingly similar characteristics both in their structure and in their behaviour. One can thus expect the existence of some common, universal laws that govern their properties. Physics methodology proves helpful in addressing many of the related issues. In this review, we advocate some of the computational methods which in our opinion are especially fruitful in extracting information on selected-but at the same time most representative-complex systems like human brain, financial markets and natural language, from the time series representing the observables associated with these systems. The properties we focus on comprise the collective effects and their coexistence with noise, long-range interactions, the interplay between determinism and flexibility in evolution, scale invariance, criticality, multifractality and hierarchical structure. The methods described either originate from “hard” physics-like the random matrix theory-and then were transmitted to other fields of science via the field of complex systems research, or they originated elsewhere but
The chamber basis of the Orlik–Solomon algebra and Aomoto complex
Yoshinaga, Masahiko
2009-01-01
We introduce a basis of the Orlik–Solomon algebra labeled by chambers, the so called chamber basis. We consider structure constants of the Orlik–Solomon algebra with respect to the chamber basis and prove that these structure constants recover D. Cohen’s minimal complex from the Aomoto complex.
L~p estimates for -equation on generalized complex ellipsoids
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王伟
2000-01-01
The estimate of a holomorphic supporting function for the generalized complex ellipsoid in is given, This domain is not decoupled. By using this estimate, the best possible Lp estimates for the equation and some results of function theory on generalized complex ellipsoids are proved.
The Fibered Isomorphism Conjecture for Complex Manifolds
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
S. K. ROUSHON
2007-01-01
In this paper we show that the Fibered Isomorphism Conjecture of Farrell and Jones,corresponding to the stable topological pseudoisotopy functor, is true for the fundamental groups of a class of complex manifolds. A consequence of this result is that the Whitehead group, reduced projective class groups and the negative K-groups of the fundamental groups of these manifolds vanish whenever the fundamental group is torsion free. We also prove the same results for a class of real manifolds including a large class of 3-manifolds which has a finite sheeted cover fibering over the circle.
Structurally simple complexes of CO2
Murphy, Luke J.; Robertson, Katherine N.; Richard A. Kemp; TUONONEN, Heikki; Clyburne, Jason A. C.
2015-01-01
The ability to bind CO2 through the formation of low-energy, easily-broken, bonds could prove invaluable in a variety of chemical contexts. For example, weak bonds to CO2 would greatly decrease the cost of the energy-intensive sorbent-regeneration step common to most carbon capture technologies. Furthermore, exploration of this field could lead to the discovery of novel CO2 chemistry. Reduction of complexed carbon dioxide might generate chemical feedstocks for the preparation of value-added p...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peterson, Mark J [ORNL; Efroymson, Rebecca Ann [ORNL; Hargrove, William Walter [ORNL
2008-01-01
A multiple stressor risk assessment was conducted at Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona, as a demonstration of the Military Ecological Risk Assessment Framework. The focus was a testing program at Cibola Range, which involved an Apache Longbow helicopter firing Hellfire missiles at moving targets, M60-A1 tanks. This paper describes the ecological risk assessment for the tracked vehicle movement component of the testing program. The principal stressor associated with tracked vehicle movement was soil disturbance, and a resulting, secondary stressor was hydrological change. Water loss to washes and wash vegetation was expected to result from increased infiltration and/or evaporation associated with disturbances to desert pavement. The simulated exposure of wash vegetation to water loss was quantified using estimates of exposed land area from a digital ortho quarter quad aerial photo and field observations, a 30 30 m digital elevation model, the flow accumulation feature of ESRI ArcInfo, and a two-step process in which runoff was estimated from direct precipitation to a land area and from water that flowed from upgradient to a land area. In all simulated scenarios, absolute water loss decreased with distance from the disturbance, downgradient in the washes; however, percentage water loss was greatest in land areas immediately downgradient of a disturbance. Potential effects on growth and survival of wash trees were quantified by using an empirical relationship derived from a local unpublished study of water infiltration rates. The risk characterization concluded that neither risk to wash vegetation growth or survival nor risk to mule deer abundance and reproduction was expected. The risk characterization was negative for both the incremental risk of the test program and the combination of the test and pretest disturbances.
Andrews, Allen H.; Asami, Ryuji; Iryu, Yasufumi; Kobayashi, Donald R.; Camacho, Frank
2016-08-01
High-resolution radiocarbon (14C) analyses on a coral core extracted from Guam, a western tropical Pacific island, revealed a series of early bomb-produced 14C spikes. The typical marine bomb 14C signal—phase lagged and attenuated relative to atmospheric records—is present in the coral and is consistent with other regional coral records. However, 14C levels well above what can be attributed to air-sea diffusion alone punctuate this pattern. This anomaly was observed in other Indo-Pacific coral records, but the Guam record is unmatched in magnitude and temporal resolution. The Guam coral Δ14C record provided three spikes in 1954-1955, 1956-1957, and 1958-1959 that are superimposed on a normal 14C record. Relative to mean prebomb levels, the first peak rises an incredible ˜700‰ and remained elevated for ˜1.2 years. A follow up assay with finer resolution increased the peak by ˜300‰. Subsequent spikes were less intense with a rise of ˜35 and ˜70‰. Each can be linked to thermonuclear testing in the Pacific Proving Grounds at Bikini and Enewetak atolls in Operations Castle (1954), Redwing (1956), and Hardtack I (1958). These 14C signals can be explained by vaporization of coral reef material in the nuclear fireball, coupled with neutron activation of atmospheric nitrogen (14C production), and subsequent absorption of 14CO2 to form particulate carbonates of close-in fallout. The lag time in reaching Guam and other coral records abroad was tied to ocean surface currents and modeling provided validation of 14C arrival observations.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Tong; LU Chun-shan; LU Jia-kai; GAN Hui-li; ZHANG Jian-qun; HUANG Fang-jong; GU Cheng-xiong; KONG Qing-yu; CAO Xiang-rong; BO Ping
2012-01-01
Background Left main coronary artery (LMCA) stenosis has been recognized as a risk factor for early death among patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).This study aimed to assess if LMCA lesions pose an additional risk of early or mid-term mortality and/or a major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular event (MACCE) after off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCABG),compared with non-left main coronary artery stenosis (non-mainstem disease).Methods From January 1,2009 to December 31,2010,4869 patients had a primary isolated OPCABG procedure at Beijing Anzhen Hospital.According to the pathology of LMCA lesions,they were retrospectively classified as a non-mainstem disease group (n=3933) or a LMCA group (n=936).Propensity scores were used to match the two groups,patients from the non-mainstem disease group (n=831) were also randomly selected to match patients from the LMCA group (n=831).Freedom from MACCE in the two groups was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method.Results The difference in the mortality and the rate of MACCE during the first 30 days between the non-mainstem disease group and the LMCA group did not reach statistical significance (P=0.429,P=0.127 respectively).With a mean follow-up of (12.8±7.5) months and a cumulative follow-up of 1769.6 patient-years,the difference in the freedom from MACCEs between the two groups,calculated through Kaplan-Meier method,did not reach statistical significance (P=0.831).Conclusion Analysis of a high volume of OPCABG procedures proved that LMCA lesions do not pose additional early and mid-term risk to OPCABG.Therefore,a LMCA lesion is as safe as non-mainstem disease lesion during the OPCABG procedure.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rosenblatt, D.H.; Small, M.J.; Kimmell, T.A.; Anderson, A.W.
1996-04-01
The State of Utah, Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ), Division of Solid and Hazardous Waste (DSHW), has declared residues resulting from the demilitarization, treatment, cleanup, and testing of military chemical agents to be hazardous wastes. These residues have been designated as corrosive, reactive, toxic, and acute hazardous (Hazardous Waste No. F999). The RCRA regulations (40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] 260-280), the Utah Administrative Code (R-315), and other state hazardous waste programs list specific wastes as hazardous but allow generators to petition the regulator to {open_quotes}delist,{close_quotes} if it can be demonstrated that such wastes are not hazardous. The U.S. Army Test and Evaluation Command (TECOM) believes that certain categories of F999 residues are not hazardous and has obtained assistance from Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to make the delisting demonstration. The objective of this project is to delist chemical agent decontaminated residues resulting from materials testing activities and to delist a remediation residue (e.g., contaminated soil). To delist these residues, it must be demonstrated that the residues (1) do not contain hazardous quantities of the listed agents; (2) do not contain hazardous quantities of constituents listed in 40 CFR Part 261, Appendix VIII; (3) do not exhibit other characteristics that could define the residues as hazardous; and (4) do not fail a series of acute toxicity tests. The first phase will focus on a subset of the F999 wastes generated at the U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground (DPG), where the Army tests the effects of military chemical agents and agent-decontamination procedures on numerous military items. This effort is identified as Phase I of the Delisting Program. Subsequent phases will address other DPG chemical agent decontaminated residues and remediation wastes and similar residues at other installations.