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Sample records for compassion meditation effects

  1. Regulation of the neural circuitry of emotion by compassion meditation: effects of meditative expertise.

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    Antoine Lutz

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent brain imaging studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI have implicated insula and anterior cingulate cortices in the empathic response to another's pain. However, virtually nothing is known about the impact of the voluntary generation of compassion on this network. To investigate these questions we assessed brain activity using fMRI while novice and expert meditation practitioners generated a loving-kindness-compassion meditation state. To probe affective reactivity, we presented emotional and neutral sounds during the meditation and comparison periods. Our main hypothesis was that the concern for others cultivated during this form of meditation enhances affective processing, in particular in response to sounds of distress, and that this response to emotional sounds is modulated by the degree of meditation training. The presentation of the emotional sounds was associated with increased pupil diameter and activation of limbic regions (insula and cingulate cortices during meditation (versus rest. During meditation, activation in insula was greater during presentation of negative sounds than positive or neutral sounds in expert than it was in novice meditators. The strength of activation in insula was also associated with self-reported intensity of the meditation for both groups. These results support the role of the limbic circuitry in emotion sharing. The comparison between meditation vs. rest states between experts and novices also showed increased activation in amygdala, right temporo-parietal junction (TPJ, and right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS in response to all sounds, suggesting, greater detection of the emotional sounds, and enhanced mentation in response to emotional human vocalizations for experts than novices during meditation. Together these data indicate that the mental expertise to cultivate positive emotion alters the activation of circuitries previously linked to empathy and theory of mind in

  2. Love and compassion meditation: a nondual perspective.

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    Josipovic, Zoran

    2016-06-01

    This paper discusses meditation from the unique perspective of the nondual approach and explores the possible relevance of this approach to applications of love and compassion meditation in clinical settings. It contrasts the nondual approach with the better known gradual or goal-oriented, dualistic view of meditation. This paper also introduces one of the central ideas of the nondual approach-that love and compassion, like other positive qualities that are ordinarily considered as goals of meditation practice, can be found to be already present within oneself as innate dimensions of one's authentic being. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  3. Meditation: Process and effects.

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    Sharma, Hari

    2015-01-01

    Meditation has become popular in many Western nations, especially the USA. An increasing body of research shows various health benefits associated with meditation and these findings have sparked interest in the field of medicine. The practice of meditation originated in the ancient Vedic times of India and is described in the ancient Vedic texts. Meditation is one of the modalities used in Ayurveda (Science of Life), the comprehensive, natural health care system that originated in the ancient Vedic times of India. The term "meditation" is now loosely used to refer to a large number of diverse techniques. According to Vedic science, the true purpose of meditation is to connect oneself to one's deep inner Self. Techniques which achieve that goal serve the true purpose of meditation. Neurological and physiological correlates of meditation have been investigated previously. This article describes the process of meditation at a more fundamental level and aims to shed light on the deeper underlying mechanism of the beneficial effects associated with meditation. Research on the effects of meditation is summarized.

  4. A Yoga and Compassion Meditation Program Reduces Stress in Familial Caregivers of Alzheimer's Disease Patients

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    M. A. D. Danucalov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Familial caregivers of patients with Alzheimer's disease exhibit reduced quality of life and increased stress levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week yoga and compassion meditation program on the perceived stress, anxiety, depression, and salivary cortisol levels in familial caregivers. A total of 46 volunteers were randomly assigned to participate in a stress-reduction program for a 2-month period (yoga and compassion meditation program—YCMP group (n=25 or an untreated group for the same period of time (control group (n=21. The levels of stress, anxiety, depression, and morning salivary cortisol of the participants were measured before and after intervention. The groups were initially homogeneous; however, after intervention, the groups diverged significantly. The YCMP group exhibited a reduction of the stress (P<0.05, anxiety (P<0.000001, and depression (P<0.00001 levels, as well as a reduction in the concentration of salivary cortisol (P<0.05. Our study suggests that an 8-week yoga and compassion meditation program may offer an effective intervention for reducing perceived stress, anxiety, depression, and salivary cortisol in familial caregivers.

  5. Psychobehavioral Effects of Meditation.

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    Pokorski, Mieczyslaw; Suchorzynska, Anna

    2018-01-01

    Meditation is an increasingly popular psychobehavioral therapy. Various meditation techniques in use make it hard to objectively scrutinize the psychological benefits. Therefore, in this study we set out to examine the effects of two fundamentally different meditative techniques, Zazen, 'seated meditation', in which the body and mind are calmed, and Tai Chi, 'meditation in motion', based on energetic martial art performance. The aim was to compare the effects of both techniques on personality structure, emotional intelligence, mood, and coping with stress. The study was conducted in 48 healthy volunteers, aged 39-50, divided into those practicing Zazen, Tai Chi, and the non-meditating controls, each group consisting of 16 persons. The psychometric tools consisted of Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS), the University of Wales Institute of Science and Technology Mood Adjective Checklist (UMACL), Emotional Intelligence Inventory (INTE), and the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). We found that both Zazen and Tai Chi meditations significantly enhanced openness to experience, one of the personality dimensions of the Big Five Model. The enhanced openness was associated with improved strategies for coping with stress. The meditators had less avoidance-oriented approaches to perceived stress. They also had improved mood compared with non-meditating controls. The findings suggest that enhanced openness to experience could shape one's desire to hold onto the meditation regimen. We conclude that both, diametrically different types of meditation, are conducive to mental health by improving the general well-being, counteracting stress, and leading to a better vigor of spirit. Meditation may thus be considered a complimentary, albeit rather modestly acting, adjunct to psychotherapy.

  6. Predictors and moderators of biopsychological social stress responses following brief self-compassion meditation training.

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    Arch, Joanna J; Landy, Lauren N; Brown, Kirk Warren

    2016-07-01

    Arch et al. (2014) demonstrated that brief self-compassion meditation training (SCT) dampened sympathetic (salivary alpha-amylase) and subjective anxiety responses to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), relative to attention and no-instruction control conditions. The present study examined baseline predictors and moderators of these SCT intervention effects. Baseline characteristics included two stress vulnerability traits (social anxiety and rumination) and two potential resiliency traits (non-attachment and self-compassion). We investigated how these traits moderated the effects of SCT on response to the TSST, relative to the control conditions. We also tested how these individual differences predicted TSST responses across conditions in order to uncover characteristics that confer increased vulnerability and resiliency to social stressors. Trait non-attachment, rumination (for sympathetic TSST response only), and social anxiety (for subjective TSST response only) interacted with training condition to moderate TSST responses such that following SCT, lower attachment and lower social anxiety predicted lower TSST stress responses, relative to those scoring higher on these traits. In contrast, trait self-compassion neither moderated nor predicted responses to the TSST. Thus, although SCT had robust effects on buffering stress across individuals with varying levels of trait self-compassion, other psychological traits enhanced or dampened the effect of SCT on TSST responses. These findings support the importance of examining the role of relevant baseline psychological traits to predict sympathetic and subjective responses to social evaluative threat, particularly in the context of resiliency training. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Meditation: Process and effects

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    Sharma, Hari

    2015-01-01

    Meditation has become popular in many Western nations, especially the USA. An increasing body of research shows various health benefits associated with meditation and these findings have sparked interest in the field of medicine. The practice of meditation originated in the ancient Vedic times of India and is described in the ancient Vedic texts. Meditation is one of the modalities used in Ayurveda (Science of Life), the comprehensive, natural health care system that originated in the ancient...

  8. Zen meditation, Length of Telomeres, and the Role of Experiential Avoidance and Compassion.

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    Alda, Marta; Puebla-Guedea, Marta; Rodero, Baltasar; Demarzo, Marcelo; Montero-Marin, Jesus; Roca, Miquel; Garcia-Campayo, Javier

    Mindfulness refers to an awareness that emerges by intentionally focusing on the present experience in a nonjudgmental or evaluative manner. Evidence regarding its efficacy has been increasing exponentially, and recent research suggests that the practice of meditation is associated with longer leukocyte telomere length. However, the psychological mechanisms underlying this potential relationship are unknown. We examined the telomere lengths of a group of 20 Zen meditation experts and another 20 healthy matched comparison participants who had not previously meditated. We also measured multiple psychological variables related to meditation practice. Genomic DNA was extracted for telomere measurement using a Life Length proprietary program. High-throughput quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (HT-Q-FISH) was used to measure the telomere length distribution and the median telomere length (MTL). The meditators group had a longer MTL ( p  = 0.005) and a lower percentage of short telomeres in individual cells ( p  = 0.007) than those in the comparison group. To determine which of the psychological variables contributed more to telomere maintenance, two regression analyses were conducted. In the first model, which applied to the MTL, the following three factors were significant: age, absence of experiential avoidance, and Common Humanity subscale of the Self Compassion Scale. Similarly, in the model that examined the percentage of short telomeres, the same factors were significant: age, absence of experiential avoidance, and Common Humanity subscale of the Self Compassion Scale. Although limited by a small sample size, these results suggest that the absence of experiential avoidance of negative emotions and thoughts is integral to the connection between meditation and telomeres.

  9. Training Emotion Cultivates Morality: How Loving-Kindness Meditation Hones Compassion and Increases Prosocial Behavior.

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    Bankard, Joseph

    2015-12-01

    Traditional moral philosophy has long focused on rationality, principled thinking, and good old-fashioned willpower, but recent evidence strongly suggests that moral judgments and prosocial behavior are more heavily influenced by emotion and intuition. As the evidence mounts, rational traditions emphasizing deliberative analysis and conscious decision making are called into question. The first section highlights some compelling evidence supporting the primacy of affective states in motivating moral judgments and behavior. The real challenge is finding a way to align intuition with desired behavior. In cool reflective states, one may desire to be a kind and loving person. But when it is time to act, the moment is often accompanied by strong affect-laden intuitions. I argue that if affective states are the primary motivators of behavior, then moral sentiments must be trained through habituation in order to increase prosocial behavior. The second section provides empirical evidence linking emotional training with increased prosociality. To highlight this connection, focus is placed on the relationship between habitual meditation training, compassion, and prosocial behavior. Recent studies by Antoine Lutz, Richard Davidson, Susanne Leiberg, and others show that various meditation practices can dramatically affect the human person at various levels, i.e., increased physical health, neural restructuring, regulation and development of emotions, and increased helping behavior, to name a few. The current article focuses on the impact the habit of loving-kindness meditation (LKM) has on compassion and prosocial behavior. Recent studies strongly support the conclusion that LKM training hones compassion and ultimately leads to an increase in compassionate behavior.

  10. Effect of Dynamic Meditation on Mental Health.

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    Iqbal, Naved; Singh, Archana; Aleem, Sheema

    2016-02-01

    Although traditional meditation has been found to be effective in improving physical and mental health of subjects, there was a paucity of research of the effect of active or dynamic meditation on these variables. Therefore, the present study was aimed at studying the effect of dynamic meditation on mental health of the subjects. Total sample of the present study comprised 60 subjects, 30 each in experimental and control group. Subjects in experimental group were given 21-day training in dynamic meditation. Mental health of the experimental and control group subjects was measured in pre- and post-condition with the help of Mental Health Inventory developed by Jagadish and Srivastava (Mental Health inventory, Manovaigyanik Parikshan Sansthan, Varanasi, 1983). Obtained data were analyzed with the help of ANCOVA. In post-condition, experimental group scored better than control group on integration of personality, autonomy and environmental mastery. Effect sizes of dynamic meditation on these dimensions of mental health were large. However, experimental group and control group did not differ significantly on positive self-evaluation, perception of reality and group-oriented attitude dimensions of mental health in post-condition. Overall, dynamic meditation training was effective in improving mental health of the subjects.

  11. Compassion Meditators Show Less Anger, Less Punishment and More Compensation of Victims in Response to Fairness Violations

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    Cade eMcCall

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fairness violations elicit powerful behavioral and affective responses. Indeed, people are willing to incur costs to sanction unfair behavior. Here we study the possible impact of long-term mental training in socio-affective capacities such as compassion on altruistic punishment and compensatory behavior in economic games. To this end we recruited a group of long-term meditation practitioners (LTPs who had engaged in an average of 40K hours of mental training exercises including compassion-related meditation, along with a group of meditation-naïve controls. Participants played several adaptations of the dictator game in which they had the opportunity to punish the dictator both when they were the recipients of the dictator’s offer and when they were third-party witnesses to the dictator’s treatment of an anonymous second player. Compared to controls, LTPs were less likely to punish when they were the victims of fairness violations. However, both groups punished equivalently when they witnessed others receiving unfair treatment. In post-task questionnaires, controls reported significantly more anger in response to unfair offers than LTPs, although fairness judgments did not differ between groups. These data suggest that because the LTPs were less angered by unfair treatment of themselves, they punished that behavior less. However, when they witnessed the unfair treatment of others, they engaged in norm-reinforcing punishment. Finally, when participants played an additional game which included the opportunity to recompense victims, LTPs were more likely to do so. Together these data point to differential approaches to justice whereby LTPs engaged less in vengeful, retributive justice and focused more on norm reinforcement and the restoration of equity. These differences suggest that social preferences are plastic and that altruistic responses to unfairness may be shaped by the prolonged cultivation of prosocial motivation, altruism and

  12. Meditation

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    ... References Bonadonna R. Meditation's impact on chronic illness . Holistic Nursing Practice . 2003;17(6):309–319. Cardoso ... and integrative medicine in lung cancer: diagnosis and management of lung cancer, 3 rd ed: American College ...

  13. A RCT Comparing Daily Mindfulness Meditations, Biofeedback Exercises, and Daily Physical Exercise on Attention Control, Executive Functioning, Mindful Awareness, Self-Compassion, and Worrying in Stressed Young Adults.

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    de Bruin, Esther I; van der Zwan, J Esi; Bögels, Susan M

    2016-01-01

    Our Western society is characterized by multitasking, competition, and constant time pressure. Negative effects of stress for the individual (anxiety, depression, somatic complaints) and for organizations and society (costs due to work absence) are very high. Thus, time-efficient self-help interventions to address these issues are necessary. This study assessed the effects of daily mindfulness meditations (MM) versus daily heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV-BF) and daily physical exercise (PE) on attention control, executive functioning, mindful awareness, self-compassion, and worrying. Young adults ( n  = 75, age range 18 to 40) with elevated stress levels were randomized to MM, HRV-BF, or PE, and measurements were taken at pre-test, post-test, and follow-up. Interventions in all three groups were self-guided and lasted for 5 weeks. Generalized estimating equation analyses showed that overall, all three interventions were effective and did not differ from each other. However, practice time differed between groups, with participants in the PE group practicing much more than participants in the other two groups. Therefore, additional analyses were carried out in two subsamples. The optimal dose sample included only those participants who practiced for at least 70 % of the total prescribed time. In the equal dose sample, home practice intensity was equal for all three groups. Again, the effects of the three interventions did not differ. In conclusion, MM, HRV-BF, and PE are all effective self-help methods to improve attention control, executive functioning, mindful awareness, self-compassion, and worrying, and mindfulness meditation was not found to be more effective than HRV-biofeedback or physical exercise for these cognitive processes.

  14. The Psychological Effects of Meditation: A Meta-Analysis

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    Sedlmeier, Peter; Eberth, Juliane; Schwarz, Marcus; Zimmermann, Doreen; Haarig, Frederik; Jaeger, Sonia; Kunze, Sonja

    2012-01-01

    In this meta-analysis, we give a comprehensive overview of the effects of meditation on psychological variables that can be extracted from empirical studies, concentrating on the effects of meditation on nonclinical groups of adult meditators. Mostly because of methodological problems, almost 3/4 of an initially identified 595 studies had to be…

  15. Effects of Mindfulness Meditation on Chronic Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Peter; Petersen, Marian

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This randomized controlled clinical trial investigated the effects of mindfulness meditation on chronic pain. DESIGN: A total of 109 patients with nonspecific chronic pain were randomized to either a standardized mindfulness meditation program (mindfulness-based stress reduction [MBSR...... randomized patients completed the mindfulness program, while 47 remained in the control group. Data were compared at three time points: at baseline, after completion of the course/waiting period, and at the 6-month follow-up. RESULTS: Significant effect (Cohen's d = 0.39) was found on the primary outcome...... (nonsignificant) effect sizes were found for pain measures. There were no significant differences in the measures just after the intervention vs the 6-month follow-up. CONCLUSION: A standardized mindfulness program (MBSR) contributes positively to pain management and can exert clinically relevant effects...

  16. Effects of meditation practice on spontaneous eyeblink rate.

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    Kruis, Ayla; Slagter, Heleen A; Bachhuber, David R W; Davidson, Richard J; Lutz, Antoine

    2016-05-01

    A rapidly growing body of research suggests that meditation can change brain and cognitive functioning. Yet little is known about the neurochemical mechanisms underlying meditation-related changes in cognition. Here, we investigated the effects of meditation on spontaneous eyeblink rates (sEBR), a noninvasive peripheral correlate of striatal dopamine activity. Previous studies have shown a relationship between sEBR and cognitive functions such as mind wandering, cognitive flexibility, and attention-functions that are also affected by meditation. We therefore expected that long-term meditation practice would alter eyeblink activity. To test this, we recorded baseline sEBR and intereyeblink intervals (IEBI) in long-term meditators (LTM) and meditation-naive participants (MNP). We found that LTM not only blinked less frequently, but also showed a different eyeblink pattern than MNP. This pattern had good to high degree of consistency over three time points. Moreover, we examined the effects of an 8-week course of mindfulness-based stress reduction on sEBR and IEBI, compared to an active control group and a waitlist control group. No effect of short-term meditation practice was found. Finally, we investigated whether different types of meditation differentially alter eyeblink activity by measuring sEBR and IEBI after a full day of two kinds of meditation practices in the LTM. No effect of meditation type was found. Taken together, these findings may suggest either that individual difference in dopaminergic neurotransmission is a self-selection factor for meditation practice, or that long-term, but not short-term meditation practice induces stable changes in baseline striatal dopaminergic functioning. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  17. Psychological effects of a one-month meditation retreat on experienced meditators: the role of nonattachment

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    Jesus Montero-Marin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. There are few studies devoted to assessing the impact of meditation-intensive retreats on the well-being, positive psychology and personality of experienced meditators. We aimed to assess whether a 1-month Vipassana retreat: a would increase mindfulness and well-being; b would increase prosocial personality traits; and c whether psychological changes would be mediated and/or moderated by non-attachment.Method. A controlled, non-randomized, pre-post-intervention trial was used. The intervention group was a convenience sample (n=19 of experienced meditators who participated in a 1-month Vipassana meditation retreat. The control group (n=19 comprised matched experienced meditators who did not take part in the retreat. During the retreat, the mean duration of daily practice was 8-9 hours, the diet was vegetarian and silence was compulsory. The Experiences Questionnaire (EQ, Non-Attachment Scale (NAS, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS, Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS, Temperament Character Inventory Revised (TCI-R-67, Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ, Self-Other Four Immeasurables (SOFI and the MINDSENS Composite Index were administered. ANCOVAs and linear regression models were used to assess pre-post changes and mediation/moderation effects.Results. Compared to controls, retreatants showed increases in non-attachment, observing, MINDSENS, positive-affect, balance-affect and cooperativeness; and decreases in describing, negative-others, reward-dependence and self-directedness. Non-attachment had a mediating role in decentring, acting aware, non-reactivity, negative-affect, balance-affect and self-directedness; and a moderating role in describing and positive others, with both mediating and moderating effects on satisfaction with life.Conclusions. A 1-month Vipassana meditation retreat seems to yield improvements in mindfulness, well-being and personality, even in experienced meditators. Non-attachment might

  18. Online Training in Specific Meditation Practices Improves Gratitude, Well-Being, Self-Compassion, and Confidence in Providing Compassionate Care Among Health Professionals.

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    Rao, Nisha; Kemper, Kathi J

    2016-04-06

    Mind-body practices that intentionally generate positive emotion could improve health professionals' well-being and compassion. However, the feasibility and impact of clinician training in these practices is unknown. Data were analyzed from 3 online modules offered to health professionals: (a) Gratitude, (b) Positive Word, and (c) Loving-kindness/Compassion meditation. Pairedttests were used to assess pre- to posttraining changes in gratitude (Gratitude Questionnaire), well-being (World Health Organization Well-Being Index), self-compassion (Neff's Self-Compassion Scale), and confidence in providing compassionate care (Confidence in Providing Calm, Compassionate Care Scale). The 177 enrollees included diverse practitioners (nurses, physicians, social workers, and others). Training was associated with statistically significant improvements in gratitude (38.3 ± 4.6 to 39.5 ± 3.3), well-being (16.4 ± 4.0 to 17.9 ± 4.2), self-compassion (39.5 ± 8.1 to 43.1 ± 7.6), and confidence in providing compassionate care (73.3 ± 16.4 to 80.9 ± 13.8;Pgratitude, well-being, self-compassion, and confidence in providing compassionate care. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Non-verbal communication of compassion: measuring psychophysiologic effects.

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    Kemper, Kathi J; Shaltout, Hossam A

    2011-12-20

    Calm, compassionate clinicians comfort others. To evaluate the direct psychophysiologic benefits of non-verbal communication of compassion (NVCC), it is important to minimize the effect of subjects' expectation. This preliminary study was designed to a) test the feasibility of two strategies for maintaining subject blinding to non-verbal communication of compassion (NVCC), and b) determine whether blinded subjects would experience psychophysiologic effects from NVCC. Subjects were healthy volunteers who were told the study was evaluating the effect of time and touch on the autonomic nervous system. The practitioner had more than 10 years' experience with loving-kindness meditation (LKM), a form of NVCC. Subjects completed 10-point visual analog scales (VAS) for stress, relaxation, and peacefulness before and after LKM. To assess physiologic effects, practitioners and subjects wore cardiorespiratory monitors to assess respiratory rate (RR), heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) throughout the 4 10-minute study periods: Baseline (both practitioner and subjects read neutral material); non-tactile-LKM (subjects read while the practitioner practiced LKM while pretending to read); tactile-LKM (subjects rested while the practitioner practiced LKM while lightly touching the subject on arms, shoulders, hands, feet, and legs); Post-Intervention Rest (subjects rested; the practitioner read). To assess blinding, subjects were asked after the interventions what the practitioner was doing during each period (reading, touch, or something else). Subjects' mean age was 43.6 years; all were women. Blinding was maintained and the practitioner was able to maintain meditation for both tactile and non-tactile LKM interventions as reflected in significantly reduced RR. Despite blinding, subjects' VAS scores improved from baseline to post-intervention for stress (5.5 vs. 2.2), relaxation (3.8 vs. 8.8) and peacefulness (3.8 vs. 9.0, P non-tactile LKM. It is possible to test the

  20. Time, touch, and compassion: effects on autonomic nervous system and well-being.

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    Shaltout, Hossam A; Tooze, Janet A; Rosenberger, Erica; Kemper, Kathi J

    2012-01-01

    Compassion is critical for complementary and conventional care, but little is known about its direct physiologic effects. This study tested the feasibility of delivering two lengths of time (10 and 20 minutes) and two strategies (tactile and nontactile) for a practitioner to nonverbally communicate compassion to subjects who were blind to the interventions. Healthy volunteers were informed that we were testing the effects of time and touch on the autonomic nervous system. Each subject underwent five sequential study periods in one study session: (1) warm-up; (2) control-with the practitioner while both read neutral material; (3) rest; (4) intervention-with practitioner meditating on loving-kindness toward the subject; and (5) rest. Subjects were randomized to receive one of four interventions: (1) 10 minutes tactile; (2) 20 minutes tactile; (3) 10 minutes nontactile; or (4) 20 minutes nontactile. During all interventions, the practitioner meditated on loving-kindness toward the subject. For tactile interventions, the practitioner touched subjects on arms, legs, and hands; for nontactile interventions, the practitioner pretended to read. Subjects' autonomic activity, including heart rate, was measured continuously. Subjects completed visual analog scales for well-being, including relaxation and peacefulness, at warm-up; postcontrol; immediately postintervention; and after the postintervention rest and were asked about what they and the practitioner had done during each study period. The 20 subjects' mean age was 24.3 ± 4 years; 16 were women. The practitioner maintained a meditative state during all interventions as reflected in lower respiratory rate, and subjects remained blind to the practitioner's meditative activity. Overall, interventions significantly decreased heart rate (P < .01), and although other changes did not reach statistical significance, they were in the expected direction, with generally greater effects for the tactile than nontactile strategies

  1. Modeling the Effects of Attentional Cueing on Meditators

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    van Vugt, Marieke K.; van den Hurk, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    Training in meditation has been shown to affect functioning of several attentional subsystems, most prominently conflict monitoring, and to some extent orienting. These previous findings described the effects of cueing and manipulating stimulus congruency on response times and accuracies. However,

  2. The Effects of Muslim Praying Meditation and Transcendental Meditation Programs on Mindfulness among the University of Nizwa Students

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    Aldahadha, Basim

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the Effects of Muslim Praying Meditation (MPM) and Transcendental Meditation (TM) Program on Mindfulness among the University of Nizwa students. The sample of the study consisted of (354) students. The questionnaires of MPM (Al-Kushooa) and Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills (KIMS) were applied before…

  3. Potential Therapeutic Effects of Meditation for Treating Affective Dysregulation

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    Natalie T. Y. Leung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Affective dysregulation is at the root of many psychopathologies, including stress induced disorders, anxiety disorders, and depression. The root of these disorders appears to be an attenuated, top-down cognitive control from the prefrontal cortices over the maladaptive subcortical emotional processing. A form of mental training, long-term meditation practice can trigger meditation-specific neuroplastic changes in the brain regions underlying cognitive control and affective regulation, suggesting that meditation can act as a kind of mental exercise to foster affective regulation and possibly a cost-effective intervention in mood disorders. Increasing research has suggested that the cultivation of awareness and acceptance along with a nonjudgmental attitude via meditation promotes adaptive affective regulation. This review examined the concepts of affective regulation and meditation and discussed behavioral and neural evidence of the potential clinical application of meditation. Lately, there has been a growing trend toward incorporating the “mindfulness” component into existing psychotherapeutic treatment. Promising results have been observed thus far. Future studies may consider exploring the possibility of integrating the element of “compassion” into current psychotherapeutic approaches.

  4. Is meditation always relaxing? Investigating heart rate, heart rate variability, experienced effort and likeability during training of three types of meditation.

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    Lumma, Anna-Lena; Kok, Bethany E; Singer, Tania

    2015-07-01

    Meditation is often associated with a relaxed state of the body. However, meditation can also be regarded as a type of mental task and training, associated with mental effort and physiological arousal. The cardiovascular effects of meditation may vary depending on the type of meditation, degree of mental effort, and amount of training. In the current study we assessed heart rate (HR), high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV) and subjective ratings of effort and likeability during three types of meditation varying in their cognitive and attentional requirements, namely breathing meditation, loving-kindness meditation and observing-thoughts meditation. In the context of the ReSource project, a one-year longitudinal mental training study, participants practiced each meditation exercise on a daily basis for 3 months. As expected HR and effort were higher during loving-kindness meditation and observing-thoughts meditation compared to breathing meditation. With training over time HR and likeability increased, while HF-HRV and the subjective experience of effort decreased. The increase in HR and decrease in HF-HRV over training was higher for loving-kindness meditation and observing-thoughts meditation compared to breathing meditation. In contrast to implicit beliefs that meditation is always relaxing and associated with low arousal, the current results show that core meditations aiming at improving compassion and meta-cognitive skills require effort and are associated with physiological arousal compared to breathing meditation. Overall these findings can be useful in making more specific suggestions about which type of meditation is most adaptive for a given context and population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The effect of loving-kindness meditation on positive emotions: a meta-analytic review.

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    Zeng, Xianglong; Chiu, Cleo P K; Wang, Rong; Oei, Tian P S; Leung, Freedom Y K

    2015-01-01

    While it has been suggested that loving-kindness meditation (LKM) is an effective practice for promoting positive emotions, the empirical evidence in the literature remains unclear. Here, we provide a systematic review of 24 empirical studies (N = 1759) on LKM with self-reported positive emotions. The effect of LKM on positive emotions was estimated with meta-analysis, and the influence of variations across LKM interventions was further explored with subgroup analysis and meta-regression. The meta-analysis showed that (1) medium effect sizes for LKM interventions on daily positive emotions in both wait-list controlled RCTs and non-RCT studies; and (2) small to large effect sizes for the on-going practice of LKM on immediate positive emotions across different comparisons. Further analysis showed that (1) interventions focused on loving-kindness had medium effect size, but interventions focused on compassion showed small effect sizes; (2) the length of interventions and the time spent on meditation did not influence the effect sizes, but the studies without didactic components in interventions had small effect sizes. A few individual studies reported that the nature of positive emotions and individual differences also influenced the results. In sum, LKM practice and interventions are effective in enhancing positive emotions, but more studies are needed to identify the active components of the interventions, to compare different psychological operations, and to explore the applicability in clinical populations.

  6. The effect of loving-kindness meditation on positive emotions: a meta-analytic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianglong eZENG

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available While it has been suggested that loving-kindness meditation (LKM is an effective practice for promoting positive emotions, the empirical evidence in the literature remains unclear. Here, we provide a systematic review of 24 empirical studies (N = 1759 on LKM with self-reported positive emotions. The effect of LKM on positive emotions was estimated with meta-analysis, and the influence of variations across LKM interventions was further explored with subgroup analysis and meta-regression. The meta-analysis showed that (1 medium effect sizes for LKM interventions on daily positive emotions in both wait-list controlled RCTs and non-RCT studies; and (2 small to large effect sizes for the on-going practice of LKM on immediate positive emotions across different comparisons. Further analysis showed that (1 interventions focused on loving-kindness had medium effect size, but interventions focused on compassion showed small effect sizes; (2 the length of interventions and the time spent on meditation did not influence the effect sizes, but the studies without didactic components in interventions had small effect sizes. A few individual studies reported that the nature of positive emotions and individual differences also influenced the results. In sum, LKM practice and interventions are effective in enhancing positive emotions, but more studies are needed to identify the active components of the interventions, to compare different psychological operations, and to explore the applicability in clinical populations.

  7. Effect of rajyoga meditation on chronic tension headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran; Girgla, Kawalinder K; Chalana, Harsh; Singh, Harjot

    2014-01-01

    Chronic tension-type headache (CTTH) is the most common type of headache with no truly effective treatment. This study was designed to correlate the additive effect of meditation on CTTH patients receiving medical treatment. 50 patients (aged 18-58 years) presenting with a clinical diagnosis of CCTH, were divided in 2 groups. Group 1 (n=30) received 8 lessons and practical demonstration of Brahmakumaris spiritual based meditation known as Rajyoga meditation for relaxation therapy, in addition to routine medical treatment (analgesics and muscle relaxants). Group 2 (n=20) patients received analgesics and muscle relaxants twice a day but no relaxation therapy in the form of meditation. Both groups were followed up for 8 weeks period. The parameters studied were severity, frequency and duration of CCTH, and their headache index calculated. Patients in both groups showed a highly significant reduction in headache variables (Pheadache, duration & frequency in Group 1 was 94%, 91% and 97% respectively whereas in Group 2 it was 36%, 36% and 49% respectively. Headache relief as calculated by headache index was 99% in Group 1 as compared to 51% in Group 2. Even Short term spiritual based relaxation therapy (Rajyoga meditation) was highly effective in causing earlier relief in chronic tension headache as measured by headache parameter.

  8. Short Meditation Trainings Enhance Non-REM Sleep Low-Frequency Oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentico, Daniela; Ferrarelli, Fabio; Riedner, Brady A; Smith, Richard; Zennig, Corinna; Lutz, Antoine; Tononi, Giulio; Davidson, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    We have recently shown higher parietal-occipital EEG gamma activity during sleep in long-term meditators compared to meditation-naive individuals. This gamma increase was specific for NREM sleep, was present throughout the entire night and correlated with meditation expertise, thus suggesting underlying long-lasting neuroplastic changes induced through prolonged training. The aim of this study was to explore the neuroplastic changes acutely induced by 2 intensive days of different meditation practices in the same group of practitioners. We also repeated baseline recordings in a meditation-naive cohort to account for time effects on sleep EEG activity. High-density EEG recordings of human brain activity were acquired over the course of whole sleep nights following intervention. Sound-attenuated sleep research room. Twenty-four long-term meditators and twenty-four meditation-naïve controls. Two 8-h sessions of either a mindfulness-based meditation or a form of meditation designed to cultivate compassion and loving kindness, hereafter referred to as compassion meditation. We found an increase in EEG low-frequency oscillatory activities (1-12 Hz, centered around 7-8 Hz) over prefrontal and left parietal electrodes across whole night NREM cycles. This power increase peaked early in the night and extended during the third cycle to high-frequencies up to the gamma range (25-40 Hz). There was no difference in sleep EEG activity between meditation styles in long-term meditators nor in the meditation naïve group across different time points. Furthermore, the prefrontal-parietal changes were dependent on meditation life experience. This low-frequency prefrontal-parietal activation likely reflects acute, meditation-related plastic changes occurring during wakefulness, and may underlie a top-down regulation from frontal and anterior parietal areas to the posterior parietal and occipital regions showing chronic, long-lasting plastic changes in long-term meditators.

  9. Short Meditation Trainings Enhance Non-REM Sleep Low-Frequency Oscillations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Dentico

    Full Text Available We have recently shown higher parietal-occipital EEG gamma activity during sleep in long-term meditators compared to meditation-naive individuals. This gamma increase was specific for NREM sleep, was present throughout the entire night and correlated with meditation expertise, thus suggesting underlying long-lasting neuroplastic changes induced through prolonged training. The aim of this study was to explore the neuroplastic changes acutely induced by 2 intensive days of different meditation practices in the same group of practitioners. We also repeated baseline recordings in a meditation-naive cohort to account for time effects on sleep EEG activity.High-density EEG recordings of human brain activity were acquired over the course of whole sleep nights following intervention.Sound-attenuated sleep research room.Twenty-four long-term meditators and twenty-four meditation-naïve controls.Two 8-h sessions of either a mindfulness-based meditation or a form of meditation designed to cultivate compassion and loving kindness, hereafter referred to as compassion meditation.We found an increase in EEG low-frequency oscillatory activities (1-12 Hz, centered around 7-8 Hz over prefrontal and left parietal electrodes across whole night NREM cycles. This power increase peaked early in the night and extended during the third cycle to high-frequencies up to the gamma range (25-40 Hz. There was no difference in sleep EEG activity between meditation styles in long-term meditators nor in the meditation naïve group across different time points. Furthermore, the prefrontal-parietal changes were dependent on meditation life experience.This low-frequency prefrontal-parietal activation likely reflects acute, meditation-related plastic changes occurring during wakefulness, and may underlie a top-down regulation from frontal and anterior parietal areas to the posterior parietal and occipital regions showing chronic, long-lasting plastic changes in long-term meditators.

  10. Emotional effects of sertraline: novel findings revealed by meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Roger; Victor, Bruce; Bitner, Robin

    2006-01-01

    Use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors continues to increase, as does concern about previously unrecognized, subtle side effects and questions about whether these drugs produce effects on healthy subjects. The authors report novel emotional effects identified by an experienced, psychologically healthy meditator who is a psychiatrist and researcher. On a meditation retreat, the subject identified a specific profile of emotional changes related to sertraline use. In particular, cognitive abilities and the emotions of fear and anger seemed unaffected. However, the emotions of sadness, happiness, rapture, and love were dramatically reduced in intensity and duration. 2006 APA, all rights reserved

  11. Meditation: Rationales, Experimental Effects, and Methodological Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    mounted in bringing meditation to the West. It has after all, received the blessings of prominent figures as diverse as the Beatles , Ram Das. Hans Selye...Samuel R. Connally DAJA45-84-M-0439 . 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS SO. PROGRAM ELEMENT, PROJECT, TASK AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERS The ...different from Controlling Office) IS. SECURITY CLASS. (of this report) US Army Research Institute for the Behavioral Unclassified and Social Sciences

  12. Calm and Smart? A Selective Review on Effects of Meditation on Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Sai eSun; Ziqing eYao; Jiaxin eWei; Rongjun eYu

    2015-01-01

    Over the past two decades, there has been a growing interest in the use of meditation to improve cognitive performance, emotional balance, and well-being. As a consequence, research into the psychological effects and neural mechanisms of meditation has been accumulating. Whether and how meditation affects decision making is not yet clear. Here, we review evidence from behavioral and neuroimaging studies and summarize the effects of meditation on social and nonsocial economic decision making. ...

  13. Calm and smart? A selective review of meditation effects on decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Sai; Yao, Ziqing; Wei, Jaixin; Yu, Rongjun

    2015-01-01

    Over the past two decades, there has been a growing interest in the use of meditation to improve cognitive performance, emotional balance, and well-being. As a consequence, research into the psychological effects and neural mechanisms of meditation has been accumulating. Whether and how meditation affects decision making is not yet clear. Here, we review evidence from behavioral and neuroimaging studies and summarize the effects of meditation on social and non-social economic decision making....

  14. Psychological Effects of a 1-Month Meditation Retreat on Experienced Meditators: The Role of Non-attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Marin, Jesus; Puebla-Guedea, Marta; Herrera-Mercadal, Paola; Cebolla, Ausias; Soler, Joaquim; Demarzo, Marcelo; Vazquez, Carmelo; Rodríguez-Bornaetxea, Fernando; García-Campayo, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Background: There are few studies devoted to assessing the impact of meditation-intensive retreats on the well-being, positive psychology, and personality of experienced meditators. We aimed to assess whether a 1-month Vipassana retreat: (a) would increase mindfulness and well-being; (b) would increase prosocial personality traits; and (c) whether psychological changes would be mediated and/or moderated by non-attachment. Method: A controlled, non-randomized, pre-post-intervention trial was used. The intervention group was a convenience sample ( n = 19) of experienced meditators who participated in a 1-month Vipassana meditation retreat. The control group ( n = 19) comprised matched experienced meditators who did not take part in the retreat. During the retreat, the mean duration of daily practice was 8-9 h, the diet was vegetarian and silence was compulsory. The Experiences Questionnaire (EQ), Non-attachment Scale (NAS), Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS), Temperament Character Inventory Revised (TCI-R-67), Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), Self-Other Four Immeasurables (SOFI) and the MINDSENS Composite Index were administered. ANCOVAs and linear regression models were used to assess pre-post changes and mediation/moderation effects. Results: Compared to controls, retreatants showed increases in non-attachment, observing, MINDSENS, positive-affect, balance-affect, and cooperativeness; and decreases in describing, negative-others, reward-dependence and self-directedness. Non-attachment had a mediating role in decentring, acting aware, non-reactivity, negative-affect, balance-affect and self-directedness; and a moderating role in describing and positive others, with both mediating and moderating effects on satisfaction with life. Conclusions: A 1-month Vipassana meditation retreat seems to yield improvements in mindfulness, well-being, and personality, even in experienced meditators. Non-attachment might

  15. Meditation and the EEG

    OpenAIRE

    West, Michael

    1980-01-01

    Previous research on meditation and the EEG is described, and findings relating to EEG patterns during meditation are discussed. Comparisons of meditation with other altered states are reviewed and it is concluded that, on the basis of existing EEG evidence, there is some reason for differentiating between meditation and drowsing. Research on alpha-blocking and habituation of the blocking response during meditation is reviewed, and the effects of meditation on EEG patterns outside of meditati...

  16. Positive Effects of a Stress Reduction Program Based on Mindfulness Meditation in Brazilian Nursing Professionals: Qualitative and Quantitative Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Teresa Maria; Kozasa, Elisa Harumi; Carmagnani, Isabel Sampaio; Tanaka, Luiza Hiromi; Lacerda, Shirley Silva; Nogueira-Martins, Luiz Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Mindfulness meditation has been shown to effectively mitigate the negative effects of stress among nursing professionals, but in countries like Brazil, these practices are relatively unexplored. To evaluate the effects of a Stress Reduction Program (SRP) including mindfulness and loving kindness meditation among nursing professionals working in a Brazilian hospital setting. Pilot study with a mixed model using quantitative and qualitative methods was used to evaluate a group of participants. The quantitative data were analyzed at three different time points: pre-intervention, post-intervention, and follow-up. The qualitative data were analyzed at post-intervention. Hospital São Paulo (Brazil). Sample 13 nursing professionals, including nurses, technicians, and nursing assistants working in a hospital. Participants underwent mindfulness and loving kindness meditation during a period of six weeks. Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS), Self-Compassion Scale (SCS), WHOQOL-BREF quality of life assessment, and Work Stress Scale (WSS). Qualitative data were collected via a group interview following six weeks participation in the SRP. The quantitative analyses revealed a significant reduction (P stress, burnout, depression, and anxiety (trait). These variables showed no significant differences between post-intervention and follow-up scores. The WHOQOL-BREF revealed significant increase (P nursing activities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. EMC effect in the Drell-Yan process at COMPASS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofanov, Evgenii

    2018-04-01

    The EMC effect or a modification of parton distributions in bound nucleons as compared to free ones, has been extensively studied during the last 30 years but its full understanding is still lacking. The COMPASS experiment at CERN will provide new results on the EMC effect, originating from the Drell-Yan process and studied in the 190 GeV=c π- beam scattering on the ammonia and tungsten targets. The present understanding of the EMC effect and experimental possibilities of COMPASS in this context are discussed.

  18. The Effects of Mindfulness Meditation on Adolescents with High-Incidence Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solar, Ernest L., II

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown evidence that mindfulness-based meditation practices may be effective treatment interventions for mental, emotional, and medical disabilities in the adult population. There has been a limited number of research studies showing the effectiveness of meditation practices with secondary students who receive special education…

  19. Distinct Neural Activity Associated with Focused-Attention Meditation and Loving-Kindness Meditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tatia M. C.; Leung, Mei-Kei; Hou, Wai-Kai; Tang, Joey C. Y.; Yin, Jing; So, Kwok-Fai; Lee, Chack-Fan; Chan, Chetwyn C. H.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the dissociable neural effects of ānāpānasati (focused-attention meditation, FAM) and mettā (loving-kindness meditation, LKM) on BOLD signals during cognitive (continuous performance test, CPT) and affective (emotion-processing task, EPT, in which participants viewed affective pictures) processing. Twenty-two male Chinese expert meditators (11 FAM experts, 11 LKM experts) and 22 male Chinese novice meditators (11 FAM novices, 11 LKM novices) had their brain activity monitored by a 3T MRI scanner while performing the cognitive and affective tasks in both meditation and baseline states. We examined the interaction between state (meditation vs. baseline) and expertise (expert vs. novice) separately during LKM and FAM, using a conjunction approach to reveal common regions sensitive to the expert meditative state. Additionally, exclusive masking techniques revealed distinct interactions between state and group during LKM and FAM. Specifically, we demonstrated that the practice of FAM was associated with expertise-related behavioral improvements and neural activation differences in attention task performance. However, the effect of state LKM meditation did not carry over to attention task performance. On the other hand, both FAM and LKM practice appeared to affect the neural responses to affective pictures. For viewing sad faces, the regions activated for FAM practitioners were consistent with attention-related processing; whereas responses of LKM experts to sad pictures were more in line with differentiating emotional contagion from compassion/emotional regulation processes. Our findings provide the first report of distinct neural activity associated with forms of meditation during sustained attention and emotion processing. PMID:22905090

  20. Examining the Effects of Jyoti Meditation on Stress and the Moderating Role of Emotional Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Daniel; Conley, Abigail H.; Young, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined whether Jyoti meditation (JM), a spiritually based meditation (Singh, 2012), influenced student counselors' (N = 60) level of stress and emotional intelligence (EI). Results from a randomized controlled trial and growth curve analysis provided a multilevel model in which JM reduced stress and EI moderated the effect.

  1. Calm and Smart? A Selective Review on Effects of Meditation on Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai eSun

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two decades, there has been a growing interest in the use of meditation to improve cognitive performance, emotional balance, and well-being. As a consequence, research into the psychological effects and neural mechanisms of meditation has been accumulating. Whether and how meditation affects decision making is not yet clear. Here, we review evidence from behavioral and neuroimaging studies and summarize the effects of meditation on social and nonsocial economic decision making. Research suggests that meditation modulates brain activities associated with cognitive control, emotion regulation and empathy, and leads to improved nonsocial and social decision making. Accordingly, we propose an integrative model in which cognitive control, emotional regulation, and empathic concern mediate the effects of meditation on decision making. This model provides insights into the mechanisms by which meditation affects the decision making process. More evidence is needed to test our explanatory model and to explore the function of specific brain areas and their interactive effects on decision making during meditation training.

  2. Calm and smart? A selective review of meditation effects on decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Sai; Yao, Ziqing; Wei, Jaixin; Yu, Rongjun

    2015-01-01

    Over the past two decades, there has been a growing interest in the use of meditation to improve cognitive performance, emotional balance, and well-being. As a consequence, research into the psychological effects and neural mechanisms of meditation has been accumulating. Whether and how meditation affects decision making is not yet clear. Here, we review evidence from behavioral and neuroimaging studies and summarize the effects of meditation on social and non-social economic decision making. Research suggests that meditation modulates brain activities associated with cognitive control, emotion regulation and empathy, and leads to improved non-social and social decision making. Accordingly, we propose an integrative model in which cognitive control, emotional regulation, and empathic concern mediate the effects of meditation on decision making. This model provides insights into the mechanisms by which meditation affects the decision making process. More evidence is needed to test our explanatory model and to explore the function of specific brain areas and their interactive effects on decision making during meditation training.

  3. The limited prosocial effects of meditation: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreplin, U.; Farias, M.; Brazil, I.A.

    2018-01-01

    Many individuals believe that meditation has the capacity to not only alleviate mental-illness but to improve prosociality. This article systematically reviewed and meta-analysed the effects of meditation interventions on prosociality in randomized controlled trials of healthy adults. Five types of

  4. Immediate and long-term effects of meditation on acute stress reactivity, cognitive functions, and intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Yogesh; Sharma, Ratna; Talwar, Anjana

    2012-01-01

    With the current globalization of the world's economy and demands for enhanced performance, stress is present universally. Life's stressful events and daily stresses cause both deleterious and cumulative effects on the human body. The practice of meditation might offer a way to relieve that stress. The research team intended to study the effects of meditation on stress-induced changes in physiological parameters, cognitive functions, intelligence, and emotional quotients. The research team conducted the study in two phases, with a month between them. Each participant served as his own control, and the first phase served as the control for the second phase. In phase 1, the research team studied the effects of a stressor (10 minutes playing a computer game) on participants' stress levels. In phase 2, the research team examined the effects of meditation on stress levels. The research team conducted the study in a lab setting at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi, India. The participants were 34 healthy, male volunteers who were students. To study the effects of long-term meditation on stress levels, intelligence, emotional quotients, and cognitive functions participants meditated daily for 1 month, between phases 1 and 2. To study the immediate effects of meditation on stress levels, participants meditated for 15 minutes after playing a computer game to induce stress. The research team measured galvanic skin response (GSR), heart rate (HR), and salivary cortisol and administered tests for the intelligence and emotional quotients (IQ and EQ), acute and perceived stress (AS and PS), and cognitive functions (ie, the Sternberg memory test [short-term memory] and the Stroop test [cognitive flexibility]). Using a pre-post study design, the team performed this testing (1) prior to the start of the study (baseline); (2) in phase 1, after induced stress; (3) in part 1 of phase 2, after 1 month of daily meditation, and (4) in part 2 of phase 2, after

  5. Effects of Meditation on Anxiety and Chemical Dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Martin R.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Studied a non-self-selected sample of chemically dependent people instructed in meditation techniques. Differences established upon training termination were no longer evident in the instructed group after six months. Subjects who reported continuing at least minimal meditative practices, however, showed differences in social adjustment, work…

  6. The protective effects of brief mindfulness meditation training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Jonathan B; Welhaf, Matthew S; Srour, Alexandra

    2015-05-01

    Mindfulness meditation has gained a great deal of attention in recent years due to the variety of physical and psychological benefits, including improved working memory, decreased mind wandering and reduced impact of stress on working memory. The current study examined a 1-week at home mindfulness meditation intervention compared to an active control intervention. Results suggest that mindfulness meditation does not increase working memory or decrease mind wandering but does prevent stress related working memory impairments. Mindfulness meditation appears to alter the factors that impair working memory such that the negative impact of mind wandering on working memory was only evident at higher levels of negative affect. The use of cognitive mechanism words in narratives of stressful events did not differ by condition but predicted poorer working memory in the control condition. The results support the use of an at home mindfulness meditation intervention for reducing stress-related impairments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Larger Hippocampal Dimensions in Meditation Practitioners: Differential Effects in Women and Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen eLuders

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available On average, the human hippocampus shows structural differences between meditators and non-meditators as well as between men and women. However, there is a lack of research exploring possible sex effects on hippocampal anatomy in the framework of meditation. Thus, we obtained high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging data from 30 long-term meditation practitioners (15 men / 15 women and 30 well-matched control subjects (15 men / 15 women to assess if hippocampus-specific effects manifest differently in male and female brains. Hippocampal dimensions were enlarged both in male and in female meditators when compared to sex- and age-matched controls. However, meditation effects differed between men and women in magnitude, laterality, and location on the hippocampal surface. Such sex-divergent findings may be due to genetic (innate or acquired differences between male and female brains in the areas involved in meditation and/or suggest that male and female hippocampi are differently receptive to mindfulness practices.

  8. Meditation effects within the hippocampal complex revealed by voxel-based morphometry and cytoarchitectonic probabilistic mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen eLuders

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Scientific studies addressing anatomical variations in meditators’ brains have emerged rapidly over the last few years, where significant links are most frequently reported with respect to gray matter (GM. To advance prior work, this study examined GM characteristics in a large sample of 100 subjects (50 meditators, 50 controls, where meditators have been practicing close to twenty years, on average. A standard, whole-brain voxel-based morphometry approach was applied and revealed significant meditation effects in the vicinity of the hippocampus, showing more GM in meditators than in controls as well as positive correlations with the number of years practiced. However, the hippocampal complex is regionally segregated by architecture, connectivity, and functional relevance. Thus, to establish differential effects within the hippocampal formation (cornu ammonis, fascia dentate, entorhinal cortex, subiculum as well as the hippocampal-amygdaloid transition area, we utilized refined cytoarchitectonic probabilistic maps of (peri- hippocampal subsections. Significant meditation effects were observed within the subiculum specifically. Since the subiculum is known to play a key role in stress regulation and meditation is an established form of stress reduction, these GM findings may reflect neuronal preservation in long-term meditators – perhaps due to an attenuated release of stress hormones and decreased neurotoxicity.

  9. Meditation effects within the hippocampal complex revealed by voxel-based morphometry and cytoarchitectonic probabilistic mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luders, Eileen; Kurth, Florian; Toga, Arthur W.; Narr, Katherine L.; Gaser, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Scientific studies addressing anatomical variations in meditators' brains have emerged rapidly over the last few years, where significant links are most frequently reported with respect to gray matter (GM). To advance prior work, this study examined GM characteristics in a large sample of 100 subjects (50 meditators, 50 controls), where meditators have been practicing close to 20 years, on average. A standard, whole-brain voxel-based morphometry approach was applied and revealed significant meditation effects in the vicinity of the hippocampus, showing more GM in meditators than in controls as well as positive correlations with the number of years practiced. However, the hippocampal complex is regionally segregated by architecture, connectivity, and functional relevance. Thus, to establish differential effects within the hippocampal formation (cornu ammonis, fascia dentata, entorhinal cortex, subiculum) as well as the hippocampal-amygdaloid transition area, we utilized refined cytoarchitectonic probabilistic maps of (peri-) hippocampal subsections. Significant meditation effects were observed within the subiculum specifically. Since the subiculum is known to play a key role in stress regulation and meditation is an established form of stress reduction, these GM findings may reflect neuronal preservation in long-term meditators—perhaps due to an attenuated release of stress hormones and decreased neurotoxicity. PMID:23847572

  10. Effects of Breathing-Based Meditation on Earthquake-Affected Health Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwakuma, Miho; Oshita, Daien; Yamamoto, Akihiro; Urushibara-Miyachi, Yuka

    On March 11, 2013, the Great East Japan Earthquake (magnitude 9) hit the northern part of Japan (Tohoku), killing more than 15 000 people and leaving long-lasting scars, including psychological damage among evacuees, some of whom were health professionals. Little is known about meditation efficacy on disaster-affected health professionals. The present study investigated the effects of breathing-based meditation on seminar participants who were health professionals who had survived the earthquake. This study employed a mixed methods approach, using both survey data and handwritten qualitative data. Quantitative results of pre- and postmeditation practice indicated that all mood scales (anger, confusion, depression, fatigue, strain, and vigor) were significantly improved (N = 17). Qualitative results revealed several common themes (emancipation from chronic and bodily senses; holistic sense: transcending mind-body; re-turning an axis in life through reflection, self-control, and/or gratitude; meditation into mundane, everyday life; and coming out of pain in the aftermath of the earthquake) that had emerged as expressions of participant meditation experiences. Following the 45-minute meditation session, the present study participants reported improvements in all psychological states (anger, confusion, depression, fatigue, strain, and vigor) in the quantitative portion, which indicated efficacy of the meditation. Our analysis of the qualitative portion revealed what and how participants felt during meditating.

  11. Unwanted effects: Is there a negative side of meditation? A multicentre survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ausiàs Cebolla

    Full Text Available Despite the long-term use and evidence-based efficacy of meditation and mindfulness-based interventions, there is still a lack of data about the possible unwanted effects (UEs of these practices. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of UEs among meditation practitioners, considering moderating factors such as the type, frequency, and lifetime duration of the meditation practices.An online survey was developed and disseminated through several websites, such as Spanish-, English- and Portuguese-language scientific research portals related to mindfulness and meditation. After excluding people who did not answer the survey correctly or completely and those who had less than two months of meditation experience, a total of 342 people participated in the study. However, only 87 reported information about UEs.The majority of the practitioners were women from Spain who were married and had a University education level. Practices were more frequently informal, performed on a daily basis, and followed by focused attention (FA. Among the participants, 25.4% reported UEs, showing that severity varies considerably. The information requested indicated that most of the UEs were transitory and did not lead to discontinuing meditation practice or the need for medical assistance. They were more frequently reported in relation to individual practice, during focused attention meditation, and when practising for more than 20 minutes and alone. The practice of body awareness was associated with UEs to a lesser extent, whereas focused attention was associated more with UEs.This is the first large-scale, multi-cultural study on the UEs of meditation. Despite its limitations, this study suggests that UEs are prevalent and transitory and should be further studied. We recommend the use of standardized questionnaires to assess the UEs of meditation practices.

  12. Unwanted effects: Is there a negative side of meditation? A multicentre survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebolla, Ausiàs; Demarzo, Marcelo; Martins, Patricia; Soler, Joaquim; Garcia-Campayo, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Despite the long-term use and evidence-based efficacy of meditation and mindfulness-based interventions, there is still a lack of data about the possible unwanted effects (UEs) of these practices. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of UEs among meditation practitioners, considering moderating factors such as the type, frequency, and lifetime duration of the meditation practices. An online survey was developed and disseminated through several websites, such as Spanish-, English- and Portuguese-language scientific research portals related to mindfulness and meditation. After excluding people who did not answer the survey correctly or completely and those who had less than two months of meditation experience, a total of 342 people participated in the study. However, only 87 reported information about UEs. The majority of the practitioners were women from Spain who were married and had a University education level. Practices were more frequently informal, performed on a daily basis, and followed by focused attention (FA). Among the participants, 25.4% reported UEs, showing that severity varies considerably. The information requested indicated that most of the UEs were transitory and did not lead to discontinuing meditation practice or the need for medical assistance. They were more frequently reported in relation to individual practice, during focused attention meditation, and when practising for more than 20 minutes and alone. The practice of body awareness was associated with UEs to a lesser extent, whereas focused attention was associated more with UEs. This is the first large-scale, multi-cultural study on the UEs of meditation. Despite its limitations, this study suggests that UEs are prevalent and transitory and should be further studied. We recommend the use of standardized questionnaires to assess the UEs of meditation practices.

  13. Influence of type D personality on job stress and job satisfaction in clinical nurses: the mediating effects of compassion fatigue, burnout, and compassion satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon Hee; Kim, Sung Reul; Kim, Yeo Ok; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Hye Young

    2017-04-01

    To test a hypothetical path model evaluating the influence of type D personality on job stress and job satisfaction and to identify the mediating effects of compassion fatigue, burnout, and compassion satisfaction among clinical nurses in South Korea. Personalities susceptible to stress, compassion fatigue, and burnout in clinical nurses have negative effects on the job stress and job satisfaction. A correlational, cross-sectional design was used. A convenience sample of 875 clinical nurses was recruited between December 2014 - February 2015. The structured questionnaires included the Type D personality scale-14, Professional Quality of Life, job stress, job satisfaction, and general characteristics. To test the hypothetical path model, we performed a path analysis by using the AMOS 18·0 program. Based on the path model, type D personality was significantly associated with compassion fatigue, burnout, and compassion satisfaction in our study subjects. Type D personality was significantly associated with job stress and job satisfaction via the effect of burnout, compassion satisfaction, and job stress. Since type D personality is associated with job stress and job satisfaction, identifying personalities vulnerable to stress would help to address job stress and to enhance job satisfaction when nurses have a high level of compassion fatigue and burnout and a low level of compassion satisfaction. The development of interventions that can reduce negative affect and social inhibition of nurses with type D personality and investigation of methods to decrease their compassion fatigue and burnout and to increase compassion satisfaction should be encouraged. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. State and Training Effects of Mindfulness Meditation on Brain Networks Reflect Neuronal Mechanisms of Its Antidepressant Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-Chih Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The topic of investigating how mindfulness meditation training can have antidepressant effects via plastic changes in both resting state and meditation state brain activity is important in the rapidly emerging field of neuroplasticity. In the present study, we used a longitudinal design investigating resting state fMRI both before and after 40 days of meditation training in 13 novices. After training, we compared differences in network connectivity between rest and meditation using common resting state functional connectivity methods. Interregional methods were paired with local measures such as Regional Homogeneity. As expected, significant differences in functional connectivity both between states (rest versus meditation and between time points (before versus after training were observed. During meditation, the internal consistency in the precuneus and the temporoparietal junction increased, while the internal consistency of frontal brain regions decreased. A follow-up analysis of regional connectivity of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex further revealed reduced connectivity with anterior insula during meditation. After meditation training, reduced resting state functional connectivity between the pregenual anterior cingulate and dorsal medical prefrontal cortex was observed. Most importantly, significantly reduced depression/anxiety scores were observed after training. Hence, these findings suggest that mindfulness meditation might be of therapeutic use by inducing plasticity related network changes altering the neuronal basis of affective disorders such as depression.

  15. Effect of meditation on cognitive functions in context of aging and neurodegenerative diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał eMarciniak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of different meditation practices on various aspects of mental and physical health is receiving growing attention. The present paper reviews evidence about effects of several mediation practices on cognitive functions in the context of aging and neurodegenerative diseases. The effect of meditation in this area is still poorly explored. Seven studies were detected through the databases search which explores the effect of meditation on attention, memory, executive functions and other miscellaneous measures of cognition in a sample of older people and people suffering from neurodegenerative diseases. Overall, reviewed studies suggested a positive effect of meditation techniques, particularly in the area of attention, as well as memory, verbal fluency and cognitive flexibility. These findings are discussed in the context of MRI studies suggesting structural correlates of the effects. Meditation can be a potentially suitable non-pharmacological intervention aimed at the prevention of cognitive decline in the elderly. However, the conclusions of these studies are limited by their methodological flaws and differences of various types of meditation techniques. Further research in this direction could help to verify the validity of the findings and clarify the problematic aspects.

  16. Daily Mindful Responding Mediates the Effect of Meditation Practice on Stress and Mood: The Role of Practice Duration and Adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacaille, Julien; Sadikaj, Gentiana; Nishioka, Midori; Carrière, Kimberly; Flanders, Joseph; Knäuper, Bärbel

    2018-01-01

    Although meditation practice is an important component of many mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs), empirical findings of its effects on psychological functioning are mixed and the mechanisms for the effects remain unclear. Responding with mindfulness (i.e., returning one's attention back to a nonjudgmental, present-oriented awareness) is a fundamental skill practiced in meditations. With repeated meditation practice, this skill is thought to become internalized and be applied to one's daily life. We thus hypothesized that the extent to which individuals responded to daily events with mindfulness would mediate the effects of meditation practice (instance, duration, and adherence to instructions) on psychological well-being. Using a daily diary methodology, we tracked the meditation practice, use of mindful responding during the day, and psychological outcomes (perceived stress, negative and positive affect) of 117 mindfulness-based stress reduction program participants. We found that on days when participants meditated, they responded with greater mindfulness to daily events, which accounted for the beneficial effects of meditating on psychological outcomes. Furthermore, findings suggest that on meditation days, longer and more closely adhered meditation practices were independently associated with increases in mindful responding, which in turn were associated with better psychological outcomes. These results suggest that regular, longer, and more closely adhered meditation practice is an important component of MBIs, in part because it leads to responding more mindfully in daily life, which promotes well-being. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Effects of a Brief Meditation Training on Negative Affect, Trait Anxiety and Concentrated Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Baptista Menezes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractMeditation has been associated with positive psychological outcomes, but few studies have investigated brief interventions. This randomized controlled pilot study assessed the effects of five days of focused meditation on positive and negative affect, state and trait anxiety, as well as concentrated attention in a nonclinical sample distributed in two groups (experimental = 14, 51.8% female, Mage= 23.9; control = 19, 62% female, Mage= 24.9. The instruments used were the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale, State and Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Concentrated Attention Test. The meditation group reduced negative affect and trait anxiety, and also improved correct responses on the attention test, relative to controls. These preliminary findings indicate that even short focused meditation training may help improve some psychological variables. It is discussed that the early manifestation of these benefits may be especially relevant to strengthen the motivation to continue and practice regularly.

  18. Chinese-chi and Kundalini yoga Meditations Effects on the Autonomic Nervous System: Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anilesh Dey

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac disease is one of the major causes for death all over the world. Heart rate variability (HRV is a significant parameter that used in assessing Autonomous Nervous System (ANS activity. Generally, the 2D Poincare′ plot and 3D Poincaré plot of the HRV signals reflect the effect of different external stimuli on the ANS. Meditation is one of such external stimulus, which has different techniques with different types of effects on the ANS. Chinese Chi-meditation and Kundalini yoga are two different effective meditation techniques. The current work is interested with the analysis of the HRV signals under the effect of these two based on meditation techniques. The 2D and 3D Poincare′ plots are generally plotted by fitting respectively an ellipse/ellipsoid to the dense region of the constructed Poincare′ plot of HRV signals. However, the 2D and 3D Poincaré plots sometimes fail to describe the proper behaviour of the system. Thus in this study, a three-dimensional frequency-delay plot is proposed to properly distinguish these two famous meditation techniques by analyzing their effects on ANS. This proposed 3D frequency-delay plot is applied on HRV signals of eight persons practicing same Chi-meditation and four other persons practising same Kundalini yoga. To substantiate the result for larger sample of data, statistical Student t-test is applied, which shows a satisfactory result in this context. The experimental results established that the Chi-meditation has large impact on the HRVcompared to the Kundalini yoga.

  19. Hadron Mass Effects: Kaons at HERMES vs. COMPASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero Teran, Juan V. [Hampton Univ., Hampton, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Accardi, Alberto [Hampton Univ., Hampton, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2018-02-01

    Experimental data for integrated kaon multiplicities taken at HERMES and COMPASS measurements look incompatible with each other. In this talk, we investigate the effects of hadron masses calculated at leading-order and leading twist at the kinematics of these two experiments. We present evidence that Hadron Mass Corrections can fully reconcile the data for the K+/K- multiplicity ratio, and can also sizeably reduce the apparent large discrepancy in the case of K++K- data. Residual differences in the shape of the latter one remains to be understood.

  20. The Effects of Meditation on Grey Matter Atrophy and Neurodegeneration: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Last, Nicole; Tufts, Emily; Auger, Leslie E

    2017-01-01

    The present systematic review is based on the premise that a variety of neurodegenerative diseases are accompanied by grey matter atrophy in the brain and meditation may impact this. Given that age is a major risk factor for many of these progressive and neurodegenerative diseases and that the percentage of the population over the age of 65 is quickly increasing, there is an obvious need for prompt treatment and prevention advances in research. As there is currently no cure for Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases, many are seeking non-pharmacological treatment options in attempts to offset the disease-related cognitive and functional declines. On the basis of a growing body of research suggesting that meditation is effective in increasing grey matter volume in healthy participants, this paper systematically reviewed the literature regarding the effects of meditation on restoring grey matter volume in healthy individuals and those affected by neurodegeneration. This review searched PubMed, CINAHL, and APA PsycNET to identify original studies that included MRI imaging to measure grey matter volume in meditators and post-mindfulness-based intervention participants compared to controls. Thirteen studies were considered eligible for review and involved a wide variety of meditation techniques and included participants with and without cognitive impairment. All studies reported significant increases in grey matter volume in the meditators/intervention group, albeit in assorted regions of the brain. Limited research exists on the mechanisms through which meditation affects disease-related neurodegeneration, but preliminary evidence suggests that it may offset grey matter atrophy.

  1. Effectiveness of focused meditation for patients with chronic low back pain-A randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalsen, Andreas; Kunz, Natalie; Jeitler, Michael; Brunnhuber, Stefan; Meier, Larissa; Lüdtke, Rainer; Büssing, Arndt; Kessler, Christian

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of an 8-week meditation program (focused meditation) in patients with chronic low-back pain. A randomized clinical trial was conducted on 68 patients (55 years;75% female) with chronic low-back pain who scored >40mm on a 100mm Visual-Analogue-Scale. Subjects were allocated to an 8-week meditation program (focused meditation) with weekly 75min classes or to a self-care exercise program with a wait-list offer for meditation. Both groups were instructed to practice at home. Outcomes were assessed baseline and after 4 and 8 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the change in mean back pain at rest after 8 weeks. Secondary outcomes included function, pain-related bothersomeness, perceived stress, quality-of-life (QOL), and psychological outcomes. Twelve (meditation) and 4 (exercise) patients were lost to follow-up. The primary outcome, pain at rest after 8 weeks, was reduced from 59.3±13.9mm to 40.8±21.8mm with meditation vs. 52.9±11.8mm to 37.3±18.2mm with exercise (adjusted group difference: -1.4 (95%CI:11.6;8.8;p=n.s.) Perceived stress was significantly more reduced with meditation (p=0.011). No significant treatment effects were found for other secondary outcomes as pain-related bothersomeness, function, quality-of-life and psychological scores, although the meditation group consistently showed non-significant better improvements compared to the exercise group. Focused meditation and self-care exercise lead to comparable, symptomatic improvements in patients with chronic low back pain. Future studies should include longer-term follow-ups and develop guided meditation programs to support compliance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Visual Attention to Suffering After Compassion Training Is Associated With Decreased Amygdala Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Y. Weng

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Compassion meditation training is hypothesized to increase the motivational salience of cues of suffering, while also enhancing equanimous attention and decreasing emotional reactivity to suffering. However, it is currently unknown how compassion meditation impacts visual attention to suffering, and how this impacts neural activation in regions associated with motivational salience as well as aversive responses, such as the amygdala. Healthy adults were randomized to 2 weeks of compassion or reappraisal training. We measured BOLD fMRI responses before and after training while participants actively engaged in their assigned training to images depicting human suffering or non-suffering. Eye-tracking data were recorded concurrently, and we computed looking time for socially and emotionally evocative areas of the images, and calculated visual preference for suffering vs. non-suffering. Increases in visual preference for suffering due to compassion training were associated with decreases in the amygdala, a brain region involved in negative valence, arousal, and physiological responses typical of fear and anxiety states. This pattern was specifically in the compassion group, and was not found in the reappraisal group. In addition, compassion training-related increases in visual preference for suffering were also associated with decreases in regions sensitive to valence and empathic distress, spanning the anterior insula and orbitofrontal cortex (while the reappraisal group showed the opposite effect. Examining visual attention alone demonstrated that engaging in compassion in general (across both time points resulted in visual attention preference for suffering compared to engaging in reappraisal. Collectively, these findings suggest that compassion meditation may cultivate visual preference for suffering while attenuating neural responses in regions typically associated with aversive processing of negative stimuli, which may cultivate a more

  3. The Effect of Meditation on Self-Reported Measures of Stress, Anxiety, Depression, and Perfectionism in a College Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jaimie L.; Lee, Randolph M.; Brown, Lauren J.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of meditation, specifically Transcendental Meditation (TM), on college students' experience of stress, anxiety, depression, and perfectionistic thoughts was investigated using 43 undergraduate students. Self-report measures of the variables were completed prior to the start of the study. Student groups were trained in TM and practiced…

  4. Meditation in a Deep South Prison: A Longitudinal Study of the Effects of Vipassana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelman, Abigayl M.; Miller, Sarah L.; Clements, Carl B.; Rodriguez, Amy; Allen, Kathryn; Cavanaugh, Ron

    2012-01-01

    In an era marked by pronounced overcrowding, including an increasing number of offenders serving long-term sentences, correctional systems continue to search for innovative and effective treatments. Few jurisdictions have attempted non-Western approaches such as meditative practice to reduce stress, conflict, and rule infractions. The current…

  5. A Study on the Effects of Meditation on Anxiety and Foreign Language Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Önem, E. E.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to find whether meditation can be effective in terms of anxiety and vocabulary learning in a foreign language learning context. To test this, an experimental pre-test and post-test study was designed. 61 students (14 male-47 female) from the English Language Teaching Department of a state university in Turkey were assigned into…

  6. Effect of Mindfulness Meditation on Perceived Stress Scores and Autonomic Function Tests of Pregnant Indian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukrishnan, Shobitha; Jain, Reena; Kohli, Sangeeta; Batra, Swaraj

    2016-04-01

    Various pregnancy complications like hypertension, preeclampsia have been strongly correlated with maternal stress. One of the connecting links between pregnancy complications and maternal stress is mind-body intervention which can be part of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM). Biologic measures of stress during pregnancy may get reduced by such interventions. To evaluate the effect of Mindfulness meditation on perceived stress scores and autonomic function tests of pregnant Indian women. Pregnant Indian women of 12 weeks gestation were randomised to two treatment groups: Test group with Mindfulness meditation and control group with their usual obstetric care. The effect of Mindfulness meditation on perceived stress scores and cardiac sympathetic functions and parasympathetic functions (Heart rate variation with respiration, lying to standing ratio, standing to lying ratio and respiratory rate) were evaluated on pregnant Indian women. There was a significant decrease in perceived stress scores, a significant decrease of blood pressure response to cold pressor test and a significant increase in heart rate variability in the test group (pwomen. The results of this study suggest that mindfulness meditation improves parasympathetic functions in pregnant women and is a powerful modulator of the sympathetic nervous system during pregnancy.

  7. Neurophysiological Effects of Meditation Based on Evoked and Event Related Potential Recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nilkamal; Telles, Shirley

    2015-01-01

    Evoked potentials (EPs) are a relatively noninvasive method to assess the integrity of sensory pathways. As the neural generators for most of the components are relatively well worked out, EPs have been used to understand the changes occurring during meditation. Event-related potentials (ERPs) yield useful information about the response to tasks, usually assessing attention. A brief review of the literature yielded eleven studies on EPs and seventeen on ERPs from 1978 to 2014. The EP studies covered short, mid, and long latency EPs, using both auditory and visual modalities. ERP studies reported the effects of meditation on tasks such as the auditory oddball paradigm, the attentional blink task, mismatched negativity, and affective picture viewing among others. Both EP and ERPs were recorded in several meditations detailed in the review. Maximum changes occurred in mid latency (auditory) EPs suggesting that maximum changes occur in the corresponding neural generators in the thalamus, thalamic radiations, and primary auditory cortical areas. ERP studies showed meditation can increase attention and enhance efficiency of brain resource allocation with greater emotional control.

  8. Neurophysiological Effects of Meditation Based on Evoked and Event Related Potential Recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nilkamal; Telles, Shirley

    2015-01-01

    Evoked potentials (EPs) are a relatively noninvasive method to assess the integrity of sensory pathways. As the neural generators for most of the components are relatively well worked out, EPs have been used to understand the changes occurring during meditation. Event-related potentials (ERPs) yield useful information about the response to tasks, usually assessing attention. A brief review of the literature yielded eleven studies on EPs and seventeen on ERPs from 1978 to 2014. The EP studies covered short, mid, and long latency EPs, using both auditory and visual modalities. ERP studies reported the effects of meditation on tasks such as the auditory oddball paradigm, the attentional blink task, mismatched negativity, and affective picture viewing among others. Both EP and ERPs were recorded in several meditations detailed in the review. Maximum changes occurred in mid latency (auditory) EPs suggesting that maximum changes occur in the corresponding neural generators in the thalamus, thalamic radiations, and primary auditory cortical areas. ERP studies showed meditation can increase attention and enhance efficiency of brain resource allocation with greater emotional control. PMID:26137479

  9. Design and performance evaluation of a hall effect magnetic compass for oceanographic and meteorological applications

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, A.; Desai, R.G.P.; Agarvadekar, Y.; Tengali, T.; Mishra, M.; Fadate, C.; Gomes, L.

    A Hall Effect magnetic compass, suitable for oceanographic and meteorological applications, has been designed and its performance characteristics have been evaluated. Slope of the least-squares-fitted linear graph was found to be close to the ideal...

  10. The effectiveness of mindfulness meditation for nurses and nursing students: An integrated literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Riet, Pamela; Levett-Jones, Tracy; Aquino-Russell, Catherine

    2018-06-01

    A growing body of literature has identified a range of beneficial physiological and psychological outcomes from the regular practice of mindfulness meditation. For healthcare professionals, mindfulness meditation is claimed to reduce stress, anxiety and burnout, and enhance resilience. The objective of this integrative review was to critically appraise the literature that related to the effectiveness of mindfulness meditation programs for nurses and nursing students. This review was conducted using Whittemore and Knafl's framework for integrated reviews. Using the terms mindfulness, mindfulness-based-stress reduction, Vipassana, nurses, and nurse education a comprehensive search of the following electronic databases was conducted: CINAHAL, Medline, PsycINFO, EMBASE. EMCARE, ERIC and SCOPUS. The initial search located 1703 articles. After screening and checking for eligibility 20 articles were critically appraised using the Critical Appraisal Skills Program checklist for qualitative papers and McMaster's Critical appraisal form for quantitative papers. The final number of papers included in the review was 16. The results of this review identified that mindfulness meditation has a positive impact on nurses' and nursing students' stress, anxiety, depression, burnout, sense of well-being and empathy. However, the majority of the papers described small scale localised studies which limits generalisability. Contemporary healthcare is challenging and complex. This review indicated that mindfulness meditation is an effective strategy for preventing and managing the workplace stress and burnout, which so often plague nursing staff and students. Further studies with larger sample sizes using rigorous research methods would be useful in extending this work. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effectiveness of a Method for Teaching Self-Compassion to Communication Sciences and Disorders Graduate Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Ann R; Verticchio, Heidi

    2018-02-06

    The purpose of this study is to explore the effects of a daily mindfulness practice and 2 types of journaling on participants' development of self-compassion. This was a between-groups design. All participants in a graduate counseling course engaged in a short daily mindfulness practice at the beginning of every class. Participants were randomly assigned to a counseling journal or a gratitude journal group. Participants were to write in their journals 2 to 5 times a week for the duration of the class. Participants completed the Self-Compassion Scale (Neff, 2003) and a questionnaire created by the 1st author before any mindfulness sessions were held and again at the completion of the course. Participants' level of self-compassion increased from pretest to posttest. The self-compassion scores of participants who kept counseling journals increased more than did those of participants who kept gratitude journals. Qualitative data indicated that participants believed that mindfulness was an important quality for clinicians to possess and that they were accepting of the daily mindfulness practice. Engaging in a 12-min daily mindfulness practice utilizing simple yoga postures, breath work, reflective writing, and journaling done at a separate time appears to be an effective technique for increasing students' levels of self-compassion. Maintaining a counseling journal as opposed to a gratitude journal appears to enhance the effect of the daily mindfulness practice on self-compassion.

  12. Structural changes in socio-affective networks: Multi-modal MRI findings in long-term meditation practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engen, Haakon G; Bernhardt, Boris C; Skottnik, Leon; Ricard, Matthieu; Singer, Tania

    2017-08-31

    Our goal was to assess the effects of long-term mental training in socio-affective skills on structural brain networks. We studied a group of long-term meditation practitioners (LTMs) who have focused on cultivating socio-affective skills using loving-kindness and compassion meditation for an average of 40k h, comparing these to meditation-naïve controls. To maximize homogeneity of prior practice, LTMs were included only if they had undergone extensive full-time meditation retreats in the same center. MRI-based cortical thickness analysis revealed increased thickness in the LTM cohort relative to meditation-native controls in fronto-insular cortices. To identify functional networks relevant for the generation of socio-affective states, structural imaging analysis were complemented by fMRI analysis in LTMs, showing amplitude increases during a loving-kindness meditation session relative to non-meditative rest in multiple prefrontal and insular regions bilaterally. Importantly, functional findings partially overlapped with regions of cortical thickness increases in the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior insula, suggesting that these regions may play a central role in the generation of emotional states relevant for the meditative practice. Our multi-modal MRI approach revealed structural changes in LTMs who have cultivated loving-kindness and compassion for a significant period of their life in functional networks activated by these practices. These preliminary cross-sectional findings motivate future longitudinal work studying brain plasticity following the regular practice of skills aiming at enhancing human altruism and prosocial motivation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Protective Effect of Self-compassion to Emotional Response among Students with Chronic Academic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghong Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The literature has shown that self-compassion is a protective factor of an individual’s emo-tional response to chronic stress. However, this stress-buffering effect has not been complete-ly analyzed in individuals who report significantly high academic stress. The present study explored the role of self-compassion in a group of undergraduate students who experience chronic academic stress. A total of 208 undergraduate students who were preparing for the Postgraduate Entrance Examination (PEE were recruited and completed the Self-Compassion Scale, Adolescent Self-Rating Life Event Check List, and Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. Differences analysis confirmed that the participants reported significantly higher academic stress than their peers who were not preparing for PEE. Self-compassion positively related to positive affect but negatively related to negative affect and learning stress. Further analysis showed that self-compassion negatively mediated the relationship be-tween chronic academic stress and negative affect. Findings imply that self-compassion-centered interventions can be developed in the educational context to assist students cope with chronic academic stress.

  14. Regarding Descartes' meditations as meditational

    OpenAIRE

    Hettche, Matthew

    1995-01-01

    Descartes' Meditations on First Philosophy is often hailed as one of the great classics of western philosophy. First-time readers of the Meditations are often struck by Descartes' clear and accessible writing style. Within recent scholarship (e.g., most notably, Amelie Osksenberg Rorty's collection of Essays on Descartes' Meditations [1986]), much attention has been focused toward examining the philosophical import of Descartes' literary techniques. In particular, discussion...

  15. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Tong Len Meditation Practice in Cancer Patients: Evaluation of a Distant Psychological Healing Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliaro, Gioacchino; Pandolfi, Paolo; Collina, Natalina; Frezza, Giovanni; Brandes, Alba; Galli, Margherita; Avventuroso, Federica Marzocchi; De Lisio, Sara; Musti, Muriel Assunta; Franceschi, Enrico; Esposti, Roberta Degli; Lombardo, Laura; Cavallo, Giovanna; Di Battista, Monica; Rimondini, Simonetta; Poggi, Rosalba; Susini, Cinzia; Renzi, Rina; Marconi, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Tong Len meditation is an important therapeutic tool in the Tibetan medicine, and it can be used for self-healing and/or to heal others. Currently, in the West, there is no scientific study concerning the efficacy of a Tong Len distant healing effect on psychological disorders in cancer patients. To evaluate a distant healing effect of Tong Len meditation on stress, anxiety, depression, fatigue, and self-perceived quality of life in cancer patients. These psychological objectives were chosen as a consequence of the limited scientific literature of present day. We performed a double-blind randomized controlled trial on 103 cancer patients with tumors. Overall, 12 meditators used Tong Len in aid of 52 patients randomly selected as experimental group, while the remaining 51 patients constituted the control group. Patients and meditators did not know each other. All patients completed profile of mood states (POMS) and European Quality of Life-5 dimensions (EQ-5D) questionnaires before treatment (T0), after two (T1) and three months of treatment (T2), and one month after treatment cessation (T3). With regard to the parameters related to depression, a statistically significant improvement (P = .003) was observed in the treatment group compared to controls. On the other hand, the vigor/activity parameter saw significant improvements in the control group (P = .009). Both groups exhibited significant improvements in the other factors assessed in the POMS and EQ-5D questionnaires. This study did not provide sufficient evidence supporting an efficacy of Tong Len meditation in distant psychological healing as compared to a control condition. The research highlighted some psychological improvements through Tong Len distant meditation in a group of patients unknown to meditators. Therefore, the enhancement detected in most parameters in both treatment and control groups raises interest on in-depth analysis and evaluation of distant meditation on cancer patients to mitigate

  16. Effects of long-term mindfulness meditation on brain's white matter microstructure and its aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide eLaneri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although research on the effects of mindfulness meditation (MM is increasing, still very little has been done to address its influence on the white matter (WM of the brain. We hypothesized that the practice of MM might affect the WM microstructure adjacent to five brain regions of interest associated with mindfulness. Diffusion tensor imaging was employed on samples of meditators and non-meditators (n=64 in order to investigate the effects of MM on group difference and aging. Tract-Based Spatial Statistics was used to estimate the fractional anisotrophy of the WM connected to the thalamus, insula, amygdala, hippocampus and anterior cingulate cortex. The subsequent generalized linear model analysis revealed group differences and a group-by-age interaction in all five selected regions. These data provide preliminary indications that the practice of MM might result in WM matter connectivity change and might provide evidence on its ability to help diminish age-related WM degeneration in key regions which participate in processes of mindfulness.

  17. Effects of mindfulness meditation on occupational functioning and health care utilization in individuals with anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoge, Elizabeth A; Guidos, Brittany M; Mete, Mihriye; Bui, Eric; Pollack, Mark H; Simon, Naomi M; Dutton, Mary Ann

    2017-04-01

    To examine the effect of mindfulness meditation on occupational functioning in individuals with Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Fifty-seven individuals with GAD (mean (SD) age=39 (13); 56% women) participated in an 8-week clinical trial in which they were randomized to mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) or an attention control class. In this secondary analysis, absenteeism, entire workdays missed, partial workdays missed, and healthcare utilization patterns were assessed before and after treatment. Compared to the attention control class, participation in MBSR was associated with a significantly greater decrease in partial work days missed for adults with GAD (t=2.734, df=51, p=0.009). Interestingly, a dose effect was observed during the 24-week post-treatment follow-up period: among MBSR participants, greater home mindfulness meditation practice was associated with less work loss and with fewer mental health professional visits. Mindfulness meditation training may improve occupational functioning and decrease healthcare utilization in adults with GAD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The beneficial effects of meditation: contribution of the anterior cingulate and locus coeruleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Alker Craigmyle

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During fMRI studies of meditation the cortical salience detecting and executive networks become active during awareness of mind wandering, shifting and sustained attention. The anterior cingulate (AC is activated during awareness of mind wandering.The AC modulates both the peripheral sympathetic nervous system (SNS and the central locus coeruleus (LC norepinephrine systems, which form the principal neuromodulatory system, regulating in multiple ways both neuronal and non-neuronal cells to maximize adaptation in changing environments. The LC is the primary source of central norepinephrine (C-NE and nearly the exclusive source of cortical norepinephrine. Normally activated by novel or salient stimuli, the AC initially inhibits the SNS reflexively, lowering peripheral norepinephrine (P-NE and activates the LC, increasing C-NE.Moderate levels of C-NE enhance working memory through alpha 2 adrenergic receptors, while higher levels of C-NE, acting on alpha 1 and beta receptors, enhance other executive network functions such as the stopping of ongoing behavior, attentional set shifting and sustained attention. The actions of the AC on both the central and peripheral noradrenergic systems are implicated in the beneficial effects of meditation. This paper will explore some of the known functions and interrelationships of the AC, SNS and LC with respect to their possible relevance to meditation.

  19. Meditation - A Powerful Stress Buster in Dental Care Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Saxena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Meditation is an umbrella term that encompasses a family of practices. In state of meditation there is total relaxation of body & mind. Control of breathing & doing nothing are the basic steps. The practice of meditation creates a balanced, rhythmic & naturally flowing pulsation of life through every part of the body. It transfers the struggling- stressful & exhausted life into a peaceful one. That life is full of health, creativity, love & compassion. Such type of greatest adventure only ′human mind′ can undertake. For meditation, there is no need to escape from the life. It is a simple technique that does not require sophisticated or complicated amenities.

  20. Effectiveness of jyoti meditation for patients with chronic neck pain and psychological distress--a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeitler, Michael; Brunnhuber, Stefan; Meier, Larissa; Lüdtke, Rainer; Büssing, Arndt; Kessler, Christian; Michalsen, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Chronic neck pain is a common medical complaint partly mediated by psychosocial distress and having a high socioeconomic impact. There is preliminary evidence that stress reduction by meditation might be beneficial in chronic pain syndromes. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of an 8-week meditation program (jyoti meditation) in patients with chronic neck pain by means of a randomized clinical trial. Eighty-nine patients (aged 49.7 ± 10.5 years, 73 female) with chronic neck pain who scored >40 mm on a 100-mm visual analog scale and had concomitant increased perceived stress were randomized to an 8-week meditation program (jyoti meditation) with weekly 90-minute classes (n = 45) or to a home-based exercise program (n = 44) with a wait list offer for meditation. Both groups were instructed to practice at home. Outcomes were assessed at baseline and after 8 weeks. Primary outcome measure was change of mean pain at rest (visual analog scale score) from baseline to week 8. Secondary outcomes included pain at motion, functional disability, pain-related bothersomeness, perceived stress, quality of life, and psychological outcomes. Patients had neck pain for a mean of 11 years. Eighteen patients in the meditation group and 16 patients in the exercise group were lost to follow-up. Meditation training significantly reduced pain when compared to the exercise group after 8 weeks (reduction of 45.5 ± 23.3 mm to 21.6 ± 17.2 mm in the meditation group, and 43.8 ± 22.0 mm to 37.7 ± 21.5 mm in the exercise group; mean difference: 13.2 mm [95% confidence interval: 2.1, 24.4; P = .02]). Pain-related bothersomeness decreased more in the meditation group (group difference 11.0 mm [95% confidence interval: 1.0, 21.0; P = .03]). No significant treatment effects were found for pain at motion, psychological scores, and quality of life, although the meditation group showed nonsignificant greater improvements compared to the exercise group. In conclusion

  1. Mindfulness-oriented meditation for primary school children: Effects on attention and psychological well-being.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano eCrescentini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mindfulness-based interventions are increasingly being used as methods to promote psychological well-being of clinical and nonclinical adult populations. Much less is known, however, on the feasibility of these forms of mental training on healthy primary school students. Here, we tested the effects of a mindfulness-meditation training on a group of 16 healthy children within 7–8 years of age from an Italian primary school. An active control condition focused on emotion awareness was employed on a group of 15 age-matched healthy children from the same school. Both programs were delivered by the same instructors three times per week, for 8 total weeks. The same main teacher of the two classes did not participate in the trainings but she completed questionnaires aimed at giving comprehensive pre-post training evaluations of behavior, social, emotion, and attention regulation skills in the children. A children’s self-report measure of mood and depressive symptoms was also used. From the teacher’s reports we found a specific positive effect of the mindfulness-meditation training in reducing attention problems and also positive effects of both trainings in reducing children's internalizing problems. However, subjectively, no child in either group reported less depressive symptoms after the trainings. The findings were interpreted as suggestive of a positive effect of mindfulness-meditation on several children’s psychological well-being dimensions and were also discussed in light of the discrepancy between teacher and children’s reports. More generally, the results were held to speak in favor of the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions for healthy primary school children.

  2. Mindfulness meditation training effects on CD4+ T lymphocytes in HIV-1 infected adults: A small randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, J. David; Myers, Hector F.; Cole, Steven W.; Irwin, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    Mindfulness meditation training has stress reduction benefits in various patient populations, but its effects on biological markers of HIV-1 progression are unknown. The present study tested the efficacy of an 8-week Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) meditation program compared to a 1-day control seminar on CD4+ T lymphocyte counts in stressed HIV infected adults. A single-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted with enrollment and follow-up occurring between November 2005 and December 2007. A diverse community sample of 48 HIV-1 infected adults was randomized and entered treatment in either an 8-week MBSR or a 1-day control stress reduction education seminar. The primary outcome was circulating counts of CD4+ T lymphocytes. Participants in the 1-day control seminar showed declines in CD4+ T lymphocyte counts whereas counts among participants in the 8-week MBSR program were unchanged from baseline to post-intervention (time × treatment condition interaction, p = .02). This effect was independent of antiretroviral (ARV) medication use. Additional analyses indicated that treatment adherence to the mindfulness meditation program, as measured by class attendance, mediated the effects of mindfulness meditation training on buffering CD4+ T lymphocyte declines. These findings provide an initial indication that mindfulness meditation training can buffer CD4+ T lymphocyte declines in HIV-1 infected adults. PMID:18678242

  3. Review of the Neural Oscillations Underlying Meditation

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    Darrin J. Lee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Meditation is one type of mental training that has been shown to produce many cognitive benefits. Meditation practice is associated with improvement in concentration and reduction of stress, depression, and anxiety symptoms. Furthermore, different forms of meditation training are now being used as interventions for a variety of psychological and somatic illnesses. These benefits are thought to occur as a result of neurophysiologic changes. The most commonly studied specific meditation practices are focused attention (FA, open-monitoring (OM, as well as transcendental meditation (TM, and loving-kindness (LK meditation. In this review, we compare the neural oscillatory patterns during these forms of meditation.Method: We performed a systematic review of neural oscillations during FA, OM, TM, and LK meditation practices, comparing meditators to meditation-naïve adults.Results: FA, OM, TM, and LK meditation are associated with global increases in oscillatory activity in meditators compared to meditation-naïve adults, with larger changes occurring as the length of meditation training increases. While FA and OM are related to increases in anterior theta activity, only FA is associated with changes in posterior theta oscillations. Alpha activity increases in posterior brain regions during both FA and OM. In anterior regions, FA shows a bilateral increase in alpha power, while OM shows a decrease only in left-sided power. Gamma activity in these meditation practices is similar in frontal regions, but increases are variable in parietal and occipital regions.Conclusions: The current literature suggests distinct differences in neural oscillatory activity among FA, OM, TM, and LK meditation practices. Further characterizing these oscillatory changes may better elucidate the cognitive and therapeutic effects of specific meditation practices, and potentially lead to the development of novel neuromodulation targets to take advantage of their

  4. Regional Brain Activation during Meditation Shows Time and Practice Effects: An Exploratory FMRI Study

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    E. Baron Short

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Meditation involves attentional regulation and may lead to increased activity in brain regions associated with attention such as dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined whether DLPFC and ACC were activated during meditation. Subjects who meditate were recruited and scanned on a 3.0 Tesla scanner. Subjects meditated for four sessions of 12 min and performed four sessions of a 6 min control task. Individual and group t-maps were generated of overall meditation response versus control response and late meditation response versus early meditation response for each subject and time courses were plotted. For the overall group (n = 13, and using an overall brain analysis, there were no statistically significant regional activations of interest using conservative thresholds. A region of interest analysis of the entire group time courses of DLPFC and ACC were statistically more active throughout meditation in comparison to the control task. Moreover, dividing the cohort into short (n = 8 and long-term (n = 5 practitioners (>10 years revealed that the time courses of long-term practitioners had significantly more consistent and sustained activation in the DLPFC and the ACC during meditation versus control in comparison to short-term practitioners. The regional brain activations in the more practised subjects may correlate with better sustained attention and attentional error monitoring. In summary, brain regions associated with attention vary over the time of a meditation session and may differ between long- and short-term meditation practitioners.

  5. Effects of the Transcendental Meditation Program on Substance Use among University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. F. Haaga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A randomized wait-list controlled trial (=295 university students of the effects of the Transcendental Meditation program was conducted in an urban setting. Substance use was assessed by self-report at baseline and 3 months later. For smoking and illicit drug use, there were no significant differences between conditions. For alcohol use, sex X intervention condition interactions were significant; TM instruction lowered drinking rates among male but not female students. TM instruction could play a valuable role in reducing alcohol use among male university students. Limitations are noted, along with suggestions for further research.

  6. Comparative effects of meditation and exercise on physical and psychosocial health outcomes: a review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Meghan K; Loprinzi, Paul D

    2018-03-01

    No review papers have examined studies that have directly compared non-active forms of meditation with exercise to evaluate effects on physical or psychosocial outcomes, which was the purpose of this paper. Studies were included if they had a randomized controlled trial (RCT) design, included a non-active form of meditation and exercise as intervention arms, and evaluated physical or psychosocial outcomes. The quality of included RCTs was rated using the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias in randomized trials. Five RCTs met the inclusion criteria. The total sample size across all studies was N = 325. Of the main outcomes assessed across the five studies, meditation was shown to be more effective than the exercise comparison arm when evaluating the psychosocial outcomes of anxiety, altruism, and life changes. Additionally, meditation was more effective at reducing chronic neck pain at rest and pain-related bothersomeness. Exercise, however, was more effective in improving physical health-related quality of life, HDL and LDL cholesterol, and fasting blood glucose levels. The interventions were found to be comparable when evaluating the outcomes of well-being, ethanol consumption, and perceived stress levels. Four of the evaluated studies were determined to have an overall 'unclear' risk of bias and one study was found to have a 'high' risk of bias. Exercise and non-active meditation may uniquely influence various health-related outcomes. A continued exploration of the effects of exercise and non-active meditation in controlled trials may yield a better understanding of their benefits.

  7. Effects of a Mindfulness Meditation Course on Learning and Cognitive Performance among University Students in Taiwan

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    Ho-Hoi Ching

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mindfulness training has recently gained much research interest because of its putative benefits for both mental and physical health. However, little is available in its effects on Asian students. Therefore, a quasi-experimental pre/posttest design was used to assess the effects of a one-semester mindfulness meditation course in 152 first-year Taiwanese university students and compared with 130 controls. The Chinese version of the College Learning Effectiveness Inventory (CLEI and a computer software program focused on specific cognitive tasks were used for the evaluation. Results from the analysis of covariance revealed that while the score of the full CLEI scale was significantly higher in the intervention group compared with the control (P=0.022, none of the comparisons between the nine CLEI subscales were significantly different between the two groups. For the computer cognitive tasks, the intervention group exhibited significantly better performance in the accuracy of the digital vigilance task (P=0.048, choice reaction time (P=0.004, spatial working memory (P=0.042, and digital vigilance task reaction time (P=0.004. This study showed that a one-semester mindfulness meditation course was able to improve learning effectiveness and both attention and memory aspects of cognitive performance among Taiwanese university students.

  8. MEDITATIVE PSYCHOANALYSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Jeffrey B

    2016-03-01

    Psychoanalysis and meditation not only compensate for the other's blind spots, but also, when practiced together, can provide a richer experience than either discipline pursued alone. After considering the way meditation cultivates heightened attentiveness, refines sensory clarity, lessens self-criticism, and increases affect tolerance, thereby deepening psychoanalytic listening, I'll examine how psychoanalytic perspectives on unconscious communication and meaning illuminate and transform the nearsightedness of meditation, aiding therapists and clients in understanding troubling thoughts, feelings, and behavior. This helps therapists deepen their capacity to help those people with whom they work. The paper also attempts to illuminate how the therapeutic relationship, conceived of in a freer and more empathic way--as the vehicle for both validating a person's experience and providing opportunities for new forms of relatedness and self-transformation--provides a crucible in which old and dysfunctional ways of caring for oneself and relating to other people emerge and new patterns of self-care and intimacy can be established. In the concluding section, I will delineate meditative psychoanalysis, my own integration of meditation and psychoanalysis. Clinical material will illustrate my theoretical reflections.

  9. Meditation therapy for anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisanaprakornkit, T; Krisanaprakornkit, W; Piyavhatkul, N; Laopaiboon, M

    2006-01-25

    Anxiety disorders are characterised by long term worry, tension, nervousness, fidgeting and symptoms of autonomic system hyperactivity. Meditation is an age-old self regulatory strategy which is gaining more interest in mental health and psychiatry. Meditation can reduce arousal state and may ameliorate anxiety symptoms in various anxiety conditions. To investigate the effectiveness of meditation therapy in treating anxiety disorders Electronic databases searched include CCDANCTR-Studies and CCDANCTR-References, complementary and alternative medicine specific databases, Science Citation Index, Health Services/Technology Assessment Text database, and grey literature databases. Conference proceedings, book chapters and references were checked. Study authors and experts from religious/spiritual organisations were contacted. Types of studies: Randomised controlled trials. patients with a diagnosis of anxiety disorders, with or without another comorbid psychiatric condition. Types of interventions: concentrative meditation or mindfulness meditation. Comparison conditions: one or combination of 1) pharmacological therapy 2) other psychological treatment 3) other methods of meditation 4) no intervention or waiting list. Types of outcome: 1) improvement in clinical anxiety scale 2) improvement in anxiety level specified by triallists, or global improvement 3) acceptability of treatment, adverse effects 4) dropout. Data were independently extracted by two reviewers using a pre-designed data collection form. Any disagreements were discussed with a third reviewer, and the authors of the studies were contacted for further information. Two randomised controlled studies were eligible for inclusion in the review. Both studies were of moderate quality and used active control comparisons (another type of meditation, relaxation, biofeedback). Anti-anxiety drugs were used as standard treatment. The duration of trials ranged from 3 months (12 weeks) to 18 weeks. In one study

  10. Effects of a meditation program on verbal creative levels in a group of studens in late secondary education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Justo, Clemente

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the effects of a meditation program on level of verbal creativity (fluency, flexibility and originality in a group of students in Spain’s two-year educational program for university preparation (Bachillerato. Participants formed two groups: a experimental group that participated in a meditation program, and a control group that did not take part in this intervention. Creativitylevels for the two groups were assessed using the verbal battery of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking, with significant improvement found in the experimental group as compared to the control group for the variables studied.

  11. The effect of meditation on psychological distress among Buddhist Monks and Nuns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Gauri; Araya, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to ascertain whether there is an association between meditation and psychological distress. Within a cohort of meditating Monks and Nuns who have accomplished varying levels of skill in the art of meditation, we studied whether there are varying degrees of psychological distress, and if so, whether this correlates to how advanced the meditators are. In this cross-sectional study, Monks and Nuns were recruited from monasteries, nunneries, and volunteer centres throughout Dharamshala, Northern India. A total of 331 Monks and Nuns participated. Psychological distress was measured using the GHQ-12, and the expertise on meditation was assessed through the number of years practising meditation and the maximum length of time held in concentration in one sitting. A dose response association was found with more years meditating associated with increasingly lower GHQ scores. There was 0.21 points drop in GHQ scores for every year meditating (p = 0.001). This study shows that Monks and Nuns who are more advanced in practicing meditation show fewer signs of psychological distress than Monks and Nuns who are less advanced in the art of meditation. The practice of meditation may have therapeutic value in the management of psychological distress, and could be offered as a non-pharmacological treatment alternative in patients with anxiety and depression. This is a preliminary study with limitations. More robust evidence is needed before we can confidently establish a causal link between meditation and psychological wellbeing. Our findings should, however, encourage further research in this area to generate better evidence for the health benefits of what is a long established practice in Buddhist communities.

  12. Mindfulness meditation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünenberg, Kristina; Walker, Hanne Kjærgaard; Knudsen, Jakob Skov

    2009-01-01

    Meditation er ikke et nyt fænomen i det danske samfund. Det er den fokus som meditationsformen Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) har været genstand for i de senere år imidlertid. Inden for en sundhedssociologisk ramme undersøges nogle af grundene til, at netop MBSR er blevet populær både i...... en analyse af empirien, i hvilken forfatterne bl.a. argumenterer for, at opfattelsen af virkninger tilskrevet mindfulness meditation må ses i relation til to diskurser, som fremanalyseres og benævnes henholdsvis autenticitets- og e ektiviseringsdiskurserne. Disse diskurser udgør i artiklen...

  13. Efficacy of Heartfulness Meditation in Moderating Vital Parameters - A Comparison Study of Experienced and New meditators

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    Raja Amarnath G

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyse and compare the effect of a 30-minute Heartfulness meditation session on vital parameters of experienced and new meditators. Methodology: The study conducted on a mixed group of participants include both experienced and new meditators of various age groups, Body Mass Index (BMI; patients with known illness as well as healthy volunteers. Variations in heart rate, respiratory rate and systolic blood pressure is recorded before and after a 30-minute heartfulness meditation session and analysed statistically. Results: At baseline, average heart rate (HR and systolic blood pressure (SBP is significantly lower in experienced meditators compared to new meditators. Heartfulness meditation is highly significant in moderating HR, RR and SBP. Conclusion: A 30-minute session of Heartfulness meditation produces significant relaxation of the autonomic nervous system and favourably moderates basic vital parameters across all groups. This influence is higher in New meditators particularly the younger group probably because stress is more amplified due to greater responsibilities in life and meditation is an effective tool in reducing stress. The enthusiasm and open mindedness of youth to try new things is also contributing factor for getting better benefits from the heartfulness meditation session. In the case of experienced meditators, the elderly group showed greater changes, probably because they put in the time and effort to pursue the practice of meditation seriously, and thus able to derive a greater benefit.

  14. The Pilot Study of the Effect of Meditation to the Serum Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) of Medical Students, Srinakharinvirot University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turakitwanakan, Wanpen; Mekseepralard, Chantana; Busarakumtragul, Panaree

    2015-11-01

    Mindfulness meditation is a method to decrease stress and increase memory. So, mindfulness meditation should increase serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). To study the effect of mindfulness meditation on the serum BDNF of medical students. The study group consisted of 30 male and female second-year medical students that volunteered to participate in the study, aged 19.1 ± 0.55 year olds (range 18-20) from Srinakharinwirot University. Their blood was drawn to measure BDNF before and after a four-day mindfulness meditation programme. The comparison of serum BDNF levels before and after meditation were analysed by paired t-test. The subjects were 66.77%female and 33.33% male. The average serum BDNF level before the meditation was 17.67 ng/ml (SD 3.58). After meditation, there was a decrease in serum BDNF to 17.34 ng/ml, which was however not statistically significant (SD 4.04, p > 0.05). The levels of blood BDNF decreases slightly after practising meditation. We plan to investigate the reason in the future.

  15. Beneficial Effects of Pranic Meditation on the Mental Health and Quality of Life of Breast Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellar, Juarez I; Fernandes, César A; Tosta, C Eduardo

    2014-07-01

    Breast cancer survivors frequently present long-lasting impairments, caused either by the disease or its treatment, capable of compromising their emotional health and quality of life. Meditation appears to be a valuable complementary measure for overcoming some of these impairments. The purpose of the present investigation was to assess the effect of pranic meditation on the quality of life and mental health of breast cancer survivors. This study was a prospective single-arm observational study using before and after measurements. The subjects were 75 women submitted either to breast cancer therapy or to posttherapy control who agreed to practice pranic meditation for 20 minutes, twice a day, during 8 weeks, after receiving a formal training. The quality of life of the practitioners was assessed by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30 and EORTC BR-023 questionnaires, and the mental health status by the Goldberg's General Health Questionnaire. After 8 weeks of pranic meditation practice, the subjects showed a significant improvement of their quality of life scores that included physical (P = .0007), role (P = .01), emotional (P = .002), and social functioning (P = .004), as well as global health status (P = .005), fatigue (P meditation was associated with improvement of the mental health parameters of the practitioners that included psychic stress (P = .001), death ideation (P = .02), performance diffidence (P = .001), psychosomatic disorders (P = .02), and severity of mental disorders (P = .0003). The extension of the meditation period from 8 to 15 weeks caused no substantial extra benefits in practitioners. The results of this pilot study showed that breast cancer survivors presented significant benefits related to their mental health and quality of life scores after a short period of practice of pranic meditation, consisting of simple and easy-to-learn exercises. However, because of the limitations of the study, further

  16. a RCT comparing daily mindfulness meditations, biofeedback exercises, and daily physical exercise on attention control, executive functioning, mindful awareness, self-compassion, and worrying in stressed young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, E.I.; van der Zwan, J.E.; Bogels, S.M.

    2016-01-01

    Our Western society is characterized by multitasking, competition, and constant time pressure. Negative effects of stress for the individual (anxiety, depression, somatic complaints) and for organizations and society (costs due to work absence) are very high. Thus, time-efficient self-help

  17. A RCT comparing daily mindfulness meditations, biofeedback exercises, and daily physical exercise on attention control, executive functioning, mindful awareness, self-compassion, and worrying in stressed young adults.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, E.I.; van der Zwan, J.E.; Bögels, S.M.

    2016-01-01

    Our Western society is characterized by multitasking, competition, and constant time pressure. Negative effects of stress for the individual (anxiety, depression, somatic complaints) and for organizations and society (costs due to work absence) are very high. Thus, time-efficient self-help

  18. Experiencing mindfulness meditation - a client narrative perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelter, Reinhard

    2009-01-01

    The study was based on the non-participant involvement of the researcher in four six-to-eight weeks' mindfulness meditation training courses led by chartered psychologists. The participants suffered from stress/sleeplessness, depression or agoraphobia in the presented cases. They were selected...... and practicing mindfulness meditation. It is not the intention to give evidence about the effectiveness of mindfulness meditation in general, but to present the whats and hows of cases where mindfulness meditation appears to improve quality of life, health and well-being. Keywords: Mindfulness meditation...

  19. Women Benefit More Than Men in Response to College-based Meditation Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahil Rojiani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: While recent literature has shown that mindfulness training has positive effects on treating anxiety and depression, there has been virtually no research investigating whether effects differ across genders—despite the fact that men and women differ in clinically significant ways. The current study investigated whether college-based meditation training had different effects on negative affect for men and women.Methods: Seventy-seven university students (36 women, age = 20.7 ± 3.0 years participated in 12-week courses with meditation training components. They completed self-report questionnaires of affect, mindfulness, and self-compassion before and after the course.Results: Compared to men, women showed greater decreases in negative affect and greater increases on scales measuring mindfulness and self-compassion. Women’s improvements in negative affect were correlated to improvements in measures of both mindfulness skills and self-compassion. In contrast, men showed non-significant increases in negative affect, and changes in affect were only correlated with ability to describe emotions, not any measures of experiential or self-acceptance.Conclusion: These findings suggest that women may have more favorable responses than men to school-based mindfulness training, and that the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions may be maximized by gender-specific modifications.

  20. The Serenity of the Meditating Mind: A Cross-Cultural Psychometric Study on a Two-Factor Higher Order Structure of Mindfulness, Its Effects, and Mechanisms Related to Mental Health among Experienced Meditators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Ulrich S.; Cebolla, Ausiàs; Glück, Tobias M.; Soler, Joaquim; Garcia-Campayo, Javier; von Moy, Theresa

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the psychometric and structural properties of the Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) among meditators, to develop a short form, and to examine associations of mindfulness with mental health and the mechanisms of mindfulness. Methods Two independent samples were used, a German (n = 891) and a Spanish (n = 393) meditator sample, practicing various meditation styles. Structural and psychometric properties of the FFMQ were investigated with multigroup confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory structural equation modeling. Associations with mental health and mechanisms of mindfulness were examined with path analysis. Results The derived short form broadly matched a previous item selection in samples of non-meditators. Self-regulated Attention and Orientation to Experience governed the facets of mindfulness on a higher-order level. Higher-order factors of mindfulness and meditation experience were negatively associated with symptoms of depression and anxiety, and perceived stress. Decentering and nonattachment were the most salient mechanisms of mindfulness. Aspects of emotion regulation, bodily awareness, and nonattachment explained the effects of mindfulness on depression and anxiety. Conclusions A two-component conceptualization for the FFMQ, and for the study of mindfulness as a psychological construct, is recommended for future research. Mechanisms of mindfulness need to be examined in intervention studies. PMID:25330072

  1. The serenity of the meditating mind: a cross-cultural psychometric study on a two-factor higher order structure of mindfulness, its effects, and mechanisms related to mental health among experienced meditators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich S Tran

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the psychometric and structural properties of the Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ among meditators, to develop a short form, and to examine associations of mindfulness with mental health and the mechanisms of mindfulness. METHODS: Two independent samples were used, a German (n = 891 and a Spanish (n = 393 meditator sample, practicing various meditation styles. Structural and psychometric properties of the FFMQ were investigated with multigroup confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory structural equation modeling. Associations with mental health and mechanisms of mindfulness were examined with path analysis. RESULTS: The derived short form broadly matched a previous item selection in samples of non-meditators. Self-regulated Attention and Orientation to Experience governed the facets of mindfulness on a higher-order level. Higher-order factors of mindfulness and meditation experience were negatively associated with symptoms of depression and anxiety, and perceived stress. Decentering and nonattachment were the most salient mechanisms of mindfulness. Aspects of emotion regulation, bodily awareness, and nonattachment explained the effects of mindfulness on depression and anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: A two-component conceptualization for the FFMQ, and for the study of mindfulness as a psychological construct, is recommended for future research. Mechanisms of mindfulness need to be examined in intervention studies.

  2. Contemplative Education: A Systematic, Evidence-Based Review of the Effect of Meditation Interventions in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Lea; Barsky, Adam; Ridd, Amanda; Allen, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    Schools need reliable evidence about the outcomes of meditation programs before they consider if and how such programmes can influence learning agendas, curriculum and timetables. This paper reviewed evidence from 15 peer-reviewed studies of school meditation programmes with respect to three student outcomes: well-being, social competence and…

  3. Neurocognitive correlates of the effects of yoga meditation practice on emotion and cognition: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett eFroeliger

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Mindfulness meditation involves attending to emotions without cognitive fixation of emotional experience. Over time, this practice is held to promote alterations in trait affectivity and attentional control with resultant effects on well-being and cognition. However, relatively little is known regarding the neural substrates of meditation effects on emotion and cognition. The present study investigated the neurocognitive correlates of emotion interference on cognition in Yoga practitioners and a matched control group underwent fMRI while performing an event-related affective Stroop task. The task includes image viewing trials and Stroop trials bracketed by neutral or negative emotional distractors. During image viewing trials, Yoga practitioners exhibited less reactivity in right dlPFC to negative as compared to neutral images; whereas the control group had the opposite pattern. A main effect of valence (negative > neutral was observed in limbic regions (e.g. amygdala, of which the magnitude was inversely related to dlPFC activation. Exploratory analyses revealed that the magnitude of amygdala activation predicted decreased self-reported positive affect in the Control group, but not among Yoga practitioners. During Stroop trials, Yoga practitioners had greater activation in vlPFC during Stroop trials when negative, compared to neutral, emotional distractor were presented; the control group exhibited the opposite pattern. Taken together, these data suggest that though Yoga practitioners exhibit limbic reactivity to negative emotional stimuli, such reactivity does not have downstream effects on later mood state. This uncoupling of viewing negative emotional images and affect among Yoga practitioners may be occasioned by their selective implementation of frontal executive-dependent strategies to reduce emotional interference during competing cognitive demands and not during emotional processing per se.

  4. Effects of an 8-week meditation program on the implicit and explicit attitudes toward religious/spiritual self-representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescentini, Cristiano; Urgesi, Cosimo; Campanella, Fabio; Eleopra, Roberto; Fabbro, Franco

    2014-11-01

    Explicit self-representations often conflict with implicit and intuitive self-representations, with such discrepancies being seen as a source of psychological tension. Most of previous research on the psychological effects of mindfulness-meditation has assessed people's self-attitudes at an explicit level, leaving unknown whether mindfulness-meditation promotes changes on implicit self-representations. Here, we assessed the changes in implicit and explicit self-related religious/spiritual (RS) representations in healthy participants following an 8-week mindfulness-oriented meditation (MOM) program. Before and after meditation, participants were administered implicit (implicit association test) and explicit (self-reported questionnaires) RS measures. Relative to control condition, MOM led to increases of implicit RS in individuals whit low pre-existing implicit RS and to more widespread increases in explicit RS. On the assumption that MOM practice may enhance the clarity of one's transcendental thoughts and feelings, we argued that MOM allows people to transform their intuitive feelings of implicit RS as well as their explicit RS attitudes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Effects of Mind Subtraction Meditation on Depression, Social Anxiety, Aggression, and Salivary Cortisol Levels of Elementary School Children in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Yang-Gyeong; Lee, Duck-Joo; Lee, In-Soo; Shin, Namin; Park, Ju-Yeon; Yoon, Mi-Ra; Yu, Boas

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed the effects of a school-based mind subtraction meditation program on depression, social anxiety, aggression, and salivary cortisol levels of 42 elementary school children in South Korea. The research design was a nonequivalent group comparison with pretest and post-test. The experimental group was given 8weeks of the meditation program. The results showed social anxiety, aggression, and salivary cortisol levels were significantly lowered in the experimental group. This demonstrated that the school-based mind subtraction meditation program could be effective in improving psychosocial and behavioral aspects of mental health in elementary school children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Montaignian Meditations

    OpenAIRE

    Zalloua, Zahi

    2012-01-01

    In Pascalian Meditations, Pierre Bourdieu counters Husserl’s disembodied, solipsistic Cartesian subjectivity with his well-known notion of habitus—that is, the self as embodied history, a history internalized as second nature and thus forgotten as history. Bourdieu turns to Blaise Pascal—the great anti-Cartesian—not only for inspiration but in order to establish a new interpretive ethos that transcends the seemingly intractable dilemma between objectivism and subjectivism. Bourdie...

  7. Effectiveness of mindfulness meditation (Vipassana in the management of chronic low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangram G Patil

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic low back pain (CLBP is challenging to treat with its significant psychological and cognitive behavioural element involved. Mindfulness meditation helps alter the behavioural response in chronic pain situations. Significant body of research in the filed of mindfulness meditation comes from the work of Dr Kabat-Zinn. The current evidence in the field, though not grade one, shows that there is a place for mindfulness meditation in managing chronic pain conditions including CLBP. Further research to test the usefulness of mindfulness in CLBP should involve good quality randomized controlled trials of pure mindfulness based technique in matched subjects.

  8. Functional neuroanatomy of meditation: A review and meta-analysis of 78 functional neuroimaging investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Kieran C R; Dixon, Matthew L; Nijeboer, Savannah; Girn, Manesh; Floman, James L; Lifshitz, Michael; Ellamil, Melissa; Sedlmeier, Peter; Christoff, Kalina

    2016-06-01

    Meditation is a family of mental practices that encompasses a wide array of techniques employing distinctive mental strategies. We systematically reviewed 78 functional neuroimaging (fMRI and PET) studies of meditation, and used activation likelihood estimation to meta-analyze 257 peak foci from 31 experiments involving 527 participants. We found reliably dissociable patterns of brain activation and deactivation for four common styles of meditation (focused attention, mantra recitation, open monitoring, and compassion/loving-kindness), and suggestive differences for three others (visualization, sense-withdrawal, and non-dual awareness practices). Overall, dissociable activation patterns are congruent with the psychological and behavioral aims of each practice. Some brain areas are recruited consistently across multiple techniques-including insula, pre/supplementary motor cortices, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, and frontopolar cortex-but convergence is the exception rather than the rule. A preliminary effect-size meta-analysis found medium effects for both activations (d=0.59) and deactivations (d=-0.74), suggesting potential practical significance. Our meta-analysis supports the neurophysiological dissociability of meditation practices, but also raises many methodological concerns and suggests avenues for future research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The effectiveness of an educational program on preventing and treating compassion fatigue in emergency nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flarity, Kathleen; Gentry, J Eric; Mesnikoff, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the treatment effectiveness of a multifaceted education program to decrease compassion fatigue (CF) and burnout (BO) symptoms and increase compassion satisfaction of emergency nurses participating in the training. The goal of the CF multifaceted intervention program was to demonstrate a statistically significant improvement in the 3 CF subscales: an increase on the Compassion Satisfaction (CS) subscale and a decrease on the Secondary Traumatic Stress (STS) and BO subscales in the participants' pretest and posttest scores as measured by The Professional Quality of Life test (B. H. , ). The study sites were 2 emergency departments in Colorado Springs, CO. A convenience sample consisted of emergency nurses who self-selected to participate in the study. Univariate statistics were used, and data were examined for normalcy of distribution. Because these data were not distributed normally, Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used to evaluate the differences between the baseline and postintervention groups. The multifaceted education program resulted in a statistically significant increase in CS (p = 0.004) and a decrease in BO (p = 0.001 or less) and STS (p = 0.001) symptoms.

  10. Impact of Providing Compassion on Job Performance and Mental Health: The Moderating Effect of Interpersonal Relationship Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Li-Chuan

    2017-07-01

    To examine the relationships of providing compassion at work with job performance and mental health, as well as to identify the role of interpersonal relationship quality in moderating these relationships. This study adopted a two-stage survey completed by 235 registered nurses employed by hospitals in Taiwan. All hypotheses were tested using hierarchical regression analyses. The results show that providing compassion is an effective predictor of job performance and mental health, whereas interpersonal relationship quality can moderate the relationships of providing compassion with job performance and mental health. When nurses are frequently willing to listen, understand, and help their suffering colleagues, the enhancement engendered by providing compassion can improve the provider's job performance and mental health. Creating high-quality relationships in the workplace can strengthen the positive benefits of providing compassion. Motivating employees to spontaneously exhibit compassion is crucial to an organization. Hospitals can establish value systems, belief systems, and cultural systems that support a compassionate response to suffering. In addition, nurses can internalize altruistic belief systems into their own personal value systems through a long process of socialization in the workplace. © 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  11. Exploring relations among mindfulness facets and various meditation practices: Do they work in different ways?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebolla, Ausiàs; Campos, Daniel; Galiana, Laura; Oliver, Amparo; Tomás, Jose Manuel; Feliu-Soler, Albert; Soler, Joaquim; García-Campayo, Javier; Demarzo, Marcelo; Baños, Rosa María

    2017-03-01

    Several meditation practices are associated with mindfulness-based interventions but little is known about their specific effects on the development of different mindfulness facets. This study aimed to assess the relations among different practice variables, types of meditation, and mindfulness facets. The final sample was composed of 185 participants who completed an on-line survey, including information on the frequency and duration of each meditation practice, lifetime practice, and the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire. A Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes structural model was specified, estimated, and tested. Results showed that the Model's overall fit was adequate: χ 2 (1045)=1542.800 (p<0.001), CFI=0.902, RMSEA=0.042. Results revealed that mindfulness facets were uniquely related to the different variables and types of meditation. Our findings showed the importance of specific practices in promoting mindfulness, compared to compassion and informal practices, and they pointed out which one fits each mindfulness facet better. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of anapanasati meditation technique through electrophotonic imaging parameters: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deo, Guru; Itagi R, Kumar; Thaiyar M, Srinivasan; Kuldeep, Kushwah K

    2015-01-01

    Mindfulness along with breathing is a well-established meditation technique. Breathing is an exquisite tool for exploring subtle awareness of mind and life itself. This study aimed at measuring changes in the different parameters of electrophotonic imaging (EPI) in anapanasati meditators. To carry out this study, 51 subjects comprising 32 males and 19 females of age 18 years and above (mean age 45.64 ± 14.43) were recruited voluntarily with informed consent attending Karnataka Dhyana Mahachakra-1 at Pyramid Valley International, Bengaluru, India. The design was a single group pre- post and data collected by EPI device before and after 5 days of intensive meditation. Results show significant changes in EPI parameter integral area with filter (physiological) in both right and left side, which reflects the availability of high functional energy reserve in meditators. The researchers observed similar trends without filter (psycho-physiological) indicating high reserves of energy at psycho-physiological level also. Activation coefficient, another parameter of EPI, reduced showing more relaxed state than earlier, possibly due to parasympathetic dominance. Integral entropy decreased in the case of psycho-physiological parameters left-side without filter, which indicates less disorder after meditation, but these changes were not significant. The study showed a reversed change in integral entropy in the right side without filter; however, the values on both sides with filter increased, which indicates disorder. The study suggests that EPI can be used in the recording functional physiological and psychophysiological status of meditators at a subtle level.

  13. Effectiveness of mindfulness meditation on pain and quality of life of patients with chronic low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Banth

    2015-01-01

    Effectiveness of mindfulness meditation on pain and quality of life of patients with chronic low back pain Eighty-eight patients diagnosed as NSCLBP by physician and randomly assigned to experimental (MBSR+ usual medical care and the control group (usual medical care only. The subjects assessed in 3 times frames; before, after and 4 weeks after intervention by Mac Gil pain and standard brief quality of life scales. Data obtained from the final sample analyzed by ANCOVA using SPSS software. Results: The findings showed MBSR was effective in reduction of pain severity and the patients who practiced 8 sessions meditation reported significantly lower pain than patients who only received usual medical care. There was a significant effect of the between subject factor group (F [1, 45] = 16.45, P < 0.001 and (F [1, 45] = 21.51, P < 0.001 for physical quality of life and (F [1, 45] = 13.80, P < 0.001 and (F [1, 45] = 25.07, P < 0.001 mental quality of life respectively. Conclusion: MBSR as a mind-body therapy including body scan, sitting and walking meditation was effective intervention on reduction of pain severity and improvement of physical and mental quality of life of female patients with NSCLBP.

  14. Prenatal meditation influences infant behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ka Po

    2014-11-01

    Meditation is important in facilitating health. Pregnancy health has been shown to have significant consequences for infant behaviors. In view of limited studies on meditation and infant temperament, this study aims to explore the effects of prenatal meditation on these aspects. The conceptual framework was based on the postulation of positive relationships between prenatal meditation and infant health. A randomized control quantitative study was carried out at Obstetric Unit, Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Hong Kong. 64 pregnant Chinese women were recruited for intervention and 59 were for control. Outcome measures were cord blood cortisol, infant salivary cortisol, and Carey Infant Temperament Questionnaire. Cord blood cortisol level of babies was higher in the intervention group (pmeditation can influence fetal health. Carey Infant Temperament Questionnaire showed that the infants of intervention group have better temperament (pmeditation in relation to child health. Present study concludes the positive effects of prenatal meditation on infant behaviors and recommends that pregnancy care providers should provide prenatal meditation to pregnant women. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of gratitude meditation on neural network functional connectivity and brain-heart coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyeong, Sunghyon; Kim, Joohan; Kim, Dae Jin; Kim, Hesun Erin; Kim, Jae-Jin

    2017-07-11

    A sense of gratitude is a powerful and positive experience that can promote a happier life, whereas resentment is associated with life dissatisfaction. To explore the effects of gratitude and resentment on mental well-being, we acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging and heart rate (HR) data before, during, and after the gratitude and resentment interventions. Functional connectivity (FC) analysis was conducted to identify the modulatory effects of gratitude on the default mode, emotion, and reward-motivation networks. The average HR was significantly lower during the gratitude intervention than during the resentment intervention. Temporostriatal FC showed a positive correlation with HR during the gratitude intervention, but not during the resentment intervention. Temporostriatal resting-state FC was significantly decreased after the gratitude intervention compared to the resentment intervention. After the gratitude intervention, resting-state FC of the amygdala with the right dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and left dorsal anterior cingulate cortex were positively correlated with anxiety scale and depression scale, respectively. Taken together, our findings shed light on the effect of gratitude meditation on an individual's mental well-being, and indicate that it may be a means of improving both emotion regulation and self-motivation by modulating resting-state FC in emotion and motivation-related brain regions.

  16. The effects of "The Work" meditation (Byron Katie) on psychological symptoms and quality of life--a pilot clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smernoff, Eric; Mitnik, Inbal; Kolodner, Ken; Lev-Ari, Shahar

    2015-01-01

    "The Work" is a meditative technique that enables the identification and investigation of thoughts that cause an individual stress and suffering. Its core is comprised of four questions and turnarounds that enable the participant to experience a different interpretation of reality. We assessed the effect of "The Work" meditation on quality of life and psychological symptoms in a non-clinical sample. This study was designed as a single-group pilot clinical trial (open label). Participants (n = 197) enrolled in a nine-day training course ("The School for The Work") and completed a set of self-administered measures on three occasions: before the course (n = 197), after the course (n = 164), and six months after course completion (n = 102). Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS), Quality of Life Inventory (QOLI), Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self Report (QIDS-SR16), Outcome Questionnaire 45.2 (OQ-45.2), State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2 (STAXI-2), and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). A mixed models analysis revealed significant positive changes between baseline compared to the end of the intervention and six-month follow-up in all measures: BDI-II (t = 10.24, P Work" meditation technique as an effective intervention for improvement in psychological state and quality of life in the general population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of Buddhism walking meditation on depression, functional fitness, and endothelium-dependent vasodilation in depressed elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakhinkit, Susaree; Suppapitiporn, Siriluck; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Suksom, Daroonwan

    2014-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of the novel Buddhism-based walking meditation (BWM) and the traditional walking exercise (TWE) on depression, functional fitness, and vascular reactivity. This was a randomized exercise intervention study. The study was conducted in a university hospital setting. Forty-five elderly participants aged 60-90 years with mild-to-moderate depressive symptoms were randomly allocated to the sedentary control, TWE, and BWM groups. The BWM program was based on aerobic walking exercise incorporating the Buddhist meditations performed 3 times/week for 12 weeks. Depression score, functional fitness, and endothelium-dependent vasodilation as measured by the flow-mediated dilation (FMD) were the outcome measures used. Muscle strength, flexibility, agility, dynamic balance, and cardiorespiratory endurance increased in both exercise groups (p<0.05). Depression score decreased (p<0.05) only in the BWM group. FMD improved (p<0.05) in both exercise groups. Significant reduction in plasma cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and C-reactive protein were found in both exercise groups, whereas low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, cortisol, and interleukin-6 concentrations decreased only in the BWM group. Buddhist walking meditation was effective in reducing depression, improving functional fitness and vascular reactivity, and appears to confer greater overall improvements than the traditional walking program.

  18. The Transcendental Meditation Program and Rehabilitation at Folsom State Prison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Allan I.; Siegel, Larry M.

    1978-01-01

    Effects of the Transcendental Meditation program in a maximum security prison were studied via cross-validation design. Meditation and control groups indicated reduction in anxiety, neuroticism, hostility, and insomnia as a function of the treatment. (Author)

  19. Functional neural correlates of mindfulness meditations in comparison with psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy and placebo effect. Is there a link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiesa, Alberto; Brambilla, Paolo; Serretti, Alessandro

    2010-06-01

    Chiesa A, Brambilla P, Serretti A. Functional neural correlates of mindfulness meditations in comparison with psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy and placebo effect. Is there a link? Mindfulness meditations (MM) are a group of meditation practices which are increasingly receiving attention. The aim of the present work is to review current findings about the neural correlates of MM and compare such findings with other specific and non-specific treatments. A literature search was undertaken using MEDLINE, ISI web of knowledge, the Cochrane database and references of retrieved articles. Studies which focused on the functional neural correlates of MM, psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy and placebo published up to August 2009 were screened in order to be considered for the inclusion. Main findings suggest that long-term MM practice allows a more flexible emotional regulation by engaging frontal cortical structures to dampen automatic amygdala activation. A large overlap exists between cerebral areas activated during MM, psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy and those activated by placebo. However, while MM, psychotherapy and placebo seem to act through a top-down regulation, antidepressants seem to act through a bottom-up process. MM seem to target specific brain areas related to emotions and emotional regulation. Similar mechanisms have been observed also in other interventions, particularly psychotherapy.

  20. No meditation-related changes in the auditory N1 during first-time meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, L J; McArthur, G M; Biedermann, B A; de Lissa, P; Polito, V; Badcock, N A

    2018-05-01

    Recent studies link meditation expertise with enhanced low-level attention, measured through auditory event-related potentials (ERPs). In this study, we tested the reliability and validity of a recent finding that the N1 ERP in first-time meditators is smaller during meditation than non-meditation - an effect not present in long-term meditators. In the first experiment, we replicated the finding in first-time meditators. In two subsequent experiments, we discovered that this finding was not due to stimulus-related instructions, but was explained by an effect of the order of conditions. Extended exposure to the same tones has been linked with N1 decrement in other studies, and may explain N1 decrement across our two conditions. We give examples of existing meditation and ERP studies that may include similar condition order effects. The role of condition order among first-time meditators in this study indicates the importance of counterbalancing meditation and non-mediation conditions in meditation studies that use event-related potentials. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A Comparison of Meditation with Other Relaxation Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fling, Sheila

    This paper critiques a negative 1984 review, "Meditation and Somatic Arousal Reduction" (Holmes), on the absolute effectiveness of meditation in reducing somatic arousal and reviews research on the relative effectiveness of meditation compared to techniques such as biofeedback, hypnosis, progressive muscle relaxation, and autogenics in…

  2. Gluon contribution to the Sivers effect. COMPASS results on deuteron target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabelski Adam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sivers effect for gluons is connected to gluon orbital angular momentum which may be the missing part of the nucleon spin puzzle. We present a method of extraction of Sivers effect for gluons from COMPASS SIDIS data on transversely polarised target. In order to access the Sivers effect for gluons photon-gluon fusion (PGF process is used. To enhance the fraction of PGF in the sample high-pT hadron pair events are selected. The method is based on a assumption that there are 3 processes contributing to the muon-nucleon scattering: PGF, leading process and QCD Compton process. Then one performs a weighting procedure which enables to extract the asymmetries for the 3 contributing processes simultaneously. In order to do that a neural network trained by a Monte Carlo to assign to each event 3 probabilities corresponding to the 3 processes is needed. Finaly we show results of Sivers effect for gluons extraction on COMPASS data with transversely polarised deuteron target. APGFsinΦ2h–ΦS = −0.14 ± 0.15 (stat. at ‹XG› = 0.126.

  3. Self-compassion and emotional invalidation mediate the effects of parental indifference on psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, Maren; Leahy, Robert L; Pala, Andrea Norcini; Wupperman, Peggilee

    2016-08-30

    This study investigated whether self-compassion and emotional invalidation (perceiving others as indifferent to one's emotions) may explain the relationship of childhood exposure to adverse parenting and adult psychopathology in psychiatric outpatients (N=326). Path analysis was used to investigate associations between exposure to adverse parenting (abuse and indifference), self-compassion, emotional invalidation, and mental health when controlling for gender and age. Self-compassion was strongly inversely associated with emotional invalidation, suggesting that a schema that others will be unsympathetic or indifferent toward one's emotions may affect self-compassion and vice versa. Both self-compassion and emotional invalidation mediated the relationship between parental indifference and mental health outcomes. These preliminary findings suggest the potential utility of self-compassion and emotional schemas as transdiagnostic treatment targets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Mindfulness meditation regulates anterior insula activity during empathy for social pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laneri, Davide; Krach, Sören; Paulus, Frieder M; Kanske, Philipp; Schuster, Verena; Sommer, Jens; Müller-Pinzler, Laura

    2017-08-01

    Mindfulness has been shown to reduce stress, promote health, and well-being, as well as to increase compassionate behavior toward others. It reduces distress to one's own painful experiences, going along with altered neural responses, by enhancing self-regulatory processes and decreasing emotional reactivity. In order to investigate if mindfulness similarly reduces distress and neural activations associated with empathy for others' socially painful experiences, which might in the following more strongly motivate prosocial behavior, the present study compared trait, and state effects of long-term mindfulness meditation (LTM) practice. To do so we acquired behavioral data and neural activity measures using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during an empathy for social pain task while manipulating the meditation state between two groups of LTM practitioners that were matched with a control group. The results show increased activations of the anterior insula (AI) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) as well as the medial prefrontal cortex and temporal pole when sharing others' social suffering, both in LTM practitioners and controls. However, in LTM practitioners, who practiced mindfulness meditation just prior to observing others' social pain, left AI activation was lower and the strength of AI activation following the mindfulness meditation was negatively associated with trait compassion in LTM practitioners. The findings suggest that current mindfulness meditation could provide an adaptive mechanism in coping with distress due to the empathic sharing of others' suffering, thereby possibly enabling compassionate behavior. Hum Brain Mapp 38:4034-4046, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The Effects of School-Based Maum Meditation Program on the Self-Esteem and School Adjustment in Primary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Yang Gyeong; Lee, In Soo

    2013-01-01

    Self-esteem and school adjustment of children in the lower grades of primary school, the beginning stage of school life, have a close relationship with development of personality, mental health and characters of children. Therefore, the present study aimed to verify the effect of school-based Maum Meditation program on children in the lower grades of primary school, as a personality education program. The result showed that the experimental group with application of Maum Meditation program had significant improvements in self-esteem and school adjustment, compared to the control group without the application. In conclusion, since the study provides significant evidence that the intervention of Maum Meditation program had positive effects on self-esteem and school adjustment of children in the early stage of primary school, it is suggested to actively employ Maum Meditation as a school-based meditation program for mental health promotion of children in the early school ages, the stage of formation of personalities and habits. PMID:23777717

  6. EEG-guided meditation: A personalized approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingelkurts, Andrew A; Fingelkurts, Alexander A; Kallio-Tamminen, Tarja

    2015-12-01

    The therapeutic potential of meditation for physical and mental well-being is well documented, however the possibility of adverse effects warrants further discussion of the suitability of any particular meditation practice for every given participant. This concern highlights the need for a personalized approach in the meditation practice adjusted for a concrete individual. This can be done by using an objective screening procedure that detects the weak and strong cognitive skills in brain function, thus helping design a tailored meditation training protocol. Quantitative electroencephalogram (qEEG) is a suitable tool that allows identification of individual neurophysiological types. Using qEEG screening can aid developing a meditation training program that maximizes results and minimizes risk of potential negative effects. This brief theoretical-conceptual review provides a discussion of the problem and presents some illustrative results on the usage of qEEG screening for the guidance of mediation personalization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. EEG Derived Neuronal Dynamics during Meditation: Progress and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamandeep Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Meditation advances positivity but how these behavioral and psychological changes are brought can be explained by understanding neurophysiological effects of meditation. In this paper, a broad spectrum of neural mechanics under a variety of meditation styles has been reviewed. The overall aim of this study is to review existing scientific studies and future challenges on meditation effects based on changing EEG brainwave patterns. Albeit the existing researches evidenced the hold for efficacy of meditation in relieving anxiety and depression and producing psychological well-being, more rigorous studies are required with better design, considering client variables like personality characteristics to avoid negative effects, randomized controlled trials, and large sample sizes. A bigger number of clinical trials that concentrate on the use of meditation are required. Also, the controversial subject of epileptiform EEG changes and other adverse effects during meditation has been raised.

  8. Tokamak COMPASS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řípa, Milan; Křenek, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 1 (2011), s. 32-34 ISSN 1210-4612 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : fusion * tokamak * Compass * Golem * Institute of Plasma Physics AVCR v.v * NBI * diagnostics Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  9. A quantitative electroencephalographic study of meditation and binaural beat entrainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavallee, Christina F; Koren, Stanley A; Persinger, Michael A

    2011-04-01

    The study objective was to determine the quantitative electroencephalographic correlates of meditation, as well as the effects of hindering (15 Hz) and facilitative (7 Hz) binaural beats on the meditative process. The study was a mixed design, with experience of the subject as the primary between-subject measure and power of the six classic frequency bands (δ, θ, low α, high α, β, γ), neocortical lobe (frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital), hemisphere (left, right), and condition (meditation only, meditation with 7-Hz beats, meditation with 15-Hz beats) as the within-subject measures. The study was conducted at Laurentian University in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. The subjects comprised novice (mean of 8 months experience) and experienced (mean of 18 years experience) meditators recruited from local meditation groups. Experimental manipulation included application of hindering and facilitative binaural beats to the meditative process. Experienced meditators displayed increased left temporal lobe δ power when the facilitative binaural beats were applied, whereas the effect was not observed for the novice subjects in this condition. When the hindering binaural beats were introduced, the novice subjects consistently displayed more γ power than the experienced subjects over the course of their meditation, relative to baseline. Based on the results of this study, novice meditators were not able to maintain certain levels of θ power in the occipital regions when hindering binaural beats were presented, whereas when the facilitative binaural beats were presented, the experienced meditators displayed increased θ power in the left temporal lobe. These results suggest that the experienced meditators have developed techniques over the course of their meditation practice to counter hindering environmental stimuli, whereas the novice meditators have not yet developed those techniques.

  10. Review of COMPASS results on transverse-spin effects in SIDIS

    CERN Document Server

    Makke, Nour

    2014-01-01

    The transversity parton distribution remains a poorly known cornerstone in the nucleon spin structure. While the Collins effect in spin asymmetries in Semi-Inclusive DIS (SIDIS) is one crucial tool to address the transversity function, the most promising alternative is the azimuthal asymmetry in SIDIS when a hadron pair is detected in the final state. In this case, the chiral-odd transversity function is coupled to another chiral-odd function, i.e. the hadron-pair interference fragmentation function (IFF). The measurement of azimuthal asymmetries in hadron-pair production on a transversely polarised nucleon target has been performed at COMPASS using a 160 GeV/c muon beam of CERN's M2 beam line. Results from the 2007 and 2010 recent measurements will be presented and compared to model predictions.

  11. Effects of self-compassion workbook training on trauma-related guilt in a sample of homeless veterans: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Philip; Owens, Gina P

    2015-06-01

    The present pilot study examined the effects of a 4-week-long self-administered self-compassion training on trauma-related guilt and compared it to a stress inoculation control group. A total of 47 homeless male veterans who were living in transitional housing facilities volunteered to participate in this study. Participants were randomly assigned to either a self-compassion (N = 13) or a stress inoculation (N = 14) group and were asked to complete pre-, mid-, and postintervention assessments measuring changes in self-compassion, trauma-related guilt, and posttraumatic stress disorder severity. Participants in both interventions reported increased levels of self-compassion and equal reductions in trauma-related guilt. No other significant changes were noted. The results from this pilot study provide preliminary evidence for the use of self-compassion and stress inoculation trainings as effective interventions for trauma-related guilt. The findings also suggest that self-administered trainings in the form of workbooks may be a viable, cost-effective form of intervention for disadvantaged populations, such as homeless veterans in transitional housing, who may lack resources or access to professionals or paraprofessionals. The effects of both self-compassion training and stress inoculation training on the study variables and directions for future research on self-compassion and trauma-related guilt are discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Lower trait frontal theta activity in mindfulness meditators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guaraci Ken Tanaka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Acute and long-term effects of mindfulness meditation on theta-band activity are not clear. The aim of this study was to investigate frontal theta differences between long- and short-term mindfulness practitioners before, during, and after mindfulness meditation. Twenty participants were recruited, of which 10 were experienced Buddhist meditators. Despite an acute increase in the theta activity during meditation in both the groups, the meditators showed lower trait frontal theta activity. Therefore, we suggested that this finding is a neural correlate of the expert practitioners’ ability to limit the processing of unnecessary information (e.g., discursive thought and increase the awareness of the essential content of the present experience. In conclusion, acute changes in the theta band throughout meditation did not appear to be a specific correlate of mindfulness but were rather related to the concentration properties of the meditation. Notwithstanding, lower frontal theta activity appeared to be a trait of mindfulness practices.

  13. The enhancement of visuospatial processing efficiency through Buddhist Deity meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhevnikov, Maria; Louchakova, Olga; Josipovic, Zoran; Motes, Michael A

    2009-05-01

    This study examined the effects of meditation on mental imagery, evaluating Buddhist monks' reports concerning their extraordinary imagery skills. Practitioners of Buddhist meditation were divided into two groups according to their preferred meditation style: Deity Yoga (focused attention on an internal visual image) or Open Presence (evenly distributed attention, not directed to any particular object). Both groups of meditators completed computerized mental-imagery tasks before and after meditation. Their performance was compared with that of control groups, who either rested or performed other visuospatial tasks between testing sessions. The results indicate that all the groups performed at the same baseline level, but after meditation, Deity Yoga practitioners demonstrated a dramatic increase in performance on imagery tasks compared with the other groups. The results suggest that Deity meditation specifically trains one's capacity to access heightened visuospatial processing resources, rather than generally improving visuospatial imagery abilities.

  14. Mindful2Work: Effects of Combined Physical Exercise, Yoga, and Mindfulness Meditations for Stress Relieve in Employees. A Proof of Concept Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, Esther I.; Formsma, Anne R.; Frijstein, Gerard; Bögels, Susan M.

    2017-01-01

    Work-related stress and associated illness and burnout is rising in western society, with now as much as almost a quarter of European and half of USA's employees estimated to be at the point of burnout. Mindfulness meditation, yoga, and physical exercise have all shown beneficial effects for

  15. Mindful2Work: Effects of combined physical exercise, yoga, and mindfulness meditations for stress relieve in employees : A proof of concept study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, E.I.; Formsma, A.R.; Frijstein, G.; Bögels, S.M.

    2017-01-01

    Work-related stress and associated illness and burnout is rising in western society, with now as much as almost a quarter of European and half of USA’s employees estimated to be at the point of burnout. Mindfulness meditation, yoga, and physical exercise have all shown beneficial effects for

  16. Neural mechanisms of hypnosis and meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Benedittis, Giuseppe

    2015-12-01

    Hypnosis has been an elusive concept for science for a long time. However, the explosive advances in neuroscience in the last few decades have provided a "bridge of understanding" between classical neurophysiological studies and psychophysiological studies. These studies have shed new light on the neural basis of the hypnotic experience. Furthermore, an ambitious new area of research is focusing on mapping the core processes of psychotherapy and the neurobiology/underlying them. Hypnosis research offers powerful techniques to isolate psychological processes in ways that allow their neural bases to be mapped. The Hypnotic Brain can serve as a way to tap neurocognitive questions and our cognitive assays can in turn shed new light on the neural bases of hypnosis. This cross-talk should enhance research and clinical applications. An increasing body of evidence provides insight in the neural mechanisms of the Meditative Brain. Discrete meditative styles are likely to target different neurodynamic patterns. Recent findings emphasize increased attentional resources activating the attentional and salience networks with coherent perception. Cognitive and emotional equanimity gives rise to an eudaimonic state, made of calm, resilience and stability, readiness to express compassion and empathy, a main goal of Buddhist practices. Structural changes in gray matter of key areas of the brain involved in learning processes suggest that these skills can be learned through practice. Hypnosis and Meditation represent two important, historical and influential landmarks of Western and Eastern civilization and culture respectively. Neuroscience has beginning to provide a better understanding of the mechanisms of both Hypnotic and Meditative Brain, outlining similarities but also differences between the two states and processes. It is important not to view either the Eastern or the Western system as superior to the other. Cross-fertilization of the ancient Eastern meditation techniques

  17. Mindfulness Meditation-Based Pain Relief Employs Different Neural Mechanisms Than Placebo and Sham Mindfulness Meditation-Induced Analgesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Nichole M.; Farris, Suzan R.; Ray, Jenna N.; Jung, Youngkyoo; McHaffie, John G.; Coghill, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Mindfulness meditation reduces pain in experimental and clinical settings. However, it remains unknown whether mindfulness meditation engages pain-relieving mechanisms other than those associated with the placebo effect (e.g., conditioning, psychosocial context, beliefs). To determine whether the analgesic mechanisms of mindfulness meditation are different from placebo, we randomly assigned 75 healthy, human volunteers to 4 d of the following: (1) mindfulness meditation, (2) placebo conditioning, (3) sham mindfulness meditation, or (4) book-listening control intervention. We assessed intervention efficacy using psychophysical evaluation of experimental pain and functional neuroimaging. Importantly, all cognitive manipulations (i.e., mindfulness meditation, placebo conditioning, sham mindfulness meditation) significantly attenuated pain intensity and unpleasantness ratings when compared to rest and the control condition (p Mindfulness meditation reduced pain intensity (p = 0.032) and pain unpleasantness (p Mindfulness meditation also reduced pain intensity (p = 0.030) and pain unpleasantness (p = 0.043) ratings more than sham mindfulness meditation. Mindfulness-meditation-related pain relief was associated with greater activation in brain regions associated with the cognitive modulation of pain, including the orbitofrontal, subgenual anterior cingulate, and anterior insular cortex. In contrast, placebo analgesia was associated with activation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and deactivation of sensory processing regions (secondary somatosensory cortex). Sham mindfulness meditation-induced analgesia was not correlated with significant neural activity, but rather by greater reductions in respiration rate. This study is the first to demonstrate that mindfulness-related pain relief is mechanistically distinct from placebo analgesia. The elucidation of this distinction confirms the existence of multiple, cognitively driven, supraspinal mechanisms for pain

  18. Increased heart rate variability during nondirective meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesvold, Anders; Fagerland, Morten W; Davanger, Svend; Ellingsen, Øyvind; Solberg, Erik E; Holen, Are; Sevre, Knut; Atar, Dan

    2012-08-01

    Meditation practices are in use for relaxation and stress reduction. Some studies indicate beneficial cardiovascular health effects of meditation. The effects on the autonomous nervous system seem to vary among techniques. The purpose of the present study was to identify autonomic nerve activity changes during nondirective meditation. Heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure variability (BPV), and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) were monitored in 27 middle-aged healthy participants of both genders, first during 20 min regular rest with eyes closed, thereafter practising Acem meditation for 20 min. Haemodynamic and autonomic data were collected continuously (beat-to-beat) and non-invasively. HRV and BPV parameters were estimated by power spectral analyses, computed by an autoregressive model. Spontaneous activity of baroreceptors were determined by the sequence method. Primary outcomes were changes in HRV, BPV, and BRS between rest and meditation. HRV increased in the low-frequency (LF) and high-frequency (HF) bands during meditation, compared with rest (p = 0.014, 0.013, respectively). Power spectral density of the RR-intervals increased as well (p = 0.012). LF/HF ratio decreased non-significantly, and a reduction of LF-BPV power was observed during meditation (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in BRS. Respiration and heart rates remained unchanged. Blood pressure increased slightly during meditation. There is an increased parasympathetic and reduced sympathetic nerve activity and increased overall HRV, while practising the technique. Hence, nondirective meditation by the middle aged may contribute towards a reduction of cardiovascular risk.

  19. Origins of Mindfulness & Meditation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2011-01-01

    Mindfulness & meditation are gaining popularity in the Western psychological practice in the past 3-4 decades, especially within psychotherapeutic approaches, health promotion, and stress reduction. The origins and the broader context, however, seem to be overlooked in some of these practices......- mind, centrality of consciousness and meditation as a part of daily conduct are presented. The basic constructs of Buddhism, an integral part of Indian psychology, in relation to mindfulness and meditation, are also delineated as illustrations of these assumptions. The second part reflects...... on the application of the meditative practices through cognitive existential study of mindfulness (Kabat-Zinn, 2003) and a study on the phenomenology of meditation (Madsen, 2007). Both emphasise an experienced instructor, regular practice as a part of daily life, conceptual consciousness understandings...

  20. Visibility graph analysis on heartbeat dynamics of meditation training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Sen; Bian, Chunhua; Ning, Xinbao; Ma, Qianli D. Y.

    2013-06-01

    We apply the visibility graph analysis to human heartbeat dynamics by constructing the complex networks of heartbeat interval time series and investigating the statistical properties of the network before and during chi and yoga meditation. The experiment results show that visibility graph analysis can reveal the dynamical changes caused by meditation training manifested as regular heartbeat, which is closely related to the adjustment of autonomous neural system, and visibility graph analysis is effective to evaluate the effect of meditation.

  1. Using Meditation in Addiction Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Mark E.; DeLorenzi, Leigh de Armas; Cunningham, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Meditation has been studied as a way of reducing stress in counseling clients since the 1960s. Alcoholics Anonymous, Narcotics Anonymous, and new wave behavior therapies incorporate meditation techniques in their programs. This article identifies meditation's curative factors and limitations when using meditation in addiction settings.

  2. Compassion Satisfaction and Compassion Fatigue Among Critical Care Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Tara L; Ciurzynski, Susan M; Harvey, Megan Elizabeth; Ingersoll, Gail L

    2015-08-01

    Although critical care nurses gain satisfaction from providing compassionate care to patients and patients' families, the nurses are also at risk for fatigue. The balance between satisfaction and fatigue is considered professional quality of life. To establish the prevalence of compassion satisfaction and compassion fatigue in adult, pediatric, and neonatal critical care nurses and to describe potential contributing demographic, unit, and organizational characteristics. In a cross-sectional design, nurses were surveyed by using a demographic questionnaire and the Professional Quality of Life Scale to measure levels of compassion fatigue and compassion satisfaction. Nurses (n = 221) reported significant differences in compassion satisfaction and compassion fatigue on the basis of sex, age, educational level, unit, acuity, change in nursing management, and major systems change. Understanding the elements of professional quality of life can have a positive effect on work environment. The relationship between professional quality of life and the standards for a healthy work environment requires further investigation. Once this relationship is fully understood, interventions to improve this balance can be developed and tested. ©2015 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  3. Meditation-induced states predict attentional control over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colzato, Lorenza S; Sellaro, Roberta; Samara, Iliana; Baas, Matthijs; Hommel, Bernhard

    2015-12-01

    Meditation is becoming an increasingly popular topic for scientific research and various effects of extensive meditation practice (ranging from weeks to several years) on cognitive processes have been demonstrated. Here we show that extensive practice may not be necessary to achieve those effects. Healthy adult non-meditators underwent a brief single session of either focused attention meditation (FAM), which is assumed to increase top-down control, or open monitoring meditation (OMM), which is assumed to weaken top-down control, before performing an Attentional Blink (AB) task - which assesses the efficiency of allocating attention over time. The size of the AB was considerably smaller after OMM than after FAM, which suggests that engaging in meditation immediately creates a cognitive-control state that has a specific impact on how people allocate their attention over time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Mindfulness Meditation-Based Pain Relief Employs Different Neural Mechanisms Than Placebo and Sham Mindfulness Meditation-Induced Analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidan, Fadel; Emerson, Nichole M; Farris, Suzan R; Ray, Jenna N; Jung, Youngkyoo; McHaffie, John G; Coghill, Robert C

    2015-11-18

    Mindfulness meditation reduces pain in experimental and clinical settings. However, it remains unknown whether mindfulness meditation engages pain-relieving mechanisms other than those associated with the placebo effect (e.g., conditioning, psychosocial context, beliefs). To determine whether the analgesic mechanisms of mindfulness meditation are different from placebo, we randomly assigned 75 healthy, human volunteers to 4 d of the following: (1) mindfulness meditation, (2) placebo conditioning, (3) sham mindfulness meditation, or (4) book-listening control intervention. We assessed intervention efficacy using psychophysical evaluation of experimental pain and functional neuroimaging. Importantly, all cognitive manipulations (i.e., mindfulness meditation, placebo conditioning, sham mindfulness meditation) significantly attenuated pain intensity and unpleasantness ratings when compared to rest and the control condition (p pain intensity (p = 0.032) and pain unpleasantness (p pain intensity (p = 0.030) and pain unpleasantness (p = 0.043) ratings more than sham mindfulness meditation. Mindfulness-meditation-related pain relief was associated with greater activation in brain regions associated with the cognitive modulation of pain, including the orbitofrontal, subgenual anterior cingulate, and anterior insular cortex. In contrast, placebo analgesia was associated with activation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and deactivation of sensory processing regions (secondary somatosensory cortex). Sham mindfulness meditation-induced analgesia was not correlated with significant neural activity, but rather by greater reductions in respiration rate. This study is the first to demonstrate that mindfulness-related pain relief is mechanistically distinct from placebo analgesia. The elucidation of this distinction confirms the existence of multiple, cognitively driven, supraspinal mechanisms for pain modulation. Recent findings have demonstrated that mindfulness meditation

  5. Reducing Defensive Responses to Thoughts of Death: Meditation, Mindfulness, and Buddhism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Chin; Pyszczynski, Tom

    2017-08-24

    Three studies investigated the effects of meditation on responses to reminders of death. Study 1 took a quasi-experimental approach, comparing defensive responses to mortality salience (MS) of South Korean participants with varying levels of experience with Buddhism and meditation. Whereas non-Buddhists without meditation showed the typical increase in worldview defense after mortality salience (MS), this effect was not found among non-Buddhists immediately after an initial meditation experience, nor among lay Buddhists who meditated regularly or Buddhist monks with intensive meditation experience. Study 2, a fully randomized experiment, showed that MS increased worldview defense among South Koreans at a meditation training who were assessed before meditating but not among participants assessed after their first meditation experience. Study 3 showed that whereas American students without prior meditation experience showed increased worldview defense and suppression of death-related thoughts after MS, these effects were eliminated immediately after an initial meditation experience. Death thought accessibility mediated the effect of MS on worldview defense without meditation, but meditation eliminated this mediation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Forever Young(er: Potential Age-defying Effects of Long-term Meditation on Gray Matter Atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen eLuders

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available While overall life expectancy has been increasing, the human brain still begins deteriorating after the first two decades of life and continues degrading further with increasing age. Thus, techniques that diminish the negative impact of aging on the brain are desirable. Existing research, although scarce, suggests meditation to be an attractive candidate in the quest for an accessible and inexpensive, efficacious remedy. Here, we examined the link between age and cerebral gray matter re-analyzing a large sample (n=100 of long-term meditators and control subjects aged between 24 and 77 years. When correlating global and local gray matter with age, we detected negative correlations within both controls and meditators, suggesting a decline over time. However, the slopes of the regression lines were steeper and the correlation coefficients were stronger in controls than in meditators. Moreover, the age-affected brain regions were much more extended in controls than in meditators, with significant group-by-age interactions in numerous clusters throughout the brain. Altogether, these findings seem to suggest less age-related gray matter atrophy in long-term meditation practitioners.

  7. Forever Young(er): potential age-defying effects of long-term meditation on gray matter atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luders, Eileen; Cherbuin, Nicolas; Kurth, Florian

    2015-01-01

    While overall life expectancy has been increasing, the human brain still begins deteriorating after the first two decades of life and continues degrading further with increasing age. Thus, techniques that diminish the negative impact of aging on the brain are desirable. Existing research, although scarce, suggests meditation to be an attractive candidate in the quest for an accessible and inexpensive, efficacious remedy. Here, we examined the link between age and cerebral gray matter re-analyzing a large sample (n = 100) of long-term meditators and control subjects aged between 24 and 77 years. When correlating global and local gray matter with age, we detected negative correlations within both controls and meditators, suggesting a decline over time. However, the slopes of the regression lines were steeper and the correlation coefficients were stronger in controls than in meditators. Moreover, the age-affected brain regions were much more extended in controls than in meditators, with significant group-by-age interactions in numerous clusters throughout the brain. Altogether, these findings seem to suggest less age-related gray matter atrophy in long-term meditation practitioners. PMID:25653628

  8. What is it like to meditate? Methods and issues for micro-phenomenological description of meditative experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petitmengin, Claire; Beek, Martijn van; Bitbol, Michel

    2017-01-01

    associated with contemplative practice: what it is like to meditate – from moment to moment, at different stages of practice – remains almost invisible in contemporary contemplative science. Recently, "micro-phenomenological" interview methods have been developed to help us become aware of lived experience......In our society where interest in Buddhist meditation is expanding enormously, numerous scientific studies are now conducted on the neurophysiological effects of meditation practices and on the neural correlates of meditative states. However, very few studies have been conducted on the experience...... and describe it with rigor and precision. The present article presents the results of a pilot project aiming at applying these methods to the description of meditative experience. The first part of the article describes these methods and their adjustment for the investigation of meditative experience...

  9. Transcendental Meditation

    CERN Multimedia

    Wallace,K

    1971-01-01

    K.Wallace, qui vient des Etats Unis, parle des effects physiologiques de la méditation transcendantale. Il a fait son bachelor en physique à l'Université de Los Angeles et son doctorat en physiologie aussi à Los Angeles, mais à l'Institut de Recherche sur le cerveau. Il travaille maintenat à Harvard Medical School ou il continue des recherches biochimiques et physiologiques sur l'application médicale de la méditation transcendantale. Il s'occupe principalement des maladies cardiaques et de hypertension artérielle.

  10. Meditation and the startle response: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, Robert W; Ekman, Paul; Ricard, Matthieu

    2012-06-01

    The effects of two kinds of meditation (open presence and focused) on the facial and physiological aspects of the defensive response to an aversive startle stimulus were studied in a Buddhist monk with approximately 40 years of meditation experience. The participant was exposed to a 115-db, 100-ms acoustic startle stimulus under the 2 meditation conditions, a distraction condition (to control for cognitive and attentional load) and an unanticipated condition (startle presented without warning or instruction). A completely counterbalanced 24-trial, single-subject design was used, with each condition repeated 6 times. Most aspects of the participant's responses in the unanticipated condition did not differ from those of a comparison group of 12 age-matched male controls. Both kinds of meditation produced physiological and facial responses to the startle that were smaller than in the distraction condition. Within meditation conditions, open presence meditation produced smaller physiological and facial responses than focused meditation. These results from a single highly expert meditator indicate that these 2 kinds of meditation can differentially alter the magnitude of a primitive defensive response.

  11. Meditation and the Startle Response: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, Robert W.; Ekman, Paul; Ricard, Matthieu

    2013-01-01

    The effects of two kinds of meditation (open presence and focused) on the facial and physiological aspects of the defensive response to an aversive startle stimulus were studied in a Buddhist monk with approximately 40 years of meditation experience. The participant was exposed to a 115 db, 100 ms acoustic startle stimulus under the two meditation conditions, a distraction condition (to control for cognitive and attentional load) and an unanticipated condition (startle presented without warning or instruction). A completely counterbalanced 24-trial single-subject design was used, with each condition repeated six times. Most aspects of the participant’s responses in the unanticipated condition did not differ from those of a comparison group of 12 age-matched male controls. Both kinds of meditation produced physiological and facial responses to the startle that were smaller than in the distraction condition. Within meditation conditions, open presence meditation produced smaller physiological and facial responses than focused meditation. These results from a single highly expert meditator indicate that these two kinds of meditation can differentially alter the magnitude of a primitive defensive response. PMID:22506498

  12. Meditation and neurofeedback

    OpenAIRE

    Brandmeyer, Tracy; Delorme, Arnaud

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Dating back as far as 1957, the academic investigation of meditation and the Asian contemplative traditions have fascinated not only the likes of philosophers and religious scholars, but researchers in the fields of neuroscience, psychology and medicine. Over the last decade, we have witnessed an exponential increase in the interest in meditation research. While this is in part due to improvements in neuroimaging methods, it is also due to the variety of medical practi...

  13. Study on force mechanism for therapeutic effect of pushing manipulation with one-finger meditation base on similarity analysis of force and waveform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lei; Fang, Min; Guo, Min-Min

    2016-12-27

    To reveal the force mechanism for therapeutic effect of pushing manipulation with one-finger meditation. A total of 15 participants were recruited in this study and assigned to an expert group, a skilled group and a novice group, with 5 participants in each group. Mechanical signals were collected from a biomechanical testing platform, and these data were further observed via similarity analysis and cluster analysis. Comparing the force waveforms of manipulation revealed that the manipulation forces were similar between the expert group and the skilled group (P>0.05). The mean value of vertical force was 9.8 N, and 95% CI rang from 6.37 to 14.70 N, but there were significant differences compared with the novice group (PPushing manipulation with one-finger meditation is a kind of light stimulation manipulation on the acupoint, and force characteristics of double waveforms continuously alternated during manual operation.

  14. Fostering Self-Compassion and Loving-Kindness in Patients With Borderline Personality Disorder: A Randomized Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliu-Soler, Albert; Pascual, Juan Carlos; Elices, Matilde; Martín-Blanco, Ana; Carmona, Cristina; Cebolla, Ausiàs; Simón, Vicente; Soler, Joaquim

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this randomized pilot study is to investigate the effects of a short training programme in loving-kindness and compassion meditation (LKM/CM) in patients with borderline personality disorder. Patients were allocated to LKM/CM or mindfulness continuation training (control group). Patients in the LKM/CM group showed greater changes in Acceptance compared with the control group. Remarkable changes in borderline symptomatology, self-criticism and self-kindness were also observed in the LKM/CM group. Mechanistic explanations and therapeutic implications of the findings are discussed. Three weeks of loving-kindness and compassion meditations increased acceptance of the present-moment experience in patients with borderline personality disorder. Significant improvements in the severity of borderline symptoms, self-criticism, mindfulness, acceptance and self-kindness were observed after the LKM/CM intervention. LKM/CM is a promising complementary strategy for inclusion in mindfulness-based interventions and Dialectical Behavioural Therapy for treating core symptoms in borderline personality disorder. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Compassion Fatigue among Social Work Students in Field Placements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harr, Cynthia; Moore, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    This pilot study, conducted with BSW and MSW field students at a public university in Southwestern United States, explored the psychological effect of compassion fatigue and compassion satisfaction on social work students in field placements. Results from the Professional Quality of Life Scale's compassion satisfaction and fatigue subscales…

  16. The effect of body-mind relaxation meditation induction on major depressive disorder: A resting-state fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fangfang; Lv, Xueyu; Fang, Jiliang; Yu, Shan; Sui, Jing; Fan, Lingzhong; Li, Tao; Hong, Yang; Wang, XiaoLing; Wang, Weidong; Jiang, Tianzi

    2015-09-01

    Meditation has been increasingly evaluated as an important complementary therapeutic tool for the treatment of depression. The present study employed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) to examine the effect of body-mind relaxation meditation induction (BMRMI) on the brain activity of depressed patients and to investigate possible mechanisms of action for this complex intervention. 21 major depressive disorder patients (MDDs) and 24 age and gender-matched healthy controls (HCs) received rs-fMRI scans at baseline and after listening to a selection of audio designed to induce body-mind relaxation meditation. The rs-fMRI data were analyzed using Matlab toolbox to obtain the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) of the BOLD signal for the whole brain. A mixed-design repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed on the whole brain to find which brain regions were affected by the BMRMI. An additional functional connectivity analysis was used to identify any atypical connection patterns after the BMRMI. After the BMRMI experience, both the MDDs and HCs showed decreased ALFF values in the bilateral frontal pole (BA10). Additionally, increased functional connectivity from the right dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) to the left dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) and the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) was identified only in the MDDs after the BMRMI. In order to exclude the impact of other events on the participants׳ brain activity, the Hamilton Rating Scales for Depression (HDRS) was not measured after the body-mind relaxation induction. Our findings support the hypothesis that body-mind relaxation meditation induction may regulate the activities of the prefrontal cortex and thus may have the potential to help patients construct reappraisal strategies that can modulate the brain activity in multiple emotion-processing systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Making concrete construals mindful: a novel approach for developing mindfulness and self-compassion to assist weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantzios, Michail; Wilson, J C

    2014-01-01

    Research on the usefulness of mindfulness and self-compassion for dieting has focused on meditative practices. However, meditation can be difficult to maintain, especially while dieting. Thus, the present research attempted to induce mindfulness and self-compassion by using food diaries that required the participant to either focus on concrete (i.e. how they are eating) construals or abstract (i.e. why they are eating) construals. The concrete construals were expected to increase mindfulness and self-compassion, as well as decrease avoidance and negative thoughts (which would further aid the development of mindfulness and self-compassion). Study 1 found that mindfulness and self-compassion mediated the inverse relationship of avoidance and negative thoughts with weight loss. Study 2 showed that concrete construal diaries increased mindfulness and self-compassion, decreased avoidance and negative thoughts, and supported weight loss significantly more than the abstract construal diaries. Study 3, then, compared the concrete construal diaries with a mindful self-compassionate meditation programme. There was no difference in weight loss at the end of the intervention, but at a three-month follow-up, the diaries performed better at weight maintenance. Thus, the concrete construal diaries may promote mindfulness and self-compassion and potentially promote long-term weight loss.

  18. "Effect of pranayama and meditation as an add-on therapy in rehabilitation of patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome--a randomized control pilot study".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendhilkumar, Ragupathy; Gupta, Anupam; Nagarathna, Raghuram; Taly, Arun B

    2013-01-01

    To study the add-on effects of pranayama and meditation in rehabilitation of patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). This randomized control pilot study was conducted in neurological rehabilitation unit of university tertiary research hospital. Twenty-two GBS patients, who consented for the study and satisfied selection criteria, were randomly assigned to yoga and control groups. Ten patients in each group completed the study. The yoga group received 15 sessions in total over a period of 3 weeks (1 h/session), one session per day on 5 days per week that consisted of relaxation, Pranayama (breathing practices) and Guided meditation in addition to conventional rehabilitation therapeutics. The control group received usual rehabilitation care. All the patients were assessed using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Numeric pain rating scale, Hospital anxiety and Depression scale and Barthel index score. Mann-Whitney U test and Wilcoxon's signed rank test were used for statistical analysis. Quality of sleep improved significantly with reduction of PSQI score in the yoga group (p = 0.04). There was reduction of pain scores, anxiety and depression in both the groups without statistical significance between groups (pain p > 0.05, anxiety p > 0.05 and depression p > 0.05). Overall functional status improved in both groups without significant difference (p > 0.05). Significant improvement was observed in quality of sleep with yogic relaxation, pranayama, and meditation in GBS patients.

  19. A pilot study of yogic meditation for family dementia caregivers with depressive symptoms: effects on mental health, cognition, and telomerase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavretsky, H; Epel, E S; Siddarth, P; Nazarian, N; Cyr, N St; Khalsa, D S; Lin, J; Blackburn, E; Irwin, M R

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of brief daily yogic meditation on mental health, cognitive functioning, and immune cell telomerase activity in family dementia caregivers with mild depressive symptoms. Thirty-nine family dementia caregivers (mean age 60.3 years old (SD = 10.2)) were randomized to practicing Kirtan Kriya or listening to relaxation music for 12 min per day for 8 weeks. The severity of depressive symptoms, mental and cognitive functioning were assessed at baseline and follow-up. Telomerase activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMBC) was examined in peripheral PBMC pre-intervention and post-intervention. The meditation group showed significantly lower levels of depressive symptoms and greater improvement in mental health and cognitive functioning compared with the relaxation group. In the meditation group, 65.2% showed 50% improvement on the Hamilton Depression Rating scale and 52% of the participants showed 50% improvement on the Mental Health Composite Summary score of the Short Form-36 scale compared with 31.2% and 19%, respectively, in the relaxation group (p dementia caregivers can lead to improved mental and cognitive functioning and lower levels of depressive symptoms. This improvement is accompanied by an increase in telomerase activity suggesting improvement in stress-induced cellular aging. These results need to be confirmed in a larger sample. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Effects of Community Singing Program on Mental Health Outcomes of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People: A Meditative Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Buys, Nicholas

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the impact of a meditative singing program on the health outcomes of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. The study used a prospective intervention design. The study took place in six Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities and Community Controlled Health Services in Queensland, Australia. Study participants were 210 Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults aged 18 to 71 years, of which 108 were in a singing intervention group and 102 in a comparison group. A participative community-based community singing program involving weekly singing rehearsals was conducted over an 18-month period. Standardized measures in depression, resilience, sense of connectedness, social support, and singing related quality of life were used. The general linear model was used to compare differences pre- and postintervention on outcome variables, and structural equation modeling was used to examine the pathway of the intervention effect. Results revealed a significant reduction in the proportion of adults in the singing group classified as depressed and a concomitant significant increase in resilience levels, quality of life, sense of connectedness, and social support among this group. There were no significant changes for these variables in the comparison group. The participatory community singing approach linked to preventative health services was associated with improved health, resilience, sense of connectedness, social support, and mental health status among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. The Analysis of Surrounding Structure Effect on the Core Degradation Progress with COMPASS Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Jun Ho; Son, Dong Gun; Kim, Jong Tae; Park, Rae Jun; Kim, Dong Ha [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    In line with the importance of severe accident analysis after Fukushima accident, the development of integrated severe accident code has been launched by the collaboration of three institutes in Korea. KAERI is responsible to develop modules related to the in-vessel phenomena, while other institutes are to the containment and severe accident mitigation facility, respectively. In the first phase, the individual severe accident module has been developed and the construction of integrated analysis code is planned to perform in the second phase. The basic strategy is to extend the design basis analysis codes of SPACE and CAP, which are being validated in Korea for the severe accident analysis. In the first phase, KAERI has targeted to develop the framework of severe accident code, COMPASS (COre Meltdown Progression Accident Simulation Software), covering the severe accident progression in a vessel from a core heat-up to a vessel failure as a stand-alone fashion. In order to analyze the effect of surrounding structure, the melt progression has been compared between the central zone and the most outer zone under the condition of constant radial power peaking factor. Figure 2 and 3 shows the fuel element temperature and the clad mass at the central zone, respectively. Due to the axial power peaking factor, the axial node No.3 has the highest temperature, while the top and bottom nodes have the lowest temperature. When the clad temperature reaches to the Zr melting temperature (2129.15K), the Zr starts to melt. The axial node No.2 reaches to the fuel melting temperature about 5000 sec and the molten fuel relocates to the node No.1, which results to the blockage of flow area in node No.1. The blocked flow area becomes to open about 6100 sec due to the molten ZrO{sub 2} mass relocation to core support plate. Figure 4 and 5 shows the fuel element temperature and the clad mass at the most outer zone, respectively. It is shown that the fuel temperature increase more slowly

  2. Increased Grey Matter Associated with Long-Term Sahaja Yoga Meditation: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Elías Hernández

    Full Text Available To investigate regional differences in grey matter volume associated with the practice of Sahaja Yoga Meditation.Twenty three experienced practitioners of Sahaja Yoga Meditation and twenty three non-meditators matched on age, gender and education level, were scanned using structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging and their grey matter volume were compared using Voxel-Based Morphometry.Grey matter volume was larger in meditators relative to non-meditators across the whole brain. In addition, grey matter volume was larger in several predominantly right hemispheric regions: in insula, ventromedial orbitofrontal cortex, inferior temporal and parietal cortices as well as in left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and left insula. No areas with larger grey matter volume were found in non-meditators relative to meditators.The study shows that long-term practice of Sahaja Yoga Meditation is associated with larger grey matter volume overall, and with regional enlargement in several right hemispheric cortical and subcortical brain regions that are associated with sustained attention, self-control, compassion and interoceptive perception. The increased grey matter volume in these attention and self-control mediating regions suggests use-dependent enlargement with regular practice of this meditation.

  3. Increased Grey Matter Associated with Long-Term Sahaja Yoga Meditation: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Sergio Elías; Suero, José; Barros, Alfonso; González-Mora, José Luis; Rubia, Katya

    2016-01-01

    To investigate regional differences in grey matter volume associated with the practice of Sahaja Yoga Meditation. Twenty three experienced practitioners of Sahaja Yoga Meditation and twenty three non-meditators matched on age, gender and education level, were scanned using structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging and their grey matter volume were compared using Voxel-Based Morphometry. Grey matter volume was larger in meditators relative to non-meditators across the whole brain. In addition, grey matter volume was larger in several predominantly right hemispheric regions: in insula, ventromedial orbitofrontal cortex, inferior temporal and parietal cortices as well as in left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and left insula. No areas with larger grey matter volume were found in non-meditators relative to meditators. The study shows that long-term practice of Sahaja Yoga Meditation is associated with larger grey matter volume overall, and with regional enlargement in several right hemispheric cortical and subcortical brain regions that are associated with sustained attention, self-control, compassion and interoceptive perception. The increased grey matter volume in these attention and self-control mediating regions suggests use-dependent enlargement with regular practice of this meditation.

  4. Mindfulness-Meditation-Based Pain Relief Is Not Mediated by Endogenous Opioids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidan, Fadel; Adler-Neal, Adrienne L; Wells, Rebecca E; Stagnaro, Emily; May, Lisa M; Eisenach, James C; McHaffie, John G; Coghill, Robert C

    2016-03-16

    demonstrate that meditation-based pain relief does not require endogenous opioids. Therefore, the treatment of chronic pain may be more effective with meditation due to a lack of cross-tolerance with opiate-based medications. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/363391-07$15.00/0.

  5. Does self-compassion mitigate the relationship between burnout and barriers to compassion? A cross-sectional quantitative study of 799 nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dev, Vinayak; Fernando, Antonio T; Lim, Anecita Gigi; Consedine, Nathan S

    2018-05-01

    Burnout has numerous negative consequences for nurses, potentially impairing their ability to deliver compassionate patient care. However, the association between burnout and compassion and, more specifically, barriers to compassion in medicine is unclear. This article evaluates the associations between burnout and barriers to compassion and examines whether dispositional self-compassion might mitigate this association. Consistent with prior work, the authors expected greater burnout to predict greater barriers to compassion. We also expected self-compassion - the ability to be kind to the self during times of distress - to weaken the association between burnout and barriers to compassion among nurses. Registered nurses working in New Zealand medical contexts were recruited using non-random convenience sampling. Following consent, 799 valid participants completed a cross-sectional survey including the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory, the Barriers to Physician Compassion scale, and a measure of dispositional self-compassion. As expected, greater burnout predicted greater barriers to compassion while self-compassion predicted fewer barriers. However, self-compassion mitigated the association between burnout and burnout related barriers to compassion (but not other barriers). The interaction suggested that suggested that the association was stronger (rather than weaker) among those with greater self-compassion. Understanding the lack of compassion and the effects of burnout in patient care are priorities in health. This report extends evidence on the association between burnout and compassion-fatigue to show that burnout also predicts the experience of specific barriers to compassion. While self-compassion predicted lower burnout and barriers, it may not necessarily reduce the extent to which burnout contributes to the experience of barriers to compassion in medicine. Implications for understanding how burnout manifests in barriers to clinical compassion, interventions

  6. Effects of long-term dharma-chan meditation on cardiorespiratory synchronization and heart rate variability behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Hao; Lo, Pei-Chen

    2013-04-01

    Remarkable changes in cardiorespiratory interactions are frequently experienced by Chan meditation practitioners following years of practice. This study compares the results of our study on cardiorespiratory interactions for novice (control group) and experienced (experimental group) Chan meditation practitioners. The effectual co-action between the cardiac and respiratory systems was evaluated by the degree of cardiorespiratory phase synchronization (CRPS). In addition, an adaptive-frequency-range (AFR) scheme to reliably quantify heart rate variability (HRV) was developed for assessing the regulation of sympathetic-parasympathetic activity and the efficiency of pulmonary gas exchange. The enhanced HRV method, named HRVAFR, can resolve the issue of overestimating HRV under the condition of slow respiration rates, which is frequently encountered in studies on Chan meditation practitioners. In the comparison of the three data sets collected from the two groups, our findings resulted in innovative hypotheses to interpret the extraordinary process of the rejuvenation of cardiorespiratory functions through long-term Dharma-Chan meditation practice. Particularly, advanced practitioners exhibit a continuously high degree of cardiorespiratory phase synchronization, even during rapid breathing. Based on our post-experimental interview with advanced practitioners, the activation of inner Chakra energy, during the course of Chan-detachment practice, frequently induces perceptible physiological-mental reformation, including an efficient mechanism for regulating cardiorespiratory interactions.

  7. Measurement of transvers spin effects by means of two-hadron correlations in the COMPASS experiment; Messung transversaler Spineffekte mittels zwei Hadronen Korrelation am COMPASS-Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massmann, Frank Michael

    2008-06-23

    The quark structure of the nucleon can at neglection of intrinsic quark transverse momenta be completely described by two quark distribution functions. These are the unpolarized quark distribution function q(x), the helicity distribution function {delta}q(x), and the transvers quark-spin distribution function {delta}{sub T}q(x). This lastly mentioned function called transversity function, is chirallyn odd an can therefore only be measured in a combination with another chirally odd function. An access possibility to the transversity function {delta}{sub T}q(x) is the semi-inclusive two-hadron production in deep inelastic scattering on a transversely polarized target. Thereby the folding of the chirally odd two-hadron interference fragmentation function (IFF) H{sub 1} {sup angle} (z,M{sub h}{sup 2}) and the chirally odd transversity function. The IFF H{sub 1} {sup angle} (z,M{sub h}{sup 2}) is the spin-dependent part of a fragmentation function, which describes the fragmentation of a transversely polarized quark in two unpolarized hadrons. The production of the two hadrons pursues in an interference between different wave-state of the hadron pairs. Azimuthal asymmetries in the produced hadron pairs are measured. The measurements, which are described in this thesis, were performed in the COMPASS experiment at CERN in the years 2002-2004, which is a solid-state-target experiment at the SPS accelerator. After an introduction in chapter 2 the basing theoretical concepts for the measurement of the transversity function are presented. In chapter 3 the COMPASS experiment is described. Finally in chapter 4 the evaluation methods are discussed, the results of the azimuthal asymmetries shown and compared with theoretical predictions. [German] Die Quark-Struktur des Nukleons laesst sich bei Vernachlaessigung intrinsischer Quarktransversalimpulse vollstaendig durch drei Quark Verteilungsfunktionen beschreiben. Diese sind die unpolarisierte Quark Verteilungsfunktion q(x), die

  8. Silicon photomultipliers as readout elements for a Compton effect polarimeter: the COMPASS project

    CERN Document Server

    Del Monte, E; Brandonisio, A; Muleri, F; Soffitta, P; Costa, E; di Persio, G; Cosimo, S Di; Massaro, E; Morbidini, A; Morelli, E; Pacciani, L; Fabiani, S; Michilli, D; Giarrusso, S; Catalano, O; Impiombato, D; Mineo, T; Sottile, G; Billotta, S

    2016-01-01

    COMpton Polarimeter with Avalanche Silicon readout (COMPASS) is a research and development project that aims to measure the polarization of X-ray photons through Compton Scattering. The measurement is obtained by using a set of small rods of fast scintillation materials with both low-Z (as active scatterer) and high-Z (as absorber), all read-out with Silicon Photomultipliers. By this method we can operate scattering and absorbing elements in coincidence, in order to reduce the background. In the laboratory we are characterising the SiPMs using different types of scintillators and we are optimising the performances in terms of energy resolution, energy threshold and photon tagging efficiency. We aim to study the design of two types of satellite-borne instruments: a focal plane polarimeter to be coupled with multilayer optics for hard X-rays and a large area and wide field of view polarimeter for transients and Gamma Ray Bursts. In this paper we describe the status of the COMPASS project, we report about the la...

  9. One-hadron transverse spin effects on a proton target at COMPASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adolph, Christoph

    2013-02-19

    distribution functions, the aforementioned transversity and Sivers functions, the worm-gear 2 function and the Pretzelosity function. The other four are of subleading order. The investigation of the structure of the nucleon spin is one of the main goals of the COMPASS experiment at CERN. For the measurement of transverse spin effects a 160 GeV/c polarized μ{sup +} beam is scattered off a polarized nucleon target. In the years 2002-2004 a deuterium ({sup 6}LiD) target was used, while in 2007 and 2010 the measurement was done on a proton (NH{sub 3}) target. In this thesis the methods of analysis and the results for the eight transverse spin dependent distribution functions from the 2010 data-taking period will be shown for unidentified hadrons as well as for identified pions and kaons. Furthermore the Collins and Sivers asymmetries for the production of K{sup 0} are presented. The work is concluded by a comparison of the measured asymmetries with the results of the HERMES experiment at DESY and existing model predictions. A short interpretation of the results for the Collins and Sivers asymmetries is also given.

  10. Meditation for adults with haematological malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salhofer, Ines; Will, Andrea; Monsef, Ina; Skoetz, Nicole

    2016-02-03

    Malignant neoplasms of the lymphoid or myeloid cell lines including lymphoma, leukaemia and myeloma are referred to as haematological malignancies. Complementary and alternative treatment options such as meditation practice or yoga are becoming popular by treating all aspects of the disease including physical and psychological symptoms. However, there is still unclear evidence about meditation's effectiveness, and how its practice affects the lives of haematologically-diseased patients. This review aims to assess the benefits and harms of meditation practice as an additional treatment to standard care for adults with haematological malignancies. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Issue 8, 2015), MEDLINE (1950 to August 2015), databases of ongoing trials, the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (http://www.controlled-trials.com/mrct/), conference proceedings of annual meetings of: the American Society of Hematology; American Society of Clinical Oncology; European Hematology Association; European Congress for Integrative Medicine; and Global Advances in Health and Medicine (2010 to 2015). We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) using meditation practice for adult patients with haematological malignancies. Two review authors independently extracted data from eligible studies and assessed the risk of bias according to predefined criteria. We evaluated quality of life and depression. The other outcomes of overall survival, anxiety, fatigue, quality of sleep and adverse events could not be evaluated, because they were not assessed in the included trial. We included only one small trial published as an abstract article. The included study investigated the effects of meditation practice on patients newly hospitalised with acute leukaemia. Ninety-one participants enrolled in the study, but only 42 participants remained in the trial throughout the six-month follow-up period and were eligible for analysis. There was no

  11. The Role of Compassion in Altruistic Helping and Punishment Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Helen Y; Fox, Andrew S; Hessenthaler, Heather C; Stodola, Diane E; Davidson, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Compassion, the emotional response of caring for another who is suffering and that results in motivation to relieve suffering, is thought to be an emotional antecedent to altruistic behavior. However, it remains unclear whether compassion enhances altruistic behavior in a uniform way or is specific to sub-types of behavior such as altruistic helping of a victim or altruistic punishment of a transgressor. We investigated the relationship between compassion and subtypes of altruistic behavior using third-party paradigms where participants (1) witnessed an unfair economic exchange between a transgressor and a victim, and (2) had the opportunity to either spend personal funds to either economically (a) help the victim or (b) punish the transgressor. In Study 1, we examined whether individual differences in self-reported empathic concern (the emotional component of compassion) was associated with greater altruistic helping or punishment behavior in two independent samples. For participants who witnessed an unfair transaction, trait empathic concern was associated with greater helping of a victim and had no relationship to punishment. However, in those who decided to punish the transgressor, participants who reported greater empathic concern decided to punish less. In Study 2, we directly enhanced compassion using short-term online compassion meditation training to examine whether altruistic helping and punishment were increased after two weeks of training. Compared to an active reappraisal training control group, the compassion training group gave more to help the victim and did not differ in punishment of the transgressor. Together, these two studies suggest that compassion is related to greater altruistic helping of victims and is not associated with or may mitigate altruistic punishment of transgressors.

  12. The Role of Compassion in Altruistic Helping and Punishment Behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Y Weng

    Full Text Available Compassion, the emotional response of caring for another who is suffering and that results in motivation to relieve suffering, is thought to be an emotional antecedent to altruistic behavior. However, it remains unclear whether compassion enhances altruistic behavior in a uniform way or is specific to sub-types of behavior such as altruistic helping of a victim or altruistic punishment of a transgressor. We investigated the relationship between compassion and subtypes of altruistic behavior using third-party paradigms where participants (1 witnessed an unfair economic exchange between a transgressor and a victim, and (2 had the opportunity to either spend personal funds to either economically (a help the victim or (b punish the transgressor. In Study 1, we examined whether individual differences in self-reported empathic concern (the emotional component of compassion was associated with greater altruistic helping or punishment behavior in two independent samples. For participants who witnessed an unfair transaction, trait empathic concern was associated with greater helping of a victim and had no relationship to punishment. However, in those who decided to punish the transgressor, participants who reported greater empathic concern decided to punish less. In Study 2, we directly enhanced compassion using short-term online compassion meditation training to examine whether altruistic helping and punishment were increased after two weeks of training. Compared to an active reappraisal training control group, the compassion training group gave more to help the victim and did not differ in punishment of the transgressor. Together, these two studies suggest that compassion is related to greater altruistic helping of victims and is not associated with or may mitigate altruistic punishment of transgressors.

  13. Self-Compassion and Suicidal Behavior in College Students: Serial Indirect Effects via Depression and Wellness Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelliher Rabon, Jessica; Sirois, Fuschia M.; Hirsch, Jameson K.

    2018-01-01

    Objective: College students may be at heightened risk for suicide and suicidal behavior due to maladaptive cognitive-emotional factors and failure to practice basic health behaviors. However, self-compassion and wellness behaviors may protect against risk. The relation between self-compassion and suicidal behavior and the contributing roles of…

  14. The effects of a mindfulness meditation-based stress reduction program on mood and symptoms of stress in cancer outpatients: 6-month follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, L E; Ursuliak, Z; Goodey, E; Angen, M; Speca, M

    2001-03-01

    The goals of this work were to assess the effects of participation in a mindfulness meditation-based stress reduction program on mood disturbance and symptoms of stress in cancer outpatients immediately after and 6 months after program completion. A convenience sample of eligible cancer patients were enrolled after they had given informed consent. All patients completed the Profile of Mood States (POMS) and Symptoms of Stress Inventory (SOSI) both before and after the intervention and 6 months later. The intervention consisted of a mindfulness meditation group lasting 1.5 h each week for 7 weeks, plus daily home meditation practice. A total of 89 patients, average age 51, provided pre-intervention data. Eighty patients provided post-intervention data, and 54 completed the 6-month follow-up The participants were heterogeneous with respect to type and stage of cancer. Patients' scores decreased significantly from before to after the intervention on the POMS and SOSI total scores and most subscales, indicating less mood disturbance and fewer symptoms of stress, and these improvements were maintained at the 6-month follow-up. More advanced stages of cancer were associated with less initial mood disturbance, while more home practice and higher initial POMS scores predicted improvements on the POMS between the pre- and post-intervention scores. Female gender and more education were associated with higher initial SOSI scores, and improvements on the SOSI were predicted by more education and greater initial mood disturbance. This program was effective in decreasing mood disturbance and stress symptoms for up to 6 months in both male and female patients with a wide variety of cancer diagnoses, stages of illness, and educational background, and with disparate ages.

  15. Increased Gamma Brainwave Amplitude Compared to Control in Three Different Meditation Traditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Braboszcz

    Full Text Available Despite decades of research, effects of different types of meditation on electroencephalographic (EEG activity are still being defined. We compared practitioners of three different meditation traditions (Vipassana, Himalayan Yoga and Isha Shoonya with a control group during a meditative and instructed mind-wandering (IMW block. All meditators showed higher parieto-occipital 60-110 Hz gamma amplitude than control subjects as a trait effect observed during meditation and when considering meditation and IMW periods together. Moreover, this gamma power was positively correlated with participants meditation experience. Independent component analysis was used to show that gamma activity did not originate in eye or muscle artifacts. In addition, we observed higher 7-11 Hz alpha activity in the Vipassana group compared to all the other groups during both meditation and instructed mind wandering and lower 10-11 Hz activity in the Himalayan yoga group during meditation only. We showed that meditation practice is correlated to changes in the EEG gamma frequency range that are common to a variety of meditation practices.

  16. [Evaluation of the effectiveness of a Mindfulness and Self-Compassion program to reduce stress and prevent burnout in Primary Care health professionals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda Auserón, Gloria; Elcuaz Viscarret, M Rosario; Fuertes Goñi, Carmen; Güeto Rubio, Victoria; Pascual Pascual, Pablo; Sainz de Murieta García de Galdeano, Enrique

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a Mindfulness and Self-Compassion Program on the levels of stress and burnout in Primary Care health professionals. Randomised, controlled clinical trial. Training in Mindfulness was offered to 1,281 health professionals in Navarra (Spain) Primary Care, and 48 of them accepted. The participants were randomly assigned to groups: 25 to the intervention group, and the remaining 23 to the control group. The Mindfulness and Self-Compassion training program consisted of sessions of 2.5chours/week for 8 weeks. The participants had to attend at least 75% of the sessions and perform a daily practical of 45minutes. The levels of mindfulness, self-compassion, perceived stress, and burnout were measured using four questionnaires before and after the intervention. After the intervention, the scores of the intervention group improved significantly in mindfulness (Pmindfulness P=.001; and burnout: emotional fatigue (P=.046). The comparison with the control group showed significant differences in mindfulness (Pmindfulness and self-compassion practices in the health environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Source-space EEG neurofeedback links subjective experience with brain activity during effortless awareness meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lutterveld, Remko; Houlihan, Sean D; Pal, Prasanta; Sacchet, Matthew D; McFarlane-Blake, Cinque; Patel, Payal R; Sullivan, John S; Ossadtchi, Alex; Druker, Susan; Bauer, Clemens; Brewer, Judson A

    2017-05-01

    Meditation is increasingly showing beneficial effects for psychiatric disorders. However, learning to meditate is not straightforward as there are no easily discernible outward signs of performance and thus no direct feedback is possible. As meditation has been found to correlate with posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) activity, we tested whether source-space EEG neurofeedback from the PCC followed the subjective experience of effortless awareness (a major component of meditation), and whether participants could volitionally control the signal. Sixteen novice meditators and sixteen experienced meditators participated in the study. Novice meditators were briefly trained to perform a basic meditation practice to induce the subjective experience of effortless awareness in a progressively more challenging neurofeedback test-battery. Experienced meditators performed a self-selected meditation practice to induce this state in the same test-battery. Neurofeedback was provided based on gamma-band (40-57Hz) PCC activity extracted using a beamformer algorithm. Associations between PCC activity and the subjective experience of effortless awareness were assessed by verbal probes. Both groups reported that decreased PCC activity corresponded with effortless awareness (Pneurofeedback to link an objective measure of brain activity with the subjective experience of effortless awareness, and suggest potential utility of this paradigm as a tool for meditation training. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Meditation experience predicts introspective accuracy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieran C R Fox

    Full Text Available The accuracy of subjective reports, especially those involving introspection of one's own internal processes, remains unclear, and research has demonstrated large individual differences in introspective accuracy. It has been hypothesized that introspective accuracy may be heightened in persons who engage in meditation practices, due to the highly introspective nature of such practices. We undertook a preliminary exploration of this hypothesis, examining introspective accuracy in a cross-section of meditation practitioners (1-15,000 hrs experience. Introspective accuracy was assessed by comparing subjective reports of tactile sensitivity for each of 20 body regions during a 'body-scanning' meditation with averaged, objective measures of tactile sensitivity (mean size of body representation area in primary somatosensory cortex; two-point discrimination threshold as reported in prior research. Expert meditators showed significantly better introspective accuracy than novices; overall meditation experience also significantly predicted individual introspective accuracy. These results suggest that long-term meditators provide more accurate introspective reports than novices.

  19. Interoceptive awareness in experienced meditators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalsa, Sahib S; Rudrauf, David; Damasio, Antonio R; Davidson, Richard J; Lutz, Antoine; Tranel, Daniel

    2008-07-01

    Attention to internal body sensations is practiced in most meditation traditions. Many traditions state that this practice results in increased awareness of internal body sensations, but scientific studies evaluating this claim are lacking. We predicted that experienced meditators would display performance superior to that of nonmeditators on heartbeat detection, a standard noninvasive measure of resting interoceptive awareness. We compared two groups of meditators (Tibetan Buddhist and Kundalini) to an age- and body mass index-matched group of nonmeditators. Contrary to our prediction, we found no evidence that meditators were superior to nonmeditators in the heartbeat detection task, across several sessions and respiratory modulation conditions. Compared to nonmeditators, however, meditators consistently rated their interoceptive performance as superior and the difficulty of the task as easier. These results provide evidence against the notion that practicing attention to internal body sensations, a core feature of meditation, enhances the ability to sense the heartbeat at rest.

  20. Effect of advance meditation program on electrocardiogram, blood pressure, and stress level in young healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Sharma

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: AMP has its positive effects on ECG, blood pressure, and stress level. Thus, it can be considered as one of the important nonpharmacological methods for prevention of stress, anxiety, and cardiovascular diseases.

  1. Meditation Interventions for Chronic Disease Populations: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Roxane Raffin; Larson, Janet L

    2015-12-01

    The rapidly growing body of research regarding the use of meditation interventions in chronic disease presents an opportunity to compare outcomes based on intervention content. For this review, meditation interventions were described as those interventions delivered to persons with chronic disease where sitting meditation was the main or only content of the intervention with or without the addition of mindful movement. This systematic review identified 45 individual research studies that examined meditations effect on levels of anxiety, depression, and chronic disease symptoms in persons with chronic disease. Individual studies were assessed based on interventional content, the consistency with which interventions were applied, and the research quality. This study identified seven categories of meditation interventions based on the meditation skills and mindful movement practices that were included in the intervention. Overall, half of the interventions had clearly defined and specific meditation interventions (25/45) and half of the studies were conducted using randomized control trials (24/45). © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Meditation and blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lu; Zhang, Donglan; Wang, Liang; Zhuang, Junyang; Cook, Rebecca; Chen, Liwei

    2017-04-01

    We meta-analyzed the effect of meditation on blood pressure (BP), including both transcendental meditation and non-transcendental meditation interventions. We identified randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that examined the BP responses to meditation interventions through a systematic literature search of the PubMed, ABI/INFORM, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and CINAHL databases (from January 1980 to October 2015). We meta-analyzed the change in SBP and DBP, stratified by type of meditation (transcendental meditation vs. non-transcendental meditation intervention) and by type of BP measurement [ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) vs. non-ABPM measurement]. Nineteen studies met the eligibility criteria. Among the studies using the ABPM measurement, the pooled SBP effect estimate was -2.49 mmHg [95% confidence interval (CI): -7.51, 2.53] for transcendental meditation intervention (statistically insignificant) and -3.77 mmHg (95% CI: -5.33, -2.21) for non-transcendental meditation interventions, whereas the pooled DBP effect estimate was -4.26 mmHg (95% CI: -6.21, -2.31) for transcendental meditation interventions and -2.18 mmHg (95% CI: -4.28, -0.09) for non-transcendental meditation interventions. Among the studies using the non-ABPM measurement, the pooled SBP effect estimate from transcendental meditation interventions was -5.57 mmHg (95% CI: -7.41, -3.73) and was -5.09 mmHg with non-transcendental meditation intervention (95% CI: -6.34, -3.85), whereas the pooled effect size in DBP change for transcendental meditation interventions was -2.86 mmHg (95% CI: -4.27, -1.44) and was -2.57 mmHg (95% CI: -3.36, -1.79) for non-transcendental meditation interventions. Non-transcendental meditation may serve as a promising alternative approach for lowering both SBP and DBP. More ABPM-measured transcendental meditation interventions might be needed to examine the benefit of transcendental meditation intervention on SBP reduction.

  3. Meditation or Exercise May Help Acute Respiratory Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Legislation Advisory Council Job Opportunities All About NCCIH Health Topics A-Z ... to a recent study, exercising or practicing meditation may be effective in reducing acute respiratory infections. Acute respiratory infections, ...

  4. The Effect of Perceived Parental Attitudes and Birth Order of University Students on the Development of Their Self-Compassion

    OpenAIRE

    Yılmaz, Mehmet Taki; Kesici, Şahin

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between the self-compassion level of university students and their parents’ parental attitudes. In the present study, it was aimed to find out whether there were significant differences between the university students’ self-compassion development, their parents’ attitude and their birth order (first, middle or last born). The data of the study was collected through survey method through a quantitative research understanding. T-test...

  5. The Effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy on Self-Compassion in Patient with Mixed Anxiety- Depression Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Katayoun Pasdar; Jafar Hasani; Robabeh Noury

    2017-01-01

    Introduction and Aims The aim of the present study was the evaluation of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy efficacy on self-compassion of patients with mixed anxiety-depression disorder.  Materials and Methods Three participants with mixed anxiety-depression disorder were selected by available sampling. Participants evaluated 9 times by Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and Neff self-compassion Scale (SCS). For data analysis, we employed procedur...

  6. Er mere meditation relateret til større behandlingseffekter? – Empirisk baserede anbefalinger til en mere kontekstuel meditationsforskning og interventionspraksis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Gaden; Holde, Louise Victoria Alliverti

    2016-01-01

    Meditation is increasingly applied in health promotion and clinical interventions although the influence of meditation during multimodal interventions is unclear. Even among meditation-based interventions (MBI), theories and recommendations concerning meditation vary substantially. Our primary...... purpose is to discuss from an empirical base if MBI-participants’ amount of meditation practice is a substantial factor for the treatment effects. We investigate this especially by reviewing MBI-research on dose-effect relationships between meditation and outcome changes, and neuroimaging studies...... of meditators and MBI-participants. The clinical evidence shows that participants’ amount of meditation practice is not consistently related to treatment effects. Neuroscientific studies support this notion, since previous meditation practice has not been consistently or specifically related to structural...

  7. Feasibility of central meditation and imagery therapy for dementia caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Felipe A; Nazarian, Nora; Lavretsky, Helen

    2014-08-01

    Family dementia caregivers are at high risk of depression and burnout. We assessed the feasibility of Central Meditation and Imagery Therapy for Caregivers (CMIT-C), a novel 8-week group meditation and guided imagery group therapy program, for dementia caregivers reporting stress because of caregiving responsibilities. Twelve family dementia caregivers enrolled in CMIT-C. Primary outcomes included depression and anxiety, and secondary outcomes included insomnia, quality of life, and mindfulness. Changes over the study and 3 month follow-up were analyzed with non-parametric related samples tests. Correlations of feeling state changes from meditation diaries at 1 week were made with symptom changes post meditation training. Ten participants completed the study. Completers came to an average of 7 ± 1 sessions out of a possible 8 sessions, and turned in home practice logs of 90 ± 10% of the time. Anxiety, depression, and insomnia symptoms decreased, and mindfulness ratings improved with large effects (all p meditation practice was associated with subsequent home meditation practice, anxiety change at 8 weeks, and endpoint satisfaction with CMIT-C. Central Meditation and Imagery Therapy for Caregivers is a feasible intervention for dementia caregivers. Results suggest that this therapeutic technique can reduce symptoms of anxiety, depression, and insomnia, and increase levels of mindfulness. Early response to meditation practice predicted those with the greatest short-term benefits, and this may inform future studies of meditation. Larger controlled efficacy studies of CMIT-C for dementia caregivers are warranted. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. A Systematic Review of Associations between Amount of Meditation Practice and Outcomes in Interventions Using the Four Immeasurables Meditations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xianglong; Chio, Floria H N; Oei, Tian P S; Leung, Freedom Y K; Liu, Xiangping

    2017-01-01

    Interventions using the "Four Immeasurables Meditations" (FIM) are effective for various outcomes; however, whether increased meditation practice in these interventions leads to better results has not been well investigated. This systematic review included 22 FIM interventions that reported associations between the amount of meditation practice and its outcomes. Despite the heterogeneity in intervention components and outcome variables, there were generally few significant associations between amount of meditation practice and its outcomes. Specifically, only five studies reported that more than half of the calculated results were significant. In comparison with correlations between total amount of practice and overall outcomes, the short-term influence of meditation practice was evaluated in fewer studies; however, it had a better association with outcomes. More studies are required that address the underlying mechanisms that elucidate how meditation practice leads to outcome changes in daily life. In this study, two promising mechanisms with initial evidence were discussed. This review also summarized common methodological issues including a lack of experimental manipulation and inaccurate measuring of meditation practice.

  9. Comparing individual preferences for four meditation techniques: Zen, Vipassana (Mindfulness), Qigong, and Mantra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Adam

    2012-01-01

    A significant number of studies have been published examining the mind-body effects of meditation and its clinical efficacy. There are very few studies, however, which directly compare different meditation methods with each other to explore potentially distinct mechanisms and effects, and no studies comparing individual preferences for different methods. As preference is seen as an important factor in consumer healthcare decision making, greater understanding of this aspect is needed as meditation becomes a more widely used therapeutic modality. For this reason a pilot study was conducted to compare four meditation techniques for personal preference. A within-subjects comparison design was employed. A convenience sample of 247 undergraduate university students participated in the study. Participants learned two open observing meditation techniques-Vipassana (Mindfulness) and Zen, and two focused attention techniques-Mantra and Qigong Visualization, practicing one method per week. At the end of a six-week training period participants ranked the four meditation methods in order of personal preference. Ranking of subjective preference of meditations practiced. A within subjects comparison revealed that significantly more participants chose Vipassana or Mantra meditation as their preferred techniques compared with Qigong Visualization and Zen. This study provides information on differences in preference for type of meditation. As the benefits of meditation accrue over time, selecting a method that motivates sustained practice is a critical objective if therapeutic effects are to be achieved. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Meditate don't medicate: How medical imaging evidence supports the role of meditation in the treatment of depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annells, S.; Kho, K.; Bridge, P.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Depression is a debilitating psychiatric disorder that affects a large proportion of the population. The current treatment for depression involves anti-depressant medication which is associated with side effects and a heightened risk of relapse. Methods: A systematic literature review was performed to determine the value of medical imaging studies in measuring the impact of meditation on depression. Results: Medical imaging studies have successfully demonstrated that meditation may counteract or prevent the physiological cause of depression by decreasing amygdala activity and increasing grey matter volume and activity of the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and other brain regions associated with attention and emotional self-regulation. Recent advances in functional imaging have enabled visualisation of neural plasticity within the brain. This has shown that for meditators, practice-induced alterations could be due to micro-anatomical processes that may represent an increased functional capacity within the brain regions activated. These changes within brain physiology in association with the skills gained during meditation such as self-regulation, mental processing of negative information and relaxation techniques could potentially lead to a permanent cure for depression and thus prevent relapse. Conclusions: The results of this review suggest that medical imaging has a valuable role to play in evidencing the physiological changes within the brain caused by meditation that counteract those that cause depression. These studies indicate that meditation is a viable alternative to medication for clinical treatment of patients with depression. More rigorous longitudinal imaging studies are proposed to enhance understanding of the neural pathways and mechanisms of meditation. - Highlights: • Medical imaging demonstrates physiological changes that counteract those that cause depression. • Meditation is an alternative to medication for clinical treatment of

  11. Meditation programs for veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder: Aggregate findings from a multi-site evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffner, Kathi L; Crean, Hugh F; Kemp, Jan E

    2016-05-01

    Interest in meditation to manage posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms is increasing. Few studies have examined the effectiveness of meditation programs offered to Veterans within Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) mental health services. The current study addresses this gap using data from a multisite VA demonstration project. Evaluation data collected at 6 VA sites (N = 391 Veterans) before and after a meditation program, and a treatment-as-usual (TAU) program, were examined here using random effects meta-analyses. Site-specific and aggregate between group effect sizes comparing meditation programs to TAU were determined for PTSD severity measured by clinical interview and self-report. Additional outcomes included experiential avoidance and mindfulness. In aggregate, analyses showed medium effect sizes for meditation programs compared to TAU for PTSD severity (clinical interview: effect size (ES) = -0.32; self-report: ES = -0.39). Similarly sized effects of meditation programs were found for overall mindfulness (ES = 0.41) and 1 specific aspect of mindfulness, nonreactivity to inner experience (ES = .37). Additional findings suggested meditation type and program completion differences each moderated program effects. VA-sponsored meditation programs show promise for reducing PTSD severity in Veterans receiving mental health services. Where meditation training fits within mental health services, and for whom programs will be of interest and effective, require further clarification. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. At dø i meditation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stjernholm, Ole; Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf

    The book gives an introduction to how death has been used and can be used in meditation, and it proceeds to describe very advanced stages of meditation on death......The book gives an introduction to how death has been used and can be used in meditation, and it proceeds to describe very advanced stages of meditation on death...

  13. Meditation, Health and Scientific Investigations: Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Cynthia Vieira Sanches; Lima, Manuela Garcia; Ladeia, Ana Marice

    2017-04-01

    A growing number of people are seeking health recovery treatments with a holistic approach to the human being. Meditation is a mental training capable of producing connection between the mind, body and spirit. Its practice helps people to achieve balance, relaxation and self-control, in addition to the development of consciousness. At present, meditation is classified as a complementary and integrative technique in the area of health. The purpose of this review of the literature was to describe what meditation is, its practices and effects on health, demonstrated by consistent scientific investigations. Recently, the advances in researches with meditation, the discovery of its potential as an instrument of self-regulation of the human body and its benefits to health have shown that it is a consistent alternative therapy when associated with conventional medical treatments.

  14. The effectiveness of self-compassion and self-esteem writing tasks in reducing body image concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seekis, Veya; Bradley, Graham L; Duffy, Amanda

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated whether single-session self-compassion and self-esteem writing tasks ameliorate the body image concerns evoked by a negative body image induction. Ninety-six female university students aged 17-25 years (M age =19.45, SD=1.84) were randomly assigned to one of three writing treatment groups: self-compassion, self-esteem, or control. After reading a negative body image scenario, participants completed scales measuring state body appreciation, body satisfaction, and appearance anxiety. They then undertook the assigned writing task, and completed the three measures again, both immediately post-treatment and at 2-week follow-up. The self-compassion writing group showed higher post-treatment body appreciation than the self-esteem and control groups, and higher body appreciation than the control group at follow-up. At post-treatment and follow-up, self-compassion and self-esteem writing showed higher body satisfaction than the control. The groups did not differ on appearance anxiety. Writing-based interventions, especially those that enhance self-compassion, may help alleviate certain body image concerns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A pilot study on the effects and feasibility of compassion-focused expressive writing in Day Hospice patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imrie, Susan; Troop, Nicholas A

    2012-06-01

    Research has found that writing about stress can confer physical and psychological health benefits on participants and that adopting a self-compassionate stance may have additional benefits. This pilot study evaluated a self-compassionate expressive writing intervention in a Day Hospice setting. Thirteen patients with life-limiting illnesses wrote on two occasions about recent stressful experiences. Half also received a self-compassion instruction for their writing. Outcome measures were taken at baseline and one week after the second writing session, and text analysis was used to identify changes in the types of words used, reflecting changes in psychological processes. Patients given the self-compassion instruction increased in their self-soothing and self-esteem in contrast to patients in the stress-only condition. Happiness broadly increased in both groups although reported levels of stress generally increased in patients given the self-compassion instruction but decreased in patients in the stress-only condition. Those given the self-compassion instruction also increased in their use of causal reasoning words across the two writing sessions compared with those in the stress-only condition. Expressive writing appears to be beneficial in patients at a hospice and was viewed as valuable by participants. The inclusion of a self-compassion instruction may have additional benefits and a discussion of the feasibility of implementing expressive writing sessions in a Day Hospice is offered.

  16. Durham Neighborhood Compass Neighborhoods

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The Durham Neighborhood Compass is a quantitative indicators project with qualitative values, integrating data from local government, the Census Bureau and other...

  17. Application of a mindfulness program among healthcare professionals in an intensive care unit: Effect on burnout, empathy and self-compassion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia Gozalo, R M; Ferrer Tarrés, J M; Ayora Ayora, A; Alonso Herrero, M; Amutio Kareaga, A; Ferrer Roca, R

    2018-03-12

    To evaluate the effect of a mindfulness training program on the levels of burnout, mindfulness, empathy and self-compassion among healthcare professionals in an Intensive Care Unit of a tertiary hospital. A longitudinal study with an intrasubject pre-post intervention design was carried out. Intensive Care Unit of a tertiary hospital. A total of 32 subjects (physicians, nurses and nursing assistants) participated in the study. A clinical session/workshop was held on the practice of mindfulness and its usefulness. The possibility of following an 8-week training program with specifically designed short guided practices supported by a virtual community based on a WhatsApp group was offered. A weekly proposal in audio and text format and daily reminders with stimulating messages of practice were sent. Various psychometric measures were self-reported: burnout (MBI), mindfulness (FFMQ), empathy (Jefferson) and self-compassion (SCS), before and after the training program. Demographic and workplace variables were also compiled. Among the factors affecting burnout, the level of emotional exhaustion decreased (-3.78 points; P=.012), mindfulness levels measured by the FFMQ were not globally modified, though "observation" and "non-reacting" factors increased. Empathy was not modified, and self-compassion levels increased (3.7 points; P=.001). Satisfaction and program adherence levels were very high. In the population described, this program showed a decrease in emotional exhaustion and an increase in self-compassion -these being factors that can produce well-being and exert a positive impact upon burnout in this vulnerable group. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  18. Low and then high frequency oscillations of distinct right cortical networks are progressively enhanced by medium and long term Satyananda Yoga meditation practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John eThomas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Meditation proficiency is related to trait-like (learned effects on brain function, developed over time. Previous studies show increases in EEG power in lower frequency bands (theta, alpha in experienced meditators in both meditation states and baseline conditions. Higher gamma band power has been found in advanced Buddhist meditators, yet it is not known if this occurs in Yoga meditation practices. This study used eLORETA to compare differences in cortical source activity underlying scalp EEG from intermediate (mean experience 4 years and advanced (mean experience 30 years Australian meditators from the Satyananda Yoga tradition during a body-steadiness meditation, mantra meditation and non-meditation mental calculation condition. Intermediate Yoga meditators showed greater source activity in low frequencies (particularly theta and alpha1 during mental calculation, body-steadiness and mantra meditation. A similar spatial pattern of significant differences was found in all conditions but the number of significant voxels was double during body-steadiness and mantra meditation than in the non-meditation (calculation condition. These differences were greatest in right (R superior frontal and R precentral gyri and extended back to include the R parietal and occipital lobes. Advanced Yoga meditators showed greater activity in high frequencies (beta and especially gamma in all conditions but greatly expanded during meditation practice. Across all conditions (meditation and non-meditation differences were greatest in the same regions; R insula, R inferior frontal gyrus and R anterior temporal lobe. Distinct R core networks were identified in alpha1 (8-10 Hz and gamma (25-42 Hz bands respectively. The voxels recruited to these networks greatly expanded during meditation practice to include homologous regions of the left hemisphere. Functional interpretation parallels traditionally described stages of development in Yoga proficiency.

  19. Meditation as an Adjunct to the Management of Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam B. Levin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Multiple sclerosis (MS disease course is known to be adversely affected by several factors including stress. A proposed mechanism for decreasing stress and therefore decreasing MS morbidity and improving quality of life is meditation. This review aims to critically analyse the current literature regarding meditation and MS. Methods. Four major databases were used to search for English language papers published before March 2014 with the terms MS, multiple sclerosis, meditation, and mindfulness. Results. 12 pieces of primary literature fitting the selection criteria were selected: two were randomised controlled studies, four were cohort studies, and six were surveys. The current literature varies in quality; however common positive effects of meditation include improved quality of life (QOL and improved coping skills. Conclusion. All studies suggest possible benefit to the use of meditation as an adjunct to the management of multiple sclerosis. Additional rigorous clinical trials are required to validate the existing findings and determine if meditation has an impact on disease course over time.

  20. Meditation as a management tool for the pipeline industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terrell, M. [Wildrose Wholistic Clinic, Calgary, AB (Canada); Stripling, T.E. [KBR, Houston, TX (United States)

    2004-07-01

    This paper described the significant impact that meditation can have on a pipeline project and company management in general. It was noted that project managers tend to address organization and mechanical issues in promoting innovation and creativity. As such, the use of meditation is a leading edge concept in advanced management tools. This paper presented a practical and functional meditation approach. The foundation of meditation was described as being a mind-body state where there is alert awareness, sensory inversion, coherence in the brain and deep relaxation that give individual's access to the subconscious mind where the well of creativity is to be found. It was suggested that the use of meditation can be used in the pipeline industry as an effective tool to address soft management issues such as project team stress reduction, enhanced teamwork, increased innovation and improved decision making. It was concluded that as a soft technology, meditation has great potential to become more prominent as progressive industries look for ways to promote creativity and well-being. 14 refs.

  1. Effects of Meditation versus Music Listening on Perceived Stress, Mood, Sleep, and Quality of Life in Adults with Early Memory Loss: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, Kim E; Selfe, Terry Kit; Khalsa, Dharma Singh; Kandati, Sahiti

    2016-04-08

    Older adults with subjective cognitive decline (SCD) are at increased risk not only for Alzheimer's disease, but for poor mental health, impaired sleep, and diminished quality of life (QOL), which in turn, contribute to further cognitive decline, highlighting the need for early intervention. In this randomized controlled trial, we assessed the effects of two 12-week relaxation programs, Kirtan Kriya Meditation (KK) and music listening (ML), on perceived stress, sleep, mood, and health-related QOL in older adults with SCD. Sixty community-dwelling older adults with SCD were randomized to a KK or ML program and asked to practice 12 minutes daily for 12 weeks, then at their discretion for the following 3 months. At baseline, 12 weeks, and 26 weeks, perceived stress, mood, psychological well-being, sleep quality, and health-related QOL were measured using well-validated instruments. Fifty-three participants (88%) completed the 6-month study. Participants in both groups showed significant improvement at 12 weeks in psychological well-being and in multiple domains of mood and sleep quality (p's≤0.05). Relative to ML, those assigned to KK showed greater gains in perceived stress, mood, psychological well-being, and QOL-Mental Health (p's≤0.09). Observed gains were sustained or improved at 6 months, with both groups showing marked and significant improvement in all outcomes. Changes were unrelated to treatment expectancies. Findings suggest that practice of a simple meditation or ML program may improve stress, mood, well-being, sleep, and QOL in adults with SCD, with benefits sustained at 6 months and gains that were particularly pronounced in the KK group.

  2. Long-term meditation is associated with increased gray matter density in the brain stem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard-Poulsen, Peter; Beek, Martijn van; Skewes, Joshua

    2009-01-01

    Extensive practice involving sustained attention can lead to changes in brain structure. Here, we report evidence of structural differences in the lower brainstem of participants engaged in the long-term practice of meditation. Using magnetic resonance imaging, we observed higher gray matter...... density in lower brain stem regions of experienced meditators compared with age-matched nonmeditators. Our findings show that long-term practitioners of meditation have structural differences in brainstem regions concerned with cardiorespiratory control. This could account for some...... of the cardiorespiratory parasympathetic effects and traits, as well as the cognitive, emotional, and immunoreactive impact reported in several studies of different meditation practices....

  3. Experienced Mindfulness Meditators Exhibit Higher Parietal-Occipital EEG Gamma Activity during NREM Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrarelli, Fabio; Smith, Richard; Dentico, Daniela; Riedner, Brady A.; Zennig, Corinna; Benca, Ruth M.; Lutz, Antoine; Davidson, Richard J.; Tononi, Giulio

    2013-01-01

    Over the past several years meditation practice has gained increasing attention as a non-pharmacological intervention to provide health related benefits, from promoting general wellness to alleviating the symptoms of a variety of medical conditions. However, the effects of meditation training on brain activity still need to be fully characterized. Sleep provides a unique approach to explore the meditation-related plastic changes in brain function. In this study we performed sleep high-density electroencephalographic (hdEEG) recordings in long-term meditators (LTM) of Buddhist meditation practices (approximately 8700 mean hours of life practice) and meditation naive individuals. We found that LTM had increased parietal-occipital EEG gamma power during NREM sleep. This increase was specific for the gamma range (25–40 Hz), was not related to the level of spontaneous arousal during NREM and was positively correlated with the length of lifetime daily meditation practice. Altogether, these findings indicate that meditation practice produces measurable changes in spontaneous brain activity, and suggest that EEG gamma activity during sleep represents a sensitive measure of the long-lasting, plastic effects of meditative training on brain function. PMID:24015304

  4. Just a minute meditation: Rapid voluntary conscious state shifts in long term meditators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Ajay Kumar; Sasidharan, Arun; John, John P; Mehrotra, Seema; Kutty, Bindu M

    2017-08-01

    Meditation induces a modified state of consciousness that remains under voluntary control. Can meditators rapidly and reversibly bring about mental state changes on demand? To check, we carried out 128 channel EEG recordings on Brahma Kumaris Rajayoga meditators (36 long term: median 14240h meditation; 25 short term: 1095h) and controls (25) while they tried to switch every minute between rest and meditation states in different conditions (eyes open and closed; before and after an engaging task). Long term meditators robustly shifted states with enhanced theta power (4-8Hz) during meditation. Short term meditators had limited ability to shift between states and showed increased lower alpha power (8-10Hz) during eyes closed meditation only when pre and post task data were combined. Controls could not shift states. Thus trained beginners can reliably meditate but it takes long term practice to exercise more refined control over meditative states. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Meditation increases the depth of information processing and improves the allocation of attention in space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara evan Leeuwen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available During meditation, practitioners are required to center their attention on a specific object for extended periods of time. When their thoughts get diverted, they learn to quickly disengage from the distracter. We hypothesized that learning to respond to the dual demand of engaging attention on specific objects and disengaging quickly from distracters enhances the efficiency by which meditation practitioners can allocate attention. We tested this hypothesis in a global-to-local task while measuring electroencephalographic activity from a group of eight highly trained Buddhist monks and nuns and a group of eight age and education matched controls with no previous meditation experience. Specifically, we investigated the effect of attentional training on the global precedence effect, i.e., faster detection of targets on a global than on a local level. We expected to find a reduced global precedence effect in meditation practitioners but not in controls, reflecting that meditators can more quickly disengage their attention from the dominant global level. Analysis of reaction times confirmed this prediction. To investigate the underlying changes in brain activity and their time course, we analyzed event-related potentials. Meditators showed an enhanced ability to select the respective target level, as reflected by enhanced processing of target level information. In contrast with control group, which showed a local target selection effect only in the P1 and a global target selection effect in the P3 component, meditators showed effects of local information processing in the P1, N2 and P3 and of global processing for the N1, N2 and P3. Thus, meditators seem to display enhanced depth of processing. In addition, meditation altered the uptake of information such that meditators selected target level information earlier in the processing sequence than controls. In a longitudinal experiment, we could replicate the behavioral effects, suggesting that

  6. Effect of the resonant magnetic perturbation on the plasma parameters in COMPASS tokamak’s divertor region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova, M.; Cahyna, P.; Peterka, M.; Hasan, E.; Popov, Tsv K.; Ivanova, P.; Vasileva, E.; Panek, R.; Cavalier, J.; Seidl, J.; Markovic, T.; Havlicek, J.; Dejarnac, R.; Weinzettl, V.; Hacek, P.; Tomes, M.; the COMPASS Team; the EUROfusion MST1 Team

    2018-02-01

    The resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) has proven to be a useful way to suppress edge-localized modes that under certain conditions can damage the device by the large power fluxes carried from the bulk plasma to the wall. The effect of RMP on the L-mode plasma parameters in the divertor region of the COMPASS tokamak was studied using the array of 39 Langmuir probes embedded into the divertor target. The current-voltage (IV) probe characteristics were processed by the first-derivative probe technique to obtain the plasma potential and the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) which was approximated by a bi-Maxwellian EEDF with a low-energy (4-6 eV) fraction and a high-energy (11-35 eV) one, the both factions having similar electron density. Clear splitting was observed during the RMP pulse in the low-field-side scrape-off-layer profiles of the floating potential U fl and the ion saturation current density J sat; these two quantities were obtained both by direct continuous measurement and by evaluation of the IV characteristics of probes with swept bias. The negative peaks of U fl induced by RMP spatially overlaps with the local minima of J sat (and n e) rather than with its local maxima which is partly caused by the spatial variation of the plasma potential and partly by the changed shape of the EEDF. The effective temperature of the whole EEDF is not correlated with the negative peaks of U fl, and the profile of the parallel power flux density shows secondary maxima due to RMP which mimic those of J sat.

  7. Rumination and Avoidance as Mediators of the Relationship Between Self-Compassion and Depression in Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Start, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Background This study sought to investigate the mediating effects of rumination and cognitivebehavioural avoidance in the relationship between self-compassion and depression amongst adolescents. Method Ninety nonclinical adolescents completed self-report measures of self-compassion, depressive symptomatology, rumination (reflection and brooding subtypes) and cognitive-behavioural avoidance. Results Results showed that for the relationship between self-compassion and...

  8. Calligraphy and meditation for stress reduction: an experimental comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kao H SR

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Henry SR Kao,1 Lin Zhu,2 An An Chao,3 Hao Yi Chen,4 Ivy CY Liu,5 Manlin Zhang6 1Department of Social Work and Social Administration, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; 2Department of Psychology, Renmin University of China, Beijing, 3International Society of Calligraphy Therapy, Hong Kong; 4Department of Business Administration, National Chengchi University, Taipei, Taiwan, 5Department of Psychology, Fu Jen Catholic University, Taipei, Taiwan; 6Department of Psychology, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China Background: Chinese calligraphic handwriting (CCH has demonstrated a new role in health and therapy. Meanwhile, meditation is an traditional and effective method for coping with stress and staying healthy. This study compared the effectiveness of CCH and meditation as distinctive and parallel stress reduction interventions. Methods: Thirty graduate students and academic staff members in Taiwan who suffered from stress were selected by the General Health Questionnaire and randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups, ie, a CCH group, a meditation group, or a control group, for 8 consecutive weeks. Changes in physiological parameters were measured before, during, and after treatment. Results: CCH and meditation showed their strength in the respective indices of stress. There was a significant difference in respiratory rate, heart rate, and electromyographic scores between the groups. Comparing pre- and post-effects, a decrease in heart rate and an increase in skin temperature was seen in subjects who practiced CCH. Increased skin temperature and decreased respiratory rate were also seen in subjects who practiced meditation, along with reduced muscle tension and heart rate. Conclusion: CCH and meditation have good effects in stress reduction. CCH is a particularly promising new approach to reducing stress.Keywords: calligraphic handwriting, meditation, stress reduction, intervention

  9. Hadron Spectroscopy with COMPASS – Newest Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerling Frank

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The COMPASS experiment at the CERN SPS investigates the structure and spectrum of hadrons by scattering high energetic hadrons and polarised muons off various fixed targets. During the years 2002–2007, COMPASS focused on nucleon spin physics using 160 GeV/c polarised µ+ beams on polarised deuteron and proton targets, including measurements of the gluon contribution to the nucleon spin using longitudinal target polarisation as well as studies of transverse spin effects in the nucleon on a transversely polarised target. One major goal of the physics programme using hadron beams is the search for new states, in particular the search for JPC exotic states and glue-balls. COMPASS measures not only charged but also neutral final-state particles, allowing for investigation of new objects in different reactions and decay channels. In addition COMPASS can measure low-energy QCD constants like, e.g. the electromagnetic polarisability of the pion. Apart from a few days pilot run data taken in 2004 with a 190 GeV/c π− beam on a Pb target, showing a significant spin-exotic JPC = 1−+ resonance at around 1660 MeV/c2, COMPASS collected high statistics with negative and positive 190 GeV/c hadron beams on a proton (H2 and nuclear (Ni, Pb targets in 2008 and 2009. We give a selected overview of the newest results and discuss the status of various ongoing analyses.

  10. The neurobiological link between compassion and love

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esch, Tobias; Stefano, George B.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Love and compassion exert pleasant feelings and rewarding effects. Besides their emotional role and capacity to govern behavior, appetitive motivation, and a general ‘positive state’, even ‘spiritual’ at times, the behaviors shown in love and compassion clearly rely on neurobiological mechanisms and underlying molecular principles. These processes and pathways involve the brain’s limbic motivation and reward circuits, that is, a finely tuned and profound autoregulation. This capacity to self-regulate emotions, approach behaviors and even pair bonding, as well as social contact in general, i.e., love, attachment and compassion, can be highly effective in stress reduction, survival and overall health. Yet, molecular biology is the basis of interpersonal neurobiology, however, there is no answer to the question of what comes first or is more important: It is a cybernetic capacity and complex circuit of autoregulation that is clearly ‘amazing’. PMID:21358615

  11. Practical compassions: repertoires of practice and compassion talk in acute mental healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Brian; Crawford, Paul; Gilbert, Paul; Gilbert, Jean; Gale, Corinne

    2014-03-01

    This article reports an exploratory study of the concept of compassion in the work of 20 mental health practitioners in a UK Midlands facility. Using notions of practice derived from phenomenology and Bourdieusian sociology and notions of emotional labour we identify two contrasting interpretive repertoires in discussions of compassion. The first, the practical compassion repertoire, evokes the practical, physical and bodily aspects of compassion. It involves organising being with patients, playing games, anticipating disruption and taking them outside for cigarettes. Practitioners described being aware that these practical, bodily activities could lead to patients 'opening up', disclosing their interior concerns and enabling practical, compassionate mental health work to take place. In contrast, the second, organisational repertoire, concerns organisational constraints on compassionate practice. The shortage of staff, the record-keeping and internal processes of quality control were seen as time-greedy and apt to detract from contact with patients. The findings are discussed in relation to Bourdieu and Merleau-Ponty's phenomenological accounts of practice and habit and set in context in the growing interest in placing compassion centrally in healthcare. We also explore how the exercise of compassion in the way our participants describe it can afford the more effective exercise of medical power. © 2013 The Author. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2013 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Meditacija i kreativnost / Meditation and Creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenija Popadić

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a pioneering attempt to draw attention to the connection between meditation and creativity. The author compares the creative process to the process of meditation. Meditation, just like the creative process, results in a piece of creative work, which informs us about the possibility of using meditation as a creative technique with the aim of improving our creativity. The first part of the paper defines the basic concepts: creativity and meditation. The paper goes on to inform us about the place that meditation takes in contemporary psychology. The author explains that various kinds of meditation techniques can be divided into two groups: concentration meditations and mindfulness (or vipassana meditations. The paper gives special attention to higher states of consciousness or the so called flow that can be described as the optimal state of consciousness in which levels of cognitive functioning are at the maximum. There are also examples illustrating how the skills that help us get into the flow state are developed. The conclusion is that meditation directly increases one’s ability to assess the quality of the content one is dealing with, whether it is by observing, using or creating it. Although this area has not been the subject of scientific studies so far, based on some case studies (involving meditation masters, it can be confidently stated that there is a clear connection between meditation and creativity, meaning that people who meditate regularly are at the same time increasing their creative abilities and creative output.

  13. Mindful2Work: Effects of Combined Physical Exercise, Yoga, and Mindfulness Meditations for Stress Relieve in Employees. A Proof of Concept Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Esther I; Formsma, Anne R; Frijstein, Gerard; Bögels, Susan M

    2017-01-01

    Work-related stress and associated illness and burnout is rising in western society, with now as much as almost a quarter of European and half of USA's employees estimated to be at the point of burnout. Mindfulness meditation, yoga, and physical exercise have all shown beneficial effects for work-related stress and illness. This proof of concept study assessed the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary effects of the newly developed Mindful2Work training, a combination of physical exercise, restorative yoga, and mindfulness meditations, delivered in six weekly group sessions plus a follow-up session. Participants ( n  = 26, four males), referred by company doctors with (work-related) stress and burnout complaints, completed measurements pre and post the intervention, as well as at 6-week (FU1) and 6-month (FU2) follow-up. Results showed very high feasibility and acceptability of the Mindful2Work training. The training and trainers were rated with an 8.1 and 8.4 on a 1-10 scale, respectively, and training dropout rate was zero. Significant improvements with (very) large effect sizes were demonstrated for the primary outcome measures of physical and mental workability, and for anxiety, depression, stress, sleep quality, positive and negative affect, which remained (very) large and mostly increased further over time. Risk for long-term dropout from work (checklist individual strength [CIS]) was 92 % at pre-test, reduced to 67 % at post-test, to 44 % at FU1, and 35 % at FU2, whereas employees worked (RTWI) 65 % of their contract hours per week at pre-test, which increased to 73 % at post-test, 81 % at FU1 and 93 % at FU2. Intensity of home practice or number of attended sessions were not related to training effects. To conclude, the newly developed Mindful2Work training seems very feasible, and acceptable, and although no control group was included, the large effects of Mindful2Work are highly promising.

  14. Cognitions as mediators in the relationship between self-compassion and affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimitsu, Kohki; Hofmann, Stefan G.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that self-compassion is related to numerous facets of mental health, but the role of cognitions in this relationship remains unknown. To examine the mediating role of cognitions in the relationship between self-compassion and anxiety, depression, and life satisfaction when controlling for self-esteem in Japanese people, we conducted two studies. Study 1 (N = 231) examined the relationship between self-compassion and affect by modeling negative automatic thoughts as a mediator; Study 2 (N = 233) tested whether positive and negative automatic thoughts meditate this relationship. Results suggested that both self-compassion and self-esteem increased positive automatic thoughts and decreased trait anxiety, whereas only self-esteem increased life satisfaction and decreased depression directly. Positive automatic thoughts increased life satisfaction and decreased depression and trait anxiety, and positive automatic thoughts mediated the relationship between self-compassion and negative affect. These findings suggest that both positive and negative automatic thoughts mediate the relationship between self-compassion and affect in Japanese people. PMID:25395717

  15. Mindfulness Meditation for Fibromyalgia: Mechanistic and Clinical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler-Neal, Adrienne L; Zeidan, Fadel

    2017-09-01

    Fibromyalgia is a disorder characterized by widespread pain and a spectrum of psychological comorbidities, rendering treatment difficult and often a financial burden. Fibromyalgia is a complicated chronic pain condition that requires a multimodal therapeutic approach to optimize treatment efficacy. Thus, it has been postulated that mind-body techniques may prove fruitful in treating fibromyalgia. Mindfulness meditation, a behavioral technique premised on non-reactive sensory awareness, attenuates pain and improves mental health outcomes. However, the impact of mindfulness meditation on fibromyalgia-related outcomes has not been comprehensively characterized. The present review delineates the existing evidence supporting the effectiveness and hypothesized mechanisms of mindfulness meditation in treating fibromyalgia-related outcomes. Mindfulness-based interventions premised on cultivating acceptance, non-attachment, and social engagement may be most effective in decreasing fibromyalgia-related pain and psychological symptoms. Mindfulness-based therapies may alleviate fibromyalgia-related outcomes through multiple neural, psychological, and physiological processes. Mindfulness meditation may provide an effective complementary treatment approach for fibromyalgia patients, especially when combined with other reliable techniques (exercise; cognitive behavioral therapy). However, characterizing the specific analgesic mechanisms supporting mindfulness meditation is a critical step to fostering the clinical validity of this technique. Identification of the specific analgesic mechanisms supporting mindfulness-based pain relief could be utilized to better design behavioral interventions to specifically target fibromyalgia-related outcomes.

  16. Exploring Mindfulness and Meditation for the Elementary Classroom: Intersections across Current Multidisciplinary Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routhier-Martin, Kayli; Roberts, Sherron Killingsworth; Blanch, Norine

    2017-01-01

    Mindfulness and meditation programs, and their associated benefits for education, can be examined within three related disciplines: psychology, elementary education, and exceptional education. A review of psychology research provides evidence that meditation and mindfulness work to balance the often negative effects of students' social-emotional…

  17. Self-Desensitization and Meditation in the Reduction of Public Speaking Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Irving; Henry, David

    1979-01-01

    Speech-anxious students were assigned to self-administered treatment conditions: (1) systematic desensitization, (2) desensitization with meditation replacing progressive relaxation, and (3) meditation only. Treatment manuals included coping-skill instructions. Treatments were equally effective in reducing anxiety and produced a greater reduction…

  18. Transcendental Meditation and Assertive Training in the Treatment of Social Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wampler, Larry D.; Amira, Stephen B.

    Research indicates that transcendental meditation (TM) may provide relief from accumulated stress and render the meditator better able to cope with future stressful events. Single and combined TM and assertive training programs were compared for effectiveness in the treatment of socially anxious college students. A waiting-list group served as the…

  19. Larger Angles For COMPASS

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    A new magnet at CERN is going to allow COMPASS (Common Muon Proton Apparatus for Structure and Spectroscopy) maximum acceptance. Thanks to the 5 tonne, 2.5 m long magnet, which arrived last December, many more events are expected compared to the previous data-taking.

  20. Compassion and Curiosity - TCGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Kim, M.D., is motivated by two things: compassion and curiosity. Dr. Kim has taken these dual motivations and created a career in which he cares directly for patients and spearheads research that may lead to improved treatment options.

  1. [Benevolence and compassion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Río Villegas, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Ed Pellegrino understands the virtues within the dynamics of an action that does not follow the principles but comes from a way of reasonable knowledge that recognizes the very purpose of good to steer correctly makes a good agent. One of the characteristic action of the physician is the compassion that is a trait of his character, unifying psychological, cultural, sociological, ethnic and intellectuals who channels the cognitive aspect of healing and in particular the reality of a particular patient. Most own medical compassion is what Pellegrino calls its intellectual dimension, which is a form of integrated understanding that enables the achievement of all levels at which the patient is well defined. It is the usual choice, grasp, handle and weigh the uniqueness with which the patient lives the disease. The need for compassion, and the rest of the medical profession's own virtues, returns us once again to the need for the formation of a subject capable and unity between all virtues. A prudent management rightful virtue of compassion toward the end of a successful life that is emerging in an ideal health to be achieved.

  2. COMPASS Status Report 2010

    CERN Document Server

    COMPASS Collaboration

    2010-01-01

    This report gives an overview of the setup and the performance of the COMPASS experiment during the 2009 hadron beam run and describes the preparation and startup of the 2010 muon beam run with the polarised target. The status of analysis is presented both for the hadron and muon data with emphasis on the 2008/2009 hadron data.

  3. [Responsibility, compassion and ethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furstenberg, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    The concepts of responsibility and compassion are fundamental in ethics. These notions help to safeguard humaneness, especially in the field of health care and notably in palliative care. These concepts can be put into practice by caregivers and applied to daily practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Compassion Fatigue, Burnout, and Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweigart, Erin

    2017-01-01

    NICU nurses have seen a dramatic increase in cases of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). The care needs of infants with NAS are highly demanding and can lead to feelings of frustration and emotional exhaustion among NICU nurses. Although studies have examined the experiences of nurses caring for NAS patients, none have specifically addressed the risk for compassion fatigue and burnout. Nurses need practical strategies to reduce their risk for compassion fatigue and burnout when caring for these patients. Improved education and implementation of self-care measures can help nurses more effectively manage stress and positively impact care of these infants and their families.

  5. Patanjali and neuroscientific research on meditation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærentsen, Klaus B.

    2015-01-01

    The definition of meditation (or yoga) by Patanjali as “restriction (or stilling) of the fluctuations of the mind” may be an appropriate starting point for research on meditation using fMRI. An operational definition of the neural substrate of meditation which is adequate to Patanjalis definition...

  6. 78 FR 35073 - Compass Efficient Model Portfolios, LLC and Compass EMP Funds Trust; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... Balanced Fund, Compass EMP Multi-Asset Growth Fund, Compass EMP Alternative Strategies Fund, Compass EMP Balanced Volatility Weighted Fund, Compass EMP Growth Volatility Weighted Fund, and Compass EMP... Efficient Model Portfolios, LLC and Compass EMP Funds Trust; Notice of Application June 4, 2013. AGENCY...

  7. Impact of short-term meditation and expectation on executive brain functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prätzlich, Martin; Kossowsky, Joe; Gaab, Jens; Krummenacher, Peter

    2016-01-15

    Meditation improves executive functions such as attention and working memory processes. However, it remains unclear to what extent contextual effects contribute to these improvements, since the role of meditation-associated expectations has not been investigated so far. In a randomized, single-blind, deceptive, between-subject design we compared the impact of short-term meditation (MG) on executive functioning with an expectation (ECG) and a passive control group (CG) as well as the effect of positive and negative outcome expectations. Fifty-nine healthy meditation-naïve volunteers participated on three consecutive days (20 min/session). Five groups were examined: 2 MGs, 2 ECGs and 1 CG. While one MG and one ECG were given positive suggestions concerning the effect of meditation on attention, the other two groups were given negative suggestions. MGs practised a focused attention meditation technique; ECGs were told that they were practising meditation but were given instructions for a sham meditation. CG participants sat in silence with their eyes closed. Interference control (Stroop task), selective sustained attention (d2 task), figural and verbal fluency measures of executive functions were assessed. Results indicate that suggestions have a substantial impact on interference control and verbal fluency, with positive suggestions leading to an increase in performance, whereas negative suggestions impeded improvement. This proof of concept study demonstrates the importance of the implementation of a credible ECG to elucidate context effects in meditation processes. It also indicates that suggestions can modulate the small effect of meditation on verbal fluency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Meditation for Work Stress, Anxiety and Depressed Mood in Full-Time Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Manocha

    2011-01-01

    Results. There was a significant improvement for the meditation group compared to both the relaxation control and the wait-list groups the PSQ (P=.026, and DD (P=.019. Conclusions. Mental silence-orientated meditation, in this case Sahaja Yoga meditation, is a safe and effective strategy for dealing with work stress and depressive feelings. The findings suggest that “thought reduction” or “mental silence” may have specific effects relevant to work stress and hence occupational health.

  9. Issues and perspectives in meditation research: in search for a definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Bhuvanesh

    2012-01-01

    Despite the growing interest in the neurobiological correlates of meditation, most research has omitted to take into account the underlying philosophical aspects of meditation and its wider implications. This, in turn, is reflected in issues surrounding definition, study design, and outcomes. Here, I highlight the often ignored but important aspect of definition in the existing scholarship on neuroscience and meditation practice. For a satisfactory account of a neuroscience of meditation, we must aim to retrieve an operational definition that is inclusive of a traditional ontological description as well as the modern neurocognitive account of the phenomena. Moving beyond examining the effects of meditation practice, to take a potential step forward in the direction to establish how meditation works, it becomes crucial to appraise the philosophical positions that underlie the phenomenology of meditation in the originating traditions. This endeavor may challenge our intuitions and concepts in either directions, but issues pertaining to definition, design, and validity of response measures are extremely important for the evolution of the field and will provide a much-needed context and framework for meditation based interventions.

  10. Issues and perspectives in meditation research: In search for a definition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhuvanesh eAwasthi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the growing interest in the neurobiological correlates of meditation, most research has omitted to take into account the underlying philosophical aspects of meditation and its wider implications. This, in turn, is reflected in issues surrounding definition, study design and outcomes. Here, I highlight the often ignored but important aspect of definition in the existing scholarship on neuroscience and meditation practice. For a satisfactory account of a neuroscience of meditation, we must aim to retrieve an operational definition that is inclusive of a traditional ontological description as well as the modern neurocognitive account of the phenomena. Moving beyond examining the effects of meditation practice, to take a potential step forward in the direction to establish how meditation works, it becomes crucial to appraise the philosophical positions that underlie the phenomenology of meditation in the originating traditions. This endeavour may challenge our intuitions and concepts in either directions, but issues pertaining to definition, design and validity of response measures are extremely important for the evolution of the field and will provide a much-needed context and framework for meditation based interventions.

  11. Issues and Perspectives in Meditation Research: In Search for a Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Bhuvanesh

    2013-01-01

    Despite the growing interest in the neurobiological correlates of meditation, most research has omitted to take into account the underlying philosophical aspects of meditation and its wider implications. This, in turn, is reflected in issues surrounding definition, study design, and outcomes. Here, I highlight the often ignored but important aspect of definition in the existing scholarship on neuroscience and meditation practice. For a satisfactory account of a neuroscience of meditation, we must aim to retrieve an operational definition that is inclusive of a traditional ontological description as well as the modern neurocognitive account of the phenomena. Moving beyond examining the effects of meditation practice, to take a potential step forward in the direction to establish how meditation works, it becomes crucial to appraise the philosophical positions that underlie the phenomenology of meditation in the originating traditions. This endeavor may challenge our intuitions and concepts in either directions, but issues pertaining to definition, design, and validity of response measures are extremely important for the evolution of the field and will provide a much-needed context and framework for meditation based interventions. PMID:23335908

  12. Meditating Mothers And Fathers: Long-Term Meditators' Perceptions Of The Influences Of Mindfulness On Parenting

    OpenAIRE

    Hornstein, Eve

    2011-01-01

    While there is a growing body of research to expand our theoretical and conceptual understanding of the multi-faceted construct mindfulness, the majority of studies have thus far focused on the efficacy of short-term mindfulness-based interventions to mitigate symptoms associated with myriad physiological and psychological conditions. Research investigating the relational effects of mindfulness within families is limited. This qualitative study examined eight long-term meditators' perceptions...

  13. Compassion: How Do You Teach It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler-Evans, Patty; Barnes, Candice Dowd

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests that there is a correlation between the violent images and stories we view through media and the effects those stories have on children and young adults, namely the suppression of compassion. With so much emphasis on academic standards, sometimes social emotional skills are grossly neglected. Students are being taught how to…

  14. Effects of brief mindful breathing and loving-kindness meditation on shame and social problem solving abilities among individuals with high borderline personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keng, Shian-Ling; Tan, Jun Xian

    2017-10-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe mental condition characterized by a range of cognitive and behavioral vulnerabilities, including chronic shame and deficits in social problem solving (SPS) abilities. Little research however, has examined strategies that may alleviate shame and SPS deficits among individuals with BPD traits. Using a laboratory experimental approach, the present study compared the effects of a brief mindfulness versus loving-kindness meditation (LKM) induction on shame and SPS abilities in a sample of adults with high BPD traits. Eighty-eight participants underwent a shame induction procedure involving recall of a negative autobiographical memory. They were then randomly assigned to 10 min of mindful breathing or LKM, or a no-instruction condition. Shame and SPS abilities were assessed via visual analogue scales and the Means-Ends Problem Solving task respectively. Results indicated that there were significant decreases in shame from pre-to post-regulation in the mindfulness group versus the LKM and no-instruction groups. Groups did not differ on changes in SPS abilities from pre-to post-regulation. Overall, the findings support the efficacy of mindfulness as a strategy to regulate shame among individuals with BPD traits, and raises questions with regard to the utility of LKM in modulating shame in the context of high emotional arousal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. CREATIVE MEDITATION CENTERED ON NATURAL ELEMENTS: CONSEQUENCES ON COGNITIVE PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Răban-Motounu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article explores some of the effects of a creative meditation centered on a natural element (fire on different aspects of cognitive functioning, commonly associated with well-being, either positively (self-esteem, or negatively (automatic negative thinking and thought suppression. The results showed that while self-esteem improves after the creative meditation, automatic negative thinking and thought suppression do not decrease significantly. The conclusion is that the creative meditation helps in getting in touch with Self, supporting a healthy self-esteem when taking into consideration the social standards, but this also means accepting both positive and negative aspects of self, including the automatic negative thinking and thought suppression. This recommends the technique as a useful tool for psychotherapeutic and personal development use, as the vulnerabilities may become the focus without unnecessary self-blame, but with an intuitive solution in mind to turn them into personal resources.

  16. Meditation for posttraumatic stress: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Lara; Maher, Alicia Ruelaz; Colaiaco, Benjamin; Apaydin, Eric; Sorbero, Melony E; Booth, Marika; Shanman, Roberta M; Hempel, Susanne

    2017-07-01

    We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis that synthesized evidence from randomized controlled trials of meditation interventions to provide estimates of their efficacy and safety in treating adults diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This review was based on an established protocol (PROSPERO: CRD42015025782) and is reported according to PRISMA guidelines. Outcomes of interest included PTSD symptoms, depression, anxiety, health-related quality of life, functional status, and adverse events. Meta-analyses were conducted using the Hartung-Knapp-Sidik-Jonkman method for random-effects models. Quality of evidence was assessed using the Grade of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. In total, 10 trials on meditation interventions for PTSD with 643 participants met inclusion criteria. Across interventions, adjunctive meditation interventions of mindfulness-based stress reduction, yoga, and the mantram repetition program improve PTSD and depression symptoms compared with control groups, but the findings are based on low and moderate quality of evidence. Effects were positive but not statistically significant for quality of life and anxiety, and no studies addressed functional status. The variety of meditation intervention types, the short follow-up times, and the quality of studies limited analyses. No adverse events were reported in the included studies; only half of the studies reported on safety. Meditation appears to be effective for PTSD and depression symptoms, but in order to increase confidence in findings, more high-quality studies are needed on meditation as adjunctive treatment with PTSD-diagnosed participant samples large enough to detect statistical differences in outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Laughing and crying: mixed emotions, compassion, and the effectiveness of a YouTube PSA about skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrick, Jessica Gall; Oliver, Mary Beth

    2015-01-01

    Emotionally evocative public service announcements are one way that public health advocates hope to persuade people to take action against skin cancer, the most common type of cancer in the United States. This article describes an experiment (N = 193) to test the ways mixed emotional appeals influence communication and health outcomes. The data indicate that mixed emotional appeals foster feelings of compassion, which in turn motivate individual and social behaviors. The findings also provide insight into how audience reactions of fear impact postmessage behaviors. Implications for future research and health message design are discussed.

  18. 'The research compass'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringsted, Charlotte; Hodges, Brian; Scherpbier, Albert

    2011-01-01

    by the complexity of the field. Next is a section on how to move from an idea or problem to a research question by placing a concrete idea or problem within a conceptual, theoretical framework. The following sections are structured around an overview model of approaches to medical education research, 'The research...... compass'. Core to the model is the conceptual, theoretical framework that is the key to any direction. The compass depicts four main categories of research approaches that can be applied when studying medical education phenomena, 'Explorative studies'; 'Experimental studies'; 'Observational studies......This AMEE Guide offers an introduction to research in medical education. It is intended for those who are contemplating conducting research in medical education but are new to the field. The Guide is structured around the process of transforming ideas and problems into researchable questions...

  19. Baryon spectroscopy in COMPASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austregesilo, Alexander; Chung, Suh-Urk; Ketzer, Bernhard; Neubert, Sebastian; Paul, Stephan [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department E18, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    COMPASS is a fixed-target experiment at CERN SPS which investigates the structure and spectroscopy of hadrons. During in total 9 weeks in 2008 and 2009, a 190 GeV/c proton beam impinging on a liquid hydrogen target has been used primarily to study the production of exotic mesons and glueball candidates at central rapidities. As no bias on the rapidity was introduced by the trigger system, the data also yield the unique possibility to study diffractive dissociation of the beam proton while an inert target is assumed. To this end exclusive events with three charged particles including one proton in the final state have been extracted. We report on the status of the event selection studies and discuss the prospect of using partial wave analysis techniques, which have been successfully applied for diffractive dissociation reactions of pions in COMPASS.

  20. Hadron multiplicities at COMPASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Fresne von Hohenesche, Nicolas [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Mainz, Johann-Joachim-Becher-Weg 45, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Collaboration: COMPASS Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    Quark fragmentation functions (FF) D{sub q}{sup h}(z,Q{sup 2}) describe final-state hadronization of quarks q into hadrons h. The FFs can be extracted from hadron multiplicities produced in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering. The COMPASS collaboration has recently measured charged hadron multiplicities for identified pions and kaons using a 160 GeV/c muon beam impinging on an iso-scalar target. The data cover a large kinematical range and provide an important input for global QCD analyses of world data at NLO, aiming at the determination of FFs in particular in the strange quark sector. The newest results from COMPASS on pion and kaon multiplicities will be presented.

  1. Microscale magnetic compasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiozawa, Hidetsugu; Zhang, Desai; Eisterer, Michael; Ayala, Paola; Pichler, Thomas; McCartney, Martha R.; Smith, David J.

    2017-09-01

    Microscale magnetic compasses have been synthesized with high yield. These ferromagnetic iron carbide nano-particles, which are encapsulated in a pair of parallel carbon needles, change their orientation in response to an external magnetic field. Electron holography reveals magnetic fields confined to the vicinity of the bicone-shaped particles, which are composed of only a few ferromagnetic domains. Aligned magnetically and encapsulated in an acrylate polymer matrix, these micro-compasses exhibit anisotropic bulk magnetic permeability with an easy axis normal to the needle direction that can be understood as a result of the anisotropic demagnetizing field of a non-spherical single-domain particle. This novel type of material with orthogonal magnetic and structural axes could be highly useful as magnetic components in electromagnetic wave absorbent materials and magnetorheological fluids.

  2. Descriptive study of burnout, compassion fatigue and compassion satisfaction in undergraduate nursing students at a tertiary education institution in KwaZulu-Natal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Christina T; Wentzel, Dorien L

    2017-09-22

    Studies have investigated burnout and compassion fatigue among nurses and effects in the nursing profession. However, there are limited investigations of burnout and compassion fatigue among undergraduate nursing students in South Africa, as nursing students may experience distressful situations during their nursing education course, which may have an impact during their training and in their profession as they graduate. The purpose of this descriptive study was to describe compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue and burnout among undergraduate nursing students at a tertiary nursing institution. A quantitative descriptive study was conducted to describe compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue and burnout among undergraduate nursing students at a tertiary nursing institution in KwaZulu-Natal. Convenience sampling was used. Sixty-seven undergraduate students (26 third-year and 41 fourth-year nursing students) took the self-test Professional Quality of Life Scale (ProQOL). The study results indicate that undergraduate students experienced average levels of compassion fatigue, burnout and compassion satisfaction. As shown in the study, some of the undergraduate students are experiencing compassion fatigue and burnout, associated with relieving suffering of others. Therefore, knowledge of compassion fatigue and burnout and the coping strategies should be part of nursing training.

  3. Meditation and successful aging: can meditative practices counteract age-related cognitive decline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperduti, Marco; Makowski, Dominique; Blondé, Philippe; Piolino, Pascale

    2017-06-01

    Life expectancy is constantly increasing in the developed countries due to medical, hygiene and socio-economic advances. Unfortunately, a longer life not always corresponds to a healthier life. Indeed, aging is associated with growing risk factors for illness associated with societal conditions (isolation, maltreatment), and neurodegenerative diseases. Even normal aging is associated with a cognitive decline that can hinder independence and quality of life of elderly. Thus, one major societal challenge is to build policies that support people of all ages to maintain a maximum health and functional capacity throughout their lives. Meditation could be a promising intervention in contrasting the negative effects of aging. Indeed, it has been shown to enhance cognitive efficiency in several domains, such as attention and executive functions in young adults. Nevertheless, whether these effects extend to old participants is still a matter of debate. Few studies have directly investigated this issue, reporting encouraging results in a large panel of cognitive functions, such as: attention, executive functions and memory. However, a final conclusion about the causal role of meditation and the generalization of these results is made difficult due to several methodological limitations. We propose a roadmap for future studies to pass these limitations with the hope that the present work would contribute to the development of the young research field of meditation in gerontology.

  4. COMPASS spins in new directions

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    The COMPASS experiment is preparing for a new phase in its physics programme: COMPASS-II. Due to start in 2014, COMPASS-II will bring a powerful new look at the building blocks of protons: quarks and gluons.     The COMPASS installation.   It’s an exciting and busy time for COMPASS. As one of the few experiments in the world capable of studying the internal structure of protons with high precision, COMPASS uses secondary beams from the SPS accelerator to study a variety of quark and gluon properties. This includes their distribution within nucleons, their contribution to nucleon spin and the way they form hadrons when pulled out from the nucleon - all properties that may also improve the understanding of proton collisions in the LHC. In 2014, a new chapter will begin for the COMPASS collaboration. “We have two new phases planned for COMPASS-II,” explains Fabienne Kunne, COMPASS co-spokesperson. “The first will begin in 2014, collidi...

  5. Levels of immune cells in transcendental meditation practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose R Infante

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: The technique of meditation studied seems to have a significant effect on immune cells, manifesting in the different circulating levels of lymphocyte subsets analyzed. The significant effect of TM on the neuroendocrine axis and its relationship with the immune system may partly explain our results.

  6. The Lived Experience of Meditation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    as I emerged out of them, and regained connection with my body. ... I began this research with the assumption that meditation occurs when I apply a ... did this with an open frame of mind, recording .... cognitive processing than the textural one. It ..... My daily experience is more accurately ..... phenomenological psychology.

  7. Self-Compassion Online: A Pilot Study of an Internet-Based Self-Compassion Cultivation Program for Psychology Trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlay-Jones, Amy; Kane, Robert; Rees, Clare

    2017-07-01

    The current study sought to conduct a preliminary investigation of the effectiveness and feasibility of a novel, self-guided online self-compassion training for reducing psychological distress and increasing self-compassion and happiness among psychology trainees. A 6-week online self-compassion cultivation program was developed and delivered to Australian psychology trainees (n = 37), and a pre-experimental repeated-measures design was used to collect change data on self-compassion, happiness, perceived stress, emotion regulation difficulties as well as symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress. Participants reported significant increases in self-compassion and happiness and significant decreases in depression, stress, and emotion regulation difficulties between pretest and posttest, with the majority of changes maintained at 3-month follow up.  This study provides preliminary evidence supporting the effectiveness and acceptability of online self-compassion training as a positive, integrated, and meaningful way of reducing distress and promoting self-compassion and happiness among trainee psychologists. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The Unique Brain Anatomy of Meditation Practitioners: Alterations in Cortical Gyrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luders, Eileen; Kurth, Florian; Mayer, Emeran A.; Toga, Arthur W.; Narr, Katherine L.; Gaser, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Several cortical regions are reported to vary in meditation practitioners. However, prior analyses have focused primarily on examining gray matter or cortical thickness. Thus, additional effects with respect to other cortical features might have remained undetected. Gyrification (the pattern and degree of cortical folding) is an important cerebral characteristic related to the geometry of the brain’s surface. Thus, exploring cortical gyrification in long-term meditators may provide additional clues with respect to the underlying anatomical correlates of meditation. This study examined cortical gyrification in a large sample (n = 100) of meditators and controls, carefully matched for sex and age. Cortical gyrification was established by calculating mean curvature across thousands of vertices on individual cortical surface models. Pronounced group differences indicating larger gyrification in meditators were evident within the left precentral gyrus, right fusiform gyrus, right cuneus, as well as left and right anterior dorsal insula (the latter representing the global significance maximum). Positive correlations between gyrification and the number of meditation years were similarly pronounced in the right anterior dorsal insula. Although the exact functional implications of larger cortical gyrification remain to be established, these findings suggest the insula to be a key structure involved in aspects of meditation. For example, variations in insular complexity could affect the regulation of well-known distractions in the process of meditation, such as daydreaming, mind-wandering, and projections into past or future. Moreover, given that meditators are masters in introspection, awareness, and emotional control, increased insular gyrification may reflect an integration of autonomic, affective, and cognitive processes. Due to the cross-sectional nature of this study, further research is necessary to determine the relative contribution of nature and nurture to

  9. Pranic meditation affects phagocyte functions and hormonal levels of recent practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, César A; Nóbrega, Yanna K M; Tosta, C Eduardo

    2012-08-01

    Despite the recognized importance of phagocytes in the maintenance and recovery of health, the influence of meditation on their functions is not properly established. This investigation aimed at evaluating the influence of pranic meditation on the functions of phagocytes, and on the levels of hormones that influence them. A pre-post design was adopted. The investigation was carried out at a university research laboratory. Twenty-nine (29) healthy individuals of both sexes, 24-67 years old (median 45), with no previous experience in meditation, received 3-hour-duration weekly training on pranic meditation during 10 weeks and agreed to engage in daily home practice for 20 minutes. Pranic meditation is a novel method of meditation, based on the Vedic tradition, which uses techniques of breathing and visualization for quieting the mind, and for capturing and intentionally directing prana ("vital energy") wherever necessary. For assessing phagocytosis, the production of hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide by monocytes, and the concentrations of corticotrophin and cortisol, blood was collected at the beginning (week 1), at the middle (week 5), and by the end (week 10) of the practice period. At the same intervals, melatonin concentrations were evaluated in the saliva. Those who meditated for more than 980 minutes showed increased phagocytosis, their monocytes produced higher concentrations of hydrogen peroxide, and their plasma levels of corticotrophin were reduced. The production of nitric oxide by monocytes, and the levels of cortisol and melatonin were not modified by meditation. This is the first study to show that a short program of pranic meditation practice was able to upregulate the function and metabolism of phagocytes, in parallel with the reduction of the plasma levels of corticotrophin. The results of this study point to a possible causal effect between these events, and indicate that pranic meditation could be useful for stimulating the function and

  10. Exploring the effects of galantamine paired with meditation and dream reliving on recalled dreams: Toward an integrated protocol for lucid dream induction and nightmare resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, Gregory; Hurd, Ryan; Carlson, Ralph; Molina, Ana

    2018-06-27

    An experimental home study examined the impact of a pre-sleep protocol for enhancing self-awareness, lucidity, and responsiveness in dreams. It included ingesting the cholinesterase inhibitor galantamine--which is widely reported to increase the frequency of lucid dreaming--prior to engaging in middle-of-the-night meditation and the imaginary reliving of a distressing dream while exercising new responses. Thirty-five participants completed an eight-night study, which included pre- and post-baseline nights and six conditions: waking for 40 min before returning to bed, called Wake-Back-to-Bed (WBTB); Wake-Back-to-Bed plus placebo (WBTB + P); Wake-Back-to-Bed plus galantamine (WBTB + G); meditation and dream reliving (MDR); meditation and dream reliving plus placebo (MDR + P); and meditation and dream reliving plus galantamine (MDR + G). The outcome measures included lucidity, reflectiveness, interactive behavior, role change, constructive action, and fear and threat, as measured by the participants' self-ratings. The results support the use of this protocol in further studies of lucid dream induction and nightmare/trauma resolution. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of the Transcendental Meditation Program on Graduation, College Acceptance and Dropout Rates for Students Attending an Urban Public High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    High school graduation rates nationally have declined in recent years, despite public and private efforts. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether practice of the Quiet Time/Transcendental Meditation® program at a medium-size urban school results in higher school graduation rates compared to students who do not receive training…

  12. Mindfulness meditation and the immune system: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, David S; Slavich, George M

    2016-06-01

    Mindfulness meditation represents a mental training framework for cultivating the state of mindful awareness in daily life. Recently, there has been a surge of interest in how mindfulness meditation improves human health and well-being. Although studies have shown that mindfulness meditation can improve self-reported measures of disease symptomatology, the effect that mindfulness meditation has on biological mechanisms underlying human aging and disease is less clear. To address this issue, we conducted the first comprehensive review of randomized controlled trials examining the effects of mindfulness meditation on immune system parameters, with a specific focus on five outcomes: (1) circulating and stimulated inflammatory proteins, (2) cellular transcription factors and gene expression, (3) immune cell count, (4) immune cell aging, and (5) antibody response. This analysis revealed substantial heterogeneity across studies with respect to patient population, study design, and assay procedures. The findings suggest possible effects of mindfulness meditation on specific markers of inflammation, cell-mediated immunity, and biological aging, but these results are tentative and require further replication. On the basis of this analysis, we describe the limitations of existing work and suggest possible avenues for future research. Mindfulness meditation may be salutogenic for immune system dynamics, but additional work is needed to examine these effects. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  13. Influence of long-term Sahaja Yoga meditation practice on emotional processing in the brain: An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reva, N V; Pavlov, S V; Loktev, K V; Korenyok, V V; Aftanas, L I

    2014-12-05

    Despite growing interest in meditation as a tool for alternative therapy of stress-related and psychosomatic diseases, brain mechanisms of beneficial influences of meditation practice on health and quality of life are still unclear. We propose that the key point is a persistent change in emotional functioning, specifically the modulation of the early appraisal of motivational significance of events. The main aim was to study the effects of long-term meditation practice on event-related brain potentials (ERPs) during affective picture viewing. ERPs were recorded in 20 long-term Sahaja Yoga meditators and 20 control subjects without prior experience in meditation. The meditators' mid-latency (140-400ms) ERPs were attenuated for both positive and negative pictures (i.e. there were no arousal-related increases in ERP positivity) and this effect was more prominent over the right hemisphere. However, we found no differences in the long latency (400-800ms) responses to emotional images, associated with meditation practice. In addition we found stronger ERP negativity in the time window 200-300ms for meditators compared to the controls, regardless of picture valence. We assume that long-term meditation practice enhances frontal top-down control over fast automatic salience detection, based on amygdala functions. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Compassion, Mindfulness, and the Happiness of Healthcare Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzo, Roberto P; Kirsch, Janae L; Nelson, Carlie

    Decreased well-being of healthcare workers expressed as stress and decreased job satisfaction influences patient safety, patient satisfaction, and cost containment. Self-compassion has garnered recent attention due to its positive association with well-being and happiness. Discovering novel pathways to increase the well-being of healthcare workers is essential. This study sought to explore the influence of self-compassion on employee happiness in healthcare professionals. A total of 400 participants (mean age = 45 ± 14, 65% female) healthcare workers at a large teaching hospital were randomly asked to complete questionnaires assessing their levels of happiness and self-compassion, life conditions, and habits. Participants completed the Happiness Scale and Self-Compassion Scales, the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire as well as variables associated with well-being: relationship status, the number of hours spent exercising a week, attendance at a wellness facility, and engagement in a regular spiritual practice. Self-compassion was significantly and independently associated with perceived happiness explaining 39% of its variance after adjusting for age, marital status, gender, time spent exercising, and attendance to an exercise facility. Two specific subdomains of self-compassion from the instrument used, coping with isolation and mindfulness, accounted for 95% of the self-compassion effect on happiness. Self-compassion is meaningfully and independently associated with happiness and well-being in healthcare professionals. Our results may have practical implications by providing specific self-compassion components to be targeted in future programs aimed at enhancing well-being in healthcare professionals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. What it means to be Zen: marked modulations of local and interareal synchronization during open monitoring meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauswald, Anne; Übelacker, Teresa; Leske, Sabine; Weisz, Nathan

    2015-03-01

    Experienced meditators are able to voluntarily modulate their state of consciousness and attention. In the present study, we took advantage of this ability and studied brain activity related to the shift of mental state. Electrophysiological activity, i.e. EEG, was recorded from 11 subjects with varying degrees of meditation experience during Zen meditation (a form of open monitoring meditation) and during non-meditation rest. On a behavioral level, mindfulness scores were assessed using the Mindfulness Attention and Awareness Scale (MAAS). Analysis of EEG source power revealed the so far unreported finding that MAAS scores significantly correlated with gamma power (30-250Hz), particularly high-frequency gamma (100-245Hz), during meditation. High levels of mindfulness were related to increased high-frequency gamma, for example, in the cingulate cortex and somatosensory cortices. Further, we analyzed the relationship between connectivity during meditation and self-reported mindfulness (MAAS). We found a correlation between graph measures in the 160-170Hz range and MAAS scores. Higher levels of mindfulness were related to lower small worldedness as well as global and local clustering in paracentral, insular, and thalamic regions during meditation. In sum, the present study shows significant relationships of mindfulness and brain activity during meditation indicated by measures of oscillatory power and graph theoretical measures. The most prominent effects occur in brain structures crucially involved in processes of awareness and attention, which also show structural changes in short- and long-term meditators, suggesting continuative alterations in the meditating brain. Overall, our study reveals strong changes in ongoing oscillatory activity as well as connectivity patterns that appear to be sensitive to the psychological state changes induced by Zen meditation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Regular, brief mindfulness meditation practice improves electrophysiological markers of attentional control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Adam; Gruber, Thomas; Derose, Jennifer; Malinowski, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Mindfulness-based meditation practices involve various attentional skills, including the ability to sustain and focus ones attention. During a simple mindful breathing practice, sustained attention is required to maintain focus on the breath while cognitive control is required to detect mind wandering. We thus hypothesized that regular, brief mindfulness training would result in improvements in the self-regulation of attention and foster changes in neuronal activity related to attentional control. A longitudinal randomized control group EEG study was conducted. At baseline (T1), 40 meditation naïve participants were randomized into a wait list group and a meditation group, who received three hours mindfulness meditation training. Twenty-eight participants remained in the final analysis. At T1, after eight weeks (T2) and after 16 weeks (T3), all participants performed a computerized Stroop task (a measure of attentional control) while the 64-channel EEG was recorded. Between T1 and T3 the meditators were requested to meditate daily for 10 min. Event-related potential (ERP) analysis highlighted two between group effects that developed over the course of the 16-week mindfulness training. An early effect at left and right posterior sites 160–240 ms post-stimulus indicated that meditation practice improved the focusing of attentional resources. A second effect at central posterior sites 310–380 ms post-stimulus reflects that meditation practice reduced the recruitment of resources during object recognition processes, especially for incongruent stimuli. Scalp topographies and source analyses (Variable Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography, VARETA) indicate relevant changes in neural sources, pertaining to left medial and lateral occipitotemporal areas for the early effect and right lateral occipitotemporal and inferior temporal areas for the later effect. The results suggest that mindfulness meditation may alter the efficiency of allocating cognitive resources

  17. Regular, brief mindfulness meditation practice improves electrophysiological markers of attentional control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam W Moore

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Mindfulness based meditation practices involve various attentional skills, including the ability to sustain and focus ones attention. During a simple mindful breathing practice, sustained attention is required to maintain focus on the breath while cognitive control is required to detect mind wandering. We thus hypothesized that regular, brief mindfulness training would result in improvements in the self regulation of attention and foster changes in neuronal activity related to attentional control.A longitudinal randomized control group EEG study was conducted. At baseline (T1, 40 meditation naïve participants were randomized into a wait list group and a meditation group, who received three hours mindfulness meditation training. 28 participants remained in the final analysis. At T1, after 8 weeks (T2 and after 16 weeks (T3, all participants performed a computerized Stroop task (a measure of attentional control while the 64-channel EEG was recorded. Between T1 and T3 the meditators were requested to meditate daily for ten minutes.Event-related potential (ERP analysis highlighted two between group effects that developed over the course of the 16-week mindfulness training. An early effect at left and right posterior sites 160 – 240 ms post stimulus indicated that meditation practice improved the focusing of attentional resources. A second effect at central posterior sites 310 – 380 ms post stimulus reflects that meditation practice reduced the recruitment of resources during object recognition processes, especially for incongruent stimuli. Scalp topographies and source analyses (VARETA indicate relevant changes in neural sources, pertaining to left medial and lateral occipitotemporal areas for the early effect and right lateral occipitotemporal and inferior temporal areas for the later effect.The results suggest that mindfulness meditation may alter the efficiency of allocating cognitive resources, leading to improved self regulation of

  18. Meditative Movement for Depression and Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter ePayne

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on Meditative Movement (MM and its effects on anxiety, depression and other affective states. MM is a term identifying forms of exercise that use movement in conjunction with meditative attention to body sensations, including proprioception, interoception and kinesthesis. MM includes the traditional Chinese methods of Qigong (Chi Kung and Taijiquan (Tai Chi, some forms of Yoga and other Asian practices, as well as Western Somatic practices; however this review focuses primarily on Qigong and Taijiquan. We clarify the differences between MM and conventional exercise, present descriptions of several of the key methodologies of MM, and suggest how research into these practices may be approached in a systematic way. We also present evidence for possible mechanisms of the effects of MM on affective states, including the roles of posture, rhythm, coherent breathing, and the involvement of specific cortical and subcortical structures. We survey research outcomes summarized in reviews published since 2007. Results suggest that MM may be at least as effective as conventional exercise or other interventions in ameliorating anxiety and depression; however, study quality is generally poor and there are many confounding factors. This makes it difficult to draw definitive conclusions at this time. We suggest, however, that more research is warranted, and we offer specific suggestions for ensuring high-quality and productive future studies.

  19. Greater efficiency in attentional processing related to mindfulness meditation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurk, P.A.M. van den; Giommi, F.; Gielen, S.C.A.M.; Speckens, A.E.M.; Barendregt, H.P.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, attentional processing in relation to mindfulness meditation was investigated. Since recent studies have suggested that mindfulness meditation may induce improvements in attentional processing, we have tested 20 expert mindfulness meditators in the attention network test. Their

  20. Presence of Mind: A Qualitative Study of Meditating Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Michèle; Miller, John P.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study into the effects of meditation practice on the lives of professional educators, specifically educators who either began or continued such practice during course work led by Professor Miller at the University of Toronto. The study incorporates semistructured interviews with 12 participants to track their…

  1. Overview: clinical and physiological comparison of meditation with other self-control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, D H

    1982-03-01

    In 1977 the American Psychiatric Association called for a critical examination of the clinical effectiveness of meditation. The author provides a review of the literature bearing on clinical and physiological comparisons of meditation with other self-control strategies. He begins by providing a definition of mediation and then cites the literature comparing mediation with such self-regulation strategies as biofeedback, hypnosis, and progressive relaxation. He pays particular attention to the "uniqueness" of mediation as a clinical intervention strategy a well as the adverse effects of meditation. Finally, he offers suggestions and guidelines for future research.

  2. A Randomized Controlled Trial on Effects of the Transcendental Meditation Program on Blood Pressure, Psychological Distress, and Coping in Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nidich, Sanford I.; Rainforth, Maxwell V.; Haaga, David A.F.; Hagelin, John; Salerno, John W.; Travis, Fred; Tanner, Melissa; Gaylord-King, Carolyn; Grosswald, Sarina; Schneider, Robert H.

    2009-01-01

    Background Psychological distress contributes to the development of hypertension in young adults. This trial assessed the effects of a mind–body intervention on blood pressure (BP), psychological distress, and coping in college students. Methods This was a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of 298 university students randomly allocated to either the Transcendental Meditation (TM) program or wait-list control. At baseline and after 3 months, BP, psychological distress, and coping ability were assessed. A subgroup of 159 subjects at risk for hypertension was analyzed similarly. Results Changes in systolic BP (SBP)/diastolic BP (DBP) for the overall sample were −2.0/−1.2 mm Hg for the TM group compared to +0.4/+0.5 mm Hg for controls (P = 0.15, P = 0.15, respectively). Changes in SBP/DBP for the hypertension risk subgroup were −5.0/−2.8 mm Hg for the TM group compared to +1.3/+1.2 mm Hg for controls (P = 0.014, P = 0.028, respectively). Significant improvements were found in total psychological distress, anxiety, depression, anger/hostility, and coping (P values < 0.05). Changes in psychological distress and coping correlated with changes in SBP (P values < 0.05) and DBP (P values < 0.08). Conclusions This is the first RCT to demonstrate that a selected mind–body intervention, the TM program, decreased BP in association with decreased psychological distress, and increased coping in young adults at risk for hypertension. This mind–body program may reduce the risk for future development of hypertension in young adults. PMID:19798037

  3. Spin Physics at COMPASS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schill, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The COMPASS experiment is a fixed target experiment at the CERN SPS using muon and hadron beams for the investigation of the spin structure of the nucleon and hadron spectroscopy. The main objective of the muon physics program is the study of the spin of the nucleon in terms of its constituents, quarks and gluons. COMPASS has accumulated data during 6 years scattering polarized muons off longitudinally or transversely polarized deuteron ( 6 LiD) or proton (NH 3 ) targets. Results for the gluon polarization are obtained from longitudinal double spin cross section asymmetries using two different channels, open charm production and high transverse momentum hadron pairs, both proceeding through the photon-gluon fusion process. Also, the longitudinal spin structure functions of the proton and the deuteron were measured in parallel as well as the helicity distributions for the three lightest quark flavours. With a transversely polarized target, results were obtained with proton and deuteron targets for the Collins and Sivers asymmetries for charged hadrons as well as for identified kaons and pions. The Collins asymmetry is sensitive to the transverse spin structure of the nucleon, while the Sivers asymmetry reflects correlations between the quark transverse momentum and the nucleon spin. Recently, a new proposal for the COMPASS II experiment was accepted by the CERN SPS which includes two new topics: Exclusive reactions like DVCS and DVMP using the muon beam and a hydrogen target to study generalized parton distributions and Drell-Yan measurements using a pion beam and a polarized NH 3 target to study transverse momentum dependent distributions.

  4. THE ADVANCED STELLAR COMPASS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Liebe, Carl Christian

    1997-01-01

    The science objective of the Danish Geomagnetic Research Satellite "Ørsted" is to map the magnetic field of the Earth, with a vector precision of a fraction of a nanotesla. This necessitates an attitude reference instrument with a precision of a few arcseconds onboard the satellite. To meet...... this demand the Advanced Stellar Compass (ASC), a fully autonomous miniature star tracker, was developed. This ASC is capable of both solving the "lost in space" problem and determine the attitude with arcseconds precision. The development, principles of operation and instrument autonomy of the ASC...

  5. GPD program at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    D'Hose, N

    2010-01-01

    The study of exclusive reactions like Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) and Meson Production is one major part of the future COMPASS program1 in order to investigate nucleon structure through Generalised Parton Distributions (GPD). The high energy of the muon beam allows to measure the $x_{B}$-dependence of the $t$-slope of the pure DVCS cross section and to study nucleon tomography. The use of positive and negative polarised muon beams allows to determine the Beam Charge and Spin Difference of the DVCS cross sections to access the real part of the Compton form factor related to the dominant GPD H.

  6. Mindfulness meditation as an intervention for binge eating, emotional eating, and weight loss: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katterman, Shawn N; Kleinman, Brighid M; Hood, Megan M; Nackers, Lisa M; Corsica, Joyce A

    2014-04-01

    Mindfulness-based approaches are growing in popularity as interventions for disordered eating and weight loss. Initial research suggests that mindfulness meditation may be an effective intervention for binge eating; however, no systematic review has examined interventions where mindfulness meditation was the primary intervention and no review has examined its effect on subclinical disordered eating or weight. Using the PRISMA method for systematic reviews, we reviewed 14 studies that investigated mindfulness meditation as the primary intervention and assessed binge eating, emotional eating, and/or weight change. Results suggest that mindfulness meditation effectively decreases binge eating and emotional eating in populations engaging in this behavior; evidence for its effect on weight is mixed. Additional research is warranted to determine comparative effectiveness and long-term effects of mindfulness training. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Compassion satisfaction, burnout, and compassion fatigue among emergency nurses compared with nurses in other selected inpatient specialties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Crystal; Craig, Janet; Janvrin, David R; Wetsel, Margaret A; Reimels, Elaine

    2010-09-01

    Today the proportion of acute patients entering the health care system through emergency departments continues to grow, the number of uninsured patients relying primarily on treatment in the emergency department is increasing, and patients' average acuities are rising. At the same time, support resources are constrained, while reimbursement and reputation depends increasingly on publicly available measures of patient satisfaction. It is important to understand the potential effect of these pressures on direct care staff. This study explores the prevalence of compassion satisfaction, burnout, and compassion fatigue among emergency nurses and nurses in other selected inpatient specialties. Emergency nurses and nurses from 3 other specialty units self-selected participation in a cross-sectional survey. Participants completed a sociodemographic profile and the Professional Quality of Life: Compassion Satisfaction and Fatigue Subscales, R-IV. Scale scores were summed for compassion satisfaction, burnout, and compassion fatigue for emergency nurses and compared with those of nurses in other specialties. Approximately 82% of emergency nurses had moderate to high levels of burnout, and nearly 86% had moderate to high levels of compassion fatigue. Differences between emergency nurses and those working in 3 other specialty areas, that is, oncology, nephrology, and intensive care, on the subscales for compassion satisfaction, burnout, or compassion fatigue did not reach the level of statistical significance. However, the scores of emergency nurses evidenced a risk for less compassion satisfaction, while intensive care nurses demonstrated a higher risk for burnout and oncology nurses reflected a risk for higher compassion fatigue. ED nurse managers, along with other nurse leaders, are faced with the competing demands of managing the satisfaction of patients, recruitment and retention of experienced nurses, and provision of quality and safe care customized to patients' needs

  8. MEDITATION IN THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE CLASSROOM

    OpenAIRE

    Pegan, Tjaša

    2016-01-01

    The practical action research study in this diploma thesis, Meditation in the English Language Classroom, was performed as a mini-experiment which was initially set up to explore meditation and assess its potential and use in education. Regarding English as a foreign language, language learning combined visual and auditory information, and it was based on visual and verbal memory. One of the objectives in the theoretical part was to find a ‘universal formula’ which could help bring meditation...

  9. Ombuds’ corner: Ethics and compassion

    CERN Multimedia

    Vincent Vuillemin

    2013-01-01

    We can all agree that efficiency leads excellent results; this is a cornerstone in research and organisational matters. However, people may not unanimously point to which method of management and leadership is best for achieving such a goal.   Some believe in an authoritarian approach, pushing people to their maximum potentials; others advocate a softer approach, making close friends with everyone; and some have no strategy for workplace relationships, and only consider due dates and deliverables. All of these methods can be very effective, but none is completely perfect. Beyond such methods, at the source of working relationships, ethics and compassion should “shine like a lighthouse over the ocean of the tasks to undertake”. Why? When hearing “ethics” and “compassion” linked together, people may think: “Oh! We do not need to like each other; we just have to work together!” But we are the creators of our environ...

  10. Meditation and Dance in Creative Society: Contemplative Consciousness in Daoism, Zen and Argentine Tango

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieška Juzefovič

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the particularly relevant topic in the contemporary society – Asian meditative practices and methods of self-development. The first chapter deals with the notion of contemplative, enlightened consciousness in Daoism and Zen. The second chapter shows how meditative consciousness could be achieved through social tango. Six theses are argued as appropriate for both Daoism and Zen as well as tango: 1 contemplative, purified consciousness is empty of disturbing thoughts and focused toward the essence; 2 contemplative, purified consciousness is not only empty but also brimming full; 3 contemplative, purified consciousness is identical with everyday mind; 4 contemplative mind is functioning according to the principles of non-action and naturalness; 5 meditation leads toward the unity and integrity of consciousness and body, consciousness and outside world; 6 active meditation is an effective way to obtain aims mentioned above. The argumentation of such thesis helps to show that tango is akin to various meditative practices. So it could not only be successfully used as a form of entertainment but also as a meditative practice, leading toward aims, similar to those of Zen meditations.

  11. Event-related delta, theta, alpha and gamma correlates to auditory oddball processing during Vipassana meditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorme, Arnaud; Polich, John

    2013-01-01

    Long-term Vipassana meditators sat in meditation vs. a control (instructed mind wandering) states for 25 min, electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded and condition order counterbalanced. For the last 4 min, a three-stimulus auditory oddball series was presented during both meditation and control periods through headphones and no task imposed. Time-frequency analysis demonstrated that meditation relative to the control condition evinced decreased evoked delta (2–4 Hz) power to distracter stimuli concomitantly with a greater event-related reduction of late (500–900 ms) alpha-1 (8–10 Hz) activity, which indexed altered dynamics of attentional engagement to distracters. Additionally, standard stimuli were associated with increased early event-related alpha phase synchrony (inter-trial coherence) and evoked theta (4–8 Hz) phase synchrony, suggesting enhanced processing of the habituated standard background stimuli. Finally, during meditation, there was a greater differential early-evoked gamma power to the different stimulus classes. Correlation analysis indicated that this effect stemmed from a meditation state-related increase in early distracter-evoked gamma power and phase synchrony specific to longer-term expert practitioners. The findings suggest that Vipassana meditation evokes a brain state of enhanced perceptual clarity and decreased automated reactivity. PMID:22648958

  12. Opinions and practices of medical rehabilitation professionals regarding prayer and meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberger, Nancy E; Matheis, Robert J; Shiflett, Samuel C; Cotter, Ann C

    2002-02-01

    To assess the attitudes and practices of professionals in the field of physical medicine and rehabilitation (PM&R) regarding prayer and meditation. A national mail survey that included questions about the use of a number of complementary and alternative therapies. The survey was mailed to 7,479 physicians, nurses, physical therapists, and occupational therapists who specialize in PM&R, and 1221 (17%) returned completed surveys. Although the majority of respondents endorsed prayer as a legitimate health care practice, there was greater belief in the benefits of meditation. Older respondents were more likely to recommend meditation to their patients and more likely to meditate themselves. Gender differences that were observed in opinions and practices are better interpreted as differences in professional specialty. In general, nurses and occupational therapists responded more positively toward meditation and prayer than did physicians and physical therapists. Personal use of a technique was the strongest predictor of professional behaviors. Attitude was a stronger predictor of professional use or referral for prayer than meditation, but correlations between attitude and behavior were generally weak for both techniques. Despite their acceptance of these techniques, the vast majority of rehabilitation professionals did not refer their patients for meditation or religious consultation. Although there were significant relationships among beliefs, and personal and professional behaviors regarding these techniques, a large part of the variance in professional behaviors was not accounted for by age, gender, opinion, or personal behavior, indicating that other influences exert a stronger effect on professional practice decisions.

  13. Meson Spectroscopy at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Grube, Boris

    2015-01-01

    The COmmon Muon and Proton Apparatus for Structure and Spectroscopy (COMPASS) is a multi-purpose fixed-target experiment at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) aimed at studying the structure and spectrum of hadrons. The two-stage spectrometer has a good acceptance for charged as well as neutral particles over a wide kinematic range and thus allows to access a wide range of reactions. Light mesons are studied with negative (mostly $\\pi^-$) and positive ($p$, $\\pi^+$) hadron beams with a momentum of 190 GeV/$c$. The spectrum of light mesons is investigated in various final states produced in diffractive dissociation reactions at squared four-momentum transfers to the target between 0.1 and 1.0 $(\\text{GeV}/c)^2$. The flagship channel is the $\\pi^-\\pi^+\\pi^-$ final state, for which COMPASS has recorded the currently largest data sample. These data not only allow to measure the properties of known resonances with high precision, but also to search for new states. Among these is a new resonance-like signal, t...

  14. Meson Spectroscopy at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Grube, Boris

    2016-11-29

    The goal of the COMPASS experiment at CERN is to study the structure and dynamics of hadrons. The two-stage spectrometer used by the experiment has large acceptance and covers a wide kinematic range for charged as well as neutral particles and can therefore measure a wide range of reactions. The spectroscopy of light mesons is performed with negative (mostly $\\pi^-$) and positive ($p$, $\\pi^+$) hadron beams with a momentum of 190 GeV/$c$. The light-meson spectrum is measured in different final states produced in diffractive dissociation reactions with squared four-momentum transfer $t$ to the target between 0.1 and 1.0 $(\\text{GeV}/c)^2$. The flagship channel is the $\\pi^-\\pi^-\\pi^+$ final state, for which COMPASS has recorded the currently world's largest data sample. These data not only allow to measure the properties of known resonances with high precision, but also to observe new states. Among these is a new axial-vector signal, the $a_1(1420)$, with unusual properties. Novel analysis techniques have been...

  15. The Unique Brain Anatomy of Meditation Practitioners: Alterations in Cortical Gyrification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen eLuders

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Several cortical regions are reported to vary in meditation practitioners. However, since prior analyses were focused on examining gray matter or cortical thickness, additional effects with respect to other cortical features might have remained undetected. Gyrification (the pattern and degree of cortical folding is an important cerebral characteristic related to the geometry of the brain’s surface. Cortical folding occurs early in development and might be linked to behavioral traits. Thus, exploring cortical gyrification in long-term meditators may provide additional clues with respect to the underlying anatomical correlates of meditation. This study examined cortical gyrification in a large sample (n=100 of meditators and controls, carefully matched for sex and age. Cortical gyrification was established via calculating mean curvature across thousands of vertices on individual cortical surface models. Pronounced group differences indicating larger gyrification in meditators were evident within the left precentral gyrus, right fusiform gyrus, right cuneus, as well as left and right anterior dorsal insula (the latter representing the global significance maximum. Although the exact functional implications of larger cortical gyrification remain to be established, these findings suggest the insula to be a key structure involved in aspects of meditation. For example, variations in insular complexity could affect the regulation of well-known distractions in the process of meditation, such as daydreaming, mind-wandering, and projections into past or future. Moreover, given that meditators are masters in introspection, awareness, and emotional control, increased insular gyrification may reflect an ideal integration of autonomic, affective, and cognitive processes. Due to the cross-sectional nature of this study, further research is necessary determine the relative contribution of nature and nurture to links between cortical gyrification and meditation.

  16. The Improvement of Emotion and Attention Regulation after a 6-Week Training of Focused Meditation: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Baptista Menezes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-regulatory trainings can be an effective complementary treatment for mental health disorders. We investigated the effects of a six-week-focused meditation training on emotion and attention regulation in undergraduates randomly allocated to a meditation, a relaxation, or a wait-list control group. Assessment comprised a discrimination task that investigates the relationship between attentional load and emotional processing and self-report measures. For emotion regulation, results showed greater reduction in emotional interference in the low attentional load condition in meditators, particularly compared to relaxation. Only meditators presented a significant association between amount of weekly practice and the reduction in emotion interference in the task and significantly reduced image ratings of negative valence and arousal, perceived anxiety and difficulty during the task, and state and trait-anxiety. For attention regulation, response bias during the task was analyzed through signal detection theory. After training, meditation and relaxation significantly reduced bias in the high attentional load condition. Importantly, there was a dose-response effect on general bias: the lowest in meditation, increasing linearly across relaxation and wait-list. Only meditators reduced omissions in a concentrated attention test. Focused meditation seems to be an effective training for emotion and attention regulation and an alternative for treatments in the mental health context.

  17. Mindfulness Meditation Versus Physical Exercise in the Management of Depression Among Nursing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaraireh, Faris Abdelkarim; Aloush, Sami Mohammad

    2017-10-01

    Depression among nursing students is an ongoing problem. Several psychotherapies have been suggested as alternatives to antidepressants in the management of depression. The aim of this randomized controlled study was to compare the effectiveness of mindfulness meditation versus physical exercise in the management of depression among nursing students. A sample of 181 soon-to-graduate nursing students participated in the study and were assigned at random to one of two therapies: physical exercise (n = 90) or mindfulness meditation (n = 91). The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale was completed by the participants in both groups prior to the therapies and after completion. The findings indicated that both therapies were effective in the management of depression. However, mindfulness meditation is more effective than physical exercise. Mindfulness meditation is recommended over physical exercise in the management of depression among undergraduate nursing students. [J Nurs Educ. 2017;56(10):599-604.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. Loving-kindness meditation and the broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions among veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, David J; McManus, Carolyn; Malte, Carol A; Martinez, Michelle E; Felleman, Benjamin; Simpson, Tracy L

    2014-12-01

    Loving-kindness meditation (LKM) is a practice intended to enhance feelings of kindness and compassion for self and others. To assess whether participation in a 12-week course of LKM for veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with improved positive emotions, decentering, and personal resources. In an open-pilot trial, veterans were assessed at baseline, after the course, and 3 months later. Effect sizes were calculated from baseline to each follow-up point for each construct of interest. Measures were chosen as an initial investigation of the broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. A total of 42 veterans with active PTSD (40% female) participated. Emotions, decentering, psychological wellbeing including autonomy, environmental mastery, personal growth, positive relations, purpose in life, self-acceptance, and sense of social support were measured at each time point. Significant increases in unactivated pleasant (d=0.73), but not activated pleasant, emotions were found over time. Activated and unactivated unpleasant emotions decreased over time (d=-0.69 and -0.53, respectively). There were also increases in environmental mastery (d=0.61), personal growth (d=0.54), purpose in life (d=0.71), self-acceptance (d=0.68), and decentering (d=0.96) at 3-month follow-up. Overall, positive emotions increased, and enhancement of personal resources occurred over time. Further investigation of LKM for PTSD is warranted.

  19. Self-compassion training for binge eating disorder: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Allison C; Carter, Jacqueline C

    2015-09-01

    The present pilot study sought to compare a compassion-focused therapy (CFT)-based self-help intervention for binge eating disorder (BED) to a behaviourally based intervention. Forty-one individuals with BED were randomly assigned to 3 weeks of food planning plus self-compassion exercises; food planning plus behavioural strategies; or a wait-list control condition. Participants completed weekly measures of binge eating and self-compassion; pre- and post-intervention measures of eating disorder pathology and depressive symptoms; and a baseline measure assessing fear of self-compassion. Results showed that: (1) perceived credibility, expectancy, and compliance did not differ between the two interventions; (2) both interventions reduced weekly binge days more than the control condition; (3) the self-compassion intervention reduced global eating disorder pathology, eating concerns, and weight concerns more than the other conditions; (4) the self-compassion intervention increased self-compassion more than the other conditions; and (5) participants low in fear of self-compassion derived significantly more benefits from the self-compassion intervention than those high in fear of self-compassion. Findings offer preliminary support for the usefulness of CFT-based interventions for BED sufferers. Results also suggest that for individuals to benefit from self-compassion training, assessing and lowering fear of self-compassion will be crucial. Individuals with BED perceive self-compassion training self-help interventions, derived from CFT, to be as credible and as likely to help as behaviourally based interventions. The cultivation of self-compassion may be an effective approach for reducing binge eating, and eating, and weight concerns in individuals with BED. Teaching individuals with BED CFT-based self-help exercises may increase their self-compassion levels over a short period of time. It may be important for clinicians to assess and target clients' fear of self-compassion

  20. Meditation training for people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and their caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnini, Francesco; Di Credico, Chiara; Gatto, Ramona; Fabiani, Viviana; Rossi, Gabriella; Lunetta, Christian; Marconi, Anna; Fossati, Federica; Castelnuovo, Gianluca; Tagliaferri, Aurora; Banfi, Paolo; Corbo, Massimo; Sansone, Valeria; Molinari, Enrico; Amadei, Gherardo

    2014-04-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive and fatal neurodegenerative disease that is clinically characterized by progressive weakness leading to death by respiratory insufficiency, usually within three years. Although the patient's intellect and personality usually remain unimpaired, as the disease progresses, the patient becomes immobile, develops wasting, and speech becomes impaired, often resulting in social isolation and a high degree of psychological suffering. Mindfulness meditation has proven to be effective technique for reducing distress in many chronic diseases. However, to date, no study has investigated the effect of mindfulness meditation on patients with ALS. A mindfulness meditation training program for ALS patients needs to consider the particularities of ALS symptoms, including the loss of muscular functions and difficulties in respiration, together with the subsequent emotional impairments. With these caveats in mind, a modified protocol, based on original mindfulness meditation interventions, has been created specifically for the ALS population. This article describes the protocol and preliminary results.

  1. The Strength Compass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledertoug, Mette Marie

    In the Ph.D-project ͚Strengths-based Learning - Children͛s character strengths as a means to their learning potential͛ 750 Danish children have assessed ͚The Strength Compass͛ in order to identify their strengths and to create awareness of strengths. This was followed by a strengths......-based intervention program in order to explore the strengths. Finally different methods to apply the strength in everyday life at school were applied. The paper presentation will show the results for strengths display for children aged 6-16 in different categories: Different age groups: Are the same strengths...... present in both small children and youths? Gender: Do the results show differences between the two genders? Danish as a mother- tongue language: Do the results show any differences in the strengths display when considering different language and cultural backgrounds? Children with Special Needs: Do...

  2. Fifteen Minutes of Chair-Based Yoga Postures or Guided Meditation Performed in the Office Can Elicit a Relaxation Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey W. Melville

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared acute (15 min yoga posture and guided meditation practice, performed seated in a typical office workspace, on physiological and psychological markers of stress. Twenty participants (39.6±9.5 yr completed three conditions: yoga, meditation, and control (i.e., usual work separated by ≥24 hrs. Yoga and meditation significantly reduced perceived stress versus control, and this effect was maintained postintervention. Yoga increased heart rate while meditation reduced heart rate versus control (<0.05. Respiration rate was reduced during yoga and meditation versus control (<0.05. Domains of heart rate variability (e.g., SDNN and Total Power were significantly reduced during control versus yoga and meditation. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure were reduced secondary to meditation versus control only (<0.05. Physiological adaptations generally regressed toward baseline postintervention. In conclusion, yoga postures or meditation performed in the office can acutely improve several physiological and psychological markers of stress. These effects may be at least partially mediated by reduced respiration rate.

  3. Impact of long-term meditation practice on cardiovascular reactivity during perception and reappraisal of affective images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Sergei V; Reva, Natalia V; Loktev, Konstantin V; Korenyok, Vladimir V; Aftanas, Lyubomir I

    2015-03-01

    Meditation has been found to be an efficient strategy for coping with stress in healthy individuals and in patients with psychosomatic disorders. The main objective of the present study was to investigate the psychophysiological mechanisms of beneficial effects of meditation on cardiovascular reactivity. We examined effects of long-term Sahaja Yoga meditation on cardiovascular reactivity during affective image processing under "unregulated" and "emotion regulation" conditions. Twenty two experienced meditators and 20 control subjects participated in the study. Under "unregulated" conditions participants were shown neutral and affective images and were asked to attend to them. Under "emotion regulation" conditions they down-regulated negative affect through reappraisal of negative images or up-regulated positive affect through reappraisal of positive images. Under "unregulated" conditions while anticipating upcoming images meditators vs. controls did not show larger pre-stimulus total peripheral resistance and greater cardiac output for negative images in comparison with neutral and positive ones. Control subjects showed TPR decrease for negative images only when they consciously intended to reappraise them (i.e. in the "emotion regulation" condition). Both meditators and controls showed comparable cardiovascular reactivity during perception of positive stimuli, whereas up-regulating of positive affect was associated with more pronounced cardiac activation in meditators. The findings provide some insight into understanding the beneficial influence of meditation on top-down control of emotion and cardiovascular reactivity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Compassion Fatigue in Pediatric Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Jill; Polivka, Barbara; Smoot, Elizabeth Ann; Owens, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Compassion fatigue in nursing has been shown to impact the quality of patient care and employee satisfaction and engagement. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence and severity of compassion fatigue among pediatric nurses and variations in prevalence based on respondent demographics using a cross-sectional survey design. Nurses under 40 years of age, with 6-10 years of experience and/or working in a medical-surgical unit had significantly lower compassion satisfaction and higher levels of burnout. Secondary traumatic stress from caring for children with severe illness or injury or end of life was a key contributor to compassion fatigue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Durham Neighborhood Compass Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The Durham Neighborhood Compass is a quantitative indicators project with qualitative values, integrating data from local government, the Census Bureau and other...

  6. COMPASS: getting ready to go !

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The COMPASS experiment in building 888 has started running, after several tests made last year. It will basically investigate the structure and spectroscopy of hadrons and is scheduled to run beyond the start of the LHC.

  7. Meson Spectroscopy at COMPASS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, F.

    2009-01-01

    In addition to constituent q q(bar) pair configurations, four quark states or gluonic excitations like hybrids or glueballs are also expected to contribute to the mesonic spectrum. The most promising way to identify such states allowed by QCD is the search for J PC quantum number combinations which are forbidden in the constituent quark model. The fixed target COMPASS experiment at CERN offers the opportunity to search for such states in the light quark sector with an unprecedented statistics. First studies of diffractive reactions of 190 GeV/c ions were carried out by COMPASS during a pilot run in 2004. In a first analysis, the three charged pion final state was studied. A Partial Wave Analysis (PWA) with 42 waves including acceptance corrections through a phase-space Monte Carlo simulation of the spectrometer was performed. The exotic π1 (1600) meson with quantum numbers J PC 1 -+ has been clearly established in the ρ-π decay channel with a mass of 1660 ± 0.010(stat) MeV and a width of 0.269 ± 0.021(stat) MeV. The final state with 5 charged pions was also investigated. Results from that study will also be presented. The improved detectors performance in 2008 allows us to study besides these channels further diffractively and centrally produced resonances, neutral ones as well as charged ones. First results of the ongoing analysis of the 2008 data taking period, using a 190 GeV/c pion beam on a hydrogen target will be given. (author)

  8. New COMPASS DAQ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Yunpeng; Konorov, Igor

    2015-07-01

    This contribution focuses on the deployment and first results of the new FPGA-based data acquisition system (DAQ) of the COMPASS experiment. Since 2002, the number of channels increased to approximately 300000, trigger rate increased to 30 kHz; the average event size remained roughly 35 kB. In order to handle the increased data rates, the new DAQ system with custom FPGA based data handling cards (DHC) had been decided to replace the event building network. The DHCs are equipped with 16 high speed serial links, 2GB of DDR3 memory with bandwidth of 6 GB/s, Gigabit Ethernet connection, and COMPASS Trigger Control System. It uses two different firmware versions: multiplexer and switch. The multiplexer DHC can combine 15 incoming links into one outgoing, whereas the switch combines 8 data streams from multiplexers and using information from look-up table sends the full events to the readout engine servers equipped by spillbuffer PCI-Express cards that receive the data. Both types of DHC can buffer data which allows to distribute the load over the cycle of accelerator. For the purposes of configuration, run control, and monitoring, software tools are developed. Communication between processes in the system is implemented using the DIM library. The DAQ is fully configurable from the web interface. New DAQ system has been deployed for the pilot run starting from the September 2014. In the poster, the preliminary performance and stability results of the new DAQ are presented and compared with the original system in more detail.

  9. A single bout of meditation biases cognitive control but not attentional focusing: Evidence from the global-local task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colzato, Lorenza S; van der Wel, Pauline; Sellaro, Roberta; Hommel, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies show that a single bout of meditation can impact information processing. We were interested to see whether this impact extends to attentional focusing and the top-down control over irrelevant information. Healthy adults underwent brief single bouts of either focused attention meditation (FAM), which is assumed to increase top-down control, or open monitoring meditation (OMM), which is assumed to weaken top-down control, before performing a global-local task. While the size of the global-precedence effect (reflecting attentional focusing) was unaffected by type of meditation, the congruency effect (indicating the failure to suppress task-irrelevant information) was considerably larger after OMM than after FAM. Our findings suggest that engaging in particular kinds of meditation creates particular cognitive-control states that bias the individual processing style toward either goal-persistence or cognitive flexibility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Relationship between meditative practice and self-reported mindfulness: the MINDSENS composite index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Soler

    Full Text Available Mindfulness has been described as an inherent human capability that can be learned and trained, and its improvement has been associated with better health outcomes in both medicine and psychology. Although the role of practice is central to most mindfulness programs, practice-related improvements in mindfulness skills is not consistently reported and little is known about how the characteristics of meditative practice affect different components of mindfulness. The present study explores the role of practice parameters on self-reported mindfulness skills. A total of 670 voluntary participants with and without previous meditation experience (n = 384 and n = 286, respectively responded to an internet-based survey on various aspects of their meditative practice (type of meditation, length of session, frequency, and lifetime practice. Participants also completed the Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ, and the Experiences Questionnaire (EQ. The group with meditation experience obtained significantly higher scores on all facets of FFMQ and EQ questionnaires compared to the group without experience. However different effect sizes were observed, with stronger effects for the Observing and Non-Reactivity facets of the FFMQ, moderate effects for Decentering in EQ, and a weak effect for Non-judging, Describing, and Acting with awareness on the FFMQ. Our results indicate that not all practice variables are equally relevant in terms of developing mindfulness skills. Frequency and lifetime practice--but not session length or meditation type--were associated with higher mindfulness skills. Given that these 6 mindfulness aspects show variable sensitivity to practice, we created a composite index (MINDSENS consisting of those items from FFMQ and EQ that showed the strongest response to practice. The MINDSENS index was able to correctly discriminate daily meditators from non-meditators in 82.3% of cases. These findings may contribute to the understanding

  11. Relationship between meditative practice and self-reported mindfulness: the MINDSENS composite index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Joaquim; Cebolla, Ausiàs; Feliu-Soler, Albert; Demarzo, Marcelo M P; Pascual, Juan C; Baños, Rosa; García-Campayo, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Mindfulness has been described as an inherent human capability that can be learned and trained, and its improvement has been associated with better health outcomes in both medicine and psychology. Although the role of practice is central to most mindfulness programs, practice-related improvements in mindfulness skills is not consistently reported and little is known about how the characteristics of meditative practice affect different components of mindfulness. The present study explores the role of practice parameters on self-reported mindfulness skills. A total of 670 voluntary participants with and without previous meditation experience (n = 384 and n = 286, respectively) responded to an internet-based survey on various aspects of their meditative practice (type of meditation, length of session, frequency, and lifetime practice). Participants also completed the Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), and the Experiences Questionnaire (EQ). The group with meditation experience obtained significantly higher scores on all facets of FFMQ and EQ questionnaires compared to the group without experience. However different effect sizes were observed, with stronger effects for the Observing and Non-Reactivity facets of the FFMQ, moderate effects for Decentering in EQ, and a weak effect for Non-judging, Describing, and Acting with awareness on the FFMQ. Our results indicate that not all practice variables are equally relevant in terms of developing mindfulness skills. Frequency and lifetime practice--but not session length or meditation type--were associated with higher mindfulness skills. Given that these 6 mindfulness aspects show variable sensitivity to practice, we created a composite index (MINDSENS) consisting of those items from FFMQ and EQ that showed the strongest response to practice. The MINDSENS index was able to correctly discriminate daily meditators from non-meditators in 82.3% of cases. These findings may contribute to the understanding of the

  12. Multifractal analysis of heartbeat dynamics during meditation training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Renliang; Bian, Chunhua; Ma, Qianli D. Y.

    2013-04-01

    We investigate the multifractality of heartbeat dynamics during Chinese CHI meditation in healthy young adults. The results show that the range of multifractal singularity spectrum of heartbeat interval time series during meditation is significantly narrower than those in the pre-meditation state of the same subject, which indicates that during meditation the heartbeat becomes regular and the degree of multifractality decreases.

  13. A cross-sectional evaluation of meditation experience on electroencephalography data by artificial neural network and support vector machine classifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu-Hao; Hsieh, Ya-Ju; Shiah, Yung-Jong; Lin, Yu-Huei; Chen, Chiao-Yun; Tyan, Yu-Chang; GengQiu, JiaCheng; Hsu, Chung-Yao; Chen, Sharon Chia-Ju

    2017-04-01

    To quantitate the meditation experience is a subjective and complex issue because it is confounded by many factors such as emotional state, method of meditation, and personal physical condition. In this study, we propose a strategy with a cross-sectional analysis to evaluate the meditation experience with 2 artificial intelligence techniques: artificial neural network and support vector machine. Within this analysis system, 3 features of the electroencephalography alpha spectrum and variant normalizing scaling are manipulated as the evaluating variables for the detection of accuracy. Thereafter, by modulating the sliding window (the period of the analyzed data) and shifting interval of the window (the time interval to shift the analyzed data), the effect of immediate analysis for the 2 methods is compared. This analysis system is performed on 3 meditation groups, categorizing their meditation experiences in 10-year intervals from novice to junior and to senior. After an exhausted calculation and cross-validation across all variables, the high accuracy rate >98% is achievable under the criterion of 0.5-minute sliding window and 2 seconds shifting interval for both methods. In a word, the minimum analyzable data length is 0.5 minute and the minimum recognizable temporal resolution is 2 seconds in the decision of meditative classification. Our proposed classifier of the meditation experience promotes a rapid evaluation system to distinguish meditation experience and a beneficial utilization of artificial techniques for the big-data analysis.

  14. Effects of a brief mindfulness-meditation intervention on neural measures of response inhibition in cigarette smokers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine I Andreu

    Full Text Available Research suggests that mindfulness-practices may aid smoking cessation. Yet, the neural mechanisms underlying the effects of mindfulness-practices on smoking are unclear. Response inhibition is a main deficit in addiction, is associated with relapse, and could therefore be a candidate target for mindfulness-based practices. The current study hence investigated the effects of a brief mindfulness-practice on response inhibition in smokers using behavioral and electroencephalography (EEG measures. Fifty participants (33 females, mean age 20 years old underwent a protocol of cigarette exposure to induce craving (cue-exposure and were then randomly assigned to a group receiving mindfulness-instructions or control-instructions (for 15 minutes approximately. Immediately after this, they performed a smoking Go/NoGo task, while their brain activity was recorded. At the behavioral level, no group differences were observed. However, EEG analyses revealed a decrease in P3 amplitude during NoGo vs. Go trials in the mindfulness versus control group. The lower P3 amplitude might indicate less-effortful response inhibition after the mindfulness-practice, and suggest that enhanced response inhibition underlies observed positive effects of mindfulness on smoking behavior.

  15. Meditation and Cardiovascular Risk Reduction: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Glenn N; Lange, Richard A; Bairey-Merz, C Noel; Davidson, Richard J; Jamerson, Kenneth; Mehta, Puja K; Michos, Erin D; Norris, Keith; Ray, Indranill Basu; Saban, Karen L; Shah, Tina; Stein, Richard; Smith, Sidney C

    2017-09-28

    Despite numerous advances in the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Novel and inexpensive interventions that can contribute to the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease are of interest. Numerous studies have reported on the benefits of meditation. Meditation instruction and practice is widely accessible and inexpensive and may thus be a potential attractive cost-effective adjunct to more traditional medical therapies. Accordingly, this American Heart Association scientific statement systematically reviewed the data on the potential benefits of meditation on cardiovascular risk. Neurophysiological and neuroanatomical studies demonstrate that meditation can have long-standing effects on the brain, which provide some biological plausibility for beneficial consequences on the physiological basal state and on cardiovascular risk. Studies of the effects of meditation on cardiovascular risk have included those investigating physiological response to stress, smoking cessation, blood pressure reduction, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome, endothelial function, inducible myocardial ischemia, and primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Overall, studies of meditation suggest a possible benefit on cardiovascular risk, although the overall quality and, in some cases, quantity of study data are modest. Given the low costs and low risks of this intervention, meditation may be considered as an adjunct to guideline-directed cardiovascular risk reduction by those interested in this lifestyle modification, with the understanding that the benefits of such intervention remain to be better established. Further research on meditation and cardiovascular risk is warranted. Such studies, to the degree possible, should utilize randomized study design, be adequately powered to meet the primary study outcome, strive to achieve low drop-out rates, include long

  16. Brief mindfulness meditation training alters psychological and neuroendocrine responses to social evaluative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, J David; Pacilio, Laura E; Lindsay, Emily K; Brown, Kirk Warren

    2014-06-01

    To test whether a brief mindfulness meditation training intervention buffers self-reported psychological and neuroendocrine responses to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in young adult volunteers. A second objective evaluates whether pre-existing levels of dispositional mindfulness moderate the effects of brief mindfulness meditation training on stress reactivity. Sixty-six (N=66) participants were randomly assigned to either a brief 3-day (25-min per day) mindfulness meditation training or an analytic cognitive training control program. All participants completed a standardized laboratory social-evaluative stress challenge task (the TSST) following the third mindfulness meditation or cognitive training session. Measures of psychological (stress perceptions) and biological (salivary cortisol, blood pressure) stress reactivity were collected during the social evaluative stress-challenge session. Brief mindfulness meditation training reduced self-reported psychological stress reactivity but increased salivary cortisol reactivity to the TSST, relative to the cognitive training comparison program. Participants who were low in pre-existing levels of dispositional mindfulness and then received mindfulness meditation training had the greatest cortisol reactivity to the TSST. No significant main or interactive effects were observed for systolic or diastolic blood pressure reactivity to the TSST. The present study provides an initial indication that brief mindfulness meditation training buffers self-reported psychological stress reactivity, but also increases cortisol reactivity to social evaluative stress. This pattern may indicate that initially brief mindfulness meditation training fosters greater active coping efforts, resulting in reduced psychological stress appraisals and greater cortisol reactivity during social evaluative stressors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. #fitspo or #loveyourself? The impact of fitspiration and self-compassion Instagram images on women's body image, self-compassion, and mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Amy; Varsani, Neesha; Diedrichs, Phillippa C

    2017-09-01

    This study experimentally examined the impact of exposure to fitspiration images and self-compassion quotes on social media on young women's body satisfaction, body appreciation, self-compassion, and negative mood. Female undergraduate students (N=160) were randomly assigned to view either Instagram images of fitspiration, self-compassion quotes, a combination of both, or appearance-neutral images. Results showed no differences between viewing fitspiration images compared to viewing neutral images, except for poorer self-compassion among those who viewed fitspiration images. However, women who viewed self-compassion quotes showed greater body satisfaction, body appreciation, self-compassion, and reduced negative mood compared to women who viewed neutral images. Further, viewing a combination of fitspiration images and self-compassion quotes led to positive outcomes compared to viewing only fitspiration images. Trait levels of thin-ideal internalisation moderated some effects. The findings suggest that self-compassion might offer a novel avenue for attenuating the negative impact of social media on women's body satisfaction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The varieties of contemplative experience: A mixed-methods study of meditation-related challenges in Western Buddhists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared R Lindahl

    Full Text Available Buddhist-derived meditation practices are currently being employed as a popular form of health promotion. While meditation programs draw inspiration from Buddhist textual sources for the benefits of meditation, these sources also acknowledge a wide range of other effects beyond health-related outcomes. The Varieties of Contemplative Experience study investigates meditation-related experiences that are typically underreported, particularly experiences that are described as challenging, difficult, distressing, functionally impairing, and/or requiring additional support. A mixed-methods approach featured qualitative interviews with Western Buddhist meditation practitioners and experts in Theravāda, Zen, and Tibetan traditions. Interview questions probed meditation experiences and influencing factors, including interpretations and management strategies. A follow-up survey provided quantitative assessments of causality, impairment and other demographic and practice-related variables. The content-driven thematic analysis of interviews yielded a taxonomy of 59 meditation-related experiences across 7 domains: cognitive, perceptual, affective, somatic, conative, sense of self, and social. Even in cases where the phenomenology was similar across participants, interpretations of and responses to the experiences differed considerably. The associated valence ranged from very positive to very negative, and the associated level of distress and functional impairment ranged from minimal and transient to severe and enduring. In order to determine what factors may influence the valence, impact, and response to any given experience, the study also identified 26 categories of influencing factors across 4 domains: practitioner-level factors, practice-level factors, relationships, and health behaviors. By identifying a broader range of experiences associated with meditation, along with the factors that contribute to the presence and management of experiences reported

  19. A single session of meditation reduces of physiological indices of anger in both experienced and novice meditators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennell, Alexander B; Benau, Erik M; Atchley, Ruth Ann

    2016-02-01

    The goal of the present study was to explore how anger reduction via a single session of meditation might be measured using psychophysiological methodologies. To achieve this, 15 novice meditators (Experiment 1) and 12 practiced meditators (Experiment 2) completed autobiographical anger inductions prior to, and following, meditation training while respiration rate, heart rate, and blood pressure were measured. Participants also reported subjective anger via a visual analog scale. At both stages, the experienced meditators' physiological reaction to the anger induction reflected that of relaxation: slowed breathing and heart rate and decreased blood pressure. Naïve meditators exhibited physiological reactions that were consistent with anger during the pre-meditation stage, while after meditation training and a second anger induction they elicited physiological evidence of relaxation. The current results examining meditation training show that the naïve group's physiological measures mimicked those of the experienced group following a single session of meditation training. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Comparison of higher order spectra in heart rate signals during two techniques of meditation: Chi and Kundalini meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goshvarpour, Ateke; Goshvarpour, Atefeh

    2013-02-01

    The human heartbeat is one of the important examples of complex physiologic fluctuations. For the first time in this study higher order spectra of heart rate signals during meditation have explored. Specifically, the aim of this study was to analysis and compares the contribution of quadratic phase coupling of human heart rate variability during two forms of meditation: (1) Chinese Chi (or Qigong) meditation and (2) Kundalini Yoga meditation. For this purpose, Bispectrum was estimated by using biased, parametric and the direct (FFT) method. The results show that the mean Bispectrum magnitude of heart rate signals increased during Kundalini Yoga meditation, but it decreased significantly during Chi meditation. However, in both meditation techniques phase-coupled harmonics are shifted to the higher frequencies during meditation. In addition, it has shown that not only there are significant differences between rest and meditation states, but also heart rate patterns appear to be influenced by different types of meditation.

  1. Transcendental experiences during meditation practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Frederick

    2014-01-01

    This article explores transcendental experiences during meditation practice and the integration of transcendental experiences and the unfolding of higher states of consciousness with waking, dreaming, and sleeping. The subject/object relationship during transcendental experiences is characterized by the absence of time, space, and body sense--the framework that gives meaning to waking experiences. Physiologically, transcendental experiences during Transcendental Meditation practice are marked by slow inhalation, along with autonomic orientation at the onset of breath changes and heightened α1 (8-10 Hz) frontal coherence. The integration of transcendental experiences with waking, dreaming, and sleeping is also marked by distinct subjective and objective markers. This integrated state, called Cosmic Consciousness in the Vedic tradition, is subjectively marked by inner self-awareness coexisting with waking, sleeping, and dreaming. Physiologically, Cosmic Consciousness is marked by the coexistence of α1 electroencephalography (EEG) with delta EEG during deep sleep, and higher brain integration, greater emotional stability, and decreased anxiety during challenging tasks. Transcendental experiences may be the engine that fosters higher human development. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  2. Reduced age-related degeneration of the hippocampal subiculum in long-term meditators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, Florian; Cherbuin, Nicolas; Luders, Eileen

    2015-06-30

    Normal aging is known to result in a reduction of gray matter within the hippocampal complex, particularly in the subiculum. The present study was designed to address the question whether the practice of meditation can amend this age-related subicular atrophy. For this purpose, we established the correlations between subicular volume and chronological age within 50 long-term meditators and 50 control subjects. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were automatically processed combining cytoarchitectonically defined probabilistic maps with advanced tissue segmentation and registration methods. Overall, we observed steeper negative regression slopes in controls. The analysis further revealed a significant group-by-age interaction for the left subiculum with a significant negative correlation between age and subicular volume in controls, but no significant correlation in meditators. Altogether, these findings seem to suggest a reduced age-related atrophy of the left subiculum in meditators compared to healthy controls. Possible explanations might be a relative increase of subicular tissue over time through long-term training as meditation is a process that incorporates regular and ongoing mental efforts. Alternatively, because meditation is an established form of reducing stress, our observation might reflect an overall preservation of subicular tissue through a reduced neuronal vulnerability to negative effects of stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A systematic review of neurobiological and clinical features of mindfulness meditations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiesa, A; Serretti, A

    2010-08-01

    Mindfulness meditation (MM) practices constitute an important group of meditative practices that have received growing attention. The aim of the present paper was to systematically review current evidence on the neurobiological changes and clinical benefits related to MM practice in psychiatric disorders, in physical illnesses and in healthy subjects. A literature search was undertaken using Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge, the Cochrane collaboration database and references of retrieved articles. Controlled and cross-sectional studies with controls published in English up to November 2008 were included. Electroencephalographic (EEG) studies have revealed a significant increase in alpha and theta activity during meditation. Neuroimaging studies showed that MM practice activates the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and that long-term meditation practice is associated with an enhancement of cerebral areas related to attention. From a clinical viewpoint, Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) has shown efficacy for many psychiatric and physical conditions and also for healthy subjects, Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) is mainly efficacious in reducing relapses of depression in patients with three or more episodes, Zen meditation significantly reduces blood pressure and Vipassana meditation shows efficacy in reducing alcohol and substance abuse in prisoners. However, given the low-quality designs of current studies it is difficult to establish whether clinical outcomes are due to specific or non-specific effects of MM. Despite encouraging findings, several limitations affect current studies. Suggestions are given for future research based on better designed methodology and for future directions of investigation.

  4. Spatially Nonlinear Interdependence of Alpha-Oscillatory Neural Networks under Chan Meditation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Chen Lo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of our investigation of the effects of Chan meditation on brain electrophysiological behaviors from the viewpoint of spatially nonlinear interdependence among regional neural networks. Particular emphasis is laid on the alpha-dominated EEG (electroencephalograph. Continuous-time wavelet transform was adopted to detect the epochs containing substantial alpha activities. Nonlinear interdependence quantified by similarity index S(X∣Y, the influence of source signal Y on sink signal X, was applied to the nonlinear dynamical model in phase space reconstructed from multichannel EEG. Experimental group involved ten experienced Chan-Meditation practitioners, while control group included ten healthy subjects within the same age range, yet, without any meditation experience. Nonlinear interdependence among various cortical regions was explored for five local neural-network regions, frontal, posterior, right-temporal, left-temporal, and central regions. In the experimental group, the inter-regional interaction was evaluated for the brain dynamics under three different stages, at rest (stage R, pre-meditation background recording, in Chan meditation (stage M, and the unique Chakra-focusing practice (stage C. Experimental group exhibits stronger interactions among various local neural networks at stages M and C compared with those at stage R. The intergroup comparison demonstrates that Chan-meditation brain possesses better cortical inter-regional interactions than the resting brain of control group.

  5. Laughter and compassion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Pavel

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available L’article passe d’abord en revue plusieurs types de rire dans la littérature, dont le rire fondé sur le mépris des défauts humains, élément essentiel de la comédie classique; le rire fou, véritable explosion d’énergie comique, spécialité de Rabelais; le rire gracieux de la pastorale et de la comédie élégante; et le rire complice des clowns qui contournent les obstacles.  À ces genres de rire, il faut ajouter le rire compatissant, lequel, à partir du 19e siècle, allie la mise en évidence de défauts ridicules des personnages avec une certaine sympathie pour leur humanité.  L’essor de l’égalité de principe entre les êtres humains, trait spécifique des temps récents, rend possible ce type d’humour qui modère le mépris et le rejet de nos semblables au nom de la compassion et de la pitié.

  6. Brief Meditation and the Interaction between Emotional Interference and Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Baptista Menezes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This pilot study assessed the effects of a five day focused meditation training on the interplay between emotional interference and anxiety in a non clinical sample randomized into two groups (experimental=13; control=18. Emotional interference was indexed comparing the reaction times in an attention span task with negative or neutral distracting images. Anxiety experienced during the task was also assessed through self-report. Only in the control group higher anxiety levels interacted with greater emotional interference and a worse evaluation of valence and arousal of emotional images. These preliminary findings suggest that meditation may help modulating anxiety effects on bias to negative stimuli, and that even a short training may facilitate self-regulatory processes.

  7. Examining Self-Protection Measures Guarding Adult Protective Services Social Workers against Compassion Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourassa, Dara

    2012-01-01

    Little research has focused on the risk factors, effects, and experiences of compassion fatigue among gerontological social workers. This qualitative study explores the experiences and perspectives of nine Adult Protective Services (APS) social workers in relation to compassion fatigue. Results show that the APS social workers combined personal…

  8. Helping the self help others: Self-affirmation increases self-compassion and pro-social behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily K Lindsay

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Reflecting on an important personal value in a self-affirmation activity has been shown to improve psychological functioning in a broad range of studies, but the underlying mechanisms for these self-affirmation effects are unknown. Here we provide an initial test of a novel self-compassion account of self-affirmation in two experimental studies. Study 1 shows that an experimental manipulation of self-affirmation (3-minutes of writing about an important personal value versus writing about an unimportant value increases feelings of self-compassion, and these feelings in turn mobilize more pro-social behaviors to a laboratory shelf-collapse incident. Study 2 tests and extends these effects by evaluating whether self-affirmation increases feelings of compassion toward the self (consistent with the self-compassion account or increases feelings of compassion toward others (an alternative other-directed compassion account, using a validated storytelling behavioral task. Consistent with a self-compassion account, Study 2 demonstrates the predicted self-affirmation by video condition interaction, indicating that self-affirmation participants had greater feelings of self-compassion in response to watching their own storytelling performance (self-compassion compared to watching a peer’s storytelling performance (other-directed compassion. Further, pre-existing levels of trait self-compassion moderated this effect, such that self-affirmation increased self-compassionate responses the most in participants low in trait self-compassion. This work suggests that self-compassion may be a promising mechanism for self-affirmation effects, and that self-compassionate feelings can mobilize pro-social behaviors.

  9. Helping the self help others: self-affirmation increases self-compassion and pro-social behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Emily K; Creswell, J David

    2014-01-01

    Reflecting on an important personal value in a self-affirmation activity has been shown to improve psychological functioning in a broad range of studies, but the underlying mechanisms for these self-affirmation effects are unknown. Here we provide an initial test of a novel self-compassion account of self-affirmation in two experimental studies. Study 1 shows that an experimental manipulation of self-affirmation (3-min of writing about an important personal value vs. writing about an unimportant value) increases feelings of self-compassion, and these feelings in turn mobilize more pro-social behaviors to a laboratory shelf-collapse incident. Study 2 tests and extends these effects by evaluating whether self-affirmation increases feelings of compassion toward the self (consistent with the self-compassion account) or increases feelings of compassion toward others (an alternative other-directed compassion account), using a validated storytelling behavioral task. Consistent with a self-compassion account, Study 2 demonstrates the predicted self-affirmation by video condition interaction, indicating that self-affirmation participants had greater feelings of self-compassion in response to watching their own storytelling performance (self-compassion) compared to watching a peer's storytelling performance (other-directed compassion). Further, pre-existing levels of trait self-compassion moderated this effect, such that self-affirmation increased self-compassionate responses the most in participants low in trait self-compassion. This work suggests that self-compassion may be a promising mechanism for self-affirmation effects, and that self-compassionate feelings can mobilize pro-social behaviors.

  10. Does a short self-compassion intervention for students increase healthy self-regulation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dundas, Ingrid; Binder, Per Einar; Hansen, Tia G.B.

    2017-01-01

    negative self-directed thinking; as well as for self-compassion, anxiety and depression. Concluding, a short self-compassion course seems an effective method of increasing self-compassion and perceived control over one's life for university students, as well as increasing mental health.......The primary aim of this study was to examine the effects of a two-week self-compassion course on healthy self-regulation (personal growth self-efficacy and healthy impulse control) and unhealthy self-regulation (self-judgment and habitual negative self-directed thinking) in university students. We...... also examined the effects on self-compassion, anxiety and depression. Students (N = 158, 85% women, mean age = 25 years) were randomized to an intervention group and a waiting-list control group in a multi-baseline randomized control trial. Healthy self-control was measured by the Personal Growth...

  11. Mindful meditation: healing burnout in critical care nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, William Richard

    2008-01-01

    The nursing profession is experiencing a crisis in both manpower and the ability to fend off the deleterious effects of burnout. Nursing professionals face extraordinary stress in our present medical environment, and studies have frequently found moderate-to-high levels of burnout among nurses. Nurses experience burnout for a variety of reasons, some inherent to the profession and others related to our 21st-century values that have necessitated multiple breadwinners within the household. Mindful meditation represents a complementary therapy that has shown promise in the reduction of negative stress and those extraneous factors that lead to burnout. A mindful, meditative practice can be another tool with which critical care nurses can regain the control of their careers and personal lives. The purpose of this article is to describe nurse burnout, identify those factors that contribute to burnout, and offer a solution to a continuing problem for nurses.

  12. Ultrahromatizm as a Sound Meditation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaytseva Marina

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article scientifically substantiates the insights on the theory and the practice of using microchromatic in modern musical art, defines compositional and expressive possibilities of microtonal system in the works of composers of XXI century. It justifies the author's interpretation of the concept of “ultrahromatizm”, as a principle of musical thinking, which is connected with the sound space conception as the space-time continuum. The paper identifies the correlation of the notions “microchromatism” and “ultrahromatizm”. If microchromosome is understood, first and for most, as the technique of dividing the sound into microparticles, ultrahromatizm is interpreted as the principle of musical and artistic consciousness, as the musical focus of consciousness on the formation of the specific model of sound meditation and understanding of the world.

  13. SIDIS transverse spin azimuthal asymmetries at COMPASS: Multidimensional analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Parsamyan, Bakur

    2015-01-01

    Exploration of transverse spin structure of the nucleon via study of the spin (in)dependent azimuthal asymmetries in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) and Drell-Yan (DY) reactions is one of the main aspects of the broad physics program of the COMPASS experiment (CERN, Switzerland). In past decade COMPASS has collected a considerable amount of polarized deuteron and proton SIDIS data while 2014 and 2015 runs were dedicated to the Drell-Yan measurements. Results on SIDIS azimuthal effects provided so far by COMPASS play an important role in general understanding of the three-dimensional nature of the nucleon. Giving access to the entire "twist-2" set of transverse momentum dependent (TMD) parton distribution functions (PDFs) and fragmentation functions (FFs) COMPASS data are being widely used in phenomenological analyses and experimental data fits. Recent unique and first ever x-$Q^{2}$-z-pT multidimensional results for transverse spin asymmetries obtained by COMPASS serve as a direct and unprece...

  14. New results on transverse spin asymmetries from COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Parsamyan, Bakur

    2015-01-01

    One of the important objectives of the COMPASS experiment is the exploration of transverse spin structure of nucleon via spin (in)dependent azimuthal asymmetries in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) of polarized leptons (and soon also Drell-Yan (DY) reactions with $\\pi^-$) off transversely polarized target. For this purpose a series of measurements were made in COMPASS, using 160 GeV/c longitudinally polarized muon beam and polarized $^6LiD$ and $NH_3$ targets and are foreseen with 190 GeV/c $\\pi^-$ beam on polarized $NH_3$. The experimental results obtained by COMPASS for azimuthal effects in SIDIS play an important role in the general understanding of the three-dimensional nature of the nucleon and are widely used in theoretical analyses and global data fits. Future first ever polarized DY-data from COMPASS compared with SIDIS results will open a new chapter probing general principles of QCD TMD-formalism. In this review main focus will be given to the very recent COMPASS results obtained for...

  15. Meditation-related activations are modulated by the practices needed to obtain it and by the expertise: an ALE meta-analysis study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasino, Barbara; Fregona, Sara; Skrap, Miran; Fabbro, Franco

    2013-01-01

    The brain network governing meditation has been studied using a variety of meditation practices and techniques practices eliciting different cognitive processes (e.g., silence, attention to own body, sense of joy, mantras, etc.). It is very possible that different practices of meditation are subserved by largely, if not entirely, disparate brain networks. This assumption was tested by conducting an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis of meditation neuroimaging studies, which assessed 150 activation foci from 24 experiments. Different ALE meta-analyses were carried out. One involved the subsets of studies involving meditation induced through exercising focused attention (FA). The network included clusters bilaterally in the medial gyrus, the left superior parietal lobe, the left insula and the right supramarginal gyrus (SMG). A second analysis addressed the studies involving meditation states induced by chanting or by repetition of words or phrases, known as “mantra.” This type of practice elicited a cluster of activity in the right SMG, the SMA bilaterally and the left postcentral gyrus. Furthermore, the last analyses addressed the effect of meditation experience (i.e., short- vs. long-term meditators). We found that frontal activation was present for short-term, as compared with long-term experience meditators, confirming that experts are better enabled to sustain attentional focus, rather recruiting the right SMG and concentrating on aspects involving disembodiment. PMID:23316154

  16. Meditation related activations are modulated by the practices needed to obtain it and by the expertise:an ALE meta-analysis study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eTomasino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The brain network governing meditation has been studied using a variety of meditation practices and techniques practices eliciting different cognitive processes (e.g., silence, attention to own body, sense of joy, mantras, etc.. It is very possible that different practices of meditation are subserved by largely, if not entirely, disparate brain networks. This assumption was tested by conducting an activation likelihood estimation (ALE meta-analysis of meditation neuroimaging studies, which assessed 150 activation foci from 24 experiments. Different ALE meta-analyses were carried out. One involved the subsets of studies involving meditation induced through exercising focused attention. The network included clusters bilaterally in the medial gyrus, the left superior parietal lobe, the left insula and the right supramarginal gyrus. A second analysis addressed the studies involving meditation states induced by chanting or by repetition of words or phrases, known as ‘mantra’. This type of practice elicited a cluster of activity in the right supramarginal gyrus, the SMA bilaterally and the left postcentral gyrus. Furthermore, the last analyses addressed the effect of meditation experience (i.e., short- vs. long-term meditators. We found that frontal activation was present for short-term, as compared with long-term experience meditators, confirming that experts are better enabled to sustain attentional focus, rather recruiting the right supramarginal gyrus and concentrating on aspects involving disembodiment.

  17. The desired moral attitude of the physician: (II) compassion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelhaus, Petra

    2012-11-01

    Professional medical ethics demands of health care professionals in addition to specific duties and rules of conduct that they embody a responsible and trustworthy personality. In the public discussion, different concepts are suggested to describe the desired implied attitude of physicians. In a sequel of three articles, a set of three of these concepts is presented in an interpretation that is meant to characterise the morally emotional part of this attitude: "empathy", "compassion" and "care". In the first article of the series, "empathy" has been developed as a mainly cognitive and morally neutral capacity of understanding. In this article, the emotional and virtuous core of the desired professional attitude-compassion-is elaborated. Compassion is distinguished from sympathy, empathy and pity. Several problems of compassion as a spontaneous, warm emotion for being a professional virtue are discussed: especially questions of over-demand, of justice and of concerns because of a possible threat to the patient's dignity and autonomy. An interpretation of compassion as processed and learned professional attitude, that founds dignity on the general idea of man as a sentient being and on solidarity, not on his independence and capacities, is developed. It is meant to rule out the possible side effects and to make compassion as a professional attitude and as professional virtue attractive, teachable and acquirable. In order to reach the adequate warmth and closeness for the particular physician-patient-relation, professional compassion has to be combined with the capacity of empathy. If appropriate, the combination of both empathy and compassion as "empathic compassion" can demand a much warmer attitude towards the patient than each of the elements alone, or the simple addition of them can provide. The concept of "care" that will be discussed in a forthcoming article of this sequel is a missing necessary part to describe the active potential of the desired moral

  18. Meditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their meaning. You can also listen to sacred music, spoken words, or any music you find relaxing or inspiring. You may want ... agreement to the Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy linked below. Terms and Conditions Privacy Policy Notice ...

  19. Meditations

    OpenAIRE

    Howard, Ashley

    2018-01-01

    This exhibition presents an assessment of the notable influences experienced in Japan on the work of Ashley Howard. Howard's theme of interpretation over replication explores the notion of influence and dialogue between the Far Eastern and his own cultural background; in this case, through citing his work in a western architectural setting.

  20. A Methodological Review of Meditation Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, John W.; Cohen, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Despite over 50 years of research into the states of consciousness induced by various meditation practices, no clear neurophysiological signatures of these states have been found. Much of this failure can be attributed to the narrow range of variables examined in most meditation studies, with the focus being restricted to a search for correlations between neurophysiological measures and particular practices, without documenting the content and context of these practices. We contend that more meaningful results can be obtained by expanding the methodological paradigm to include multiple domains including: the cultural setting (“the place”), the life situation of the meditator (“the person”), details of the particular meditation practice (‘the practice’), and the state of consciousness of the meditator (“the phenomenology”). Inclusion of variables from all these domains will improve the ability to predict the psychophysiological variables (“the psychophysiology”) associated with specific meditation states and thus explore the mysteries of human consciousness. PMID:25071607

  1. The Neural Mechanisms of Meditative Practices: Novel Approaches for Healthy Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Bianca P; Pospos, Sarah; Lavretsky, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Meditation has been shown to have physical, cognitive, and psychological health benefits that can be used to promote healthy aging. However, the common and specific mechanisms of response remain elusive due to the diverse nature of mind-body practices. In this review, we aim to compare the neural circuits implicated in focused-attention meditative practices that focus on present-moment awareness to those involved in active-type meditative practices (e.g., yoga) that combine movement, including chanting, with breath practices and meditation. Recent meta-analyses and individual studies demonstrated common brain effects for attention-based meditative practices and active-based meditations in areas involved in reward processing and learning, attention and memory, awareness and sensory integration, and self-referential processing and emotional control, while deactivation was seen in the amygdala, an area implicated in emotion processing. Unique effects for mindfulness practices were found in brain regions involved in body awareness, attention, and the integration of emotion and sensory processing. Effects specific to active-based meditations appeared in brain areas involved in self-control, social cognition, language, speech, tactile stimulation, sensorimotor integration, and motor function. This review suggests that mind-body practices can target different brain systems that are involved in the regulation of attention, emotional control, mood, and executive cognition that can be used to treat or prevent mood and cognitive disorders of aging, such as depression and caregiver stress, or serve as "brain fitness" exercise. Benefits may include improving brain functional connectivity in brain systems that generally degenerate with Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and other aging-related diseases.

  2. Blood Pressure Response to Meditation and Yoga: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seong-Hi; Han, Kuem Sun

    2017-09-01

    To introduce research that presents scientific evidence regarding the effects of mantra and mindfulness meditation techniques and yoga on decreasing blood pressure (BP) in patients who have hypertension. A literature search was performed to identify all studies published between 1946 and 2014 from periodicals indexed in Ovid Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, KoreaMed, and NDSL by using the following keywords: "hypertension," "blood pressure," "psychotherapy," "relaxation therapy," "meditation," "yoga," and "mind-body therapy." The Cochrane's Risk of Bias was applied to assess the internal validity of the randomized controlled trial studies. Thirteen studies were analyzed in this meta-analysis by using Review Manager 5.3. Among 510 possible studies, 13 met the selection criteria. Seven examined meditation, and six examined yoga. The meta-analysis indicated that meditation and yoga appeared to decrease both systolic and diastolic BP, which were within similar baseline ranges, and the reduction was statistically significant; however, some results showed little difference. After an in-depth analysis of those results, BP range and patient age were revealed as the factors that affected the different results in some reports. In particular, meditation played a noticeable role in decreasing the BP of subjects older than 60 years of age, whereas yoga seemed to contribute to the decrease of subjects aged less than 60 years. While acknowledging the limitations of this research due to the differences in BP and the participants' ages, meditation and yoga are demonstrated to be effective alternatives to pharmacotherapy. Given that BP decreased with the use of meditation and yoga, and this effect varied in different age groups, scientifically measured outcomes indicate that these practices are safe alternatives in some cases.

  3. A study of structure of phenomenology of consciousness in meditative and non-meditative states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, S; Raju, T R; Shivani, Y; Tompkins, G; Meti, B L

    1997-04-01

    Twelve senior Kundalini (Chakra) meditators were assessed during meditation session and non-meditation or control session using Phenomenology of Consciousness Inventory. The data has been analyzed using structural analysis to measure the altered state of consciousness and the identity state by comparing meditative state with non-meditative state. The structural analysis of pattern of consciousness during the meditative state revealed altered experience in perception (percentile rank PR = 90), meaning (PR = 82) and time sense (PR = 87), while positive affect dimension showed increased joy (PR = 73) and love (PR = 67). The imagery vividness (PR = 72), self-awareness (PR = 77), rationality (PR = 73) and arousal (PR = 69) were found to be structurally different from the ordinary state. With regards to identity state meditative experience was found to produce statistically significant changes in terms of intensity in meaning (P < 0.05), time sense (P < 0.05), joy (P < 0.05), love (P < 0.05) and state of awareness (P < 0.01). Our results indicate that long term practice of meditation appears to produce structural as well as intensity changes in phenomenological experiences of consciousness.

  4. Inhabiting compassion: A pastoral theological paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil C. Zylla

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by the vision of care in Vincent van Gogh’s depiction of the parable of the Good Samaritan, this article offers a paradigm for inhabiting compassion. Compassion is understood in this article as a moral emotion that is also a pathocentric virtue. This definition creates a dynamic view of compassion as a desire to alleviate the suffering of others, the capacity to act on behalf of others and a commitment to sustain engagement with the suffering other. To weave this vision of compassion as a habitus rather than a theoretical construct, the article develops three phases of compassion: seeing, companioning and sighing. This framework deepens and augments a pastoral theological paradigm of compassion with the aim of inculcating an inhabited compassion in caregivers and the communities in which they participate.

  5. State Mindfulness During Meditation Predicts Enhanced Cognitive Reappraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Adam; Farb, Norman A.; Froeliger, Brett E.

    2013-01-01

    Putatively, mindfulness meditation involves generation of a state of “nonappraisal”, yet, little is known about how mindfulness may influence appraisal processes. We investigated whether the state and practice of mindfulness could enhance cognitive reappraisal. Participants (N = 44; M age = 24.44, SD = 4.00, range 19 – 38, 82.2% female) were randomized to either 1) mindfulness, 2) suppression, or 3) mind-wandering induction training conditions. Cognitive reappraisal was assessed with the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ) prior to experimental induction, and state mindfulness was assessed immediately following induction using the Toronto Mindfulness Scale (TMS). Participants practiced their assigned strategy for one week and then were reassessed with the ERQ reappraisal subscale. Participants receiving mindfulness training reported significantly higher levels of state mindfulness than participants in the thought suppression and mind wandering conditions. Although brief mindfulness training did not lead to significantly greater increases in reappraisal than the other two conditions, state mindfulness during mindfulness meditation was prospectively associated with increases in reappraisal. Path analysis revealed that the indirect effect between mindfulness training and reappraisal was significant through state mindfulness. Degree of state mindfulness achieved during the act of mindfulness meditation significantly predicted increases in reappraisal over time, suggesting that mindfulness may promote emotion regulation by enhancing cognitive reappraisal. PMID:26085851

  6. Neural mechanisms of attentional control in mindfulness meditation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eMalinowski

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The scientific interest in meditation and mindfulness practice has recently seen an unprecedented surge. After an initial phase of presenting beneficial effects of mindfulness practice in various domains, research is now seeking to unravel the underlying psychological and neurophysiological mechanisms. Advances in understanding these processes are required for improving and fine-tuning mindfulness-based interventions that target specific conditions such as eating disorders or attention deficit hyperactivity disorders. This review presents a theoretical framework that emphasizes the central role of attentional control mechanisms in the development of mindfulness skills. It discusses the phenomenological level of experience during meditation, the different attentional functions that are involved, and relates these to the brain networks that subserve these functions. On the basis of currently available empirical evidence specific processes as to how attention exerts its positive influence are considered and it is concluded that meditation practice appears to positively impact attentional functions by improving resource allocation processes. As a result, attentional resources are allocated more fully during early processing phases which subsequently enhance further processing. Neural changes resulting from a pure form of mindfulness practice that is central to most mindfulness programs are considered from the perspective that they constitute a useful reference point for future research. Furthermore, possible interrelations between the improvement of attentional control and emotion regulation skills are discussed.

  7. Focused attention, open monitoring and automatic self-transcending: Categories to organize meditations from Vedic, Buddhist and Chinese traditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Fred; Shear, Jonathan

    2010-12-01

    This paper proposes a third meditation-category--automatic self-transcending--to extend the dichotomy of focused attention and open monitoring proposed by Lutz. Automatic self-transcending includes techniques designed to transcend their own activity. This contrasts with focused attention, which keeps attention focused on an object; and open monitoring, which keeps attention involved in the monitoring process. Each category was assigned EEG bands, based on reported brain patterns during mental tasks, and meditations were categorized based on their reported EEG. Focused attention, characterized by beta/gamma activity, included meditations from Tibetan Buddhist, Buddhist, and Chinese traditions. Open monitoring, characterized by theta activity, included meditations from Buddhist, Chinese, and Vedic traditions. Automatic self-transcending, characterized by alpha1 activity, included meditations from Vedic and Chinese traditions. Between categories, the included meditations differed in focus, subject/object relation, and procedures. These findings shed light on the common mistake of averaging meditations together to determine mechanisms or clinical effects. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The gluon Sivers asymmetry measurements at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Szabelski, Adam

    2018-01-01

    The Sivers function describes the correlation between the transverse spin of a nucleon and the transverse motion of its partons. As such, a nonzero Sivers effect for gluons could be a signature of their nonzero orbital angular momentum inside the nucleon. COMPASS has collected data of semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering by impinging 160 GeV/$c$ muons on transversely polarised proton and deuteron targets. The gluon Sivers asymmetry is extracted from a high-$p_T$ hadron pair sample with the use of monte carlo simulations and the a neural network approach. The results of a similar analysis for a Collins-like asymmetry for gluons will also be given.

  9. The gluon Sivers asymmetry measurements at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Szabelski, Adam

    2017-01-01

    The Sivers function describes the correlation between the transverse spin of a nucleon and the transverse motion of its partons. As such, a nonzero Sivers effect for gluons could be a signature of their nonzero orbital angular momentum inside the nucleon. COMPASS has collected data of semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering by impinging 160 GeV/$c$ muons on transversely polarised proton and deuteron targets. The gluon Sivers asymmetry is extracted from a high-$p_T$ hadron pair sample with the use of monte carlo simulations and the a neural network approach. The results of a similar analysis for a Collins-like asymmetry for gluons will also be given.

  10. JET and COMPASS asymmetrical disruptions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gerasimov, S.N.; Abreu, P.; Baruzzo, M.; Drozdov, V.; Dvornova, A.; Havlíček, Josef; Hender, T.C.; Hronová-Bilyková, Olena; Kruezi, U.; Li, X.; Markovič, Tomáš; Pánek, Radomír; Rubinacci, G.; Tsalas, M.; Ventre, S.; Villone, F.; Zakharov, L.E.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 11 (2015), s. 113006-113006 ISSN 0029-5515 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011021 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : tokamak * asymmetrical disruption * JET * COMPASS Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 4.040, year: 2015

  11. Exclusive meson production at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Pochodzalla, Josef; Moinester, Murray; Piller, Gunther; Sandacz, Andrzej; Vanderhaeghen, Marc; Pochodzalla, Josef; Mankiewicz, Lech; Moinester, Murray; Piller, Gunther; Sandacz, Andrzej; Vanderhaeghen, Marc

    1999-01-01

    We explore the feasibility to study exclusive meson production (EMP) in hard muon-proton scattering at the COMPASS experiment. These measurements constrain the off-forward parton distributions (OFPD's) of the proton, which are related to the quark orbital contribution to the proton spin.

  12. [Compassion as a mediator between stressful events and perceived stress in Greek students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tholouli, E; Maridaki-Kassotaki, A; Varvogli, L; Chrousos, G P

    2016-01-01

    Compassion is closely related with human's survival as a mammal and has been developed through evolution for pain reduction, for forming affiliative bonds and alliances with non kin in order to increase protection and cope with external threats. Compassion seems to influence people's ability to deal with life's adverse situations such as stress and it is linked with lower psychopathology and greater wellbeing. Compassion is closely related to empathy and altruism and it is defined as the recognition of the pain of the self or others' that is accompanied with the will to take action in order to relieve the person from pain. Its main features are kindness instead of self-judgment and indifference, the recognition of common humanity instead of the feeling of separation and mindfulness when facing adverse conditions instead of over-identification with one's pain or disengagement with the pain of others. According to the biopsychosocial approach, stress can be defined by three dimensions such as the cause or stressful factors that can be major life events or daily hassles, the perception of stress that is manifested through cognitive, emotional and behavioural reactions and the physiological response for achieving homeostasis. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of compassion for self and others in the occurrence of stressful events and levels of perceived stress in students. Participants were 280 undergraduate students from two Greek universities. Results indicated that students who had experienced a greater amount of stressful events during the past year reported having higher levels of perceived stress and that higher self-compassion was correlated with less perceived stress. Moreover, the adverse effect of stressful events on perceived stress was partially explained by the mediating role of self-compassion. Students who reported more stressful events showed higher compassion for others in opposition to compassion towards themselves but

  13. Efficacy of rajayoga meditation on positive thinking: an index for self-satisfaction and happiness in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M G, Ramesh; B, Sathian; E, Sinu; S Rai, Kiranmai

    2013-10-01

    Psychological studies have shown that brief period of mindfulness meditation significantly improves critical cognitive skills. But, there are no studies which have assessed the effects of Brahma Kumaris Rajayoga Meditation (BKRM) practice on positive thinking and happiness in life. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis is BKRM enhances positive thinking and that essential to attain higher levels of self-satisfaction and happiness in life. This study is a cross sectional comparative study which was done between Rajayoga meditators and non-meditators. This study was conducted at BKRM Centres at Manipal and Udupi in Karnataka, India. Fifty subjects were selected for this study, which included those practising BKRM in their normal routine life (n=25) and non-meditators (n=25) who were aged 42.95+/15.29 years. Self-reported Oxford happiness questionnaire (OHQ) was administered to all subjects and their happiness scores and status were assessed and compared. Items related to self-satisfaction in life were selected from the OHQ and compared between meditators and non-meditators. Participants completed self-reported OHQ, from which data of happiness status and self-satisfaction in relation to meditation duration and frequency were analyzed by descriptive statistics and test of hypothesis. Mean happiness scores of BKRM were significantly higher (phappiness status were significantly higher (phappiness score and self-satisfaction score. BKRM helps in significantly increasing self-satisfaction and happiness in life by enhancing positive thinking. Irrespective of age and years of short-term or long-term meditation practice, enhanced positive thinking increases self-satisfaction and happiness in life.

  14. Intensive meditation for refractory pain and symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Madhav; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer; Levine, David; Becker, Diane; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Hill-Briggs, Felicia; Ford, Daniel

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess patient interest in intensive meditation training for chronic symptoms. This was a cross-sectional anonymous survey among six chronic disease clinics in Baltimore including Chronic Kidney Disease, Crohn's Disease, Headache, Renal Transplant Recipients, General Rheumatology, and lupus clinic. Subjects were 1119 consecutive patients registering for their appointments at these clinics. Outcome measures were 6-month pain, global symptomatology, four-item perceived stress scale, use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies, and attitudes toward use of meditation for managing symptoms. We then gave a scripted description of an intensive, 10-day meditation training retreat. Patient interest in attending such a retreat was assessed. Seventy-seven percent (77%) of patients approached completed the survey. Fifty-three percent (53%) of patients reported moderate to severe pain over the past 6 months. Eighty percent (80%) reported use of some CAM therapy in the past. Thirty-five percent (35%) thought that learning meditation would improve their health, and 49% thought it would reduce stress. Overall, 39% reported interest in attending the intensive 10-day meditation retreat. Among those reporting moderate to severe pain or stress, the percentages were higher (48% and 59%). In a univariate analysis, higher education, nonworking/disabled status, female gender, higher stress, higher pain, higher symptomatology, and any CAM use were all associated with a greater odds of being moderately to very interested in an intensive 10-day meditation retreat. A multivariate model that included prior use of CAM therapies as predictors of interest in the program fit the data significantly better than a model not including CAM therapies (p = 0.0013). Over 50% of patients followed in chronic disease clinics complain of moderate to severe pain. Patients with persistent pain or stress are more likely to be interested in intensive meditation.

  15. Mindfulness Meditation for Primary Headache Pain: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Gu

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: Mindfulness meditation may reduce pain intensity and is a promising treatment option for patients. Clinicians may consider mindfulness meditation as a viable complementary and alternative medical option for primary headache.

  16. Unsichtbar. Meditation zum Lukasevangelium 19,1-10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten Busch

    2008-01-01

    En meditation over Lukasevangeliet 19,1-10 (Zakæus) med temaet usynlighed som omdrejningspunkt. Udgivelsesdato: 2007......En meditation over Lukasevangeliet 19,1-10 (Zakæus) med temaet usynlighed som omdrejningspunkt. Udgivelsesdato: 2007...

  17. Mindfulness meditation training alters stress-related amygdala resting state functional connectivity: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taren, Adrienne A; Gianaros, Peter J; Greco, Carol M; Lindsay, Emily K; Fairgrieve, April; Brown, Kirk Warren; Rosen, Rhonda K; Ferris, Jennifer L; Julson, Erica; Marsland, Anna L; Bursley, James K; Ramsburg, Jared; Creswell, J David

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies indicate that mindfulness meditation training interventions reduce stress and improve stress-related health outcomes, but the neural pathways for these effects are unknown. The present research evaluates whether mindfulness meditation training alters resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the amygdala, a region known to coordinate stress processing and physiological stress responses. We show in an initial discovery study that higher perceived stress over the past month is associated with greater bilateral amygdala-subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) rsFC in a sample of community adults (n = 130). A follow-up, single-blind randomized controlled trial shows that a 3-day intensive mindfulness meditation training intervention (relative to a well-matched 3-day relaxation training intervention without a mindfulness component) reduced right amygdala-sgACC rsFC in a sample of stressed unemployed community adults (n = 35). Although stress may increase amygdala-sgACC rsFC, brief training in mindfulness meditation could reverse these effects. This work provides an initial indication that mindfulness meditation training promotes functional neuroplastic changes, suggesting an amygdala-sgACC pathway for stress reduction effects. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Meditation has stronger relationships with mindfulness, kundalini, and mystical experiences than yoga or prayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, John M

    2015-09-01

    Contemplative practices can have profound effects on mindfulness and on physical and sensory and mystical experiences. Individuals who self-reported meditation, yoga, contemplative prayer, or a combination of practices and their patterns of practice were compared for mindfulness, kundalini effects, and mystical experiences. The results suggest that the amount of practice but not the pattern and social conditions of practice influences mindfulness and possibly mystical experiences. Meditation, yoga, contemplative prayer, or a combination of practices all were found to be associated with enhancements of mindfulness, kundalini effects, and mystical experiences, but meditation had particularly strong associations and may be the basis of the associations of yoga and prayer with these outcomes. The results further suggest that the primary association of contemplative practices is with the real time awareness and appreciation of sensory and perceptual experiences which may be the intermediary between disparate practices and mindfulness, kundalini effects, and mystical experiences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Dynamic correlations between heart and brain rhythm during Autogenic meditation

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Dae-Keun; Lee, Kyung-Mi; Kim, Jongwha; Whang, Min-Cheol; Kang, Seung Wan

    2013-01-01

    This study is aimed to determine significant physiological parameters of brain and heart under meditative state, both in each activities and their dynamic correlations. Electrophysiological changes in response to meditation were explored in 12 healthy volunteers who completed 8 weeks of a basic training course in autogenic meditation. Heart coherence, representing the degree of ordering in oscillation of heart rhythm intervals, increased significantly during meditation. Relative EEG alpha pow...

  20. Searching for the philosopher's stone: promising links between meditation and brain preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luders, Eileen; Cherbuin, Nicolas

    2016-06-01

    In the context of an aging population and increased prevalence of dementia and other neurodegenerative diseases, developing strategies to decrease the negative effects of aging is imperative. The scientific study of meditation as a potential tool to downregulate processes implicated in brain aging is an emerging field, and a growing body of research suggests that mindfulness practices are beneficial for cerebral resilience. Adding further evidence to this notion, an increasing number of imaging studies report effects of meditation on brain structure that are consistent with our understanding of neuroprotection. Here, we review the published findings in this field of research addressing the question of whether meditation diminishes age-related brain degeneration. Altogether, although analyses are still sparse and based on cross-sectional data, study outcomes suggest that meditation might be beneficial for brain preservation-both with respect to gray and white matter-possibly by slowing down the natural (age-related) decrease of brain tissue. Nevertheless, it should also be recognized that, until robust longitudinal data become available, there is no evidence for causation between meditation and brain preservation. This review includes a comprehensive commentary on limitations of the existing research and concludes with implications and directions for future studies. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  1. EEG source imaging during two Qigong meditations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Pascal L; Lehmann, Dietrich; Tei, Shisei; Tsujiuchi, Takuya; Kumano, Hiroaki; Pascual-Marqui, Roberto D; Kochi, Kieko

    2012-08-01

    Experienced Qigong meditators who regularly perform the exercises "Thinking of Nothing" and "Qigong" were studied with multichannel EEG source imaging during their meditations. The intracerebral localization of brain electric activity during the two meditation conditions was compared using sLORETA functional EEG tomography. Differences between conditions were assessed using t statistics (corrected for multiple testing) on the normalized and log-transformed current density values of the sLORETA images. In the EEG alpha-2 frequency, 125 voxels differed significantly; all were more active during "Qigong" than "Thinking of Nothing," forming a single cluster in parietal Brodmann areas 5, 7, 31, and 40, all in the right hemisphere. In the EEG beta-1 frequency, 37 voxels differed significantly; all were more active during "Thinking of Nothing" than "Qigong," forming a single cluster in prefrontal Brodmann areas 6, 8, and 9, all in the left hemisphere. Compared to combined initial-final no-task resting, "Qigong" showed activation in posterior areas whereas "Thinking of Nothing" showed activation in anterior areas. The stronger activity of posterior (right) parietal areas during "Qigong" and anterior (left) prefrontal areas during "Thinking of Nothing" may reflect a predominance of self-reference, attention and input-centered processing in the "Qigong" meditation, and of control-centered processing in the "Thinking of Nothing" meditation.

  2. Mechanical properties of the compass depressors of the sea-urchin Paracentrotus lividus (Echinodermata, Echinoidea and the effects of enzymes, neurotransmitters and synthetic tensilin-like protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain C Wilkie

    Full Text Available The compass depressors (CDs of the sea-urchin lantern are ligaments consisting mainly of discontinuous collagen fibrils associated with a small population of myocytes. They are mutable collagenous structures, which can change their mechanical properties rapidly and reversibly under nervous control. The aims of this investigation were to characterise the baseline (i.e. unmanipulated static mechanical properties of the CDs of Paracentrotus lividus by means of creep tests and incremental force-extension tests, and to determine the effects on their mechanical behaviour of a range of agents. Under constant load the CDs exhibited a three-phase creep curve, the mean coefficient of viscosity being 561±365 MPa.s. The stress-strain curve showed toe, linear and yield regions; the mean strain at the toe-linear inflection was 0.86±0.61; the mean Young's modulus was 18.62±10.30 MPa; and the mean tensile strength was 8.14±5.73 MPa. Hyaluronidase from Streptomyces hyalurolyticus had no effect on creep behaviour, whilst chondroitinase ABC prolonged primary creep but had no effect on secondary creep or on any force-extension parameters; it thus appears that neither hyaluronic acid nor sulphated glycosaminoglycans have an interfibrillar load transfer function in the CD. Acetylcholine, the muscarinic agonists arecoline and methacholine, and the nicotinic agonists nicotine and 1-[1-(3,4-dimethyl-phenyl-ethyl]-piperazine produced an abrupt increase in CD viscosity; the CDs were not differentially sensitive to muscarinic or nicotinic agonists. CDs showed either no, or no consistent, response to adrenaline, L-glutamic acid, 5-hydroxytryptamine and γ-aminobutyric acid. Synthetic echinoid tensilin-like protein had a weak and inconsistent stiffening effect, indicating that, in contrast to holothurian tensilins, the echinoid molecule may not be involved in the regulation of collagenous tissue tensility. We compare in detail the mechanical behaviour of the CD with that

  3. Factors that influence the development of compassion fatigue, burnout, and compassion satisfaction in emergency department nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsaker, Stacie; Chen, Hsiu-Chin; Maughan, Dale; Heaston, Sondra

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to determine the prevalence of compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue, and burnout in emergency department nurses throughout the United States and (b) to examine which demographic and work-related components affect the development of compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue, and burnout in this nursing specialty. This was a nonexperimental, descriptive, and predictive study using a self-administered survey. Survey packets including a demographic questionnaire and the Professional Quality of Life Scale version 5 (ProQOL 5) were mailed to 1,000 selected emergency nurses throughout the United States. The ProQOL 5 scale was used to measure the prevalence of compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue, and burnout among emergency department nurses. Multiple regression using stepwise solution was employed to determine which variables of demographics and work-related characteristics predicted the prevalence of compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue, and burnout. The α level was set at .05 for statistical significance. The results revealed overall low to average levels of compassion fatigue and burnout and generally average to high levels of compassion satisfaction among this group of emergency department nurses. The low level of manager support was a significant predictor of higher levels of burnout and compassion fatigue among emergency department nurses, while a high level of manager support contributed to a higher level of compassion satisfaction. The results may serve to help distinguish elements in emergency department nurses' work and life that are related to compassion satisfaction and may identify factors associated with higher levels of compassion fatigue and burnout. Improving recognition and awareness of compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue, and burnout among emergency department nurses may prevent emotional exhaustion and help identify interventions that will help nurses remain empathetic and

  4. The possible role of meditation in myofascial pain syndrome: A new hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashanth Panta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background of Hypothesis: Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS is the most common musculoskeletal pain disorder of the head and neck area. In the past, several theories were put forth to explain its origin and nature, but none proved complete. Myofascial pain responds to changing psychological states and stress, anxiety, lack of sleep, anger, depression and chronic pain are direct contributional factors. Myofascial pain syndrome may be considered as a psychosomatic disorder. There are numerous accepted palliative approaches, but of all, relaxation techniques stand out and initiate healing at the base level. In this article, the connection between mental factors, MPS and meditation are highlighted. Recent literature has shed light on the fundamental role of free radicals in the emergence of myofascial pain. The accumulating free radicals disrupt mitochondrial integrity and function, leading to sustenance and progression of MPS. Meditation on the other hand was shown to reduce free radical load and can result in clinical improvement. 'Mindfulness' is the working principle behind the effect of all meditations, and I emphasize that it can serve as a potential tool to reverse the neuro-architectural, neurobiological and cellular changes that occur in MPS. Conclusions: The findings described in this paper were drawn from studies on myofascial pain, fibromyalgia, similar chronic pain models and most importantly from self experience (experimentation. Till date, no hypothesis is available connecting MPS and meditation. Mechanisms linking MPS and meditation were identified, and this paper can ignite novel research in this direction.

  5. Pupillary Response to Negative Emotional Stimuli Is Differentially Affected in Meditation Practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Vasquez-Rosati

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Clinically, meditative practices have become increasingly relevant, decreasing anxiety in patients and increasing antibody production. However, few studies have examined the physiological correlates, or effects of the incorporation of meditative practices. Because pupillary reactivity is a marker for autonomic changes and emotional processing, we hypothesized that the pupillary responses of mindfulness meditation practitioners (MP and subjects without such practices (non-meditators (NM differ, reflecting different emotional processing. In a group of 11 MP and 9 NM, we recorded the pupil diameter using video-oculography while subjects explored images with emotional contents. Although both groups showed a similar pupillary response for positive and neutral images, negative images evoked a greater pupillary contraction and a weaker dilation in the MP group. Also, this group had faster physiological recovery to baseline levels. These results suggest that mindfulness meditation practices modulate the response of the autonomic nervous system, reflected in the pupillary response to negative images and faster physiological recovery to baseline levels, suggesting that pupillometry could be used to assess the potential health benefits of these practices in patients.

  6. The Cultural Relevance of Mindfulness Meditation as a Health Intervention for African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods-Giscombé, Cheryl L.; Gaylord, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    African Americans experience a disproportionate rate of stress-related health conditions compared to European Americans. Mindfulness meditation has been shown to be effective for managing stress and various stress-related health conditions. This study explored the cultural relevance of mindfulness meditation training for African Americans adults. Fifteen African American adults with past or current experience with mindfulness meditation training were interviewed. Participants felt that mindfulness meditation helped them with enhanced stress management, direct health improvement, and enhanced self-awareness and purposefulness. They felt that they would recommend it and that other African Americans would be open to the practice but suggested that its presentation may need to be adapted. They suggested emphasizing the health benefits, connecting it to familiar spiritual ideology and cultural practices, supplementing the reading material with African American writers, increasing communication (education, instructor availability, “buddy system,” etc.), and including African Americans as instructors and participants. By implementing minor adaptations that enhance cultural relevance, mindfulness meditation can be a beneficial therapeutic intervention for this population. PMID:24442592

  7. Systematic review of meditation-based interventions for children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Subhadra; Ling, Mathew; Hill, Briony; Rinehart, Nicole; Austin, David; Sciberras, Emma

    2018-01-01

    Meditation-based interventions such as mindfulness and yoga are commonly practiced in the general community to improve mental and physical health. Parents, teachers and healthcare providers are also increasingly using such interventions with children. This review examines the use of meditation-based interventions in the treatment of children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Electronic databases searched included PsycINFO, Medline, CINAHL, and AMED. Inclusion criteria involved children (aged to 18 years) diagnosed with ADHD, delivery of a meditation-based intervention to children and/or parents, and publication in a peer-reviewed journal. Studies were identified and coded using standard criteria, risk of bias was assessed using Risk of Bias in Non-randomised Studies- of interventions (ROBINS-I), and effect sizes were calculated. A total of 16 studies were identified (8 that included children in treatment, and 8 that included combined parent-child treatment). Results indicated that risk of bias was high across studies. At this stage, no definitive conclusions can be offered regarding the utility of meditation-based interventions for children with ADHD and/or their parents, since the methodological quality of the studies reviewed is low. Future well designed research is needed to establish the efficacy of meditation-based interventions, including commonly used practices such as mindfulness, before recommendations can be made for children with ADHD and their families.

  8. Descriptive study of burnout, compassion fatigue and compassion satisfaction in undergraduate nursing students at a tertiary education institution in KwaZulu-Natal

    OpenAIRE

    Christina T. Mathias; Dorien L. Wentzel

    2017-01-01

    Background: Studies have investigated burnout and compassion fatigue among nurses and effects in the nursing profession. However, there are limited investigations of burnout and compassion fatigue among undergraduate nursing students in South Africa, as nursing students may experience distressful situations during their nursing education course, which may have an impact during their training and in their profession as they graduate. Purpose: The purpose of this descriptive study was to des...

  9. The neural mediators of kindness-based meditation: a theoretical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Streiffer Mascaro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Although kindness-based contemplative practices are increasingly employed by clinicians and cognitive researchers to enhance prosocial emotions, social cognitive skills, and well-being, and as a tool to understand the basic workings of the social mind, we lack a coherent theoretical model with which to test the mechanisms by which kindness-based meditation may alter the brain and body. Here we link contemplative accounts of compassion and loving-kindness practices with research from social cognitive neuroscience and social psychology to generate predictions about how diverse practices may alter brain structure and function and related aspects of social cognition. Contingent on the nuances of the practice, kindness-based meditation may enhance the neural systems related to faster and more basic perceptual or motor simulation processes, simulation of another’s affective body state, slower and higher-level perspective-taking, modulatory processes such as emotion regulation and self/other discrimination, and combinations thereof. This theoretical model will be discussed alongside best practices for testing such a model and potential implications and applications of future work.

  10. Meditation is associated with increased brain network integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lutterveld, Remko; van Dellen, Edwin; Pal, Prasanta; Yang, Hua; Stam, Cornelis Jan; Brewer, Judson

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to identify novel quantitative EEG measures associated with mindfulness meditation. As there is some evidence that meditation is associated with higher integration of brain networks, we focused on EEG measures of network integration. Sixteen novice meditators and sixteen experienced meditators participated in the study. Novice meditators performed a basic meditation practice that supported effortless awareness, which is an important quality of experience related to mindfulness practices, while their EEG was recorded. Experienced meditators performed a self-selected meditation practice that supported effortless awareness. Network integration was analyzed with maximum betweenness centrality and leaf fraction (which both correlate positively with network integration) as well as with diameter and average eccentricity (which both correlate negatively with network integration), based on a phase-lag index (PLI) and minimum spanning tree (MST) approach. Differences between groups were assessed using repeated-measures ANOVA for the theta (4-8 Hz), alpha (8-13 Hz) and lower beta (13-20 Hz) frequency bands. Maximum betweenness centrality was significantly higher in experienced meditators than in novices (P = 0.012) in the alpha band. In the same frequency band, leaf fraction showed a trend toward being significantly higher in experienced meditators than in novices (P = 0.056), while diameter and average eccentricity were significantly lower in experienced meditators than in novices (P = 0.016 and P = 0.028 respectively). No significant differences between groups were observed for the theta and beta frequency bands. These results show that alpha band functional network topology is better integrated in experienced meditators than in novice meditators during meditation. This novel finding provides the rationale to investigate the temporal relation between measures of functional connectivity network integration and meditation quality, for example using

  11. The experience of meditation for people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and their caregivers - a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marconi, Anna; Gragnano, Gaia; Lunetta, Christian; Gatto, Ramona; Fabiani, Viviana; Tagliaferri, Aurora; Rossi, Gabriella; Sansone, Valeria; Pagnini, Francesco

    2016-09-01

    There is a lack of studies about psychological interventions for people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and their caregivers. We investigated the experience of a meditation training program tailored for ALS needs. People with ALS (pALS) and their caregivers that joined a meditation program for ALS were interviewed at the end of the program. Verbatims were analyzed with a qualitative approach. Both pALS and their caregivers reported a positive impact on their psychological well-being, promoted by an increase in acceptance and non-judgmental attitude. Furthermore, coping strategies seem to improve, with a positive effect on resilience skills. The ALS meditation training program seems to be an effective psychological intervention for the promotion of well-being in pALS and their caregivers.

  12. Compassion: An Evolutionary Analysis and Empirical Review

    OpenAIRE

    Goetz, Jennifer L.; Keltner, Dacher; Simon-Thomas, Emiliana

    2010-01-01

    What is compassion? And how did it evolve? In this review, we integrate three evolutionary arguments that converge on the hypothesis that compassion evolved as a distinct affective experience whose primary function is to facilitate cooperation and protection of the weak and those who suffer. Our empirical review reveals compassion to have distinct appraisal processes attuned to undeserved suffering, distinct signaling behavior related to caregiving patterns of touch, posture, and vocalization...

  13. The COMPASS Hadron Spectroscopy Programme

    CERN Document Server

    Austregesilo, A

    2011-01-01

    COMPASS is a fixed-target experiment at the CERN SPS for the investigation of the structure and the dynamics of hadrons. The experimental setup features a large acceptance and high momentum resolution spectrometer including particle identification and calorimetry and is therefore ideal to access a broad range of different final states. Following the promising observation of a spin-exotic resonance during an earlier pilot run, COMPASS focused on light-quark hadron spectroscopy during the years 2008 and 2009. A data set, world leading in terms of statistics and resolution, has been collected with a 190GeV/c hadron beam impinging on either liquid hydrogen or nuclear targets. Spin-exotic meson and glueball candidates formed in both diffractive dissociation and central production are presently studied. Since the beam composition includes protons, the excited baryon spectrum is also accessible. Furthermore, Primakoff reactions have the potential to determine radiative widths of the resonances and to probe chiral pe...

  14. What is compassion and how can we measure it? A review of definitions and measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Clara; Lever Taylor, Billie; Gu, Jenny; Kuyken, Willem; Baer, Ruth; Jones, Fergal; Cavanagh, Kate

    2016-07-01

    The importance of compassion is widely recognized and it is receiving increasing research attention. Yet, there is lack of consensus on definition and a paucity of psychometrically robust measures of this construct. Without an agreed definition and adequate measures, we cannot study compassion, measure compassion or evaluate whether interventions designed to enhance compassion are effective. In response, this paper proposes a definition of compassion and offers a systematic review of self- and observer-rated measures. Following consolidation of existing definitions, we propose that compassion consists of five elements: recognizing suffering, understanding the universality of human suffering, feeling for the person suffering, tolerating uncomfortable feelings, and motivation to act/acting to alleviate suffering. Three databases were searched (Web of Science, PsycInfo, and Medline) and nine measures included and rated for quality. Quality ratings ranged from 2 to 7 out of 14 with low ratings due to poor internal consistency for subscales, insufficient evidence for factor structure and/or failure to examine floor/ceiling effects, test-retest reliability, and discriminant validity. We call our five-element definition, and if supported, the development of a measure of compassion based on this operational definition, and which demonstrates adequate psychometric properties. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Mindfulness & Self-Compassion Meditation for Combat Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Randomized Controlled Trial and Mechanistic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    PTSD and depression symptoms in adult survivors of childhoods sexual abuse (Kimbrough, Magyari, Langenberg, Chesney, & Berman, 2010). Our pilot... neuropsychological / attention measures (Attention Network Task, “ANT”)  Additional training and preparation of logistic and human subject...MBSR) found acceptability and decreased PTSD symptoms in adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. We conducted a pilot study of MBCT adapted for PTSD

  16. Impact of Heartfulness Meditation on Reducing Stress in Nursing Students: A Prospective Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Amarnath G

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study and assess the effectiveness of Heartfulness Meditation in reducing stress levels of nursing students in a learning environment. Methodology: A cross-sectional research designed using a standard Perceived Stress Questionnaire pertaining to the subjective perception of things in the learning and clinical environment leading to emotional stress such as workload, worries, tension, and harassment as well as joyful conditions. Overall 120 students from I, II and IV years of a private nursing college in Chennai, in the state of Tamil Nadu, India participate in 3 hours (1 hour each day on 3 consecutive days Heartfulness meditation workshop. Results: The predominant themes represented are perceptions of the learning environment and clinical practice, coping, personal issues, balancing college work, and personal life. Mean Baseline stress scores of workload is higher for first and second-year students compared with final year students; Worries and Harassment score is higher in second-year students; Joy score is higher for first-year students; Tension score is higher in final year students. After Heartfulness meditation workshop, the mean decrease in workload, worries, tension and harassment score and mean increase in Joy score is observed in the participants. Conclusion: The investigation on the effectiveness of Heartfulness Meditation as a mental and emotional support tool to deal with and to mitigate stress reveals positive results. Based on these results, it is evident that Heartfulness meditation can be employed as a coping mechanism to deal with stress in a clinical and learning environment. Given the adverse effects of stress on the physiological and psychological well-being of caregivers; Heartfulness Meditation may be considered for inclusion in the standard curriculum of nursing colleges.

  17. [Mind-body approach in the area of preventive medicine: focusing on relaxation and meditation for stress management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yunesik

    2010-09-01

    Emotional support and a stress management program should be simultaneously provided to clients as effective preventive services for healthy behavioral change. This study was conducted to review various relaxation and meditation intervention methods and their applicability for a preventive service program. The author of this paper tried to find various relaxation and meditation programs through a literature review and program searching and to introduce them. The 'Relaxation Response' and 'Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR)' are the most the widely used meditative programs in mainstream medical systems. Abdominal breathing, Progressive Musclular Relaxation (PMR), Relaxative Imagery, Autogenic Training (AT) and Biofeedback are other well-known techniques for relaxation and stress management. I have developed and implemented some programs using these methods. Relaxation and meditation classes for cancer patients and a meditation based stress coping workshop are examples of this program. Relaxation and meditation seem to be good and effective methods for primary, secondary and tertiary preventive service programs. Program development and standardization and further study are needed for more and wider use of the mind-body approach in the preventive service area of medicine.

  18. Changes in trait brainwave power and coherence, state and trait anxiety after three-month transcendental meditation (TM) practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomljenović, Helena; Begić, Dražen; Maštrović, Zora

    2016-03-01

    The amount of studies showing different benefits of practicing meditation is growing. EEG brainwave patterns objectively reflect both the cognitive processes and objects of meditation. This study aimed to examine the effects of transcendental meditation (TM) practice on baseline EEG brainwave patterns (outside of meditation) and to examine weather TM reduces state and trait anxiety. Standard EEG recordings were conducted on volunteer participants (N=12), all students or younger employed people, before and after a three-month meditation training. Artifact-free 100-second epochs were selected and analyzed by Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) analysis. Endlers Multidimensional Anxiety Scales (EMAS) were used to assess anxiety levels. Power (μV(2)) and coherence levels were compared in the alpha, beta, theta and delta frequency band. Changes in EEG patterns after meditation practice were found mostly in the theta band. An interaction effect was found on the left hemisphere (pmeditation practice. Most of the changes were found in the occipital and temporal areas, less in the central and frontal areas. State anxiety decreased after TM practice. Findings suggest TM practice could be helpful in treating different kinds of disorders, especially anxiety disorders.

  19. Effect of mindfulness meditation on short-term weight loss and eating behaviors in overweight and obese adults: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadaro, Kathleen C; Davis, Kelliann K; Sereika, Susan M; Gibbs, Bethany B; Jakicic, John M; Cohen, Susan M

    2017-12-05

    Background There is a significant health crisis with rates of obesity continuing to increase despite research and clinical standard behavioral weight loss programs (SBWP). Mindfulness meditation (MM), with demonstrated benefits on physical, psychological health, and self-regulation behaviors was explored with SBWP. Methods Forty-six adults (BMI=32.5±3.7 kg/m2; age=45.2±8.2 years, 87 % female, 21.7 % African American) were randomly assigned to a 6-month SBWP only (n=24) or SBWP+MM (n=22) at a university-based physical activity and weight management research center in a northeastern US city. Participants were instructed to decrease intake (1200-1500 kcal/day), increase physical activity (300 min/wk), and attend weekly SBWP or SBWP+MM sessions. SBWP+MM had the same SBWP lessons with addition of focused MM training. Outcome measures collected at 0, 3, and 6 months included: weight, Block Food Frequency Questionnaire, Eating Behavior Inventory, Eating Inventory and Paffenbarger Physical Activity Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using linear mixed modeling for efficacy analysis of weight (primary) and eating, exercise and mindfulness (secondary outcomes). Results Retention rate was 76.1 % (n=35). A significant group by time interaction (p=0.03) was found for weight, with weight loss favoring SBWP+MM (-6.9 kg+2.9) over SBWP (-4.1 kg+2.8). Eating behaviors (p=0.02) and dietary restraint (p=0.02) improved significantly in SBWP+MM, compared to SBWP. MM enhanced weight loss by 2.8 kg potentially through greater improvements in eating behaviors and dietary restraint. Conclusions These findings support further study into the use of MM strategies with overweight and obese adults. The use of this low-cost, portable strategy with standard behavioral interventions could improve weight management outcomes.

  20. Data for default network reduced functional connectivity in meditators, negatively correlated with meditation expertise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aviva Berkovich-Ohana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available FMRI data described here was recorded during resting-state in Mindfulness Meditators (MM and control participants (see “Task-induced activity and resting-state fluctuations undergo similar alterations in visual and DMN areas of long-term meditators” Berkovich-Ohana et al. (2016 [1] for details. MM participants were also scanned during meditation. Analyses focused on functional connectivity within and between the default mode network (DMN and visual network (Vis. Here we show data demonstrating that: 1 Functional connectivity within the DMN and the Visual networks were higher in the control group than in the meditators; 2 Data show an increase for the functional connectivity between the DMN and the Visual networks in the meditators compared to controls; 3 Data demonstrate that functional connectivity both within and between networks reduces during meditation, compared to the resting-state; and 4 A significant negative correlation was found between DMN functional connectivity and meditation expertise. The reader is referred to Berkovich-Ohana et al. (2016 [1] for further interpretation and discussion.

  1. Meditation Breath Attention Scores (MBAS): Development and investigation of an internet-based assessment of focused attention during meditation practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frewen, Paul; Hargraves, Heather; DePierro, Jonathan; D'Andrea, Wendy; Flodrowski, Les

    2016-07-01

    Meditation Breath Attention Scores (MBAS) represent a self-report, state measure of focused attention (FA) during the practice of meditation. The MBAS assessment procedure involves sounding a bell at periodic intervals during meditation practice, at which times participants indicate if they were attending toward breathing (scored 1) or if instead they had become distracted (e.g., by mind wandering; scored 0); scores are then tallied to yield participants' MBAS for that meditation. The current study developed and evaluated a fully automated and Internet-based version of MBAS in 1,101 volunteers. Results suggested that: (a) MBAS are internally consistent across bell rings; (b) MBAS total scores exhibit a non-normal distribution identifying subgroups of participants with particularly poor or robust FA during meditation; (c) MBAS decrease linearly with the duration of meditation practices, indicating that participants tend to experience less FA later as opposed to earlier in the meditation; (d) in the case of eyes-open meditation, MBAS are higher when the amount of time between bells is shorter; (e) MBAS correlate with various self-reported subjective experiences occurring during meditation; and (f) MBAS are weakly associated with higher trait mindful "acting with awareness," lesser ADHD-related symptoms of inattentiveness, and estimated minutes of meditation practiced in the past month. In sum, results provide further support for the construct validity of MBAS and serve to further characterize the dynamics of individual differences in FA during meditation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Recovering by Means of Meditation: The Role of Recovery Experiences and Intrinsic Motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooff, M.L.M. van; Baas, M.

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of meditation as a tool to recover from stress has already been widely established. However, less is known about the potential psychological mediating and moderating mechanisms affecting its effectiveness. The present study aimed to advance insight in this respect by examining the

  3. Estimating brain age using high-resolution pattern recognition: Younger brains in long-term meditation practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luders, Eileen; Cherbuin, Nicolas; Gaser, Christian

    2016-07-01

    Normal aging is known to be accompanied by loss of brain substance. The present study was designed to examine whether the practice of meditation is associated with a reduced brain age. Specific focus was directed at age fifty and beyond, as mid-life is a time when aging processes are known to become more prominent. We applied a recently developed machine learning algorithm trained to identify anatomical correlates of age in the brain translating those into one single score: the BrainAGE index (in years). Using this validated approach based on high-dimensional pattern recognition, we re-analyzed a large sample of 50 long-term meditators and 50 control subjects estimating and comparing their brain ages. We observed that, at age fifty, brains of meditators were estimated to be 7.5years younger than those of controls. In addition, we examined if the brain age estimates change with increasing age. While brain age estimates varied only little in controls, significant changes were detected in meditators: for every additional year over fifty, meditators' brains were estimated to be an additional 1month and 22days younger than their chronological age. Altogether, these findings seem to suggest that meditation is beneficial for brain preservation, effectively protecting against age-related atrophy with a consistently slower rate of brain aging throughout life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Self-Compassion and Internet Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskender, Murat; Akin, Ahmet

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the relationship of self-compassion and internet addiction. Participants were 261 university students who completed a questionnaire package that included the Self-compassion Scale and the Online Cognition Scale. The hypothesis model was tested through structural equation modeling. In correlation analysis,…

  5. Mindfulness Meditation and Interprofessional Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: A Mixed-Methods Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelm, Diana J; Ridgeway, Jennifer L; Gas, Becca L; Mohan, Monali; Cook, David A; Nelson, Darlene R; Benzo, Roberto P

    2018-05-18

    Mindfulness training includes mindfulness meditation, which has been shown to improve both attention and self-awareness. Medical providers in the intensive care unit often deal with difficult situations with strong emotions, life-and-death decisions, and both interpersonal and interprofessional conflicts. The effect of mindfulness meditation training on healthcare providers during acute care tasks such as cardiopulmonary resuscitation remains unknown. Mindfulness meditation has the potential to improve provider well-being and reduce stress in individuals involved in resuscitation teams, which could then translate into better team communication and delivery of care under stress. A better understanding of this process could lead to more effective training approaches, improved team performance, and better patient outcomes. All participants were instructed to use a mindfulness meditation device (Muse™ headband) at home for 7 min twice a day or 14 min daily over the 4-week training period. This device uses brainwave sensors to monitor active versus relaxing brain activity and provides real-time feedback. We conducted a single-group pretest-posttest convergent mixed-methods study. We enrolled 24 healthcare providers, comprising 4 interprofessional code teams, including physicians, nurses, respiratory therapists, and pharmacists. Each team participated in a simulation session immediately before and after the mindfulness training period. Each session consisted of two simulated cardiopulmonary arrest scenarios. Both quantitative and qualitative outcomes were assessed. The median proportion of participants who used the device as prescribed was 85%. Emotional balance, as measured by the critical positivity ratio, improved significantly from pretraining to posttraining (p = .02). Qualitative findings showed that mindfulness meditation changed how participants responded to work-related stress, including stress in real-code situations. Participants described the value of

  6. COMPASS Simulation for PHEBUS FPT-3 Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Jun Ho; Kim, Jongtae; Park, Rae-Jun; Son, Donggun; Kim, Dong Ha [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The objective of this paper is to assess the core degradation modeling in COMPASS code by simulating the PHEBUS FPT3 experiment. For the comparison purpose, the numerical simulation by using MELCOR 2.1 have also conducted for the FPT3 experiment. Consequently, COMPASS results of PHEBUS FPT3 have been compared with the experimental data and MELCOR results. For the purpose of COMPASS code validation, the numerical simulation for PHEBUS FPT3 experiment has been conducted. The temperature of the main component has been secured by using COMPASS code for a fuel, cladding, control rod and surrounding structure. And they are compared with that of experimental data as well as MELCOR simulation results. MELCOR are showing that an oxidational reaction starts a little bit earlier time and has the slightly higher value of the accumulated hydrogen mass, while COMPASS code predicts the slightly lower value of the accumulated hydrogen mass.

  7. Neural correlates of focused attention and cognitive monitoring in meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Antonietta; Raffone, Antonino; Perrucci, Mauro Gianni; Nardo, Davide; Ferretti, Antonio; Tartaro, Armando; Londei, Alessandro; Del Gratta, Cosimo; Belardinelli, Marta Olivetti; Romani, Gian Luca

    2010-04-29

    Meditation refers to a family of complex emotional and attentional regulatory practices, which can be classified into two main styles - focused attention (FA) and open monitoring (OM) - involving different attentional, cognitive monitoring and awareness processes. In a functional magnetic resonance study we originally characterized and contrasted FA and OM meditation forms within the same experiment, by an integrated FA-OM design. Theravada Buddhist monks, expert in both FA and OM meditation forms, and lay novices with 10 days of meditation practice, participated in the experiment. Our evidence suggests that expert meditators control cognitive engagement in conscious processing of sensory-related, thought and emotion contents, by massive self-regulation of fronto-parietal and insular areas in the left hemisphere, in a meditation state-dependent fashion. We also found that anterior cingulate and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices play antagonist roles in the executive control of the attention setting in meditation tasks. Our findings resolve the controversy between the hypothesis that meditative states are associated to transient hypofrontality or deactivation of executive brain areas, and evidence about the activation of executive brain areas in meditation. Finally, our study suggests that a functional reorganization of brain activity patterns for focused attention and cognitive monitoring takes place with mental practice, and that meditation-related neuroplasticity is crucially associated to a functional reorganization of activity patterns in prefrontal cortex and in the insula. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Shifting brain asymmetry: the link between meditation and structural lateralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, Florian; MacKenzie-Graham, Allan; Toga, Arthur W; Luders, Eileen

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have revealed an increased fractional anisotropy and greater thickness in the anterior parts of the corpus callosum in meditation practitioners compared with control subjects. Altered callosal features may be associated with an altered inter-hemispheric integration and the degree of brain asymmetry may also be shifted in meditation practitioners. Therefore, we investigated differences in gray matter asymmetry as well as correlations between gray matter asymmetry and years of meditation practice in 50 long-term meditators and 50 controls. We detected a decreased rightward asymmetry in the precuneus in meditators compared with controls. In addition, we observed that a stronger leftward asymmetry near the posterior intraparietal sulcus was positively associated with the number of meditation practice years. In a further exploratory analysis, we observed that a stronger rightward asymmetry in the pregenual cingulate cortex was negatively associated with the number of practice years. The group difference within the precuneus, as well as the positive correlations with meditation years in the pregenual cingulate cortex, suggests an adaptation of the default mode network in meditators. The positive correlation between meditation practice years and asymmetry near the posterior intraparietal sulcus may suggest that meditation is accompanied by changes in attention processing. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Quantitative change of EEG and respiration signals during mindfulness meditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background This study investigates measures of mindfulness meditation (MM) as a mental practice, in which a resting but alert state of mind is maintained. A population of older people with high stress level participated in this study, while electroencephalographic (EEG) and respiration signals were recorded during a MM intervention. The physiological signals during meditation and control conditions were analyzed with signal processing. Methods EEG and respiration data were collected and analyzed on 34 novice meditators after a 6-week meditation intervention. Collected data were analyzed with spectral analysis, phase analysis and classification to evaluate an objective marker for meditation. Results Different frequency bands showed differences in meditation and control conditions. Furthermore, we established a classifier using EEG and respiration signals with a higher accuracy (85%) at discriminating between meditation and control conditions than a classifier using the EEG signal only (78%). Conclusion Support vector machine (SVM) classifier with EEG and respiration feature vector is a viable objective marker for meditation ability. This classifier should be able to quantify different levels of meditation depth and meditation experience in future studies. PMID:24939519

  10. Mindfulness and compassion: an examination of mechanism and scalability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lim

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence suggests that meditation engenders prosocial behaviors meant to benefit others. However, the robustness, underlying mechanisms, and potential scalability of such effects remain open to question. The current experiment employed an ecologically valid situation that exposed participants to a person in visible pain. Following three-week, mobile-app based training courses in mindfulness meditation or cognitive skills (i.e., an active control condition, participants arrived at a lab individually to complete purported measures of cognitive ability. Upon entering a public waiting area outside the lab that contained three chairs, participants seated themselves in the last remaining unoccupied chair; confederates occupied the other two. As the participant sat and waited, a third confederate using crutches and a large walking boot entered the waiting area while displaying discomfort. Compassionate responding was assessed by whether participants gave up their seat to allow the uncomfortable confederate to sit, thereby relieving her pain. Participants' levels of empathic accuracy was also assessed. As predicted, participants assigned to the mindfulness meditation condition gave up their seats more frequently than did those assigned to the active control group. In addition, empathic accuracy was not increased by mindfulness practice, suggesting that mindfulness-enhanced compassionate behavior does not stem from associated increases in the ability to decode the emotional experiences of others.

  11. Cluster storage for COMPASS tokamak

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Písačka, Jan; Hron, Martin; Janky, Filip; Pánek, Radomír

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 12 (2012), s. 2238-2241 ISSN 0920-3796. [IAEA Technical Meeting on Control, Data Acquisition, and Remote Participation for Fusion Research/8./. San Francisco, 20.06.2011-24.06.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/11/2470; GA MŠk 7G10072; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011021 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : COMPASS * Tokamak * Codac * Cluster * GlusterFS * Storage Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.842, year: 2012 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fusengdes.2012.09.006

  12. Sass and compass in action

    CERN Document Server

    Netherland, Wynn; Eppstein, Chris; Mathis, Brandon

    2013-01-01

    Wynn Netherland is a full stack web creative. When he's not shipping awesome at GitHub, he co-hosts The Changelog Podcast and speaks at industry conferences.Nathan Weizenbaum is the creator and the lead developer of Sass. He's currently a software engineer working on Gmail at Google.Chris Eppstein has more than ten years of experience building web sites. An active member of the Ruby community, he's the creator of Compass, a member of the Sass core team, and maintains or contributes to dozens of open source projects.

  13. Short-term compassion training increases prosocial behavior in a newly developed prosocial game

    OpenAIRE

    Leiberg, S.; Klimecki, O.; Singer, T.

    2011-01-01

    Compassion has been suggested to be a strong motivator for prosocial behavior. While research has demonstrated that compassion training has positive effects on mood and health, we do not know whether it also leads to increases in prosocial behavior. We addressed this question in two experiments. In Experiment 1, we introduce a new prosocial game, the Zurich Prosocial Game (ZPG), which allows for repeated, ecologically valid assessment of prosocial behavior and is sensitive to the influence of...

  14. The value of mindfulness meditation in the treatment of insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martires, Joanne; Zeidler, Michelle

    2015-11-01

    Insomnia is the most common reported sleep disorder with limited treatment options including pharmacotherapy and cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia. Pharmacotherapy can be complicated by tolerance and significant side-effects and cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia providers are limited in number. This article reviews mindfulness meditation as an additional therapy for insomnia. Both mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) and mindfulness-based therapy for insomnia (MBTI) have been studied in the treatment of insomnia. Randomized controlled studies of MBSR and MBTI have shown overall reduction in sleep latency and total wake time and increase in total sleep time after mindfulness therapy using both patient reported outcome and quantitative measures of sleep. Mindfulness techniques have been shown to be well accepted by patients with long-lasting effects. A three-arm randomized study with MBSR, MBTI, and self-monitoring showed similar improvement in insomnia between the MBSR and MBTI groups, with possibly longer duration of efficacy in the MBTI group. Recent data show that MBTI is also an effective and accepted treatment for insomnia in older patients. Increasing evidence shows that mindfulness meditation, delivered either via MBSR or MBTI, can be successfully used for the treatment of insomnia with good patient acceptance and durable results.

  15. The Role of Perceived Stress and Health Beliefs on College Students' Intentions to Practice Mindfulness Meditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizer, Carol Ann; Fagan, Mary Helen; Kilmon, Carol; Rath, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Background: Understanding why individuals decide to participate in mindfulness-based practices can aid in the development of effective health promotion outreach efforts. Purpose: This study investigated the role of health beliefs and perceived stress on the intention to practice mindfulness meditation among undergraduate college students. Methods:…

  16. The Theoretical and Empirical Basis for Meditation as an Intervention for PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Ariel J.; Strauss, Jennifer L.; Bomyea, Jessica; Bormann, Jill E.; Hickman, Steven D.; Good, Raquel C.; Essex, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In spite of the existence of good empirically supported treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), consumers and providers continue to ask for more options for managing this common and often chronic condition. Meditation-based approaches are being widely implemented, but there is minimal research rigorously assessing their effectiveness.…

  17. Thermal Stability of Magnetic Compass Sensor for High Accuracy Positioning Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van-Tang PHAM

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Using magnetic compass sensors in angle measurements have a wide area of application such as positioning, robot, landslide, etc. However, one of the most phenomenal that affects to the accuracy of the magnetic compass sensor is the temperature. This paper presents two thermal stability schemes for improving performance of a magnetic compass sensor. The first scheme uses the feedforward structure to adjust the angle output of the compass sensor adapt to the variation of the temperature. The second scheme increases both the temperature working range and steady error performance of the sensor. In this scheme, we try to keep the temperature of the sensor is stable at the certain value (e.g. 25 oC by using a PID (proportional-integral-derivative controller and a heating/cooling generator. Many experiment scenarios have implemented to confirm the effectivity of these solutions.

  18. Transverse spin azimuthal asymmetries at COMPASS: SIDIS Multi-D analysis & Drell-Yan

    CERN Document Server

    Parsamyan, Bakur

    2015-01-01

    COMPASS is a high-energy physics experiment operating on the M2 beam line at the SPS at CERN. Using high energy muon and hadron beams the experiment covers broad range of physics aspects in the field of the hadron structure and spectroscopy. One of the important objectives of the COMPASS experiment is the exploration of transverse spin structure of the nucleon via study of spin (in)dependent azimuthal asymmetries with semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) processes and starting from 2014 also with Drell-Yan (DY) reactions. Experimental results obtained by COMPASS for azimuthal effects in SIDIS play an important role in the general understanding of the three-dimensional nature of the nucleon. Giving access to the entire "twist-2" set of transverse momentum dependent (TMD) parton distribution functions (PDFs) and fragmentation functions (FFs) COMPASS data trigger constant theoretical interest and are being widely used in phenomenological analyses and global data fits. In particular, recent unique x-$...

  19. Exaggerated heart rate oscillations during two meditation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, C K; Mietus, J E; Liu, Y; Khalsa, G; Douglas, P S; Benson, H; Goldberger, A L

    1999-07-31

    We report extremely prominent heart rate oscillations associated with slow breathing during specific traditional forms of Chinese Chi and Kundalini Yoga meditation techniques in healthy young adults. We applied both spectral analysis and a novel analytic technique based on the Hilbert transform to quantify these heart rate dynamics. The amplitude of these oscillations during meditation was significantly greater than in the pre-meditation control state and also in three non-meditation control groups: i) elite athletes during sleep, ii) healthy young adults during metronomic breathing, and iii) healthy young adults during spontaneous nocturnal breathing. This finding, along with the marked variability of the beat-to-beat heart rate dynamics during such profound meditative states, challenges the notion of meditation as only an autonomically quiescent state.

  20. Examining Burnout, Depression, and Self-Compassion in Veterans Affairs Mental Health Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, David M; Rodman, John L; Thuras, Paul D; Shiroma, Paulo R; Lim, Kelvin O

    2017-07-01

    Burnout, a state of emotional exhaustion associated with negative personal and occupational outcomes, is prevalent among healthcare providers. A better understanding of the psychological factors that may be associated with resilience to burnout is essential to develop effective interventions. Self-compassion, which includes kindness toward oneself, recognition of suffering as part of shared human experience, mindfulness, and nonjudgment toward inadequacies and failures, may be one such factor. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between burnout, depression, and self-compassion in Veterans Affairs (VA) mental health staff. Cross-sectional study. VA medical center and affiliated community-based clinics. VA mental health staff. The 19-item Copenhagen Burnout Inventory, the 26-item Self-Compassion Scale, and the Patient Health Questionnaire 2-item depression screen. Demographic information included age, sex, years worked in current position, and number of staff supervised. One hundred and twenty-eight of a potential 379 individuals (33.8%) responded. Clerical support, nursing, social work, psychology, and psychiatry were the major professions represented. Self-compassion was inversely correlated with burnout (r = -0.41, p burnout remained significant even after accounting for depressive symptoms and demographic variables in a multiple linear regression model. Of all the variables examined, self-compassion was the strongest predictor of burnout. The results of this study support the hypothesis that self-compassion may be associated with resilience to burnout. Alternatively, decreased self-compassion may be a downstream effect of increased burnout. Prospective, longitudinal studies are needed to determine the directional relationship between these factors, and whether interventions that cultivate self-compassion may decrease burnout and/or protect against its negative personal and professional outcomes.

  1. Pediatric novice nurses: examining compassion fatigue as a mediator between stress exposure and compassion satisfaction, burnout, and job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Rika M L; Li, Angela; Klaristenfeld, Jessica; Gold, Jeffrey I

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether compassion fatigue mediated associations between nurse stress exposure and job satisfaction, compassion satisfaction, and burnout, controlling for pre-existing stress. The Life Events Checklist was administered to 251 novice pediatric nurses at the start of the nurse residency program (baseline) and 3 months after to assess pre-existing and current stress exposure. Compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue, and burnout were assessed 3 months after baseline and job satisfaction 6 months after. Stress exposure significantly predicted lower compassion satisfaction and more burnout. Compassion fatigue partially mediated these associations. Results demonstrate a need for hospitals to prevent compassion fatigue in healthcare providers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Reorganization of the Brain and Heart Rhythm During Autogenic Meditation

    OpenAIRE

    Dae-Keun eKim; Dae-Keun eKim; Jyoo-Hi eRhee; Seung Wan eKang; Seung Wan eKang

    2014-01-01

    The underlying changes in heart coherence that are associated with reported EEG changes in response to meditation have been explored. We measured EEG and heart rate variability (HRV) before and during autogenic meditation. Fourteen subjects participated in the study. Heart coherence scores were significantly increased during meditation compared to the baseline. We found near significant decrease in high beta absolute power, increase in alpha relative power and significant increases in lower(a...

  3. Reorganization of the brain and heart rhythm during autogenic meditation

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Dae-Keun; Rhee, Jyoo-Hi; Kang, Seung Wan

    2014-01-01

    The underlying changes in heart coherence that are associated with reported EEG changes in response to meditation have been explored. We measured EEG and heart rate variability (HRV) before and during autogenic meditation. Fourteen subjects participated in the study. Heart coherence scores were significantly increased during meditation compared to the baseline. We found near significant decrease in high beta absolute power, increase in alpha relative power and significant increases in lower (...

  4. Phenomenological Fingerprints of Four Meditations: Differential State Changes in Affect, Mind-Wandering, Meta-Cognition, and Interoception Before and After Daily Practice Across 9 Months of Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Bethany E; Singer, Tania

    2017-01-01

    Despite increasing interest in the effects of mental training practices such as meditation, there is much ambiguity regarding whether and to what extent the various types of mental practice have differential effects on psychological change. To address this gap, we compare the effects of four common meditation practices on measures of state change in affect, mind-wandering, meta-cognition, and interoception. In the context of a 9-month mental training program called the ReSource Project, 229 mid-life adults (mean age 41) provided daily reports before and after meditation practice. Participants received training in the following three successive modules: the first module (presence) included breathing meditation and body scan, the second (affect) included loving-kindness meditation, and the third (perspective) included observing-thought meditation. Using multilevel modeling, we found that body scan led to the greatest state increase in interoceptive awareness and the greatest decrease in thought content, loving-kindness meditation led to the greatest increase in feelings of warmth and positive thoughts about others, and observing-thought meditation led to the greatest increase in meta-cognitive awareness. All practices, including breathing meditation, increased positivity of affect, energy, and present focus and decreased thought distraction. Complementary network analysis of intervariate relationships revealed distinct phenomenological clusters of psychological change congruent with the content of each practice. These findings together suggest that although different meditation practices may have common beneficial effects, each practice can also be characterized by a distinct short-term psychological fingerprint, the latter having important implications for the use of meditative practices in different intervention contexts and with different populations.

  5. Dynamic correlations between heart and brain rhythm during Autogenic meditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Keun; Lee, Kyung-Mi; Kim, Jongwha; Whang, Min-Cheol; Kang, Seung Wan

    2013-01-01

    This study is aimed to determine significant physiological parameters of brain and heart under meditative state, both in each activities and their dynamic correlations. Electrophysiological changes in response to meditation were explored in 12 healthy volunteers who completed 8 weeks of a basic training course in autogenic meditation. Heart coherence, representing the degree of ordering in oscillation of heart rhythm intervals, increased significantly during meditation. Relative EEG alpha power and alpha lagged coherence also increased. A significant slowing of parietal peak alpha frequency was observed. Parietal peak alpha power increased with increasing heart coherence during meditation, but no such relationship was observed during baseline. Average alpha lagged coherence also increased with increasing heart coherence during meditation, but weak opposite relationship was observed at baseline. Relative alpha power increased with increasing heart coherence during both meditation and baseline periods. Heart coherence can be a cardiac marker for the meditative state and also may be a general marker for the meditative state since heart coherence is strongly correlated with EEG alpha activities. It is expected that increasing heart coherence and the accompanying EEG alpha activations, heart brain synchronicity, would help recover physiological synchrony following a period of homeostatic depletion. PMID:23914165

  6. Characteristics of Adults Who Used Mindfulness Meditation: United States, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morone, Natalia E; Moore, Charity G; Greco, Carol M

    2017-07-01

    To describe estimates of the number and characteristics of persons who had used mindfulness meditation in the U.S. Data from 108,131 adults from the 2012 National Health Interview Survey were weighted to produce national estimates representative of the U.S. Persons who used mindfulness meditation were identified by their response to the question "During the past 12 months, did you use mindfulness meditation?" An estimated 2,029,720 adults had used mindfulness meditation. Compared with those who did not meditate, more meditators endorsed moderate exercise (79.6% vs. 54.8%; p meditators had low-back and neck pain and headache (36.7% vs. 28.9 [p = 0.0002]; 26.4% vs. 14.7% [pmeditators reported being nervous or feeling sad at least a little of the time (60.4% vs. 37.8% and 34% vs. 23.5%, respectively; pmeditation was used by an estimated 2,029,720 adults in the United States in 2012. More meditators than nonmeditators reported more pain and reported feeling nervous or sad and being stressed, suggesting a reason for using mindfulness meditation.

  7. Dynamical complexity changes during two forms of meditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Hu, Jing; Zhang, Yinhong; Zhang, Xiaofeng

    2011-06-01

    Detection of dynamical complexity changes in natural and man-made systems has deep scientific and practical meaning. We use the base-scale entropy method to analyze dynamical complexity changes for heart rate variability (HRV) series during specific traditional forms of Chinese Chi and Kundalini Yoga meditation techniques in healthy young adults. The results show that dynamical complexity decreases in meditation states for two forms of meditation. Meanwhile, we detected changes in probability distribution of m-words during meditation and explained this changes using probability distribution of sine function. The base-scale entropy method may be used on a wider range of physiologic signals.

  8. Dynamic correlations between heart and brain rhythm during Autogenic meditation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daekeun eKim

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to determine significant physiological parameters of brain and heart under meditative state, both in each activities and their dynamic correlations. Electrophysiological changes in response to meditation were explored in 12 healthy volunteers who completed 8 weeks of a basic training course in autogenic meditation. Heart coherence, representing the degree of ordering in oscillation of heart rhythm intervals, increased significantly during meditation. Relative EEG alpha power and alpha lagged coherence also increased. A significant slowing of parietal peak alpha frequency was observed. Parietal peak alpha power increased with increasing heart coherence during meditation, but no such relationship was observed during baseline. Average alpha lagged coherence also increased with increasing heart coherence during meditation, but, again, no significant relationship was observed at baseline. Relative alpha power increased with increasing heart coherence during both meditation and baseline periods. Heart coherence can be a cardiac marker for the meditative state and also may be a general marker for the meditative state since heart coherence is strongly correlated with EEG alpha activities. It is expected that increasing heart coherence and the accompanying EEG alpha activations, heart brain synchronicity, would help recover physiological synchrony following a period of homeostatic depletion.

  9. Dynamic correlations between heart and brain rhythm during Autogenic meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Keun; Lee, Kyung-Mi; Kim, Jongwha; Whang, Min-Cheol; Kang, Seung Wan

    2013-01-01

    This study is aimed to determine significant physiological parameters of brain and heart under meditative state, both in each activities and their dynamic correlations. Electrophysiological changes in response to meditation were explored in 12 healthy volunteers who completed 8 weeks of a basic training course in autogenic meditation. Heart coherence, representing the degree of ordering in oscillation of heart rhythm intervals, increased significantly during meditation. Relative EEG alpha power and alpha lagged coherence also increased. A significant slowing of parietal peak alpha frequency was observed. Parietal peak alpha power increased with increasing heart coherence during meditation, but no such relationship was observed during baseline. Average alpha lagged coherence also increased with increasing heart coherence during meditation, but weak opposite relationship was observed at baseline. Relative alpha power increased with increasing heart coherence during both meditation and baseline periods. Heart coherence can be a cardiac marker for the meditative state and also may be a general marker for the meditative state since heart coherence is strongly correlated with EEG alpha activities. It is expected that increasing heart coherence and the accompanying EEG alpha activations, heart brain synchronicity, would help recover physiological synchrony following a period of homeostatic depletion.

  10. Hard Exclusive Processes at COMPASS and COMPASS-II

    CERN Document Server

    D'Hose, N

    2012-01-01

    A major part of the future COMPASS program [1] is dedicated to the study of Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) and Meson Production (DVMP) to investigate nucleon structure through Generalised Parton Distributions (GPD). The high energy of the muon beam allows us to measure the xB-dependence of the t-slope of the pure DVCS cross section and to study nucleon tomography. In a first phase the use of positive and negative polarised muon beams and of an unpolarised proton target allow measurements of the Beam Charge and Spin Difference of the DVCS cross sections to access the Compton form factor related to the dominant GPD H. In a second phase we consider to use a transversely polarized proton target to constrain the GPD E.

  11. Feasibility studies for GPD's measurement at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Marroncle, J

    2004-01-01

    Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering is a clean way to access the Generalized Parton Distributions of the proton. This paper deals with a possibility to perform such an experiment with the COMPASS apparatus which allows to access a large rang in $x_{Bj}$(0.03 to 0.25) and $Q^{2}$(1.5 to 7.5 GeV$^{2}$). A possible design for a recoil detector which is necessary to complement the COMPASS setup, is presented. Preliminary results on exclusive $]rho^{0}$ production from the COMPASS 2002 run are given. They look promising for future studies of deep $\\rho^{0}$ production.

  12. Meditation on OM: Relevance from ancient texts and contemporary science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Sanjay

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Indian scriptures the sacred syllable Om is the primordial sound from which all other sounds and creation emerge which signifies the Supreme Power. Aims: To explore the significance of the syllable OM from ancient texts and effects of OM meditation in contemporary science. Descriptions from ancient texts: The descriptions of Om have been taken from four Upanisads (Mundaka, Mandukya, Svetasvatara, and Katha, the Bhagvad Gita, and Patanjali′s Yoga Sutras. Scientific studies on Om: Autonomic and respiratory studies suggest that there is a combination of mental alertness with physiological rest during the practice of Om meditation. Evoked potentials studies suggest a decrease in sensory transmission time at the level of the auditory association cortices, along with recruitment of more neurons at mesencephalic-diencephalic levels. Conclusion: It is considered that a person who realizes Om, merges with the Absolute. Scientific studies on Om suggest that the mental repetition of Om results in physiological alertness, and increased sensitivity to sensory transmission.

  13. The concept of compassion within uk media generated discourse: A corpus informed analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Carmel; Stacey, Gemma; Field-Richards, Sarah; Callaghan, Patrick; Keeley, Philip; Lymn, Joanne; Redsell, Sarah; Spiby, Helen

    2018-04-27

    To examine how the concept of compassion is socially constructed within UK discourse, in response to recommendations that aspiring nurses gain care experience prior to entering nurse education. Following a report of significant failings in care, the UK government proposed prior care experience for aspiring nurses as a strategy to enhance compassion amongst the profession. Media reporting of this generated substantial online discussion, which formed the data for this research. There is a need to define how compassion is constructed through language as a limited understanding exists, of what compassion means in healthcare. This is important, for any meaningful evaluation of quality, compassionate practices. A corpus-informed discourse analysis. A 62626-word corpus of data was analysed using Laurence Anthony software 'AntCon', a free corpus analysis toolkit. Frequent words were retrieved and used as a focal point for further analysis. Concordance lines were computed and analysed in the context of which frequent word-types occurred. Patterns of language were revealed and interpreted through researcher immersion. Findings identified that compassion was frequently described in various ways as a natural characteristic attribute. A pattern of language also referred to compassion as something that was not able to be taught, but could be developed through the repetition of behaviours observed in practice learning. In the context of compassion, the word-type 'nurse' was used positively. This paper adds to important debates highlighting how compassion is constructed and defined in the context of nursing. Compassion is constructed as both an individual, personal trait and a professional behaviour to be learnt. Educational design could include effective interpersonal skills training, which may help enhance and develop compassion from within the nursing profession. Likewise, ways of thinking, behaving and communicating should also be addressed by established practitioners in

  14. Calming Meditation Increases Altruism, Decreases Parochialism

    OpenAIRE

    Frost, Karl

    2017-01-01

    It has been proposed that cultivating calm will increase altruism and decrease parochialism, where altruism is defined as self-sacrifice in support of others, regardless of group affiliation or identity, and parochialism is defined as prosocial self-sacrifice restricted to fellow members of a group. Such could be the case with a calming meditation practice. An alternate hypothesis, coming from the study of ritual, proposes that shared practices lead to bonding, increasing parochialism, but no...

  15. Body image in emerging adults: The protective role of self-compassion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Rachel F; Franko, Debra L; Donovan, Elizabeth; Cousineau, Tara; Yates, Kayla; McGowan, Kayla; Cook, Elizabeth; Lowy, Alice S

    2017-09-01

    Self-compassion is thought to protect from body image concerns. However, the mechanisms of this effect remain unclear. This study examined three positive dimensions of self-compassion as moderators of the mediated relationship between perceived overweight status, appearance comparison, and appearance esteem. A sample of 232 youth aged 13-18 years, mean=18.36 (SD=1.5) years, reported on appearance esteem, appearance comparison, perceived weight status, and self-compassion dimensions including self-kindness, common humanity, and mindfulness. Among boys, mindfulness and common humanity moderated the perceived weight status to appearance comparison pathway of the mediation (ps=.01), such that this relationship was weaker among boys with higher levels of these dimensions of self-compassion. These findings were not replicated among girls. None of the self-compassion dimensions moderated the appearance comparison to appearance esteem pathway. Self-compassion dimensions that decrease the focus on the self may protect against body image concerns among boys. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A social neuroscience-informed model for teaching and practising compassion in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lown, Beth A

    2016-03-01

    Empathy and compassion are important catalysts for the healing process, but some research suggests their decline during training and practice. Compassion involves recognition, understanding, emotional resonance and empathic concern for another's concerns, distress, pain and suffering, coupled with their acknowledgement, and motivation and relational action to ameliorate these conditions. Neuroscientists have identified neural networks that generate shared representations of directly experienced and observed feelings, sensations and actions. When shared representations evoke empathic concern or compassion for another's painful situation, humans experience altruistic motivation to help. The resulting behaviours are associated with activation of areas in the brain associated with affiliation and reward. Activation of these neural networks is sensitive to multiple inter- and intrapersonal influences. These include the ability to focus one's attention, the ability to receive and accurately interpret input about distress, the perspective one adopts in order to understand another's experience, self-other boundary awareness, the degree to which one values another's welfare, the ability to recognise and regulate one's own emotions, the ability to attend to one's own wellbeing through self-care and self-compassion, effective communication skills, reflection and meta-cognition. Current research suggests that compassion can be modulated through education and training and is associated with positive emotions, a sense of affiliation, reward and prosocial behaviours. A compassion process model and framework with examples of educational goals, interventions and resources for curriculum development are described. However, education must be aligned with changes in clinical practice to sustain compassionate care. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. A Diary Study of Self-Compassion, Upward Social Comparisons, and Body Image-Related Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Dodos, Louisa; Chatzisarantis, Nikos; Ntoumanis, Nikos

    2017-07-01

    Self-compassion may protect individuals experiencing poor body image and associated maladaptive outcomes. The purpose of the study was to examine within-person associations (whilst controlling for between-person differences) between appearance-related self-compassion, appearance-related threats (operationalised as upward appearance comparisons), and body image-related variables, namely, social physique anxiety, drive for thinness, and body dissatisfaction. A diary methodology was used whereby young women (n = 126; M age = 21.26) responded to brief online surveys three times per day (11am, 3pm, and 7pm) every second day for one week (i.e. a total of 12 measurement points). Results of mixed linear modeling revealed that both state appearance-related upward comparisons and self-compassion independently predicted all three outcomes in a positive and negative fashion, respectively. No significant interaction effects between state appearance-related upward comparisons and self-compassion were found. The results suggested that appearance-based self-compassion was important, not just when there was a potential threat to body image via upward appearance comparisons. The findings highlight the importance of fostering self-compassion on a daily level. © 2017 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  18. Contemplation for Economists. Towards a Social Economy Based on Empathy and Compassion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof T. Konecki

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the paper is to present the Buddhist approach to the economy and what we can learn from it. It demonstrates David Loy’s analysis of the meaning of money from the Buddhist perspective. Money becomes a reality symbol and an ego symbol. The paper also presents some conclusions from analysis of Buddhist prescriptions to the economic system according to Frederic Pryor. Stress is put on compassion and ethics, which show the ubiquitous interconnectedness that works for the well-being of the whole society/societies. The Buddhist approach to the economy is connected with pro-social values and compassion, and this paper looks at the contemporary economy and society from this point of view. Contemporary organizations are based on the greed, which is a feature not only of individuals but also of institutions (institutionalized greed. Work on the self-ego is an important practice (contemplation, mindfulness practice and meditation in limiting or eliminating greediness in the social and economic system in which we are immersed, but usually not aware of.

  19. Pion polarizabilities measurement at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Guskov, Alexey

    2008-01-01

    The electromagnetic structure of pions is probed in $\\pi^{−}+(A,Z) \\rightarrow\\pi^{−}+(A,Z)+\\gamma$ Compton scattering in inverse kinematics (Primakoff reaction) and described by the electric ($\\bar{\\alpha_{\\pi}}$) and the magnetic ($\\bar{\\beta_{\\pi}}$) polarizabilities that depend on the rigidity of pion’s internal structure as a composite particle. Values for pion polarizabilities can be extracted from the comparison of the differential cross section for scattering of pointlike pions with the measured cross section. The pion polarizability measurement was performed with a $\\pi^{-}$ beam of 190 GeV. The high beam intensity, the good spectrometer resolution, the high rate capability, the high acceptance and the possibility to use pion and muon beams, unique to the COMPASS experiment, provide the tools to measure precisely the pion polarizabilities in the Primakoff reaction.

  20. Overview of the COMPASS diagnostics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weinzettl, Vladimír; Pánek, Radomír; Hron, Martin; Stöckel, Jan; Žáček, František; Havlíček, Josef; Bílková, Petra; Naydenkova, Diana; Háček, Pavel; Zajac, Jaromír; Dejarnac, Renaud; Horáček, Jan; Adámek, Jiří; Mlynář, Jan; Janky, Filip; Aftanas, Milan; Böhm, Petr; Brotánková, Jana; Šesták, David; Ďuran, Ivan; Melich, Radek; Jareš, Daniel; Anda, B.; Veres, G.; Szappanos, A.; Zoletnik, S.; Berta, M.; Shevchenko, V. F.; Scannell, R.; Walsh, D.; Müller, H. W.; Igochine, V.; Silva, A.; Manso, M.; Gomes, R.; Popov, Tsv.; Sarychev, D.; Kiselov, V.K.; Nanobashvili, S.; Ghosh, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 86, 6-8 (2011), s. 1227-1231 ISSN 0920-3796. [Symposium of Fusion Technology (SOFT-26). Porto, 27.09.2010-01.10.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/1467; GA ČR GA202/08/0419; GA ČR GD202/08/H057; GA AV ČR KJB100430901; GA MŠk 7G09042 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : plasma diagnostics * tokamak * COMPASS Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.490, year: 2011 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0920379610005594

  1. Exploring the compassion deficit debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenhouse, Rosie; Ion, Robin; Roxburgh, Michelle; Devitt, Patric Ffrench; Smith, Stephen D M

    2016-04-01

    Several recent high profile failures in the UK health care system have promoted strong debate on compassion and care in nursing. A number of papers articulating a range of positions within this debate have been published in this journal over the past two and a half years. These articulate a diverse range of theoretical perspectives and have been drawn together here in an attempt to bring some coherence to the debate and provide an overview of the key arguments and positions taken by those involved. In doing this we invite the reader to consider their own position in relation to the issues raised and to consider the impact of this for their own practice. Finally the paper offers some sense of how individual practitioners might use their understanding of the debates to ensure delivery of good nursing care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The COMPASS Experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Abbon, P.; Alexakhin, V.Yu.; Alexandrov, Yu.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alekseev, M.G.; Amoroso, A.; Angerer, H.; Anosov, V.A.; Badelek, B.; Balestra, F.; Ball, J.; Barth, J.; Baum, G.; Becker, M.; Bedfer, Y.; Berglund, P.; Bernet, C.; Bertini, R.; Bettinelli, M.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bordalo, P.; Bosteels, M.; Bradamante, F.; Braem, A.; Bravar, A.; Bressan, A.; Brona, G.; Burtin, E.; Bussa, M.P.; Bytchkov, V.N.; Chalifour, M.; Chapiro, A.; Chiosso, M.; Ciliberti, P.; Cicuttin, A.; Colantoni, M.; Colavita, A.A.; Costa, S.; Crespo, M.L.; Cristaudo, P.; Dafni, T.; d'Hose, N.; Dalla Torre, S.; d'Ambrosio, C.; Das, S.; Dasgupta, S.S.; Delagnes, E.; De Masi, R.; Deck, P.; Dedek, N.; Demchenko, D.; Denisov, O.Yu.; Dhara, L.; Diaz, V.; Dibiase, N.; Dinkelbach, A.M.; Dolgopolov, A.V.; Donati, A.; Donskov, S.V.; Dorofeev, V.A.; Doshita, N.; Durand, D.; Duic, V.; Dunnweber, W.; Efremov, A.; Eversheim, P.D.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Falaleev, V.; Fauland, P.; Ferrero, A.; Ferrero, L.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; Franz, J.; Fratnik, F.; Friedrich, J.M.; Frolov, V.; Fuchs, U.; Garfagnini, R.; Gatignon, L.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O.P.; Gerassimov, S.; Geyer, R.; Gheller, J.M.; Giganon, A.; Giorgi, M.; Gobbo, B.; Goertz, S.; Gorin, A.M.; Gougnaud, F.; Grabmuller, S.; Grajek, O.A.; Grasso, A.; Grube, B.; Grunemaier, A.; Guskov, A.; Haas, F.; Hagemann, R.; Hannappel, J.; von Harrach, D.; Hasegawa, T.; Heckmann, J.; Hedicke, S.; Heinsius, F.H.; Hermann, R.; Hess, C.; Hinterberger, F.; von Hodenberg, M.; Horikawa, N.; Horikawa, S.; Horn, I.; Ilgner, C.; Ioukaev, A.I.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanchin, I.; Ivanov, O.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Janata, A.; Joosten, R.; Jouravlev, N.I.; Kabuss, E.; Kalinnikov, V.; Kang, D.; Karstens, F.; Kastaun, W.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G.V.; Khokhlov, Yu.A.; Kiefer, J.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koblitz, S.; Koivuniemi, J.H.; Kolosov, V.N.; Komissarov, E.V.; Kondo, K.; Konigsmann, Kay; Konoplyannikov, A.K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V.F.; Korentchenko, A.S.; Korzenev, A.; Kotzinian, A.M.; Koutchinski, N.A.; Kouznetsov, O.; Kowalik, K.; Kramer, D.; Kravchuk, N.P.; Krivokhizhin, G.V.; Kroumchtein, Z.V.; Kubart, J.; Kuhn, R.; Kukhtin, V.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Kuzmin, N.A.; Lamanna, M.; Le Goff, J.M.; Leberig, M.; Lednev, A.A.; Lehmann, A.; Levinski, V.; Levorato, S.; Lyashenko, V.I; Lichtenstadt, J.; Liska, T.; Ludwig, I.; Maggiora, A.; Maggiora, M.; Magnon, A.; Mallot, G.K.; Mann, A.; Manuilov, I.V.; Marchand, C.; Marroncle, J.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Masek, L.; Massmann, F.; Matsuda, T.; Matthia, D.; Maximov, A.N.; Menon, G.; Meyer, W.; Mielech, A.; Mikhailov, Yu.V.; Moinester, M.A.; Molinie, F.; Mota, F.; Mutter, A.; Nagel, T.; Nahle, O.; Nassalski, J.; Neliba, S.; Nerling, F.; Neyret, D.; Niebuhr, M.; Niinikoski, T.; Nikolaenko, V.I.; Nozdrin, A.A.; Olshevsky, A.G.; Ostrick, M.; Padee, A.; Pagano, P.; Panebianco, S.; Parsamyan, B.; Panzieri, D.; Paul, S.; Pawlukiewicz, B.; Pereira, H.; Peshekhonov, D.V.; Peshekhonov, V.D.; Piedigrossi, D.; Piragino, G.; Platchkov, S.; Platzer, K.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polak, J.; Polyakov, V.A.; Pontecorvo, G.; Popov, A.A.; Pretz, J.; Procureur, S.; Quintans, C.; Rajotte, J.-F.; Ramos, S.; Razaq, I.; Rebourgeard, P.; Reggiani, D.; Reicherz, G.; Richter, A.; Robinet, F.; Rocco, E.; Rondio, E.; Ropelewski, L.; Rousse, J.Y.; Rozhdestvensky, A.M.; Ryabchikov, D.; Samartsev, A.G.; Samoylenko, V.D.; Sandacz, A.; Merce, M.Sans; Santos, H.; Sapozhnikov, M.G.; Sauli, F.; Savin, Igor A.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, C.; Schmidt, T.; Schmitt, H.; Schmitt, L.; Schonmeier, P.; Schroeder, W.; Seeharsch, D.; Seimetz, M.; Setter, D.; Shaligin, A.; Shevchenko, O.Yu.; Shishkin, A.A.; Siebert, H.-W.; Silva, L.; Simon, F.; Sinha, L.; Sissakian, A.N.; Slunecka, M.; Smirnov, G.I.; Sora, D.; Sosio, S.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, A.; Stinzing, F.; Stolarski, M.; Sugonyaev, V.P.; Sulc, M.; Sulej, R.; Tarte, G.; Takabayashi, N.; Tchalishev, V.V.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Teufel, A.; Thers, D.; Tkatchev, L.G.; Toeda, T.; Tokmenin, V.V.; Trippel, S.; Urban, J.; Valbuena, R.; Venugopal, G.; Virius, M.; Vlassov, N.V.; Vossen, A.; Wagner, M.; Webb, R.; Weise, E.; Weitzel, Q.; Wiedner, U.; Wiesmann, M.; Windmolders, R.; Wirth, S.; Wislicki, W.; Wollny, H.; Zanetti, A.M.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhao, J.; Ziegler, R.; Ziembicki, M.; Zlobin, Y.L.; Zvyagin, A.

    2007-01-01

    The COMPASS experiment makes use of the CERN SPS high-intensitymuon and hadron beams for the investigation of the nucleon spin structure and the spectroscopy of hadrons. One or more outgoing particles are detected in coincidence with the incoming muon or hadron. A large polarized target inside a superconducting solenoid is used for the measurements with the muon beam. Outgoing particles are detected by a two-stage, large angle and large momentum range spectrometer. The setup is built using several types of tracking detectors, according to the expected incident rate, required space resolution and the solid angle to be covered. Particle identification is achieved using a RICH counter and both hadron and electromagnetic calorimeters. The setup has been successfully operated from 2002 onwards using a muon beam. Data with a hadron beam were also collected in 2004. This article describes the main features and performances of the spectrometer in 2004; a short summary of the 2006 upgrade is also given.

  3. COMPASS hadron multiplicity measurements and fragmentation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolarski, M.

    2016-01-01

    COMPASS is an experiment located at CERN SPS accelerator. For the results presented in this paper a 160 GeV positive muon beam was impinging on 6 LiD target. The COMPASS spectrometer was designed to reconstruct scattered muons and charged hadrons in a wide kinematic range. COMPASS preliminary results on hadron, pion and kaon multiplicities are presented. The hadron and pion data show a good agreement with (N)LO QCD expectations and some of these preliminary data have been already successfully incorporated in the global NLO QCD fits to world data. However, the results for kaon multiplicities, are different from the expectations of the DSS fit. There is also a tension between COMPASS and HERMES results, the only other experiment which measured kaon multiplicities in Semi-Inclusive Deep Inelastic scattering

  4. PanDA for COMPASS at JINR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosyan, A. Sh.

    2016-09-01

    PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis System) is a workload management system, widely used for data processing at experiments on Large Hadron Collider and others. COMPASS is a high-energy physics experiment at the Super Proton Synchrotron. Data processing for COMPASS runs locally at CERN, on lxbatch, the data itself stored in CASTOR. In 2014 an idea to start running COMPASS production through PanDA arose. Such transformation in experiment's data processing will allow COMPASS community to use not only CERN resources, but also Grid resources worldwide. During the spring and summer of 2015 installation, validation and migration work is being performed at JINR. Details and results of this process are presented in this paper.

  5. Compass 2008 data analysis and reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    The Compass Annual Report is issued each year to communicate the condition of Wisconsins state highway network : and to demonstrate accountability for maintenance expenditures. The primary audience for this report includes : Maintenance Supervisor...

  6. Compass 2009 data analysis and reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    The Compass Reports created in this project are issued annually to provide information on the maintenance condition of Wisconsins highways. The information in these reports is being used to help understand trends and conditions, prioritize resourc...

  7. Compass 2010 data analysis and reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    The Compass Reports created in this project are issued annually to provide information on the maintenance condition of : Wisconsins highways. The information in these reports is being used to help understand trends and conditions, : prioritize res...

  8. Compass 2011 data analysis and reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Past efforts include data analysis and reporting performance and outcomes for signs, pavement, shoulders, roadsides, drainage, traffic, and bridges. In : the 2005 Compass report, measures for bridge inspection and maintenance were added, and historic...

  9. Compass 2012 data analysis and reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Past efforts include data analysis and reporting performance and outcomes for signs, pavement, shoulders, roadsides, drainage, traffic, and bridges. In : the 2005 Compass report, measures for bridge inspection and maintenance were added, and historic...

  10. Light-Activated Magnetic Compass in Birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Greiner, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Migrating birds fly thousand miles without having a map, or a GPS unit. But they may carry their own sensitive navigational tool, which allows them "see" the Earth’s magnetic field. Here we review the important physical and chemical constraints on a possible compass sensor and discuss the suggest......Migrating birds fly thousand miles without having a map, or a GPS unit. But they may carry their own sensitive navigational tool, which allows them "see" the Earth’s magnetic field. Here we review the important physical and chemical constraints on a possible compass sensor and discuss...... the suggestion that radical pairs in a photoreceptor cryptochrome might provide a biological realization for a magnetic compass. Finally, we review the current evidence supporting a role for radical pair reactions in the magnetic compass of birds....

  11. Do neotropical migrant butterflies navigate using a solar compass?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira; Srygley; Dudley

    1998-12-01

    Many tropical butterfly species are well-known for their migratory behaviour. Although these insects can maintain a constant direction throughout the day, the physiological mechanisms of orientation are unknown. It has been argued that tropical migrant butterflies must use a time-compensated sun compass to accomplish their journey, but the crucial experimental manipulations to test this hypothesis have not been conducted. This study reports the results of clock-shift experiments performed with two species of migrating butterflies (Pieridae: Aphrissa statira and Phoebis argante) captured during flight across Lake Gatun, Panama. The observed constant flight bearing of natural controls suggests that these species are capable of performing time-compensated celestial navigation. Our clock-shift experiments suggest that a sun compass is involved. Individuals submitted to a 4 h advance shift took significantly different mean orientations on release compared with control butterflies. The direction of this difference was consistent with the use of a sun compass. The magnitude was approximately half the predicted value if the vanishing bearing of released butterflies was used as the variable to evaluate the effect of time-shifting and approximately three-quarters of that predicted if the estimated heading was the variable used. Mean vanishing bearings of control and experimental butterflies did not correspond to predicted values. This difference can be attributed largely to the combined effects of wind and handling.

  12. Exploring compassion: implications for contemporary nursing. Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straughair, Collette

    A range of contemporary political and professional literature endorse the principle of compassion in nursing as a core and underpinning philosophy fundamental to the profession. However, despite pledges to ensure that compassion lies at the heart of nursing, the concept has not been clearly defined. It is evident that uncovering the true meaning is complex and challenging owing to its subjective nature. In light of this, several implications must be considered. Effective student nurse recruitment is essential to ensure that the most appropriate individuals are selected. Contemporary marketing campaigns must be implemented, and recruitment strategies developed, which consider specific values and attitudes. Service user involvement in recruitment and selection, curriculum planning and learning and teaching strategies, and post-qualification education, can enhance nurses' understanding of the patient perspective and make headway in embedding compassion as a core nursing value. Additionally, effective role modelling in practice which demonstrates high-quality compassionate nursing care is essential. Nurses must be adequately supported in the clinical environment to facilitate compassionate behaviours and clinical leadership at all levels must uphold political and professional pledges to achieve this. Consideration of these implications for practice is essential to ensure that nurses are able to respond to patients with humanity and kindness, and deliver high-quality, compassionate care to all.

  13. Critical Analysis of the Efficacy of Meditation Therapies for Acute and Subacute Phase Treatment of Depressive Disorders: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Felipe A.; Walsh, Roger N.; Eisendrath, Stuart J.; Christensen, Scott; Cahn, B. Rael

    2014-01-01

    Background Recently, the application of meditative practices to the treatment of depressive disorders has met with increasing clinical and scientific interest, due to a lower side-effect burden, potential reduction of polypharmacy, as well as theoretical considerations that such interventions may target some of the cognitive roots of depression. We aimed to determine the state of the evidence supporting this application. Methods Randomized, controlled trials of techniques meeting the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) definition of meditation, for participants suffering from clinically diagnosed depressive disorders, not currently in remission, were selected. Meditation therapies were separated into praxis (i.e. how they were applied) components, and trial outcomes were reviewed. Results Eighteen studies meeting inclusionary criteria were identified, encompassing seven distinct techniques and 1173 patients, with Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy comprising the largest proportion. Studies including patients suffering from acute major depressive episodes (N = 10 studies), and those with residual subacute clinical symptoms despite initial treatment (N = 8), demonstrated moderate to large reductions in depression symptoms within group, and relative to control groups. There was significant heterogeneity of techniques and trial designs. Conclusions A substantial body of evidence indicates that meditation therapies may have salutary effects on patients suffering from clinical depressive disorders during the acute and subacute phases of treatment. Due to methodological deficiences and trial heterogeneity, large-scale, randomized controlled trials with well-described comparator interventions and measures of expectation are needed to clarify the role of meditation in the depression treatment armamentarium. PMID:25591492

  14. Zen meditation and access to information in the unconscious

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strick, M.A.; Noorden, T.H.J. van; Ritskes, R.R.; Ruiter, J.R. de; Dijksterhuis, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    In two experiments and two different research paradigms, we tested the hypothesis that Zen meditation increases access to accessible but unconscious information. Zen practitioners who meditated in the lab performed better on the Remote Associate Test (RAT; Mednick, 1962) than Zen practitioners who

  15. Concentrative meditation influences creativity by increasing cognitive flexibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, B.C.N.; Gerasimova, A.; Ritter, S.M.

    2016-01-01

    Given the great importance of creativity in society, it is worth investigating how creative thinking can be enhanced. The link between meditation and enhanced creativity has been proposed by a number of authors; however, the reason why meditation leads to an increase in creativity is not clear. The

  16. Compassion for Others and Self-Compassion : Levels, Correlates, and Relationship with Psychological Well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez, Angelica; Sanderman, Robbert; Ranchor, Adelita V.; Schroevers, Maya J.

    Compassion for others and self-compassion are assumed to be closely related concepts. Yet, as they have been mostly studied separately, little is known about their relationship and to what extent they differ or resemble each other with respect to their correlates. This cross-sectional study aimed to

  17. Is meditation conducive to mental well-being for adolescents? An integrative review for mental health nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fung Kei Cheng, PhD

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood mental health problems not only incur a financial burden but more importantly damages individual and family well-being, which compels mental care practitioners to search for solutions, among which meditation is a more economical method. This integrative review investigates the effectiveness of meditation on psychological problems for adolescents under age of 20 through different types of meditation, though mainly mindfulness-based modes. The 36 reviewed publications include quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods research, conducted in North America, Europe, and the Asia Pacific region, related to developmental disabilities, emotional problems, and mental illnesses. Outcomes indicate a decrease in self-harm thoughts, disruptive behaviour, stress, anxiety, impulsivity, and psychological distress; and improvements in self-control, quality of sleep, emotional regulation, executive function, anger management, and social competence, resulting in better academic performance, quality of life, mental wellness, and child-parent relationships. This review suggests the integration of meditation into physical activities, and music and art therapies, as well as randomised controlled trials to examine such synthesis of these disciplines. In conclusion, meditation is a potential curative and preventive measure, both low cost and non-intrusive, for the promotion of adolescent mental wellness. This sheds light on nurses who look after children with mental health.

  18. Mindfulness and psychologic well-being: are they related to type of meditation technique practiced?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoormans, Dounya; Nyklíček, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether practitioners of two meditation types differ on self-reported mindfulness skills and psychologic well-being. This was a cross-sectional study comparing two convenience meditation groups drawn from local meditation centers, one group practicing mindfulness meditation (MM),

  19. Brain Mechanisms Supporting Modulation of Pain by Mindfulness Meditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidan, F.; Martucci, K.T.; Kraft, R.A.; Gordon, N.S.; McHaffie, J.G.; Coghill, R.C.

    2011-01-01

    The subjective experience of one’s environment is constructed by interactions among sensory, cognitive, and affective processes. For centuries, meditation has been thought to influence such processes by enabling a non-evaluative representation of sensory events. To better understand how meditation influences the sensory experience, we employed arterial spin labeling (ASL) functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess the neural mechanisms by which mindfulness meditation influences pain in healthy human participants. After four-days of mindfulness meditation training, meditating in the presence of noxious stimulation significantly reduced pain-unpleasantness by 57% and pain-intensity ratings by 40% when compared to rest. A two factor repeated measures analysis of variance was used to identify interactions between meditation and pain-related brain activation. Meditation reduced pain-related activation of the contra lateral primary somatosensory cortex. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify brain regions associated with individual differences in the magnitude of meditation-related pain reductions. Meditation-induced reductions in pain intensity ratings were associated with increased activity in the anterior cingulate cortex and anterior insula, areas involved in the cognitive regulation of nociceptive processing. Reductions in pain unpleasantness ratings were associated with orbitofrontal cortex activation, an area implicated in reframing the contextual evaluation of sensory events. Moreover, reductions in pain unpleasantness also were associated with thalamic deactivation, which may reflect a limbic gating mechanism involved in modifying interactions between afferent in put and executive-order brain areas. Taken together, these data indicate that meditation engages multiple brain mechanisms that alter the construction of the subjectively available pain experience from afferent information. PMID:21471390

  20. Compassion Fatigue, Burnout, and Compassion Satisfaction Among Oncology Nurses in the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Stacey; Singh-Carlson, Savitri; Odell, Annie; Reynolds, Grace; Su, Yuhua

    2016-07-01

    To examine the experiences of compassion fatigue, burnout, and compassion satisfaction among oncology nurses in the United States and Canada. 
. Quantitative, descriptive, nonexperimental.
. Online survey with members from the Canadian Association of Nursing Oncology and the Oncology Nursing Society.
. 486 American and 63 Canadian practicing oncology nurses.
. The Professional Quality of Life (ProQOL) scale, version 5, and modified Abendroth Demographic Questionnaire were administered through FluidSurveys™, an online data collection instrument. Chi-square tests of independence were used to investigate associations between demographic characteristics, health, personal stressors, and work-related characteristics to experiences of compassion fatigue, burnout, and compassion satisfaction. Compassion fatigue was measured using the subscales of secondary traumatic stress and burnout. 
. Compassion fatigue, burnout, and compassion satisfaction.
. Demographic characteristics were similar in American and Canadian participants, and both cohorts reported comparable levels of compassion fatigue, burnout, and compassion satisfaction. Perception of team cohesiveness within the workplace environment was found to be significant for both groups, as indicated by significant relationships in all three subscales of secondary traumatic stress, burnout, and compassion satisfaction in the ProQOL.
. Healthy and supportive work environments are imperative to nurses' health, well-being, and satisfaction. Improvements in the workplace can help prevent negative sequelae, as well as improve health outcomes for patients and nurses, decrease nurse turnover, and reduce healthcare expenditures. 
. Findings can be used to implement institutional changes, such as creating policies and guidelines for the development of preventive interventions and psychosocial support for nurses.

  1. Self-compassion and physical health: Exploring the roles of perceived stress and health-promoting behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin J Homan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence indicates that self-compassion is associated with better physical health, but the pathways that mediate this relationship are not well understood. This study tested a serial mediation model that linked self-compassion, perceived stress, health behaviors, and a comprehensive index of physical health. A sample of 176 individuals completed an online survey posted on Amazon’s Mechanical Turk. Self-compassion had an indirect effect on physical health via both mediators and through the sequential pathway, suggesting that taking a kind, accepting and mindful stance toward one’s flaws and failures may have benefits for reducing stress and promoting health behaviors.

  2. Integrative Review of Facility Interventions to Manage Compassion Fatigue in Oncology Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentzel, Dorien; Brysiewicz, Petra

    2017-05-01

    Oncology nurses are regularly exposed to high-stress situations that may lead to compassion fatigue, and many institutions have implemented interventions to reduce burnout in nurses, but knowledge on the feasiblity, effectiveness, and nurses' experience of interventions is lacking.
. Electronic search of literature published from 1992-2015 was performed to evaluate in-facility interventions to manage compassion fatigue in oncology nurses. Databases used included CINAHL®, PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and PsycINFO®. 
. The goal was to evaluate the effectiveness, feasibility, and nurses' experience of interventions to manage compassion fatigue. The study designs, methods, and limitations were independently screened by the authors. 
. Of 164 studies, 31 met eligibility criteria. 
. The majority of the studies were conducted in Western countries, which suggests the need for additional research in other settings to determine effective interventions that address compassion fatigue and stress cross-culturally. Quantitative and qualitative studies failed to gain high scores in terms of quality. Limited conclusions can be drawn from small studies that report on outcomes with many confounding variables, such as turnover rate or general health of nurses, from a single institution. 
. Lack of empirical precision in evaluating the effectiveness, feasibility, and nurses' experiences of interventions indicates a need for future, more rigorously designed experimental studies. Because of the global increase in the number of patients being diagnosed and living with cancer, oncology nurses should be able to recognize and manage compassion fatigue.

  3. Pion polarizabilities measurement at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Guskov, Alexey

    2008-01-01

    The electromagnetic structure of pions is probed in $\\pi^{−} + (A,Z)\\rightarrow\\pi^{−} + (A,Z) +\\gamma$ Compton scattering in inverse kinematics (Primakoff reaction) and described by the electric $(\\bar{\\alpha_{\\pi}})$ and the magnetic $(\\bar{\\beta_{\\pi}})$ polarizabilities that depend on the rigidity of pion’s internal structure as a composite particle. Values for pion polarizabilities can be extracted from the comparison of the differential cross section for scattering of pointlike pions with the measured cross section. The pion polarizability measurement was performed with $a \\pi^{−}$ beam of 190 GeV. The high beam intensity, the good spectrometer resolution, the high rate capability, the high acceptance and the possibility to use pion and muon beams, unique to the COMPASS experiment, provide the tools to measure precisely the pion polarizabilities in the Primakoff reaction. The preliminary result for pion polarizabilities under the assumption of $\\bar{\\alpha_{\\pi}} + \\bar{\\beta_{\\pi}} =$ 0 is $\\ba...

  4. Gluon Polarisation Measurements at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, Luís

    2012-01-01

    One of the missing keys in the present understanding of the spin structure of the nucleon is the contribution from the gluons: the so-called gluon polarisation. This quantity can be determined in DIS through the photon-gluon fusion process, in which two analysis methods may be used: (i) identifying open charm events or (ii) selecting events with high $p_{T}$ hadrons. The data used in the present work were collected in the COMPASS experiment, where a 160 GeV/c naturally polarised muon beam, impinging on a polarised nucleon fixed target is used. Preliminary results for the gluon polarisation from high $p_{T}$ and open charm analyses are presented. The gluon polarisation result for high $p_{T}$ hadrons is divided, for the first time, into three statistically independent measurements at LO. The result from open charm analysis is obtained at LO and NLO. In both analyses a new weighted method based on a neural network approach is used.

  5. The subjective experience of using Ignatian meditation by male and female South African university students: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efthimiadis-Keith, Helen; Lindegger, Graham

    2014-10-01

    This study is set out to examine the subjective experience of using the Ignatian method of meditation to reflect on and pray through Ruth 2. A group of male and female Theology students from the University of KwaZulu-Natal were invited to reflect upon/pray through Ruth 2 using Ignatian meditation. Following this exercise, participants were invited to participate in a focus group in which they shared their experience of this exercise, focusing particularly on some of the gendered aspects of the experience. The transcribed focus group material was subjected to a critical thematic analysis, in order to identify which core aspects of the experience of using this method of meditation and reflection were responsible for the reported subjective experiences. The analysis also included a comparison of the experience for men and women participating in this exercise, and the differential effect of various aspects of the exercise on men and women.

  6. Tenebrio beetles use magnetic inclination compass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vácha, Martin; Drštková, Dana; Půžová, Tereza

    2008-08-01

    Animals that guide directions of their locomotion or their migration routes by the lines of the geomagnetic field use either polarity or inclination compasses to determine the field polarity (the north or south direction). Distinguishing the two compass types is a guideline for estimation of the molecular principle of reception and has been achieved for a number of animal groups, with the exception of insects. A standard diagnostic method to distinguish a compass type is based on reversing the vertical component of the geomagnetic field, which leads to the opposite reactions of animals with two different compass types. In the present study, adults of the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor were tested by means of a two-step laboratory test of magnetoreception. Beetles that were initially trained to memorize the magnetic position of the light source preferred, during the subsequent test, this same direction, pursuant geomagnetic cues only. In the following step, the vertical component was reversed between the training and the test. The beetles significantly turned their preferred direction by 180°. Our results brought until then unknown original findings that insects, represented here by the T. molitor species, use—in contrast to another previously researched Arthropod, spiny lobster—the inclination compass.

  7. Passion and Compassion Represent Dualities for Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Tove

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to enhance the understanding of the impact of passion and compassion on innovation and growth and, in this way, add to the current knowledge on organising growth in the context of networking small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Design/methodology/appro......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to enhance the understanding of the impact of passion and compassion on innovation and growth and, in this way, add to the current knowledge on organising growth in the context of networking small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Design....../methodology/approach – The research was conducted in three networks with a sample of 55 separate SMEs. Through a quantitative study, the anticipated positive impact of passion and compassion on growth and on intermediate innovation issues were tested. Findings – The analyses reveal no direct significant impacts of passion (own......-profitability and interest) and compassion (other-profitability and interest) on growth. However, compassion had a very significant positive impact on manager ideas, which in turn had a positive impact on growth. Passion also had a positive impact, but this was proportionally much smaller. Moreover, the ability to organise...

  8. Poincare indices for analyzing meditative heart rate signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Goshvarpour

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poincare plots are commonly used to study the nonlinear behavior of physiologic signals. The aim of this study is to evaluate the Poincare plot indices of human heart rate signals during meditation. Methods: For this purpose, heart rate time series of eight Chi meditators available in Physionet database were used. Poincare plots with lags of 1 and 6 were constructed, and the ratio of the minor axis to major axis (SD1/SD2 and the area of Poincare plots were calculated for each lag. Results: The results show that the SD1/SD2 ratio increased significantly during meditation compared to that before meditation, especially the index measured from Poincare plots reconstructed with a lag of 6 (p < 0.05. In addition, in both lags, the area of Poincare plots decreased significantly during meditation compared to before meditation (p < 0.05. Conclusion: The comparative dynamic measures of the Poincare plot indices during and before meditation give more insight of the heart rate signals in a specific psychophysiological state.

  9. Elizabeth Bishop and the Poetry of Meditation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Matthew Wilson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth Bishop’s poetry has won the admiration of a number of Christian poets and scholars. This essay argues that one reason for this is Bishop’s subtle engagement with the work of the poet-divines Gerard Manley Hopkins and, especially, George Herbert; through their influence, she enters into the guiding western poetic tradition of the meditative lyric, which is rooted in the Platonic and Christian accounts of the human person as an image of the Triune God in virtue of the mind as a trinity of memory, understanding, and will. Bishop practiced poetry as a moral act open to a divinity it cannot account for or even name, but traces of whose significance run through the world her poems depict. By considering her work, and her poem “The Weed” in particular, in the context of Herbert, the historical studies of Louis L. Martz, and the literary theory of Yvor Winters, we see that Bishop the unbeliever cannot properly be understood as a “secular” poet, but as one who recognizes the meditative lyric as a way of arriving at understanding of a truth that transcends us.

  10. VetCompass Australia: A National Big Data Collection System for Veterinary Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreevy, Paul; Thomson, Peter; Dhand, Navneet K; Raubenheimer, David; Masters, Sophie; Mansfield, Caroline S; Baldwin, Timothy; Soares Magalhaes, Ricardo J; Rand, Jacquie; Hill, Peter; Peaston, Anne; Gilkerson, James; Combs, Martin; Raidal, Shane; Irwin, Peter; Irons, Peter; Squires, Richard; Brodbelt, David; Hammond, Jeremy

    2017-09-26

    VetCompass Australia is veterinary medical records-based research coordinated with the global VetCompass endeavor to maximize its quality and effectiveness for Australian companion animals (cats, dogs, and horses). Bringing together all seven Australian veterinary schools, it is the first nationwide surveillance system collating clinical records on companion-animal diseases and treatments. VetCompass data service collects and aggregates real-time, clinical records for researchers to interrogate, delivering sustainable and cost-effective access to data from hundreds of veterinary practitioners nationwide. Analysis of these clinical records will reveal geographical and temporal trends in the prevalence of inherited and acquired diseases, identify frequently prescribed treatments, revolutionize clinical auditing, help the veterinary profession to rank research priorities, and assure evidence-based companion-animal curricula in veterinary schools. VetCompass Australia will progress in three phases: (1) roll-out of the VetCompass platform to harvest Australian veterinary clinical record data; (2) development and enrichment of the coding (data-presentation) platform; and (3) creation of a world-first, real-time surveillance interface with natural language processing (NLP) technology. The first of these three phases is described in the current article. Advances in the collection and sharing of records from numerous practices will enable veterinary professionals to deliver a vastly improved level of care for companion animals that will improve their quality of life.

  11. VetCompass Australia: A National Big Data Collection System for Veterinary Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul McGreevy

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available VetCompass Australia is veterinary medical records-based research coordinated with the global VetCompass endeavor to maximize its quality and effectiveness for Australian companion animals (cats, dogs, and horses. Bringing together all seven Australian veterinary schools, it is the first nationwide surveillance system collating clinical records on companion-animal diseases and treatments. VetCompass data service collects and aggregates real-time, clinical records for researchers to interrogate, delivering sustainable and cost-effective access to data from hundreds of veterinary practitioners nationwide. Analysis of these clinical records will reveal geographical and temporal trends in the prevalence of inherited and acquired diseases, identify frequently prescribed treatments, revolutionize clinical auditing, help the veterinary profession to rank research priorities, and assure evidence-based companion-animal curricula in veterinary schools. VetCompass Australia will progress in three phases: (1 roll-out of the VetCompass platform to harvest Australian veterinary clinical record data; (2 development and enrichment of the coding (data-presentation platform; and (3 creation of a world-first, real-time surveillance interface with natural language processing (NLP technology. The first of these three phases is described in the current article. Advances in the collection and sharing of records from numerous practices will enable veterinary professionals to deliver a vastly improved level of care for companion animals that will improve their quality of life.

  12. Inhabiting compassion: A pastoral theological paradigm | Zylla | HTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inspired by the vision of care in Vincent van Gogh's depiction of the parable of the Good Samaritan, this article offers a paradigm for inhabiting compassion. Compassion is understood in this article as a moral emotion that is also a pathocentric virtue. This definition creates a dynamic view of compassion as a desire to ...

  13. Self-Compassion and the Dynamics of Investigating Sexual Harassment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serri, Conchita Franco

    2006-01-01

    What role does compassion play in one's work? In the author's organization, the word "compassion" has been mostly linked to their values, mission, and programs. She has generally understood the concept of compassion as a deep feeling of empathy that flows from oneself towards others during certain situations and conditions. In her mind, "having…

  14. Understanding the Transformation of Compassion in Nurses Who Become Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucino, Carrie L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how nurses who become patients learn compassion toward patients in their professional practice, and examine the role of empathy in the process of learning compassion. The process of learning compassion represents a significant change in the way nurses perceive this aspect of practice. Therefore,…

  15. The development of fears of compassion scale Japanese version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Kenichi; Tsuchiya, Masao; Ishimura, Ikuo; Lin, Shuzhen; Matsumoto, Yuki; Miyata, Haruko; Kotera, Yasuhiro; Shimizu, Eiji; Gilbert, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Cultivation of compassion is a useful way to treat mental problems, but some individuals show resistance. Fears of compassion can be an obstacle for clinicians when providing psychotherapy, and for clients when engaging in interpersonal relationships. Despite its importance, a Japanese version of fears of compassion scales (for others, from others, and for self) has not yet been developed. This study developed a Japanese version of the Fears of Compassion Scales and tested its reliability and validity. Design This study used a cross-sectional design, and a self-report procedure for collecting data. Methods A total of 485 students (121 males and 364 females) answered self-report questionnaires, including the draft Fears of Compassion Scales—Japanese version. Results There were distinctive factor structures for fear of compassion from others, and for self. The fear of compassion from others scale consisted of concern about compassion from others and avoidance of compassion from others. All scales had good internal consistency, test-retest reliability, face validity, and construct validity. Discrimination and difficulty were also calculated. Conclusions These results indicate that the Fears of Compassion Scales—Japanese version is a well-constructed and useful measure to assess fears of compassion and the existence of cultural differences in fears of compassion. PMID:29023461

  16. Nursing on empty: compassion fatigue signs, symptoms, and system interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Chelsia; Griffin, Mary T Quinn

    2015-01-01

    Few healthcare organizations acknowledge, discuss, or provide interventions for assisting with compassion fatigue. Yet, it is an important concept due to its individual, professional, and financial costs. This article defines compassion fatigue, differentiates it from burnout, and offers system interventions for supporting nurses and reducing compassion fatigue.

  17. Large-Scale Functional Brain Network Reorganization During Taoist Meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jao, Tun; Li, Chia-Wei; Vértes, Petra E; Wu, Changwei Wesley; Achard, Sophie; Hsieh, Chao-Hsien; Liou, Chien-Hui; Chen, Jyh-Horng; Bullmore, Edward T

    2016-02-01

    Meditation induces a distinct and reversible mental state that provides insights into brain correlates of consciousness. We explored brain network changes related to meditation by graph theoretical analysis of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data. Eighteen Taoist meditators with varying levels of expertise were scanned using a within-subjects counterbalanced design during resting and meditation states. State-related differences in network topology were measured globally and at the level of individual nodes and edges. Although measures of global network topology, such as small-worldness, were unchanged, meditation was characterized by an extensive and expertise-dependent reorganization of the hubs (highly connected nodes) and edges (functional connections). Areas of sensory cortex, especially the bilateral primary visual and auditory cortices, and the bilateral temporopolar areas, which had the highest degree (or connectivity) during the resting state, showed the biggest decrease during meditation. Conversely, bilateral thalamus and components of the default mode network, mainly the bilateral precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex, had low degree in the resting state but increased degree during meditation. Additionally, these changes in nodal degree were accompanied by reorganization of anatomical orientation of the edges. During meditation, long-distance longitudinal (antero-posterior) edges increased proportionally, whereas orthogonal long-distance transverse (right-left) edges connecting bilaterally homologous cortices decreased. Our findings suggest that transient changes in consciousness associated with meditation introduce convergent changes in the topological and spatial properties of brain functional networks, and the anatomical pattern of integration might be as important as the global level of integration when considering the network basis for human consciousness.

  18. Event-related potential correlates of mindfulness meditation competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchley, R; Klee, D; Memmott, T; Goodrich, E; Wahbeh, H; Oken, B

    2016-04-21

    This cross-sectional study evaluated event-related potentials (ERPs) across three groups: naïve, novice, and experienced meditators as potential physiological markers of mindfulness meditation competence. Electroencephalographic (EEG) data were collected during a target tone detection task and a Breath Counting task. The Breath Counting task served as the mindfulness meditation condition for the novice and experienced meditator groups. Participants were instructed to respond to target tones with a button press in the first task (Tones), and then ignore the primed tones while Breath Counting. The primary outcomes were ERP responses to target tones, namely the N2 and P3, as markers of stimulus discrimination and attention, respectively. As expected, P3 amplitudes elicited by target tones were attenuated within groups during the Breath Counting task in comparison to the Tones task (pmeditator groups displayed greater change in peak-to-trough P3 amplitudes, with higher amplitudes during the Tones condition and more pronounced reductions in P3 amplitudes during the Breath Counting meditation task in comparison to the naïve group. Meditators had stronger P3 amplitude responses to target tones when instructed to attend to the tones, and a greater attenuation of P3 amplitudes when instructed to ignore the same tones during the Breath Counting task. This study introduces the idea of identifying ERP markers as a means of measuring mindfulness meditation competence, and results suggest this may be a valid approach. This information has the potential to improve mindfulness meditation interventions by allowing objective assessment of mindfulness meditation quality. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. BOLD signal and functional connectivity associated with loving kindness meditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Kathleen A; Scheinost, Dustin; Constable, R Todd; Brewer, Judson A

    2014-01-01

    Loving kindness is a form of meditation involving directed well-wishing, typically supported by the silent repetition of phrases such as “may all beings be happy,” to foster a feeling of selfless love. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess the neural substrate of loving kindness meditation in experienced meditators and novices. We first assessed group differences in blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal during loving kindness meditation. We next used a relatively novel approach, the intrinsic connectivity distribution of functional connectivity, to identify regions that differ in intrinsic connectivity between groups, and then used a data-driven approach to seed-based connectivity analysis to identify which connections differ between groups. Our findings suggest group differences in brain regions involved in self-related processing and mind wandering, emotional processing, inner speech, and memory. Meditators showed overall reduced BOLD signal and intrinsic connectivity during loving kindness as compared to novices, more specifically in the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus (PCC/PCu), a finding that is consistent with our prior work and other recent neuroimaging studies of meditation. Furthermore, meditators showed greater functional connectivity during loving kindness between the PCC/PCu and the left inferior frontal gyrus, whereas novices showed greater functional connectivity during loving kindness between the PCC/PCu and other cortical midline regions of the default mode network, the bilateral posterior insula lobe, and the bilateral parahippocampus/hippocampus. These novel findings suggest that loving kindness meditation involves a present-centered, selfless focus for meditators as compared to novices. PMID:24944863

  20. Power deposition on misaligned edges in COMPASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dejarnac

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available If the decision is made not to apply a toroidal chamfer to tungsten monoblocks at ITER divertor vertical targets, exposed leading edges will arise as a result of assembly tolerances between adjacent plasma-facing components. Then, the advantage of glancing magnetic field angles for spreading plasma heat flux on top surfaces is lost at the misaligned edges with an interaction occurring at near normal incidence, which can drive melting for the expected inter-ELM heat fluxes. A dedicated experiment has been performed on the COMPASS tokamak to thoroughly study power deposition on misaligned edges using inner-wall limited discharges on a special graphite tile presenting gaps and leading edges directly viewed by a high resolution infra-red camera. The parallel power flux deducted from the unperturbed measurement far from the gap is fully consistent with the observed temperature increase at the leading edge, respecting the power balance. All the power flowing into the gap is deposited at the leading edge and no mitigation factor is required to explain the thermal response. Particle-in-cell simulations show that the ion Larmor smoothing effect is weak and that the power deposition on misaligned edges is well described by the optical approximation because of an electron dominated regime associated with non-ambipolar parallel current flow.

  1. MAP Training My Brain™: Meditation Plus Aerobic Exercise Lessens Trauma of Sexual Violence More Than Either Activity Alone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracey J. Shors

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Sexual violence against women often leads to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, a mental illness characterized by intrusive thoughts and memories about the traumatic event (Shors and Millon, 2016. These mental processes are obviously generated by the brain but often felt in the body. MAP Training My Brain™ is a novel clinical intervention that combines mental training of the brain with physical training of the body (Curlik and Shors, 2013; Shors et al., 2014. Each training session begins with 20-min of sitting meditation, followed by 10-min of slow-walking meditation, and ending with 30-min of aerobic exercise at 60–80% of the maximum heart rate (see maptrainmybrain.com. In previous studies, the combination of mental and physical (MAP training together significantly reduced symptoms of depression and ruminative thoughts, while reducing anxiety (Shors et al., 2014, 2017; Alderman et al., 2016. We also documented positive changes in brain activity during cognitive control and whole-body oxygen consumption in various populations. In the present pilot study, we asked whether the combination of meditation and aerobic exercise during MAP Training would reduce trauma-related thoughts, ruminations, and memories in women and if so, whether the combination would be more effective than either activity alone. To test this hypothesis, interventions were provided to a group of women (n = 105, many of whom had a history of sexual violence (n = 32. Groups were trained with (1 MAP Training, (2 meditation alone, (3 aerobic exercise alone, or (4 not trained. Individuals in training groups completed two sessions a week for at least 6 weeks. MAP Training My Brain™ significantly reduced post-traumatic cognitions and ruminative thoughts in women with a history of sexual violence, whereas meditation alone, and exercise alone did not. MAP Training significantly enhanced a measure of self-worth, whereas meditation and exercise alone did not. Similar positive

  2. MAP Training My Brain™: Meditation Plus Aerobic Exercise Lessens Trauma of Sexual Violence More Than Either Activity Alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shors, Tracey J; Chang, Han Y M; Millon, Emma M

    2018-01-01

    Sexual violence against women often leads to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a mental illness characterized by intrusive thoughts and memories about the traumatic event (Shors and Millon, 2016). These mental processes are obviously generated by the brain but often felt in the body. MAP Training My Brain ™ is a novel clinical intervention that combines mental training of the brain with physical training of the body (Curlik and Shors, 2013; Shors et al., 2014). Each training session begins with 20-min of sitting meditation, followed by 10-min of slow-walking meditation, and ending with 30-min of aerobic exercise at 60-80% of the maximum heart rate (see maptrainmybrain.com). In previous studies, the combination of mental and physical (MAP) training together significantly reduced symptoms of depression and ruminative thoughts, while reducing anxiety (Shors et al., 2014, 2017; Alderman et al., 2016). We also documented positive changes in brain activity during cognitive control and whole-body oxygen consumption in various populations. In the present pilot study, we asked whether the combination of meditation and aerobic exercise during MAP Training would reduce trauma-related thoughts, ruminations, and memories in women and if so, whether the combination would be more effective than either activity alone. To test this hypothesis, interventions were provided to a group of women ( n = 105), many of whom had a history of sexual violence ( n = 32). Groups were trained with (1) MAP Training, (2) meditation alone, (3) aerobic exercise alone, or (4) not trained. Individuals in training groups completed two sessions a week for at least 6 weeks. MAP Training My Brain ™ significantly reduced post-traumatic cognitions and ruminative thoughts in women with a history of sexual violence, whereas meditation alone, and exercise alone did not. MAP Training significantly enhanced a measure of self-worth, whereas meditation and exercise alone did not. Similar positive effects

  3. The compassion gap in UK universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Waddington

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Context: This critical reflection is set in the context of increasing marketisation in UK higher education, where students are seen as consumers, rather than learners with power. The paper explores the dark side of academic work and the compassion gap in universities, in order to make recommendations for practice development in higher education and the human services. Aims: The paper aims to show how reflexive dialogue can be used to enable the development of compassionate academic practice. Conclusions and implications for practice: Toxic environments and organisational cultures in higher education have compounded the crisis in compassionate care in the NHS. Implications for practice are: Narrative approaches and critical appreciative inquiry are useful methods with which to reveal, and rectify, failures of compassion Courageous conversations are required to challenge dysfunctional organisational systems and processes Leadership development programmes should include the application of skills of compassion in organisational settings

  4. Exploring Magnetic Fields with a Compass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunk, Brandon; Beichner, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A compass is an excellent classroom tool for the exploration of magnetic fields. Any student can tell you that a compass is used to determine which direction is north, but when paired with some basic trigonometry, the compass can be used to actually measure the strength of the magnetic field due to a nearby magnet or current-carrying wire. In this paper, we present a series of simple activities adapted from the Matter & Interactions textbook for doing just this. Interestingly, these simple measurements are comparable to predictions made by the Bohr model of the atom. Although antiquated, Bohr's atom can lead the way to a deeper analysis of the atomic properties of magnets. Although originally developed for an introductory calculus-based course, these activities can easily be adapted for use in an algebra-based class or even at the high school level.

  5. A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial of Classroom-Based Mindfulness Meditation Compared to an Active Control Condition in 6th Grade Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Willoughby B.; Lepp, Nathaniel E.; Niles, Halsey F.; Rocha, Tomas; Fisher, Nathan; Gold, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Children in the United States are at risk for numerous psychological problems, such as anxiety, attention problems, and mood disorders, and are underserved by current mental health provisions. The current study is a pilot trial to examine the effects of a nonelective, classroom-based, teacher-implemented, mindfulness meditation intervention on standard clinical measures of mental health and affect in middle school children. A total of 101 healthy sixth-grade students (55 boys and 46 girls) were randomized to either an Asian history course with daily mindfulness meditation practice (intervention group) or an African history course with a matched experiential activity (active control group). Self-reported data was collected by administering the Youth Self Report (YSR), a modified Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Measure -Revised before and after 6 weeks of meditation or active control condition. Both meditators and active controls decreased significantly on the YSR Internalizing Problems, Externalizing Problems, and Attention Problems subscales but did not differ in the extent of their improvements. Both groups also showed comparable improvements on measures in affect. Meditators were significantly less likely to develop suicidal ideation or thoughts of self-harm than controls. Improvements in affect were correlated with increases in mindfulness in meditators but not controls. These results suggest that mindfulness training may yield both unique and nonspecific benefits that are shared by other novel activities. PMID:24930819

  6. Overview of the COMPASS CODAC system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hron, M.; Janky, F.; Pipek, J.; Sousa, J.; Carvalho, B.B.; Fernandes, H.; Vondracek, P.; Cahyna, P.; Urban, J.; Paprok, R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Overview of the Control, Data Acquisition, and Communication system (CODAC) on the COMPASS tokamak. • Set-up of CODAC hardware, software implementation, and communication tools. • Feedback control of COMPASS plasma using the MARTe framework. • Actuators, data sources, and data acquisition systems employed on COMPASS. • Communication links and protocols used within the COMPASS CODAC. - Abstract: This paper presents an overview of the Control, Data Acquisition, and Communication system (CODAC) at the COMPASS tokamak: the hardware set-up, software implementation, and communication tools are described. The diagnostics and the data acquisition are tailored for high spatial and temporal resolution required by the COMPASS physics programme, which aims namely at studies of the plasma edge, pedestal, and Scrape-off-Layer (SOL). Studies of instabilities and turbulence are also an integral part of the programme. Therefore, the data acquisition consists of more than 1000 channels, sampled at rates from 500 kS/s up to 2 GS/s. Presently, the feedback system controls the plasma position and shape, plasma current, and density and it includes 32 analogue input channels as well as 1 digital input/output channel and 8 analogue outputs. The feedback control runs within the Multi-threaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe) framework with two threads, a 500 μs cycle to control slow systems and a 50 μs cycle to control the fast feedback power supplies for plasma position control. In this paper, special attention is paid to the links between the systems, to the hardware and software connections, and to the communication. The hardware part is described, the software framework is addressed, and the particular implementation – the dedicated software modules, communication protocols, and links to the database are described

  7. Overview of the COMPASS CODAC system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hron, M., E-mail: mhron@seznam.cz [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, v.v.i., Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, Za Slovankou 3, 182 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Janky, F. [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, v.v.i., Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, Za Slovankou 3, 182 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Department of Surface and Plasma Science, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, V Holešovičkách 2, 180 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Pipek, J. [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, v.v.i., Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, Za Slovankou 3, 182 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Sousa, J.; Carvalho, B.B.; Fernandes, H. [Associação EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Vondracek, P. [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, v.v.i., Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, Za Slovankou 3, 182 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Department of Surface and Plasma Science, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, V Holešovičkách 2, 180 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Cahyna, P.; Urban, J. [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, v.v.i., Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, Za Slovankou 3, 182 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Paprok, R. [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, v.v.i., Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, Za Slovankou 3, 182 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Department of Surface and Plasma Science, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, V Holešovičkách 2, 180 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); and others

    2014-03-15

    Highlights: • Overview of the Control, Data Acquisition, and Communication system (CODAC) on the COMPASS tokamak. • Set-up of CODAC hardware, software implementation, and communication tools. • Feedback control of COMPASS plasma using the MARTe framework. • Actuators, data sources, and data acquisition systems employed on COMPASS. • Communication links and protocols used within the COMPASS CODAC. - Abstract: This paper presents an overview of the Control, Data Acquisition, and Communication system (CODAC) at the COMPASS tokamak: the hardware set-up, software implementation, and communication tools are described. The diagnostics and the data acquisition are tailored for high spatial and temporal resolution required by the COMPASS physics programme, which aims namely at studies of the plasma edge, pedestal, and Scrape-off-Layer (SOL). Studies of instabilities and turbulence are also an integral part of the programme. Therefore, the data acquisition consists of more than 1000 channels, sampled at rates from 500 kS/s up to 2 GS/s. Presently, the feedback system controls the plasma position and shape, plasma current, and density and it includes 32 analogue input channels as well as 1 digital input/output channel and 8 analogue outputs. The feedback control runs within the Multi-threaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe) framework with two threads, a 500 μs cycle to control slow systems and a 50 μs cycle to control the fast feedback power supplies for plasma position control. In this paper, special attention is paid to the links between the systems, to the hardware and software connections, and to the communication. The hardware part is described, the software framework is addressed, and the particular implementation – the dedicated software modules, communication protocols, and links to the database are described.

  8. Associations among dispositional mindfulness, self-compassion, and executive function proficiency in early adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hee-Sung; Black, David S; Shonkoff, Eleanor Tate; Riggs, Nathaniel R; Pentz, Mary Ann

    2016-12-01

    The study objective was to examine the effects of two conceptually related constructs, self-compassion and dispositional mindfulness, on executive function (EF) proficiency among early adolescents. Executive function refers to a set of psychological processes governing emotional regulation, organization, and planning. While the benefits of positive psychology appear evident for mental health and wellness, little is known about the etiological relationship between dispositional mindfulness and self-compassion in their associations with EF. Two hundred and ten early adolescents attending middle school (age M=12.5 years; SD=0.5; 21% Hispanic, 18% Mixed/bi-racial, 47% White, and 9% Other/Missing; 37.1% on free lunch program) self-reported levels of dispositional mindfulness (Mindful Attention Awareness Scale; MAAS), self-compassion (Self-Compassion Scale; SCS; self-judgment and self-kindness domains), and EF proficiency (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function; BRIEF-SR). A sequential linear regression stepwise approach was taken entering the independent variables as separate models in the following order: self-kindness, self-judgement, and dispositional mindfulness. All models controlled for participant age and sex. SCS self-kindness was not associated with EF proficiency, but SCS self-judgment (reverse-coded) contributed to the variance in EF (β=0.40, p mindfulness appears to outweigh that of specific self-compassion domains, when independent of contemplative training.

  9. Ageist attitudes block young adults' ability for compassion toward incapacitated older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Yoav S; Bodner, Ehud

    2015-09-01

    Upon encountering older adults, individuals display varying degrees of prosocial attitudes and behaviors. While some display compassion and empathy, others draw away and wish to maintain their distance from them. The current study examined if and how ageist attitudes influence the association between the sight of physical incapacity in older age and compassionate reactions toward them. We predicted that ageist attitudes would interfere with the ability to respond to them with compassion. Young adults (N = 149, ages 19-29) were randomly distributed into two experimental conditions, each viewing a short video portraying different aspects of older adult physicality; one group viewed older adults displaying incapacitated behavior, and the other viewed fit behavior. Participants subsequently filled out scales assessing aging anxieties, and ageist and compassionate attitudes. Ageism was associated with reduced compassion toward the figures. Moreover, viewing incapacitated older adults led to increased concern toward them and perceived efficacy in helping them. However, significant interactions proved that higher scores of ageism in response to the videos led to increased need for distance and reduced efficacy toward incapacitated adults, an effect not observed among subjects with lower ageism scores. Ageism seems to be a factor which disengages individuals from older adults displaying fragility, leading them to disregard social norms which dictate compassion. The results are discussed from the framework of terror management theory, as increased mortality salience and death-related thoughts could have led to the activation of negative attitudes which, in turn, reduce compassion.

  10. Contextual facilitators and maintaining of compassion-based care: An ethnographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Babaei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Compassion is an important part of nursing. It fosters better relationships between nurses and their patients. Moreover, it gives patients more confidence in the care they receive. Determining facilitators of compassion are essential to holistic care. The purpose of this study was to explore these facilitators. Materials and Methods: This ethnographic study was conducted in 2014–2015 with 20 nurses, 12 patients, and 4 family members in the medical and surgical wards. Data collection was done through observations and in-depth semi-structured interviews with purposive sampling. The study was carried out in 15 months. Data analysis was performed using constant comparison based on Strauss and Corbin. Results: Data analysis defined three main themes and eight subthemes as the fundamentals of compassion-based care. Nurses' personal factors with subcategories of personality, attitudes, and values and holistic view; and socio-cultural factors with subcategories of kindness role model, religious, and cultural values are needed to elicit compassionate behaviors. Initiator factors, with subcategories of patient suffering, patient communication demands, and patient emotional and psychological necessity are also needed to start compassionate behaviors. Conclusions: The findings of this study showed that nurses' communication with patients is nurse's duty in order to understand and respect the needs of patients. Attention should be paid to issues relating to compassion in nursing and practice educational programs. Indeed, creating a care environment with compassion, regardless of any shortcomings in the work condition, would help in the development of effective nursing.

  11. Stellar compass for the Clementine Mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    A CCD sensor with 42 x 28 degrees FOV and 576 x 384 pixels was built by the Advanced Technology Program (ATP) in the Physics Department at LLNL. That sensor, called the StarTracker camera, is used on the Clementine Lunar Mapping mission between January and May, 1994. Together with the Stellar Compass software, the StarTracker camera provided a way of identifying its orientation to within about 150 microradians in camera body pitch and yaw. This presentation will be an overview of basically how the Stellar Compass software works, along with showing some of its performance results.

  12. Regulation of gene expression by yoga, meditation and related practices: a review of recent studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saatcioglu, Fahri

    2013-02-01

    Integrative medicine (IM) approaches have gained significant interest in recent years to provide a solution for the health care challenges we face today. Yogic cognitive-behavioral practices are among the most widely used IM approaches and include diverse practices such as yoga asanas, meditation, breathing exercises, Qi Gong, Tai Chi Chih, and various others. Studies to date suggest that these yogic/meditative practices have significant positive effects on the mind-body system and thereby can increase wellness and support the healing process from disease. Previous work has provided evidence for both psychological and physiological effects of these practices; however, the mechanisms of these effects, especially at the molecular level, have largely been missing. Three recent studies started to provide some of this information through gene expression profiling in circulating immune cells, which support the hypothesis that yogic/meditative practices have a measurable effect at the molecular level. These studies are reviewed herein and some future perspectives are considered. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Coherent triplet excitation suppresses the heading error of the avian compass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsoprinakis, G E; Dellis, A T; Kominis, I K, E-mail: ikominis@iesl.forth.g [Department of Physics, University of Crete, Heraklion 71103 (Greece); Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology, Heraklion 71110 (Greece)

    2010-08-15

    Radical-ion pair reactions are currently understood to underlie the biochemical magnetic compass of migratory birds. It was recently shown that radical-ion pair reactions form a rich playground for the application of quantum-information-science concepts and effects. We will show here that the intricate interplay between the quantum Zeno effect and the coherent excitation of radical-ion pairs leads to an exquisite angular sensitivity of the reaction yields. This results in a significant and previously unanticipated suppression of the avian compass heading error, opening the way to quantum engineering precision biological sensors.

  14. Yoga, Meditation and Mind-Body Health: Increased BDNF, Cortisol Awakening Response, and Altered Inflammatory Marker Expression after a 3-Month Yoga and Meditation Retreat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Rael Cahn

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-eight individuals (mean age: 34.8 years old participating in a 3-month yoga and meditation retreat were assessed before and after the intervention for psychometric measures, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, circadian salivary cortisol levels, and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Participation in the retreat was found to be associated with decreases in self-reported anxiety and depression as well as increases in mindfulness. As hypothesized, increases in the plasma levels of BDNF and increases in the magnitude of the cortisol awakening response (CAR were also observed. The normalized change in BDNF levels was inversely correlated with BSI-18 anxiety scores at both the pre-retreat (r = 0.40, p < 0.05 and post-retreat (r = 0.52, p < 0.005 such that those with greater anxiety scores tended to exhibit smaller pre- to post-retreat increases in plasma BDNF levels. In line with a hypothesized decrease in inflammatory processes resulting from the yoga and meditation practices, we found that the plasma level of the anti-inflammatory cytokine Interleukin-10 was increased and the pro-inflammatory cytokine Interleukin-12 was reduced after the retreat. Contrary to our initial hypotheses, plasma levels of other pro-inflammatory cytokines, including Interferon Gamma (IFN-γ, Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF-α, Interleukin-1β (IL-1β, Interleukin-6 (IL-6, and Interleukin-8 (IL-8 were increased after the retreat. Given evidence from previous studies of the positive effects of meditative practices on mental fitness, autonomic homeostasis and inflammatory status, we hypothesize that these findings are related to the meditative practices throughout the retreat; however, some of the observed changes may also be related to other aspects of the retreat such as physical exercise-related components of the yoga practice and diet. We hypothesize that the patterns of change observed here reflect mind-body integration and well-being. The increased BDNF levels

  15. Study protocol on comparative effectiveness of mindfulness meditation and qigong on psychophysiological outcomes for patients with colorectal cancer: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Rainbow T H; Wan, Adrian H Y; Chan, Jessie S M; Ng, S M; Chung, K F; Chan, Cecilia L W

    2017-08-08

    Colorectal cancer imposes threats to patients' well-being. Although most physical symptoms can be managed by medication, psychosocial stressors may complicate survival and hamper quality of life. Mindfulness and Qigong, two kinds of mind-body exercise rooted in Eastern health philosophy, has been found effective in symptoms management, improving mental health, and reducing stress. With these potential benefits, a randomized controlled trial (RCT) is planned to investigate the comparative effectiveness of mindfulness and Baduanjin intervention on the bio-psychosocial wellbeing of people with colorectal cancer. A 3-arm RCT with waitlist control design will be used in this study. One hundred eighty-nine participants will be randomized into (i) Mindfulness, (ii) Baduanjin, or (iii) waitlist control groups. Participants in both the Baduanjin and mindfulness groups will receive 8-weeks of specific intervention. All three groups will undergo four assessment phases: (i) at baseline, (ii) at 4-week, (iii) at 8-week (post-intervention), and 6-month post-intervention (maintenance). All participants will be assessed in terms of cancer-related symptoms and symptom distress, mental health status, quality of life, stress level based on physiological marker. Based on prior research studies, participants in both the mindfulness and Baduanjn intervention group are expected to have better symptoms management, lower stress level, better mental health, and higher level of quality of life than the control group. This study contributes to better understanding on the common and unique effectiveness of mindfulness and Baduanjin qigong, as such patients and qualified healthcare professionals can select or provide practices which will produce maximum benefits, satisfaction, adherence, and sustainability. The trial has been registered in the Clinical Trials Centre of the University of Hong Kong ( HKCTR-2198 ) on 08 March 2017.

  16. Is it me or not me? Modulation of perceptual-motor awareness and visuomotor performance by mindfulness meditation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naranjo José

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attribution of agency involves the ability to distinguish our own actions and their sensory consequences which are self-generated from those generated by external agents. There are several pathological cases in which motor awareness is dramatically impaired. On the other hand, awareness-enhancement practices like tai-chi and yoga are shown to improve perceptual-motor awareness. Meditation is known to have positive impacts on perception, attention and consciousness itself, but it is still unclear how meditation changes sensorimotor integration processes and awareness of action. The aim of this study was to investigate how visuomotor performance and self-agency is modulated by mindfulness meditation. This was done by studying meditators’ performance during a conflicting reaching task, where the congruency between actions and their consequences is gradually altered. This task was presented to novices in meditation before and after an intensive 8 weeks mindfulness meditation training (MBSR. The data of this sample was compared to a group of long-term meditators and a group of healthy non-meditators. Results Mindfulness resulted in a significant improvement in motor control during perceptual-motor conflict in both groups. Novices in mindfulness demonstrated a strongly increased sensitivity to detect external perturbation after the MBSR intervention. Both mindfulness groups demonstrated a speed/accuracy trade-off in comparison to their respective controls. This resulted in slower and more accurate movements. Conclusions Our results suggest that mindfulness meditation practice is associated with slower body movements which in turn may lead to an increase in monitoring of body states and optimized re-adjustment of movement trajectory, and consequently to better motor performance. This extended conscious monitoring of perceptual and motor cues may explain how, while dealing with perceptual-motor conflict, improvement in motor

  17. BodiMojo: Efficacy of a Mobile-Based Intervention in Improving Body Image and Self-Compassion among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Rachel F; Donovan, Elizabeth; Cousineau, Tara; Yates, Kayla; McGowan, Kayla; Cook, Elizabeth; Lowy, Alice S; Franko, Debra L

    2018-01-18

    Mobile interventions promoting positive body image are lacking. This study presents a randomized controlled evaluation of BodiMojo, a mobile application (app) intervention grounded in self-compassion to promote positive body image. A sample of 274 adolescents, mean (SD) age = 18.36 (1.34) years, 74% female, were allocated to a control group or used BodiMojo for 6 weeks. Appearance esteem, body image flexibility, appearance comparison, mood, and self-compassion were assessed at baseline, 6, and 12 weeks. Significant time by group interactions emerged for appearance esteem and self-compassion, with appearance esteem and self-compassion increasing in the intervention relative to the control group. These findings provide preliminary support for BodiMojo, a cost-effective mobile app for positive body image.

  18. The depth of the honeybee's backup sun-compass systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovey, Katelyn M; Kemfort, Jordan R; Towne, William F

    2013-06-01

    Honeybees have at least three compass mechanisms: a magnetic compass; a celestial or sun compass, based on the daily rotation of the sun and sun-linked skylight patterns; and a backup celestial compass based on a memory of the sun's movements over time in relation to the landscape. The interactions of these compass systems have yet to be fully elucidated, but the celestial compass is primary in most contexts, the magnetic compass is a backup in certain contexts, and the bees' memory of the sun's course in relation to the landscape is a backup system for cloudy days. Here we ask whether bees have any further compass systems, for example a memory of the sun's movements over time in relation to the magnetic field. To test this, we challenged bees to locate the sun when their known celestial compass systems were unavailable, that is, under overcast skies in unfamiliar landscapes. We measured the bees' knowledge of the sun's location by observing their waggle dances, by which foragers indicate the directions toward food sources in relation to the sun's compass bearing. We found that bees have no celestial compass systems beyond those already known: under overcast skies in unfamiliar landscapes, bees attempt to use their landscape-based backup system to locate the sun, matching the landscapes or skylines at the test sites with those at their natal sites as best they can, even if the matches are poor and yield weak or inconsistent orientation.

  19. To be kind or not to be kind: The moderating role of self-compassion in the relationship between general resourcefulness and academic self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rebecca D; Kennett, Deborah J

    2017-11-22

    We investigated whether the relationship between students' general resourcefulness and academic self-regulation changes as a function of self-compassion. A predominantly female sample of 196 undergraduates completed inventories assessing these and other measures. The significant moderating effect of self-compassion revealed that the positive relationship between general resourcefulness and academic self-regulation was stronger for participants scoring low in self-compassion than high in self-compassion. For those low in self-compassion, scoring low in general resourcefulness was associated with the lowest academic self-regulation, whereas scoring high in general resourcefulness was associated with the greatest academic self-regulation. The positive relationship between general and academic self-regulation was attenuated for participants high in self-compassion, with predicted scores for academic self-regulation falling in between the two values described for the low self-compassion function. Implications of the findings are discussed, including the potential value of incorporating self-compassion training alongside programs aimed at increasing general resourcefulness and academic self-regulation.

  20. Are Empathy and Compassion Bad for the Professional Social Worker?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Nilsson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that social workers and other professional helpers who work with traumatized individuals run a risk of developing compassion fatigue or secondary traumatic stress. Some researchers have hypothesized that helpers do this as a result of feeling too much empathy or too much compassion for their clients, thereby implying that empathy and compassion may be bad for the professional social worker. This paper investigates these hypotheses. Based on a review of current research about empathy and compassion it is argued that these states are not the causes of compassion fatigue. Hence, it is argued that empathy and compassion are not bad for the professional social worker in the sense that too much of one or the other will lead to compassion fatigue.

  1. Predictors of Compassion Fatigue and Compassion Satisfaction in Acute Care Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Lesly; Runge, Jody; Spencer, Christina

    2015-11-01

    To examine compassion fatigue and compassion satisfaction in acute care nurses across multiple specialties in a hospital-based setting. A cross-sectional electronic survey design was used to collect data from direct care nurses in a 700-bed, quaternary care, teaching facility in the southwestern United States. A total of 491 direct care registered nurses completed a survey measuring their professional quality of life (burnout, secondary traumatic stress, and compassion satisfaction). Analysis was conducted to assess for differences between demographics, specialties, job satisfaction, and intent to leave their current position. Significant predictors of burnout included lack of meaningful recognition, nurses with more years of experience, and nurses in the "Millennial" generation (ages 21-33 years). Receiving meaningful recognition, higher job satisfaction, nurses in the "Baby Boomer" generation (ages 50-65 years), and nurses with fewer years of experience significantly predicted compassion satisfaction. No significant differences were noted across nurse specialties, units, or departments. This study adds to the literature the impact meaningful recognition may have on compassion satisfaction and fatigue. Our findings provide a potential explanation for the lack of retention of nurses in the millennial generation who leave their positions with limited years of experience. Based on our research, meaningful recognition may increase compassion satisfaction, positively impact retention, and elevate job satisfaction. Compassion fatigue in nurses has clear implications for nursing retention and the quality of care. Organizations willing to invest in reducing compassion fatigue have the potential to improve financial savings by reducing turnover and adverse events associated with burnout. © 2015 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  2. “I Learned to Let Go of My Pain”. The Effects of Mindfulness Meditation on Adolescents with Chronic Pain: An Analysis of Participants’ Treatment Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Ruskin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic pain can lead to significant negative outcomes across many areas of life. Recently, mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs have been identified as potentially effective tools for improved pain management among adolescents living with pain. This study aimed to explore the experience of adolescents who participated in an eight-week mindfulness group adapted for adolescents with chronic pain (MBI-A, and obtain their feedback and suggestions on group structure and content. A mixed method design was used employing qualitative data from focus groups and data from a satisfaction questionnaire. Focus group data were transcribed and analyzed using inductive simple descriptive content analysis. Of the total participants (n = 21, 90% (n = 19 provided feedback by completing satisfaction questionnaires and seventeen (n = 17 of those also participated across two focus groups. Analysis of the focus group transcripts uncovered six themes: mindfulness skills, supportive environment, group exercises (likes and dislikes, empowerment, program expectations, and logistics. Participants reported positive experiences in the MBI-A program, including support received from peers and mindfulness skills, including present moment awareness, pain acceptance, and emotion regulation. Group members suggested increasing the number of sessions and being clearer at outset regarding a focus on reduction of emotional suffering rather than physical pain.

  3. VetCompass Australia: A National Big Data Collection System for Veterinary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreevy, Paul; Thomson, Peter; Dhand, Navneet K.; Raubenheimer, David; Masters, Sophie; Mansfield, Caroline S.; Baldwin, Timothy; Soares Magalhaes, Ricardo J.; Rand, Jacquie; Hill, Peter; Gilkerson, James; Combs, Martin; Raidal, Shane; Irwin, Peter; Irons, Peter; Squires, Richard; Brodbelt, David; Hammond, Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary The VetCompass Australia program collects real-time clinical records from veterinary practices and aggregates them for researchers to interrogate. It delivers Australian researchers sustainable and cost-effective access to authoritative data from hundreds of veterinary practitioners, across Australia and opens up major international collaborative opportunities with related projects in the United Kingdom and elsewhere. Abstract VetCompass Australia is veterinary medical records-based research coordinated with the global VetCompass endeavor to maximize its quality and effectiveness for Australian companion animals (cats, dogs, and horses). Bringing together all seven Australian veterinary schools, it is the first nationwide surveillance system collating clinical records on companion-animal diseases and treatments. VetCompass data service collects and aggregates real-time, clinical records for researchers to interrogate, delivering sustainable and cost-effective access to data from hundreds of veterinary practitioners nationwide. Analysis of these clinical records will reveal geographical and temporal trends in the prevalence of inherited and acquired diseases, identify frequently prescribed treatments, revolutionize clinical auditing, help the veterinary profession to rank research priorities, and assure evidence-based companion-animal curricula in veterinary schools. VetCompass Australia will progress in three phases: (1) roll-out of the VetCompass platform to harvest Australian veterinary clinical record data; (2) development and enrichment of the coding (data-presentation) platform; and (3) creation of a world-first, real-time surveillance interface with natural language processing (NLP) technology. The first of these three phases is described in the current article. Advances in the collection and sharing of records from numerous practices will enable veterinary professionals to deliver a vastly improved level of care for companion animals that will

  4. Embodying compassion: a virtual reality paradigm for overcoming excessive self-criticism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline J Falconer

    Full Text Available Virtual reality has been successfully used to study and treat psychological disorders such as phobias and posttraumatic stress disorder but has rarely been applied to clinically-relevant emotions other than fear and anxiety. Self-criticism is a ubiquitous feature of psychopathology and can be treated by increasing levels of self-compassion. We exploited the known effects of identification with a virtual body to arrange for healthy female volunteers high in self-criticism to experience self-compassion from an embodied first-person perspective within immersive virtual reality. Whereas observation and practice of compassionate responses reduced self-criticism, the additional experience of embodiment also increased self-compassion and feelings of being safe. The results suggest potential new uses for immersive virtual reality in a range of clinical conditions.

  5. Embodying compassion: a virtual reality paradigm for overcoming excessive self-criticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, Caroline J; Slater, Mel; Rovira, Aitor; King, John A; Gilbert, Paul; Antley, Angus; Brewin, Chris R

    2014-01-01

    Virtual reality has been successfully used to study and treat psychological disorders such as phobias and posttraumatic stress disorder but has rarely been applied to clinically-relevant emotions other than fear and anxiety. Self-criticism is a ubiquitous feature of psychopathology and can be treated by increasing levels of self-compassion. We exploited the known effects of identification with a virtual body to arrange for healthy female volunteers high in self-criticism to experience self-compassion from an embodied first-person perspective within immersive virtual reality. Whereas observation and practice of compassionate responses reduced self-criticism, the additional experience of embodiment also increased self-compassion and feelings of being safe. The results suggest potential new uses for immersive virtual reality in a range of clinical conditions.

  6. The influence of concentration/meditation on autonomic nervous system activity and the innate immune response: a case study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kox, M.; Stoffels, M.; Smeekens, S.P.; Alfen, N. van; Gomes, M.E.R.; Eijsvogels, T.M.H.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Hoeven, J.G. van der; Netea, M.G.; Pickkers, P.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In this case study, we describe the effects of a particular individual's concentration/meditation technique on autonomic nervous system activity and the innate immune response. The study participant holds several world records with regard to tolerating extreme cold and claims that he can

  7. Compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue, anxiety, depression and stress in registered nurses in Australia: phase 2 results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Vicki; Craigie, Mark; Francis, Karen; Aoun, Samar; Hegney, Desley G

    2014-05-01

    This is the first two-phase Australian study to explore the factors impacting upon compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue, anxiety, depression and stress and to describe the strategies nurses use to build compassion satisfaction into their working lives. Compassion fatigue has been found to impact on job satisfaction, the quality of patient care and retention within nursing. This study provides new knowledge on the influences of anxiety, stress and depression and how they relate to compassion satisfaction and compassion fatigue. In Phase 2 of the study, 10 nurses from Phase 1 of the study participated in individual interviews and a focus group. A semi-structured interview schedule guided the conversations with the participants. Data analysis resulted in seven main themes: social networks and support;infrastructure and support; environment and lifestyle; learning; leadership; stress; and suggestions to build psychological wellness in nurses. Findings suggest that a nurse’s capacity to cope is enhanced through strong social and collegial support, infrastructure that supports the provision of quality nursing care and positive affirmation. These concepts are strongly linked to personal resilience. for nursing management These findings support the need for management to develop appropriate interventions to build resilience in nurses.

  8. Evaluation of Social Studies Curriculum on Compassion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the impact of social studies curriculum on the affective dispositions of students of Colleges of Education in North-West Zone of Nigeria. The purpose of the study was to determine the level of NCE I and NCE III students' affective dispositions in the area of compassion. One research question and one ...

  9. InCompass Best Practice Toolkit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romein, A.; Trip, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    This ‘Toolkit’ presents the outcomes of the INTERREG IVC project InCompass: Regional policy improvement for financially sustainable creative business incubator units. Its main target group are local and regional policy-makers. It therefore aims: - to identity practices to improve the financial

  10. Degree Compass: The Preferred Choice Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitten, Leah S.; Sanders, Anthony R.; Stewart, J. Gary

    2013-01-01

    While engaged in academic reading, a college provost converged on an idea to use a preferential approach to students' selection of college courses, similar to the recommendation ideas based on Netflix and Amazon. The result of this idea came to be known as Degree Compass and was implemented on the campus of Austin Peay State University in 2011.…

  11. On the large COMPASS polarized deuteron target

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ball, J.; Baum, G.; Doshita, N.; Finger Jr., M.; Finger, M.; Gautheron, F.; Goertz, S.; Hasegawa, T.; Heckmann, J.; Hess, C.; Horikawa, N.; Ishimoto, S.; Iwata, T.; Kisselev, Y.; Koivuniemi, J.H.; Kondo, K.; Le Goff, J.M.; Magnon, A.; Marchand, C.; Matsuda, T.; Meyer, W.; Reicherz, G.; Srnka, Aleš

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 56, Suppl. F (2006), F295-F305 ISSN 0011-4626 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 492 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : COMPASS * polarized target * Dilution refrigerator Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 0.568, year: 2006

  12. Summary of the Advanced Stellar Compass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif

    1997-01-01

    The current version of the Advanced Stellar Compass (ASC) is an improved implementation of the instrument developed for the Danish Geomagnetic Research Satellite Ørsted. The Ørsted version was successfully tested in space on the NASA sounding rocket "Thunderstorm III", that was launched September 2...

  13. Reorganization of the brain and heart rhythm during autogenic meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Keun; Rhee, Jyoo-Hi; Kang, Seung Wan

    2014-01-13

    The underlying changes in heart coherence that are associated with reported EEG changes in response to meditation have been explored. We measured EEG and heart rate variability (HRV) before and during autogenic meditation. Fourteen subjects participated in the study. Heart coherence scores were significantly increased during meditation compared to the baseline. We found near significant decrease in high beta absolute power, increase in alpha relative power and significant increases in lower (alpha) and higher (above beta) band coherence during 3~min epochs of heart coherent meditation compared to 3~min epochs of heart non-coherence at baseline. The coherence and relative power increase in alpha band and absolute power decrease in high beta band could reflect relaxation state during the heart coherent meditation. The coherence increase in the higher (above beta) band could reflect cortico-cortical local integration and thereby affect cognitive reorganization, simultaneously with relaxation. Further research is still needed for a confirmation of heart coherence as a simple window for the meditative state.

  14. Reorganization of the Brain and Heart Rhythm During Autogenic Meditation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Keun eKim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The underlying changes in heart coherence that are associated with reported EEG changes in response to meditation have been explored. We measured EEG and heart rate variability (HRV before and during autogenic meditation. Fourteen subjects participated in the study. Heart coherence scores were significantly increased during meditation compared to the baseline. We found near significant decrease in high beta absolute power, increase in alpha relative power and significant increases in lower(alpha and higher(above beta band coherence during 3 minute epochs of heart coherent meditation compared to 3 minute epochs of heart noncoherence at baseline. The coherence and relative power increase in alpha band and absolute power decrease in high beta band could reflect relaxation state during the heart coherent meditation. The coherence increase in the higher(above beta band could reflect cortico-cortical local integration and thereby affect cognitive reorganization, simultaneously with relaxation. Further research is still needed for a confirmation of heart coherence as a simple window for the meditative state.

  15. Educational simulator app and web page for exploring Nuclear and Compass Magnetic Resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanson, Lars G.

    experimentation that improves understanding of basic MR phenomena. The simulator is used to introduce and explore electromagnetism, magnetic dipoles, static and radiofrequency fields, Compass MR, the free induction decay (FID), relaxation, the Fourier transform (FFT), the resonance condition, spin, precession......, the Larmor equation, Nuclear MR, resonant excitation (linear and quadrature), and off-resonance effects. Methods and implementation: The simulator is a complete HTML5/JavaScript[1,2] rewrite of the JavaCompass[3] so it now executes in modern browsers with no additional software needed. Spin dynamics...

  16. Self-compassion moderates the perfectionism and depression link in both adolescence and adulthood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine Ferrari

    Full Text Available Psychological practitioners often seek to directly change the form or frequency of clients' maladaptive perfectionist thoughts, because such thoughts predict future depression. Indirect strategies, such as self-compassion interventions, that seek to change clients' relationships to difficult thoughts, rather than trying to change the thoughts directly could be just as effective. This study aimed to investigate whether self-compassion moderated, or weakened, the relationship between high perfectionism and high depression symptoms in both adolescence and adulthood.The present study utilised anonymous self-report questionnaires to assess maladaptive perfectionism, depression, and self-compassion across two samples covering much of the lifespan. Questionnaires were administered in a high school setting for the adolescent sample (Study 1, Mage = 14.1 years, n = 541, and advertised through university and widely online to attract a convenience sample of adults (Study 2, Mage = 25.22 years, n = 515.Moderation analyses revealed that self-compassion reduced the strength of relationship between maladaptive perfectionism and depression in our adolescent Study 1 (β = -.15, p < .001, R2 = .021. and our adult study 2 (β = -.14, p < .001, R2 = .020.Cross-sectional self-reported data restricts the application of causal conclusions and also relies on accurate self-awareness and willingness to respond to questionnaire openly.The replication of this finding in two samples and across different age-appropriate measures suggests that self-compassion does moderate the link between perfectionism and depression. Self-compassion interventions may be a useful way to undermine the effects of maladaptive perfectionism, but future experimental or intervention research is needed to fully assess this important possibility.

  17. Self-compassion moderates the perfectionism and depression link in both adolescence and adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Madeleine; Yap, Keong; Scott, Nicole; Einstein, Danielle A; Ciarrochi, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    Psychological practitioners often seek to directly change the form or frequency of clients' maladaptive perfectionist thoughts, because such thoughts predict future depression. Indirect strategies, such as self-compassion interventions, that seek to change clients' relationships to difficult thoughts, rather than trying to change the thoughts directly could be just as effective. This study aimed to investigate whether self-compassion moderated, or weakened, the relationship between high perfectionism and high depression symptoms in both adolescence and adulthood. The present study utilised anonymous self-report questionnaires to assess maladaptive perfectionism, depression, and self-compassion across two samples covering much of the lifespan. Questionnaires were administered in a high school setting for the adolescent sample (Study 1, Mage = 14.1 years, n = 541), and advertised through university and widely online to attract a convenience sample of adults (Study 2, Mage = 25.22 years, n = 515). Moderation analyses revealed that self-compassion reduced the strength of relationship between maladaptive perfectionism and depression in our adolescent Study 1 (β = -.15, p < .001, R2 = .021.) and our adult study 2 (β = -.14, p < .001, R2 = .020). Cross-sectional self-reported data restricts the application of causal conclusions and also relies on accurate self-awareness and willingness to respond to questionnaire openly. The replication of this finding in two samples and across different age-appropriate measures suggests that self-compassion does moderate the link between perfectionism and depression. Self-compassion interventions may be a useful way to undermine the effects of maladaptive perfectionism, but future experimental or intervention research is needed to fully assess this important possibility.

  18. Self-Compassion as a Resource in the Self-Stigma Process of Overweight and Obese Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Hilbert

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Self-stigma in overweight and obese individuals has strong associations with impairment in mental and global health. This study sought to explore self-compassion as a psychological resource in the self-stigma process. Methods: In a 2012 representative German population survey of N = 1,158 overweight and obese individuals, self-compassion was examined as a mediator between self-stigma and mental and physical health outcomes, including BMI (kg/m2, using structural equation modeling and controlling for sociodemographic factors. Results: Psychological variables were assessed using validated self-report questionnaires. Self-compassion partially mediated the relationships between self-stigma and depression, somatic symptoms, and health status / quality of life, lowering the predictive effect of self-stigma on the outcomes by approximately one-third. In contrast, self-compassion, because it was unrelated to BMI, did not mediate the association between self-stigma and BMI. Conclusion: Self-compassion has the potential to act as a buffer against the mental and global health detriments of self-stigma in overweight and obesity and could thus represent a target for interventions to reduce self-stigma and prevent these health impairments. In order to influence the association between self-stigma and BMI, self-compassion should conceptually be linked to weight management.

  19. Body image satisfaction and self-esteem in Thai female adolescents: the moderating role of self-compassion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisitsungkagarn, Kullaya; Taephant, Nattasuda; Attasaranya, Ploychompoo

    2014-01-01

    Body image satisfaction significantly influences self-esteem in female adolescents. Increased reports of lowered satisfaction in this population have raised concerns regarding their compromised self-esteem. This research study, therefore, sought to identify a culturally significant moderator of the association between body image satisfaction and self-esteem in Thai female adolescents. Orientation toward self-compassion, found to be particularly high in Thailand, was examined. A total of 302 Thai female undergraduates from three large public and private universities in the Bangkok metropolitan area responded to a set of questionnaires, which measured demographic information, body image satisfaction, self-compassion, and self-esteem. Data were analyzed using correlation and multiple regression analyses. Self-compassion was tested as a moderator of the relationship between body image satisfaction and self-esteem. Although its effect was relatively small, self-compassion significantly moderated the positive relationship between body image satisfaction and self-esteem. The relationship became less stringent for those with high self-compassion. The cultivation of self-compassion was recommended in female adolescents. In addition to moderating the association between body image satisfaction and self-esteem, the benefits to health and well-being of generalizing this cultivation are discussed.

  20. Argentine tango dance compared to mindfulness meditation and a waiting-list control: a randomised trial for treating depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinniger, Rosa; Brown, Rhonda F; Thorsteinsson, Einar B; McKinley, Patricia

    2012-12-01

    To determine whether tango dancing is as effective as mindfulness meditation in reducing symptoms of psychological stress, anxiety and depression, and in promoting well-being. This study employed analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and multiple regression analysis. Ninety-seven people with self-declared depression were randomised into tango dance or mindfulness meditation classes, or to control/waiting-list. classes were conducted in a venue suitable for both activities in the metropolitan area of Sydney, Australia. Participants completed six-week programmes (1½h/week of tango or meditation). The outcome measures were assessed at pre-test and post-test. Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale; The Self Esteem Scale; Satisfaction with Life Scale, and Mindful Attention Awareness Scale. Sixty-six participants completed the program and were included in the statistical analysis. Depression levels were significantly reduced in the tango (effect size d=0.50, p=.010), and meditation groups (effect size d=0.54, p=.025), relative to waiting-list controls. Stress levels were significantly reduced only in the tango group (effect size d=0.45, p=.022). Attending tango classes was a significant predictor for the increased levels of mindfulness R(2)=.10, adjusted R(2)=.07, F (2,59)=3.42, p=.039. Mindfulness-meditation and tango dance could be effective complementary adjuncts for the treatment of depression and/or inclusion in stress management programmes. Subsequent trials are called to explore the therapeutic mechanisms involved. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Polarized light modulates light-dependent magnetic compass orientation in birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muheim, Rachel; Sjöberg, Sissel; Pinzon-Rodriguez, Atticus

    2016-01-01

    Magnetoreception of the light-dependent magnetic compass in birds is suggested to be mediated by a radical-pair mechanism taking place in the avian retina. Biophysical models on magnetic field effects on radical pairs generally assume that the light activating the magnetoreceptor molecules is nondirectional and unpolarized, and that light absorption is isotropic. However, natural skylight enters the avian retina unidirectionally, through the cornea and the lens, and is often partially polarized. In addition, cryptochromes, the putative magnetoreceptor molecules, absorb light anisotropically, i.e., they preferentially absorb light of a specific direction and polarization, implying that the light-dependent magnetic compass is intrinsically polarization sensitive. To test putative interactions between the avian magnetic compass and polarized light, we developed a spatial orientation assay and trained zebra finches to magnetic and/or overhead polarized light cues in a four-arm “plus” maze. The birds did not use overhead polarized light near the zenith for sky compass orientation. Instead, overhead polarized light modulated light-dependent magnetic compass orientation, i.e., how the birds perceive the magnetic field. Birds were well oriented when tested with the polarized light axis aligned parallel to the magnetic field. When the polarized light axis was aligned perpendicular to the magnetic field, the birds became disoriented. These findings are the first behavioral evidence to our knowledge for a direct interaction between polarized light and the light-dependent magnetic compass in an animal. They reveal a fundamentally new property of the radical pair-based magnetoreceptor with key implications for how birds and other animals perceive the Earth’s magnetic field. PMID:26811473

  2. Insights on compassion and patient-centred nursing in intensive care: A constructivist grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakimowicz, Samantha; Perry, Lin; Lewis, Joanne

    2018-04-01

    To explore patient-centred nursing, compassion satisfaction and compassion fatigue from intensive care nurses' perspectives. Compassion satisfaction and compassion fatigue can influence critical care nurses' decisions to either continue or leave the profession, and could impact the compassionate patient-centred nursing care patients receive during their ICU admission. This qualitative research design was informed by Charmaz's Grounded Theory Constructivist methodology. In-depth interviews were conducted with 21 critical care nurses of two ICUs in Australia during 2016. Interview data were analysed using grounded theory processes. Findings reflected positive and negative impacts on critical care nurses' ability to deal compassionately with their patients. Effects on patient-centred nursing and critical care nurses' own well-being were revealed. A core category of "Expectations" emerged, explaining the tension between critical care nurses' biomedical, clinical skills and knowledge versus compassionate, patient-centred nursing care. This tension was clarified and expanded in subcategories of "Life in the Balance," "Passion and Pressure," "Understanding and Advocacy" and "Tenacity and Fragility". Providing patient-centred nursing may enhance critical care nurses' experience of compassion satisfaction, in turn impacting delivery of compassionate patient-centred nursing to generate a virtuous circle. Critical care nurses who feel respected and supported by their management team and colleagues experience feelings of compassion satisfaction, leading to greater engagement and care towards their patient. Systematically addressing critical care nurses' needs to successfully balance biomedical with compassionate nursing care may lead to greater well-being in the critical care nursing workforce and improve patient experience of intensive care. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Burnout and compassion fatigue: prevalence and associations among Israeli burn clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haik, Josef; Brown, Stav; Liran, Alon; Visentin, Denis; Sokolov, Amit; Zilinsky, Isaac; Kornhaber, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Acute health care environments can be stressful settings with clinicians experiencing deleterious effects of burnout and compassion fatigue affecting their mental health. Subsequently, the quality of patient care and outcomes may be threatened if clinicians experience burnout or compassion fatigue. Therefore, the aim of this descriptive, cross-sectional study was to evaluate the prevalence of burnout and compassion fatigue among burn clinicians in Israel. Fifty-five clinicians from Burns, Plastics and Reconstruction Surgery and Intensive Care completed four validated surveys to assess burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory), depression (PRIME-MD), health-related quality of life (SF-8), and compassion fatigue (Professional Quality of Life version 5). Burn clinicians were compared with Plastics and Reconstruction Surgery and Intensive Care clinicians. This study identified a high prevalence of burnout (38.2%) among Intensive Care, Plastics and Reconstruction and Burns clinicians, with Burns clinicians having a greatly increased prevalence of burnout compared to Intensive Care clinicians (OR =24.3, P =0.017). Additional factors contributing to compassion fatigue were those without children ( P =0.016), divorced ( P =0.035), of a younger age ( P =0.019), and a registered nurse ( P =0.05). Burnout increased clinicians' risk of adverse professional and personal outcomes and correlated with less free time ( P work-home disputes ( P =0.05), increased depression ( P =0.001) and decreased career satisfaction ( P =0.01). Burnout was also associated with higher physical (mean difference =3.8, P <0.001) and lower mental (mean difference =-3.5, P <0.001) Quality of Life scores. Caring for burn survivors can lead to burnout, compassion fatigue, and vicarious trauma. Identifying strategies to abate these issues is essential to ensure improved clinicial environments and patient outcomes.

  4. The Mediating Role of Self-Compassion in the Relationship Between Anxiety and Procrastination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Salehzadeh Einabad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Procrastination is common among students. There are inconsistent evidence indicating the relationship between anxiety and procrastination. Similarly, underlying mechanisms of this relationship is not fully understood. One of these mechanisms may be self-compassion that may counteracts the negative effects of anxiety and procrastination. Hence, this research is aimed at investigating the mediating role of self-compassion in the relationship between anxiety and procrastination. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in Shahed University. Subjects were selected from different faculties through cluster sampling method. Since a minimum sample size of 200 is necessary for Structural Equation Models, we distributed 300 questionnaires, but 210 questionnaires were appropriate to analysis. Students were asked to answer to tests, including anxiety, self-compassion, and procrastination scale. Results Anxiety is correlated with procrastination and all subscales of self-compassion. Three components of self-compassion, including self-judgment (r = 0.305, P < 0.001, isolation (r = 0.225, P = 0.001, and over-identification (r = 0.288, P < 0.001 have significant correlation with procrastination. Results of calculation in AMOS showed self-judgment and over-identification explain the relationship between self-compassion and procrastination, and they are full mediators of the relationship between anxiety and procrastination (r = 0.236; P = 0.008; 95% CI (0.069, 0.453. Conclusions Results are consistent with the researches and theory. There are anxiety provoking factors among students correlated with the academic performance and getting accepted by peers, leading to self-judgment and over identification that are related to negative results such as procrastination.

  5. A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing the Attention Training Technique and Mindful Self-Compassion for Students With Symptoms of Depression and Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragni B. Haukaas

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The Attention Training Technique (ATT and Mindful Self-Compassion (MSC are two promising psychological interventions. ATT is a 12-min auditory exercise designed to strengthen attentional control and promote external focus of attention, while MSC uses guided meditation and exercises designed to promote self-compassion. In this randomized controlled trial (RCT, a three-session intervention trial was conducted in which university students were randomly assigned to either an ATT-group (n = 40 or a MSC-group (n = 41. The students were not assessed with diagnostic interviews but had self-reported symptoms of depression, anxiety, or stress. Participants listened to audiotapes of ATT or MSC before discussing in groups how to apply these principles for their everyday struggles. Participants also listened to audiotapes of ATT and MSC as homework between sessions. Participants in both groups showed significant reductions in symptoms of anxiety and depression accompanied by significant increases in mindfulness, self-compassion, and attention flexibility post-intervention. These results were maintained at 6-month follow-up. Improvement in attention flexibility was the only significant unique predictor of treatment response. The study supports the use of both ATT and MSC for students with symptoms of depression and anxiety. Further, it suggests that symptom improvement is related to changes in attention flexibility across both theoretical frameworks. Future studies should focus on how to strengthen the ability for attention flexibility to optimize treatment for emotional disorder.

  6. Meditation awareness training for the treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gordon, William; Shonin, Edo; Dunn, Thomas J; Garcia-Campayo, Javier; Griffiths, Mark D

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct the first randomized controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate the effectiveness of a second-generation mindfulness-based intervention (SG-MBI) for treating fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). Compared to first-generation mindfulness-based interventions, SG-MBIs are more acknowledging of the spiritual aspect of mindfulness. A RCT employing intent-to-treat analysis. Adults with FMS received an 8-week SG-MBI known as meditation awareness training (MAT; n = 74) or an active control intervention known as cognitive behaviour theory for groups (n = 74). Assessments were performed at pre-, post-, and 6-month follow-up phases. Meditation awareness training participants demonstrated significant and sustained improvements over control group participants in FMS symptomatology, pain perception, sleep quality, psychological distress, non-attachment (to self, symptoms, and environment), and civic engagement. A mediation analysis found that (1) civic engagement partially mediated treatment effects for all outcome variables, (2) non-attachment partially mediated treatment effects for psychological distress and sleep quality, and (3) non-attachment almost fully mediated treatment effects for FMS symptomatology and pain perception. Average daily time spent in meditation was found to be a significant predictor of changes in all outcome variables. Meditation awareness training may be a suitable treatment for adults with FMS and appears to ameliorate FMS symptomatology and pain perception by reducing attachment to self. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Designing interventions to treat fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) continues to be a challenge. There is growing interest into the applications of mindfulness-based interventions for treating FMS. Second-generation mindfulness-based interventions (SG-MBIs) are a key new direction in mindfulness research. What does this study add? Meditation awareness training - an SG-MBI - resulted

  7. Mindfulness Among Genetic Counselors Is Associated with Increased Empathy and Work Engagement and Decreased Burnout and Compassion Fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Julia; Caleshu, Colleen; Casson-Parkin, Sylvie; Ormond, Kelly

    2018-03-04

    Genetic counselors experience high rates of compassion fatigue and an elevated risk for burnout, both of which can negatively impact patient care and retention in the profession. In other healthcare professions, mindfulness training has been successfully used to address similar negative psychological sequelae and to bolster empathy, which is the foundation of our counseling work. We aimed to assess associations between mindfulness and key professional variables, including burnout, compassion fatigue, work engagement, and empathy. Data were collected via an anonymous, online survey that included validated measures of mindfulness and these key professional variables. The survey was completed by 441 genetic counselors involved in direct patient care. Half of the respondents (50.1%) reported engaging in yoga, meditation, and/or breathing exercises. Mindfulness was positively correlated with work engagement (r = 0.24, p counseling field will likely improve professional morale and well-being, while promoting workforce retention and bolstering the relational and counseling aspects of our clinical work.

  8. Schizotypy and mindfulness: Magical thinking without suspiciousness characterizes mindfulness meditators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Antonova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite growing evidence for demonstrated efficacy of mindfulness in various disorders, there is a continuous concern about the relationship between mindfulness practice and psychosis. As schizotypy is part of the psychosis spectrum, we examined the relationship between long-term mindfulness practice and schizotypy in two independent studies. Study 1 included 24 experienced mindfulness practitioners (19 males from the Buddhist tradition (meditators and 24 meditation-naïve individuals (all males. Study 2 consisted of 28 meditators and 28 meditation-naïve individuals (all males. All participants completed the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (Raine, 1991, a self-report scale containing 9 subscales (ideas of reference, excessive social anxiety, magical thinking, unusual perceptual experiences, odd/eccentric behavior, no close friends, odd speech, constricted affect, suspiciousness. Participants of study 2 also completed the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire which assesses observing (Observe, describing (Describe, acting with awareness (Awareness, non-judging of (Non-judgment and non-reactivity to inner experience (Non-reactivity facets of trait mindfulness. In both studies, meditators scored significantly lower on suspiciousness and higher on magical thinking compared to meditation-naïve individuals and showed a trend towards lower scores on excessive social anxiety. Excessive social anxiety correlated negatively with Awareness and Non-judgment; and suspiciousness with Awareness, Non-judgment and Non-reactivity facets across both groups. The two groups did not differ in their total schizotypy score. We conclude that mindfulness practice is not associated with an overall increase in schizotypal traits. Instead, the pattern suggests that mindfulness meditation, particularly with an emphasis on the Awareness, Non-judgment and Non-reactivity aspects, may help to reduce suspiciousness and excessive social anxiety.

  9. Subjective expansion of extended time-spans in experienced meditators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc eWittmann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Experienced meditators typically report that they experience time slowing down in meditation practise as well as in everyday life. Conceptually this phenomenon may be understood through functional states of mindfulness, i.e. by attention regulation, body awareness, emotion regulation, and enhanced memory. However, hardly any systematic empirical work exists regarding the experience of time in meditators. In the current cross-sectional study, we investigated whether 42 experienced mindfulness meditation practitioners (with on average 10 years of experience showed differences in the experience of time as compared to 42 controls without any meditation experience matched for age, sex and education. The perception of time was assessed with a battery of psychophysical tasks assessing the accuracy of prospective time judgments in duration discrimination, duration reproduction and time estimation in the milliseconds to minutes range as well with several psychometric instruments related to subjective time such as the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, the Barrett Impulsivity Scale and the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory. In addition, subjective time judgments on the current passage of time and retrospective time ranges were assessed. While subjective judgements of time were found to be significantly different between the two groups on several scales, no differences in duration estimates in the psychophysical tasks were detected. Regarding subjective time, mindfulness meditators experienced less time pressure, more time dilation, and a general slower passage of time. Moreover, they felt that the last week and the last month passed more slowly. Overall, although no intergroup differences in psychophysical tasks were detected, the reported findings demonstrate a close association between mindfulness meditation and the subjective feeling of the passage of time captured by psychometric instruments.

  10. New measurements of transverse spin asymmetries at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Sozzi, F

    2012-01-01

    The study of transverse momentum effects and transverse spin structure of the nucleon is an important part of the scientific program of COMPASS, a fixed target experiment at the CERN SPS. The transverse effects are investigated via semi inclusive DIS reactions with a 160 GeV /c muon beam impinging on transversely polarised targets. The hadrons produced in the reactions are detected in a wide momentum and angular range by a two-stage spectrometer. A deuterium target has been used in the first part of COMPASS data taking from 2002 to 2004, while a proton target has been used in 2007 and 2010. Here we present the recent results obtained from the 2010 data on different channels, involving the azimuthal distribution of single hadrons and the azimuthal dependence of the plane cont aining hadron pairs. The results confirm the published results of the 2007 data taking with an improved statistical significance; the measured azimuthal asymmetries are clearly non zero, at variance with those measured on a deuterium targ...

  11. Mind-Body Practices and the Self: Yoga and Meditation Do Not Quiet the Ego but Instead Boost Self-Enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebauer, Jochen E; Nehrlich, Andreas D; Stahlberg, Dagmar; Sedikides, Constantine; Hackenschmidt, Anke; Schick, Doreen; Stegmaier, Clara A; Windfelder, Cara C; Bruk, Anna; Mander, Johannes

    2018-06-01

    Mind-body practices enjoy immense public and scientific interest. Yoga and meditation are highly popular. Purportedly, they foster well-being by curtailing self-enhancement bias. However, this "ego-quieting" effect contradicts an apparent psychological universal, the self-centrality principle. According to this principle, practicing any skill renders that skill self-central, and self-centrality breeds self-enhancement bias. We examined those opposing predictions in the first tests of mind-body practices' self-enhancement effects. In Experiment 1, we followed 93 yoga students over 15 weeks, assessing self-centrality and self-enhancement bias after yoga practice (yoga condition, n = 246) and without practice (control condition, n = 231). In Experiment 2, we followed 162 meditators over 4 weeks (meditation condition: n = 246; control condition: n = 245). Self-enhancement bias was higher in the yoga (Experiment 1) and meditation (Experiment 2) conditions, and those effects were mediated by greater self-centrality. Additionally, greater self-enhancement bias mediated mind-body practices' well-being benefits. Evidently, neither yoga nor meditation fully quiet the ego; to the contrary, they boost self-enhancement.

  12. Meditation-induced cognitive-control states regulate response-conflict adaptation: Evidence from trial-to-trial adjustments in the Simon task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colzato, Lorenza S; Sellaro, Roberta; Samara, Iliana; Hommel, Bernhard

    2015-09-01

    Here we consider the possibility that meditation has an immediate impact on information processing. Moreover, we were interested to see whether this impact affects attentional input control, as previous observations suggest, or the handling of response conflict. Healthy adults underwent a brief single session of either focused attention meditation (FAM), which is assumed to increase top-down control, or open monitoring meditation (OMM), which is assumed to weaken top-down control, before performing a Simon task-which assesses conflict-resolution efficiency. While the size of the Simon effect (reflecting the efficiency of handling response conflict) was unaffected by type of meditation, the amount of dynamic behavioral adjustments (i.e., trial-to-trial variability of the Simon effect: the Gratton effect) was considerably smaller after OMM than after FAM. Our findings suggest that engaging in meditation instantly creates a cognitive-control state that has a specific impact on conflict-driven control adaptations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Stomaching rejection: Self-compassion and self-esteem moderate the impact of daily social rejection on restrictive eating behaviours among college women.<