WorldWideScience

Sample records for comparing spray characteristics

  1. 14 CFR 29.239 - Spray characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spray characteristics. 29.239 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Ground and Water Handling Characteristics § 29.239 Spray characteristics. If certification for water operation is requested, no spray characteristics...

  2. 14 CFR 27.239 - Spray characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spray characteristics. 27.239 Section 27... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Ground and Water Handling Characteristics § 27.239 Spray characteristics. If certification for water operation is requested, no spray characteristics...

  3. 14 CFR 23.239 - Spray characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spray characteristics. 23.239 Section 23.239 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Handling Characteristics § 23.239 Spray characteristics. Spray may not dangerously obscure the vision of...

  4. Comparative characteristic and erosion behavior of NiCr coatings deposited by various high-velocity oxyfuel spray processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Hazoor Singh; Sidhu, Buta Singh; Prakash, S.

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze and compare the mechanical properties and microstructure details at the interface of high-velocity oxyfuel (HVOF)-sprayed NiCr-coated boiler tube steels, namely ASTM-SA-210 grade A1, ASTM-SA213-T-11, and ASTM-SA213-T-22. Coatings were developed by two different techniques, and in these techniques liquefied petroleum gas was used as the fuel gas. First, the coatings were characterized by metallographic, scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive x-ray analysis, x-ray diffraction, surface roughness, and microhardness, and then were subjected to erosion testing. An attempt has been made to describe the transformations taking place during thermal spraying. It is concluded that the HVOF wire spraying process offers a technically viable and cost-effective alternative to HVOF powder spraying process for applications in an energy generation power plant with a point view of life enhancement and to minimize the tube failures because it gives a coating having better resistance to erosion.

  5. Experimental investigation of spray characteristics of alternative aviation fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannaiyan, Kumaran; Sadr, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Physical properties of GTL fuel are different from those of conventional jet fuels. • Spray characteristics of GTL and Jet A-1 fuels are experimentally investigated using phase Doppler anemometry. • Regions near the nozzle are influenced by differences in fuel physical properties. • Spray characteristics of GTL can be predicted by empirical relations developed for conventional jet fuels. - Abstract: Synthetic fuels derived from non-oil feedstock are gaining importance due to their cleaner combustion characteristics. This work investigates spray characteristics of two Gas-to-Liquid (GTL) synthetic jet fuels from a pilot-scale pressure swirl nozzle and compares them with those of the conventional Jet A-1 fuel. The microscopic spray parameters are measured at 0.3 and 0.9 MPa injection pressures at several points in the spray using phase Doppler anemometry. The results show that the effect of fuel physical properties on the spray characteristics is predominantly evident in the regions close to the nozzle exit at the higher injection pressure. The lower viscosity and surface tension of GTL fuel seems to lead to faster disintegration and dispersion of the droplets when compared to those of Jet A-1 fuel under atmospheric conditions. Although the global characteristics of the fuels are similar, the effects of fuel properties are evident on the local spray characteristics at the higher injection pressure

  6. Spray Behavior and Atomization Characteristics of Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung-Hun; Oh, Young-Taig

    Biodiesel has large amount of oxygen in itself, which make it very efficient in reducing exhaust emission by improving combustion inside an engine. But biodiesel has a low temperature flow problem because it has a high viscosity. In this study, the spray behavior and atomization characteristics were investigated to confirm of some effect for the combination of non-esterification biodiesel and fuel additive WDP and IPA. The process of spray was visualized through the visualization system composed of a halogen lamp and high speed camera, and atomization characteristics were investigated through LDPA. When blending WDP and IPA with biodiesel, atomization and spray characteristics were improved. Through this experimental result, SMD of blended fuel, WDP 25% and biodiesel 75%, was 33.9% reduced at distance 6cm from a nozzle tip under injection pressure 30MPa.

  7. Comparison of the Characteristics and Performance of Flurbiprofen 8.75 mg Spray for Sore Throat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, David; Shephard, Adrian; Adams, Verity; Lidster, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Sore throat sprays provide targeted relief by delivering the active ingredient directly to the site of pain. Different sprays vary in characteristics, thus affecting delivery of the active ingredient to the throat, which can impact compliance. The characteristics and performance of FLURBIPROFEN 8.75 mg SPRAY were compared with 12 other sprays. Parameters assessed included spray angle and pattern, droplet size distribution, shot weight uniformity and shot weight throughout life. Among all sprays tested WICK Sulagil Halsspray had the smallest spray angle (46°) and also the smallest diameter spray pattern (X=32.8 mm; Y=34.4 mm). Thiovalone® Buccal Spray Suspension had both the largest spray angle (82°) and largest diameter spray pattern (X=62.6 mm; Y=78.0 mm). Hasco Sept® Aerosol Spray had the smallest droplet size (Dv90=118.4 μm) whereas OKi infiammazione e dolore® 0.16% spray had the largest (Dv90=214.34 μm). In terms of shot weight uniformity, TANTUM® VERDE GOLA 0.25% spray showed the least variation (2% RSD) between shots and UNIBEN Aerosol Spray the most (23.4% RSD). Shot weight throughout life studies showed that FLURBIPROFEN 8.75 mg SPRAY had the least deviation from shot weight (1.77%) whereas OKi infiammazione e dolore® 0.16% spray deviated the most (44.9%). FLURBIPROFEN 8.75 mg SPRAY had the second smallest spray angle/pattern and droplet size distribution and also the least variation in shot weight. Different sore throat sprays vary in different attributes, affecting delivery of the active ingredient. FLURBIPROFEN 8.75 mg SPRAY performed well overall, ranking first among all sprays tested, and providing a dose which is targeted and uniformly delivered throughout the life of the bottle. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. A study on the macroscopic spray behavior and atomization characteristics of biodiesel and dimethyl ether sprays under increased ambient pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyung Jun; Park, Su Han [Graduate School of Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seoungdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea); Lee, Chang Sik [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea)

    2010-03-15

    The aim of this work is to investigate the spray behaviors of biodiesel and dimethyl ether (DME) fuels using image processing and atomization performance analysis of the two fuel sprays injected through a common-rail injection system under various ambient pressure conditions in a high pressure chamber. In order to observe the biodiesel and DME fuel spray behaviors under various ambient pressures, the spray images were analyzed at various times after the start of energization using a visualization system consisting of a high speed camera and two metal halide light sources. In addition, a high pressure chamber that can withstand a pressure of 4 MPa was used for adjusting the ambient pressure. From the spray images, spray characteristics such as the spray tip penetration, cone angle, area, and contour plot at various light intensity levels were analyzed using image conversion processing. Also, the local Sauter mean diameters (SMD) were measured at various axial/radial distances from the nozzle tip by a droplet measuring system to compare the atomization performances of the biodiesel and DME sprays. The results showed that the ambient pressure had a significant effect on the spray characteristics of the fuels at the various experimental conditions. The spray tip penetration and spray area decreased as the ambient pressure increased. The contour plot of the biodiesel and DME sprays showed a high light intensity level in the center regions of the sprays. In addition, it was revealed that the atomization performance of the biodiesel spray was inferior to that of the DME spray at the same injection and ambient conditions. (author)

  9. Experimental study of spray characteristics of biodiesel derived from waste cooking oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, Balaji; Yang, Wenming; Tay, Kun Lin; Yu, Wenbin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • B20 and diesel exhibit similar spray tip penetration and angle. • Change in orientation of spray shapes observed with different fuels. • B100 shows poor air fuel mixing compared to B20 and diesel. • Diesel shows higher equivalence ratio compared to B20 and B100. - Abstract: In this study, the fuel spray characteristics and air-fuel mixing process of waste cooking oil biodiesel (B100) and its blend with diesel (B20) were investigated and compared with diesel fuel. Spray characteristics such as spray tip penetration, spray angle, spray velocity and spray morphology were investigated under high injection and ambient pressure conditions using a constant volume spray chamber. The air-fuel mixing process was analysed using empirical relations like fuel volume, mass of air entrained within the spray and equivalence ratio. The results shows that B100 has higher spray tip penetration and velocity but narrow spray angles due to high viscosity and large momentum possessed by B100 compared to B20 and diesel fuels. The deviation in spray tip penetration reduces under high ambient pressure. The spray angle shows no change under various injection pressures; however it increases significantly under high ambient pressure. The spray shape is affected by the cavitation inside the injector nozzle holes. The fuel volume and amount of air entrainment within the spray showed that B100 exhibits poor air-fuel mixing compared to B20 and diesel fuels. Nevertheless, the equivalence ratio along the axial direction of spray reveals that the B100 has lean equivalence ratio compared to B20 and diesel fuel due to the presence of inherent oxygen content in its structure. A numerical simulation was conducted using new hybrid spray model implemented in KIVA4 and found that the results obtained from the simulation were in good agreement with the empirical results calculated from the experiments

  10. Some Material Characteristics of Cold-Sprayed Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor K. Champagne

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The deposition and consolidation of metal powders by means of cold spray are methods whereby powder particles are accelerated to high velocity through entrainment in a gas undergoing expansion in a rocket nozzle and are subsequently impacted upon a surface. The impacted powder particles form a consolidated structure which can be several centimeters thick. The characteristics of this structure depend on the initial characteristics of the metal powder and upon impact velocity. The influence of impact velocity on strain hardening and porosity are examined. A materials model is proposed for these phenomena, and model calculation is compared with experiment for the cold spraying of aluminum.

  11. Antibacterial characteristics of thermal plasma spray system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudarzi, M; Saviz, Sh; Ghoranneviss, M; Salar Elahi, A

    2018-03-15

    The objective of this study is to investigate antibacterial characteristics of a thermal plasma spray system. For this purpose, copper powder was coated on a handmade atmospheric plasma spraying system made by the stainless steel 316 substrate, which is preheated at different temperatures before spraying. A number of deposition characteristics such as antibacterial characteristics, adhesion strength and hardness of coating, was investigated. All of the spray parameters are fixed except the substrate temperature. The chemical composition was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). A scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and back scattering electron microscopy (BSE) were used to show the coating microstructure, its thickness and also the powder micrograph. The energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) was used to analyze the coating particles. Hardness of the deposition was examined by Vickers tester (HV0.1). Its adhesion strength was declared by cross cut tester (TQC). In addition, the percentage of bactericidal coating was evidenced with Staphylococcus aurous and Escherichia coli bacteria. Study results show that as the substrates temperature increases, the number of splats in the shape of pancake increases, the greatness and percentage of the deposition porosity both decrease. The increment of the substrate temperature leads to more oxidation and makes thicker dendrites on the splat. The enhancement of the substrate temperature also enlarges thickness and efficiency of coating. The interesting results are that antibacterial properties of coatings against the Escherichia coli are more than Staphylococcus aurous bacteria. However the bactericidal percentage of the coatings against Staphylococcus aurous and Escherichia coli bacteria roughly does not change with increasing the substrate temperature. Furthermore, by increment of the substrate temperature, coatings with both high adhesion and hardness are obtained. Accordingly, the temperature of substrate can be an

  12. Comparing Spray Characteristics from Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) National Combustion Code (NCC) Calculations Against Experimental Data for a Turbulent Reacting Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannetti, Anthony C.; Moder, Jeffery P.

    2010-01-01

    Developing physics-based tools to aid in reducing harmful combustion emissions, like Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Carbon Monoxide (CO), Unburnt Hydrocarbons (UHC s), and Sulfur Dioxides (SOx), is an important goal of aeronautics research at NASA. As part of that effort, NASA Glenn Research Center is performing a detailed assessment and validation of an in-house combustion CFD code known as the National Combustion Code (NCC) for turbulent reacting flows. To assess the current capabilities of NCC for simulating turbulent reacting flows with liquid jet fuel injection, a set of Single Swirler Lean Direct Injection (LDI) experiments performed at the University of Cincinnati was chosen as an initial validation data set. This Jet-A/air combustion experiment operates at a lean equivalence ratio of 0.75 at atmospheric pressure and has a 4 percent static pressure drop across the swirler. Detailed comparisons of NCC predictions for gas temperature and gaseous emissions (CO and NOx) against this experiment are considered in a previous work. The current paper is focused on detailed comparisons of the spray characteristics (radial profiles of drop size distribution and at several radial rakes) from NCC simulations against the experimental data. Comparisons against experimental data show that the use of the correlation for primary spray break-up implemented by Raju in the NCC produces most realistic results, but this result needs to be improved. Given the single or ten step chemical kinetics models, use of a spray size correlation gives similar, acceptable results

  13. An Experimental Study on the Macroscopic Spray Characteristics of Biodiesel and Diesel in a Constant Volume Chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhan Xie

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the macroscopic spray characteristics of different 0%–100% blends of biodiesel derived from drainage oil and diesel (BD0, BD20, BD50, BD80, BD100, such as spray tip penetration, average tip velocity at penetration, spray angle, average spray angle, spray evolution process, spray area and spray volume under different injection pressures (60, 70, 80, 90, 100 MPa and ambient pressures (0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9 MPa using a common rail system equipped with a constant volume chamber. The characteristic data was extracted from spray images grabbed by a high speed visualization system. The results showed that the ambient pressure and injection pressure had significant effects on the spray characteristics. As the ambient pressure increased, the spray angle increased, while the spray tip penetration and the peak of average tip velocity decreased. As the injection pressure increased, the spray tip penetration, spray angle, spray area and spray volume increased. The increasing blend ratio of biodiesel brought about a shorter spray tip penetration and a smaller spray angle compared with those of diesel. This is due to the comparatively higher viscosity and surface tension of biodiesel, which enhanced the friction effect between fuel and the injector nozzle surface and inhibited the breakup of the liquid jet.

  14. Experimental and analytical study on biodiesel and diesel spray characteristics under ultra-high injection pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiangang; Huang Zuohua; Kuti, Olawole Abiola; Zhang Wu; Nishida, Keiya

    2010-01-01

    Spray characteristics of biodiesels (from palm and cooked oil) and diesel under ultra-high injection pressures up to 300 MPa were studied experimentally and analytically. Injection delay, spray penetration, spray angle, spray projected area and spray volume were measured in a spray vessel using a high speed video camera. Air entrainment and atomization characteristics were analyzed with the quasi-steady jet theory and an atomization model respectively. The study shows that biodiesels give longer injection delay and spray tip penetration. Spray angle, projected area and volume of biodiesels are smaller than those of diesel fuel. The approximately linear relationship of non-dimensional spray tip penetration versus time suggests that the behavior of biodiesel and diesel sprays is similar to that of gaseous turbulent jets. Calculation from the quasi-steady jet theory shows that the air entrainment of palm oil is worse than that of diesel, while the cooked oil and diesel present comparable air entrainment characteristics. The estimation on spray droplet size shows that biodiesels generate larger Sauter mean diameter due to higher viscosity and surface tension.

  15. Spray characteristics and spray cooling heat transfer in the non-boiling regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Wen-Long; Han, Feng-Yun; Liu, Qi-Nie; Fan, Han-Lin

    2011-01-01

    Spray cooling is an effective method for dissipating high heat fluxes in the field of electronics thermal control. In this study, experiments were performed with distilled water as a test liquid to study the spray cooling heat transfer in non-boiling regime. A Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) was used to study the spray characteristics. The effects of spray flow rate, spray height, and inlet temperature on spray cooling heat transfer were investigated. It was found that the parameters affect heat transfer of spray cooling in non-boiling regime by the spray characteristics and working fluid thermophysical properties. Then the corresponding droplet axial velocity and Sauter mean diameter (SMD) were successfully correlated with mean absolute error of 15%, which were based upon the orifice diameter, the Weber and Reynolds numbers of the orifice flow prior to liquid breakup, dimensionless spray height and spray cross-section radius. The heat transfer in non-boiling regime was correlated with a mean absolute error of 7%, which was mainly associated with the working fluid thermophysical properties, the Weber and Reynolds numbers hitting the heating surface, dimensionless heating surface temperature and diameter. -- Highlights: → The spray flow rate, spray height, and inlet temperature affect heat transfer of spray cooling in non-boiling regime by the spray characteristics and the working fluid thermophysical properties. → Then the corresponding droplet axial velocity and Sauer mean diameter (SMD) were successfully correlated with mean absolute error of 15%. → The heat transfer in non-boiling regime was correlated with a mean absolute error of 7%.

  16. Quality characteristic of spray-drying egg white powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shuang; Zhao, Songning; Zhang, Yan; Yu, Yiding; Liu, Jingbo; Xu, Menglei

    2013-10-01

    Spray drying is a useful method for developing egg process and utilization. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects on spray drying condition of egg white. The optimized conditions were spraying flow 22 mL/min, feeding temperature 39.8 °C and inlet-air temperature 178.2 °C. Results of sulfydryl (SH) groups measurement indicated conformation structure have changed resulting in protein molecule occur S-S crosslinking phenomenon when heating. It led to free SH content decreased during spray drying process. There was almost no change of differential scanning calorimetry between fresh egg white and spray-drying egg white powder (EWP). For a given protein, the apparent SH reactivity is in turn influenced by the physico-chemical characteristics of the reactant. The phenomenon illustrated the thermal denaturation of these proteins was unrelated to their free SH contents. Color measurement was used to study browning level. EWP in optimized conditions revealed insignificant brown stain. Swelling capacity and scanning electron micrograph both proved well quality characteristic of spray-drying EWP. Results suggested spray drying under the optimized conditions present suitable and alternative method for egg processing industrial implementation. Egg food industrialization needs new drying method to extend shelf-life. The purpose of the study was to provide optimal process of healthy and nutritional instant spray-drying EWP and study quality characteristic of spray-drying EWP.

  17. Study on Spray Characteristics and Spray Droplets Dynamic Behavior of Diesel Engine Fueled by Rapeseed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapit Azwan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fuel-air mixing is important process in diesel combustion. It directly affects the combustion and emission of diesel engine. Biomass fuel needs great help to atomize because the fuel has high viscosity and high distillation temperature. This study investigates the atomization characteristics and droplet dynamic behaviors of diesel engine spray fueled by rapeseed oil (RO. Optical observation of RO spray was carried out using shadowgraph photography technique. Single nano-spark photography technique was used to study the characteristics of the rapeseed oil spray while dual nano-spark shadowgraph technique was used to study the spray droplet behavior. The results show that RO has very poor atomization due to the high viscosity nature of the fuel. This is in agreement with the results from spray droplet dynamic behavior studies that shows due to the high viscosity, the droplets are large in size and travel downward, with very little influence of entrainment effect due to its large kinematic energy.

  18. MODELING OF FUEL SPRAY CHARACTERISTICS AND DIESEL COMBUSTION CHAMBER PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Kukharonak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The computer model for coordination of fuel spray characteristics with diesel combustion chamber parameters has been created in the paper.  The model allows to observe fuel sprays  develоpment in diesel cylinder at any moment of injection, to calculate characteristics of fuel sprays with due account of a shape and dimensions of a combustion chamber, timely to change fuel injection characteristics and supercharging parameters, shape and dimensions of a combustion chamber. Moreover the computer model permits to determine parameters of holes in an injector nozzle that provides the required fuel sprays characteristics at the stage of designing a diesel engine. Combustion chamber parameters for 4ЧН11/12.5 diesel engine have been determined in the paper.

  19. In-nozzle flow and spray characteristics for mineral diesel, Karanja, and Jatropha biodiesels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Avinash Kumar; Som, Sibendu; Shukla, Pravesh Chandra; Goyal, Harsh; Longman, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • In-nozzle flow characterization for biodiesel sprays. • Comparison of experimental spray parameters and nozzle hole simulations. • Effect of Karanja and Jatropha biodiesel on in-nozzle cavitation. • Cavitation formation investigation with diesel and biodiesels. • Nozzle hole outlet fuel velocity profile determination for test fuels. - Abstract: Superior spray behavior of fuels in internal combustion engines lead to improved combustion and emission characteristics therefore it is necessary to investigate fuel spray behavior of new alternative fuels. This study discusses the evolution of the in-nozzle orifice parameters of a numerical simulation and the evolution of spray parameters of fuel spray in a constant-volume spray chamber during an experiment. This study compares mineral diesel, biodiesels (Karanja-and Jatropha-based), and their blends with mineral diesel. The results show that mineral diesel provides superior atomization and evaporation behavior compared to the biodiesel test fuels. Karanja biodiesel provides superior atomization and evaporation characteristics compared to Jatropha biodiesel. The qualitative comparison of simulation and experimental results in tandem shows that nozzle-hole design is a critical parameter for obtaining optimum spray behavior in the engine combustion chamber

  20. Breakup and coalescence characteristics of a hollow cone swirling spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Abhishek; Lee, Joshua D.; Basu, Saptarshi; Kumar, Ranganathan

    2012-12-01

    This paper deals with an experimental study of the breakup characteristics of water emanating from hollow cone hydraulic injector nozzles induced by pressure-swirling. The experiments were conducted using two nozzles with different orifice diameters 0.3 mm and 0.5 mm and injection pressures (0.3-4 MPa) which correspond to Rep = 7000-26 000. Two types of laser diagnostic techniques were utilized: shadowgraph and phase Doppler particle anemometry for a complete study of the atomization process. Measurements that were made in the spray in both axial and radial directions indicate that both velocity and average droplet diameter profiles are highly dependent on the nozzle characteristics, Weber number and Reynolds number. The spatial variation of diameter and velocity arises principally due to primary breakup of liquid films and subsequent secondary breakup of large droplets due to aerodynamic shear. Downstream of the nozzle, coalescence of droplets due to collision was also found to be significant. Different types of liquid film breakup were considered and found to match well with the theory. Secondary breakup due to shear was also studied theoretically and compared to the experimental data. Coalescence probability at different axial and radial locations was computed to explain the experimental results. The spray is subdivided into three zones: near the nozzle, a zone consisting of film and ligament regime, where primary breakup and some secondary breakup take place; a second zone where the secondary breakup process continues, but weakens, and the centrifugal dispersion becomes dominant; and a third zone away from the spray where coalescence is dominant. Each regime has been analyzed in detail, characterized by timescale and Weber number and validated using experimental data.

  1. Characteristics of wetting temperature during spray cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsutake, Yuichi; Monde, Masanori; Hidaka, Shinichirou

    2006-01-01

    An experimental study has been done to elucidate the effects of mass flux and subcooling of liquid and thermal properties of solid on the wetting temperature during cooling of a hot block with spray. A water spray was impinged at one of the end surfaces of a cylindrical block initially heated at 400 or 500degC. The experimental condition was mass fluxes G=1-9 kg/m 2 s and degrees of subcooling ΔT sub =20, 50, 80 K. Three blocks of copper, brass and carbon steel were prepared. During spray cooling internal block temperature distribution and sputtering sound pressure level were recorded and the surface temperature and heat flux were evaluated with 2D inverse heat conducting analysis. Cooling process on cooling curves is divided into four regimes categorized by change in a flow situation and the sound level. The wetting temperature defined as the wall temperature at a minimum heat flux point was measured over an extensive experimental range. The wetting wall temperature was correlated well with the parameter of GΔT sub . The wetting wall temperature increases as GΔT sub increases and reaches a constant value depending on the material of the surface at higher region of GΔT sub . (author)

  2. Characteristics of droplet motion in effervescent sprays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jedelský Jan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Time resolved droplet size and velocity measurement was made using Phase-Doppler anemometry in an effervescent spray at GLR of 6 % and operation pressure drops 21 – 52 kPa. The spray shows a size dependent variation of mean as well as fluctuating axial and radial velocities of droplets similarly for all operation regimes. Particles under 13 μm follow the gas flow, axially decelerated due to gas expansion. Velocity of medium sized particles is positively size correlated and larger particles keep high velocity, given them during discharge. Fluctuating radial velocity of small particles is larger than that of large particles while fluctuating axial velocity increases with size. Small particles thus reach a ratio of radial to axial velocity fluctuations ~ 0.6 but large particles only ~ 0.1, which indicates large transverse dispersion of small particles. Overall fluctuating velocity ratios smaller than 0.5 document an anisotropic character of the liquid mass fluctuations. Power spectral density (PSD of axial velocity fluctuations of large droplets is uniform up to 1 kHz, while PSD of smaller particles drops down with frequency for frequencies > 100 Hz. Large particles thus preserve the fluctuations imposed during discharge while the gas turbulence drops with frequency. Turbulence intensity reaches 14 to 21 % depending on pressure. Such high-turbulence character of the flow probably results from a heterogeneous gas–liquid mixture at the discharge.

  3. Characteristics of droplet motion in effervescent sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedelský, Jan; Zaremba, Matouš; Malý, Milan; Jícha, Miroslav

    2014-03-01

    Time resolved droplet size and velocity measurement was made using Phase-Doppler anemometry in an effervescent spray at GLR of 6 % and operation pressure drops 21 - 52 kPa. The spray shows a size dependent variation of mean as well as fluctuating axial and radial velocities of droplets similarly for all operation regimes. Particles under 13 μm follow the gas flow, axially decelerated due to gas expansion. Velocity of medium sized particles is positively size correlated and larger particles keep high velocity, given them during discharge. Fluctuating radial velocity of small particles is larger than that of large particles while fluctuating axial velocity increases with size. Small particles thus reach a ratio of radial to axial velocity fluctuations ~ 0.6 but large particles only ~ 0.1, which indicates large transverse dispersion of small particles. Overall fluctuating velocity ratios smaller than 0.5 document an anisotropic character of the liquid mass fluctuations. Power spectral density (PSD) of axial velocity fluctuations of large droplets is uniform up to 1 kHz, while PSD of smaller particles drops down with frequency for frequencies > 100 Hz. Large particles thus preserve the fluctuations imposed during discharge while the gas turbulence drops with frequency. Turbulence intensity reaches 14 to 21 % depending on pressure. Such high-turbulence character of the flow probably results from a heterogeneous gas-liquid mixture at the discharge.

  4. Cold Spray Deposition of Freestanding Inconel Samples and Comparative Analysis with Selective Laser Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagherifard, Sara; Roscioli, Gianluca; Zuccoli, Maria Vittoria; Hadi, Mehdi; D'Elia, Gaetano; Demir, Ali Gökhan; Previtali, Barbara; Kondás, Ján; Guagliano, Mario

    2017-10-01

    Cold spray offers the possibility of obtaining almost zero-porosity buildups with no theoretical limit to the thickness. Moreover, cold spray can eliminate particle melting, evaporation, crystallization, grain growth, unwanted oxidation, undesirable phases and thermally induced tensile residual stresses. Such characteristics can boost its potential to be used as an additive manufacturing technique. Indeed, deposition via cold spray is recently finding its path toward fabrication of freeform components since it can address the common challenges of powder-bed additive manufacturing techniques including major size constraints, deposition rate limitations and high process temperature. Herein, we prepared nickel-based superalloy Inconel 718 samples with cold spray technique and compared them with similar samples fabricated by selective laser melting method. The samples fabricated using both methods were characterized in terms of mechanical strength, microstructural and porosity characteristics, Vickers microhardness and residual stresses distribution. Different heat treatment cycles were applied to the cold-sprayed samples in order to enhance their mechanical characteristics. The obtained data confirm that cold spray technique can be used as a complementary additive manufacturing method for fabrication of high-quality freestanding components where higher deposition rate, larger final size and lower fabrication temperatures are desired.

  5. Experimental Study on Diesel Spray Characteristics and Autoignition Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Oğuz Taşkiran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study is to get the temporal and spatial spray evolution under diesel-like conditions and to investigate autoignition process of sprays which are injected from different nozzle geometries. A constant volume combustion chamber was manufactured and heated internally up to 825 K at 3.5 MPa for experiments. Macroscopic properties of diesel spray were recorded via a high-speed CCD camera by using shadowgraphy technique, and the images were analyzed by using a digital image processing program. To investigate the influence of nozzle geometry, 4 different types of divergent, straight, straight-rounded, convergent-rounded nozzles, were manufactured and used in both spray evolution and autoignition experiments. The internal geometry of the injector nozzles were obtained by using silicone mold method. The macroscopic properties of the nozzles are presented in the study. Ignition behaviour of different nozzle types was observed in terms of ignition delay time and ignition location. A commercial Diesel fuel, n-heptane, and a mixture of hexadecane-heptamethylnonane (CN65—cetane number 65 were used as fuels at ignition experiments. The similar macroscopic properties of different nozzles were searched for observing ignition time and ignition location differences. Though spray and ignition characteristics revealed very similar results, the dissimilarities are presented in the study.

  6. The characteristic of spray using diesel water emulsified fuel in a diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sangki; Woo, Seungchul; Kim, Hyungik; Lee, Kihyung

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Water in oil emulsion is produced using ceramic membrane. • Surfactant type affect stability performance and droplet size distribution. • Evaporation characteristic of DE is poor compared with neat diesel. • Coefficient of variation maintains below 2.0% both DE and neat diesel. - Abstract: In this study, it was applied to the diesel–water emulsified (DE) fuel that carried out the experiment for the characteristic of sprat using diesel water emulsified fuel in a diesel engine, and the possibility of its application to conventional diesel engines was evaluated from the fundamental characteristics of diesel–water emulsified fuel. According to the results of the spray characteristics such as spray penetration and spray distribution were measured in the experiment, and then analyzed through digital image processing. The DEs were applied to actual diesel engines and their combustion, emission, and fuel consumption characteristics were compared with those of diesel. The results showed that the experiments were confirmed as the spray atomization characteristics at the various emulsified fuels.

  7. Experimental study on spray characteristics of alternate jet fuels using Phase Doppler Anemometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannaiyan, Kumaran; Sadr, Reza

    2013-11-01

    Gas-to-Liquid (GTL) fuels have gained global attention due to their cleaner combustion characteristics. The chemical and physical properties of GTL jet fuels are different from conventional jet fuels owing to the difference in their production methodology. It is important to study the spray characteristics of GTL jet fuels as the change of physical properties can affect atomization, mixing, evaporation and combustion process, ultimately affecting emission process. In this work, spray characteristics of two GTL synthetic jet fuels are studied using a pressure-swirl nozzle at different injection pressures and atmospheric ambient condition. Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) measurements of droplet size and velocity are compared with those of regular Jet A-1 fuel at several axial and radial locations downstream of the nozzle exit. Experimental results show that although the GTL fuels have different physical properties such as viscosity, density, and surface tension, among each other the resultant change in the spray characteristics is insignificant. Furthermore, the presented results show that GTL fuel spray characteristics exhibit close similarity to those of Jet A-1 fuel. Funded by Qatar Science and Technology Park.

  8. Effects of self-pulsation on the spray characteristics of gas-liquid swirl coaxial injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Zhongtao; Li, Qinglian; Cheng, Peng; Zhang, Xinqiao; Wang, Zhen-guo

    2016-10-01

    To understand the influence of self-pulsation on the spray characteristics of gas-liquid swirl coaxial injector, a back-lighting photography technique has been employed to capture the instantaneous self-pulsated spray and stable spray images with a high speed camera. The diameter and velocity of the droplets in the spray have been characterized with a Dantec Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) system. The effects of self-pulsation on the spray pattern, primary breakup, spray angle, diameter and velocity distribution and mass flow rate distribution are analyzed and discussed. The results show that the spray morphology is greatly influenced by self-pulsation. The stable spray has a cone shape, while the self-pulsated spray looks like a Christmas tree. The main difference of these two sprays is the primary breakup. The liquid film of stable spray keeps stable while that of self-pulsated spray oscillates periodically. The film width of self-pulsated spray varies in a large range with 'neck' and 'shoulder' features existing. The liquid film of self-pulsated spray breaks up at the second neck, and then the second shoulder begins to breakup into ligaments. The self-pulsated spray produces droplet clusters periodically, varies horizontal spray width and mass flux periodically. From the point of spatial distribution, self-pulsation is good for the spray, it uniformizes the mass flux along radius and increases the spray angle. However, when self-pulsation occurs, the SMD distribution varies from an inverted V shape to a hollow cone shape, and SMD increases at all the measuring points. Namely, from the point of atomization performance, self-pulsation has negative effects even when the breakup length is smaller. The effects of self-pulsation on the diameter and velocity distributions of the spray are mainly in the center part of the spray. The periphery of stable and self-pulsated spray has similar diameter and velocity distribution.

  9. Characteristics of combustion flame sprayed nickel aluminum using a Coanda Assisted Spray Manipulation collar for off-normal deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, Reid S.

    A novel flame spray collar called the Coanda Assisted Spray Manipulation collar (CSM) has been tested for use on the Sulzer Metco 5P II combustion flame spray gun. A comparison study of the stock nozzle and the CSM has been performed by evaluating the porosity, surface roughness, microhardness, tensile strength and microscopy of normal and off-normal sprayed NiAl deposits. The use of the CSM collar resulted in the need to position the sprayed coupons closer to the gun, which in turn affected the particle impact energy and particle temperatures of the NiAl powder. For the CSM, porosities had a larger scatterband, surface roughness was comparably the same, microhardness was lower, and tensile strength was higher. The microscopy analysis revealed a greater presence of unmelted particles and steeper intersplat boundaries for the CSM. For both processes, the porosity and surface roughness increased and the microhardness decreased as the spray angle decreased.

  10. A Numerical Study of Spray Characteristics in Medium Speed Engine Fueled by Different HFO/n-Butanol Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashem Nowruzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, nonreacting and nonevaporating spray characteristics of heavy fuel oil (HFO/n-butanol blends are numerically investigated under two different high pressure injections in medium speed engines. An Eulerian-Lagrangian multiphase scheme is used to simulate blend of C14H30 as HFO and 0%, 10%, 15%, and 20% by volume of n-butanol. OpenFOAM CFD toolbox is modified and implemented to study the effect of different blends of HFO/n-butanol on the spray characteristics at 600 and 1000 bar. To validate the presented simulations, current numerical results are compared against existing experimental data and good compliance is achieved. Based on the numerical findings, addition of n-butanol to HFO increases the particles volume in parcels at 600 bar. It was also found that blend fuels increase the number of spray particles and the average velocity of spray compared to pure HFO. Moreover, under injection pressure of 1000 bar, HFO/n-butanol blends compared to pure HFO fuel decrease particles volume in parcels of spray. Another influence of HFO/n-butanol blends is the decrease in average of particles diameter in parcels. Meanwhile, the effect of HFO/n-butanol on spray length is proved to be negligible. Finally, it can be concluded that higher injection pressure improves the spray efficiency.

  11. Radiometric investigation of factors, influencing the spray characteristics of aerosol flasks filled with propellants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benkoe, Gy.; Stampf, Gy.; Csontos, A.; Gyarmati, L.

    1976-01-01

    The role of 16 sprayheads, 5 valve systems and 3 propellant mixtures has been investigated in influencing the spray characteristics of pharmaceuticals. The distribution of matter has been determined with the aid of radiometry. The 14 C activity of spray spots has been measured in a mosaic-like way determining the activity of each area of 1 cm 2 in the right-angles spot-coordinate system. A Frieseke-Hoepfner type, PB gas current scaler has been used for measuring activity. According to the results spray heads play a decisive role in influencing the spray characteristics of aerosol flasks filled with propellants. The different propellant mixtures and valve systems influence the spray characteristics only in a small degree and only when adjusted to a given spray head. The method is well applicable for qualification of spray heads in practice of both factories and hospitals. (K.A.)

  12. Numerical analysis of spray characteristics of dimethyl ether and diethyl ether fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, Balaji; Yang, Wenming; Yu, Wenbin; Tay, Kun Lin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermo-physical properties of liquid DME and DEE are reported. • Ether fuels tend to cavitate higher compared to that of diesel fuel. • Spray tip penetration and SMD are found to be lesser for ether fuels. • Ether fuels shows excellent atomization behavior. - Abstract: In this work, the spray characteristics of ether fuels such as dimethyl ether (DME) and diethyl ether (DEE) have been numerically investigated using KIVA-4 CFD code. A new hybrid spray model developed by coupling the standard KHRT model to cavitation sub model was used. The detailed thermo-physical properties of ether fuels have been predicted and validated with experimental results available from literature. The cavitation inception inside the injector nozzle hole has been studied for ether fuels in comparison with diesel fuel. It was found that ether fuels cavitates higher compared to that of conventional diesel fuel because of its low viscosity. The spray tip penetration of diesel fuel was longer than that of ether fuels due to high viscosity and density of diesel fuel. Ether fuels characterized by low Ohnesorge number and high Reynolds number showed better atomization behavior compared to that of the diesel fuel.

  13. Study on the spray characteristics of methyl esters from waste cooking oil at elevated temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yung-Sung [Department of Mechanical and Automation Engineering, Da-Yeh University, 168 University Road, Dacun, Changhua 51591 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hsiuping Institute of Technology, No.11, Gongye Rd., Dali City, Taichung County 412-80 (China); Lin, Hai-Ping [Department of Mechanical and Automation Engineering, Da-Yeh University, 168 University Road, Dacun, Changhua 51591 (China)

    2010-09-15

    In Taiwan, millions of tons of waste cooking oil are produced each year, and less than 20% of it, about 150,000 ton/a, is reclaimed and reused. Most waste oil is flushed down the drain. Utilizing waste cooking oil to make biodiesel not only reduces engine exhaust gas pollution, but also replaces food-derived fuels, and reduces ecologic river pollution. This study employed two-stage transesterification to lower the high viscosity of waste oil, utilized emulsion to reduce the methyl ester NOx pollution, and used methanol to enhance the stability and viscosity of emulsified fuel. To further analyze spray characteristics of fuels, this experiment built a constant volume bomb under high temperature, used high speed photography to analyze spray tip penetration, spray angle, and the Sauter mean diameter (SMD) of fuel droplets, and compared the results with fossil diesel. The experimental results suggested that, two-stage transesterification can significantly lower waste oil viscosity to that which is close to fossil diesel viscosity. At a temperature above 300 C, waste cooking oil methyl esters had a water content of 20%, spray droplet characteristics were significantly improved, and NOx emission dropped significantly. The optimal fuel ratio suggested in this experiment was waste cooking oil methyl ester 74.5%, methanol 5%, water 20%, and composite surfactant Span-Tween 0.5%. (author)

  14. The spray characteristic of gas-liquid coaxial swirl injector by experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Chen; Zhihui Yan; Yang Yang; Hongli Gao; Shunhua Yang; Lei Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Using the laser phase Doppler particle analyzer (PDPA), the spray characteristics of gas-liquid coaxial swirl injector were studied. The Sauter mean diameter (SMD), axial velocity and size data rate were measured under different gas injecting pressure drop and liquid injecting pressure drop. Comparing to a single liquid injection, SMD with gas presence is obviously improved. So the gas presence has a significant effect on the atomization of the swirl injector. What’s more, the atomization eff...

  15. Investigation of the temporal evolution and spatial variation of in-cylinder engine fuel spray characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Wenjin; Hung, David L.S.; Xu, Min

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • POD quadruple decomposition can reconstruct spray structure into different parts. • Different quadruple POD parts reveal different levels of spay field intensity. • Large scale structure part dominates the CCV of the entire spray. • In-cylinder flow field has the strongest effect on CCV of spray structure. - Abstract: The proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) method is applied to analyze the pulsing spray characteristics of the fuel injection inside a four-valve optical spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) engine. The instantaneous spray structures are decomposed into four parts, namely the mean structure, large scale structure, transition structure and small scale structure, respectively, by using POD quadruple decomposition. The cycle-to-cycle variations (CCV) of the in-cylinder pulsing spray structure are examined separately based on the four parts. Analysis results indicate that the four parts have different characteristics, and each individual part represents a specific instantaneous spray structure. First, the mean part contains more than 90% of the total intensity of the spray field throughout the whole injection process. Moreover, the large scale structure part has the highest CCV level among all four parts, and it dominates the CCV of the entire spray field. The CCV of spray can be influenced by different engine operating conditions. In particular, the in-cylinder flow field has the strongest effect on the spray CCV. The varying motion of the in-cylinder flow field significantly influences the CCV of the large scale spray part, which in turn affects the CCV characteristics of the whole spray field

  16. Numerical analysis of injector flow and spray characteristics from diesel injectors using fossil and biodiesel fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battistoni, Michele; Grimaldi, Carlo Nazareno

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Fluid-dynamic simulation of injection process with biodiesel and diesel fuel. ► Coupling of Eulerian and Lagrangian spray CFD simulations. ► Effects of hole shaping: conical versus cylindrical and edge rounding effects. ► Prediction of spray characteristics improved using inner nozzle flow data. ► Explanation of mass flow differences depending on hole shape and fuel type. -- Abstract: The aim of the paper is the comparison of the injection process with two fuels, a standard diesel fuel and a pure biodiesel, methyl ester of soybean oil. Multiphase cavitating flows inside injector nozzles are calculated by means of unsteady CFD simulations on moving grids from needle opening to closure, using an Eulerian–Eulerian two-fluid approach which takes into account bubble dynamics. Afterward, spray evolutions are also evaluated in a Lagrangian framework using results of the first computing step, mapped onto the hole exit area, for the initialization of the primary breakup model. Two nozzles with cylindrical and conical holes are studied and their behaviors are discussed in relation to fuel properties. Nozzle flow simulations highlighted that the extent of cavitation regions is not much affected by the fuel type, whereas it is strongly dependent on the nozzle shape. Biodiesel provides a slightly higher mass flow in highly cavitating nozzles. On the contrary using hole shaped nozzles (to reduce cavitation) diesel provides similar or slightly higher mass flow. Comparing the two fuels, the effects of different viscosities and densities play main role which explains these behaviors. Simulations of the spray evolution are also discussed highlighting the differences between the use of fossil and biodiesel fuels in terms of spray penetration, atomization and cone-angle. Usage of diesel fuel in the conical convergent nozzle gives higher liquid penetration.

  17. Correlation of splat state with deposition characteristics of cold sprayed niobium coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, S.; Ramakrishna, M.; Chavan, N.M.; Joshi, S.V.

    2017-01-01

    The cold spray technique has a great potential to deposit refractory metals for a variety of potential applications. Cold spraying of different metals have been addressed comprehensively to understand the deposition characteristics of the coatings. Since there is no available data on the deposition characteristics of cold sprayed Niobium, impact behavior of splats at different deposition conditions were simulated and numerically analyzed using Finite Element Modeling (FEM) and correlated with the experimental observations that highlight the role of the velocity and temperature of the particle upon impact on the bonding features. The increase in temperature of the splat drastically reduces the flow stress at the interface leading to best inter-splat bonding state. The synergistic effect of the temperature and the velocity leads to the formation of very dense, defect free niobium coating associated with deformation localization including interface melting. Formation of nanocrystalline grains at the inter-splat boundary was confirmed through TEM and compared with the FEM findings. Finally, understanding the deformation and deposition behavior of refractory metal such as niobium will be helpful to engineer the coatings for potential applications. - Graphical abstract: ▪

  18. Yb2Si2O7 Environmental Barrier Coatings Deposited by Various Thermal Spray Techniques: A Preliminary Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakan, Emine; Marcano, Diana; Zhou, Dapeng; Sohn, Yoo Jung; Mauer, Georg; Vaßen, Robert

    2017-08-01

    Dense, crack-free, uniform, and well-adhered environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) are required to enhance the environmental durability of silicon (Si)-based ceramic matrix composites in high pressure, high gas velocity combustion atmospheres. This paper represents an assessment of different thermal spray techniques for the deposition of Yb2Si2O7 EBCs. The Yb2Si2O7 coatings were deposited by means of atmospheric plasma spraying (APS), high-velocity oxygen fuel spraying (HVOF), suspension plasma spraying (SPS), and very low-pressure plasma spraying (VLPPS) techniques. The initial feedstock, as well as the deposited coatings, were characterized and compared in terms of their phase composition. The as-sprayed amorphous content, microstructure, and porosity of the coatings were further analyzed. Based on this preliminary investigation, the HVOF process stood out from the other techniques as it enabled the production of vertical crack-free coatings with higher crystallinity in comparison with the APS and SPS techniques in atmospheric conditions. Nevertheless, VLPPS was found to be the preferred process for the deposition of Yb2Si2O7 coatings with desired characteristics in a controlled-atmosphere chamber.

  19. Optical and electrical characteristics of zirconium oxide thin films deposited on silicon substrates by spray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar-Frutis, M.; Araiza, J.J.; Falcony, C.; Garcia, M.

    2002-01-01

    The optical and electrical characteristics of zirconium oxide thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis on silicon substrates are reported. The films were deposited from a spraying solution of zirconium acetylacetonate in N,N-dimethylformamide using an ultrasonic mist generator on (100) Si substrates. The substrate temperature during deposition was in the range of 400 to 600 grad C. Deposition rates up to 16 A/sec were obtained depending on the spraying solution concentration and on the substrate temperature. A refraction index of the order of 2.0 was measured on these films by ellipsometry. The electrical characteristics of the films were determined from the capacitance and current versus voltage measurements. The addition of water mist during the spraying deposition process was also studied in the characteristics of the films. (Authors)

  20. Bupivacaine Lozenge Compared with Lidocaine Spray as Topical Pharyngeal Anesthetic before Unsedated Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salale, Nesrin; Treldal, Charlotte; Mogensen, Stine

    2014-01-01

    Unsedated upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE) can induce patient discomfort, mainly due to a strong gag reflex. The aim was to assess the effect of a bupivacaine lozenge as topical pharyngeal anesthetic compared with standard treatment with a lidocaine spray before UGE. Ninety-nine adult...... with a lidocaine spray proved to be a superior option as topical pharyngeal anesthetic before an UGE....

  1. Fundamental Study on the Effect of Spray Parameters on Characteristics of P3HT:PCBM Active Layers Made by Spray Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Xie

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to elucidate the effects of the important spray characteristics on the surface morphology and light absorbance of spray-on P3HT:PCBM thin-films, used as an active layer in polymer solar cells (PSCs. Spray coating or deposition is a viable scalable technique for the large-scale, fast, and low-cost fabrication of solution-processed solar cells, and has been widely used for device fabrication, although the fundamental understanding of the underlying and controlling parameters, such as spray characteristics, droplet dynamics, and surface wettability, is still limited, making the results on device fabrication not reproducible and unreliable. In this paper, following the conventional PSC architecture, a PEDOT:PSS layer is first spin-coated on glass substrates, followed by the deposition of P3HT:PCBM using an automatic ultrasonic spray coating system, with a movable nozzle tip, to mimic an industrial manufacturing process. To gain insight, the effects of the spray carrier air pressure, the number of spray passes, the precursor flow rate, and precursor concentration are studied on the surface topography and light absorbance spectra of the spray-on films. Among the results, it is found that despite the high roughness of spray-on films, the light absorbance of the film is satisfactory. It is also found that the absorbance of spray-on films is a linear function of the number of spray passes or deposition layers, based on which an effective film thickness is defined for rough spray-on films. The effective thickness of a rough spray-on P3HT:PCBM film was found to be one-quarter of that of a flat film predicted by a simple mass balance.

  2. Spray characteristics of dimethyl ether (D.M.E.) as on alternative fuel for diesel engine; Daitai diesel nenryo to shite no dimethyl ether (D.M.E.) no funmu tokusei ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakai, K; Nishida, K; Yoshizaki, T; Hiroyasu, H [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    D.M.E. which was paid attention to as on alternative fuel for a diesel engine, was injected by using Bosch type injection pump and a hole nozzle into a high pressure and high temperature vessel. The spray was observed by using schlieren photography. Spray characteristics, such as, the tip penetration, the cone angle and the volume of the spray were and were compared with a diesel fuel spray. The following thing, and so on were found out as a results. The spray angle of the DME spray of atmosphere pressure Pa=0.1Mpa spreads out large in comparison with the diesel fuel spray, and the way of the change by the pressure is contrary to the case of the diesel fuel spray. 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Technical characteristics of rigid sprayed PUR and PIR foams used in construction industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravit, Marina; Kuleshin, Aleksey; Khametgalieva, Elina; Karakozova, Irina

    2017-10-01

    The article describes the distinctive properties of rigid polyurethane foam and polyisocyanurate (PUR and PIR). A brief review of the research was carried out on their modification with an objective to improve the thermal insulation properties and reducing the combustibility. A comparative analysis of the technical characteristics of rigid PUR and PIR foams of various manufacturers is presented. The problems of the state of the market for the production of polyurethane foam and polyisocyanurate in Russia have been marked. It is established that the further development of the fabrication technology of heat-insulating sprayed rigid PUR and PIR foams requires uniformity of technical characteristics of original components and finished products. Moreover, it requires the creation of unified information base for raw materials and auxiliary materials used in the production of PUR and PIR foam.

  4. Effect of plastic viscosity and yield value on spray characteristics of magnesium-slurry fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prok, George M

    1957-01-01

    Magnesium slurries were sprayed onto a sheet of paper from an air-atomizing injector. Drop sizes and distributions were then determined from photomicrographs. Four different surface-active additives were used in preparing the slurries to give plastic viscosities between 0.22 and 0.51 poise and yield values between 150 and 810 dynes-cm(exp 2). It was found that there was no significant variation in the spray characteristics of these slurries when tested under the same conditions.

  5. SPRAY CASTING

    OpenAIRE

    SALAMCI, Elmas

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper is designed to provide a basic review of spray casting. A brief overview of the historical development of spray  casting and the description of plant and equipment have been given. Following metallurgical characteristics of spray formed alloys, process parameters and solidification mechanism of spray deposition have been discussed in detail. Finally, microstructure and mechanical properties of the selected spray cast Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys have been presented and comp...

  6. Effect of Pressurized Metered Dose Inhaler Spray Characteristics and Particle Size Distribution on Drug Delivery Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Morteza; Inthavong, Kiao; Tu, Jiyuan

    2017-10-01

    A key issue in pulmonary drug delivery is improvement of the delivery device for effective and targeted treatment. Pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDIs) are the most popular aerosol therapy device for treating lung diseases. This article studies the effect of spray characteristics: injection velocity, spray cone angle, particle size distribution (PSD), and its mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) on drug delivery. An idealized oral airway geometry, extending from mouth to the main bronchus, was connected to a pMDI device. Inhalation flow rates of 15, 30, and 60 L/min were used and drug particle tracking was a one-way coupled Lagrangian model. The results showed that most particles deposited in the pharynx, where the airway has a reduced cross-sectional area. Particle deposition generally decreased with initial spray velocity and with increased spray cone angle for 30 and 60 L/min flow rates. However, for 15 L/min flow rate, the deposition increased slightly with an increase in the spray velocity and cone angle. The effect of spray cone angle was more significant than the initial spray velocity on particle deposition. When the MMAD of a PSD was reduced, the deposition efficiency also reduces, suggesting greater rates of particle entry into the lung. The deposition rate showed negligible change when the MMAD was more than 8 μm. Spray injection angle and velocity change the drug delivery efficacy; however, the efficiency shows more sensitivity to the injection angle. The 30 L/min airflow rate delivers spray particles to the lung more efficiently than 15 and 60 L/min airflow rate, and reducing MMAD can help increase drug delivery to the lung.

  7. Spray and Combustion Characteristics of a Novel Multi-circular Jet Plate in Air-assisted Atomizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisham Amirnordin Shahrin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Atomization of liquid fuel in air-assisted atomizer is highly dependent on air mixing, which can be enhanced using turbulent generators, such as multi-circular jet (MCJ plates and swirler. This study aims to determine the effects of novel MCJ plates on the spray and combustion characteristics of an air-assisted atomizer by evaluating spray and flame parameters, such as penetration length, cone angle, and cone area. MCJ 30 and MCJ 45, with inclined jets at 30° and 45°, respectively, were used in the experiment. A swirler was also used for comparison. The spray and flame images were recorded at different equivalence ratios through direct photography and analyzed using image J software. Flame temperature was determined using a thermal infrared camera, and burning chamber and flue gas temperatures were measured using thermocouples. The spray and flame characteristics of MCJ 30 exhibited performance comparable with those of the MCJ 45 and swirler. The integration of turbulence and swirling motion concept into the novel MCJ plates can enhance the mixing formation and thus improve the performance of burner combustion.

  8. Atomization and spray characteristics of bioethanol and bioethanol blended gasoline fuel injected through a direct injection gasoline injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Su Han; Kim, Hyung Jun; Suh, Hyun Kyu; Lee, Chang Sik

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this study was to investigate the spray characteristics and atomization performance of gasoline fuel (G100), bioethanol fuel (E100), and bioethanol blended gasoline fuel (E85) in a direct injection gasoline injector in a gasoline engine. The overall spray and atomization characteristics such as an axial spray tip penetration, spray width, and overall SMD were measured experimentally and predicted by using KIVA-3V code. The development process and the appearance timing of the vortices in the test fuels were very similar. In addition, the numerical results accurately described the experimentally observed spray development pattern and shape, the beginning position of the vortex, and the spray breakup on the spray surface. Moreover, the increased injection pressure induced the occurrence of a clear circular shape in the downstream spray and a uniform mixture between the injected spray droplets and ambient air. The axial spray tip penetrations of the test fuels were similar, while the spray width and spray cone angle of E100 were slightly larger than the other fuels. In terms of atomization performance, the E100 fuel among the tested fuels had the largest droplet size because E100 has a high kinematic viscosity and surface tension.

  9. Damping capacity and dynamic mechanical characteristics of the plasma-sprayed coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Liming; Ma Yue; Zhou Chungen; Xu Huibin

    2005-01-01

    The damping properties and dynamic mechanical performance of NiCrAlY coating, FeCrMo ferromagnetic coating, AlCuFeCr quasicrystalline coating and nanostructured ZrO 2 ceramic coating, which were prepared by plasma-spray method, were investigated. The measuring results of the dynamic mechanical thermal analyzer (DMTA) and the flexural resonance testing method show that the damping capacity (Q -1 ) of the coated sample has a notable improvement compared to the substrate, while the dynamic modulus has a dramatic decrease. The resonance frequency of the coated cantilever beam structure shifted to high-frequency, and the resonance amplitude, especially high mode resonance, was dramatically attenuated. The internal friction peaks were observed in the Q -1 -temperature spectrogram and a normal amplitude effects were shown in the coated samples damping characteristics. The damping mechanism based on the interaction between substrate and coating layer, and the microstructure of the coated sample were also discussed in this paper

  10. The spray characteristic of gas-liquid coaxial swirl injector by experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the laser phase Doppler particle analyzer (PDPA, the spray characteristics of gas-liquid coaxial swirl injector were studied. The Sauter mean diameter (SMD, axial velocity and size data rate were measured under different gas injecting pressure drop and liquid injecting pressure drop. Comparing to a single liquid injection, SMD with gas presence is obviously improved. So the gas presence has a significant effect on the atomization of the swirl injector. What’s more, the atomization effect of gas-liquid is enhanced with the increasing of the gas pressure drop. Under the constant gas pressure drop, the injector has an optimal liquid pressure drop under which the atomization performance is best.

  11. Experimental and numerical investigations on spray characteristics of fatty acid methyl esters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanjekar, R. D.; Deshmukh, D.

    2018-02-01

    A comparative experimental and numerical study is conducted to establish the significance of the use of single-component over multi-component representatives of biodiesel, diesel and their blend for predicting spray tip penetration. Methyl oleate and methyl laurate are used as single-component representative fuels for biodiesel. The pure components n-heptane, n-dodecane and n-tetradecane are used as single-component representative fuels for diesel. Methyl laurate is found to represent biodiesel of coconut, whereas methyl oleate is found to represent biodiesel having high percentage of long-chain fatty acid esters. The spray tip penetration of methyl oleate is found to be in good agreement with the measured spray tip penetration of karanja biodiesel. The spray tip penetration prediction of n-heptane fuel is closely following diesel spray tip penetration along with that of n-tetradecane and n-dodecane. The study suggests that the knowledge of the single-component representatives of biodiesel, diesel and their blend is sufficient to predict the spray tip penetration of the corresponding biodiesel, diesel and their blend under non-evaporating environment.

  12. Experimental and numerical investigations on spray characteristics of fatty acid methyl esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanjekar, R D; Deshmukh, D

    2018-02-01

    A comparative experimental and numerical study is conducted to establish the significance of the use of single-component over multi-component representatives of biodiesel, diesel and their blend for predicting spray tip penetration. Methyl oleate and methyl laurate are used as single-component representative fuels for biodiesel. The pure components n -heptane, n -dodecane and n -tetradecane are used as single-component representative fuels for diesel. Methyl laurate is found to represent biodiesel of coconut, whereas methyl oleate is found to represent biodiesel having high percentage of long-chain fatty acid esters. The spray tip penetration of methyl oleate is found to be in good agreement with the measured spray tip penetration of karanja biodiesel. The spray tip penetration prediction of n -heptane fuel is closely following diesel spray tip penetration along with that of n -tetradecane and n -dodecane. The study suggests that the knowledge of the single-component representatives of biodiesel, diesel and their blend is sufficient to predict the spray tip penetration of the corresponding biodiesel, diesel and their blend under non-evaporating environment.

  13. Experimental investigation of atomization characteristics of swirling spray by ADN gelled propellant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Hao-Sen; Li, Guo-Xiu; Zhang, Nai-Yuan

    2018-03-01

    Due to the current global energy shortage and increasingly serious environmental issues, green propellants are attracting more attention. In particular, the ammonium dinitramide (ADN)-based monopropellant thruster is gaining world-wide attention as a green, non-polluting and high specific impulse propellant. Gel propellants combine the advantages of liquid and solid propellants, and are becoming popular in the field of spaceflight. In this paper, a swirling atomization experimental study was carried out using an ADN aqueous gel propellant under different injection pressures. A high-speed camera and a Malvern laser particle size analyzer were used to study the spray process. The flow coefficient, cone angle of swirl atomizing spray, breakup length of spray membrane, and droplet size distribution were analyzed. Furthermore, the effects of different injection pressures on the swirling atomization characteristics were studied.

  14. An experimental study of injection and spray characteristics of diesel and gasoline blends on a common rail injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Dong; Wang, Chunhai; Duan, Yaozong; Tian, Zhisong; Huang, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    The injection and spray characteristics of diesel and gasoline blends are investigated on a common rail injection system. The injection rate, fuel spray evolution process (tip penetration distance, spray cone angle, projected spray area and relative brightness intensity contour) and microscopic droplet features are analyzed. The results show that diesel and gasoline blends have higher volumetric injection rates, earlier starts of injection and shorter injection delays, but little variances are observed in the mass injection rates for different test fuels. Increased gasoline proportion in the test blends causes slightly decreased spray tip penetration distance but increased spray cone angle. Also, more smaller-size droplets are observed in the fuel jet of the diesel and gasoline blends, indicating that the spray breakup and atomization processes are promoted. - Highlights: • Injection rate and spray characteristics of diesel and gasoline blends are studied. • Diesel and gasoline blends have higher volumetric injection rates. • Earlier starts of injection are found when using diesel and gasoline blends. • Diesel and gasoline blends produce shorter spray penetration but higher cone angle. • The number of small droplets increases in the spray of diesel and gasoline blends

  15. A study on nozzle flow and spray characteristics of piezo injector for next generation high response injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jin Wook [Korea Institue of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Min, Kyoung Doug [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-06-15

    Most diesel injector, which is currently used in high-pressure common rail fuel injection system of diesel engine, is driven by the solenoid coil energy for its needle movement. The main disadvantage of this solenoid-driven injector is a high power consumption, high power loss through solenoid coil and relatively fixed needle response's problem. In this study, a prototype piezo-driven injector, as a new injector mechanism driven by piezoelectric energy based on the concept of inverse piezo-electric effect, has been designed and fabricated to know the effect of piezo-driven injection processes on the diesel spray structure and internal nozzle flow. Firstly we investigated the spray characteristics in a constant volume chamber pressurized by nitrogen gas using the back diffusion light illumination method for high-speed temporal photography and also analyzed the inside nozzle flow by a fully transient simulation with cavitation model using VOF(Volume Of Fraction) method. The numerical calculation has been performed to simulate the cavitating flow of 3-dimensional real size single hole nozzle along the injection duration. Results were compared between a conventional solenoid-driven injector and piezo-driven injector, both equipped with the same micro-sac multi-hole injection nozzle. The experimental results show that the piezo-driven injector has short injection delay and a faster spray development and produces higher injection velocity than the solenoid-driven injector. And the predicted simulation results with the degree of cavitation's generation inside nozzle for faster needle response in a piezo-driven injector were reflected to spray development in agreement with the experimental spray images.

  16. A study on nozzle flow and spray characteristics of piezo injector for next generation high response injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jin Wook; Min, Kyoung Doug

    2006-01-01

    Most diesel injector, which is currently used in high-pressure common rail fuel injection system of diesel engine, is driven by the solenoid coil energy for its needle movement. The main disadvantage of this solenoid-driven injector is a high power consumption, high power loss through solenoid coil and relatively fixed needle response's problem. In this study, a prototype piezo-driven injector, as a new injector mechanism driven by piezoelectric energy based on the concept of inverse piezo-electric effect, has been designed and fabricated to know the effect of piezo-driven injection processes on the diesel spray structure and internal nozzle flow. Firstly we investigated the spray characteristics in a constant volume chamber pressurized by nitrogen gas using the back diffusion light illumination method for high-speed temporal photography and also analyzed the inside nozzle flow by a fully transient simulation with cavitation model using VOF(Volume Of Fraction) method. The numerical calculation has been performed to simulate the cavitating flow of 3-dimensional real size single hole nozzle along the injection duration. Results were compared between a conventional solenoid-driven injector and piezo-driven injector, both equipped with the same micro-sac multi-hole injection nozzle. The experimental results show that the piezo-driven injector has short injection delay and a faster spray development and produces higher injection velocity than the solenoid-driven injector. And the predicted simulation results with the degree of cavitation's generation inside nozzle for faster needle response in a piezo-driven injector were reflected to spray development in agreement with the experimental spray images

  17. Investigation of the spray characteristics for a secondary fuel injection nozzle using a digital image processing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Haeyoung; Lee, Kihyung; Ikeda, Yuji

    2007-05-01

    There are many ways to reduce diesel engine exhaust emissions. However, NOx emission is difficult to reduce because the hydrocarbon (HC) concentration in a diesel engine is not sufficient for NOx conversion. Therefore, in order to create stoichiometric conditions in the De-NOx catalyst, a secondary injection system is designed to inject liquid HC into the exhaust pipe. The atomization and distribution characteristics of the HC injected from a secondary injector are key technologies to obtain a high NOx conversion because inhomogeneous droplets of injected HC cause not only high fuel consumption but also deterioration of NOx emission. This paper describes the spray characteristics of a secondary injector including the spray angle, penetration length and breakup behaviour of the spray to optimize the reduction rate of the NOx catalyst. In this study, various optical diagnostics were applied to investigate these spray characteristics, the atomization mechanism and spray developing process. The visualization and image processing method for the spray pulsation were developed by high speed photography. The influence of the fuel supply pressure on the spray behaviour and a more detailed spray developing process have been analysed experimentally using image processing. Finally, the experimental results were used to correlate the spray structure to the injection system performance and to provide a design guide for a secondary injector nozzle.

  18. Influence of fuel properties on fundamental spray characteristics and soot emissions using different tailor-made fuels from biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García, Antonio; Monsalve-Serrano, Javier; Heuser, Benedikt; Jakob, Markus; Kremer, Florian; Pischinger, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • TMFB show clear potential to reduce soot emissions under mixing-controlled combustion. • The larger lift-off-length of 2-MTHF and 1-octanol promotes soot emissions reduction. • Oxidation process governs the improved soot emissions of DNBE. - Abstract: This work evaluates the potential of some new biomass-derived fuels as candidates for compression ignition operation. Thus, fundamental spray characteristics related to fuel vaporization and fuel/air mixing process for 2-Methyltetrahydrofuran, Di-n-butyl ether and 1-octanol has been studied and compared with conventional EN590 Diesel fuel. For this purpose, OH"∗ chemiluminescence and shadowgraphy measurements in a high pressure chamber as well as 1D simulations with a spray model have been carried out at different operating conditions representative of the NEDC driving cycle. Finally, measured soot emissions in the single-cylinder engine were presented and discussed. Results from the high pressure chamber presented very good agreement in terms of liquid length and vapor penetration with simulation results. Thus, some analytical expressions related to macroscopic spray characteristics have been proposed and validated experimentally for all four fuels. Finally, the single-cylinder engine results confirmed the relevant role of soot formation on final emissions for 1-octanol and 2-MTHF. In addition, DNBE showed greater soot oxidation potential than diesel and other TMFB candidates.

  19. Investigation of spray characteristics from a low-pressure common rail injector for use in a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kihyung; Reitz, Rolf D.

    2004-03-01

    Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion provides extremely low levels of pollutant emissions, and thus is an attractive alternative for future IC engines. In order to achieve a uniform mixture distribution within the engine cylinder, the characteristics of the fuel spray play an important role in the HCCI engine concept. It is well known that high-pressure common rail injection systems, mainly used in diesel engines, achieve poor mixture formation because of the possibility of direct fuel impingement on the combustion chamber surfaces. This paper describes spray characteristics of a low-pressure common rail injector which is intended for use in an HCCI engine. Optical diagnostics including laser diffraction and phase Doppler methods, and high-speed camera photography, were applied to measure the spray drop diameter and to investigate the spray development process. The drop sizing results of the laser diffraction method were compared with those of a phase Doppler particle analyser (PDPA) to validate the accuracy of the experiments. In addition, the effect of fuel properties on the spray characteristics was investigated using n-heptane, Stoddard solvent (gasoline surrogate) and diesel fuel because HCCI combustion is sensitive to the fuel composition. The results show that the injector forms a hollow-cone sheet spray rather than a liquid jet, and the atomization efficiency is high (small droplets are produced). The droplet SMD ranged from 15 to 30 µm. The spray break-up characteristics were found to depend on the fuel properties. The break-up time for n-heptane is shorter and the drop SMD is smaller than that of Stoddard solvent and diesel fuel.

  20. Analysis of spatial dispersion characteristics of improved conical sprays; Kairyo kasajo funmu no kukan bunsansei no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, W; Murakami, A; Hama, J [Mechanical Engineering Lab., Tokyo (Japan); Obokata, T [Gunma University, Gunma (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The macro-characteristics of conical and improved conical sprays were analyzed using laser sheet and high speed camera. The injection pressure was 14.7, 24.5 or 34.3 MPa and the chamber pressure was 0.098, 0.98 or 1.96 MPa, where the amount of injected fuel was 28.5 mg per cycle, and the injection frequency was 8.3 Hz. As a result, at atmospheric pressure, both of the conical spray and improved conical spray have a conical pattern, but at high chamber pressure, the sprays become three dimensional. The penetration of the improved conical spray was about 25% stronger than that of the conical spray. 10 refs., 11 figs.

  1. The flow and spray characteristics of gelled fluids; Die Stroemungs- und Verspruehungseigenschaften gelfoermiger Fluide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madlener, K.

    2008-07-01

    In the present study gelled fluids are investigated concerning their application as propellants in storable and thrust controllable rocket propulsion systems. The correlations between the non-Newtonian viscosity properties and the flow and spray characteristics are discussed. Based on the proposed viscosity model Herschel-Bulkley-Extended (HBE) the laminar pipe flow is calculated for the investigated propellants. With the introduction of a generalized form of the Reynolds number and the presentation of a possibility to determine the critical values of this number it is possible to calculate the laminar-turbulent transition in a pipe flow. The theoretical results are evaluated with experimental data. The spray characteristics of various gelled fluids are examined using an experimental setup with impinging-jet-injectors. (orig.)

  2. Microencapsulation by spray drying of Lannea microcarpa extract: Technological characteristics and antioxidant activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Sansone

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Context: A functional extract from Lannea microcarpa (Lm, possess interesting antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the unprocessed dried extract occurs as sticky and low-water-soluble material showing critical properties for industrial applications. The unprocessed dried extract is not always enough stable to preserve its functional properties, also giving practical difficulties for the manufacturing. Aims: This research aimed to produce Lm extract microparticles with enhanced functional stability and technological characteristics by spray-drying. Methods: Lm extract was microencapsulated by spray-drying using a sodium-carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC based matrix. Physicochemical and technological characteristics (determined by UV, HPLC, LLS, SEM, DSC, and in vitro dissolution tests, as well as antioxidant properties (DPPH-test of the resulting powder (LmC were examined. Results: The produced spray dried microparticles showed satisfying encapsulation efficiency, good functional stability and enhanced technological properties. The selected carrier and process conditions led to a stable and handling microencapsulated powder form with improved water dissolution rate. Moreover, the matrix was also able to preserve the antioxidant activity of the phenolic compounds-rich extract. Conclusions: The made-up powder resulted in a functional component that can be used with great potential in cosmetics, foods or nutraceutical products.

  3. Deposition characteristics of copper particles on roughened substrates through kinetic spraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, S.; Bae, Gyuyeol; Lee, Changhee

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a systematic study of copper particle deposition behavior on polished and roughened surfaces (aluminum and copper) in kinetic spray process has been performed. The particle deformation behavior was simulated through finite element analysis (FEA) software ABAQUS explicit 6.7-2. The particle-substrate contact time, contact temperature and contact area upon impact have been estimated for smooth and three different roughened substrate cases. Copper powders were deposited on smooth and grit-blasted copper and aluminium substrates and characterized through scanning electron microscopy and Romulus bond strength analyzer. The results indicate that the deformation and the resultant bonding were higher for the roughened substrates than that of smooth. The characteristic factors for bonding are reported and discussed. Thus the substrate roughness appears to be beneficial for the initial deposition efficiency of the kinetic spray process.

  4. Spray and evaporation characteristics of ethanol and gasoline direct injection in non-evaporating, transition and flash-boiling conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yuhan; Huang, Sheng; Huang, Ronghua; Hong, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Sprays can be considered as non-evaporating when vapour pressure is lower than 30 kPa. • Ethanol direct injection should only be applied in high temperature engine environment. • Gasoline spray collapses at lower fuel temperature (350 K) than ethanol spray does (360 K). • Flash-boiling does not occur when fuel temperature reaches boiling point until ΔT is 14 K. • Not only spray evaporation mode but also breakup mechanism change with fuel temperature. - Abstract: Ethanol direct injection plus gasoline port injection (EDI + GPI) represents a more efficient and flexible way to utilize ethanol fuel in spark ignition engines. To exploit the potentials of EDI, the mixture formation characteristics need to be investigated. In this study, the spray and evaporation characteristics of ethanol and gasoline fuels injected from a multi-hole injector were investigated by high speed Shadowgraphy imaging technique in a constant volume chamber. The experiments covered a wide range of fuel temperature from 275 K (non-evaporating) to 400 K (flash-boiling) which corresponded to cold start and running conditions in an engine. The spray transition process from normal-evaporating to flash-boiling was investigated in greater details than the existed studies. Results showed that ethanol and gasoline sprays demonstrated the same patterns in non-evaporating conditions. The sprays could be considered as non-evaporating when vapour pressure was lower than 30 kPa. Ethanol evaporated more slowly than gasoline did in low temperature environment, but they reached the similar evaporation rates when temperature was higher than 375 K. This suggested that EDI should only be applied in high temperature engine environment. For both ethanol and gasoline sprays, when the excess temperature was smaller than 4 K, the sprays behaved the same as the subcooled sprays did. The sprays collapsed when the excess temperature was 9 K. Flash-boiling did not occur until the excess temperature

  5. Wear and microstructural characteristics of spray atomized zircon sand reinforced LM13 alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, K.; Pandey, O.P. [School of Physics and Materials Science, Thapar University Patiala, Punjab (India)

    2010-07-15

    The requirement of the high performance light weight materials demands the development of varieties of materials within the economical range to get it commercialized. Light weight aluminium alloys are used in several structural applications like automotive, aerospace, defense industry and other fields of engineering. The ceramic particle reinforced aluminium metal matrix composites (AMCs) have emerged as a suitable candidate for commercial applications. A variety of processing routes have been adopted to manufacture AMCs. In the present work LM13 alloy reinforced with zircon sand is formed via spray forming. During experimentation a self prepared convergent-divergent nozzle is used for inert gas atomization of the melt which is subsequently deposited on copper substrate placed vertically below the atomizer. The zircon sand particles are injected in the atomization zone by external injectors aligned perpendicular to the gas atomization axis. Zircon sand has been found to have new promising economical commercial candidate due to its easy availability and good mechanical properties like high hardness, high modulus of elasticity and good thermal stability. The microhardness of cast alloy and spray formed composite shows that the spray formed zircon sand reinforced composite has higher hardness. Also the lower wear rate has been observed in case of the zircon sand reinforced AMC as compared to LM13 alloy. This behaviour is further analyzed in light of microstructural features of the spray deposited composite using optical and scanning electron microscope (SEM). A comparative study of this material (LM13/Zircon sand) with the parent alloy (LM13) is presented in this work. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  6. Corrosion characteristics of several thermal spray cermet-coating/alloy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashary, A.A.; Tucker, R.C. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The corrosion characteristics of a thermal spray multiphase cermet coating can be quite complex. Factors such as porosity and galvanic effects between different phases in the coating and the substrate, as well as the inherent general and localized corrosion resistance of each phase, can play an important role. The present paper describes the corrosion of several cermet-coating/alloy systems as studied by a potentiodynamic cyclic polarization technique. The corrosion of these coating systems was found to be most often dominated by corrosion of the metallic phases in the coating or of the substrate alloy. (orig.)

  7. Physiological characteristics of Plantago major under SO2 exposure as affected by foliar iron spray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohasseli, Vahid; Khoshgoftarmanesh, Amir Hossein; Shariatmadari, Hossein

    2017-08-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) is considered as a main air pollutant in industrialized areas that can damage vegetation. In the present study, we investigated how exposure to SO 2 and foliar application of iron (Fe) would affect certain physiological characteristics of Plantago major. The plant seedlings exposed or unexposed to SO 2 (3900 μg m -3 ) were non-supplemented or supplemented with Fe (3 g L -1 ) as foliar spray. Plants were exposed to SO 2 for 6 weeks in 100 × 70 × 70 cm chambers. Fumigation of plants with SO 2 was performed for 3 h daily for 3 days per week (alternate day). Lower leaf Fe concentration in the plants exposed to SO 2 at no added Fe treatment was accompanied with incidence of chlorosis symptoms and reduced chlorophyll concentration. No visible chlorotic symptoms were observed on the SO 2 -exposed plants supplied with Fe that accumulated higher Fe in their leaves. Both at with and without added Fe treatments, catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activity was higher in the plants fumigated with SO 2 in comparison with those non-fumigated with SO 2 . Foliar application of Fe was also effective in increasing activity of antioxidant enzymes CAT and POD. Exposure to SO 2 led to reduced cellulose but enhanced lignin content of plant leaf cell wall. The results obtained showed that foliar application of Fe was effective in reducing the effects of exposure to SO 2 on cell wall composition. In contrast to SO 2 , application of Fe increased cellulose while decreased lignin content of the leaf cell wall. This might be due to reduced oxidative stress induced by SO 2 in plants supplied with Fe compared with those unsupplied with Fe.

  8. Impact of nanoparticles and butanol on properties and spray characteristics of waste cooking oil biodiesel and pure rapeseed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad K. H.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable biofuels can offset greenhouse gases by replacing fossil fuels destined for internal combustion engines. However, biofuels have their own setbacks and may lead to poor combustion inside the engine cylinder. In this study, nanoparticles and butanol were blended either separately or together with waste cooking oil biodiesel and neat rape seed oil to investigate the impact of these additives on the properties and spray characteristics. The investigation comprised of three stages, with each having an effect on how the next stage of the investigation was conducted. Initially, the physicochemical characteristics of 25ppm, 50ppm, 75ppm and 100ppm concentrations of aluminium oxide and copper oxide nanoparticle blends with fossil diesel, waste cooking oil biodiesel and rapeseed oil were investigated. The results from first stage investigation showed that, in general, blends containing aluminium oxide nanoparticles gave better results for almost all the concentrations when compared with copper oxide nanoparticle blends with the same nanoparticle concentrations. Overall, waste cooking oil biodiesel blended with 100ppm aluminium oxide nanoparticle showed most promising results like the flash point of 159.3°C, kinematic viscosity @40°C of 4.66 cSt, and gross calorific value of 44.43 MJ/kg. These values were 61.6% higher, 51.3% higher and 3.2% lower than that of corresponding fossil diesel values. Subsequently, in the second stage of the study, the addition of butanol was investigated to assess its ability to enhance the emulsion of biofuel-nanoparticles blends. Four blends containing 90% biodiesel & 10% butanol, and 90% rapeseed oil & 10% butanol, with and without 100ppm Al2O3 were prepared. Results showed that the kinematic viscosity of the fuel blends containing 100ppm aluminium oxide nanoparticles were decreased by 0.4% and 3.3%, for 90% biodiesel & 10% butanol and 90% rapeseed oil & 10% butanol blends respectively, when compared to without

  9. Impact of nanoparticles and butanol on properties and spray characteristics of waste cooking oil biodiesel and pure rapeseed oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, K. H.; Hossain, A. K.

    2017-11-01

    Renewable biofuels can offset greenhouse gases by replacing fossil fuels destined for internal combustion engines. However, biofuels have their own setbacks and may lead to poor combustion inside the engine cylinder. In this study, nanoparticles and butanol were blended either separately or together with waste cooking oil biodiesel and neat rape seed oil to investigate the impact of these additives on the properties and spray characteristics. The investigation comprised of three stages, with each having an effect on how the next stage of the investigation was conducted. Initially, the physicochemical characteristics of 25ppm, 50ppm, 75ppm and 100ppm concentrations of aluminium oxide and copper oxide nanoparticle blends with fossil diesel, waste cooking oil biodiesel and rapeseed oil were investigated. The results from first stage investigation showed that, in general, blends containing aluminium oxide nanoparticles gave better results for almost all the concentrations when compared with copper oxide nanoparticle blends with the same nanoparticle concentrations. Overall, waste cooking oil biodiesel blended with 100ppm aluminium oxide nanoparticle showed most promising results like the flash point of 159.3°C, kinematic viscosity @40°C of 4.66 cSt, and gross calorific value of 44.43 MJ/kg. These values were 61.6% higher, 51.3% higher and 3.2% lower than that of corresponding fossil diesel values. Subsequently, in the second stage of the study, the addition of butanol was investigated to assess its ability to enhance the emulsion of biofuel-nanoparticles blends. Four blends containing 90% biodiesel & 10% butanol, and 90% rapeseed oil & 10% butanol, with and without 100ppm Al2O3 were prepared. Results showed that the kinematic viscosity of the fuel blends containing 100ppm aluminium oxide nanoparticles were decreased by 0.4% and 3.3%, for 90% biodiesel & 10% butanol and 90% rapeseed oil & 10% butanol blends respectively, when compared to without the nanoparticles. The

  10. Characteristics and Thermal Efficiency of a Non-transferred DC Plasma Spraying Torch Under Low Pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Shicong; Ye Minyou; Zhang Xiaodong; Guo Wenkang; Xu Ping

    2008-01-01

    Current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of a non-transferred DC arc plasma spray torch operated in argon at vacuum are reported. The arc voltage is of negative characteristics for a current below 200 A, flat for a current between 200 A to 250 A and positive for a current beyond 250 A. The voltage increases slowly with the increase in carrier gas of arc. The rate of change in voltage with currents is about 3∼4 V/100 A at a gas flow rate of about 1∼1.5 V/10 standard liter per minute (slpm). The I-V characteristics of the DC plasma torch are of a shape of hyperbola. Arc power increases with the argon flow rate, and the thermal efficiency of the torch acts in a similar way. The thermal efficiency of the non-transferred DC plasmatron is about 65∼78%. (low temperature plasma)

  11. A comparative study on NbOx films reactively sputtered from sintered and cold gas sprayed targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Roland; O'Sullivan, Michael; Fian, Alexander; Sprenger, Dietmar; Lang, Bernhard; Mitterer, Christian

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate novel cold gas sprayed Nb targets in a reactive sputter deposition process of thin films with respect to the widely used sintered Nb targets. With the exception of a higher target discharge voltage of ∼100 V for the cold gas sprayed targets and the thus higher film growth rate compared to sintered targets, NbOx films with comparable microstructure and properties were obtained for both target variants. The amorphous films with thicknesses between 2.9 and 4.9 μm present an optical shift from dark and non-transparent towards transparent properties, as the oxygen partial pressure increases. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms the occurrence of the Nb5+ oxidation state for the highest oxygen partial pressure, while Nb4+ is additionally present at lower oxygen partial pressure settings. With a maximal transparency of ∼80% and a refractive index of ∼2.5, the transparent films show characteristics similar to Nb2O5.

  12. Drying of α-amylase by spray drying and freeze-drying - a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. de Jesus

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at comparing two traditional methods of drying of enzymes and at verifying the efficiency of each one and their advantages and disadvantages. The experiments were performed with a laboratory spray dryer and freeze-dryer using α-amylase as the model enzyme. An experimental design in star revealed that spray drying is mainly influenced by the inlet air temperature and feed flow rate, which were considered to be the main factors influencing the enzymatic activity and water activity; the long period of material exposure to high temperatures causes a partial activity loss. In the experiments of freeze drying, three methods of freezing were used (freezer, acetone and dry ice, and liquid nitrogen and samples subsequently freeze-dried for times ranging between 0-24 hours. The product obtained from the two techniques showed high enzymatic activity and low water activity. For the drying of heat-resistant enzymes, in which the product to be obtained does not have high added value, spray drying may be more economically viable because, in the freeze drying process, the process time can be considered as a limiting factor when choosing a technique.

  13. Tribological Characteristics of Tungsten Carbide Reinforced Arc Sprayed Coatings using Different Carbide Grain Size Fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Tillmann

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tungsten carbide reinforced coatings play an important role in the field of surface engineering to protect stressed surfaces against wear. For thermally sprayed coatings, it is already shown that the tribological properties get mainly determined by the carbide grain size fraction. Within the scope of this study, the tribological characteristics of iron based WC-W2C reinforced arc sprayed coatings deposited using cored wires consisting of different carbide grain size fractions were examined. Microstructural characteristics of the produced coatings were scrutinized using electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction analyses. Ball-on-disk test as well as Taber Abraser and dry sand rubber wheel test were employed to analyze both the dry sliding and the abrasive wear behavior. It was shown that a reduced carbide grain size fraction as filling leads to an enhanced wear resistance against sliding. In terms of the Taber Abraser test, it is also demonstrated that a fine carbide grain size fraction results in an improved wear resistant against abrasion. As opposed to that, a poorer wear resistance was found within the dry sand rubber wheel tests. The findings show that the operating mechanisms for both abrasion tests affect the stressed surface in a different way, leading either to microcutting or microploughing.

  14. An analytical methodology to predict the coating characteristics of plasma-sprayed ceramic powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varacalle, D.J. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Experimental and analytical studies have been conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to investigate gas, particle, and coating dynamics in the plasma spray process. Nine experiments were conducted using a Taguchi statistical parametric approach. The thermal plasma produced by the commercial plasma spray torch and the related plasma/particle interaction were then numerically modeled from the cathode tip to varied standoff distances in the free plume for the nine experiments, which ranged in power from 28 to 43 kW. The flow and temperature fields in the plasma were solved using the governing conservation equations with suitable boundary conditions. This information was then used as boundary conditions to solve the plasma/particle interaction problem for the nine experiments. The particle dynamics (10- to 75-μm particles) for a yttria-stabilized zirconia powder were then simulated by computer. Particle morphology is discussed with respect to the changes in the process parameters. The predicted temperature and velocity of the zirconia particles were then used as initial conditions to a coating dynamics code. The code predicts the thickness and porosity of the zirconia coatings for the specific process parameters. The predicted coating characteristics exhibit reasonable correlation with the actual characteristics obtained from the Taguchi experimental studies. 12 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs

  15. The effect of YBa2Cu3O7-x powder characteristics on thick coatings prepared by atmospheric plasma spraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiopoulos, E.; Tsetsekou, A.

    2000-01-01

    The development of superconducting YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x plasma sprayed coatings on metal substrates can be very useful for applications such as targets for thin-film deposition techniques (sputtering, laser ablation, ion assisted deposition) or magnetic shielding, due to the brittle nature of bulk superconductors. The plasma spraying technique is very flexible and can be used for manufacturing components with a large variety of geometries. This technique requires the use of powders with good rheological characteristics. In this study, YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x powders were produced by using the conventional solid-state reaction route and also by spray drying a solution of nitrate precursors. Both powders, as well as mixtures of them, were plasma sprayed to develop coatings on stainless-steel substrates, with the aim of studying the effect of the feedstock powder characteristics on the coating properties. It was found that by optimizing the plasma spraying conditions, good quality coatings could be obtained. However, the powder morphology and homogeneity significantly affect the coating quality. More homogeneous powders lead to better results, the spray-dried powder being the best because of its enhanced rheological properties and good morphology. (author)

  16. Analysis of fuel spray characteristics for premixed lean diesel combustion; Kihaku yokongo diesel kikan ni okeru nenryo funmu kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, S; Harada, a; Miyamoto, T; Akagawa, H; Tsujimura, K

    1997-10-01

    Premixed lean diesel combustion (PREDIC) makes it possible to achieve low NOx emission. It is an important factor to make the homogeneous spray formation for PREDIC. In this paper presents I the effect of the spray dispersion on emission characteristic were analyzed with the spray observation and engine test. Pintle type nozzle, which has different feature from orifice type nozzle, are used to form the hollow cone spray. As a result, the pintle type nozzle having grooves to generate the swirl flow, makes the reduced penetration in comparison with the hole nozzle under low ambient gas pressure. And it could improve THC, CO emissions at low NOx emission condition. 7 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Comparative study of DNA encapsulation into PLGA microparticles using modified double emulsion methods and spray drying techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oster, C G; Kissel, T

    2005-05-01

    Recently, several research groups have shown the potential of microencapsulated DNA as adjuvant for DNA immunization and in tissue engineering approaches. Among techniques generally used for microencapsulation of hydrophilic drug substances into hydrophobic polymers, modified WOW double emulsion method and spray drying of water-in-oil dispersions take a prominent position. The key parameters for optimized microspheres are particle size, encapsulation efficiency, continuous DNA release and stabilization of DNA against enzymatic and mechanical degradation. This study investigates the possibility to encapsulate DNA avoiding shear forces which readily degrade DNA during this microencapsulation. DNA microparticles were prepared with polyethylenimine (PEI) as a complexation agent for DNA. Polycations are capable of stabilizing DNA against enzymatic, as well as mechanical degradation. Further, complexation was hypothesized to facilitate the encapsulation by reducing the size of the macromolecule. This study additionally evaluated the possibility of encapsulating lyophilized DNA and lyophilized DNA/PEI complexes. For this purpose, the spray drying and double emulsion techniques were compared. The size of the microparticles was characterized by laser diffractometry and the particles were visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). DNA encapsulation efficiencies were investigated photometrically after complete hydrolysis of the particles. Finally, the DNA release characteristics from the particles were studied. Particles with a size of <10 microm which represent the threshold for phagocytic uptake could be prepared with these techniques. The encapsulation efficiency ranged from 100-35% for low theoretical DNA loadings. DNA complexation with PEI 25?kDa prior to the encapsulation process reduced the initial burst release of DNA for all techniques used. Spray-dried particles without PEI exhibited high burst releases, whereas double emulsion techniques showed continuous

  18. Thermal Arc Spray Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafiz Abd Malek, Muhamad; Hayati Saad, Nor; Kiyai Abas, Sunhaji; Mohd Shah, Noriyati

    2013-06-01

    Usage of protective coating for corrosion protection was on highly demand during the past decade; and thermal spray coating played a major part during that time. In recent years, the thermal arc spray coating becomes a popular coating. Many big players in oil and gas such as PETRONAS, EXXON MOBIL and SHELL in Malaysia tend to use the coating on steel structure as a corrosion protection. Further developments in coating processes, the devices, and raw materials have led to expansion of functional coatings and applications scope from conventional coating to specialized industries. It is widely used because of its ability to withstand high process temperature, offer advantages in efficiency, lower cost and acts as a corrosion protection. Previous research also indicated that the thermal arc spray offers better coating properties compared to other methods of spray. This paper reviews some critical area of thermal spray coating by discussing the process/parameter of thermal arc spray technology and quality control of coating. Coating performance against corrosion, wear and special characteristic of coating are also described. The field application of arc spray technology are demonstrated and reviewed.

  19. Thermal Arc Spray Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malek, Muhamad Hafiz Abd; Saad, Nor Hayati; Abas, Sunhaji Kiyai; Shah, Noriyati Mohd

    2013-01-01

    Usage of protective coating for corrosion protection was on highly demand during the past decade; and thermal spray coating played a major part during that time. In recent years, the thermal arc spray coating becomes a popular coating. Many big players in oil and gas such as PETRONAS, EXXON MOBIL and SHELL in Malaysia tend to use the coating on steel structure as a corrosion protection. Further developments in coating processes, the devices, and raw materials have led to expansion of functional coatings and applications scope from conventional coating to specialized industries. It is widely used because of its ability to withstand high process temperature, offer advantages in efficiency, lower cost and acts as a corrosion protection. Previous research also indicated that the thermal arc spray offers better coating properties compared to other methods of spray. This paper reviews some critical area of thermal spray coating by discussing the process/parameter of thermal arc spray technology and quality control of coating. Coating performance against corrosion, wear and special characteristic of coating are also described. The field application of arc spray technology are demonstrated and reviewed.

  20. A comparative study of tribological behavior of plasma and D-gun sprayed coatings under different wear modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundararajan, G.; Rao, D.S.; Prasad, K.U.M.; Joshi, S.V.

    1998-01-01

    In recent years, thermal sprayed protective coatings have gained widespread acceptance for a variety of industrial applications. A vast majority of these applications involve the use of thermal sprayed coatings to combat wear. While plasma spraying is the most versatile variant of all the thermal spray processes, the detonation gun (D-gun) coatings have been a novelty until recently because of their proprietary nature. The present study is aimed at comparing the tribological behavior of coatings deposited using the two above techniques by focusing on some popular coating materials that are widely adopted for wear resistant applications, namely, WC-12% Co, Al 2 O 3 , and Cr 3 C 2 -NiCr. To enable a comprehensive comparison of the above indicated thermal spray techniques as well as coating materials, the deposited coatings were extensively characterized employing microstructural evaluation, microhardness measurements, and XRD analysis for phase constitution. The behavior of these coatings under different wear modes was also evaluated by determining their tribological performance when subjected to solid particle erosion tests, rubber wheel sand abrasion tests, and pin-on-disk sliding wear tests. Among all the coating materials studied, D-gun sprayed WC-12% Co, in general, yields the best performance under different modes of wear, whereas plasma sprayed Al 2 O 3 shows least wear resistance to every wear mode

  1. Influence of geometric and hydro-dynamic parameters of injector on calculation of spray characteristics of diesel engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The main role in air/fuel mixture formation at the IC diesel engines has the energy introduced by fuel into the IC engine that is the characteristics of spraying fuel into the combustion chamber. The characteristic can be defined by the spray length, the spray cone angle, the physical and the chemical structure of fuel spray by different sections. Having in mind very complex experimental setups for researching in this field, the mentioned characteristics are mostly analyzed by calculations. There are two methods in the literature, the first based on use of the semi-empirical expressions (correlations and the second, the calculations of spray characteristics by use of very complex mathematical methods. The second method is dominant in the modern literature. The main disadvantage of the calculation methods is a correct definition of real state at the end of the nozzle orifice (real boundary conditions. The majority of the researchers in this field use most frequently the coefficient of total losses inside the injector. This coefficient depends on injector design, as well as depends on the level of fuel energy and fuel energy transformation along the injector. Having in mind the importance of the real boundary conditions, the complex methods for calculation of the fuel spray characteristics should have the calculation of fuel flows inside the injector and the calculation of spray characteristics together. This approach is a very complex numerical problem and there are no existing computer programs with satisfactory calculation results. Analysis of spray characteristics by use of the semi-empirical expressions (correlations is presented in this paper. The special attention is dedicated to the analysis of the constant in the semi-empirical expressions and influence parameters on this constant. Also, the method for definition of realistic boundary condition at the end of the nozzle orifice is presented in the paper. By use of this method completely

  2. Experimental studies on spray and gas entrainment characteristics of biodiesel fuel: Implications of gas entrained and fuel oxygen content on soot formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuti, Olawole Abiola; Nishida, Keiya; Zhu, Jingyu

    2013-01-01

    Experiments were performed inside the constant volume vessel to simulate the real diesel engine conditions. The LIF–PIV (Laser Induced Florescence – Particulate Image Velocimetry) technique was used to characterize the spray and gas entrainment characteristics of the fuels while the OH-chemiluminescence and two color pyrometry were applied to obtain information about the combustion processes. Biodiesel from palm oil (BDF (Biodiesel Fuel)) and the JIS #2 diesel fuel were utilized. It was observed that the SMD (Sauter mean diameter) obtained through an empirical equation decreased by increasing the injection pressure from 100 to 300 MPa and reducing the nozzle diameter from 0.16 to 0.08 mm. BDF has higher SMD values compared to diesel thus signifying inferior atomization. By increasing the injection pressure up to 300 MPa and reducing the nozzle diameter to 0.08 mm, the normal velocity and total mass flow rate of the entrained gas by the fuels increased. Due to higher viscosity and density properties, BDF possessed inferior atomization characteristics which made the normal velocity and total mass flow rate of the entrained gas lower compared to diesel. Due to inferior atomization which led to less gas being entrained upstream of the lift-off flame, the fuel oxygen content in BDF played a significant role in soot formation processes. - Highlights: • Spray and gas entrainment characteristics of biodiesel (BDF (Biodiesel Fuel)) and fuel were investigated. • Effect of injector parameters on BDF spray and gas entrainment characteristics was identified. • Higher viscosity and density of BDF yielded inferior spray atomization processes. • Gas entrainment velocity and mass flow rate of gas entrained by BDF lower. • Gas entrained had less effect on BDF's soot formation

  3. Prospective, double blind, randomized, controlled trial comparing vapocoolant spray versus placebo spray in adults undergoing intravenous cannulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Sharon E

    2017-10-01

    Painful diagnostic and therapeutic procedures are common in the health care setting. Eliminating, or at least, minimizing the pain associated with various procedures should be a priority. Although there are many benefits of providing local/topical anesthesia prior to performing painful procedures, ranging from greater patient/family satisfaction to increased procedural success rates; local/topical anesthetics are frequently not used. Reasons include the need for a needlestick to administer local anesthetics such as lidocaine and the long onset for topical anesthetics. Vapocoolants eliminate the risks associated with needlesticks, avoids the tissue distortion with intradermal local anesthetics, eliminates needlestick pain, have a quick almost instantaneous onset, are easy to apply, require no skills or devices to apply, are convenient, and inexpensive. The aims of this study were to ascertain if peripheral intravenous (PIV) cannulation pain would be significantly decreased by using a vapocoolant (V) versus sterile water placebo (S) spray, as determined by a reduction of at least ≥1.8 points on numerical rating scale (NRS) after vapocoolant versus placebo spray, the side effects and incidence of side effects from a vapocoolant spray; and whether there were any long term visible skin abnormalities associated with the use of a vapocoolant spray. Prospective, randomized, double-blind controlled trial of 300 adults (ages 18-80) requiring PIV placement in a hospital ED, randomized to S (N=150) or V (N=150) prior to PIV. Efficacy outcome was the difference in PIV pain: NRS from 0 (none) to worst (10). Safety outcomes included a skin checklist for local adverse effects (i.e., redness, blanching, edema, ecchymosis, itching, changes in skin pigmentation), vital sign (VS) changes, and before/after photographs of the PIV site. Patient demographics (age, gender, race), comorbidity, medications, and vital signs; and PIV procedure variables (e.g., IV needle size, location

  4. Effects of Chitosan Spraying on Physiological Characteristics of Ferula flabelliloba (Apiaceae Under Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Taheri

    2016-02-01

    with different concentrations were investigated. The main objective of this study was to examine the potential benefits of chitosan by reducing damage to F. flabelliloba at the seedling stages under water-deficit conditions. Materials and Methods In order to evaluate the effects of chitosan spraying and drought stress on physiological characteristics of F. felabelliloba, a factorial experiment in a completely randomized design with three replications was conducted in laboratory. The experimental treatments included drought stress (irrigated in Field capacity, depletion of soil water content up to 35% and 65% of FC condition and foliar chitosan spray (Zero, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 mg l-1. Seeds of F. flabelliloba were harvested in June-July of 2012 from natural habitat in Binalood mountain and kept in laboratory condition until the study started. F. flabelliloba seeds were germinated and grown in soils at light/dark temperature cycle of 20-16 degree centigrade and photoperiod of 16-8 h. Irrigation treatments were performed after 20 days, when seedling established and chitosan sprayed simultaneous and repeated one month later. The shoot from 60-day-old plants were taken and used for analysis the physiological parameters. Shoot dry weight was measured in oven at 70 ºC for 24 hours. Enzyme activity was determined from the extract prepared according to the method of Sairam and Saxena (2000. Catalase and Peroxidase activities were determined according to Weydert and Cullen (2010 and Superoxide dismutase activity assayed as described by Beauchamp and Fridovich (1971. Lipid peroxidation was estimated by measuring spectrophotometrically malondialdehyde (MDA content of plant based on Jiang and Hung (2001. Total phenolic content was determined according to Ebrahimzadeh and Bahramian (2009. Data from the experiment was analyzed using SPSS ver. 17 and MSTAT-C software and mean comparison was carried out using Duncan´s multiple range test at the 95% of probability. Results and

  5. Characteristics of spray flames and the effect of group combustion on the morphology of flame-made nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslamian, Morteza; Heine, Martin C.

    2008-01-01

    Characteristics of burning and non-burning sprays generated by a coaxial air-assist nozzle, previously used for the synthesis of ceramic nanoparticles by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP), are studied using phase Doppler anemometry. Also, the effect of droplet interaction on the overall combustion behavior of the spray (group combustion) and, consequently, on the characteristics of flame-made ceramic particles is investigated. A physical model is proposed which correlates the formation of inhomogeneous mixtures of micron-sized hollow particles and solid nanoparticles to the combustion mode: the precursor droplets which entirely evaporate in the hot flame are responsible for the formation of nanoparticles. The vapor species react, forming intermediate and product molecules and clusters that quickly grow to nanosized ceramic particles. On the other hand, under certain conditions, a small number of the droplets, particularly with large initial sizes, escape from the spray boundaries and become extinguished, producing large hollow ceramic particles. It is also possible that some of the large droplets, which lie within the spray core, do not entirely evaporate. These surviving droplets then form large particles which are usually hollow but can collapse to solid particles at sufficiently high temperatures. Also, a criterion for the formation of homogeneous ceramic nanoparticles is presented.

  6. Characteristics of spray flames and the effect of group combustion on the morphology of flame-made nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eslamian, Morteza; Heine, Martin C

    2008-01-01

    Characteristics of burning and non-burning sprays generated by a coaxial air-assist nozzle, previously used for the synthesis of ceramic nanoparticles by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP), are studied using phase Doppler anemometry. Also, the effect of droplet interaction on the overall combustion behavior of the spray (group combustion) and, consequently, on the characteristics of flame-made ceramic particles is investigated. A physical model is proposed which correlates the formation of inhomogeneous mixtures of micron-sized hollow particles and solid nanoparticles to the combustion mode: the precursor droplets which entirely evaporate in the hot flame are responsible for the formation of nanoparticles. The vapor species react, forming intermediate and product molecules and clusters that quickly grow to nanosized ceramic particles. On the other hand, under certain conditions, a small number of the droplets, particularly with large initial sizes, escape from the spray boundaries and become extinguished, producing large hollow ceramic particles. It is also possible that some of the large droplets, which lie within the spray core, do not entirely evaporate. These surviving droplets then form large particles which are usually hollow but can collapse to solid particles at sufficiently high temperatures. Also, a criterion for the formation of homogeneous ceramic nanoparticles is presented

  7. An investigation of the effects of spray angle and injection strategy on dimethyl ether (DME) combustion and exhaust emission characteristics in a common-rail diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Seung Hyun; Cha, June Pyo [Graduate School of Hanyang University, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Sungdong-gu, Seoul, 133-791 (Korea); Lee, Chang Sik [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Sungdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea)

    2010-11-15

    An experimental investigation was performed on the effects of spray angle and injection strategies (single and multiple) on the combustion characteristics, concentrations of exhaust emissions, and the particle size distribution in a direct-injection (DI) compression ignition engine fueled with dimethyl ether (DME) fuel. In this study, two types of narrow spray angle injectors ({theta}{sub spray} = 70 and 60 ) were examined and its results were compared with the results of conventional spray angle ({theta}{sub spray} = 156 ). In addition, to investigate the optimal operating conditions, early single-injection and multiple-injection strategies were employed to reduce cylinder wall-wetting of the injected fuels and to promote the ignition of premixed charge. The engine test was performed at 1400 rpm, and the injection timings were varied from TDC to BTDC 40 of the crank angle. The experimental results showed that the combustion pressure from single combustion for narrow-angle injectors ({theta}{sub spray} = 70 and 60 ) is increased, as compared to the results of the wide-angle injector ({theta}{sub spray} = 156 ) with advanced injection timing of BTDC 35 . In addition, two peaks of the rate of heat release (ROHR) are generated by the combustion of air-fuel premixed mixtures. DME combustion for all test injectors indicated low levels of soot emissions at all injection timings. The NO{sub x} emissions for narrow-angle injectors simultaneously increased in proportion to the advance in injection timing up to BTDC 25 , whereas BTDC 20 for the wide-angle injector. For multiple injections, the combustion pressure and ROHR of the first injection with narrow-angle injectors are combusted more actively, and the ignition delay of the second injected fuel is shorter than with the wide-angle injector. However, the second combustion pressure and ROHR were lower than during the first injection, and combustion durations are prolonged, as compared to the wide-angle injector. With

  8. An investigation of the effects of spray angle and injection strategy on dimethyl ether (DME) combustion and exhaust emission characteristics in a common-rail diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Seung Hyun; Cha, June Pyo; Lee, Chang Sik

    2010-01-01

    An experimental investigation was performed on the effects of spray angle and injection strategies (single and multiple) on the combustion characteristics, concentrations of exhaust emissions, and the particle size distribution in a direct-injection (DI) compression ignition engine fueled with dimethyl ether (DME) fuel. In this study, two types of narrow spray angle injectors (θ spray = 70 and 60 ) were examined and its results were compared with the results of conventional spray angle (θ spray = 156 ). In addition, to investigate the optimal operating conditions, early single-injection and multiple-injection strategies were employed to reduce cylinder wall-wetting of the injected fuels and to promote the ignition of premixed charge. The engine test was performed at 1400 rpm, and the injection timings were varied from TDC to BTDC 40 of the crank angle. The experimental results showed that the combustion pressure from single combustion for narrow-angle injectors (θ spray = 70 and 60 ) is increased, as compared to the results of the wide-angle injector (θ spray = 156 ) with advanced injection timing of BTDC 35 . In addition, two peaks of the rate of heat release (ROHR) are generated by the combustion of air-fuel premixed mixtures. DME combustion for all test injectors indicated low levels of soot emissions at all injection timings. The NO x emissions for narrow-angle injectors simultaneously increased in proportion to the advance in injection timing up to BTDC 25 , whereas BTDC 20 for the wide-angle injector. For multiple injections, the combustion pressure and ROHR of the first injection with narrow-angle injectors are combusted more actively, and the ignition delay of the second injected fuel is shorter than with the wide-angle injector. However, the second combustion pressure and ROHR were lower than during the first injection, and combustion durations are prolonged, as compared to the wide-angle injector. With advanced timing of the first injection, narrow

  9. Effectiveness of salicylic acid paste for treatment of digital dermatitis in dairy cows compared with tetracycline spray and hydrotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, Johann; Innerebner, Carmen; Pesenhofer, Robert; Hangl, Andreas; Tichy, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of salicylic acid paste (PASTE) was tested for topical treatment of 25 acute and 25 chronic digital dermatitis (DD) lesions. Control groups with the same number of acute and chronic DD lesions were treated with topical oxytetracycline spray (SPRAY) and by washing only with water (HYDRO) respectively. The therapeutic effects were evaluated using a pain score, the healing rate, the lesion size and other parameters. Pre-treatment and control examinations were carried out on day 0, 4, 14 and 21. In the PASTE group, 76.0% of acute DD lesions were pain free and 64.0% of acute DD lesions were healed on day 21 showing a normal skin surface (MO). Only 28.0% of acute DD lesions treated with SPRAY and 16.0% treated with HYDRO had healed on day 21. A significantly higher healing rate was revealed in acute lesions for the PASTE compared to the HYDRO group (p < 0.05) for all three re-checks, and for the PASTE group compared with the SPRAY group (p < 0.05) for day 4 and day 14. Healing rates of chronic DD lesions were higher in the PASTE group with 44.0% on day 14 and 36.0% on day 21, compared with 16.0% in the SPRAY and 32.0% in the HYDRO group on day 14, and 20.0% (SPRAY) and 28.0% (HYDRO) on day 21 respectively. The recurrence rate of lesions after they had healed during the study period was 14.5% in total. Digital dermatitis lesions treated with salicylic acid paste and a wrap showed significantly higher healing rates within the study period, odds ratios for healing of acute lesions with PASTE were 4.5 to 6.7 times higher than with SPRAY, and 9.3 to 36.4 higher compared with HYDRO.

  10. Solid-state, triboelectrostatic and dissolution characteristics of spray-dried piroxicam-glucosamine solid dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebisi, Adeola O; Kaialy, Waseem; Hussain, Tariq; Al-Hamidi, Hiba; Nokhodchi, Ali; Conway, Barbara R; Asare-Addo, Kofi

    2016-10-01

    This work explores the use of both spray drying and d-glucosamine HCl (GLU) as a hydrophilic carrier to improve the dissolution rate of piroxicam (PXM) whilst investigating the electrostatic charges associated with the spray drying process. Spray dried PXM:GLU solid dispersions were prepared and characterised (XRPD, DSC, SEM). Dissolution and triboelectric charging were also conducted. The results showed that the spray dried PXM alone, without GLU produced some PXM form II (DSC results) with no enhancement in solubility relative to that of the parent PXM. XRPD results also showed the spray drying process to decrease the crystallinity of GLU and solid dispersions produced. The presence of GLU improved the dissolution rate of PXM. Spray dried PXM: GLU at a ratio of 2:1 had the most improved dissolution. The spray drying process generally yielded PXM-GLU spherical particles of around 2.5μm which may have contributed to the improved dissolution. PXM showed a higher tendency for charging in comparison to the carrier GLU (-3.8 versus 0.5nC/g for untreated material and -7.5 versus 3.1nC/g for spray dried materials). Spray dried PXM and spray dried GLU demonstrated higher charge densities than untreated PXM and untreated GLU, respectively. Regardless of PXM:GLU ratio, all spray dried PXM:GLU solid dispersions showed a negligible charge density (net-CMR: 0.1-0.3nC/g). Spray drying of PXM:GLU solid dispersions can be used to produce formulation powders with practically no charge and thereby improving handling as well as dissolution behaviour of PXM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of aviation fuel type and fuel injection conditions on the spray characteristics of pressure swirl and hybrid air blast fuel injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feddema, Rick

    Feddema, Rick T. M.S.M.E., Purdue University, December 2013. Effect of Aviation Fuel Type and Fuel Injection Conditions on the Spray Characteristics of Pressure Swirl and Hybrid Air Blast Fuel Injectors. Major Professor: Dr. Paul E. Sojka, School of Mechanical Engineering Spray performance of pressure swirl and hybrid air blast fuel injectors are central to combustion stability, combustor heat management, and pollutant formation in aviation gas turbine engines. Next generation aviation gas turbine engines will optimize spray atomization characteristics of the fuel injector in order to achieve engine efficiency and emissions requirements. Fuel injector spray atomization performance is affected by the type of fuel injector, fuel liquid properties, fuel injection pressure, fuel injection temperature, and ambient pressure. Performance of pressure swirl atomizer and hybrid air blast nozzle type fuel injectors are compared in this study. Aviation jet fuels, JP-8, Jet A, JP-5, and JP-10 and their effect on fuel injector performance is investigated. Fuel injector set conditions involving fuel injector pressure, fuel temperature and ambient pressure are varied in order to compare each fuel type. One objective of this thesis is to contribute spray patternation measurements to the body of existing drop size data in the literature. Fuel droplet size tends to increase with decreasing fuel injection pressure, decreasing fuel injection temperature and increasing ambient injection pressure. The differences between fuel types at particular set conditions occur due to differences in liquid properties between fuels. Liquid viscosity and surface tension are identified to be fuel-specific properties that affect the drop size of the fuel. An open aspect of current research that this paper addresses is how much the type of aviation jet fuel affects spray atomization characteristics. Conventional aviation fuel specifications are becoming more important with new interest in alternative

  12. Fuel spray and combustion characteristics of butanol blends in a constant volume combustion chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yu; Li, Jun; Jin, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A sudden drop is observed in spray penetration for B10S10D80 fuel at 800 and 900 K. • With increasing of temperature, auto-ignition timings of fuels become unperceivable. • Low n-butanol addition has little effect on autoignition timings from 800 to 1200 K. • n-Butanol additive can reduce soot emissions at the near-wall regions. • Larger soot reduction is seen at higher ambient temperatures for n-butanol addition. - Abstract: The processes of spray penetrations, flame propagation and soot formation and oxidation fueling n-butanol/biodiesel/diesel blends were experimentally investigated in a constant volume combustion chamber with an optical access. B0S20D80 (0% n-butanol, 20% soybean biodiesel, and 80% diesel in volume) was prepared as the base fuel. n-Butanol was added into the base fuel by volumetric percent of 5% and 10%, denoted as B5S15D80 (5% n-butanol/15% soybean biodiesel/80% diesel) and B10S10D80 (10% n-butanol/10% soybean biodiesel/80% diesel). The ambient temperatures at the time of fuel injection were set to 800 K, 900 K, 1000 K, and 1200 K. Results indicate that the penetration length reduces with the increase of n-butanol volumes in blending fuels and ambient temperatures. The spray penetration presents a sudden drop as fueling B10S10D80 at 800 K and 900 K, which might be caused by micro-explosion. A larger premixed combustion process is observed at low ambient temperatures, while the heat release rate of high ambient temperatures presents mixing controlled diffusion combustion. With a lower ambient temperature, the auto-ignition delay becomes longer with increasing of n-butanol volume in blends. However, with increasing of ambient temperatures, the auto-ignition timing between three fuels becomes unperceivable. Generally, low n-butanol addition has a limited or no effect on the auto-ignition timing in the current conditions. Compared with the base fuel of B0S20D80, n-butanol additive with 5% or 10% in volume can reduce soot

  13. Auto-Ignition and Spray Characteristics of n-Heptane and iso-Octane Fuels in Ignition Quality Tester

    KAUST Repository

    Jaasim, Mohammed

    2018-04-04

    Numerical simulations were conducted to systematically assess the effects of different spray models on the ignition delay predictions and compared with experimental measurements obtained at the KAUST ignition quality tester (IQT) facility. The influence of physical properties and chemical kinetics over the ignition delay time is also investigated. The IQT experiments provided the pressure traces as the main observables, which are not sufficient to obtain a detailed understanding of physical (breakup, evaporation) and chemical (reactivity) processes associated with auto-ignition. A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, CONVERGE™, was used to capture the detailed fluid/spray dynamics and chemical characteristics within the IQT configuration. The Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulence with multi-zone chemistry sub-models was adopted with a reduced chemical kinetic mechanism for n-heptane and iso-octane. The emphasis was on the assessment of two common spray breakup models, namely the Kelvin-Helmholtz/Rayleigh-Taylor (KH-RT) and linearized instability sheet atomization (LISA) models, in terms of their influence on auto-ignition predictions. Two spray models resulted in different local mixing, and their influence in the prediction of auto-ignition was investigated. The relative importance of physical ignition delay, characterized by spray evaporation and mixing processes, in the overall ignition behavior for the two different fuels were examined. The results provided an improved understanding of the essential contribution of physical and chemical processes that are critical in describing the IQT auto-ignition event at different pressure and temperature conditions, and allowed a systematic way to distinguish between the physical and chemical ignition delay times.

  14. Spray characteristics and liquid distribution of multi-hole effervescent atomisers for industrial burners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jedelský, Jan; Jícha, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The multi-hole (mh) spray morphology is very similar to that of single-hole nozzles. • Unsteady spray was found at low pressure and low gas-to-liquid-ratio (GLR) values. • Cone angle variation in mh spray with pressure and GLR depends on the exit nozzles angle. • A liquid–gas gravitational separation in horizontal atomiser operation was observed. • It causes up to 70% fuel supply variance into exit holes depending on design and regime. - Graphical Abstract: - Abstract: The present paper provides an experimental study and optimisation of multi-hole effervescent atomisers for industrial burners using oil-based fossil, bio- or waste fuels with prospects of emission reduction. Several multi-hole nozzles were designed based on our previous work. We probed the spray quality by phase-Doppler anemometry. 3-D plots of Sauter mean diameter and mean droplet velocity demonstrate their spatial distribution within the spray. The effect of geometrical and operational factors on the spray is discussed. Droplet size–velocity correlations as well as the size and velocity distributions are presented, and differences are found against other investigations. A spray macrostructure is photographically observed and spray cone angles of the multi-hole nozzles are analysed. An internal two-phase flow is estimated using the Baker's map for horizontal two-phase flow. Our previous two-phase flow visualisations suggested a liquid–gas gravitational separation when the multi-hole atomiser operated horizontally. This issue is addressed here; the results of spray heterogeneity measurements document that fuel flow rates through individual exit holes differ significantly. This difference spans between 0 and 70% depending on the nozzle design and flow regime. Effervescent sprays are unsteady under some operating conditions; spray unsteadiness was detected at low pressure and low gas-to-liquid-ratios.

  15. Electrical and structural characteristics of spray deposited (Zn O)x-(Cd O)1-x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alarcon F, G.; Pelaez R, A.; Villa G, M.; Carmona T, S.; Luna G, J. A.; Aguilar F, M.; Vasquez P, B.; Falcony, C.

    2013-01-01

    (Zn O) x (Cd O) 1-x thin films were deposited on glass substrates at 300 and 400 C by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis with compositions ranging from Cd O to Zn O. The electrical properties were obtained by impedance spectroscopy and Hall Effect measurements. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction, were used to study the structural characteristics of the films. Ellipsometry, in addition, was used to confirm the structural characteristics. The films as deposited resulted mainly polycrystalline and dense, depending on the substrate temperature and on their relative composition. All the films showed n-type conductivity and the films with intermediate compositions resulted in a mixture of both phases; Cd O and Zn O. Hall Effect measurements showed that the highest conductivity of Cd O was close to 1 x 10 3 (Ω-cm) -1 , the highest value obtained for Cd O, without doping. Impedance spectroscopy confirmed the Hall Effect results, showing that the highly conducting character of Cd O influenced dramatically the conductivity of the (Zn O) x (Cd O) 1-x films. In addition, depending on the substrate temperature and on the relative composition of the films, both, the bulk or grains, as well as the grain boundaries properties limit the conductivity in them. (Author)

  16. Study of fuel spray characteristics for premixed lean diesel combustion; Kihaku yokongo diesel kikan ni okeru nenryo funmu keisei ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, S.; Miyamoto, T.; Harada, A.; Akagawa, H.; Tsujimura, K. [New ACE Institute Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-05-01

    A study is being made on premixed lean diesel combustion (PREDIC) by means of early fuel injection in diesel engines. The PREDIC makes it possible to largely reduce NOx emission, but has such problems as ignition control and increase in THC and CO generation. In order to clarify the relationship between fuel spray characteristics in the PREDIC and properties of gas mixture and exhausts, the present study has investigated spread and internal structure of the spray by means of spray observation experiment using a pintle swirl nozzle. Based on the result therefrom, simulations were used to investigate effects of spatial dispersion characteristics of the spray on properties of the gas mixture and exhausts before ignition. The pintle swirl nozzle forms conical spray having an air layer inside the spray, where penetration is suppressed even under low atmospheric pressure. By forming hollow spray or solid spray in the conical spray, a possibility was indicated that equivalent ratio distribution of the gas mixture can be controlled and NO emission may be reduced. 8 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  17. The effect of nozzle diameter, injection pressure and ambient temperature on spray characteristics in diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhaodah Andsaler, Adiba; Khalid, Amir; Sharifhatul Adila Abdullah, Nor; Sapit, Azwan; Jaat, Norrizam

    2017-04-01

    Mixture formation of the ignition process is a key element in the diesel combustion as it influences the combustion process and exhaust emission. Aim of this study is to elucidate the effects of nozzle diameter, injection pressure and ambient temperature to the formation of spray. This study investigated diesel formation spray using Computational Fluid Dynamics. Multiphase volume of fluid (VOF) behaviour in the chamber are determined by means of transient simulation, Eulerian of two phases is used for implementation of mixing fuel and air. The detail behaviour of spray droplet diameter, spray penetration and spray breakup length was visualised using the ANSYS 16.1. This simulation was done in different nozzle diameter 0.12 mm and 0.2 mm performed at the ambient temperature 500 K and 700 K with different injection pressure 40 MPa, 70 MPa and 140 MPa. Results show that high pressure influence droplet diameter become smaller and the penetration length longer with the high injection pressure apply. Smaller nozzle diameter gives a shorter length of the breakup. It is necessary for nozzle diameter and ambient temperature condition to improve the formation of spray. High injection pressure is most effective in improvement of formation spray under higher ambient temperature and smaller nozzle diameter.

  18. Sensors Based Measurement Techniques of Fuel Injection and Ignition Characteristics of Diesel Sprays in DI Combustion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rehman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Innovative sensor based measurement techniques like needle lift sensor, photo (optical sensor and piezoresistive pressure transmitter are introduced and used to measure the injection and combustion characteristics in direct injection combustion system. Present experimental study is carried out in the constant volume combustion chamber to study the ignition, combustion and injection characteristics of the solid cone diesel fuel sprays impinging on the hot surface. Hot surface ignition approach has been used to create variety of advanced combustion systems. In the present study, the hot surface temperatures were varied from 623 K to 723 K. The cylinder air pressures were 20, 30 and 40 bar and fuel injection pressures were 100, 200 and 300 bar. It is found that ignition delay of fuel sprays get reduced with the rise in injection pressure. The ignition characteristics of sprays much less affected at high fuel injection pressures and high surface temperatures. The fuel injection duration reduces with the increase in fuel injection pressures. The rate of heat release becomes high at high injection pressures and it decreases with the increase in injection duration. It is found that duration of burn/combustion decrease with the increase in injection pressure. The use of various sensors is quite effective, reliable and accurate in measuring the various fuel injection and combustion characteristics. The study simulates the effect of fuel injection system parameters on combustion performance in large heavy duty engines.

  19. Structural and photocatalytic characteristics of TiO2 coatings produced by various thermal spray techniques

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ctibor, Pavel; Štengl, Václav; Pala, Zdeněk

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 3 (2013), s. 218-226 ISSN 2226-4108 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/12/1872 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 ; RVO:61388980 Keywords : plasma spraying * high velocity oxy–fuel (HVOF) spraying * flame spraying * titanium dioxide (TiO2) * photocatalysis * band gap Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics; CA - Inorganic Chemistry (UACH-T) http://www.springerlink.com/openurl.asp?genre=article&id=doi:10.1007/s40145-013-0063-z

  20. Spray-dried powders improve the controlled release of antifungal tioconazole-loaded polymeric nanocapsules compared to with lyophilized products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Roseane Fagundes; Motta, Mariana Heldt; Härter, Andréia Pisching Garcia; Flores, Fernanda Cramer; Beck, Ruy Carlos Ruver; Schaffazick, Scheila Rezende

    2016-01-01

    This work aimed to obtain solid formulations from polymeric nanocapsules and nanoemulsions containing tioconazole, a broad spectrum antifungal drug. Two dehydration methods were used: spray-drying and freeze-drying, using lactose as adjuvant (10%, w/v). The liquid formulations had a mean particle size around 206 nm and 182 nm for nanocapsules and nanoemulsions, respectively, and an adequate polydispersity index. Tioconazole content was close to the theoretical amount (1.0 mg/mL). After drying, the content ranged between 98 and 102% with a mean nanometric size of the dried products after redispersion. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the particles are rounded, sphere-shaped for the dried products obtained by spray-drying, and shapeless and irregular shapes for those obtained by freeze-drying. In the microbiological evaluation, all dried products remained active against the yeast Candida albicans when compared to the original systems. The dried products obtained by spray-drying from nanocapsules presented better control of the tioconazole release when compared to the freeze-drying products. - Highlights: • Polymeric nanocapsule suspensions containing tioconazole were submitted to spray-drying and freeze-drying. • Dried products from nanocapsule suspensions were stable for 30 days. • Release studies showed that the dried products presented greater control of drug release compared to the original suspension.

  1. Spray-dried powders improve the controlled release of antifungal tioconazole-loaded polymeric nanocapsules compared to with lyophilized products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Roseane Fagundes [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima, 1000, Santa Maria, RS, 97105-900 (Brazil); Motta, Mariana Heldt [Curso de Farmácia, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima, 1000, Santa Maria, RS, 97105-900 (Brazil); Härter, Andréia Pisching Garcia; Flores, Fernanda Cramer [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima, 1000, Santa Maria, RS, 97105-900 (Brazil); Beck, Ruy Carlos Ruver [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Ipiranga, 2752, Porto Alegre, RS, 90610-000 (Brazil); Schaffazick, Scheila Rezende [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima, 1000, Santa Maria, RS, 97105-900 (Brazil); and others

    2016-02-01

    This work aimed to obtain solid formulations from polymeric nanocapsules and nanoemulsions containing tioconazole, a broad spectrum antifungal drug. Two dehydration methods were used: spray-drying and freeze-drying, using lactose as adjuvant (10%, w/v). The liquid formulations had a mean particle size around 206 nm and 182 nm for nanocapsules and nanoemulsions, respectively, and an adequate polydispersity index. Tioconazole content was close to the theoretical amount (1.0 mg/mL). After drying, the content ranged between 98 and 102% with a mean nanometric size of the dried products after redispersion. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the particles are rounded, sphere-shaped for the dried products obtained by spray-drying, and shapeless and irregular shapes for those obtained by freeze-drying. In the microbiological evaluation, all dried products remained active against the yeast Candida albicans when compared to the original systems. The dried products obtained by spray-drying from nanocapsules presented better control of the tioconazole release when compared to the freeze-drying products. - Highlights: • Polymeric nanocapsule suspensions containing tioconazole were submitted to spray-drying and freeze-drying. • Dried products from nanocapsule suspensions were stable for 30 days. • Release studies showed that the dried products presented greater control of drug release compared to the original suspension.

  2. Characteristics and heat treatment of cold-sprayed Al-Sn binary alloy coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ning, Xian-Jin; Kim, Jin-Hong; Kim, Hyung-Jun; Lee, Changhee

    2009-01-01

    In this study, Al-Sn binary alloy coatings were prepared with Al-5 wt.% Sn (Al-5Sn) and Al-10 wt.% Sn (Al-10Sn) gas atomized powders by low pressure and high pressure cold spray process. The microstructure and microhardness of the coatings were characterized. To understand the coarsening of tin in the coating, the as-sprayed coatings were annealed at 150, 200, 250 and 300 o C for 1 h, respectively. The effect of annealing on microstructure and the bond strength of the coatings were investigated. The results show that Al-5Sn coating can be deposited by high pressure cold spray with nitrogen while Al-10Sn can only be deposited by low pressure cold spray with helium gas. Both Al-5Sn and Al-10Sn coatings present dense structures. The fraction of Sn in as-sprayed coatings is consistent with that in feed stock powders. The coarsening and/or migration of Sn phase in the coatings were observed when the annealing temperature exceeds 200 deg. C. Furthermore, the microhardness of the coatings decreased significantly at the annealing temperature of 250 deg. C. EDXA analysis shows that the heat treatment has no significant effect on fraction of Sn phase in Al-5Sn coatings. Bonding strength of as-sprayed Al-10Sn coating is slightly higher than that of Al-5Sn coating. Annealing at 200 o C can increase the bonding strength of Al-5Sn coatings.

  3. Influence of laser irradiation on deposition characteristics of cold sprayed Stellite-6 coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Jin, Yan; Yao, Jianhua; Li, Zhihong; Zhang, Qunli; Zhang, Xin

    2018-03-01

    Depositing hard materials such as Stellite-6 solely by cold spray (CS) is challengeable due to limited ability of plastic deformation. In this study, the deposition of Stellite-6 powder was achieved by supersonic laser deposition (SLD) which combines CS with synchronous laser irradiation. The surface morphology, deposition efficiency, track shape of Stellite-6 coatings produced over a range of laser irradiation temperatures were examined so as to reveal the effects of varying laser energy inputting on the deposition process of high strength material. The microstructure, phase composition and wear/corrosion resistant properties of the as-deposited Stellite-6 coatings were also investigated. The experimental results demonstrate that the surface flatness and deposition efficiency increase with laser irradiation temperature due to the softening effect induced by laser heating. The as-deposited Stellite-6 tracks show asymmetric shapes which are influenced by the relative configuration of powder stream and laser beam. The SLD coatings can preserve the original microstructure and phase of the feedstock material due to relatively low laser energy inputting, which result in the superior wear/corrosion resistant properties as compared to the counterpart prepared by laser cladding.

  4. Wear Characteristics of Ceramic Coating Materials by Plasma Spray under the Lubricative Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang Ho

    2001-02-01

    This paper is to investigate the wear behaviors of two types of ceramics, Al 2 O 3 and TiO 2 , by coated plasma thermal spray method under the lubricative environment. The lubricative environments are grease fluids, a general hydraulic fluids, and bearing fluids. The wear testing machine used a pin on disk type. Wear characteristics, which were friction force, friction coefficient and the specific wear rate, according to the lubricative environments were obtained at the four kinds of load, and the sliding velocity is 0.2m/sec. After the wear experiments, the wear surfaces of the each test specimen were observed by a scanning electronic microscope. The obtained results are as follows. : 1. The friction coefficients of TiO 2 coating materials are 0.11 ∼ 0.16 range and those of Al 2 O 3 are 0.24 ∼ 0.39. The friction coefficient of two coating materials is relative to the hardness of these materials. 2. The friction coefficient of TiO 2 coating materials in three lubricative environments is almost same to each other in spite of changing of applied loads. 3. The friction coefficient of Al 2 O 3 coating materials is more large in low load than high load. And the friction coefficient in grease is more large than a general hydraulic and bearing fluids had almost same friction coefficient. 4. The specific wear rate in TiO 2 is greatly increasing according to change the applied loads, but that in Al 2 O 3 is slightly. And the wear in grease is the least among three lubricating environments. 5. On the wear mechanism by SEM image observation, the wear of Al 2 O 3 is adhesive wear and TiO 3 is abrasive wear

  5. Comparative study of ITO and FTO thin films grown by spray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ait Aouaj, M.; Diaz, R.; Belayachi, A.; Rueda, F.; Abd-Lefdil, M.

    2009-01-01

    Tin doped indium oxide (ITO) and fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) thin films have been prepared by one step spray pyrolysis. Both film types grown at 400 deg. C present a single phase, ITO has cubic structure and preferred orientation (4 0 0) while FTO exhibits a tetragonal structure. Scanning electron micrographs showed homogeneous surfaces with average grain size around 257 and 190 nm for ITO and FTO respectively. The optical properties have been studied in several ITO and FTO samples by transmittance and reflectance measurements. The transmittance in the visible zone is higher in ITO than in FTO layers with a comparable thickness, while the reflectance in the infrared zone is higher in FTO in comparison with ITO. The best electrical resistivity values, deduced from optical measurements, were 8 x 10 -4 and 6 x 10 -4 Ω cm for ITO (6% of Sn) and FTO (2.5% of F) respectively. The figure of merit reached a maximum value of 2.15 x 10 -3 Ω -1 for ITO higher than 0.55 x 10 -3 Ω -1 for FTO.

  6. Water Spray Flow Characteristics Under Synthetic Jet Driven By a Piezoelectric Actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchitto, L.; Valentino, G.; Chiatto, M.; de Luca, L.

    2017-01-01

    Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) have been applied to investigate the droplets size and velocity distribution of a water spray, under the control of a piezo-element driven synthetic jet (SJ). Tests were carried out under atmospheric conditions within a chamber test rig equipped with optical accesses at two injection pressures, namely 5 and 10 MPa, exploring the variation of the main spray parameters caused by the synthetic jet perturbations. The SJ orifice has been placed at 45° with respect to the water spray axis; the nozzle body has been moved on its own axis and three different nozzle quotes were tested. PIV measurements have been averaged on 300 trials whereas about 105 samples have been acquired for the PDA tests. For each operative condition, the influence region of the SJ device on the spray has been computed through a T-Test algorithm. The synthetic jet locally interacts with the spray, energizing the region downstream the impact. The effect of the actuator decreases at higher injection pressures and moving the impact region upwards. Droplets coalescence can be detected along the synthetic jet axis, while no significant variations are observed along a direction orthogonal to it.

  7. Morphology, conductivity, and wetting characteristics of PEDOT:PSS thin films deposited by spin and spray coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabihi, F.; Xie, Y.; Gao, S.; Eslamian, M., E-mail: Morteza.Eslamian@sjtu.edu.cn

    2015-05-30

    Highlights: • Nanostructure of spun-on and spray-on PEDOT:PSS thin films is studied. • A correlation is established between the film nanostructure and electrical conductivity. • Effect of process parameters is studied on the film characteristics. • A high solution concentration, high process temperature and multiple deposition layers are recommended. - Abstract: The goal of this paper is to study the characteristics of PEDOT:PSS thin films and the effects of varying the processing parameters on the structure, functionality, and surface wetting of spun-on and spray-on PEDOT:PSS thin films. PEDOT:PSS is a polymer mixture, which is electrically conductive and transparent and, therefore, is an attractive material for some optoelectronic applications, such as organic and perovskite solar cells. In this work, the films are fabricated using spin coating (a lab-scale method) and spray coating (an up-scalable method). The effects of spinning speed, drying time, and post-annealing temperature on spun-on samples and the effects of the substrate temperature and number of spray passes (deposition layers) on spray-on samples, as well as the effect of precursor solution concentration on both cases are investigated. Various characterization tools, such as AFM, SEM, XRD, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and electrical conductivity measurements are used to determine the film roughness, thickness, structure, and morphology. The solution precursor physical data, such as contact angle on glass substrates, viscosity, and interfacial tension, are also obtained within a practical range of temperatures and concentrations. It is found that in both spin and spray coating routes, only well-controlled operating conditions result in the formation of conductive and defect-free PEDOT:PSS films. The formation of PEDOT:PSS thin films with small grains composed of PEDOT forming the core of the grains and PSS forming a shell or coating, which are evenly distributed in a PSS

  8. Morphology, conductivity, and wetting characteristics of PEDOT:PSS thin films deposited by spin and spray coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabihi, F.; Xie, Y.; Gao, S.; Eslamian, M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Nanostructure of spun-on and spray-on PEDOT:PSS thin films is studied. • A correlation is established between the film nanostructure and electrical conductivity. • Effect of process parameters is studied on the film characteristics. • A high solution concentration, high process temperature and multiple deposition layers are recommended. - Abstract: The goal of this paper is to study the characteristics of PEDOT:PSS thin films and the effects of varying the processing parameters on the structure, functionality, and surface wetting of spun-on and spray-on PEDOT:PSS thin films. PEDOT:PSS is a polymer mixture, which is electrically conductive and transparent and, therefore, is an attractive material for some optoelectronic applications, such as organic and perovskite solar cells. In this work, the films are fabricated using spin coating (a lab-scale method) and spray coating (an up-scalable method). The effects of spinning speed, drying time, and post-annealing temperature on spun-on samples and the effects of the substrate temperature and number of spray passes (deposition layers) on spray-on samples, as well as the effect of precursor solution concentration on both cases are investigated. Various characterization tools, such as AFM, SEM, XRD, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and electrical conductivity measurements are used to determine the film roughness, thickness, structure, and morphology. The solution precursor physical data, such as contact angle on glass substrates, viscosity, and interfacial tension, are also obtained within a practical range of temperatures and concentrations. It is found that in both spin and spray coating routes, only well-controlled operating conditions result in the formation of conductive and defect-free PEDOT:PSS films. The formation of PEDOT:PSS thin films with small grains composed of PEDOT forming the core of the grains and PSS forming a shell or coating, which are evenly distributed in a PSS

  9. Investigating Tribological Characteristics of HVOF Sprayed AISI 316 Stainless Steel Coating by Pulsed Plasma Nitriding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindivan, H.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, surface modification of aluminum alloy using High-Velocity Oxygen Fuel (HVOF) thermal spray and pulsed plasma nitriding processes was investigated. AISI 316 stainless steel coating on 1050 aluminum alloy substrate by HVOF process was pulsed plasma nitrided at 793 K under 0.00025 MPa pressure for 43200 s in a gas mixture of 75 % N2 and 25 % H2. The results showed that the pulse plasma nitriding process produced a surface layer with CrN, iron nitrides (Fe3N, Fe4N) and expanded austenite (γN). The pulsed plasma nitrided HVOF-sprayed coating showed higher surface hardness, lower wear rate and coefficient of friction than the untreated HVOF-sprayed one.

  10. Understanding plasma spraying process and characteristics of DC-arc plasma gun (PJ-100

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovana Ružić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The thermal spray processes are a group of coating processes used to apply metallic or non-metallic coatings. In these processes energy sources are used to heat the coating material (in the form of powder, wire, or rod form to a molten or semi-molten state and accelerated towards a prepared surface by either carrier gases or atomization jets. In plasma spraying process, the spraying material is generally in the form of powder and requires a carrier gas to feed the powder into the plasma jet, which is passing between the hot cathode and the cylindrical nozzle-shaped anode. The design of DC plasma gun (PJ - 100 is designed and manufactured in Serbia. Plasma spaying process, the powder injection with the heat, momentum and mass transfers between particles and plasma jet, and the latest developments related to the production of DC plasma gun are described in this article.

  11. Comparative Survival Rates of Human-Derived Probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei and L. salivarius Strains during Heat Treatment and Spray Drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, G. E.; O'Sullivan, E.; Kelly, J.; Auty, M. A. E.; Fitzgerald, G. F.; Collins, J. K.; Ross, R. P.; Stanton, C.

    2000-01-01

    Spray drying of skim milk was evaluated as a means of preserving Lactobacillus paracasei NFBC 338 and Lactobacillus salivarius UCC 118, which are human-derived strains with probiotic potential. Our initial experiments revealed that NFBC 338 is considerably more heat resistant in 20% (wt/vol) skim milk than UCC 118 is; the comparable decimal reduction times were 11.1 and 1.1 min, respectively, at 59°C. An air outlet temperature of 80 to 85°C was optimal for spray drying; these conditions resulted in powders with moisture contents of 4.1 to 4.2% and viable counts of 3.2 × 109 CFU/g for NFBC 338 and 5.2 × 107 CFU/g for UCC 118. Thus, L. paracasei NFBC 338 survived better than L. salivarius UCC 118 during spray drying; similar results were obtained when we used confocal scanning laser microscopy and LIVE/DEAD BacLight viability staining. In addition, confocal scanning laser microscopy revealed that the probiotic lactobacilli were located primarily in the powder particles. Although both spray-dried cultures appeared to be stressed, as shown by increased sensitivity to NaCl, bacteriocin production by UCC 118 was not affected by the process, nor was the activity of the bacteriocin peptide. The level of survival of NFBC 338 remained constant at ∼1 × 109 CFU/g during 2 months of powder storage at 4°C, while a decline in the level of survival of approximately 1 log (from 7.2 × 107 to 9.5 × 106 CFU/g) was observed for UCC 118 stored under the same conditions. However, survival of both Lactobacillus strains during powder storage was inversely related to the storage temperature. Our data demonstrate that spray drying may be a cost-effective way to produce large quantities of some probiotic cultures. PMID:10831444

  12. Heat flux characteristics of spray wall impingement with ethanol, butanol, iso-octane, gasoline and E10 fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serras-Pereira, J.; Aleiferis, P.G.; Walmsley, H.L.; Davies, T.J.; Cracknell, R.F.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Heat flux sensors used to characterise the locations of fuel spray wall impingement. • Droplet evaporation modelling used to study the effect of fuel properties. • Behaviour of ethanol and butanol distinctively different to hydrocarbons. -- Abstract: Future fuel stocks for spark-ignition engines are expected to include a significant portion of bio-derived components with quite different chemical and physical properties to those of liquid hydrocarbons. State-of-the-art high-pressure multi-hole injectors for latest design direct-injection spark-ignition engines offer some great benefits in terms of fuel atomisation, as well as flexibility in in-cylinder fuel targeting by selection of the exact number and angle of the nozzle’s holes. However, in order to maximise such benefits for future spark-ignition engines and minimise any deteriorating effects with regards to exhaust emissions, it is important to avoid liquid fuel impingement onto the cylinder walls and take into consideration various types of biofuels. This paper presents results from the use of heat flux sensors to characterise the locations and levels of liquid fuel impingement onto the engine’s liner walls when injected from a centrally located multi-hole injector with an asymmetric pattern of spray plumes. Ethanol, butanol, iso-octane, gasoline and a blend of 10% ethanol with 90% gasoline (E10) were tested and compared. The tests were performed in the cylinder of a direct-injection spark-ignition engine at static conditions (i.e. quiescent chamber at 1.0 bar) and motoring conditions (at full load with inlet plenum pressure of 1.0 bar) with different engine temperatures in order to decouple competing effects. The collected data were analysed to extract time-resolved signals, as well as mean and standard deviation levels of peak heat flux. The results were interpreted with reference to in-cylinder spray formation characteristics, as well as fuel evaporation rates obtained by modelling

  13. Influence of the spray characteristics of a piezo-A-nozzle on the inflammation at spray guided combustion processes; Einfluss der Spraycharakteristik einer Piezo-A-Duese auf die Entflammung beim strahlgefuehrten Brennverfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breuninger, Tobias; Schmidt, Juergen [Magdeburg Univ. (DE). Inst. fuer Stroemungstechnik und Thermodynamik (ISUT); Hese, Martin; Tschoeke, Helmut [Magdeburg Univ. (DE). Inst. fuer Mobile Systeme (IMS); Kufferath, Andreas [Robert Bosch GmbH, Schwieberdingen (Germany); Altenschmidt, Frank [Daimler AG, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The spray-guided combustion process offers a significant potential for improvement on the fuel consumption in partial-load engine operation. Due to the very close positioning of the injector to the spark plug, there is only very little time for the fuel mixture generation which leads to the presence of still liquid fuel particles next to already evaporized one. Furthermore the fuel-mixture generation is primarily driven by the dynamics of the fuel spray. In this article the spray characteristics of a Piezo-A-injector under pressure-chamber conditions as well as the combustion behavior on a one-cylinder test motor are analyzed. The global spray dispersion is analyzed using high-speed visualization while laser-optical measurements are used to observe the ignition-area. The mean diameter as well as the velocity of fuel droplets are determined using the phase-doppler-anemometry (PDA). An extinction-measuring methodology is used to quantify the liquid fuel particles. Analyzing the evaluated misfire-rate as a function of the spray-attributes allows for rating the spray-sections according to their ignition behavior. (orig.)

  14. Characteristics of spray from a GDI fuel injector for naphtha and surrogate fuels

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Libing; Badra, Jihad A.; Roberts, William L.; Fang, Tiegang

    2016-01-01

    size distribution were measured using a laser diffraction technique. Results show that the injection process is very consistent for different runs and the time averaged spray angles during the measuring period are 103.45°, 102.84°, 102.46° and 107

  15. Characteristics of spray from a GDI fuel injector for naphtha and surrogate fuels

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Libing

    2016-11-18

    Characterization of the spray angle, penetration, and droplet size distribution is important to analyze the spray and atomization quality. In this paper, the spray structure development and atomization characterization of two naphtha fuels, namely light naphtha (LN) and whole naphtha (WN) and two reference fuel surrogates, i.e. toluene primary reference fuel (TPRF) and primary reference fuel (PRF) were investigated using a gasoline direct injection (GDI) fuel injector. The experimental setup included a fuel injection system, a high-speed imaging system, and a droplet size measurement system. Spray images were taken by using a high-speed camera for spray angle and penetration analysis. Sauter mean diameter, Dv(10), Dv(50), Dv(90), and particle size distribution were measured using a laser diffraction technique. Results show that the injection process is very consistent for different runs and the time averaged spray angles during the measuring period are 103.45°, 102.84°, 102.46° and 107.61° for LN, WN, TPRF and PRF, respectively. The spray front remains relatively flat during the early stage of the fuel injection process. The peak penetration velocities are 80 m/s, 75 m/s, 75 m/s and 79 m/s for LN, WN, TPRF and PRF, respectively. Then velocities decrease until the end of the injection and stay relatively stable. The transient particle size and the time-averaged particle size were also analyzed and discussed. The concentration weighted average value generally shows higher values than the arithmetic average results. The average data for WN is usually the second smallest except for Dv90, of which WN is the biggest. Generally the arithmetic average particle sizes of PRF are usually the smallest, and the sizes does not change much with the measuring locations. For droplet size distribution results, LN and WN show bimodal distributions for all the locations while TPRF and PRF shows both bimodal and single peak distribution patterns. The results imply that droplet size

  16. Characteristics of students in comparative problem solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irfan, M.; Sudirman; Rahardi, R.

    2018-01-01

    Often teachers provided examples and exercised to students with regard to comparative problems consisting of one quantity. In this study, the researchers gave the problem of comparison with the two quantities mixed. It was necessary to have a good understanding to solve this problem. This study aimed to determine whether students understand the comparison in depth and be able to solve the problem of non-routine comparison. This study used qualitative explorative methods, with researchers conducting in-depth interviews on subjects to explore the thinking process when solving comparative problems. The subject of this study was three students selected by purposive sampling of 120 students. From this research, researchers found there were three subjects with different characteristics, namely: subject 1, he did the first and second questions with methods of elimination and substitution (non-comparison); subject 2, he did the first question with the concept of comparison although the answer was wrong, and did the second question with the method of elimination and substitution (non-comparison); and subject 3, he did both questions with the concept of comparison. In the first question, he did wrong because he was unable to understand the problem, while on the second he did correctly. From the characteristics of the answers, the researchers divided into 3 groups based on thinking process, namely: blind-proportion, partial-proportion, and proportion thinking.

  17. Effect of suspension characteristics on in-flight particle properties and coating microstructures achieved by suspension plasma spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubignat, E.; Planche, M. P.; Allimant, A.; Billières, D.; Girardot, L.; Bailly, Y.; Montavon, G.

    2014-11-01

    This paper focuses on the influence of suspension properties on the manufacturing of coatings by suspension plasma spraying (SPS). For this purpose, alumina suspensions were formulated with two different liquid phases: water and ethanol. Suspensions were atomized with a twin-fluid nozzle and injected in an atmospheric plasma jet. Suspension injection was optimized thanks to shadowgraphy observations and drop size distribution measurements performed by laser diffraction. In-flight particle velocities were evaluated by particle image velocimetry. In addition, splats were collected on glass substrates, with the same conditions as the ones used during the spray process. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and profilometry analyses were then performed to observe the splat morphology and thus to get information on plasma / suspension interactions, such as particle agglomeration. Finally, coatings were manufactured, characterized by SEM and compared to each other.

  18. A comparative physico-chemical study of chlorapatite and hydroxyapatite: from powders to plasma sprayed thin coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demnati, I; Grossin, D; Combes, C; Parco, M; Braceras, I; Rey, C

    2012-10-01

    Due to their bioactivity and osteoconductivity, hydroxyapatite (HA) plasma sprayed coatings have been widely developed for orthopedic uses. However, the thermodynamic instability of HA leads frequently to a mixture of phases which limit the functional durability of the coating. This study investigates the plasma spraying of chlorapatite (ClA) powder, known to melt without decomposition, onto pure titanium substrates using a low energy plasma spray system (LEPS). Pure ClA powder was prepared by a solid gas reaction at 950 °C and thermogravimetric analysis showed the good thermal stability of ClA powder in the range 30-1400 °C compared to that of the HA powder. Characterization of ClA coating showed that ClA had a very high crystalline ratio and no other crystalline phase was detected in the coating. HA and ClA coatings composition, microstructure and in vitro bioactivity potential were studied, compared and discussed. In vitro SBF test on HA and ClA coatings revealed the formation of a poorly crystalline apatite on the coating surface suggesting that we could expect a good osteoconductivity especially for the ClA coating prepared by the LEPS system.

  19. Processing Adipose-Rich Mohs Samples: A Comparative Study of Effectiveness of Pretreatment With Liquid Nitrogen Versus Flash Freezing Spray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reserva, Jeave; Kozel, Zachary; Krol, Cindy; Speiser, Jodi; Adams, William; Tung, Rebecca

    2017-11-01

    Processing of adipose-rich Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) specimens poses challenges that may preclude complete margin evaluation. In this setting, the value of additional freezing methods using various cooling agents has not been previously investigated. The aim of this study is to compare the frozen section quality of high-adipose Mohs specimens processed without additional cooling treatments versus those pretreated with 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (TFE) or liquid nitrogen (LN2). A set of 3 sections were each taken from 24 adipose-rich Mohs micrographic surgery specimens. A section from each set was subjected to either no additional cooling treatment (control), two 10-second pulse sprays of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane, or three 2-second pulse sprays of LN2. After staining, 2 blinded raters evaluated slide quality based on the presence or absence of the following features: margin completeness, nuclear clearing, epidermal or adipose folding, holes, or venetian blind-like artifacts. Pretreatment of the sample with LN2 produced a significantly (P < 0.001) greater number of high-quality slides (19/24) compared to pretreatment with 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (1/24) and no additional treatment (0/24). The adjunctive use of LN2 spray before tissue embedding circumvents the challenges of processing "thick" (high-adipose) specimens and facilitates the production of high-quality frozen section slides during Mohs micrographic surgery.

  20. The Influence of Interface Characteristics on the Adhesion/Cohesion of Plasma Sprayed Tungsten Coatings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějíček, Jiří; Vilémová, Monika; Mušálek, Radek; Sachr, P.; Horník, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 2 (2013), s. 108-125 ISSN 2079-6412 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/12/1872; GA MPO FR-TI2/702 Grant - others:EFDA(XE) WP12-MAT-01-HHFM Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Tungsten * plasma spraying * adhesion * cohesion * PVD * interlayers Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy http://www.mdpi.com/2079-6412/3/2/108

  1. Fundamental study of droplet spray characteristics in photomask cleaning for advanced lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, C. L.; Yu, C. H.; Liu, W. H.; Hsu, Luke; Chin, Angus; Lee, S. C.; Yen, Anthony; Lee, Gaston; Dress, Peter; Singh, Sherjang; Dietze, Uwe

    2010-09-01

    The fundamentals of droplet-based cleaning of photomasks are investigated and performance regimes that enable the use of binary spray technologies in advanced mask cleaning are identified. Using phase Doppler anemometry techniques, the effect of key performance parameters such as liquid and gas flow rates and temperature, nozzle design, and surface distance on droplet size, velocity, and distributions were studied. The data are correlated to particle removal efficiency (PRE) and feature damage results obtained on advanced photomasks for 193-nm immersion lithography.

  2. Optical fuel spray measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillamo, H.

    2011-07-01

    Diesel fuel sprays, including fuel/air mixing and the physics of two-phase jet formation, are discussed in the thesis. The fuel/air mixing strongly affects emissions formation in spray combustion processes where the local combustion conditions dictate the emission formation. This study comprises optical measurements both in pressurized spray test rigs and in a running engine.The studied fuel injection was arranged with a common rail injection system and the injectors were operated with a solenoid-based injection valve. Both marine and heavy-duty diesel engine injectors were used in the study. Optical fuel spray measurements were carried out with a laser-based double-framing camera system. This kind of equipments is usually used for flow field measurements with Particle Image Velocimetry technique (PIV) as well as for backlight imaging. Fundamental fuel spray properties and spray formation were studied in spray test rigs. These measurements involved studies of mixing, atomization, and the flow field. Test rig measurements were used to study the effect of individual injection parameters and component designs. Measurements of the fuel spray flow field, spray penetration, spray tip velocity, spray angle, spray structure, droplet accumulation, and droplet size estimates are shown. Measurement campaign in a running optically accessible large-bore medium-speed engine was also carried out. The results from engine tests were compared with equivalent test rig measurements, as well as computational results, to evaluate the level of understanding of sprays. It was shown that transient spray has an acceleration and a deceleration phase. Successive flow field measurements (PIV) in optically dense diesel spray resulted in local and average velocity data of diesel sprays. Processing fuel spray generates a flow field to surrounding gas and entrainment of surrounding gas into fuel jet was also seen at the sides of the spray. Laser sheet imaging revealed the inner structure of diesel

  3. The Influence of Spray Parameters on the Characteristics of Hydroxyapatite In-Flight Particles, Splats and Coatings by Micro-plasma Spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-mei; He, Ding-yong; Wang, Yi-ming; Zhou, Zheng; Wang, Guo-hong; Tan, Zhen; Wang, Zeng-jie

    2018-04-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is one of the most important bioceramic materials used in medical implants. The structure of HA coatings is closely related to their manufacturing process. In the present study, HA coatings were deposited on Ti-6Al-4V substrate by micro-plasma spraying. Results show that three distinct HA coatings could be obtained by changing the spraying power from 0.5 to 1.0 kW and spraying stand-off distance from 60 to 110 mm: (1) high crystallinity (93.3%) coatings with porous structure, (2) high crystallinity coatings (86%) with columnar structure, (3) higher amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP, 50%) coatings with dense structure. The in-flight particles melting state and splat topography was analyzed to better understand the formation mechanism of three distinct HA coatings. Results show that HA coatings sprayed at low spraying power and short stand-off distance exhibit high crystallinity and porosity is attributed to the presence of partially melted particles. High crystallinity HA coatings with (002) crystallographic texture could be deposited due to the complete melting of the in-flight particles and low cooling rate of the disk shape splats under higher spraying power and shorter SOD. However, splashed shape splats with relative high cooling can be provided by increasing SOD, which leads to the formation of ACP.

  4. Layered growth with bottom-spray granulation for spray deposition of drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Dawn Z L; Liew, Celine V; Heng, Paul W S

    2009-07-30

    The gap in scientific knowledge on bottom-spray fluidized bed granulation has emphasized the need for more studies in this area. This paper comparatively studied the applicability of a modified bottom-spray process and the conventional top-spray process for the spray deposition of a micronized drug during granulation. The differences in circulation pattern, mode of growth and resultant granule properties between the two processes were highlighted. The more ordered and consistent circulation pattern of particles in a bottom-spray fluidized bed was observed to give rise to layered granule growth. This resulted in better drug content uniformity among the granule batches and within a granule batch. The processes' sensitivities to wetting and feed material characteristics were also compared and found to differ markedly. Less robustness to differing process conditions was observed for the top-spray process. The resultant bottom-spray granules formed were observed to be less porous, more spherical and had good flow properties. The bottom-spray technique can thus be potentially applied for the spray deposition of drug during granulation and was observed to be a good alternative to the conventional technique for preparing granules.

  5. Comparative analysis of safety related site characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Johan

    2010-12-01

    This document presents a comparative analysis of site characteristics related to long-term safety for the two candidate sites for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark (municipality of Oesthammar) and in Laxemar (municipality of Oskarshamn) from the point of view of site selection. The analyses are based on the updated site descriptions of Forsmark /SKB 2008a/ and Laxemar /SKB 2009a/, together with associated updated repository layouts and designs /SKB 2008b and SKB 2009b/. The basis for the comparison is thus two equally and thoroughly assessed sites. However, the analyses presented here are focussed on differences between the sites rather than evaluating them in absolute terms. The document serves as a basis for the site selection, from the perspective of long-term safety, in SKB's application for a final repository. A full evaluation of safety is made for a repository at the selected site in the safety assessment SR-Site /SKB 2011/, referred to as SR-Site main report in the following

  6. Comparative analysis of safety related site characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan (ed.)

    2010-12-15

    This document presents a comparative analysis of site characteristics related to long-term safety for the two candidate sites for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark (municipality of Oesthammar) and in Laxemar (municipality of Oskarshamn) from the point of view of site selection. The analyses are based on the updated site descriptions of Forsmark /SKB 2008a/ and Laxemar /SKB 2009a/, together with associated updated repository layouts and designs /SKB 2008b and SKB 2009b/. The basis for the comparison is thus two equally and thoroughly assessed sites. However, the analyses presented here are focussed on differences between the sites rather than evaluating them in absolute terms. The document serves as a basis for the site selection, from the perspective of long-term safety, in SKB's application for a final repository. A full evaluation of safety is made for a repository at the selected site in the safety assessment SR-Site /SKB 2011/, referred to as SR-Site main report in the following

  7. Comparative of the Tribological Performance of Hydraulic Cylinders Coated by the Process of Thermal Spray HVOF and Hard Chrome Plating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Castro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the necessity of obtaining a surface that is resistant to wear and oxidation, hydraulic cylinders are typically coated with hard chrome through the process of electroplating process. However, this type of coating shows an increase of the area to support sealing elements, which interferes directly in the lubrication of the rod, causing damage to the seal components and bringing oil leakage. Another disadvantage in using the electroplated hard chromium process is the presence of high level hexavalent chromium Cr+6 which is not only carcinogenic, but also extremely contaminating to the environment. Currently, the alternative process of high-speed thermal spraying (HVOF - High Velocity Oxy-Fuel, uses composite materials (metal-ceramic possessing low wear rates. Research has shown that some mechanical properties are changed positively with the thermal spray process in industrial applications. It is evident that a coating based on WC has upper characteristics as: wear resistance, low friction coefficient, with respect to hard chrome coatings. These characteristics were analyzed by optical microscopy, roughness measurements and wear test.

  8. Spray deposition using impulse atomization technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellendt, N.; Schmidt, R.; Knabe, J.; Henein, H.; Uhlenwinkel, V.

    2004-01-01

    A novel technique, impulse atomization, has been used for spray deposition. This single fluid atomization technique leads to different spray characteristics and impact conditions of the droplets compared to gas atomization technique which is the common technique used for spray deposition. Deposition experiments with a Cu-6Sn alloy were conducted to evaluate the appropriateness of impulse atomization to produce dense material. Based on these experiments, a model has been developed to simulate the thermal history and the local solidification rates of the deposited material. A numerical study shows how different cooling conditions affect the solidification rate of the material

  9. Microstructural Characteristics and Tribological Behavior of HVOF-Sprayed Novel Fe-Based Alloy Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Milanti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermally-sprayed Fe-based coatings have shown their potential for use in wear applications due to their good tribological properties. In addition, these kinds of coatings have other advantages, e.g., cost efficiency and positive environmental aspects. In this study, the microstructural details and tribological performances of Fe-based coatings (Fe-Cr-Ni-B-C and Fe-Cr-Ni-B-Mo-C manufactured by High Velocity Oxygen Fuel (HVOF thermal spray process are evaluated. Traditional Ni-based (Ni-Cr-Fe-Si-B-C and hard-metal (WC-CoCr coatings were chosen as references. Microstructural investigation (field-emission scanning electron microscope FESEM and X-Ray diffractometry XRD reveals a high density and low oxide content for HVOF Fe-based coatings. Particle melting and rapid solidification resulted in a metastable austenitic phase with precipitates of mixed carbides and borides of chromium and iron which lead to remarkably high nanohardness. Tribological performances were evaluated by means of the ball on-disk dry sliding wear test, the rubber-wheel dry particle abrasion test, and the cavitation erosion wear test. A higher wear resistance validates Fe-based coatings as a future alternative to the more expensive and less environmentally friendly Ni-based alloys.

  10. Effect of nozzle geometry for swirl type twin-fluid water mist nozzle on the spray characteristic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Soon Hyun; Kim, Do Yeon; Kim, Dong Keon [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Bong Hwan [Jinju National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-15

    Experimental investigations on the atomization characteristics of twin-fluid water mist nozzle were conducted using particle image velocimetry (PIV) system and particle motion analysis system (PMAS). The twin-fluid water mist nozzles with swirlers designed two types of swirl angles such as 0 .deg. , 90 .deg. and three different size nozzle hole diameters such as 0.5mm, 1mm, 1.5mm were employed. The experiments were carried out by the injection pressure of water and air divided into 1bar, 2bar respectively. The droplet size of the spray was measured using PMAS. The velocity and turbulence intensity were measured using PIV. The velocity, turbulence intensity and SMD distributions of the sprays were measured along the centerline and radial direction. As the experimental results, swirl angle controlled to droplet sizes. It was found that SMD distribution decreases with the increase of swirl angle. The developed twin-fluid water mist nozzle was satisfied to the criteria of NFPA 750, Class 1. It was proven that the developed nozzle under low pressures could be applied to fire protection system.

  11. Study on the characteristics of the impingement erosion-corrosion for Cu-Ni Alloy sprayed coating(I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Yeol; Lim, Uh Joh; Yun, Byoung Du

    1998-01-01

    Impingement erosion-corrosion test and electrochemical corrosion test in tap water(5000Ω-cm) and seawater(25Ω-cm). Thermal spraying coated Cu-Ni alloy on the carbon steel was carried out. The impingement erosion-corrosion behavior and electrochemical corrosion characteristics of the substrate(SS41) and Cu-Ni thermal spray coating were investigated. The erosion-corrosion control efficiency of Cu-Ni coating to substrate was also estimated quantitatively. Main results obtained are as follows : 1) Under the flow velocity of 13m/s, impingement erosion-corrosion of Cu-Ni coating is under the control of electrochemical corrosion factor rather than that of mechanical erosion. 2) The corrosion potential of Cu-Ni coating becomes more noble than that of substrate, and the current density of Cu-Ni coating under the corrosion potential is drained lowly than that of substrate. 3) The erosion-corrosion control efficiency of Cu-Ni coating to substrate is excellent in the tap water of high specific resistance solution, but it becomes dull in the seawater of low specific resistance. 4) The corrosion control efficiency of Cu-Ni coating to substrate in the seawater appears to be higher than that in the tap water

  12. Effect of nozzle geometry for swirl type twin-fluid water mist nozzle on the spray characteristic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Soon Hyun; Kim, Do Yeon; Kim, Dong Keon; Kim, Bong Hwan

    2011-01-01

    Experimental investigations on the atomization characteristics of twin-fluid water mist nozzle were conducted using particle image velocimetry (PIV) system and particle motion analysis system (PMAS). The twin-fluid water mist nozzles with swirlers designed two types of swirl angles such as 0 .deg. , 90 .deg. and three different size nozzle hole diameters such as 0.5mm, 1mm, 1.5mm were employed. The experiments were carried out by the injection pressure of water and air divided into 1bar, 2bar respectively. The droplet size of the spray was measured using PMAS. The velocity and turbulence intensity were measured using PIV. The velocity, turbulence intensity and SMD distributions of the sprays were measured along the centerline and radial direction. As the experimental results, swirl angle controlled to droplet sizes. It was found that SMD distribution decreases with the increase of swirl angle. The developed twin-fluid water mist nozzle was satisfied to the criteria of NFPA 750, Class 1. It was proven that the developed nozzle under low pressures could be applied to fire protection system

  13. Comparision on dynamic behavior of diesel spray and rapeseed oil spray in diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapit, Azwan; Azahari Razali, Mohd; Faisal Hushim, Mohd; Jaat, Norrizam; Nizam Mohammad, Akmal; Khalid, Amir

    2017-04-01

    Fuel-air mixing is important process in diesel combustion. It significantly affects the combustion and emission of diesel engine. Biomass fuel has high viscosity and high distillation temperature and may negatively affect the fuel-air mixing process. Thus, study on the spray development and atomization of this type of fuel is important. This study investigates the atomization characteristics and droplet dynamic behaviors of diesel engine spray fuelled by rapeseed oil (RO) and comparison to diesel fuel (GO). Optical observation of RO spray was carried out using shadowgraph photography technique. Single nano-spark photography technique was used to study the characteristics of the spray while dual nano-spark shadowgraph technique was used to study the spray droplet behavior. Using in-house image processing algorithm, the images were processed and the boundary condition of each spray was also studied. The results show that RO has very poor atomization due to the high viscosity nature of the fuel when compared to GO. This is in agreement with the results from spray droplet dynamic behavior studies that shows due to the high viscosity, the RO spray droplets are large in size and travel downward, with very little influence of entrainment effect due to its large kinematic energy.

  14. Comparative Evaluation of Osseointegration of Dental Endodontic Implants with and without Plasma- Sprayed Hydroxy apatite Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moosavi SB

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Bone osseointegration around dental implant can cause earlier stabilization and fixation of implant and reduce healing time. Hydroxyapatite coating can affect bone osseointegration and enhance its rates. The aim of this study was comparison of osseointegration between plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coated and uncoated dental implants in cats. Four endodontic implants including, vitallium and two stainless steel with and without hydroxyapatite coating were prepared and placed in mandibular canines of 20 cats after completion of root canal treatment and osseous preparation. After a healing period of 4 months, investigation by scanning electron microscopy showed significant difference in ossointegration between coated and uncoated dental implants and average bone osseointegration of coated implants was more than uncoated implants.

  15. Comparative characteristics of polystyrene scintillation strips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gapienko, V.A.; Denisov, A.G.; Mel'nikov, E.A.

    1992-01-01

    Results are provided for a study of the main characteristics of polystyrene scintillation strips with a cross-section of 200 x 10 mm with two different scintillation-additive compositions: 1.5% p-terphenyl + 0.01% POPOP and 1.5% p-terphenyl + 0.01% DBP. The mean light-attenuation lengths are 180 cm and 260 cm, respectively, for strips with POPOP and DBP. The emittances of the polystyrene scintillators with DBP and POPOP additives have a ratio of 0.8:1.0 as recorded by an FEU-110 photomultiplier. 2 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  16. Comparative evaluation of the sperm characteristics and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    J. Physiol. Sci. 29(June 2014) 055 –061 www.njps.com.ng. Comparative evaluation of the ... Summary: Cuscuta australis (C. australis) seed and stem are commonly used as .... 0.05, Values with different superscripts are significantly different.

  17. Encapsulation of lemongrass oil with cyclodextrins by spray drying and its controlled release characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phunpee, Sarunya; Ruktanonchai, Uracha Rangsadthong; Yoshii, Hidefumi; Assabumrungrat, Suttichai; Soottitantawat, Apinan

    2017-04-01

    Inclusion of the two isomers of citral (E-citral and Z-citral), components of lemongrass oil, was investigated within the confines of various cyclodextrin (α-CD, β-CD and γ-CD) host molecules. Aqueous complex formation constants for E-citral with α-CD, β-CD and γ-CD were determined to be 123, 185, and 204 L/mol, respectively, whereas Z-citral exhibited stronger affinities (157, 206, and 253 L/mol, respectively). The binding trend γ-CD > β-CD > α-CD is a reflection of the more favorable geometrical accommodation of the citral isomers with increasing cavity size. Encapsulation of lemongrass oil within CDs was undertaken through shaking citral:CD (1:1, 1.5:1, and 2:1 molar ratio) mixtures followed by spray drying. Maximum citral retention occurred at a 1:1 molar ratio with β-CD and α-CD demonstrating the highest levels of total E-citral and Z-citral retention, respectively. Furthermore, the β-CD complex demonstrated the slowest release rate of all inclusion complex powders.

  18. Electrical and structural characteristics of spray deposited (Zn O){sub x}-(Cd O){sub 1-x}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alarcon F, G.; Pelaez R, A.; Villa G, M.; Carmona T, S.; Luna G, J. A.; Aguilar F, M. [IPN, Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Legaria 694, Col. Irrigacion, 11500 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Vasquez P, B. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Azcapotzalco, Av. San Pablo No. 180, Col. Reynosa Tamaulipas, 02200 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Falcony, C. [IPN, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Apdo. Postal 14-740, 07000 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2013-10-01

    (Zn O){sub x}(Cd O){sub 1-x} thin films were deposited on glass substrates at 300 and 400 C by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis with compositions ranging from Cd O to Zn O. The electrical properties were obtained by impedance spectroscopy and Hall Effect measurements. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction, were used to study the structural characteristics of the films. Ellipsometry, in addition, was used to confirm the structural characteristics. The films as deposited resulted mainly polycrystalline and dense, depending on the substrate temperature and on their relative composition. All the films showed n-type conductivity and the films with intermediate compositions resulted in a mixture of both phases; Cd O and Zn O. Hall Effect measurements showed that the highest conductivity of Cd O was close to 1 x 10{sup 3} ({Omega}-cm){sup -1}, the highest value obtained for Cd O, without doping. Impedance spectroscopy confirmed the Hall Effect results, showing that the highly conducting character of Cd O influenced dramatically the conductivity of the (Zn O){sub x}(Cd O){sub 1-x} films. In addition, depending on the substrate temperature and on the relative composition of the films, both, the bulk or grains, as well as the grain boundaries properties limit the conductivity in them. (Author)

  19. Characteristics of adolescent excessive drinkers compared with consumers and abstainers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomcikova, Zuzana; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    Introduction and Aims. This study aimed at comparing adolescent abstainers, consumers and excessive drinkers in terms of family characteristics (structure of family, socioeconomic factors), perceived social support, personality characteristics (extraversion, self-esteem, aggression) and well-being.

  20. In-Swath Spray Deposition Characteristics of a Low Drift Nozzle for Low Volume Aerial Application - Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CP flat-fan nozzles with selectable tips were evaluated for droplet spectra and coverage using water sensitive papers placed in the spray swath. This study used low application volumes (1, 2, and 3 GPA) at a certain spray application height as measured precisely by laser mounted in the aircraft. No...

  1. The influence of cavitation on the flow characteristics of liquid nitrogen through spray nozzles: A CFD study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Rong; Ruan, Yixiao; Liu, Xiufang; Cao, Feng; Hou, Yu

    2017-09-01

    Spray cooling with cryogen could achieve lower temperature level than refrigerant spray. The internal flow conditions within spray nozzles have crucial impacts on the mass flow rate, particle size, spray angle and spray penetration, thereby influencing the cooling performance. In this paper, CFD simulations based on mixture model are performed to study the cavitating flow of liquid nitrogen in spray nozzles. The cavitation model is verified using the experimental results of liquid nitrogen flow over hydrofoil. The numerical models of spray nozzle are validated against the experimental data of the mass flow rate of liquid nitrogen flow through different types of nozzles including the pressure swirl nozzle and the simple convergent nozzle. The numerical studies are performed under a wide range of pressure difference and inflow temperature, and the vapor volume fraction distribution, outlet vapor quality, mass flow rate and discharge coefficient are obtained. The results show that the outlet diameter, the pressure difference, and the inflow temperature significantly influence the mass flow rate of spray nozzles. The increase of the inflow temperature leads to higher saturation pressure, higher cavitation intensity, and more vapor at nozzle outlet, which can significantly reduce mass flow rate. While the discharge coefficient is mainly determined by the inflow temperature and has little dependence on the pressure difference and outlet diameter. Based on the numerical results, correlations of discharge coefficient are proposed for pressure swirl nozzle and simple convergent nozzles, respectively, and the deviation is less than 20% for 93% of data.

  2. Effects of Foliar Spraying with Salicylic acid and Putrescine on Growth Characteristics and Yield of Summer Savory (Satureja hortensis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Faraji-mehmany

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Summer Savory (Satureja hortensis L. is an annual, herbaceous plant belonging to the Labiatae family. This plant is most often used as a culinary herb, but it also has marked medicinal benefits, especially upon the whole digestive system. The most important components of S. hortensis include volatile oils, phenolic compounds, flavonoids and phenolic acids, tannins, mucus, resins, carotenoids and mineral components. Plant growth regulators are used to improve the quality and quantity of medicinal plant production. Salicylic Acid is one of this PGRs that involved in seed germination, photosynthesis, Stomatal opening and closure, Membrane Permeability, Ions Absorption and transmission and other growth processes. Polyamines are ubiquitous low-molecular-weight aliphatic amines that are involved in regulating plant growth processes. The most commonly found polyamines in higher plants, putrescine (Put, spermidine (Spd and spermine (Spm may be present in free, soluble conjugated and insoluble bound forms. It has been demonstrated that PAs are important for the normal course of diverse plant ontogeny processes such as cell division and elongation, organogenesis and somatic and zygotic embryogenesis. Materials and Methods This experiment was conducted in factorial based on a randomized complete block design with three replications in Karaj, Iran. Foliar spraying with SA (1, 2 and 3 mM.l and Putrecine (50, 100, 150 and 200 mg l-1 was performed in thrice in Savory growth period. Spraying was performed at 21, 35 (Budding Phase and 56 (flowering initiation phase day after seed germination. In flowering stage, some morphological traits such as plant height, weight, yield, canopy diameter, stem diameter, leaf area, essential oil content and efficiency were measured. Results and Discussion Analysis of variance showed that the effects of salicylic acid and putrescine spraying on plant height, canopy diameter, stem diameter, number of axillary stems

  3. Efficacy, tolerability and consumer acceptability of terbinafine topical spray versus terbinafine topical solution: a phase IIa, randomised, observer-blind, comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Marc; Evans, Charles; Muddle, Andrew; Turner, Rob; Lim, Sian; Reed, Jessica; Traynor, Matt

    2013-10-01

    Tinea pedis is one of the world's most prevalent dermatophyte infections. MedSpray™ tinea pedis 1 % w/w (topical spray) is a novel, easy-to-use propellant-based spray formulation containing 1 % w/w terbinafine, requiring no manipulation at the site of infection. This is in contrast to the only formulation currently approved in Europe for single application (none are approved in the USA for single use), which is Lamisil(®) Once 1 % w/w (topical solution), containing 1 % w/w terbinafine hydrochloride, which requires manipulation on the affected area. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, tolerability and consumer acceptability of a topical spray versus a topical solution in the treatment of tinea pedis. This study is a phase IIa, randomised, observer-blind, non-inferiority comparative study of the topical spray compared with the topical solution over a 12-week study period. The study was conducted at Bioskin GmbH, Hamburg and Berlin. Patients (n = 120) who presented with the presence of interdigital tinea pedis caused by dermatophytes on one or both feet were enrolled in the study. Patients were randomly assigned between the two treatment groups. Either the topical spray or the topical solution was administered by the study nurse and consisted of a single application (equivalent to 20 mg of terbinafine per foot) on day 1 of the study. No further applications were made for the duration of the study. The hypothesis formulated before commencement of the study was that the topical spray would prove to be non-inferior to the topical solution. Efficacy assessments, including clinical signs and symptoms, mycology and microscopy were performed at baseline and 1, 6 and 12 weeks after treatment. The rate of mycological cure at week 1 was statistically equivalent for both treatments. There was a significant reduction in the overall clinical score as assessed by the Physician's Global Assessment of signs and symptoms for both treatment groups. The topical

  4. Numerical Simulation and Experiment on Spray Characteristics of GDI Engines%GDI发动机喷雾特性的数值模拟和试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李波; 李云清; 王德福

    2012-01-01

    汽油直喷发动机高压燃油喷射系统与燃油经济性和废气排放等密切相关,通过试验和数值模拟对高压喷油系统和旋流喷油器的喷雾特性进行了研究.在不同喷射压力、背压压力条件下,利用高速摄像机对喷入定体积容器的喷雾进行了喷雾贯穿距离和喷雾锥角参数的测量.结果表明:在低背压压力下,喷雾呈现出空锥、较大范围的分布形态,有利于实现燃油与空气的均质混合;在高背压条件下,喷雾呈现出紧凑密集的分布形态,有利于实现燃油与空气的分层混合.获得的贯穿距离经验公式与试验测量值在一定范围内是一致的.基于AVL HYDSIM环境建立了一维高压喷油系统模型,模拟得到的针阀升程与试验获得的图像在时间上具有一致性.%Spray characteristics of high-pressure swirl type of gasoline direct injection(GDI)injector are investigated experimentally and numerically.Visualized experiment was carried out in a constant volume chamber using high speed CMOS camera.Spray penetration,spray cone angle,spray tip velocity and droplet characteristics were measured at different injection pressures and injection durations as well as different ambient pressures.Results show that at low ambient pressure,the spray shows a hollow cone pattern with wide spray angle which is beneficial to the preparation of homogenous mixture,while the spray exhibits a solid compact cone pattern at high ambient pressure which produces the stratified mixture.The correlated empirical equation for spray penetration is validated by the experimental results.Numerical analysis was made based on one-dimensional model in the AVL HYDSIM environment.Consistency in needle lift is found between the model prediction and measured.

  5. Generic selection criteria for safety and patient benefit [V]: Comparing the pharmaceutical properties and patient usability of original and generic nasal spray containing ketotifen fumarate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yuko; Ami, Shyoko; Nozawa, Mitsuru; Goto, Miho; Shimokawa, Ken-Ichi; Ishii, Fumiyoshi

    The pH, osmotic pressure (cryoscopy), viscosity, squeeze force, spray angle, and spraying frequency of nasal spray containing ketotifen fumarate (1 brand-name product and 8 generic products) were measured. Based on the results of pH measurement, all products were weakly acidic (4.0 to 5.1). For all products, the osmotic pressure ratio to physiological saline was approximately 1. The viscosity of various products ranged from approximately 1.0 to 1.5 mPa·s. The spray angle of drug solution differed among the products: minimum, 46 degrees (Sawai and Fusachol); and maximum, 68.7 degrees (Sekiton). In particular, TOA, Sawai, Fusachol, and TYK showed significantly smaller angles compared to Zaditen (brand-name product). Container properties varied among the products: minimum squeeze force, 19.0 N (Sekiton); and maximum squeeze force, 43.1 N (Sawai). Based on these results, although all the above products are identical in dosage form and active ingredient, the differences in pharmaceutical properties, such as container operations and drug-solution spraying/attachment, may markedly influence patients' subjective opinions.

  6. A comparative study of the effect of spray drying and hot-melt extrusion on the properties of amorphous solid dispersions containing felodipine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmah, Osama; Tabbakh, Rami; Kelly, Adrian; Paradkar, Anant

    2014-02-01

    To compare the properties of solid dispersions of felodipine for oral bioavailability enhancement using two different polymers, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS), by hot-melt extrusion (HME) and spray drying. Felodipine solid dispersions were prepared by HME and spray drying techniques. PVP and HPMCAS were used as polymer matrices at different drug : polymer ratios (1 : 1, 1 : 2 and 1 : 3). Detailed characterization was performed using differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy and in-vitro dissolution testing. Dissolution profiles were evaluated in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate. Stability of different solid dispersions was studied under accelerated conditions (40°C/75% RH) over 8 weeks. Spray-dried formulations were found to release felodipine faster than melt extruded formulations for both polymer matrices. Solid dispersions containing HMPCAS exhibited higher drug release rates and better wettability than those produced with a PVP matrix. No significant differences in stability were observed except with HPMCAS at a 1 : 1 ratio, where crystallization was detected in spray-dried formulations. Solid dispersions of felodipine produced by spray drying exhibited more rapid drug release than corresponding melt extruded formulations, although in some cases improved stability was observed for melt extruded formulations. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  7. Comparative investigation of the Ti and Mo additives influence on the opto-electronic properties of the spray deposited WO{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manceriu, Laura Maria, E-mail: manceriu.laura@gmail.com [CNRS, Université de Bordeaux, ICMCB, 87 Avenue du Dr. Albert Schweitzer, F-33608 Pessac (France); The RTD Dept. Renewable Energy Systems and Recycling, University of Transilvania Brasov, Eroilor 29, 500036 Brasov (Romania); Rougier, Aline [CNRS, Université de Bordeaux, ICMCB, 87 Avenue du Dr. Albert Schweitzer, F-33608 Pessac (France); Duta, Anca, E-mail: a.duta@unitbv.ro [The RTD Dept. Renewable Energy Systems and Recycling, University of Transilvania Brasov, Eroilor 29, 500036 Brasov (Romania)

    2015-05-05

    Highlights: • Ti and Mo–WO{sub 3} thin films were obtained by spray pyrolysis. • Morphology and structure changes related to solution surface tension modification. • FTO/WO{sub 3} junction parameters dependent on WO{sub 3} layer morphology and structure. • Flat band potential and series resistance varied with cation doping. • Ad(de)sorption of oxygen/water during annealing and cooling influence conductivity. - Abstract: In this paper we compare the optical and electrical properties of the WO{sub 3} thin films containing 2, 5 and 10 at.% of Ti and Mo additives, deposited by spray pyrolysis. The influence of the type and additive concentration on the nanostructure, topography and composition of the WO{sub 3} layers are mainly related to the surface tension energy changes, and further correlated with the (photo)electrical and optical properties. The FTO/WO{sub 3} junction through its characteristic, namely barrier height, ideality factor, flat band potential, and series resistance, served as a tool for associating the before mentioned characteristics. The morphology of the WO{sub 3} thin films densifies and the roughness is reduced with increasing Ti and Mo concentration, in good agreement with solution surface tension reduction. WO{sub 3} based films exhibit a p-type semiconducting behavior, as confirmed also by the Mott–Schottky analysis, with a lower p-type conductivity for the Ti–WO{sub 3} films, as higher number of oxygen vacancies are generated by Ti addition. Changes in conductivity are mainly attributed to the oxygen vacancies concentration evolution at the film surface due to oxygen/water adsorption. For heavily doped WO{sub 3} thin films the contribution of these surface processes to the overall conductivity is reduced since surface reactivity is lost by densification. As opposed to Ti-doping which has a detrimental effect on layers structure, Mo addition, even in high concentrations, has a positive effect on layers crystallinity; hence

  8. Spray Deposition and Drift Characteristics of a Low Drift Nozzle for Aerial Application at Different Application Altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    A complex interaction of controllable and uncontrollable factors is involved in aerial application of crop production and protection materials. Although it is difficult to completely characterize spray deposition and drift, these important factors can be estimated with appropriate sampling protocol ...

  9. A study on the velocity characteristics of the spray formed by two impinging jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choo, Yeon Jun; Seo, Kwi Hyun; Kang, Bo Seon

    2001-01-01

    In this study, the velocity characteristics of liquid elements formed by two impinging jets is analysed using double pulse image capturing technique. For the droplets formed by low speed impinging jets, the droplet velocities are higher with smaller azimuthal and impingement angle. The maximum droplet velocities are about 25% lower than jet velocity. With an increase of azimuthal angle, the shedding angles increases but remains lower than azimuthal angle. The velocities of ligaments formed by high speed impinging jets gradually decreases with an increase of azimuthal angle. The maximum ligament velocities are about 40% lower than jet velocity. Higher impingement angles produce lower ligament velocities. The shedding angles of ligament almost increases with the same value of azimuthal angle, which implies that the moving direction of ligaments is radial from the origin as the impingement point

  10. An experimental and theoretical investigation of spray characteristics of impinging jets in impact wave regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, N. S.; Kulkarni, V.; Gao, J.; Chen, J.; Sojka, P. E.

    2015-03-01

    The current study focuses on experimentally and theoretically improving the characterization of the drop size and drop velocity for like-on-like doublet impinging jets. The experimental measurements were made using phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) at jet Weber numbers We j corresponding to the impact wave regime of impinging jet atomization. A more suitable dynamic range was used for PDA measurements compared to the literature, resulting in more accurate experimental measurements for drop diameters and velocities. There is some disagreement in the literature regarding the ability of linear stability analysis to accurately predict drop diameters in the impact wave regime. This work seeks to provide some clarity. It was discovered that the assumed uniform jet velocity profile was a contributing factor for deviation between diameter predictions based on models in the literature and experimental measurements. Analytical expressions that depend on parameters based on the assumed jet velocity profile are presented in this work. Predictions based on the parabolic and 1/7th power law turbulent profiles were considered and show better agreement with the experimental measurements compared to predictions based on the previous models. Experimental mean drop velocity measurements were compared with predictions from a force balance analysis, and it was observed that the assumed jet velocity profile also influences the predicted velocities, with the turbulent profile agreeing best with the experimental mean velocity. It is concluded that the assumed jet velocity profile has a predominant effect on drop diameter and velocity predictions.

  11. Sensory and physico-chemical characteristics of desserts prepared with egg products processed by freeze and spray drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Nunes de Jesús

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, three freeze-dried (FD egg products (whole egg (WE, egg yolk (EY and egg white (EW were obtained and the acceptability of confections prepared with each was evaluated. Sensory analyses for confections were performed by hedonic testing with fifty panelists in each evaluation. The studied confections were: Condensed Milk Pudding (P, Quindim (Q and Meringue (M. The results obtained for confections made with FD egg products were compared with the achieved through other formulations of the same desserts made with fresh (F or spray-dried (SD egg products. The sensory analysis results for confections made with FD egg products showed good acceptance by panelists. A principal component analysis of the sensory evaluation data was carried out to identify similarities between the different egg products. The PCA supported the conclusion that FD egg products can substitute their fresh and SD counterparts in dessert formulations with good acceptability while keeping the advantages conferred by the freeze-drying method.

  12. Study of the physicochemical characteristics of soursop powder obtained by spray-drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina de Paula da Costa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at contributing to the development of new foodstuffs made by soursop pulp powder obtained by spraydrying. Different concentrations of maltodextrin DE 20 (15, 30, and 45% were added to commercial soursop pulp, which was dehydrated afterwards. The following analyses were carried out: water activity, moisture, pH, soluble solids, acidity, ascorbic acid, hygroscopicity, degree of caking, and rehydration time. The results obtained for the three powder treatments (15, 30 and 45% of maltodextrin were, respectectively: water activity (0.19a±0.00; 0.20a±0.00; 0.18a±0.01; moisture (1.17c±0.12; 1.47b±0.05; 1.82a±0.06; pH (3.75a±0.05; 3.73a±0.06; 3.70a±0.03; soluble solids (89.67a±0.00; 89.84a±0.00; 90.00a±0.06; acidity (3.01a±0.02; 1.91b±0.03; 1.24c±0.03; ascorbic acid (18.90a±0.00; 14.48b±0.00; 11.26b±0.78; hygroscopicity (5.93a±0.40; 3.82b±0.16; 3.28b±0.38; degree of caking (78.36a±2.86; 35.38b±6.07; 24.77b4.89, and rehydration time (02.03a±0.46; 01.16ab±0.50; 0.59b±0.30. The soursop powders with 30 and 45% of maltodextrin had few significant differences in terms of physicochemical and hygroscopic characteristics, which allow us to consider the percentage of 30% of maltodextrin, in this study, as the best percentage for soursop pulp atomization.

  13. Electrical characteristics and preparation of (Ba0.5Sr0.5)TiO3 films by spray pyrolysis and rapid thermal annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Horngshow; Ku, Hongkou; Kawai, Tomoji; Chen Mi

    2007-01-01

    Functional films of (Ba 0.5 Sr 0.5 )TiO 3 on Pt (1000 A)/Ti (100 A)/SiO 2 (2000 A)/Si substrates are prepared by spray pyrolysis and subsequently rapid thermal annealing. Barium nitrate, strontium nitrate and titanium isopropoxide are used as starting materials with ethylene glycol as solvent. For (Ba 0.5 Sr 0.5 )TiO 3 functional thin film, thermal characteristics of the precursor powder scratched from as-sprayed films show a remarkable peak around 300-400degC and 57.7% weight loss up to 1000degC. The as-sprayed precursor film with coffee-like color and amorphous-like phase is transformed into the resultant film with white, crystalline perovskite phase and characteristic peaks (110) and (100). The resultant films show correspondent increases of dielectric constant, leakage current and dissipation factor with increasing annealing temperatures. The dielectric constant is 264 and tangent loss is 0.21 in the resultant films annealed at 750degC for 5 min while leakage current density is 1.5x10 -6 A/cm 2 in the film annealed at 550degC for 5 min. (author)

  14. Experiments and modeling of discharge characteristics in water-mist sprays generated by pressure-swirl atomizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangelo, Paolo E.

    2012-12-01

    Pressure-swirl atomizers are often employed to generate a water-mist spray, typically employed in fire suppression. In the present study, an experimental characterization of dispersion (velocity and cone angle) and atomization (drop-size axial evolution) was carried out following a previously developed methodology, with specific reference to the initial region of the spray. Laser-based techniques were used to quantitatively evaluate the considered phenomena: velocity field was reconstructed through a Particle Image Velocimetry analysis; drop-size distribution was measured by a Malvern Spraytec device, highlighting secondary atomization and subsequent coalescence along the spray axis. Moreover, a comprehensive set of relations was validated as predictive of the involved parameters, following an inviscid-fluid approach. The proposed model pertains to early studies on pressure-swirl atomizers and primarily yields to determine both initial velocity and cone angle. The spray thickness is also predicted and a classic correlation for Sauter Mean Diameter is shown to provide good agreement with experimental results. The analysis was carried out at the operative pressure of 80 bar; two injectors were employed featuring different orifice diameters and flow numbers, as a sort of parametric approach to this spray typology.

  15. Relationship Between Particle and Plasma Properties and Coating Characteristics of Samaria-Doped Ceria Prepared by Atmospheric Plasma Spraying for Use in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuglietta, Mark; Kesler, Olivera

    2012-06-01

    Samaria-doped ceria (SDC) has become a promising material for the fabrication of high-performance, intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). In this study, the in-flight characteristics, such as particle velocity and surface temperature, of spray-dried SDC agglomerates were measured and correlated to the resulting microstructures of SDC coatings fabricated using atmospheric plasma spraying, a manufacturing technique with the capability of producing full cells in minutes. Plasmas containing argon, nitrogen and hydrogen led to particle surface temperatures higher than those in plasmas containing only argon and nitrogen. A threshold temperature for the successful deposition of SDC on porous stainless steel substrates was calculated to be 2570 °C. Coating porosity was found to be linked to average particle temperature, suggesting that plasma conditions leading to lower particle temperatures may be most suitable for fabricating porous SOFC electrode layers.

  16. Effects of nasal drug delivery device and its orientation on sprayed particle deposition in a realistic human nasal cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xuwen; Dong, Jingliang; Shang, Yidan; Inthavong, Kiao; Tu, Jiyuan

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the effects of nasal drug delivery device and the spray nozzle orientation on sprayed droplets deposition in a realistic human nasal cavity were numerically studied. Prior to performing the numerical investigation, an in-house designed automated actuation system representing mean adults actuation force was developed to produce realistic spray plume. Then, the spray plume development was filmed by high speed photography system, and spray characteristics such as spray cone angle, break-up length, and average droplet velocity were obtained through off-line image analysis. Continuing studies utilizing those experimental data as boundary conditions were applied in the following numerical spray simulations using a commercially available nasal spray device, which was inserted into a realistic adult nasal passage with external facial features. Through varying the particle releasing direction, the deposition fractions of selected particle sizes on the main nasal passage for targeted drug delivery were compared. The results demonstrated that the middle spray direction showed superior spray efficiency compared with upper or lower directions, and the 10µm agents were the most suitable particle size as the majority of sprayed agents can be delivered to the targeted area, the main passage. This study elaborates a comprehensive approach to better understand nasal spray mechanism and evaluate its performance for existing nasal delivery practices. Results of this study can assist the pharmaceutical industry to improve the current design of nasal drug delivery device and ultimately benefit more patients through optimized medications delivery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Critical solvent properties affecting the particle formation process and characteristics of celecoxib-loaded PLGA microparticles via spray-drying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wan, Feng; Bohr, Adam; Maltesen, Morten Jonas

    2013-01-01

    ) microparticles prepared by spray-drying. METHODS: Binary mixtures of acetone and methanol at different molar ratios were applied to dissolve celecoxib and PLGA prior to spray-drying. The resulting microparticles were characterized with respect to morphology, texture, surface chemistry, solid state properties...... and drug release profile. The evaporation profiles of the feed solutions were investigated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). RESULTS: Spherical PLGA microparticles were obtained, irrespectively of the solvent composition. The particle size and surface chemistry were highly dependent on the solvent...

  18. Spray cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rollin, Philippe.

    1975-01-01

    Spray cooling - using water spraying in air - is surveyed as a possible system for make-up (peak clipping in open circuit) or major cooling (in closed circuit) of the cooling water of the condensers in thermal power plants. Indications are given on the experiments made in France and the systems recently developed in USA, questions relating to performance, cost and environmental effects of spray devices are then dealt with [fr

  19. Corrosion characteristics of thermal sprayed coating of stainless alloys in chloride solution; Taishoku gokin yosha himaku no enkabutsu yoekichu ni okeru fushoku tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, T. [Ajinomoto Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Ishikawa, K. [Tokyo Metallikon Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kitamura, Y. [Kitamura Technical Consultant Office, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1994-12-15

    With an objective to develop a thermal sprayed coating of environment interruption type that can be sprayed at sites, electrochemical discussions, SEM observation, and EPMA surface analysis were performed on corrosion characteristics in chloride solution of coatings of SUS 304, 316 and Hastelloy C thermally sprayed onto test pieces made of structural steel SS400, as well as the effect of improvement in corrosion resistance by means of a coating reforming treatment. The following conclusions were obtained: the degradation in corrosion resistance of the coatings is attributable to increase in anodic solubility due to appearance of innumerable crevices as a result of deposited particles forming porous structure and due to drop of Cr content in the matrix caused by generation of oxides on the surface of the crevices, by which the corrosion progresses in the form of crevice corrosion; and denseness of the passive coating is lost on the surface of the deposited particles, accelerating the cathodic reaction. A suitable means that could be used practically in chloride solution would be a method to use a material with less crevice susceptibility such as Hastelloy C as a base material, and seal the crevice structure with epoxy resin, etc. 7 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Synthesis and electrochemical characteristics of spinel LiMn2O4 via a precipitation spray-drying process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, H.M.; Tu, J.P.; Yuan, Y.F.; Li, Y.; Zhao, X.B.; Cao, G.S.

    2005-01-01

    Spinel LiMn 2 O 4 has been successfully synthesized using a precipitation spray-drying process. After the precursor was annealed at 750 deg. C for 10 h, the synthesized material was well-crystallized spinel particle, and exhibited uniform particle size distribution. From cyclic voltammetry results, there is an anomalous redox peaks (3.75/3.26 V). In the charge/discharge potential (versus Li) ranging from 3.2 to 4.5 V, it delivered a high initial discharge capacity of 123 mAh/g at a discharge rate of 60 μA/cm 2 (1/4 C rate). At a high discharge rate of 2.4 mA/cm 2 (10 C rate), the obtainable reversible capacity was 79 mAh/g. The simple procedure of precipitation spray-drying process is time and energy saving, and thus is promising for commercial application

  1. Self-Cutting: Patient Characteristics Compared with Self-Poisoners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawton, Keith; Harriss, Louise; Simkin, Sue; Bale, Elizabeth; Bond, Alison

    2004-01-01

    A large (n = 14,892) consecutive sample of deliberate self-harm (attempted suicide) patients who presented to a general hospital in the United Kingdom during a 23-year study period was examined (over two consecutive time periods) in order to compare the characteristics of those who used self-cutting (n = 428) and those who self-poisoned (n =…

  2. UV and VUV characteristics of (YGd)2O3:Eu phosphor particles prepared by spray pyrolysis from polymeric precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, E.J.; Kang, Y.C.; Park, H.D.; Ryu, S.K.

    2003-01-01

    Red-emitting (YGd) 2 O 3 :Eu phosphor particles, with high luminescence efficiency under vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and ultraviolet (UV) excitation, were prepared by a large-scale spray pyrolysis process. To control the morphology of phosphor particles under severe preparation conditions, spray solution with polymeric precursors were introduced in spray pyrolysis. The prepared (YGd) 2 O 3 :Eu phosphor particles had spherical shape and filled morphology even after post-treatment irrespective of Gd/Y ratio. In the case of solution with polymeric precursors, long polymeric chains formed by esterification reaction in a hot tubular reactor; the droplets turned into viscous gel, which retarded the precipitation of nitrate salts and promoted the volume precipitation of droplets. The brightness of (YGd) 2 O 3 :Eu phosphor particles increased with increasing gadolinium content, and the Gd 2 O 3 :Eu phosphor had the highest luminescence intensity under UV and VUV excitation. The maximum peak intensity of Gd 2 O 3 :Eu phosphor particles under UV and VUV were 118 and 110% of the commercial Y 2 O 3 :Eu phosphor particles, respectively

  3. Critical solvent properties affecting the particle formation process and characteristics of celecoxib-loaded plga microparticles via spray-drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Feng; Bohr, Adam; Maltesen, Morten Jonas; Bjerregaard, Simon; Foged, Camilla; Rantanen, Jukka; Yang, Mingshi

    2013-04-01

    It is imperative to understand the particle formation mechanisms when designing advanced nano/microparticulate drug delivery systems. We investigated how the solvent power and volatility influence the texture and surface chemistry of celecoxib-loaded poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles prepared by spray-drying. Binary mixtures of acetone and methanol at different molar ratios were applied to dissolve celecoxib and PLGA prior to spray-drying. The resulting microparticles were characterized with respect to morphology, texture, surface chemistry, solid state properties and drug release profile. The evaporation profiles of the feed solutions were investigated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Spherical PLGA microparticles were obtained, irrespectively of the solvent composition. The particle size and surface chemistry were highly dependent on the solvent power of the feed solution. An obvious burst release was observed for the microparticles prepared by the feed solutions with the highest amount of poor solvent for PLGA. TGA analysis revealed distinct drying kinetics for the binary mixtures. The particle formation process is mainly governed by the PLGA precipitation rate, which is solvent-dependent, and the migration rate of celecoxib molecules during drying. The texture and surface chemistry of the spray-dried PLGA microparticles can therefore be tailored by adjusting the solvent composition.

  4. Numerical modelling of fuel sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, C.

    1999-06-01

    The way the fuel is introduced into the combustion chamber is one of the most important parameters for the power output and the generation of emissions in the combustion of liquid fuels. The interaction between the turbulent gas flow field and the liquid fuel droplets, the vaporisation of them and the mixing of the gaseous fuel with the ambient air that are vital parameters in the combustion process. The use of numerical calculations is an important tool to better understand these complex interacting phenomena. This thesis reports on the numerical modelling of fuel sprays in non-reacting cases using an own developed spray module. The spray module uses the stochastic parcel method to represent the spray. The module was made in such manner that it could by coupled with different gas flow solver. Results obtained from four different gas flow solvers are presented in the thesis, including the use of two different kinds of turbulence models. In the first part the spray module is coupled with a k-{eta} based 2-D cylindrical gas flow solver. A thorough sensitivity analysis was performed on the spray and gas flow solver parameters, such as grid size dependence and sensitivity to initial values of k-{eta}. The results of the spray module were also compared to results from other spray codes, e.g. the well known KIVA code. In the second part of this thesis the spray was injected into a turbulent and fully developed crossflow studied. The spray module was attached to a LES (Large Eddy Simulation) based flow solvers enabling the study of the complex structures and time dependent phenomena involved in spray in crossflows. It was found that the spray performs an oscillatory motion and that the Strouhal number in the wake was about 0.1. Different spray breakup models were evaluated by comparing with experimental results 66 refs, 56 figs

  5. 醇类-汽油混合燃料的喷雾特性%Spray Characteristics of Various Alcohol-Gasoline Blends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何邦全; 都成君

    2012-01-01

    The spray characteristics and fuel injection rate of a multi-hole injector of a direct injection gasoline engine were investigated on test benches when the alcohol-gasoline blends containing 10% and 30% volume fraction of etha-nol, 10% and 30% volume fraction of n-butanol and their base gasoline were used, respectively. The results show that, with the increase of injection pressure, the transient fuel injection rates of alcohol-gasoline blends increase, and their variations are dependent on the fuels tested. In the meantime, spray penetration of various fuels increases with injection pressure, and the differences of individual spray image at the same time in a single injection increase. The spray penetration of alcohol-gasoline blends is close to that of gasoline at high ambient pressure. The spray cone angles of different fuels after the initial stage of injection are much affected by ambient pressure in the constant chamber. At low ambient pressure, the spray cone angles of gasoline are greater than those of alcohol-gasoline blends. On the contrary, at high ambient pressure, the spray cone angles of alcohol-gasoline blends are bigger than those of gasoline except the case in which the blends containing 30% volume fraction of ethanol are used.%在试验台上,研究了使用汽油醇类混合燃料,其中醇类燃料体积分数分别为10%的乙醇-汽油、30%的乙醇-汽油、10%的正丁醇-汽油和30%的正丁醇-汽油时,直喷汽油机多孔喷油器的喷油率和喷雾特性.结果表明,随着喷油压力的提高,醇类-汽油混合燃料的瞬时喷油率增大,且瞬时喷油率波动性依赖于燃料.同时,喷油压力的提高使得喷雾贯穿距离加大,单次喷油后同一时刻的喷雾差异性变大.在高背压,相同喷油压力下醇类-汽油混合燃料的贯穿距离与汽油接近.背压大小对不同燃料喷油初期的喷雾锥角影响较大.低背压时,汽油的喷雾锥角高于醇类-汽油混

  6. Microstructural characteristics of spray formed and heat treated Al–(Y, La)–Ni–Co system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, V.C.; Surreddi, K.B.; Scudino, S.; Schowalter, M.; Uhlenwinkel, V.; Schulz, A.; Eckert, J.; Rosenauer, A.; Zoch, H.-W.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Al–(La, Y)–Ni–Co based alloys are spray formed to thickness 10–12 mm. •XRD and DSC confirms the presence of large fraction of amorphous phase. •Optical, SEM and TEM studies corroborated the observations made. Mechanism of microstructural evolution brought out. •Heat treatment of spray deposited materials showed increased hardness which decreased at high temperature annealing. •La containing system showed better thermal stability than that without La. -- Abstract: Recent studies on the synthesis of bulk Al–RE (Rare Earth)-TM (Transition Metal) based materials, from melt spun ribbons and gas atomized powders, have shown that partially amorphous or nano-crystalline structures lead to a high specific strength. In the present study, therefore, spray atomization and deposition process has been used to produce plates of Al 85 Y 8 Ni 5 Co 2 (deposit D1) and Al 83 Y 5 La 5 Ni 5 Co 2 (deposit D2) systems so as to synthesize bulk deposit of nano-crystalline and/or partially amorphous materials in a single step. The rapid solidification and high undercooling of droplets during atomization and the chilling effect on undercooled liquid upon deposition give rise to the above microstructural features. The microstructural features of deposits as well as overspray powders were studied using optical, scanning and transmission electron microscope. The alloys invariably showed a large fraction of nano-crystalline structure and amorphous features, characterized by featureless regions at optical resolution, along with distribution of primary equilibrium phases. The differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analysis of the deposits showed similar crystallization features as observed during crystallization of fully amorphous melt spun ribbons of respective compositions. The transmission electron microscopy of deposit D1 showed the presence of 50–100 nm size fcc-Al precipitates in an amorphous matrix decorated with 5–20 nm fcc-Al crystallites. The

  7. Fabrication of Hybrid Organic Photovoltaic Devices Using Electrostatic Spray Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe-Wei Chiu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid organic photovoltaic devices (OPVDs are fabricated using the electrostatic spray (e-spray method and their optical and electrical properties are investigated. E-spray is used to deposit a hybrid film (P3HT: PCBM/nanodiamond with morphology and optical characteristics onto OPVDs. The root-mean-square roughness and optical absorption increase with increasing nanodiamond content. The performance of e-spray is comparable to that of the spin-coating method under uniform conditions. The device takes advantage of the high current density, power conversion efficiency, and low cost. Nanodiamond improves the short-circuit current density and power conversion efficiency. The best performance was obtained with 1.5 wt% nanodiamond content, with a current density of 7.28 mA/cm2 and a power conversion efficiency of 2.25%.

  8. COMPARATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF STRATEGIES ON ENTRY TO FOREIGN MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Morozova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A company must have distinctly described alternatives for taking strategically correct decisions. For this reason the purpose of the paper is to provide comparative characteristics and systematize strategies on entry to foreign market. It is necessary to select the required criteria and carry out multi-criterion analysis in order to arrange systematization and comparative characteristics of  numerous institutional forms being established within the framework of export, cooperation or integration, main strategies on entry to foreign market. The paper contains an analysis and systematization prepared in accordance with the following criteria: strategic purpose of entry to foreign market, time factor in respect of entry to foreign market, distribution of  company’s business-cycle stages among countries, level of investments, form of investments, distribution of investment and management level among countries, risk level, market involvement, legal grounds for foreign activity, status of a subject entering foreign market. The paper makes it possible to give comparative characteristics of the analyzed strategies.

  9. Behaviors of MC3T3-E1 cells on carbonated apatite films, with a characteristic network structure, fabricated on a titanium plate by aqueous spray coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki, Chihiro; Hara, Hiroki; Oya, Kei; Aoki, Shun; Hayakawa, Tohru; Fujie, Hiromichi; Sato, Mitsunobu

    2014-01-01

    Four carbonated apatite films having average thicknesses of 1.3–0.11 μm, proportions of network sizes above 10 μm of 41–68%, and average border heights of the characteristic network structure of 0.98–0.29 μm were fabricated on a titanium plate by aqueous spray coating. These carbonated apatite films after heat treatment showed good mineralization ability in Hanks' balanced salt solution. Assessment of initial cell attachment and calcination on these films and on the Ti plate using osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 indicated that the carbonated apatite film heat treated at 600 °C, whose film thickness, proportion of network sizes above 10 μm, and border height were 0.11 μm, 61%, and 0.31 μm, respectively, was most preferred by osteoblastic cells. Field emission scanning electron microscopic observation of the cells attached to the films showed that the wide network and low border height of the network structure on the carbonated apatite film play an important role in the development of the filopodia of the osteoblastic cells. - Highlights: • Osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 behaviors on aqueous spray coating-derived carbonated apatite (CA) films • The network size of CA films is important. • CA films having a low network border height are better for cell proliferation

  10. Behaviors of MC3T3-E1 cells on carbonated apatite films, with a characteristic network structure, fabricated on a titanium plate by aqueous spray coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mochizuki, Chihiro; Hara, Hiroki [Division of Liberal Arts, Kogakuin University, 2665-1 Nakano, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0015 (Japan); Oya, Kei [Research Institute for Science and Technology, Kogakuin University, 2665-1 Nakano, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0015 (Japan); School of Engineering, Tokai University, 4-1-1 Kitakanane, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Aoki, Shun [Faculty of System Design, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 6-6 Asahigaoka, Hino, Tokyo 191-0065 (Japan); Hayakawa, Tohru [Department of Dental Engineering, Tsurumi University School of Dental Medicine, 2-1-3 Tsurumi, Yokohama City, Kanagawa 230-8501 (Japan); Fujie, Hiromichi [Faculty of System Design, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 6-6 Asahigaoka, Hino, Tokyo 191-0065 (Japan); Sato, Mitsunobu, E-mail: lccsato@cc.kogakuin.ac.jp [Division of Liberal Arts, Kogakuin University, 2665-1 Nakano, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0015 (Japan)

    2014-06-01

    Four carbonated apatite films having average thicknesses of 1.3–0.11 μm, proportions of network sizes above 10 μm of 41–68%, and average border heights of the characteristic network structure of 0.98–0.29 μm were fabricated on a titanium plate by aqueous spray coating. These carbonated apatite films after heat treatment showed good mineralization ability in Hanks' balanced salt solution. Assessment of initial cell attachment and calcination on these films and on the Ti plate using osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 indicated that the carbonated apatite film heat treated at 600 °C, whose film thickness, proportion of network sizes above 10 μm, and border height were 0.11 μm, 61%, and 0.31 μm, respectively, was most preferred by osteoblastic cells. Field emission scanning electron microscopic observation of the cells attached to the films showed that the wide network and low border height of the network structure on the carbonated apatite film play an important role in the development of the filopodia of the osteoblastic cells. - Highlights: • Osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 behaviors on aqueous spray coating-derived carbonated apatite (CA) films • The network size of CA films is important. • CA films having a low network border height are better for cell proliferation.

  11. Spray Characteristic of Multi-hole Injector for In-cylinder DI Gasoline Engine%缸内直喷汽油机多孔喷油器喷雾特性试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尉庆国; 王艳华; 刘新华; 李波

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the spray characteristic of multi-hole injector on in-cylinder direct injection gasoline engine, the constant volume spray experimental device was built. The processes of free spray and impingement wall spray were shot under the conditions of different ambient pressure and injection pressure. The influences of wall distance and wall inclination on spray characteristic were analyzed. It was found that there existed a big difference of spray characteristic between the traditional swirl injector and the multi-hole injector. The spray cone angle of multi-hole injector was little influenced by ambient pressure. With the increase of ambient pressure, the spray penetration and spray cone angle first increased and then decreased. With the increase of injection pressure, the spray cone angle slightly increased. In the process of impingement wall spray, the contact areas between spray beam and wall were close under different ambient pressures. With the increase of wall distance, the spray height after wall impingement decreased step by step and fluctuated. With the increase of wall inclination, the summation of spray height increased. During this process, the spray radius after wall impingement was influenced by many factors and showed a complex variation. The above research provided the theoretical reference for multi-hole injector design and combustion chamber match.%为了研究缸内直喷汽油机多孔喷油器的喷雾特性,建立了定容喷雾试验装置,对不同环境压力和不同喷油压力条件下的自由喷雾和碰壁喷雾过程进行了拍摄,分析了壁面距离和壁面倾角对喷雾特性的影响.研究发现:多孔喷油器与传统的旋流式喷油器的喷雾特性存在较大差异.多孔喷油器的喷雾锥角受环境压力影响较小;随着环境背压的增大,贯穿距离和喷雾锥角呈现先增大后减小的特点;喷雾锥角随着喷射压力的提高略有增加.在碰壁喷雾发展过程中,不同环

  12. Evaluation of Steadiness and Drop Size Distribution in Sprays Generated by Different Twin-Fluid Atomizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaremba Matouš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Twin-fluid atomizers underwent a significant development during the last few decades. They are common in many industrial applications such as fuel spraying, melt atomization and food processing. This paper is focused on the evaluation of four different twin-fluid atomizers. The aim is to compare the quality of sprays generated by various atomizers with similar dimensions and in the same operating regimes. A phase- Doppler anemometry (PDA and particle image velocimetry (PIV were used to measure spray characteristics such as velocity and size of the droplets. Measured data were used to compare droplet size distribution and to evaluate steadiness of the spray. Visualisations were made to support measured data and to clarify the principles of primary atomization and its influence on the spray.

  13. Evaluation of Steadiness and Drop Size Distribution in Sprays Generated by Different Twin-Fluid Atomizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaremba, Matouš; Mlkvik, Marek; Malý, Milan; Jedelský, Jan; Jícha, Miroslav

    2015-05-01

    Twin-fluid atomizers underwent a significant development during the last few decades. They are common in many industrial applications such as fuel spraying, melt atomization and food processing. This paper is focused on the evaluation of four different twin-fluid atomizers. The aim is to compare the quality of sprays generated by various atomizers with similar dimensions and in the same operating regimes. A phase- Doppler anemometry (PDA) and particle image velocimetry (PIV) were used to measure spray characteristics such as velocity and size of the droplets. Measured data were used to compare droplet size distribution and to evaluate steadiness of the spray. Visualisations were made to support measured data and to clarify the principles of primary atomization and its influence on the spray.

  14. Comparing plume characteristics inferred from cross-borehole geophysical data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haarder, Eline Bojsen; Binley, Andrew; Zibar, Majken Caroline Looms

    2012-01-01

    significantly influences results of the moment analysis. We compare results of three cross-borehole geophysical approaches for imaging tracer migration arising from a point injection of water in the unsaturated zone: three-dimensional electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), two-dimensional ground......-penetrating radar (GPR) tomography and quasi-three-dimensional GPR tomography. In the studied field experiment, a tracer was injected for a period of 5 d and was monitored both during injection and for 5 d during the subsequent redistribution. The three methods show similar characteristics of the plume development...

  15. Comparative study of telmisartan tablets prepared via the wet granulation method and pritor™ prepared using the spray-drying method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Junsung; Park, Hee Jun; Cho, Wonkyung; Cha, Kwang-Ho; Yeon, Wonki; Kim, Min-Soo; Kim, Jeong-Soo; Hwang, Sung-Joo

    2011-03-01

    The wet granulation method was successfully used to manufacture amorphous telmisartan tablets (CNU) for comparison with the spray-drying method, used for Pritor™. Drug crystallinity in the tablet was characterized using differential scanning calorimetry and powder X-ray diffraction, and pharmaceutical properties of the tablets such as hardness, friability, water absorption, and in vitro dissolution in pH 1.2, 4.0, 6.8 and 7.5 were characterized. Especially with regard to the water absorption feature, the CNU tablets showed better performance by maintaining their original structures and by absorbing less water. Since both Pritor™ and CNU tablets had similar physical properties of crystallinity, hardness, friability, and > 50 f(2) value in an in vitro dissolution study, the bioequivalence of CNU tablets should be analyzed in a future in vivo study. Therefore, telmisartan tablets can be produced using a more economical and easier method than that used to produce Pritor™ tablets.

  16. Efficacy of Some Wearable Devices Compared with Spray-On Insect Repellents for the Yellow Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Stacy D; Chung, Hae-Na; Gonzales, Kristina K; Vulcan, Julia; Li, Yiyi; Ahumada, Jorge A; Romero, Hector M; De La Torre, Mario; Shu, Fangjun; Hansen, Immo A

    2017-01-01

    The current Zika health crisis in the Americas has created an intense interest in mosquito control methods and products. Mosquito vectors of Zika are of the genus Aedes, mainly the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. L. The use of repellents to alter mosquito host seeking behavior is an effective method for the prevention of mosquito-borne diseases. A large number of different spray-on repellents and wearable repellent devices are commercially available. The efficacies of many repellents are unknown. This study focuses on the efficacy of eleven different repellents in reducing the number of Ae. aegypti female mosquitoes attracted to human bait. We performed attraction-inhibition assays using a taxis cage in a wind tunnel setting. One person was placed upwind of the taxis cage and the mosquito movement towards or away from the person was recorded. The person was treated with various spray-on repellents or equipped with different mosquito repellent devices. We found that the spray-on repellents containing N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide and p-menthane-3,8-diol had the highest efficacy in repelling mosquitoes compared to repellents with other ingredients. From the five wearable devices that we tested, only the one that releases Metofluthrin significantly reduced the numbers of attracted mosquitoes. The citronella candle had no effect. We conclude that many of the products that we tested that were marketed as repellents do not reduce mosquito attraction to humans. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  17. A comparative study of two advanced spraying techniques for the deposition of biologically active enzyme coatings onto bone-substituting implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonge, Lise T. de; Ju, J.; Leeuwenburgh, S.C.G.; Yamagata, Y.; Higuchi, T.; Wolke, J.G.C.; Inoue, K.; Jansen, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Surface modification of implant materials with biomolecule coatings is of high importance to improve implant fixation in bone tissue. In the current study, we present two techniques for the deposition of biologically active enzyme coatings onto implant materials. The well-established thin film ElectroSpray Deposition (ESD) technique was compared with the SAW-ED technique that combines high-frequency Surface Acoustic Wave atomization with Electrostatic Deposition. By immobilizing the enzyme alkaline phosphatase (ALP) onto implant surfaces, the influence of both SAW-ED and ESD deposition parameters on ALP deposition efficiency and ALP biological activity was investigated. ALP coatings with preserved enzyme activity were deposited by means of both the SAW-ED and ESD technique. The advantages of SAW-ED over ESD include the possibility to spray highly conductive protein solutions, and the 60-times faster deposition rate. Furthermore, significantly higher deposition efficiencies were observed for the SAW-ED technique compared to ESD. Generally, it was shown that protein inactivation is highly dependent on both droplet dehydration and the applied electrical field strength. The current study shows that SAW-ED is a versatile and flexible technique for the fabrication of functionally active biomolecule coatings.

  18. Characterization of Sodium Spray Aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, C. T.; Koontz, R. L.; Silberberg, M. [Atomics International, North American Rockwell Corporation, Canoga Park, CA (United States)

    1968-12-15

    The consequences of pool and spray fires require evaluation in the safety analysis of liquid metal-cooled fast breeder reactors. Sodium spray fires are characterized by high temperature and pressure, produced during the rapid combustion of sodium in air. Following the initial energy release, some fraction of the reaction products are available as aerosols which follow the normal laws of agglomeration, growth, settling, and plating. An experimental study is underway at Atomics International to study the characteristics of high concentration sprays of liquid sodium in reduced oxygen atmospheres and in air. The experiments are conducted in a 31.5 ft{sup 3} (2 ft diam. by 10 ft high) vessel, certified for a pressure of 100 lb/in{sup 2} (gauge). The spray injection apparatus consists of a heated sodium supply pot and a spray nozzle through which liquid sodium is driven by nitrogen pressure. Spray rate and droplet size can be varied by the injection velocity (nozzle size, nitrogen pressure, and sodium temperature). Aerosols produced in 0, 4, and 10 vol. % oxygen environments have been studied. The concentration and particle size distribution of the material remaining in the air after the spray injection and reaction period are measured. Fallout rates are found to be proportional to the concentration of aerosol which remains airborne following the spray period. (author)

  19. Effect of ethanol as a co-solvent on the aerosol performance and stability of spray-dried lysozyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ji, Shuying; Thulstrup, Peter Waaben; Mu, Huiling

    2016-01-01

    In the spray drying process, organic solvents can be added to facilitate drying, accommodate certain functional excipients, and modify the final particle characteristics. In this study, lysozyme was used as a model pharmaceutical protein to study the effect of ethanol as a co...... the spray drying process. The enzymatic activities of the spray-dried lysozyme showed no significant impact of ethanol; however, the lysozyme enzymatic activity was ca. 25% lower compared to the starting material. In conclusion, the addition of ethanol as a co-solvent in the spray drying feed for lysozyme......-solvent on the stability and aerosol performance of spray-dried protein. Lysozyme was dissolved in solutions with various ratios of ethanol and water, and subsequently spray-dried. A change from spherical particles into wrinkled and folded particles was observed upon increasing the ratio of ethanol in the feed...

  20. Study of the Influence of Key Parameters on the Dynamic Spray Characteristics of Natural Gas Direct Injection Engine%关键参数对直喷式天然气发动机喷雾动态性的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩志强; 钱云寿; 冷松蓬; 马帅; 夏琦

    2017-01-01

    Jet development and mixing process of natural gas direct injection engine are the key to achieve high efficiency and clean combustion.This research worked on the characteristic of directly injected natural gas spray in cylinder based on a combustion bomb with a schlieren test system.The influence on direct injection natural gas engine spray dynamic characteristics was systematically analyzed by the ambient temperature,ambient pressure,injection pressure and other parameters.The results showed that the ambient pressure in combustion chamber and the injection pressure highly influenced the jet spray development process.With the enlargement of ambient pressure,the spray penetration rate compared to slow,while the spray cone angle diffusion increased;the greater the injection pressure,the expedited the spray penetration,and the more amplified,the spray diffusion cone angle.In addition,the study shows that the influence of cylinder temperature on the develooment of the sorav is relativelv small.%直喷式天然气发动机缸内喷雾发展和动态混合历程是实现高效清洁燃烧的关键.基于定容燃烧弹可视化纹影试验系统,分析了缸内温度、缸内压力、喷射压力等参数对直喷式天然气发动机喷雾动态特性的影响规律.结果表明:缸内压力和喷射压力对天然气喷雾发展历程产生显著影响,随着缸内压力变大,喷雾贯穿速度相对变慢,喷雾扩散锥角变大;喷射压力越大,喷雾贯穿速度越快,喷雾扩散锥角越大.缸内温度对喷雾发展影响相对较小.

  1. Comparing Personality Characteristics of Addicts with Non Addicts in Hamadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Heidari Pahlavian

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available A Sizeable sector of the population in Iran continues to use substance abuse despite government efforts to prevent addiction. Present study was designed to compare personality characteristics of addicts with non addicts. One hundred and six addicts who sought treatment at addiction rehabilitation department of Hamadan , were recruited in this study. A selective control group matched for demographic variables with the first group were also requested to take part in the study. The structured clinical interview for DSM-IV and MMPI were administered. The results showed that patients in studied group represented a significantly different personality characteristics in contrast to the control group. Overal 77.8% of addicts were diagnosed as mental disorder. This figure for control group was 26.2% . Also 41.3% of addicts were diagnosed as personality disorders, while the figure for non addicts was 5.8%. High rates of mental disorders and personality problems are reported for addicts. It Seems that psychiatric symptoms and psychological vulnerabilities have important role in addictive behavior.

  2. Influences of Pr and Ta doping concentration on the characteristic features of FTO thin film deposited by spray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turgut, Güven; Koçyiğit, Adem; Sönmez, Erdal

    2015-01-01

    The Pr and Ta separately doped FTO (10 at.% F incorporated SnO 2 ) films are fabricated via spray pyrolysis. The microstructural, topographic, optical, and electrical features of fluorine-doped TO (FTO) films are investigated as functions of Pr and Ta dopant concentrations. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements reveal that all deposited films show polycrystalline tin oxide crystal property. FTO film has (200) preferential orientation, but this orientation changes to (211) direction with Pr and Ta doping ratio increasing. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses show that all films have uniform and homogenous nanoparticle distributions. Furthermore, morphologies of the films depend on the ratio between Pr and Ta dopants. From ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometer measurements, it is shown that the transmittance value of FTO film decreases with Pr and Ta doping elements increasing. The band gap value of FTO film increases only at 1 at.% Ta doping level, it drops off with Pr and Ta doping ratio increasing at other doped FTO films. The electrical measurements indicate that the sheet resistance value of FTO film initially decreases with Pr and Ta doping ratio decreasing and then it increases with Pr and Ta doping ratio increasing. The highest value of figure of merit is obtained for 1 at.% Ta- and Pr-doped FTO film. These results suggest that Pr- and Ta-doped FTO films may be appealing candidates for TCO applications. (paper)

  3. Brachytherapy for prostate cancer: Comparative characteristics of procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Kanaev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of interstitial radiation sources is the «youngest» of the radical method of treatment of patients with prostate cancer (PC. The high level of efficiency comparable to prostatectomy at a significantly lower rate of complications causes rapid growth of clinical use of brachytherapy (BT. Depending on the radiation source and the mode of administration into the prostate gland are two types BT – high-dose rate (temporary (HDR-BT and low-dose rate (permanent (LDR-BT brachytherapy. At the heart of these two methods are based on a single principle of direct effect of the quantum gamma radiation on the area of interest. However, the differences between the characteristics of isotopes used and technical aspects of the techniques cause the difference in performance and complication rates for expression HDR-BT and LDR-BT.

  4. Comparative effects of indium/ytterbium doping on, mechanical and gas-sensitivity-related morphological, properties of sprayed ZnO compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boukhachem, A.; Fridjine, S.; Amlouk, A.; Boubaker, K.; Bouhafs, M.; Amlouk, M.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, conducting and transparent indium-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have been deposited on glass substrates by the micro-spray technique. First, zinc oxide layers were obtained by spaying a solution of propanol and zinc acetate in acidified medium. Alternatively, some of the obtained films were doped with indium (In) at the molar rates of: 1%, 2% and 3%. In addition to the classical structural investigated using XRD, AFM and SEM techniques, microhardness Vickers (Hv) measurements have been carried out along with comparative morphological prospecting. The specific gases sensitivity-related surface morphology of the doped ZnO compounds was favorably different from that of the non-doped ones, and showed a thin overlay structure. Results were compared to those recorded for similar ytterbium-doped material.

  5. Injection and spray characteristics of a variable orifice nozzle applied the jerk type fuel injection pump for DI diesel engine; Jerk shiki nenryo funsha pump wo mochiita kahen funko nozzle no funsha funmu tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, T; Matsui, K; Iwasaki, T; Kobayashi, T [Zexel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Matsumoto, Y [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A Variable Orifice Nozzle (VON) by changing a cross-sectional area of the nozzle injection hole, for improving a rate of injection and injection duration, has been developed to study its injection and spray characteristics. The nozzle geometry was optimized to analyze a nozzle internal flow by computational method. Results show that, injection and spray pattern responded to the nozzle orifice cross-sectional area which is changing larger to smaller in the part load range. This results suggest to contribute a combustion improvement which decreasing NOx and soot. 14 refs., 10 figs.

  6. Characteristics of patients initiating raloxifene compared to those initiating bisphosphonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Sara

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both raloxifene and bisphosphonates are indicated for the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis, however these medications have different efficacy and safety profiles. It is plausible that physicians would prescribe these agents to optimize the benefit/risk profile for individual patients. The objective of this study was to compare demographic and clinical characteristics of patients initiating raloxifene with those of patients initiating bisphosphonates for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Methods This study was conducted using a retrospective cohort design. Female beneficiaries (45 years and older with at least one claim for raloxifene or a bisphosphonate in 2003 through 2005 and continuous enrollment in the previous 12 months and subsequent 6 months were identified using a collection of large national commercial, Medicare supplemental, and Medicaid administrative claims databases (MarketScan®. Patients were divided into two cohorts, a combined commercial/Medicare cohort and a Medicaid cohort. Within each cohort, characteristics (demographic, clinical, and resource utilization of patients initiating raloxifene were compared to those of patients initiating bisphosphonate therapy. Group comparisons were made using chi-square tests for proportions of categorical measures and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests for continuous variables. Logistic regression was used to simultaneously examine factors independently associated with initiation of raloxifene versus a bisphosphonate. Results Within both the commercial/Medicare and Medicaid cohorts, raloxifene patients were younger, had fewer comorbid conditions, and fewer pre-existing fractures than bisphosphonate patients. Raloxifene patients in both cohorts were less likely to have had a bone mineral density (BMD screening in the previous year than were bisphosphonate patients, and were also more likely to have used estrogen or estrogen/progestin therapy in the

  7. A comparative study of spray keratinocytes and autologous meshed split-thickness skin graft in the treatment of acute burn injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Rajiv; Roggy, David Edward; Zieger, Madeline Jane; Nazim, Muhammad; Hartman, Brett Colby; Gibbs, Jeff Thomas

    2015-02-01

    ReCell (Avita Medical, Northridge, CA) is an autologous cell harvesting (ACH) device that enables a thin split-thickness skin biopsy to be processed to produce a cell population that includes a mixed population of keratinocytes, melanocytes, Langerhans cells, and papillary dermal fibroblasts for immediate delivery via a spray applicator onto a prepared skin surface. In this Institutional Review Board-approved US Food and Drug Administration phase 2 study, the authors prospectively evaluated the treatment of partial-thickness burns in patients with two 320 cm2 areas, 1 area treated with the ACH device and the other with a meshed split-thickness skin graft (MSTSG) as a control. The authors compared the treatment areas for graft take, pigmentation, and color match to surrounding healthy tissue, scarring, and pain. In this preliminary study, 10 patients were treated with this protocol. Eight patients had 100% take to both treatment areas and 2 patients had significant non-take and graft loss attributable to underexcised wound beds and difficulty with the spray applicator. Pigmentation and color match ratings were identical at week 52 and the Modified Vancouver Scar Scale scores were comparable. One subject rated the autologous cell harvesting site as having a better appearance, while the remaining subjects rated their ACH and MSTSG sites' appearances as being comparable. In early follow-up visits, pain ratings were slightly elevated in the ACH group due to graft healing; however, in visits following week 2, pain ratings at the ACH and MSTSG sites were rated similarly by all patients. This preliminary report describes an early experience with the ACH device and the treatment of partial-thickness burn injuries. In this 10-patient series, patients benefitted from having a decreased donor site size and comparable outcomes with MSTSG treatment. While this preliminary underpowered study has provided positive results, there is a learning curve with choosing the proper wound

  8. Comparative study of the friction and wear behavior of plasma sprayed conventional and nanostructured WC-12%Co coatings on stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiaoqin; Zhou Huidi; Chen Jianmin

    2006-01-01

    Conventional and nanostructured WC-12%Co coatings were deposited on 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel substrate using air plasma spraying. The hardness of the coatings was measured, while their friction and wear behavior sliding against Si 3 N 4 at room temperature and elevated temperatures up to 400 deg. C was comparatively studied. The microstructures and worn surface morphologies of the coatings were comparatively analyzed as well by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA). It was found that the as-sprayed WC-12%Co coatings were composed of WC as the major phase and W 2 C, WC 1-x , and W 3 Co 3 C as the minor phases. The plasma sprayed nanostructured WC-12%Co coating had much higher hardness and refined microstructures than the conventional WC-12%Co coating. This largely accounted for the better wear resistance of the nanostructured WC-12%Co coating than the conventional coating. Besides, the two types of WC-12%Co coatings showed minor differences in friction coefficients, though the nanostructured WC-12%Co coating roughly had slightly smaller friction coefficient than the conventional coating under the same sliding condition. Moreover, both the conventional and nanostructured WC-12%Co coatings recorded gradually increased wear rate with increasing temperature, and the nanostructured coating was less sensitive to the temperature rise in terms of the wear resistance. The worn surfaces of the conventional WC-12%Co coating at different sliding conditions showed more severe adhesion, microfracture, and peeling as compared to the nanostructured WC-12%Co coating, which well conformed to the corresponding wear resistance of the two types of coatings. The nanostructured WC-12%Co coating with a wear rate as small as 1.01 x 10 -7 mm 3 /Nm at 400 deg. C could be promising candidate coating for the surface-modification of some sliding components subject to harsh working conditions involving elevated

  9. Injection characteristics of dimethyl ether

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glensvig, M.

    1996-09-01

    Dimethyl ether (DME) has proved to be a new ultra-clean alternative fuel for diesel engines. Engine tests have shown considerably lower NO{sub x} emissions, no particle emissions and lower noise compared to that obtained from normal diesel engine operation. DME also has demonstrated favorable response to Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR). The purpose of this investigation was to achieve a better understanding of the fundamental spray behavior of DME. Fundamental spray behaviour was characterized by fuel spray penetration and angle, atomization and droplet size and evaporation. The influence of fuel characteristics, nozzle geometry and ambient pressure on the DME and diesel spray behavior was investigated. Fuel was injected into an unheated injection chamber with a ambient pressure of 15 bar and 25 bar, respectively, giving a simplified simulation of the environment in an operating engine. Two nozzles were studied: a single hole nozzle and a pintle nozzle. A conventional fuel injection system was used for both nozzles. Injection parameters of RPM, throttle position, fuel line length and chamber environment were held constant for both nozzles. The sprays were visualized using schlieren and high speed photography. Results show that the general appearance of the DME spray is similar to that of diesel spray. The core of the DME spray seems less dense and the spray tip less sharp compared to diesel spray, indicating smaller droplets with a lower momentum in the core of the DME spray. Schlieren film shows that with both DME and diesel fuel, the spray tip only consists of liquid and that evaporation occurs after a brief time interval. Penetration of DME is about one third that of diesel using the pintle nozzle. Also, the spray angle is considerably larger for the DME spray compared to the diesel spray. A comparatively smaller difference in penetration is observed using the hole nozzle. Differences in penetration for the hole nozzle are within the limit of the penetration

  10. Numerical Study on Fan Spray for Gasoline Direct Injection Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Shirabe, Naotaka; Sato, Takaaki; Murase, Eiichi

    2003-01-01

    In gasoline direct injection engines, it is important to optimize fuel spray characteristics, which strongly affect stratified combustion process. Spray simulation is expected as a tool for optimizing the nozzle design. Conventional simulation method, how

  11. Comparative Characteristics of Technology Transfer in Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Palii

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The research into innovation transfer in the global economy is a very urgent issue under the modern conditions of development of any country. Comparative characteristics of technology transfer in such countries and regions as the USA, EU, Asia, presented in the article, permit us to detect certain patterns of this process inherent both in developed and developing countries. The analysis made in the article can be useful for developing technology transfer processes in the Danube countries’ economy. The analytical method used in this research allowed us to determine the factor that is crucial for the growth of the world market of high-technology products and services. The analysis was conducted on several criteria such as the level of expenditure on R&D in the whole global economy, as well as in individual countries and regions. Besides, there were taken into account the added value of high-tech industries and the share of expenditure on R&D in total production costs. The conclusions regarding the effectiveness of funds allocated for scientific research and experimental development in the U.S. can be drawn on the basis of data presented in the paper on the amount of added value of the U.S. high-tech industries.

  12. Comparison of Global Sizing Velocimetry and Phase Doppler Anemometry measurements of alternative jet fuel sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadr, Reza; Kannaiyan, Kumaran

    2013-11-01

    Atomization plays a crucial precursor role in liquid fuel combustion that directly affects the evaporation, mixing, and emission levels. Laser diagnostic techniques are often used to study the spray characteristics of liquid fuels. The objective of this work is to compare the spray measurements of Gas-to Liquid (GTL) jet fuels obtained using Global Sizing Velocimetry (GSV) and Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) techniques at global and local levels, respectively. The chemical and physical properties of GTL fuels are different from conventional jet fuels, owing to the difference in their production methodology. In this work, the experimental facility, the measurement techniques, and spray characteristics of two different GTL fuels are discussed and compared with those of Jet A-1 fuel. Results clearly demonstrate that although the global measurement gives an overall picture of the spray, fine details are obtained only through local measurements and complement in gaining more inferences into the spray characteristics. The results also show a close similarity in spray characteristics between GTL and Jet A-1 fuels. Funded by Qatar Science and Technology Park.

  13. Sequential cryogen spraying for heat flux control at the skin surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majaron, Boris; Aguilar, Guillermo; Basinger, Brooke; Randeberg, Lise L.; Svaasand, Lars O.; Lavernia, Enrique J.; Nelson, J. Stuart

    2001-05-01

    Heat transfer rate at the skin-air interface is of critical importance for the benefits of cryogen spray cooling in combination with laser therapy of shallow subsurface skin lesions, such as port-wine stain birthmarks. With some cryogen spray devices, a layer of liquid cryogen builds up on the skin surface during the spurt, which may impair heat transfer across the skin surface due to relatively low thermal conductivity and potentially higher temperature of the liquid cryogen layer as compared to the spray droplets. While the mass flux of cryogen delivery can be adjusted by varying the atomizing nozzle geometry, this may strongly affect other spray properties, such as lateral spread (cone), droplet size, velocity, and temperature distribution. We present here first experiments with sequential cryogen spraying, which may enable accurate mass flux control through variation of spray duty cycle, while minimally affecting other spray characteristics. The observed increase of cooling rate and efficiency at moderate duty cycle levels supports the above described hypothesis of isolating liquid layer, and demonstrates a novel approach to optimization of cryogen spray devices for individual laser dermatological applications.

  14. Characteristics of spray coverage from an air-blast sprayer, and why this is of concern for disease control in tall pecan trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Application of fungicide sprays to pecan trees is challenging due to the height of the canopy above ground and the limitations of the ground-based spray application equipment (usually orchard air-blast sprayers). We describe results of experiments at the USDA, Byron, GA that were aimed to characteri...

  15. Thermal spray coatings replace hard chrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, M.; Unger, R.

    1997-01-01

    Hard chrome plating provides good wear and erosion resistance, as well as good corrosion protection and fine surface finishes. Until a few years ago, it could also be applied at a reasonable cost. However, because of the many environmental and financial sanctions that have been imposed on the process over the past several years, cost has been on a consistent upward trend, and is projected to continue to escalate. Therefore, it is very important to find a coating or a process that offers the same characteristics as hard chrome plating, but without the consequent risks. This article lists the benefits and limitations of hard chrome plating, and describes the performance of two thermal spray coatings (tungsten carbide and chromium carbide) that compared favorably with hard chrome plating in a series of tests. It also lists three criteria to determine whether plasma spray or hard chrome plating should be selected

  16. Spray deposition of poly(3-hexylthiophene) and [6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester blend under electric field for improved interface and organic solar cell characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaturvedi, Neha, E-mail: nchaturvedi9@gmail.com; Swami, Sanjay Kumar; Dutta, Viresh

    2016-01-01

    Spray process is used for the deposition of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) blend film under different voltages (0 V, 300 V, 500 V and 700 V) applied to the nozzle. The presence of the electric field during the spray process makes the P3HT:PCBM film smoother, uniform and more crystalline with well aligned domains. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study shows that PCBM rich surface is formed by application of the DC voltage (700 V) which improves the electron transport at the active layer and cathode interface. The application of electric field reduces the recombination at interfaces. The increased charge carrier separation between donor and acceptor at the interface and the crystallinity enhancement result in improved short circuit current density–voltage characteristics of Indium tin oxide/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate)(PEDOT:PSS) /P3HT:PCBM/Aluminum solar cell. The organic bulk-heterojunction solar cell using the electric field assisted spray deposited PEDOT:PSS and P3HT:PCBM layers exhibited 84% and 154% increment in the short circuit current density and power conversion efficiency, respectively in comparison to the solar cell having spray deposited PEDOT:PSS and P3HT:PCBM layers in the absence of the electric field. - Highlights: • Spray deposition of P3HT:PCBM is carried out. • Spray deposition under electric field is done. • Electric field application enhanced the crystallinity of the layers. • P3HT:PCBM film arranged in more ordered form with electric field • Efficiency of organic solar cell is enhanced with application of electric field.

  17. High quality ceramic coatings sprayed by high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Sheng; Xu Binshi; Yao JiuKun

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduced the structure of the high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying gun and the effects of hypersonic plasma jet on the sprayed particles. The optimised spraying process parameters for several ceramic powders such as Al 2 O 3 , Cr 2 O 3 , ZrO 2 , Cr 3 C 2 and Co-WC were listed. The properties and microstructure of the sprayed ceramic coatings were investigated. Nano Al 2 O 3 -TiO 2 ceramic coating sprayed by using the high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying was also studied. Compared with the conventional air plasma spraying, high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying improves greatly the ceramic coatings quality but at low cost. (orig.)

  18. Comparative study of soil physical characteristics of Jaipur district ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vikram

    The present study was carried in Jaipur district of Rajasthan state to measure physical characteristics of the soil samples from different districts of Jaipur. Soils samples were taken at ..... Random field models in earth sciences. Academic. Press.

  19. A comparison of biological effect and spray liquid distribution and deposition for different spray application techniques in different crops

    OpenAIRE

    Larsolle, Anders; Wretblad, Per; Westberg, Carl

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare a selection of spray application techniques with different application volumes, with respect to the spray liquid distribution on flat surfaces, the deposition in fully developed crops and the biological effect. The spray application techniques in this study were conventional spray technique with three different nozzles: Teelet XR, Lechler ID and Lurmark DriftBeta, and also AirTec, Danfoil, Hardi Twin, Kyndestoit and Släpduk. The dynamic spray liquid ...

  20. Microencapsulation of borage oil with blends of milk protein, β-glucan and maltodextrin through spray drying: physicochemical characteristics and stability of the microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ru-Yi; Shi, Yan

    2018-02-01

    Borage oil is a rich commercial source of γ-linolenic acid (18:3n-6). However, borage oil is rich in omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vulnerable to oxidation. Thus, selecting appropriate wall materials is critical to the encapsulation of borage oil. The present study investigated the influence of wall materials on the physicochemical characteristics and stability of microencapsulated borage oil by spray drying. Blends of milk protein [sodium caseinate (CAS) or whey protein concentrate], β-glucan (GLU) and maltodextrin (MD) were used as the wall materials for encapsulating borage oil. The microencapsulation of borage oil with different wall materials attained high encapsulation efficiencies. The microencapsulated borage oil prepared with CAS-MD achieved the optimal encapsulation efficiency of 96.62%. The oxidative stabilities of borage oil and microencapsulated borage oil were measured by accelerated storage test at 45 °C and 33% relative humidity for 30 days. The microencapsulated borage oil presented lower peroxide values than those of borage oil, and the microcapsules prepared with CAS-10GLU-MD (consisting of CAS 50 g kg -1 , GLU 100 g kg -1 and MD 475 g kg -1 of microencapsulation) conferred borage oil with high protection against lipid oxidation. The results of the present study demonstrate that the CAS-GLU-MD blend is appropriate for microencapsulating borage oil. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Imaging characteristics of hepatocellular adenoma compared with pathologic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jing; Zhao Xinming; Ouyang Han; Huang Wenting; Zhou Chunwu

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To retrospectively compare CT and MR features of hepatocellular adenoma with pathologic findings. Methods: Twelve patients with histopathologically proved hepatocellular adenoma were classified on the basis of pathologic and genotype phenotype findings into four groups: steatotic type, cytological abnormality type, telangiectatic adenoma with inflammatory infiltrates type and atypical adenoma type. The CT and MR features of each type were reviewed retrospectively compared with the pathological results. Results: In this retrospective study, 12 patients were examined with CT (8 patients) and MR (8 patients). Among 12 patients, 4 patients showed a steatotic type. One patient showed hypo-density on the non-enhanced CT and 3 patients demonstrated hypo-density on all phases of the post-contrast scans. Two lesions showed iso-intense signal on the in-phase T 1 WI with signal dropout on the out-of-phase T 1 WI, and hypo-intense signal on the T 2 WI with fat suppression sequences. One lesion demonstrated moderate hypointense signal on all phases of the post-contrast MRI scans. Two patients with the telangiectatic adenoma inflammatory infiltrates type were found. One patient showed hypo-density on the non-enhanced CT scans and hyper-density on all phases of the post-contrast CT scans. One patient demonstrated iso-intense signal and the other hypo-intense signal on the T 1 WI, and both displayed moderate hyper-intense signal on the T 2 WI with fat suppression sequences and hyper-intense signal with gradual enhancement on all phases of post-contrast MR scans. There were 3 patients with a cytological abnormality type. One patient appeared hypo-density and 1 patient showed uniform iso-density on non-enhanced CT scans. All patients who had undergone contrast-enhanced CT scans were found to have hyper-density on the hepatic arterial-dominant phase and became slightly lower on the portal venous phase. On the delay phase the density reduced further. One mass showed iso

  2. Spray Drift Reduction Evaluations of Spray Nozzles Using a Standardized Testing Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Drop Size Characteristics in a Spray Using Optical Nonimaging Light-Scattering Instruments,” Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 14-02, ASTM...Test Method for Determining Liquid Drop Size Characteristics in a Spray Using Optical Non- imaging Light-Scattering Instruments 22. AGDISP Model

  3. Comparative examination of the microstructure and high temperature oxidation performance of NiCrBSi flame sprayed and pack cementation coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaliampalias, D.; Vourlias, G.; Pavlidou, E.; Skolianos, S.; Chrissafis, K.; Stergioudis, G.

    2009-01-01

    Coatings formed from NiCrBSi powder were deposited by thermal spray and pack cementation processes on low carbon steel. The microstructure and morphology of the coatings were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Flame sprayed coatings exhibited high porosity and were mechanically bonded to the substrate while pack cementation coatings were more compact and chemically bonded to the substrate. The microhardness and the high temperature oxidation resistance of the coated samples were evaluated by a Vickers microhardness tester and by thermogravimetric measurements (TG), respectively. Pack cementation coatings showed higher hardness and were more protective to high temperature environments than the flame sprayed coatings.

  4. Plasma spraying of refractory metals and refractory hard materials. State of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eschnauer, H.; Lugscheider, E.; Jaeger, D.

    1989-01-01

    Suitable spraying processes for manufacturing refractory metals, refractory hard materials as well as spray materials with refractory components are the VPS- and IPS-spraying techniques. The advantages of these special spraying process variations are described. The reactive spraying materials are systematically organized. The characteristical properties used in purpose of improving the substrate surfaces are explained. Finally some examples of the latest results of research concerning plasma spraying of reactive materials are shown. 16 refs., 10 figs. (Author)

  5. Effect of fuel injection pressure and injection timing of Karanja biodiesel blends on fuel spray, engine performance, emissions and combustion characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Avinash Kumar; Dhar, Atul; Gupta, Jai Gopal; Kim, Woong Il; Choi, Kibong; Lee, Chang Sik; Park, Sungwook

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of FIP on microscopic spray characteristics. • Effect of FIP and SOI timing on CRDI engine performance, emissions and combustion. • Fuel injection duration shortened, peak injection rate increased with increasing FIP. • SMD (D 32 ) and AMD (D 10 ) of fuel droplets decreased for lower biodiesel blends. • Increase in biodiesel blend ratio and FIP, fuel injection duration decreased. - Abstract: In this investigation, effect of 10%, 20% and 50% Karanja biodiesel blends on injection rate, atomization, engine performance, emissions and combustion characteristics of common rail direct injection (CRDI) type fuel injection system were evaluated in a single cylinder research engine at 300, 500, 750 and 1000 bar fuel injection pressures at different start of injection timings and constant engine speed of 1500 rpm. The duration of fuel injection slightly decreased with increasing blend ratio of biodiesel (Karanja Oil Methyl Ester: KOME) and significantly decreased with increasing fuel injection pressure. The injection rate profile and Sauter mean diameter (D 32 ) of the fuel droplets are influenced by the injection pressure. Increasing fuel injection pressure generally improves the thermal efficiency of the test fuels. Sauter mean diameter (D 32 ) and arithmetic mean diameter (D 10 ) decreased with decreasing Karanja biodiesel content in the blend and significantly increased for higher blends due to relatively higher fuel density and viscosity. Maximum thermal efficiency was observed at the same injection timing for biodiesel blends and mineral diesel. Lower Karanja biodiesel blends (up to 20%) showed lower brake specific hydrocarbon (BSHC) and carbon monoxide (BSCO) emissions in comparison to mineral diesel. For lower Karanja biodiesel blends, combustion duration was shorter than mineral diesel however at higher fuel injection pressures, combustion duration of 50% blend was longer than mineral diesel. Up to 10% Karanja biodiesel blends in a CRDI

  6. Effect of spray angle and spray volume on deposition of a medium droplet spray with air support in ivy pot plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foqué, Dieter; Pieters, Jan G; Nuyttens, David

    2014-03-01

    Spray boom systems, an alternative to the predominantly-used spray guns, have the potential to considerably improve crop protection management in glasshouses. Based on earlier experiments, the further optimization of the deposits of a medium spray quality extended range flat fan nozzle type using easy adjustable spray boom settings was examined. Using mineral chelate tracers and water sensitive papers, the spray results were monitored at three plant levels, on the upper side and the underside of the leaves, and on some off-target collectors. In addition, the deposition datasets of all tree experiments were compared. The data showed that the most efficient spray distribution with the medium spray quality flat fan nozzles was found with a 30° forward angled spray combined with air support and an application rate of 1000 L ha(-1) . This technique resulted in a more uniform deposition in the dense canopy and increased spray deposition on the lower side of the leaves compared with the a standard spray boom application. Applying 1000 L ha(-1) in two subsequent runs instead of one did not seem to show any added value. Spray deposition can be improved hugely simply by changing some spray boom settings like nozzle type, angling the spray, using air support and adjusting the spray volume to the crop. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Comparative Analysis of Flame Characteristics of Castor Oil and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The flame characteristics of castor oil based foam and that of polyether foam impregnated with inorganic flame retardants (FR) were investigated. The polyether foams were impregnated with measured concentration of Antimony trioxide and Sodium bromide, Ammonium dihydrogen orthophosphate, Diammonium hydrogen ...

  8. Resistance and Spray Characteristics of a 1/13-Scale Model of the Consolidated Vultee Skate 7 Seaplane, TED No. NACA DE 338

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKann, Robert E.; Coffee, Claude W.; Arabian, Donald D.

    1949-01-01

    A model of a Consolidated Vultee Aircraft Corporation Skate 7 sea-plane:was tested in Langley tank no= 2. Resistance data, 'spray photographs, and underwater photographs,are given in this report without discussion.

  9. Auto-Ignition and Spray Characteristics of n-Heptane and iso-Octane Fuels in Ignition Quality Tester

    KAUST Repository

    Jaasim, Mohammed; Elhagrasy, Ayman; Sarathy, Mani; Chung, Suk-Ho; Im, Hong G.

    2018-01-01

    breakup models, namely the Kelvin-Helmholtz/Rayleigh-Taylor (KH-RT) and linearized instability sheet atomization (LISA) models, in terms of their influence on auto-ignition predictions. Two spray models resulted in different local mixing

  10. An insight on the spray-A combustion characteristics by means of RANS and LES simulations using flamelet-based combustion models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkurt, B.; Akargün, H.Y.; Somers, L.M.T.; Deen, N.G.; Novella, R.; Perez-Sanchez, E. J.

    2017-01-01

    Advanced Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling of reacting sprays provides access to information not available even applying the most advanced experimental techniques. This is particularly evident if the combustion model handles detailed chemical kinetic models efficiently to describe the fuel

  11. Comparative Efficacy of Pulse-Spray Thrombolysis and Angioplasty Versus Surgical Salvage Procedures for Treatment of Recurrent Occlusion of PTFE Dialysis Access Grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polak, Joseph F.; Berger, Markus F.; Pagan-Marin, Heriberto; Aruny, John E.; Meyerovitz, Michael F.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the efficacy of surgery versus pulse-spray thrombolysis and angioplasty in patients with recurrent thrombosis of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) dialysis access grafts. Methods: We analyzed 96 consecutive interventions for thrombosed PTFE dialysis access grafts in 18 patients. Primary patency after thrombolysis and angioplasty (n= 25) was compared with primary patency following thrombectomy alone (n= 50) or thrombectomy followed by graft revision (n= 21) using life-table analysis. A Cox proportional hazards model that accounted for graft age and number of previous interventions was used to generate the relative risk for recurrent occlusion following therapy. Results: Life-table analysis showed that patency after thrombolysis and angioplasty was greater than that following thrombectomy alone (p= 0.02). After accounting for the age of the graft and the number of previous interventions (average six per patient), the relative risk for recurrent occlusion [3.0; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.5, 6.4] was greater for thrombectomy alone than for thrombolysis/angioplasty [0.6; CI = 0.3, 1.3]. The relative risks of repeat occlusion following thrombolysis/angioplasty [0.6; CI = 0.3, 1.3] and thrombectomy/surgical revision [1.0; CI = 0.5, 1.7] were similar. Conclusion: Outcome data from our retrospective study on recurrent thrombosis of PTFE dialysis access grafts suggest that thrombolysis/angioplasty is superior to thrombectomy alone, and equivalent to thrombectomy/surgical revision

  12. Effect of spray application technique on spray deposition in greenhouse strawberries and tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braekman, Pascal; Foque, Dieter; Messens, Winy; Van Labeke, Marie-Christine; Pieters, Jan G; Nuyttens, David

    2010-02-01

    Increasingly, Flemish greenhouse growers are using spray booms instead of spray guns to apply plant protection products. Although the advantages of spray booms are well known, growers still have many questions concerning nozzle choice and settings. Spray deposition using a vertical spray boom in tomatoes and strawberries was compared with reference spray equipment. Five different settings of nozzle type, size and pressure were tested with the spray boom. In general, the standard vertical spray boom performed better than the reference spray equipment in strawberries (spray gun) and in tomatoes (air-assisted sprayer). Nozzle type and settings significantly affected spray deposition and crop penetration. Highest overall deposits in strawberries were achieved using air-inclusion or extended-range nozzles. In tomatoes, the extended-range nozzles and the twin air-inclusion nozzles performed best. Using smaller-size extended-range nozzles above the recommended pressure range resulted in lower deposits, especially inside the crop canopy. The use of a vertical spray boom is a promising technique for applying plant protection products in a safe and efficient way in tomatoes and strawberries, and nozzle choice and setting should be carefully considered.

  13. Comparative Education in Greater China: Contexts, Characteristics, Contrasts and Contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Mark; Qin, Gui

    2001-01-01

    The evolution of comparative education in Greater China (mainland China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Macau) has been influenced by size, culture, political ideologies, standard of living, and colonialism. Similarities and differences in conceptions of comparative education are identified among the four components and between Greater China and other…

  14. Experimental characterization of gasoline sprays under highly evaporating conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Mahabat; Sheikh, Nadeem Ahmed; Khalid, Azfar; Lughmani, Waqas Akbar

    2018-05-01

    An experimental investigation of multistream gasoline sprays under highly evaporating conditions is carried out in this paper. Temperature increase of fuel and low engine pressure could lead to flash boiling. The spray shape is normally modified significantly under flash boiling conditions. The spray plumes expansion along with reduction in the axial momentum causes the jets to merge and creates a low-pressure area below the injector's nozzle. These effects initiate the collapse of spray cone and lead to the formation of a single jet plume or a big cluster like structure. The collapsing sprays reduces exposed surface and therefore they last longer and subsequently penetrate more. Spray plume momentum increase, jet plume reduction and spray target widening could delay or prevent the closure condition and limit the penetration (delayed formation of the cluster promotes evaporation). These spray characteristics are investigated experimentally using shadowgraphy, for five and six hole injectors, under various boundary conditions. Six hole injectors produce more collapsing sprays in comparison to five hole injector due to enhanced jet to jet interactions. The spray collapse tendency reduces with increase in injection pressure due high axial momentum of spray plumes. The spray evaporation rates of five hole injector are observed to be higher than six hole injectors. Larger spray cone angles of the six hole injectors promote less penetrating and less collapsing sprays.

  15. Spray Characteristics of Pressure-swirl Nozzle at Different Ambient Pressures of Combustion Chamber%燃烧室背压对压力涡流喷嘴喷雾特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘涛涛; 张武高; 陈晓玲; 顾根香; 郭晓宁; 黄震

    2011-01-01

    采用高速摄影技术、激光测粒仪和PIV测试技术系统试验研究了燃烧室背压对斯特林发动机压力涡流喷嘴喷雾形成过程、贯穿距离增长规律、喷雾锥角、液滴粒径和喷雾流场的影响.结果表明,燃烧室背压的增加使喷雾形状更加致密,贯穿距离的增加变缓,液滴平均速度增加,索特平均直径增加.当燃烧室背压大于1.0~1.5 MPa之间的一个临界值时,其对喷雾锥角没有影响,小于此临界值,燃烧室背压的增加会使喷雾锥角急剧降低.%The spray characteristics of pressure-swirl nozzle used in Stirling engine was studied by way of the experiment under high ambient pressures (up to 2. 8 Mpa). The high-speed video imaging technique, FAM ( Fraunhofer and Mie) laser drop size analyzer, and PIV (particle image velocimetry) test equipment were used for experimental measurements. Experimental results showed that the spray structure at higher ambient pressure was more compact. The vortex cloud was found at the leading edge at high ambient pressure. Spray cone angle was independent of ambient pressure after a value between 1.0 ~ 1. 5 Mpa. The Sauter mean diameter ( SMD) and the drop velocity became larger at high ambient pressure conditions. Finally, a vortex was found in the center of the spray and this region moved to the downstream of the spray as the ambient pressure increased.

  16. A Comparative Study of Cyclic Oxidation and Sulfates-Induced Hot Corrosion Behavior of Arc-Sprayed Ni-Cr-Ti Coatings at Moderate Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wenmin; Wu, Yuping; Zhang, Jianfeng; Hong, Sheng; Chen, Liyan; Qin, Yujiao

    2015-06-01

    The cyclic oxidation and sulfates-induced hot corrosion behaviors of a Ni-43Cr-0.3Ti arc-sprayed coating at 550-750 °C were characterized and compared in this study. In general, all the oxidation and hot corrosion kinetic curves of the coating followed a parabolic law, i.e., the weight of the specimens showed a rapid growth initially and then reached the gradual state. However, the initial stage of the hot corrosion process was approximately two times longer than that of the oxidation process, indicating a longer preparation time required for the formation of a protective scale in the former process. At 650 °C, the parabolic rate constant for the hot corrosion was 7.2 × 10-12 g2/(cm4·s), approximately 1.7 times higher than that for the oxidation at the same temperature. The lower parabolic rate constant for the oxidation was mainly attributed to the formation of a protective oxide scale on the surface of corroded specimens, which was composed of a mixture of NiO, Cr2O3, and NiCr2O4. However, as the liquid molten salts emerged during the hot corrosion, these protective oxides would be dissolved and the coating was corrupted acceleratedly.

  17. [The comparative characteristics of sawcuts across the femoral bone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkisian, B A; Azarov, P A

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to study the differences between the morphological features of the wounds in the long tubular bones inflicted by joinery hand saws designed for longitudinal and transverse, sawing. The experimental injuries to the femoral bones were inflicted by the recurring and reciprocating saw movements. The hand saws had 5 mm high "sharp" and "blunt"-tipped teeth. A total of 40 experiments were carried out. It was shown that the sawcuts across the femoral bones and their edges have different size, shape, and morphological characteristics (defects, ledges, projections, bright spots) depending on the type of the saw, the sharpness of its teeth, and the mode of sawing. The results of the study may be used to improve diagnostics of injuries to the long tubular bones inflicted by different types of joinery saws.

  18. Deposition of Coating to Protect Waste Water Reservoir in Acidic Solution by Arc Thermal Spray Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Seung Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion characteristics of 304 stainless steel (SS and titanium (Ti coatings deposited by the arc thermal spray process in pH 4 solution were assessed. The Ti-sprayed coating exhibits uniform, less porous, and adherent coating morphology compared to the SS-sprayed coating. The electrochemical study, that is, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS, revealed that as exposure periods to solution were increased, the polarization resistance (Rp decreased and the charge transfer resistance (Rct increased owing to corrosion of the metallic surface and simultaneously at the same time the deposition of oxide films/corrosion on the SS-sprayed surface, while Ti coating transformed unstable oxides into the stable phase. Potentiodynamic studies confirmed that both sprayed coatings exhibited passive tendency attributed due to the deposition of corrosion products on SS samples, whereas the Ti-sprayed sample formed passive oxide films. The Ti coating reduced the corrosion rate by more than six times compared to the SS coating after 312 h of exposure to sulfuric acid- (H2SO4- contaminated water solution, that is, pH 4. Scanning electron microscope (SEM results confirmed the uniform and globular morphology of the passive film on the Ti coating resulting in reduced corrosion. On the other hand, the corrosion products formed on SS-sprayed coating exhibit micropores with a net-like microstructure. X-ray diffraction (XRD revealed the presence of the composite oxide film on Ti-sprayed samples and lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH on the SS-coated surface. The transformation of TiO and Ti3O into TiO2 (rutile and anatase and Ti3O5 after 312 h of exposure to H2SO4 acid reveals the improved corrosion resistance properties of Ti-sprayed coating.

  19. A new HF-resistant tandem spray chamber for improved determination of trace elements and Pb isotopes using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krachler, Michael; Rausch, Nicole; Feuerbacher, Helmut; Klemens, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    The use of a new HF-resistant tandem spray chamber arrangement consisting of a cyclonic spray chamber and a Scott-type spray chamber made from PFA and PEEK provides a straightforward approach for improving the performance of inductively coupled-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The characteristics of the tandem spray chamber were critically evaluated against a PEEK cyclonic and a PFA Scott-type spray chamber, respectively. Sensitivity across the entire mass range was increased by about three times compared to the conventional setup utilizing only one spray chamber. Precision of the results, especially at low signal intensities, improved by 160% and 31% compared to the cyclonic and Scott-type spray chamber, respectively. Using the tandem spray chamber, the oxide formation rate was lowered by about 50%. Signals as low as 30 counts could be determined under routine measurement conditions with a RSD of 2.4% thus allowing to precisely quantify small concentration differences at the ng l -1 concentration level. The excellent precision (0.02-0.07%) of 206 Pb / 207 Pb and 206 Pb / 208 Pb ratios determined in pore water samples was rather limited by the instrumental capabilities of the single collector ICP-MS instrument than by the performance of the tandem spray chamber

  20. Psychosocial withdrawal characteristics of nicotine compared with alcohol and caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Hisatsugu; Hironaka, Naoyuki; Takada, Kohji; Miyasato, Katsumasa; Nakamura, Koichi; Yanagita, Tomoji

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to observe the psychosocial characteristics of withdrawal from cigarette smoking in comparison with those from caffeine (CAF) and alcoholic (ALC) beverage withdrawal. Twenty-seven healthy volunteers at a medial level of dependence on both cigarettes (nicotine, NCT) and either CAF or ALC, as judged by the DSM-IV-TR criteria for substance dependence, participated in this study. The participants were required to abstain from smoking and either CAF or ALC for 7 days, each one after another, with a 7-day interval. The order of abstinence was counterbalanced among the participants. Psychosocial parameters, including a desire for substances, social activity function, well-being, withdrawal symptoms, and vital signs, were assessed during the withdrawal periods. The study protocol was approved by the Jikei University Review Board. The results indicated that there were no differences in the maximum level of desire for a substance and the influence on social activity function between NCT and other substances during the withdrawal periods. As for withdrawal symptoms, NCT caused a more intensive degree of irritability than CAF or ALC, and a more intensive degree of difficulty concentrating and restlessness than did withdrawal from ALC. However, the subjective well-being questionnaire indicated no differences in these symptoms between NCT and other substances. The present results suggest that there are no significant differences in psychosocial manifestations regarding the difficulty in abstaining from NCT, CAF, and ALC.

  1. Comparative characteristics of electronic, cash and cashless money

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ксенія Романівна Петрофанова

    2017-12-01

    The study of the peculiarities of electronic money is accompanied by the discovery of a large number of theoretical and practical problems and separate discussion issues of important application significance. As the number of e-money users increases with the development of e-commerce, protecting their interests requires proper civil and financial regulation. Comparing electronic money with cash and non-cash money, we found that they, by combining the benefits of the other two forms of money, actually became the third specific monetary form

  2. Comparative characteristic of the methods of protein antigens epitope mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Yu. Galkin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Comparative analysis of experimental methods of epitope mapping of protein antigens has been carried out. The vast majority of known techniques are involved in immunochemical study of the interaction of protein molecules or peptides with antibodies of corresponding specifici­ty. The most effective and widely applicable metho­dological techniques are those that use synthetic and genetically engineered peptides. Over the past 30 years, these groups of methods have travelled a notable evolutionary path up to the maximum automation and the detection of antigenic determinants of various types (linear and conformational epitopes, and mimotopes. Most of epitope searching algorithms were integrated into a computer program, which greatly facilitates the analysis of experimental data and makes it possible to create spatial models. It is possible to use comparative epitope mapping for solving the applied problems; this less time-consuming method is based on the analysis of competition between different antibodies interactions with the same antigen. The physical method of antigenic structure study is X-ray analysis of antigen-antibody complexes, which may be applied only to crystallizing­ proteins, and nuclear magnetic resonance.

  3. COMPARATIVE CHARACTERISTIC OF TOURIST POTENTIAL OF MUSEUMS OF KRASNODAR REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V. Kirilicheva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The article describes the tourist potential of two large museums of the Krasnodar Territory, the Krasnodar State Historical and Archaeological Museum-Reserve named after E.D. Felitsyn and Krasnodar Regional Art Museum named after F.A. Kovalenko. Much attention is paid to the classification of museums in the Krasnodar Territory. Methods. In the study were used a comparative-geographical method, a systematic approach, an analysis of statistical-mathematical materials and an analysis of the leisure profile of citizens. Findings. A comparative assessment of the potential of two large museums of the region is given. We also conducted an analysis of the survey data of the leisure profile among the townspeople in the city of Krasnodar in order to identify which of the museums is more popular. The main indicators such as the number of storage units, the total exposition and exhibition area, the number of sightseeing visits and mass events, the number of educational programs and exhibitions, the number of employees were examined and analyzed. Distinctions between museums are also noted. Conclusions. An analysis of these data showed that both museums have sufficient tourist potential to represent the city and get acquainted with the city through museums. The results of an analysis of events held in museums to attract visitors are presented. The sufficient tourist potential of two large museums for representation of the city and region is defined. The directions for their development as objects of tourism are proposed.

  4. Comparative mineralogical characteristics of red soils from South Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlena Yaneva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to compare mineralogical composition of red soils, formed on marbles in South Bulgaria. We used mineralogical analysis of heavy and light mineral fraction in immersion under polarizing microscope and X-ray diffraction analysis of bulk sample and clay fraction. Three test polygons, located in South Bulgaria were examined: Petrovo, Nova Lovcha and Dobrostan, which are characterized with different latitude, altitude, and exposition. Three or more sites from each polygon were sampled and analyzed. The red soils are formed on white and gray calcite and calcite-dolomite marbles, impure silicate-rich marbles and only in one site – on marble breccias. We determined the following mineral phases in red soils: calcite, dolomite, quarts, and feldspars, mica, illite-type mica, illite, smectite, vermiculite-smectite, and kaolinite. Heavy minerals are represented by amphibole, titanite and epidote, and minor amounts of zircon, garnet, tourmaline, rutile, pyroxene, andalusite, kyanite, sillimanite and apatite. Opaque minerals are predominantly goethite and hematite. Plant tissue is abundant in light fraction from the uppermost soil horizons. Analyses of heavy mineral fraction show presence of metamorphic and igneous minerals which indicate participation of weathering products from other rock types in the nearby area. The types of heavy minerals in soils depend more on composition of parent rocks and geomorphic position than on climate type. Soils from Nova Lovcha show similar composition, but the quantity of goethite and hematite significantly increase in soil from plain. Typical high-metamorphic minerals as andalusite, kyanite and sillimanite present only in Nova Lovcha, while garnet dominates in Petrovo and opaque minerals - in Dobrostan. Red soils, formed on slopes, where erosion prevails over accumulation, contain more illite, smectite and vermiculite-smectite, and very few or no kaolinite, whereas the kaolinite is dominant in soils

  5. Spray drying of budesonide, formoterol fumarate and their composites-II. Statistical factorial design and in vitro deposition properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajber, L; Corrigan, O I; Healy, A M

    2009-02-09

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of changing spray drying parameters on the production of a budesonide/formoterol fumarate 100:6 (w/w) composite. The systems were spray dried as solutions from 95% ethanol/5% water (v/v) using a Büchi 191-Mini Spray Dryer. A 2(5-1) factorial design study was undertaken to assess the consequence of altering spray drying processing variables on particle characteristics. The processing parameters that were studied were inlet temperature, spray drier airflow rate, pump rate, aspirator setting and feed concentration. Each batch of the resulting powder was characterised in terms of thermal and micromeritic properties as well as an in vitro deposition by twin impinger analysis. Overall, the parameter that had the greatest influence on each response investigated was production yield - airflow (higher airflow giving greater yields), median particle size - airflow (higher airflow giving smaller particle sizes) and Carr's compressibility index - feed concentration (lower feed concentration giving smaller Carr's indices). A six- to seven-fold difference in respirable fraction can be observed by changing the spray drying process parameters. The co-spray dried composite system which displayed best in vitro deposition characteristics, showed a 2.6-fold increase in respirable fraction in the twin impinger experiments and better dose uniformity compared with the physical mix of micronised powders.

  6. A comparative study between hot-melt extrusion and spray-drying for the manufacture of anti-hypertension compatible monolithic fixed-dose combination products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, J F; Gilvary, G C; Madi, A M; Jones, D S; Li, S; Tian, Y; Almajaan, A; Senta-Loys, Z; Andrews, G P; Healy, A M

    2018-07-10

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the application of different advanced continuous processing techniques (hot melt extrusion and spray drying) to the production of fixed-dose combination (FDC) monolithic systems comprising of hydrochlorothiazide and ramipril for the treatment of hypertension. Identical FDC formulations were manufactured by the two different methods and were characterised using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and modulated differential scanning calorimetry (mDSC). Drug dissolution rates were investigated using a Wood's apparatus, while physical stability was assessed on storage under controlled temperature and humidity conditions. Interestingly both drugs were transformed into their amorphous forms when spray dried, however, hydrochlorothiazide was determined, by PXRD, to be partially crystalline when hot melt extruded with either polymer carrier (Kollidon® VA 64 or Soluplus®). Hot melt extrusion was found to result in significant degradation of ramipril, however, this could be mitigated by the inclusion of the plasticizer, polyethylene glycol 3350, in the formulation and appropriate adjustment of processing temperature. The results of intrinsic dissolution rate studies showed that hot-melt extruded samples were found to release both drugs faster than identical formulations produced via spray drying. However, the differences were attributable to the surface roughness of the compressed discs in the Wood's apparatus, rather than solid state differences between samples. After a 60-day stability study spray dried samples exhibited a greater physical stability than the equivalent hot melt extruded samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A Design of Experiment approach to predict product and process parameters for a spray dried influenza vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanojia, Gaurav; Willems, Geert-Jan; Frijlink, Henderik W; Kersten, Gideon F A; Soema, Peter C; Amorij, Jean-Pierre

    2016-09-25

    Spray dried vaccine formulations might be an alternative to traditional lyophilized vaccines. Compared to lyophilization, spray drying is a fast and cheap process extensively used for drying biologicals. The current study provides an approach that utilizes Design of Experiments for spray drying process to stabilize whole inactivated influenza virus (WIV) vaccine. The approach included systematically screening and optimizing the spray drying process variables, determining the desired process parameters and predicting product quality parameters. The process parameters inlet air temperature, nozzle gas flow rate and feed flow rate and their effect on WIV vaccine powder characteristics such as particle size, residual moisture content (RMC) and powder yield were investigated. Vaccine powders with a broad range of physical characteristics (RMC 1.2-4.9%, particle size 2.4-8.5μm and powder yield 42-82%) were obtained. WIV showed no significant loss in antigenicity as revealed by hemagglutination test. Furthermore, descriptive models generated by DoE software could be used to determine and select (set) spray drying process parameter. This was used to generate a dried WIV powder with predefined (predicted) characteristics. Moreover, the spray dried vaccine powders retained their antigenic stability even after storage for 3 months at 60°C. The approach used here enabled the generation of a thermostable, antigenic WIV vaccine powder with desired physical characteristics that could be potentially used for pulmonary administration. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Fixed automated spray technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    This research project evaluated the construction and performance of Boschungs Fixed Automated : Spray Technology (FAST) system. The FAST system automatically sprays de-icing material on : the bridge when icing conditions are about to occur. The FA...

  9. Hair spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002705.htm Hair spray poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair spray poisoning occurs when someone breathes in (inhales) ...

  10. Remotely controlled spray gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, William C. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A remotely controlled spray gun is described in which a nozzle and orifice plate are held in precise axial alignment by an alignment member, which in turn is held in alignment with the general outlet of the spray gun by insert. By this arrangement, the precise repeatability of spray patterns is insured.

  11. Fractal analysis of agricultural nozzles spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Agüera

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Fractal scaling of the exponential type is used to establish the cumulative volume (V distribution applied through agricultural spray nozzles in size x droplets, smaller than the characteristic size X. From exponent d, we deduced the fractal dimension (Df which measures the degree of irregularity of the medium. This property is known as 'self-similarity'. Assuming that the droplet set from a spray nozzle is self-similar, the objectives of this study were to develop a methodology for calculating a Df factor associated with a given nozzle and to determine regression coefficients in order to predict droplet spectra factors from a nozzle, taking into account its own Df and pressure operating. Based on the iterated function system, we developed an algorithm to relate nozzle types to a particular value of Df. Four nozzles and five operating pressure droplet size characteristics were measured using a Phase Doppler Particle Analyser (PDPA. The data input consisted of droplet size spectra factors derived from these measurements. Estimated Df values showed dependence on nozzle type and independence of operating pressure. We developed an exponential model based on the Df to enable us to predict droplet size spectra factors. Significant coefficients of determination were found for the fitted model. This model could prove useful as a means of comparing the behavior of nozzles which only differ in not measurable geometric parameters and it can predict droplet spectra factors of a nozzle operating under different pressures from data measured only in extreme work pressures.

  12. Evaluation of droplet velocity and size from nasal spray devices using phase Doppler anemometry (PDA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaofei; Doub, William H; Guo, Changning

    2010-03-30

    To determine aerosol deposition during the inhalation drug delivery, it is important to understand the combination of velocity and droplet size together. In this study, phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) was used to simultaneously characterize the aerosol velocity and droplet size distribution (DSD) of three nasal spray pumps filled with water. Thirteen sampling positions were located in the horizontal cross-sectional area of the nasal spray plumes at a distance of 3cm from the pump orifice. The results showed droplet velocities near the center of the spray plume were higher and more consistent than those near the edge. The pumps examined showed significant differences in their aerosol velocity at the center of the spray plume, which suggest that this metric might be used as a discriminating parameter for in vitro testing of nasal sprays. Droplet size measurements performed using PDA were compared with results from laser light scattering measurements. The ability of PDA to provide simultaneous measurements of aerosol velocity and size makes it a powerful tool for the detailed investigation of nasal spray plume characteristics. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Machining tools in AISI M2 high-speed steel obtained by spray forming process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesus, Edilson Rosa Barbosa de.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present work was the obtention of AISI M2 high-speed steel by spray forming technique and the material evaluation when used as machining tool. The obtained material was hot rolled at 50% and 72% reduction ratios, and from which it was manufactured inserts for machining tests. The performance of inserts made of the spray formed material was compared to inserts obtained from conventional and powder metallurgy (MP) processed materials. The spray formed material was chemical, physical, mechanical and microstructural characterised. For further characterisation, the materials were submitted to machining tests for performance evaluation under real work condition. The results of material characterisation highlight the potential of the spray forming technique, in the obtention of materials with good characteristics and properties. Under the current processing, hot rolling and heat treatments condition, the analysis of the results of the machining tests revealed a very similar behaviour among the tested materials. Proceeding a criterious analysis of the machining results tests, it was verified that the performance presented by the powder metallurgy material (MP) was slight superior, followed by conventional obtained material (MConv), which presented a insignificant advantage over the spray formed and hot rolled (72% reduction ratio) material. The worst result was encountered for the spray forming and hot rolled (50% reduction ratio) material that presented the highest wear values. (author)

  14. Effect of injection pressure and ambient pressure on spray characteristics of pine oil-diesel blends%喷射压力及环境背压对松油-柴油混合燃料喷雾特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄豪中; 史程; 张鹏; 王庆新; 刘庆生; 班智博

    2016-01-01

    为探究柴油/松油混合燃料的喷雾特性,基于高压可视化容弹试验台,通过高速摄影技术对掺松油的柴油混合燃料的喷雾过程进行试验研究,分析了喷射压力、背压和燃料物性的改变对喷雾宏观参数的影响。结果表明:混合燃料的喷雾贯穿距离先呈现一定程度的线性增长,然后增长幅度逐渐变小,喷雾锥角呈先减小再保持在一个相对稳定的数值趋势,但全程锥角变化不大;喷射压力从90 MPa升高至150 MPa,混合燃料的喷雾锥角和贯穿距离的平均增幅分别为9.2%和15%;背压从3 MPa增加到5 MPa,混合燃料的平均喷雾锥角增幅约2.6°,而贯穿距离降低11 mm左右,说明背压的改变对喷雾特性影响显著;将广安公式适当地修正可与混合燃料的贯穿距离相互吻合;向柴油中掺混一定比例的松油后,燃料的黏度降低,会引起喷雾锥角、贯穿距离和油束面积均小幅增大,增强燃料的油气混合。试验研究有助于改善柴油的雾化质量,可为柴油机代用燃料的筛选提供参考。%The fuel spray performance and atomization quality played a fundamental role in promoting the level of combustion efficiency and exhaust emissions in internal combustion engines. In order to achieve better atomizing mode of diesel, we conducted experiments to study the spray characteristics of diesel blending pine oil. A diesel/pine oil spray trial platform was constructed to carry out a visual constant volume chamber and the high-pressure common rail test bench. The high-speed photograph technique was applied to systematically investigate the spray process of blended fuel. The study was conducted under the pine oil blending ratios of with 0, 20%, 40% and 50%, respectively. Then, the influences of injection pressure, ambient pressure and fuel property on macroscopic spray parameters (including spray cone angle, spray penetration distance and fuel flow area

  15. Direct morphological comparison of vacuum plasma sprayed and detonation gun sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings for orthopaedic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gledhill, H C; Turner, I G; Doyle, C

    1999-02-01

    Hydroxyapatite coatings on titanium substrates were produced using two thermal spray techniques vacuum plasma spraying and detonation gun spraying. X-ray diffraction was used to compare crystallinity and residual stresses in the coatings. Porosity was measured using optical microscopy in conjunction with an image analysis system. Scanning electron microscopy and surface roughness measurements were used to characterise the surface morphologies of the coatings. The vacuum plasma sprayed coatings were found to have a lower residual stress, a higher crystallinity and a higher level of porosity than the detonation gun coatings. It is concluded that consideration needs to be given to the significance of such variations within the clinical context.

  16. Comparative Study of the Corrosion Resistance of Air-Plasma-Sprayed Ca2SiO4 and Al2O3 Coatings in Salt Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Xiao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Ca2SiO4 coating was sprayed on stainless steel substrate and the corrosion resistance of the as-sprayed coating was studied in salt water. At the same time, Al2O3 coatings were produced by air-plasma-sprayed technology as comparison. Immersion test was carried out to evaluate the protection performance of coatings. Potentiodynamic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS plots were also analyzed. The results indicated that Ca2SiO4 coatings showed a better protection performance than Al2O3 coatings. During the immersion, various calcium carbonate crystals appeared on the surface of Ca2SiO4 coatings. Ca(OH2 was released from Ca2SiO4 coatings into NaCl aqueous solution, increasing the alkalinity, which is in favor of the formation of passivation film, and thus improves the corrosion resistance. Ca2SiO4 coatings became denser after immersion due to the fact that the pores and micro cracks were filled with hydration products i.e., hydrated calcium silicate (C–S–H gel. On the contrary, the microstructure of Al2O3 coatings became loose and obvious rusty spots were observed on the surface after the immersion test.

  17. Characterization of viscous biofuel sprays using digital imaging in the near field region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallevelt, J.L.H.P.; Pozarlik, A.K.; Brem, G.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Biodiesel, vegetable oil and glycerin sprays have been studied using PDIA. • The study is focused on the effect of fuel viscosity on the spray characteristics. • Viscosity has a strong effect on the breakup length in pressure-swirl atomization. • The results are compared to combustion experiments with a micro gas turbine. • The penetration depth of ligaments can be a critical factor in burning viscous fuel. - Abstract: The atomization of biodiesel, vegetable oil and glycerin has been studied in an atmospheric spray rig by using digital imaging (PDIA). Images of the spray were captured in the near field, just 18 mm downstream of the atomizer, and processed to automatically determine the size of both ligaments and droplets. The effect of the spray structure in this region is of major interest for the combustion of biofuels in gas turbines. The sprays were produced by a pressure-swirl atomizer that originates from the multifuel micro gas turbine (MMGT) setup. Various injection conditions have been tested to investigate the influence of viscosity on the spray characteristics and to assess the overall performance of the atomizer. The spray measurements have been compared to combustion experiments with biodiesel and vegetable oil in the micro gas turbine at similar injection conditions. The results show that the primary breakup process rapidly deteriorates when the viscosity is increased. A higher viscosity increases the breakup length, which becomes visible at the measurement location in the form of ligaments. This effect leads to an unacceptable spray quality once the viscosity slightly exceeds the typical range for conventional gas turbine fuels. The SMD in the investigated spray region was not significantly affected by viscosity, but mainly influenced by injection pressure. The data furthermore indicate an increase in SMD with surface tension. It was found that the penetration depth of ligaments can have major impact on the combustion process

  18. Transient analysis of intermittent multijet sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panao, Miguel R.O.; Moreira, Antonio Luis N. [Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, IN, Center for Innovation, Technology and Policy Research, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisboa (Portugal); Durao, Diamantino G. [Universidade Lusiada, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2012-07-15

    This paper analyzes the transient characteristics of intermittent sprays produced by the single-point impact of multiple cylindrical jets. The aim is to perform a transient analysis of the intermittent atomization process to study the effect of varying the number of impinging jets in the hydrodynamic mechanisms of droplet formation. The results evidence that hydrodynamic mechanisms underlying the physics of ligament fragmentation in 2-impinging jets sprays also apply to sprays produced with more than 2 jets during the main period of injection. Ligaments detaching from the liquid sheet, as well as from its bounding rim, have been identified and associated with distinct droplet clusters, which become more evident as the number of impinging jets increases. Droplets produced by detached ligaments constitute the main spray, and their axial velocity becomes more uniformly distributed with 4-impinging jets because of a delayed ligament fragmentation. Multijet spray dispersion patterns are geometric depending on the number of impinging jets. Finally, an analysis on the Weber number of droplets suggests that multijet sprays are more likely to deposit on interposed surfaces, thus becoming a promising and competitive atomization solution for improving spray cooling. (orig.)

  19. 低压环境下过热流体喷雾特性实验%Experimental Investigation on Spray Characteristics from Superheated Liquid Jets under Low Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵琳; 范玮; 范珍涔; 宋豪义

    2012-01-01

    为了研究低压环境下燃料的过热度、喷射压力和喷嘴几何结构对喷雾形状和液滴索特尔平均直径等喷雾特性的影响,测量了不同环境压力下的煤油泡点温度,并给出了环境压力和泡点温度的经验关系式。将过热的航空煤油通过直射式喷嘴喷入低压容器中,进行了不同喷射条件下的喷雾实验。使用高速摄影仪和激光粒度仪进行拍摄和测量,得到了一系列的粒子索特尔平均直径数据和喷雾图片。结果表明,过热度的增加、喷射压力的增加和喷嘴长径比的减小都能够改善煤油的喷射雾化效果。%Experiments were carried out to investigate the influences of superheat degree, aviation kerosene injection pres- sure and spray nozzle geometry on spray form and Sauter Mean diameter(SMD) by the ejection of aviation kerosene into a vac- uum chamber through long nozzles using a high-speed camera and laser particle size analyzer. Kerosene bubble point tempera- ture under different ambient pressure was measured and the empirical correlation between kerosene bubble point temperature and ambient pressure was developed by fitting data. And then, a series of SMD and spraying pictures were obtained by spray experiments under different conditions. The results show that atomization could be improved by increasing superheat degree and injection pressure or decreasing the ratio between nozzle length and diameter remarkably.

  20. Large eddy simulation of spray and combustion characteristics with realistic chemistry and high-order numerical scheme under diesel engine-like conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Lei; Luo, Kai Hong; Qin, Wenjin; Jia, Ming; Shuai, Shi Jin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • MUSCL differencing scheme in LES method is used to investigate liquid fuel spray and combustion process. • Using MUSCL can accurately capture the gas phase velocity distribution and liquid spray features. • Detailed chemistry mechanism with a parallel algorithm was used to calculate combustion process. • Increasing oxygen concentration can decrease ignition delay time and flame LOL. - Abstract: The accuracy of large eddy simulation (LES) for turbulent combustion depends on suitably implemented numerical schemes and chemical mechanisms. In the original KIVA3V code, finite difference schemes such as QSOU (Quasi-second-order upwind) and PDC (Partial Donor Cell Differencing) cannot achieve good results or even computational stability when using coarse grids due to large numerical diffusion. In this paper, the MUSCL (Monotone Upstream-centered Schemes for Conservation Laws) differencing scheme is implemented into KIVA3V-LES code to calculate the convective term. In the meantime, Lu’s n-heptane reduced 58-species mechanisms (Lu, 2011) is used to calculate chemistry with a parallel algorithm. Finally, improved models for spray injection are also employed. With these improvements, the KIVA3V-LES code is renamed as KIVALES-CP (Chemistry with Parallel algorithm) in this study. The resulting code was used to study the gas–liquid two phase jet and combustion under various diesel engine-like conditions in a constant volume vessel. The results show that using the MUSCL scheme can accurately capture the spray shape and fuel vapor penetration using even a coarse grid, in comparison with the Sandia experimental data. Similarly good results are obtained for three single-component fuels, i-Octane (C8H18), n-Dodecanese (C12H26), and n-Hexadecane (C16H34) with very different physical properties. Meanwhile the improved methodology is able to accurately predict ignition delay and flame lift-off length (LOL) under different oxygen concentrations from 10% to 21

  1. Surface characteristic of chemically converted graphene coated low carbon steel by electro spray coating method for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell bipolar plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungsoo; Kim, Yang Do; Nam, Dae Geun

    2013-05-01

    Graphene was coated on low carbon steel (SS400) by electro spray coating method to improve its properties of corrosion resistance and contact resistance. Exfoliated graphite was made of the graphite by chemical treatment (Chemically Converted Graphene, CCG). CCG is distributed using dispersing agent, and low carbon steel was coated with diffuse graphene solution by electro spray coating method. The structure of the CCG was analyzed using XRD and the coating layer of surface was analyzed using SEM. Analysis showed that multi-layered graphite structure was destroyed and it was transformed in to fine layers graphene structure. And the result of SEM analysis on the surface and the cross section, graphene layer was uniformly formed with 3-5 microm thickness on the surface of substrate. Corrosion resistance test was applied in the corrosive solution which is similar to the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack inside. And interfacial contact resistance (ICR) test was measured to simulate the internal operating conditions of PEMFC stack. As a result of measuring corrosion resistance and contact resistance, it could be confirmed that low carbon steel coated with CCG was revealed to be more effective in terms of its applicability as PEMFC bipolar plate.

  2. Fundamental Study of a Single Point Lean Direct Injector. Part I: Effect of Air Swirler Angle and Injector Tip Location on Spray Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedder, Sarah A.; Hicks, Yolanda R.; Tacina, Kathleen M.; Anderson, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Lean direct injection (LDI) is a combustion concept to reduce oxides of nitrogen (NOx) for next generation aircraft gas turbine engines. These newer engines have cycles that increase fuel efficiency through increased operating pressures, which increase combustor inlet temperatures. NOx formation rates increase with higher temperatures; the LDI strategy avoids high temperature by staying fuel lean and away from stoichiometric burning. Thus, LDI relies on rapid and uniform fuel/air mixing. To understand this mixing process, a series of fundamental experiments are underway in the Combustion and Dynamics Facility at NASA Glenn Research Center. This first set of experiments examines cold flow (non-combusting) mixing using air and water. Using laser diagnostics, the effects of air swirler angle and injector tip location on the spray distribution, recirculation zone, and droplet size distribution are examined. Of the three swirler angles examined, 60 degrees is determined to have the most even spray distribution. The injector tip location primarily shifts the flow without changing the structure, unless the flow includes a recirculation zone. When a recirculation zone is present, minimum axial velocity decreases as the injector tip moves downstream towards the venturi exit; also the droplets become more uniform in size and angular distribution.

  3. Spray drying formulation of amorphous solid dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Abhishek; Van den Mooter, Guy

    2016-05-01

    Spray drying is a well-established manufacturing technique which can be used to formulate amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) which is an effective strategy to deliver poorly water soluble drugs (PWSDs). However, the inherently complex nature of the spray drying process coupled with specific characteristics of ASDs makes it an interesting area to explore. Numerous diverse factors interact in an inter-dependent manner to determine the final product properties. This review discusses the basic background of ASDs, various formulation and process variables influencing the critical quality attributes (CQAs) of the ASDs and aspects of downstream processing. Also various aspects of spray drying such as instrumentation, thermodynamics, drying kinetics, particle formation process and scale-up challenges are included. Recent advances in the spray-based drying techniques are mentioned along with some future avenues where major research thrust is needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RELAXATION CHARACTERISTICS OF SUNFLOWER AND RAPESEED LECITHIN

    OpenAIRE

    Lisovaya E. V.; Victorova E. P.; Agafonov O. S.; Kornen N. N.; Shahray T. A.

    2015-01-01

    The article presents a comparative assessment and peculiarities of nuclear magnetic relaxation characteristics of rapeseed and sunflower lecithin. It was established, that lecithin’s nuclear magnetic relaxation characteristics, namely, protons’ spin-spin relaxation time and amplitudes of nuclear magnetic relaxation signals of lecithin components, depend on content of oil’s fat acids and phospholipids, contained in the lecithin. Comparative assessment of protons’ spin-spin relaxation time of r...

  5. The influence of pore formers on the microstructure of plasma-sprayed NiO-YSZ anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Michael; Kesler, Olivera

    2012-07-01

    Four types of pore formers: high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK), mesocarbon-microbead (MCMB) carbon powder, and baking flour, are processed and characterized, then incorporated with NiO-YSZ nano-agglomerate powder to produce plasma sprayed SOFC anode coatings. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the coating microstructure, gas permeability measurements, and porosity determinations by image analysis are used to evaluate the effectiveness of each potential pore former powder. Under the spray conditions studied, the flour and MCMB pore former powders are effective as plasma sprayed pore formers, increasing the permeability of the coatings by factors of four and two, respectively, compared to a similarly sprayed NiO-YSZ coating without pore formers. The HDPE powder is unable to survive the plasma spray process and does not contribute to the final coating porosity. The PEEK pore former, though ineffective with the current powder characteristics and spray parameters, exhibits the highest relative deposition efficiency and the most favorable thermal characteristics.

  6. Polydisperse effects in jet spray flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Noam; Greenberg, J. Barry

    2018-01-01

    A laminar jet polydisperse spray diffusion flame is analysed mathematically for the first time using an extension of classical similarity solutions for gaseous jet flames. The analysis enables a comparison to be drawn between conditions for flame stability or flame blow-out for purely gaseous flames and for spray flames. It is found that, in contrast to the Schmidt number criteria relevant to gas flames, droplet size and initial spray polydispersity play a critical role in determining potential flame scenarios. Some qualitative agreement for lift-off height is found when comparing predictions of the theory and sparse independent experimental evidence from the literature.

  7. Experimental analysis on the influence of nozzle geometry over the dispersion of liquid n-dodecane sprays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul ePayri

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding and controlling mixing and combustion processes is fundamental in order to face the challenges set by the ever more demanding pollutant regulations and fuel consumption standards of direct injection diesel engines. The fundamentals of these processes haven been long studied by the diesel spray community from both experimental and numerical perspectives. However, certain topics such as the influence of nozzle geometry over the spray atomization, mixing and combustion process are still not completely well understood and predicted by numerical models. The present study seeks to contribute to the current understanding of this subject, by performing state-of-the-art optical diagnostics to liquid sprays injected through two singe-hole nozzles of different conicity. The experiments were carried out in a nitrogen-filled constant-pressure-flow facility. Back pressures were set to produce the desired engine-like density conditions in the chamber, at room temperature. The experimental setup consists in a diffused back illumination setup with a fast pulsed LED light source and a high-speed camera. The diagnostics focused on detecting the liquid spray contour and evaluating the influence of nozzle geometry over the time-resolved and quasi-steady response of the spray dispersion, at similar injection conditions. Results show a clear influence of nozzle geometry on spray contour fluctuations, where the cylindrical nozzle seems to produce larger dispersion in both time-resolved fluctuations and quasi-steady values, when compared to the conical nozzle. This evidences that the turbulence and radial velocity profiles originated at the cylindrical nozzle geometry are able to affect not only the microscopic scales inside the nozzle, but also macroscopic scales such as the steady spray. Observations from this study indicate that the effects of the flow characteristics within the nozzle are carried on to the first millimeters of the spray, in which the

  8. Soft-tissue facial characteristics of attractive Chinese men compared to normal men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Feng; Li, Junfang; He, Hong; Huang, Na; Tang, Youchao; Wang, Yuanqing

    2015-01-01

    To compare the facial characteristics of attractive Chinese men with those of reference men. The three-dimensional coordinates of 50 facial landmarks were collected in 40 healthy reference men and in 40 "attractive" men, soft tissue facial angles, distances, areas, and volumes were computed and compared using analysis of variance. When compared with reference men, attractive men shared several similar facial characteristics: relatively large forehead, reduced mandible, and rounded face. They had a more acute soft tissue profile, an increased upper facial width and middle facial depth, larger mouth, and more voluminous lips than reference men. Attractive men had several facial characteristics suggesting babyness. Nonetheless, each group of men was characterized by a different development of these features. Esthetic reference values can be a useful tool for clinicians, but should always consider the characteristics of individual faces.

  9. Electrochemical characteristics of silver- and nickel-coated synthetic graphite prepared by a gas suspension spray coating method for the anode of lithium secondary batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Won Chang; Byun, Dongjin; Lee, Joong Kee; Cho, Byung won

    2004-01-01

    Four kinds of synthetic graphite coated with silver and nickel for the anodes of lithium secondary batteries were prepared by a gas suspension spray coating method. The electrode coated with silver showed higher charge-discharge capacities due to a Ag-Li alloy, but rate capability decreased at higher charge-discharge rate. This result can be explained by the formation of an artificial Ag oxidation film with higher impedance, this lowered the rate capability at high charge-discharge rate due to its low electrical conductivity. Rate capability is improved, however, by coating nickel and silver together on the surface of synthetic graphite. The nickel which is inactive with oxidation reaction plays an important role as a conducting agent which enhanced the conductivity of the electrode

  10. Plasma spraying of hard magnetic coatings based on Sm-Co alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KrasnoyarskiyRabochiy prospect, Krasnoyarsk, 660014 (Russian Federation))" data-affiliation=" (Siberian State Aerospace University named after Academician M.F. Reshetnev 31 KrasnoyarskiyRabochiy prospect, Krasnoyarsk, 660014 (Russian Federation))" >Saunin, V N; KrasnoyarskiyRabochiy prospect, Krasnoyarsk, 660014 (Russian Federation))" data-affiliation=" (Siberian State Aerospace University named after Academician M.F. Reshetnev 31 KrasnoyarskiyRabochiy prospect, Krasnoyarsk, 660014 (Russian Federation))" >Telegin, S V

    2015-01-01

    Our research is focused on the formation of hard magnetic coatings by plasma spraying an arc-melted Sm-Co powder. We have studied basic magnetic characteristics depending on the components ratio in the alloy. A sample with a 40 wt.% Sm coating exhibits the highest coercive force (63 kOe) as compared to near-to-zero coercive force in the starting powder. X-ray structure analysis of the starting alloy and the coating reveals that the amount of SmCo 5 phase in the sprayed coating increases occupying up to 2/3 of the sample. We have also studied temperature dependence of the coating and have been able to obtain plasma sprayed permanent magnets operating within the temperature range from -100 to +500 °C. The technique used does not involve any additional thermal treatment and allows a coating to be formed right on the magnetic conductor surface irrespective of the conductor geometry

  11. Cold spray nozzle design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Jeffrey D [Stuart, FL; Sanders, Stuart A [Palm Beach Gardens, FL

    2009-06-09

    A nozzle for use in a cold spray technique is described. The nozzle has a passageway for spraying a powder material, the passageway having a converging section and a diverging section, and at least the diverging section being formed from polybenzimidazole. In one embodiment of the nozzle, the converging section is also formed from polybenzimidazole.

  12. Injector spray characterization of methanol in reciprocating engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, L.; Naegeli, D.

    1994-06-01

    This report covers a study that addressed cold-starting problems in alcohol-fueled, spark-ignition engines by using fine-spray port-fuel injectors to inject fuel directly into the cylinder. This task included development and characterization of some very fine-spray, port-fuel injectors for a methanol-fueled spark-ignition engine. After determining the spray characteristics, a computational study was performed to estimate the evaporation rate of the methanol fuel spray under cold-starting and steady-state conditions.

  13. On the modeling of fuel sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, Christer

    1997-12-01

    This report concerns on the modelling of fuel sprays in a non-combustible case using an own developed fuel spray code module. The spray code is made as an independent module to simplify the use of different gas flow solvers together with the spray module. This enables the possibility to use different turbulence models. In the report two turbulence models has been used, the standard k-{epsilon} and the LES (Large Eddy Simulation) model. The report presents results obtained from a sensitivity study of both numerical and physical parameters on an evaporating spray under diesel like conditions (light duty diesel engine) with the spray code module attached to a cylindrical gas phase flow solver. The results from the sensitivity analysis showed that these effects were not so pronounced as has been reported. It was suggested that this was due to the `easy` nature of the investigated case, where the flow field could be sufficiently resolved without violating the droplet void fraction criteria and break-up, collision and combustion that may increase the grid spacing sensitivity were not modelled. An investigation was performed to valuate the feasibility of using LES as turbulence model. Calculations of the initial phase of a developing jet were made and it was found that in the initial phase of the spray and the flow structure were similar to that of a spatially developing jet flow, which is in agreement with experimental observations. Results from LES calculations on a developing spray jet was also compared with k-{epsilon} based ones. This result showed that the spray-LES approach captured the transition from a laminar to a turbulent flow field with an increase in turbulent kinetic energy k along the injection direction 45 refs, 37 figs, 2 tabs

  14. Agricultural sprays in cross-flow and drift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, M.; Balachandar, R.; Wulfsohn, Dvoralai

    2001-01-01

    The droplet size and velocity characteristics of an agricultural spray were studied in a wind tunnel in the presence of a non-uniform cross-flow. The spray was generated at three nozzle-operating pressures. The droplet size and velocity was measured in both the cross-flow direction and the vertical...

  15. An evaluation of the electric arc spray and (HPPS) processes for the manufacturing of high power plasma spraying MCrAIY coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacriste, D.; Goubot, N.; Dhers, J.; Ducos, M.; Vardelle, A.

    2001-06-01

    The high power plasma torch (PlazJet) can be used to spray refractory ceramics with high spray rates and deposition efficiency. It can provide dense and hard coating with high bond strengths. When manufacturing thermal barrier coatings, the PlazJet gun is well adapted to spraying the ceramic top coat but not the MCrAIY materials that are used as bond coat. Arc spraying can compete with plasma spraying for metallic coatings since cored wires can be used to spray alloys and composites. In addition, the high production rate of arc spraying enables a significant decrease in coating cost. This paper discusses the performances of the PlazJet gun, and a twin-wire are spray system, and compares the properties and cost of MCrAIY coatings made with these two processes. For arc spraying, the use of air or nitrogen as atomizing gas is also investigated.

  16. Machining tools in AISI M2 high-speed steel obtained by spray forming process; Ferramentas de usinagem em aco rapido AISI M2 obtido por conformacao por 'spray'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesus, Edilson Rosa Barbosa de. E-mail: erbjesus@usp.br

    2004-07-01

    The aim of the present work was the obtention of AISI M2 high-speed steel by spray forming technique and the material evaluation when used as machining tool. The obtained material was hot rolled at 50% and 72% reduction ratios, and from which it was manufactured inserts for machining tests. The performance of inserts made of the spray formed material was compared to inserts obtained from conventional and powder metallurgy (MP) processed materials. The spray formed material was chemical, physical, mechanical and microstructural characterised. For further characterisation, the materials were submitted to machining tests for performance evaluation under real work condition. The results of material characterisation highlight the potential of the spray forming technique, in the obtention of materials with good characteristics and properties. Under the current processing, hot rolling and heat treatments condition, the analysis of the results of the machining tests revealed a very similar behaviour among the tested materials. Proceeding a criterious analysis of the machining results tests, it was verified that the performance presented by the powder metallurgy material (MP) was slight superior, followed by conventional obtained material (MConv), which presented a insignificant advantage over the spray formed and hot rolled (72% reduction ratio) material. The worst result was encountered for the spray forming and hot rolled (50% reduction ratio) material that presented the highest wear values. (author)

  17. Ketorolac Tromethamine Spray Prevents Postendotracheal-Intubation-Induced Sore Throat after General Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. L. Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Postoperative sore throat is one of the major complaints of general anesthesia in the postanesthesia care unit. This prospective study investigated the preventive effect of ketorolac tromethamine spray in postendotracheal-intubation-induced sore throat after general anesthesia. Methods. Surgical patients undergoing general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation were recruited from a medical center. Patients were randomly assigned to group K (treated with 5% ketorolac tromethamine spray or group D (treated with distilled water spray. Before intubation, each endotracheal tube was sprayed with the appropriate solution by physicians over the 20 cm length of the cuff. Each group comprised 95 patients fitting the inclusion and exclusion criteria for whom complete data sets were collected. The intensity of the sore throat was measured at 1, 3, 6, and 24 h after surgery, and data were compared. Results. The two groups had similar characteristics. Postoperative sore throat was significantly less frequent in group K than in group D (p<0.001 and the pain intensity was significantly lower in group K than in group D at each time point (all p<0.001. Conclusions. This study demonstrated that preanesthesia 5% ketorolac tromethamine spray could effectively decrease postendotracheal-intubation-induced sore throat in patients undergoing general anesthesia.

  18. Comparison between freeze and spray drying to obtain powder Rubrivivax gelatinosus biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Francisco do Espírito Santo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of colorants in products of animal origin is justified by the improvement in the color of foods since this attribute is considered a quality criterion. These additives can be produced using industrial effluents as substrates and appropriate organisms, such as Rubrivivax gelatinosus. Oxycarotenoids represent a class of carotenes responsible for the pigmentation of animals and vegetables. R. gelatinosus grows in fish industry effluent with the resulting production of a bacterial biomass containing oxycarotenoids. The purpose of this study was to compare the use of two drying processes - spray and freeze drying - to obtain powder biomass in terms of the process parameters (yield, productivity, and product recovery and the product characteristics (color, proximate composition, and oxycarotenoids. No difference was detected in the yield between these techniques, while productivity was higher using spray drying. Higher product recovery and moisture were achieved with freeze drying, while ash was higher with spray drying. The freeze dried biomass was redder, darker and less saturated than the spray dried biomass. No difference in oxycarotenoids was detected between the biomasses. Although it results in lower recovery rate, spray drying was faster and more productive, and it provided the same yield as freeze drying, which makes it the method of choice for obtaining R. gelatinosus biomass.

  19. Intermittent cryogen spray cooling for optimal heat extraction during dermatologic laser treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majaron, Boris; Svaasand, Lars O.; Aguilar, Guillermo; Nelson, J. Stuart

    2002-09-01

    Fast heat extraction is critically important to obtain the maximal benefit of cryogen spray cooling (CSC) during laser therapy of shallow skin lesions, such as port wine stain birthmarks. However, a film of liquid cryogen can build up on the skin surface, impairing heat transfer due to the relatively low thermal conductivity and higher temperature of the film as compared to the impinging spray droplets. In an attempt to optimize the cryogen mass flux, while minimally affecting other spray characteristics, we apply a series of 10 ms spurts with variable duty cycles. Heat extraction dynamics during such intermittent cryogen sprays were measured using a custom-made metal-disc detector. The highest cooling rates were observed at moderate duty cycle levels. This confirms the presence, and offers a practical way to eliminate the adverse effect of liquid cryogen build-up on the sprayed surface. On the other hand, lower duty cycles allow a substantial reduction in the average rate of heat extraction, enabling less aggressive and more efficient CSC for treatment of deeper targets, such as hair follicles.

  20. Influence of deposition and spray pattern of nasal powders on insulin bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringels, E; Callens, C; Vervaet, C; Dumont, F; Slegers, G; Foreman, P; Remon, J P

    2006-03-09

    The influence of the deposition pattern and spray characteristics of nasal powder formulations on the insulin bioavailability was investigated in rabbits. The formulations were prepared by freeze drying a dispersion containing a physical mixture of drum dried waxy maize starch (DDWM)/Carbopol 974P (90/10, w/w) or a spray-dried mixture of Amioca starch/Carbopol 974P (25/75, w/w). The deposition in the nasal cavity of rabbits and in a silicone human nose model after actuation of three nasal delivery devices (Monopowder, Pfeiffer and experimental system) was compared and related to the insulin bioavailability. Posterior deposition of the powder formulation in the nasal cavity lowered the insulin bioavailability. To study the spray pattern, the shape and cross-section of the emitted powder cloud were analysed. It was concluded that the powder bulk density of the formulation influenced the spray pattern. Consequently, powders of different bulk density were prepared by changing the solid fraction of the freeze dried dispersion and by changing the freezing rate during freeze drying. After nasal delivery of these powder formulations no influence of the powder bulk density and of the spray pattern on the insulin bioavailability was observed.

  1. Current Progress in Solution Precursor Plasma Spraying of Cermets: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romnick Unabia

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic and metal composites, known also as cermets, may considerably improve many material properties with regards to that of initial components. Hence, cermets are frequently applied in many technological fields. Among many processes which can be employed for cermet manufacturing, thermal spraying is one of the most frequently used. Conventional plasma spraying of powders is a popular and cost-effective manufacturing process. One of its most recent innovations, called solution precursor plasma spraying (SPPS, is an emerging coating deposition method which uses homogeneously mixed solution precursors as a feedstock. The technique enables a single-step deposition avoiding the powder preparation procedures. The nanostructured coatings developed by SPPS increasingly find a place in the field of surface engineering. The present review shows the recent progress in the fabrication of cermets using SPPS. The influence of starting solution precursors, such as their chemistry, concentration, and solvents used, to the micro-structural characteristics of cermet coatings is discussed. The effect of the operational plasma spray process parameters such as solution injection mode to the deposition process and coatings’ microstructure is also presented. Moreover, the advantages of the SPPS process and its drawbacks compared to the conventional powder plasma spraying process are discussed. Finally, some applications of SPPS cermet coatings are presented to understand the potential of the process.

  2. Further Evaluation of Spray Characterization of Sprayers Typically Used in Vector Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    E1260. Standard test method for determining liquid drop size characteristics in a spray using optical nonimaging light-scattering instru- ments...The time that the spray cloud was directed through the optical path of the laser varied between sprayers depending on the width of the spray plume

  3. Quantitative spray analysis of diesel fuel and its emulsions using digital image processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faik Ahmad Muneer El-Deen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, an experimental investigation of spray atomization of different liquids has been carried out. An air-assist atomizer operating at low injection pressures valued (4 and 6 bar has been used to generate sprays of (diesel fuel, 5, 10, and 15% water-emulsified-diesel, respectively. A Photron-SA4 high speed camera has been used for spray imaging at 2000 fps. 20 time intervals (from 5 to 100 ms with 5 ms time difference are selected for analysis and comparison. Spray macroscopic characteristics (spray penetration, dispersion, cone angle, axial and dispersion velocities have been extracted by a proposed technique based on image processing using Matlab, where the maximum and minimum (horizontal and vertical boundaries of the spray are detected, from which the macroscopic spray characteristics are evaluated. The maximum error of this technique is (1.5% for diesel spray and a little bit higher for its emulsions.

  4. Electrostatically atomised hydrocarbon sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yule, A.J.; Shrimpton, J.S.; Watkins, A.P.; Balachandran, W.; Hu, D. [UMIST, Manchester (United Kingdom). Thermofluids Division, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1995-07-01

    A burner using an electrostatic method to produce and control a fuel spray is investigated for non-burning sprays. The burner has a charge injection nozzle and the liquid flow rate and charge injection rate are varied using hydrocarbon liquids of differing viscosities, surface tensions and electrical conductivities (kerosene, white spirit and diesel oil). Droplet size distributions are measured and it is shown how the dropsize, spray pattern, breakup mechanism and breakup length depend on the above variables, and in particular on the specific charge achieved in the spray. The data are valuable for validating two computer models under development. One predicts the electric field and flow field inside the nozzle as a function of emitter potential, geometry and flow rate. The other predicts the effect of charge on spray dispersion, with a view to optimizing spray combustion. It is shown that electrostatic disruptive forces can be used to atomize oils at flow rates commensurate with practical combustion systems and that the charge injection technique is particularly suitable for highly resistive liquids. Possible limitations requiring further research include the need to control the wide spray angle, which may provide fuel-air mixtures too lean near the nozzle, and the need to design for maximum charge injection rate, which is thought to be limited by corona breakdown in the gas near the nozzle orifice. 30 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Reactor container spray device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanai, Ryoichi.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To enable decrease in the heat and the concentration of radioactive iodine released from the reactor vessel into the reactor container in the spray device of BWR type reactors. Constitution: A plurality of water receiving trays are disposed below the spray nozzle in the dry well and communicated to a pressure suppression chamber by way of drain pipeways passing through a diaphragm floor. When the recycling system is ruptured and coolants in the reactor vessel and radioactive iodine in the reactor core are released into the dry well, spray water is discharged from the spray nozzle to eliminate the heat and the radioactive iodine in the dry well. In this case, the receiving trays collect the portions of spray water whose absorption power for the heat and radioactive iodine is nearly saturated and falls them into the pool water of the pressure suppression chamber. Consequently, other portions of the spray water that still possess absorption power can be jetted with no hindrance, to increase the efficiency for the removal of the heat and iodine of the spray droplets. (Horiuchi, T.)

  6. Plasma sprayed coatings on crankshaft used steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahu, G.; Munteanu, C.; Istrate, B.; Benchea, M.

    2017-08-01

    Plasma spray coatings may be an alternative to conventional heat treatment of main journals and crankpins of the crankshaft. The applications of plasma coatings are various and present multiple advantages compared to electric arc wire spraying or flame spraying. The study examines the layers sprayed with the following powders: Cr3C2- 25(Ni 20Cr), Al2O3- 13TiO2, Cr2O3-SiO2- TiO2 on the surface of steels used in the construction of a crankshaft (C45). The plasma spray coatings were made with the Spray wizard 9MCE facility at atmospheric pressure. The samples were analyzed in terms of micro and morphological using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Wear tests on samples that have undergone simulates extreme working conditions of the crankshafts. In order to emphasize adherence to the base material sprayed layer, were carried out tests of microscratches and micro-indentation. Results have showed a relatively compact morphological aspect given by the successive coatings with splat-like specific structures. Following the microscratch analysis it can be concluded that Al2O3-13TiO2 coating has a higher purpose in terms of hardness compared to Cr3C2-(Ni 20Cr) and Cr2O3-SiO2- TiO2 powders. Thermal coatings of the deposited powders have increased the mechanical properties of the material. The results stand to confirm that plasma sprayed Al2O3-13TiO2 powder is in fact a efficient solution for preventing mechanical wear, even with a faulty lubrication system.

  7. Characteristics of CuIn{sub 1−x}Ga{sub x}S{sub 2} thin films synthesized by chemical spray pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajili, Mejda, E-mail: ajili.mejda@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matière Condensée, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Tunis El Manar 2092 (Tunisia); Castagné, Michel [Institut d’Electronique du Sud, Université de Montpellier II, Sciences et Techniques du Languedoc, case courrier 083. Place Eugène BATAILLON, 34 095 Montpellier cedex 05 (France); Kamoun Turki, Najoua [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matière Condensée, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Tunis El Manar 2092 (Tunisia)

    2014-06-01

    CuIn{sub 1−x}Ga{sub x}S{sub 2} multi-component semiconductors thin films were prepared by chemical spray pyrolysis on glass substrates using different concentrations of gallium in the spray solutions (y=([Ga{sup 3+}]/[In{sup 3+}]) varying from 0 to 20 at% by a step of 5 at%). Samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, spectrophotometric and Hall effect measurements. The X-ray spectra reveal that the CuIn{sub 1−x}Ga{sub x}S{sub 2} thin films are of chalcopyrite crystalline phase with a highly (1 1 2) preferential orientation. The best crystallinity is obtained for 10 at% Ga incorporation since the maximum (1 1 2) peak intensity and grain size are obtained at this Ga incorporation rate. The level of the residual microstrain and dislocation network seems to be reduced respectively to the values 0.09% and 4×10{sup 8} lines mm{sup −2} for an optimum y=10 at% for which the crystallinity of CuIn{sub 1−x}Ga{sub x}S{sub 2} thin layers is the best one. Raman spectra indicate that the sprayed thin films are grown only with CH-ordering. Optical analysis by means of transmission T(λ) and reflection R(λ) measurements allow us to determine the direct band gap energy value which increases by increasing the Ga content and it is in the range 1.39–1.53 eV, indicating that CuIn{sub 1−x}Ga{sub x}S{sub 2} compound has an absorbing property favorable for applications in solar cell devices. Photoluminescence measurements are performed on CuIn{sub 1−x}Ga{sub x}S{sub 2} crystals and the analysis reveals that the emission is mainly due to donor–acceptor pair transitions. The film resistivity (ρ) and Hall mobility (μ) are strongly affected by Ga incorporation rate. The lowest resistivity (ρ=0.1 Ω cm) and maximum value of Hall mobility (μ=0.5 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}) are also obtained for the thin layers prepared with y=10 at%. Finally, we reported two new structures for Cu

  8. Influence of indium concentration and substrate temperature on the physical characteristics of chemically sprayed ZnO:In thin films deposited from zinc pentanedionate and indium sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaneda, L; Morales-Saavedra, O G; Cheang-Wong, J C; Acosta, D R; Banuelos, J G; Maldonado, A; Olvera, M de la L

    2006-01-01

    Chemically sprayed indium-doped zinc oxide thin films (ZnO:In) were deposited on glass substrates starting from zinc pentanedionate and indium sulfate. The influence of both the dopant concentration in the starting solution and the substrate temperature on the transport, morphology, composition, linear and nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of the ZnO:In thin films were studied. The structure of all the ZnO:In thin films was polycrystalline, and variation in the preferential growth with the indium content in the solution was observed: from an initial (002) growth in films with low In content, switching to a predominance of (101) planes for intermediate dopant regime, and finally turning to a (100) growth for heavily doped films. The crystallite size was found to decrease with doping concentration and range from 36 to 23 nm. The film composition and the dopant concentration were determined by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry; these results showed that the films are almost stoichiometric ZnO. The optimum deposition conditions leading to conductive and transparent ZnO:In thin films were also found. In this way a resistivity of 4 x 10 -3 Ω cm and an average transmittance in the visible spectra of 85%, with a (101) preferential growth, were obtained in optimized ZnO:In thin films

  9. Spray Lakes reclamation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacaruk, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    When the level of the Spray Lakes (Alberta) reservoir was lowered by four metres, 208 ha of shoreline was exposed offering little to no wildlife benefit and only limited recreation potential. A reclamation plan for 128 ha of shoreline was therefore developed. A wild life-palatable, self-sustaining vegetation cover was established. Approximately 90 ha was scarified, and/or had tree stumps removed prior to seeding, while approximately 40 ha was seeded and fertilized only. The remaining 80 ha of shoreline was not revegetated due to limited access; these areas will be allowed to re-establish naturally from the forested edge. The species were selected based on their adaptation to alkaline soils, drought tolerance, persistence in a stand and rooting characteristics, as well as palatability to wildlife. Alfalfa, white clover and fall rye were seeded. In general, all areas of the reclamation plan are successfully revegetated. Areas which were recontoured are stable and non-eroding. Success was most significant in areas which had been scarified, then seeded and trackpacked. Areas that were seeded and fertilized only were less well established at the end of the first year, but showed improvement in the second and third years. The area will be monitored to ensure the reclaimed vegetation is self-sustaining

  10. Contemporary Characteristics and Outcomes in Chagasic Heart Failure Compared With Other Nonischemic and Ischemic Cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Li; Ramires, Felix; Martinez, Felipe

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chagas' disease is an important cause of cardiomyopathy in Latin America. We aimed to compare clinical characteristics and outcomes in patients with heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction caused by Chagas' disease, with other etiologies, in the era of modern HF therapies...

  11. Certain Characteristics of iSchools Compared to Other LIS Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedgeworth, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation compares 17 iSchools and 36 other LIS schools that offer the ALA-accredited Master's degree program according to certain characteristics. The study compiles quantitative and qualitative data on 32 variables and sub-variables drawn from the schools' web sites, ALISE 2010 Statistical Report, and Elsevier's SCOPUS…

  12. Study of Multi-Function Micro-Plasma Spraying Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Liuying; Wang Hangong; Hua Shaochun; Cao Xiaoping

    2007-01-01

    A multi-functional micro-arc plasma spraying system was developed according to aerodynamics and plasma spray theory. The soft switch IGBT (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor) invert technique, micro-computer control technique, convergent-divergent nozzle structure and axial powder feeding techniques have been adopted in the design of the micro-arc plasma spraying system. It is not only characterized by a small volume, a light weight, highly accurate control, high deposition efficiency and high reliability, but also has multi-functions in plasma spraying, welding and quenching. The experimental results showed that the system can produce a supersonic flame at a low power, spray Al 2 O 3 particles at an average speed up to 430 m/s, and make nanostructured AT13 coatings with an average bonding strength of 42.7 MPa. Compared to conventional 9M plasma spraying with a higher power, the coatings with almost the same properties as those by conventional plasma spray can be deposited by multi-functional micro-arc plasma spraying with a lower power plasma arc due to an improved power supply design, spray gun structure and powder feeding method. Moreover, this system is suitable for working with thin parts and undertaking on site repairs, and as a result, the application of plasma spraying will be greatly extended

  13. Internal Diameter HVAF Spraying for Wear and Corrosion Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyphout, C.; Björklund, S.

    2015-01-01

    Electrolytic hard chrome (EHC) methods are still widely utilized in the printing, automotive and off-shore industries. Alternative methods to EHC have been widely developed in the past decade by conventional HVOF processes and more recently HVAF systems, which are processing at higher kinetic energy and more particularly at lower temperature, significantly increasing wear and corrosion resistance properties. A dedicated internal diameter HVAF system is here presented, and coatings characteristics are compared to the one obtained by standard HVAF coatings. Specially R&D designed fixtures with inside bore of 200 mm have been manufactured for this purpose, with a possibility to spray samples at increasing depth up to 400 mm while simulating closed bottom bore spraying. WC-based and Cr3C2-based powder feedstock materials have been deposited onto high-strength steel substrates. Respective coating microstructures, thermally induced stresses and corrosion resistance are discussed for further optimization of coating performances. The fact that the ID-HVAF system is utilized both for spraying and gritblasting procedures is also given a particular interest.

  14. Inorganic photovoltaic devices fabricated using nanocrystal spray deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foos, Edward E; Yoon, Woojun; Lumb, Matthew P; Tischler, Joseph G; Townsend, Troy K

    2013-09-25

    Soluble inorganic nanocrystals offer a potential route to the fabrication of all-inorganic devices using solution deposition techniques. Spray processing offers several advantages over the more common spin- and dip-coating procedures, including reduced material loss during fabrication, higher sample throughput, and deposition over a larger area. The primary difference observed, however, is an overall increase in the film roughness. In an attempt to quantify the impact of this morphology change on the devices, we compare the overall performance of spray-deposited versus spin-coated CdTe-based Schottky junction solar cells and model their dark current-voltage characteristics. Spray deposition of the active layer results in a power conversion efficiency of 2.3 ± 0.3% with a fill factor of 45.7 ± 3.4%, Voc of 0.39 ± 0.06 V, and Jsc of 13.3 ± 3.0 mA/cm(2) under one sun illumination.

  15. Spray drying of bead resins: feasibility tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, R.L.; Grantham, L.F.; Jones, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    Rockwell International has developed a volume reduction system for low-level reactor wastes based on drying the wastes in a heated-air spray dryer. The drying of slurries of sodium sulfate, boric acid, and powdered ion exchange resins was demonstrated in previous tests. The drying of bead ion exchange resins can be especially difficult due to the relatively large size of bead resins (about 500 to 800 microns) and their natural affinity for water. This water becomes part of the pore structure of the resins and normally comprises 50 t 60 wt % of the resin weight. A 76-cm-diameter spray dryer was used for feasibility tests of spray drying of cation and anion bead resins. These resins were fed to the dryer in the as-received form (similar to dewatered resins) and as slurries. A dry, free-flowing product was produced in all the tests. The volume of the spray-dried product was one-half to one-third the volume of the as-received material. An economic analysis was made of the potential cost savings that can be achieved using the Rockwel spray dryer system. In-plant costs, transportation costs, and burial costs of spray-dried resins were compared to similar costs for disposal of dewatered resins. A typical utility producing 170 m 3 (6,000 ft 3 ) per year of dewatered resins can save $600,000 to $700,000 per year using this volume reduction system

  16. Radio-frequency plasma spraying of ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, T.; Hamatani, H.; Yoshida, T.

    1989-01-01

    This study was aimed at developing a novel spraying process using a radio-frequency (rf) plasma. Experiments of Al 2 O 3 and ZrO 2 - 8 wt% Y 2 O 3 spraying showed that the initial powder size was the most important parameter for depositing dense coatings. The optimum powder sizes of Al 2 O 3 and ZrO 2 - 8 wt% Y 2 O 3 were considered to be around 100 and 80 μm, respectively. The use of such large-size powders compared with those used by conventional dc plasma spraying made it possible to deposit adherent ceramics coatings of 150 to 300 μm on as-rolled SS304 substrates. It was also shown that low particle velocity of about 10 m/s, which is peculiar to rf plasma spraying, was sufficient for particle deformation, though it imposed a severe limitation on the substrate position. These experimental results prove that rf plasma spraying is an effective process and a strong candidate to open new fields of spraying applications

  17. Dynamics of flare sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Hansen, R.T.

    1980-01-01

    During solar cycle No. 20 new insight into the flare-spray phenomenon has been attained due to several innovations in solar optical-observing techniques (higher spatial resolution cinema-photography, tunable pass-band filters, multi-slit spectroscopy and extended angular field coronographs). From combined analysis of 13 well-observed sprays which occured between 1969-1974 we conclude that (i) the spray material originates from a preexisting active region filament which undergoes increased absorption some tens of minutes prior to the abrupt chromospheric brightening at the 'flare-start', and (ii) the spray material is confined within a steadily expanding, loop-shaped (presumably magnetically controlled) envelope with part of the material draining back down along one or both legs of the loop. (orig.)

  18. Triamcinolone Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... class of medications called corticosteroids. It works by blocking the release of certain natural substances that cause ... 5 sprays into the air away from the face. If you have not used it for 2 ...

  19. Beclomethasone Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... class of medications called corticosteroids. It works by blocking the release of certain natural substances that cause ... your thumb. Point the applicator away from your face. If you are using the spray for the ...

  20. Flunisolide Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... class of medications called corticosteroids. It works by blocking the release of certain natural substances that cause ... your thumb. Point the applicator away from your face. If you are using the spray for the ...

  1. Comparative study of goal contents and goal characteristics between medical and business students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soowon; Kim, Ji Eun; Lee, Jun-Young; Shin, Jongho

    2016-03-01

    Medical and business are one of the most popular majors among students, and both fields require intensive training to reach certain level of expertise. During the development of professionalism, goal can become a crucial role in psychological impetus. The purpose of this study is to compare goal contents, goal characteristics, and effect of goal characteristics on student's major satisfaction between medical and business. A total of 193 undergraduate students (97 medical students, 96 business students) answered survey questions including goal contents, goal characteristics (goal autonomy, goal attainability, social value of goal) and satisfaction on their majors. Qualitative analysis of goal contents and quantitative analysis of goal characteristics, and their effects on student major satisfaction were performed. Goal content analysis showed percentage of social concern goal was higher in medical students (25.8%) than business students (6.3%), whereas percentage of wealth goal was higher business students (24.0%) than medical students (3.1%). Among goal characteristics, goal attainability and social value of goal were higher in medical students than business students. In both groups, social value of goal was significantly predict major satisfaction. Goal contents and goal characteristics are different between medical and business students. Curriculum and educational interventions that concerning students' goal and developing programs to enhance students' social value of goal is necessary.

  2. ROTARY SPRAY DUSTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Nechaeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of researches of hydraulic resistance, ablation of splashes and efficiency of dedusting in the rotor spray dust collector are given. Influence of frequency of rotation of the spray, the specified speed of gas and diameter of spattering holes on hydraulic resistance, size ablation of splashes and efficiency of a dedusting the device by diameter 0,25 m is investigated. As model liquid water is used. Results of mathematical processing are presented.

  3. Comparing the Obvious: Interactional characteristics of staff in acute mental health nursing and forensic psychiatric nursing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gildberg, Frederik Alkier; Bradley, Stephen K.; Hounsgaard, Lise

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on and compares two separate studies of the interactional characteristics of forensic mental health staff and acute mental health staff as they interact with inpatients, respectively. Both studies were conducted using participant observation, along with informal and formal...... interviews. Findings show that both acute and forensic mental health nursing practice is characterized by two overriding themes; ‘trust and relationship-enabling care’ and ‘behavior and perception-corrective care.’ The comparison of the two studies shows no major differences in the characteristics of staff...

  4. Development of cold sprayed Cu coating for canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Jun; Kang, Yoon Ha

    2010-01-01

    Cold sprayed Cu deposition was studied for the application of outer part of canister for high level nuclear waste. Five commercially available pure Cu powders were analyzed and sprayed by high pressure cold spray system. Electrochemical corrosion test using potentiostat in 3.5% NaCl solution was conducted as well as microstructural analysis including hardness and oxygen content measurements. Overall evaluation of corrosion performance of cold sprayed Cu deposition is inferior to forged and extruded Cu plates, but some of Cu depositions are comparable to Cu plates. The simulated corrosion test in 200m underground cave is still in progress. The effect of cold spray process parameters was also studied and the results show that the type of nozzle is the most important other than powder feed rate, spray distance, and scan speed. 1/10 scale miniature of canister was manufactured confirming that the production of full scale canister is possible

  5. A study on the fuel injection and atomization characteristics of soybean oil methyl ester (SME)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Su Han; Kim, Hyung Jun; Suh, Hyun Kyu; Lee, Chang Sik

    2009-01-01

    The spray atomization characteristics of an undiluted biodiesel fuel (soybean oil methyl ester, SME) in a diesel engine were investigated and compared with that of diesel fuel (ultra low sulfur diesel, ULSD). The experimental results were compared with numerical results predicted by the KIVA-3V code. The spray characteristics of the spray tip penetration, spray area, spray centroid and injection delay were analyzed using images obtained from a visualization system. The Sauter mean diameter (SMD) was analyzed using a droplet analyzer system to investigate the atomization characteristics. It was found that the peak injection rate increases and advances when the injection pressure increases due to the increase of the initial injection momentum. The injection rate of the SME, which has a higher density than diesel fuel, is higher than that of diesel fuel despite its low injection velocity. The high ambient pressure induces the shortening of spray tip penetration of the SME. Moreover, the predicted spray tip penetration pattern is similar to the pattern observed experimentally. The SMD of the SME decreases along the axial distance. The predicted local and overall SMD distribution patterns of diesel and SME fuels illustrate similar tendencies when compared with the experimental droplet size distribution patterns

  6. On the comparability of acceptance tests for concrete by operation characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rackwitz, R.

    1978-01-01

    The purely statistical aspect of acceptance tests can be estimated by means of operation characteristics, the position and steepness of which determine the probability for acceptance or rejection of offered loads. For negative decisions in concrete checking there will be, as a rule, an after-check in normal quality control. The operation characteristics with after-check valid for DIN 1045, DIN 1084, and DIN 1048 are set up. Complete comparability of different acceptance tests by means of the operation characteristic can only be achieved if the different sampling rates and the number of decisions are also included in the consideration. Proposals for improving the acceptance tests for concrete are presented. (orig.) [de

  7. Spray Drying of Mosambi Juice in Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S. V.; Verma, A.

    2014-01-01

    The studies on spray drying of mosambi juice were carried out with Laboratory spray dryer set-up (LSD-48 MINI SPRAY DRYER-JISL). Inlet and outlet air temperature and maltodextrin (drying agent) concentration was taken as variable parameters. Experiments were conducted by using 110 °C to 140 °C inlet air temperature, 60 °C to 70 °C outlet air temperature and 5-7 % maltodextrin concentration. The free flow powder of mosambi juice was obtained with 7 % maltodextrin at 140 °C inlet air temperature and 60 °C outlet air temperature. Fresh and reconstituted juices were evaluated for vitamin C, titrable acidity and sensory characteristics. The reconstituted juice was found slightly acceptable by taste panel.

  8. Experiments on the spray nozzles used in the pressurizer of power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diao Wentang

    1989-04-01

    The spray nozzle, which is used in the pressurizer of pressurized water reactor system, usually uses a less differential pressure between the reactor inlet and outlet as the spray drive pressure, but its flow rate is relatively larger. It is difficult to obtain a optimum spray performance of such a nozzle. The experimental results of five types of twenty seven spray nozzles in different structures and sizes with the range of the spray drive pressure from 0.127 to 0.245 MPa and the flow rates from 5 to 50 t/h are given. The main factors affecting spray performances and their distribution characteristics have been found. And some relatively suitable spray structures have been recommended, which can be used as references for improving the spray nozzles used in the pressurizers of existing PWRs or of the PWRs to be built

  9. Redefining neighborhoods using common destinations: social characteristics of activity spaces and home census tracts compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Malia; Pebley, Anne R

    2014-06-01

    Research on neighborhood effects has focused largely on residential neighborhoods, but people are exposed to many other places in the course of their daily lives-at school, at work, when shopping, and so on. Thus, studies of residential neighborhoods consider only a subset of the social-spatial environment affecting individuals. In this article, we examine the characteristics of adults' "activity spaces"-spaces defined by locations that individuals visit regularly-in Los Angeles County, California. Using geographic information system (GIS) methods, we define activity spaces in two ways and estimate their socioeconomic characteristics. Our research has two goals. First, we determine whether residential neighborhoods represent the social conditions to which adults are exposed in the course of their regular activities. Second, we evaluate whether particular groups are exposed to a broader or narrower range of social contexts in the course of their daily activities. We find that activity spaces are substantially more heterogeneous in terms of key social characteristics, compared to residential neighborhoods. However, the characteristics of both home neighborhoods and activity spaces are closely associated with individual characteristics. Our results suggest that most people experience substantial segregation across the range of spaces in their daily lives, not just at home.

  10. An experimental methodology to quantify the spray cooling event at intermittent spray impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Antonio L.N.; Carvalho, Joao; Panao, Miguel R.O.

    2007-01-01

    The present paper describes an experimental methodology devised to study spray cooling with multiple-intermittent sprays as those found in fuel injection systems of spark-ignition and diesel engines, or in dermatologic surgery applications. The spray characteristics and the surface thermal behaviour are measured by combining a two-component phase-Doppler anemometer with fast response surface thermocouples. The hardware allows simultaneous acquisition of Doppler and thermocouple signals which are processed in Matlab to estimate the time-varying heat flux and fluid-dynamic characteristics of the spray during impact. The time resolution of the acquisition system is limited by the data rate of validation of the phase-Doppler anemometer, but it has been shown to be accurate for the characterization of spray-cooling processes with short spurt durations for which the transient period of spray injection plays an important role. The measurements are processed in terms of the instantaneous heat fluxes, from which phase-average values of the boiling curves are obtained. Two of the characteristic parameters used in the thermal analysis of stationary spray cooling events, the critical heat flux (CHF) and Leidenfrost phenomenon, are then inferred in terms of operating conditions of the multiple-intermittent injections, such as the frequency, duration and pressure of injection. An integral method is suggested to describe the overall process of heat transfer, which accounts for the fluid-dynamic heterogeneities induced by multiple and successive droplet interactions within the area of spray impact. The method considers overall boiling curves dependant on the injection conditions and provides an empirical tool to characterize the heat transfer processes on the impact of multiple-intermittent sprays. The methodology is tested in a preliminary study of the effect of injection conditions on the heat removed by a fuel spray striking the back surface of the intake valve as in spark

  11. Imaging diagnostics of ethanol port fuel injection sprays for automobile engine applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padala, Srinivas; Le, Minh Khoi; Kook, Sanghoon; Hawkes, Evatt R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents characteristics of ethanol sprays at port fuel injection (PFI) conditions with variations in injection and ambient parameters. Details of temporal and spatial development of ethanol PFI sprays are studied using Mie-scattering and high-speed shadowgraph imaging techniques. Momentum flux-based injection rate measurement is also performed. The influences of fuel flow-rate, injection duration, and ambient air cross-flow are of particular interest in an effort to understand ethanol PFI spray characteristics that are relevant to automobile engines. For comparison purposes, the results from gasoline fuel are also presented. Ethanol flow-rate effects are studied using two injectors with different nozzle-hole sizes at a fixed injection pressure. From the experiments, it was found that the actual injection duration was longer for the higher flow-rate injector although an electronic pulse width was fixed. This was due to an extended delay in the injector needle closing as the flow resistance against the needle was increased for the high flow-rate injector. For liquid droplets, the larger hole size of the higher flow-rate injector caused a higher mean droplet diameter and higher number of droplets. Injection duration was also varied to study transient spray behaviour: short-injection sprays with the end-of-injection transient dominating the overall spray development were compared to long, steady-injection sprays. From Mie-scattering images, the number of droplets and mean droplet diameter were found to be less for the short injection sprays. Detailed analysis using an axial profile of the number of droplets and mean droplet diameter suggested that the observed trends were a result of increased evaporation rate near the nozzle after the end of injection. This was consistent with shadowgraph images showing no liquid regions but only the vapour-phase fuel near the nozzle. Under the influence of ambient air cross-flow, both mean droplet diameter and number of

  12. Unit thermal performance of atmospheric spray cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, R.W.; Jain, M.; Chaturvedi, S.K.

    1980-01-01

    Thermal performance of an open atmospheric spray pond or canal depends on the direct-contact evaporative cooling of an individual spray unit (spray nozzle or module) and the interference caused by local heating and humidification. Droplet parameters may be combined into a dimensionless group, number of transfer units (NTU) or equivalent, whereas large-scale air-vapor dynamics determine interference through the local wet-bulb temperature. Quantity NTU were implied from field experiments for a floating module used in steam-condenser spray canals. Previous data were available for a fixed-pipe nozzle assembly used in spray ponds. Quantity NTU were also predicted using the Ranz-Marshall correlations with the Sauter-mean diameter used as the characteristic length. Good agreement with experiments was shown for diameters of 1--1.1 cm (module) and 1.9 mm

  13. The Anthropometric Characteristics of Futsal Players Compared with Professional Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burdukiewicz Anna

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the study was to compare the morphological characteristics of experienced futsal players with professional soccer players. Methods. The research sample included 22 university futsal players and 22 professional soccer players. Parameters including body height and mass, skinfold thicknesses of the trunk and extremities, lower limb length, trunk width, humerus and femur bone breadths, and the circumferences of the chest, hips, thighs, and calves were used to calculate various somatic indices. Somatotyping was performed using the Heath–carter method. Differences in the characteristics between the futsal and soccer players were analyzed using Student’s t test. Intragroup analysis was also performed on futsal players depending on player position and compared with the arithmetic means and standard deviations of all variables of the entire sample. Results. compared with their soccer-playing peers, the futsal players were shorter, weighed less, had shorter lower limbs, narrower hips, and smaller hip circumference and bone breadth values. In contrast, higher levels of body fat and endomorphy were noted in this group. The proportion of mesomorphs and ectomorphs were similar in both groups. Futsal goalkeepers were differentiated by greater subcutaneous adiposity and body mass. Defenders had the slimmest body shape, with relatively narrower shoulders and hips, smaller bone breadths, and lower levels of adiposity. The body build of wingers was slightly larger. Pivoters were characterized by greater body height and larger values for the characteristics measuring the lateral trunk dimensions. Conclusions. The observed morphological differences between futsal and soccer players were mainly in body height and height-associated characteristics. This indicates that no specialized approach in futsal recruitment is currently used. This points to the need to develop a specialized approach in the player recruitment stage, as the tactical and

  14. Water spray assisted ultrashort laser pulse ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvennoinen, M.; Kaakkunen, J.J.J.; Paivasaari, K.; Vahimaa, P.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We show the novel method to use multibeam processing with ultrashort pulses efficiently. ► Sprayed thin water layer on ablation zone enhances ablation rate and quality. ► In some cases this method also enables ablation of the deeper and straighter holes compared to ones made without the water layer. ► Method also makes possible to directly write features without the self-organizing structures. - Abstract: We have studied femtosecond ablation under sprayed thin water film and its influence and benefits compared with ablation in the air atmosphere. These have been studied in case of the hole and the groove ablation using IR femtosecond laser. Water enhances the ablation rate and in some situations it makes possible to ablate the holes with a higher aspect ratio. While ablating the grooves, the water spray allows using the high fluences without the generation of the self-organized structures.

  15. Spray boom for selectively spraying a herbicidal composition onto dicots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    There is provided a method and spray boom for discriminating cereal crop (monocot) and weeds (dicots). The spray boom includes means for digitally recording an image of a selected area to be treated by a nozzle on the spray boom, whereby a plant material is identified based on a segmentation proc...

  16. Comparative Study of White Layer Characteristics for Static and Rotating Workpiece during Electric Discharge Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAHID MEHMOOD

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available EDMed (Electric Discharge Machined surfaces are unique in their appearance and metallurgical characteristics, which depend on different parameter such as electric parameters, flushing method, and dielectric type. Conventionally, in static workpiece method the EDM (Electric Discharge Machining is performed by submerging both of the tool and workpiece in dielectric liquid and side flushing is provided by impinging pressurized dielectric liquid into the gap. Another flushing method has been investigated in this study, in which, instead of side flushing the rotation motion is provided to the workpiece. Surface characteristics for both flushing methods are determined and compared in this study. The investigated surface characteristics are: surface roughness, crater size, surface morphology, white layer thickness and composition. These investigations are performed using optical and SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope. Statistical confidence limits are determined for scattered data of surface roughness. It is found that the white layer thickness and surface roughness are directly proportional to discharge current for both flushing methods. The comparison has shown that the side flushing of statics workpiece gives thicker white layer and lower surface finish as compared to the flushing caused by the rotation of workpiece

  17. Comparative study of white layer characteristics for static and rotating workpiece during electric discharge machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehmood, S.; Shah, M.; Anjum, N.A.

    2017-01-01

    EDMed (Electric Discharge Machined) surfaces are unique in their appearance and metallurgical characteristics, which depend on different parameter such as electric parameters, flushing method, and dielectric type. Conventionally, in static workpiece method the EDM (Electric Discharge Machining) is performed by submerging both of the tool and workpiece in dielectric liquid and side flushing is provided by impinging pressurized dielectric liquid into the gap. Another flushing method has been investigated in this study, in which, instead of side flushing the rotation motion is provided to the workpiece. Surface characteristics for both flushing methods are determined and compared in this study. The investigated surface characteristics are: surface roughness, crater size, surface morphology, white layer thickness and composition. These investigations are performed using optical and SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope). Statistical confidence limits are determined for scattered data of surface roughness. It is found that the white layer thickness and surface roughness are directly proportional to discharge current for both flushing methods. The comparison has shown that the side flushing of statics workpiece gives thicker white layer and lower surface finish as compared to the flushing caused by the rotation of workpiece. (author)

  18. Droplets and sprays

    CERN Document Server

    Sazhin, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    Providing a clear and systematic description of droplets and spray dynamic models, this book maximises reader insight into the underlying physics of the processes involved, outlines the development of new physical and mathematical models, and broadens understanding of interactions between the complex physical processes which take place in sprays. Complementing approaches based on the direct application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD), Droplets and Sprays treats both theoretical and practical aspects of internal combustion engine process such as the direct injection of liquid fuel, subcritical heating and evaporation. Includes case studies that illustrate the approaches relevance to automotive applications,  it is also anticipated that the described models can find use in other areas such as in medicine and environmental science.

  19. An experimental study on atomizing formation process of diesel spray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Bong

    2000-02-01

    In this study, the experiment has, been conducted to investigate the spray characteristics under the parameter of an ambient pressure with a single hole nozzle having aspect ratio(L/D) of 5 and diameter of 0.45mm. Under the condition of the injection pressure of 14Mpa, the initial disintegrating process of a diesel spray is investigated and analysized according to change of the ambient pressures, 0.1, 1, 2 and 3Mpa. The double flash method has been employed to visualize the process of the diesel sprays. The results obtained in this study are as follows: 1) After spray starts, the spray is shown as non-disturbance liquid column within about 1∼2mm from the nozzle tip, whose diameter is similar to that of a nozzle. For the same injection pressure, the increase of the ambient pressure makes the length of the non-disturbance liquid column become short. 2) Due to the surface wave, ligaments of the shape thread appear at the boundary of liquid column right after spray. The more developed wave together the progress of spray transforms ligaments into droplets that have generally the uniformed size. 3) In case spraying into chambers having different ambient pressures, 1, 2, and 3Mpa, the spray tip velocities reach up to 1.5, 1.2, and 0.6ms, respectively, and decrease with lapse of time. The spray angle keeps increasing for 0.6, 1.2, and 1.4ms after spray under the various ambient pressures, 3, 2, and 1Mpa, respectively, and begins to decrease and maintains the constant value. Therefore, the transition points appear near the point where the velocity decreases and the spray angle increases, simultaneously. The higher ambient pressure leads to fast appearance of transition under the same spray pressure. 4) The disintegrating mechanism of the liquid spray is two combined effects: a) friction forces between the surface waves generated at the surface of the liquid column and the ambient gas, b) the collisions of liquid droplets and ligaments by spray were overtaking

  20. Droplets Behavior of Hollow-Cone Spray in a Non-Condensable Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minoru Takahashi; Shin-ichi Kitagawa; Suizheng Qiu

    2002-01-01

    The characteristics of droplets in a water hollow-cone spray from nozzles 1.1 mm and 3.6 mm in diameter in an air environment have been investigated experimentally. The dual phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) system was used to measure the size and two velocity components of individual spherical particles. The liquid spray geometry, including spray breakup length and spray angle were also obtained experimentally. The mechanism and the influence of these parameters on a hollow cone spray flow were described. (authors)

  1. A Comparison of Effects of Ambient Pressure on the Atomization Performance of Soybean Oil Methyl Ester and Dimethyl Ether Sprays Comparaison des effets de la pression ambiante sur l’atomisation en “spray” de methylester d’huile de soja et de dimethyléther

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim H.J.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is the experimental investigation of Soybean oil Methyl Ester (SME and DiMethyl Ether (DME spray characteristics injected through the common-rail injection system under various ambient pressures. A high pressure chamber that can be pressurized up to 4 MPa was utilized for a change of ambient pressure. In order to compare the spray development and atomization characteristics, the images of SME and DME were obtained by using a high speed camera with two metal halide lamps under various ambient pressures in the spray chamber. From these spray images, the spray characteristics such as the spray penetration from the nozzle tip, maximum radial distance, and spray diameter were measured and analyzed. In addition, the Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD of two fuels under ambient pressure was analyzed using the droplet measuring system. It was revealed that the axial distance of spray from the nozzle tip of the SME spray is longer than that of DME spray under same injection condition. The axial penetration, maximum radial distance, and spray diameter decreased when the ambient pressure in the chamber increased. As the ambient pressure increased, the SMD decreased and the DME spray showed a superior atomization performance compared to the SME spray. Le but de cette étude est l’investigation expérimentale de l’effet de diverses pressions ambiantes sur les caractéristiques des sprays (issus d’un système "common rail" de methylester d’huile de soja (SME et de dimethyléther (DME. La pression ambiante dépend de la chambre et sa valeur la plus haute peut monter jusqu’à 4 MPa. Pour comparer le développement de spray et la caractéristique d’atomisation, des images de spray de SME et DME à différentes pression ambiantes sont obtenues avec une caméra à haute vitesse à deux lampes de métal halide. Les caractéristiques du spray, comme la pénétration, la distance radiale maximale et le diamètre de spray, sont mesur

  2. Seed quality and water use characteristics of maize landraces compared with selected commercial hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farai Mazvimbakupa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding seed quality and water use characteristics of maize (Zea mays L. landraces will improve food security among subsistence farmers who still cultivate them. The objective of this study was to evaluate seed quality and water use characteristics of two maize landraces (GQ1 and GQ2 compared with two commercial hybrids (SC701 and PAN53. Seed quality was determined by the standard germination, electrical conductivity, and tetrazolium tests. A controlled environment study was conducted in which the landraces were compared with hybrids across three water treatments (30% ETc; 50% ETc, and 80% ETc. Although landrace GQ2 performed at par with the hybrids, overall, seed quality tests showed that hybrids had superior seed quality than landraces. This was also confirmed by highly significant emergence results (P < 0.001 from pot trials where SC701 and PAN53 had higher emergence (100% and 94.44%, respectively compared with GQ2 (86.11% and GQ1 (61.11%. Subjecting landraces and hybrids to water stress (50% and 30% ETc resulted in shorter plants with fewer leaves and earlier tasselling compared with non-stressed plants (80% ETc. Plant height for the 30% ETc water treatment was 156.1 cm compared with 175.8 cm for the 80% ETc water treatment, while plants under the 30% ETc water treatment tasseled at 105.4 d compared with 129.5 d for the 80% ETc water treatment. The GQ2 landrace continued to perform similar to, and often better, than the hybrid varieties, especially under stress conditions. Yield was poor under controlled conditions. Performance of the GQ2 landrace for both seed quality tests and under controlled conditions shows that landraces remain an important germplasm resource.

  3. Sprayed concrete linings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindle, D.

    1999-12-01

    Sprayed concrete, or shotcrete, was invented in the 1920s for preserving dinosaur skeletons and was used underground initially in coalmines for the preservation and fine proofing of timber supports. Its use as a support lining in rock tunnelling was developed in the 1950s and 60s. The article surveys equipment available from major manufacturers and suppliers of concrete spraying equipment (Aliva, Cifa, GIA, Industri, Ingersoll Rand, etc.), specialist cement and additive manufacturers (Castle, Cement, Moria Carbotech). manufacturers of lattice girders and fibre reinforcement, and manufacturers of instrumentation for tunnel linings. 5 tabs., 9 photos.

  4. SPRAY code user's report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shire, P.R.

    1977-03-01

    The SPRAY computer code has been developed to model the effects of postulated sodium spray release from LMFBR piping within containment chambers. The calculation method utilizes gas convection, heat transfer and droplet combustion theory to calculate the pressure and temperature effects within the enclosure. The applicable range is 0-21 mol percent oxygen and .02-.30 inch droplets with or without humidity. Droplet motion and large sodium surface area combine to produce rapid heat release and pressure rise within the enclosed volume

  5. "Gray murder": characteristics of elderly compared with nonelderly homicide victims in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Robert C; Leon, Andrew C; Tardiff, Kenneth; Marzuk, Peter M; Sutherland, Kari

    2007-09-01

    We compared characteristics of homicides among New York City residents aged 18 years and older from 1990 to 1998 to determine differences in demographics, cause and place of death, and presence of illicit drugs and alcohol in the deceased's system. All medical examiner-certified homicides among New York City residents aged 18 years and older from 1990 to 1998 were studied (n = 11,850). Nonelderly (aged 18 to 64 years) and elderly (aged 65 years and older) victims were compared by gender, race/ethnicity, cause of death, place of death, and presence of illicit drugs or alcohol. Population-based homicide rates stratified by age, gender, and race were also calculated. Nonelderly homicide victims were significantly more likely to be male, non-White, to have been shot in the city streets, and to have evidence of illicit drug or alcohol use. Elderly victims were more likely to be female, White, to have been killed by nonfirearm injuries, and to have been killed in their own homes. The gender and race differences between age groups remained but were attenuated when population-based rates were compared. The characteristics of homicide in nonelderly adults do not apply to elderly adults in New York City. Demographic factors and vulnerabilities of the elderly may underlie these differences, pointing to the need for oversight of isolated or homebound elderly persons and for protective interventions.

  6. “Gray Murder”: Characteristics of Elderly Compared With Nonelderly Homicide Victims in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Robert C.; Leon, Andrew C.; Tardiff, Kenneth; Marzuk, Peter M.; Sutherland, Kari

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. We compared characteristics of homicides among New York City residents aged 18 years and older from 1990 to 1998 to determine differences in demographics, cause and place of death, and presence of illicit drugs and alcohol in the deceased’s system. Methods. All medical examiner–certified homicides among New York City residents aged 18 years and older from 1990 to 1998 were studied (n = 11 850). Nonelderly (aged 18 to 64 years) and elderly (aged 65 years and older) victims were compared by gender, race/ethnicity, cause of death, place of death, and presence of illicit drugs or alcohol. Population-based homicide rates stratified by age, gender, and race were also calculated. Results. Nonelderly homicide victims were significantly more likely to be male, non-White, to have been shot in the city streets, and to have evidence of illicit drug or alcohol use. Elderly victims were more likely to be female, White, to have been killed by nonfirearm injuries, and to have been killed in their own homes. The gender and race differences between age groups remained but were attenuated when population-based rates were compared. Conclusions. The characteristics of homicide in nonelderly adults do not apply to elderly adults in New York City. Demographic factors and vulnerabilities of the elderly may underlie these differences, pointing to the need for oversight of isolated or homebound elderly persons and for protective interventions. PMID:17666708

  7. [Investigation on Spray Drying Technology of Auricularia auricular Extract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Rong; Chen, Hui; Xie, Yuan; Chen, Peng; Wang, Luo-lin

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the feasibility of spray drying technology of Auricularia auricular extract and its optimum process. On the basis of single factor test, with the yield of dry extract and the content of polysaccharide as indexes, orthogonal test method was used to optimize the spray drying technology on the inlet air temperature, injection speed and crude drug content. Using ultraviolet spectrophotometry, thin layer chromatography(TLC) and pharmacodynamics as indicators, extracts prepared by traditional alcohol precipitation drying process and spray drying process were compared. Compared with the traditional preparation method, the extract prepared by spray drying had little differences from the polysaccharide content, TLC and the function of reducing TG and TC, and its optimum technology condition were as follows: The inlet air temperature was 180 °C, injection speed was 10 ml/min and crude drugs content was 0. 4 g/mL. Auricularia auricular extract by spray drying technology is stable and feasible with high economic benefit.

  8. Optimization of spray deposition and Tetranychus urticae control with air assisted and electrostatic sprayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Tourino Rezende de Cerqueira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Improved spray deposition can be attained by electrostatically charging spray droplets, which increases the attraction of droplets to plants and decreases operator exposure to pesticide and losses to the environment. However, this technique alone is not sufficient to achieve desirable penetration of the spray solution into the crop canopy; thus, air assistance can be added to the electrostatic spraying to further improve spray deposition. This study was conducted to compare different spraying technologies on spray deposition and two-spotted spider mite control in cut chrysanthemum. Treatments included in the study were: conventional TJ 8003 double flat fan nozzles, conventional TXVK-3 hollow cone nozzles, semi-stationary motorized jet launched spray with electrostatic spray system (ESS and air assistance (AA, and semi-stationary motorized jet launched spray with AA only (no ESS. To evaluate the effect of these spraying technologies on the control of two-spotted spider mite, a control treatment was included that did not receive an acaricide application. The AA spraying technology, with or without ESS, optimized spray deposition and provided satisfactory two-spotted spider mite control up to 4 days after application.

  9. Quantitative and economical assessment of effectiveness of electrostatic pesticide spraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Ryo; Fujita, Satoko; Michihara, Shota; Masuoka, Takashi; Kimura, Toshihiro; Yatsuzuka, Shinji; Anaguchi, Shinobu

    2013-01-01

    Electrostatic pesticide spraying (EPS) improves the adhesion characteristics of the pesticide solution to agricultural crops. If the adhesion characteristics are improved, the requisite amount of the pesticide to be sprayed can be reduced in comparison with the conventional spraying method that uses non-charged pesticide. In this research, disease (rust) control experiments were carried out to substantiate the effectiveness of the EPS from a statistical point of view. We sprayed pesticide to potted Japanese pear trees under calm condition. The numbers of the rust lesions on the pear leaves were counted at fixed intervals after spraying to investigate the difference of the results of the disease control. The t-tests were carried out for the populations of the various spraying times and applied voltages. It was statistically-derived that EPS can reduce the amounts of pesticide to be sprayed by 50 % in comparison with the non-EPS method. It is also estimated from the results that about 55,000 kL year −1 of pesticides can be reduced for the Japanese pear cultivation in Tottori prefecture. Also, this means that the expense of the pear cultivation can be reduced by about 240 million yen (3 million USD) every year in Tottori prefecture by introducing EPS.

  10. Comparative corrosive characteristics of petroleum diesel and palm biodiesel for automotive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazal, M.A.; Haseeb, A.S.M.A.; Masjuki, H.H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2010-10-15

    Corrosive characteristics of biodiesel are important for long term durability of engine parts. The present study aims to compare the corrosion behavior of aluminum, copper and stainless steel in both petroleum diesel and palm biodiesel. Immersion tests in biodiesel (B100) and diesel (B0) were carried out at 80 C for 1200 h. At the end of the test, corrosion characteristic was investigated by weight loss measurements and changes on the exposed metal surface. Surface morphology was examined by optical microscope and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDS). Fuels were analyzed by using TAN analyzer, FTIR, GCMS and ICP in order to investigate the acid concentration, oxidation level with water content, compositional characteristics and presence of metal species respectively. Results show that the extent of corrosion and change in fuel properties upon exposure to metals are more in biodiesel than that in diesel. Copper and aluminum were susceptible to attack by biodiesel whereas stainless steel was not. (author)

  11. Comparative study on the physico-mechanical characteristics for five types of wood flooring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela CĂLĂTAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available During the period 1600-1700, the first works with parquet elements at Versailles Palace were performed, but the high cost has made that the wooden floor to be an exclusivist product for a long time. Currently, in the last 30 years, the most innovations in flooring industry were aimed to improve the technological process, the easing of work, to reduce the losses of raw materials and to reduce the production costs. The experimental research conducted worldwide has shown that the wood processing technology, up to the flooring finite element, plays an important role in achieving a superior quality and durability and that the finishing systems have to be applied depending on the conditions of the area of use. This paper is a comparative study regarding the physico-mechanical characteristics for five types of wood flooring manufactured and marketed in Romania. In the experimental research, there were analyzed: the behavior of the floor assemblies under linearly distributed and concentrated loads, the thermal insulation characteristics and the slip resistance. The experimental results have shown that these characteristics are influenced by the wood species, the type of product (massive one or subjected to stratification technological processing, the thickness of lamellar flooring elements, and the chosen finishing method (varnishing, oiling.

  12. Development of design solutions for spray ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omel'chenko, M.P.; Minasyan, R.G.; Kranzfeld, Ja.L.; Zaruba, V.C.; Baranov, Yu.A.; Sorokin, M.Ja.; Jegorov, A.V.; Khashchina, M.V.

    1990-01-01

    The principles of process design of spray cooling systems for responsible consumers of up-to-date reactor building are discussed in this paper. Development in design principles with respect to problem solving of operational reliability increase and ecological efficiency of nuclear power equipment is shown. The structural solutions of basin antifiltration shield are spoken in detail. The results of experimental physical-mathematical and climatic studies as well as comparative tests of bituminous asphalt emulsive mastic and mushy asphalt are reported. The directions of up-to-date researches on improvement of concept of spray coolers are indicated

  13. Radio frequency induction plasma spraying of molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Xianliang

    2003-01-01

    Radio frequency (RF) induction plasma was used to make free-standing deposition of molybdenum (Mo). The phenomena of particle melting, flattening, and stacking were investigated. The effect of process parameters such as plasma power, chamber pressure, and spray distance on the phenomena mentioned above was studied. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to analyze the plasma-processed powder, splats formed, and deposits obtained. Experimental results show that less Mo particles are spheroidized when compared to the number of spheroidized tungsten (W) particles at the same powder feed rate under the same plasma spray condition. Molten Mo particles can be sufficiently flattened on substrate. The influence of the process parameters on the flattening behavior is not significant. Mo deposit is not as dense as W deposit, due to the splash and low impact of molten Mo particles. Oxidation of the Mo powder with a large particle size is not evident under the low pressure plasma spray

  14. Performances and reliability of WC based thermal spray coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scrivani, A.; Rosso, M.; Salvarani, L.

    2001-01-01

    Thermal spray processes are used for a lot of traditional and innovative applications and their importance is becoming higher and higher. WC/CoCr based thermal spray coatings represent one of the most important class of coatings that find application in a wide range of industrial sectors. This paper will address a review of current applications and characteristics of this kind of coating. The most important spraying processes, namely HVOF (high velocity oxygen fuel) are examined, the characterization of the coatings from the point of view of corrosion and wear resistance is considered. (author)

  15. Characteristics of patients diagnosed with schizoaffective disorder compared with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagel, Tobias; Baldessarini, Ross J; Franklin, Jeremy; Baethge, Christopher

    2013-05-01

    Information on basic demographic and clinical characteristics of schizoaffective disorder is sparse and subject to sampling bias and low diagnostic reliability. In the present study we aimed to: (i) estimate the demographic and clinical descriptors in schizoaffective disorder patients and (ii) compare the findings with those with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. To minimize sampling bias and low reliability, we systematically reviewed studies that simultaneously compared schizoaffective, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder patients. We estimated demographic, clinical, and psychometric characteristics based on weighted pooling, and compared disorders by meta-analysis. We also estimated whether schizoaffective disorder is closer to schizophrenia or to bipolar disorder. We identified 50 studies that included 18312 patients. Most characteristics of the 2684 schizoaffective disorder patients fell between those of 4814 diagnosed with bipolar disorder and 10814 with schizophrenia. However, the schizoaffective group had the highest proportion of women (52%), had the youngest age at illness onset (23.3 ± 3.8 years), and had the highest standardized ratings of psychosis and depression. Differences in pooled parameters between schizoaffective versus schizophrenia and versus bipolar disorder subjects were similar. Values for patients with schizoaffective disorders mostly were intermediate between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. However, the majority of studies showed schizoaffective patients to be more like schizophrenia than bipolar disorder patients in seven out of nine demographic and clinical categories as well as in five out of eight psychometric measures. These results remained similar when we restricted the analyses to studies with psychotic bipolar disorder patients only or to studies using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IIIR and DSM-IV only. The present study provided estimates of important characteristics of schizoaffective

  16. Characteristics and international comparability of the Finnish matrix sentence test in cochlear implant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Aarno; Buschermöhle, Michael; Sivonen, Ville; Willberg, Tytti; Aarnisalo, Antti A; Lenarz, Thomas; Kollmeier, Birger

    2015-01-01

    The first Finnish sentence-based speech test in noise--the Finnish matrix sentence test--was recently developed. The aim of this study was to determine the characteristics of the new test with respect to test-retest reliability, speech recognition curve, and international comparability in Finnish cochlear implant (CI) recipients. The speech reception thresholds (SRT) were measured by means of an adaptive test procedure and compared with the results of the traditional Finnish word test. Additional measurements for concurrent slope and SRT estimation were conducted to determine the speech recognition curve and to check the test-retest reliability. The measurements were performed on 78 Finnish CI recipients. In a subset of 25 patients, additional measurements for test-retest reliability and slope determination were performed. The mean SRT was -3.5 ± 1.7 dB SNR, with only a weak correlation with the Finnish word test. Test-retest reliability was within ± 1 dB and the mean slope of the speech recognition curve was 14.6 ± 3.6 %/dB. The rehabilitation results were similar to the results published for the German matrix test. The Finnish matrix test was found to be suitable and efficient in CI recipients with similar characteristics as the German matrix test.

  17. Volume reduction of reactor wastes by spray drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, R.L.; Grantham, L.F.; McKenzie, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    Three simulated low-level reactor wastes were dried using a spray dryer-baghouse system. The three aqueous feedstocks were sodium sulfate waste characteristic of a BWR, boric acid waste characteristic of a PWR, and a waste mixture of ion exchange resins and filter aid. These slurries were spiked with nonradioactive iron, cobalt, and manganese (representing corrosion products) and nonradioactive cesium and iodine (representing fission products). The throughput for the 2.1-m-diameter spray dryer and baghouse system was 160-180 kg/h, which is comparable to the requirements for a full-scale commercial installation. A free-flowing, dry product was produced in all of the tests. The volume reduction factor ranged from 2.5 to 5.8; the baghouse decontamination factor was typically in the range of 10 3 to 10 4 . Using an overall system decontamination factor of 10 6 , the activity of the off-gas was calculated to be one to two orders of magnitude less than the nuclide release limit of the major active species, Cs-137

  18. Computational Analysis of Spray Jet Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Utsav

    There is a boost in the utilization of renewable sources of energy but because of high energy density applications, combustion will never be obsolete. Spray combustion is a type of multiphase combustion which has tremendous engineering applications in different fields, varying from energy conversion devices to rocket propulsion system. Developing accurate computational models for turbulent spray combustion is vital for improving the design of combustors and making them energy efficient. Flamelet models have been extensively used for gas phase combustion because of their relatively low computational cost to model the turbulence-chemistry interaction using a low dimensional manifold approach. This framework is designed for gas phase non-premixed combustion and its implementation is not very straight forward for multiphase and multi-regime combustion such as spray combustion. This is because of the use of a conserved scalar and various flamelet related assumptions. Mixture fraction has been popularly employed as a conserved scalar and hence used to parameterize the characteristics of gaseous flamelets. However, for spray combustion, the mixture fraction is not monotonic and does not give a unique mapping in order to parameterize the structure of spray flames. In order to develop a flamelet type model for spray flames, a new variable called the mixing variable is introduced which acts as an ideal conserved scalar and takes into account the convection and evaporation of fuel droplets. In addition to the conserved scalar, it has been observed that though gaseous flamelets can be characterized by the conserved scalar and its dissipation, this might not be true for spray flamelets. Droplet dynamics has a significant influence on the spray flamelet and because of effects such as flame penetration of droplets and oscillation of droplets across the stagnation plane, it becomes important to accommodate their influence in the flamelet formulation. In order to recognize the

  19. Unsteady flamelet modelling of spray flames using deep artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owoyele, Opeoluwa; Kundu, Prithwish; Ameen, Muhsin; Echekki, Tarek; Som, Sibendu

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the applicability of the tabulated, multidimensional unsteady flamelet model and artificial neural networks (TFM-ANN) to lifted diesel spray flame simulations. The tabulated flamelet model (TFM), based on the widely known flamelet assumption, eliminates the use of a progress variable and has been shown to successfully model global diesel spray flame characteristics in previous studies. While the TFM has shown speed-up compared to other models and predictive capabilities across a range of ambient conditions, it involves the storage of multidimensional tables, requiring large memory and multidimensional interpolation schemes. This work discusses the implementation of deep artificial neural networks (ANN) to replace the use of large tables and multidimensional interpolation. The proposed framework is validated by applying it to an n-dodecane spray flame (ECN Spray A) at different conditions using a 4 dimensional flamelet library. The validations are then extended for the simulations using a 5-dimensional flamelet table applied to the combustion of methyl decanoate in a compression ignition engine. Different ANN topologies, optimization algorithms and speed-up techniques are explored and details of computational resources required for TFM-ANN and the TFM are also presented. The overall tools and algorithms used in this study can be directly extended to other multidimensional tabulated models.

  20. Spray and atomization of diesel fuel and its alternatives from a single-hole injector using a common rail fuel injection system

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, PinChia

    2013-01-01

    Fuel spray and atomization characteristics play an important role in the performance of internal combustion engines. As the reserves of petroleum fuel are expected to be depleted within a few decades, finding alternative fuels that are economically viable and sustainable to replace the petroleum fuel has attracted much research attention. In this work, the spray and atomization characteristics were investigated for commercial No. 2 diesel fuel, biodiesel (FAME) derived from waste cooking oil (B100), 20% biodiesel blended diesel fuel (B20), renewable diesel fuel produced in house, and civil aircraft jet fuel (Jet-A). Droplet diameters and particle size distributions were measured by a laser diffraction particle analyzing system and the spray tip penetrations and cone angles were acquired using a high speed imaging technique. All experiments were conducted by employing a common-rail high-pressure fuel injection system with a single-hole nozzle under room temperature and pressure. The experimental results showed that biodiesel and jet fuel had different features compared with diesel. Longer spray tip penetration and larger droplet diameters were observed for B100. The smaller droplet size of the Jet-A were believed to be caused by its relatively lower viscosity and surface tension. B20 showed similar characteristics to diesel but with slightly larger droplet sizes and shorter tip penetration. Renewable diesel fuel showed closer droplet size and spray penetration to Jet-A with both smaller than diesel. As a result, optimizing the trade-off between spray volume and droplet size for different fuels remains a great challenge. However, high-pressure injection helps to optimize the trade-off of spray volume and droplet sizes. Furthermore, it was observed that the smallest droplets were within a region near the injector nozzle tip and grew larger along the axial and radial direction. The variation of droplet diameters became smaller with increasing injection pressure.

  1. Thermal spray for commercial shipbuilding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, F. S.

    1997-09-01

    Thermal spraying of steel with aluminum to protect it from corrosion is a technology that has been proven to work in the marine environment. The thermal spray coating system includes a paint sealer that is applied over the thermally sprayed aluminum. This extends the service life of the coating and provides color to the end product. The thermal spray system protects steel both through the principle of isolation (as in painting) and galvanizing. With this dual protection mechanism, steel is protected from corrosion even when the coating is damaged. The thermal- sprayed aluminum coating system has proved the most cost- effective corrosion protection system for the marine environment. Until recently, however, the initial cost of application has limited its use for general application. Arc spray technology has reduced the application cost of thermal spraying of aluminum to below that of painting. Commercial shipbuilders could use this technology to enhance their market position in the marine industry.

  2. Collection Efficiencies of Various Airborne Spray Flux Samplers Used in Aerial Application Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    provided by ASTM Standard E1260: Standard Test Method for Determining Liquid Drop Size Characteristics in a Spray Using Optical Nonimaging Light...Size Characteristics in a Spray Using Optical Nonimaging Light-Scattering Instruments,” Annual Book of ASTM Stan- dards, ASTM International, West

  3. Anaesthetic induction and recovery characteristics of a diazepam-ketamine combination compared with propofol in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques P. Ferreira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Induction of anaesthesia occasionally has been associated with undesirable behaviour in dogs. High quality of induction of anaesthesia with propofol has been well described while in contrast variable induction and recovery quality has been associated with diazepam-ketamine. In this study, anaesthetic induction and recovery characteristics of diazepam-ketamine combination with propofol alone were compared in dogs undergoing elective orchidectomy. Thirty-six healthy adult male dogs were used. After habitus scoring (simple descriptive scale [SDS], the dogs were sedated with morphine and acepromazine. Forty minutes later a premedication score (SDS was allocated and general anaesthesia was induced using a combination of diazepam-ketamine (Group D/K or propofol (Group P and maintained with isoflurane. Scores for the quality of induction, intubation and degree of myoclonus were allocated (SDS. Orchidectomy was performed after which recovery from anaesthesia was scored (SDS and times to extubation and standing were recorded. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and Kappa Reliability and Kendall Tau B tests. Both groups were associated with acceptable quality of induction and recovery from anaesthesia. Group P, however, was associated with a poorer quality of induction (p = 0.014, prolonged induction period (p = 0.0018 and more pronounced myoclonus (p = 0.003, but had better quality of recovery (p = 0.000002 and shorter recovery times (p = 0.035 compared with Group D/K. Diazepam-ketamine and propofol are associated with acceptable induction and recovery from anaesthesia. Propofol had inferior anaesthetic induction characteristics, but superior and quicker recovery from anaesthesia compared with diazepam-ketamine.

  4. Characteristics of stepfamilies and maternal mental health compared with non-stepfamilies in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Masako; Yokoyama, Yoshie

    2017-05-18

    Stepfamilies remain poorly understood in Japanese society, and the support needs of stepfamily mothers are unclear. This study aimed to identify characteristics of stepfamilies and maternal mental health as compared with non-stepfamilies in Japan to utilize as a primary resource for providing effective support through community-based health care for stepfamilies. From December 2011 to July 2012, we conducted this questionnaire survey with mothers at 3- and 4-month checkups for infants. The response rate was 75.1%. The sample for analysis included responses of 2246 mothers, excluding single mothers. Respondents comprised 47 (2.1%) stepfamilies and 2199 (97.9%) non-stepfamilies. There were significantly higher rates of parents with not more than a high school education and ≥3 children among stepfamilies compared with non-stepfamilies. Stepfamily mothers had significantly higher rates of feeling a lack of economic resources, absence of participation in childbirth education classes, smoking during pregnancy, and unplanned pregnancy. Furthermore, they also had significantly higher rates of depression and a lack of confidence in the parent role. Maternal depression was associated with factors such as maternal age, self-perceived health, stress level, confidence in breastfeeding, confidence in the parent role, and number of children. These findings suggest that stepfamilies exhibit many characteristics related to social disadvantage and problems with community-based health care in Japan. Healthcare providers should be aware of stepfamily mothers' support needs and should put in place a support system for stepfamilies. Moreover, compared with non-stepfamily mothers, stepfamily mothers have a significantly higher prevalence of depression. However, stepfamily composition does not necessarily increase the risk of maternal depression. Therefore, healthcare providers should put in place a system for obtaining more thorough information about stepfamilies and conduct an early

  5. Clinical and Pathological Characteristics of Mucinous Colorectal Adenocarcinoma: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseini

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Mucinous adenocarcinoma accounts for approximately 5% - 15% of all colorectal cancers. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the clinicopathological characteristics of patients with mucinous colorectal adenocarcinoma. Patients and Methods This retrospective study was carried out by reviewing the medical records of 70 mucinous colorectal cancer (MCC patients who were diagnosed and treated at a tertiary academic hospital between 2005 and 2010. For the comparative analysis, 491 patients with non-mucinous colorectal cancer (NMCC were included. Results Of 561 patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma, 70 patients (12.5% had the mucinous type. There were 42 (60% men and 28 (40% women, with a median age of 55 years old (range 24 - 81 years included in the study. We did not find any differences regarding the patients’ mean age (P = 0.408 and male/female ratio (P = 0.700 between the MCC and NMCC; however, there was a predilection for the right colon and sigmoid colon in the MCC, when compared to the NMCC (P = 0.012. In addition, the MCC tended to have a larger tumor size (P = 0.004, higher histological grade (P < 0.001, higher node stage (P < 0.001, higher number of dissected nodes (P = 0.013, higher number of positive nodes (P < 0.001, and a higher rate of perineural invasion (P = 0.013 compared to the NMCC. Conclusions This study indicates that most clinicopathological characteristics of MCC are different from those of NMCC. In addition, there was an association between the mucinous subtype and adverse pathological features in the patients with colorectal cancer.

  6. Automatic macroscopic characterization of diesel sprays by means of a new image processing algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Gómez, Guillermo; Martínez-Martínez, S.; Rua-Mojica, Luis F.; Gómez-Gordo, Pablo; de la Garza, Oscar A.

    2018-05-01

    A novel algorithm is proposed for the automatic segmentation of diesel spray images and the calculation of their macroscopic parameters. The algorithm automatically detects each spray present in an image, and therefore it is able to work with diesel injectors with a different number of nozzle holes without any modification. The main characteristic of the algorithm is that it splits each spray into three different regions and then segments each one with an individually calculated binarization threshold. Each threshold level is calculated from the analysis of a representative luminosity profile of each region. This approach makes it robust to irregular light distribution along a single spray and between different sprays of an image. Once the sprays are segmented, the macroscopic parameters of each one are calculated. The algorithm is tested with two sets of diesel spray images taken under normal and irregular illumination setups.

  7. Gas entrainment by one single French PWR spray, SARNET-2 spray benchmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malet, J., E-mail: jeanne.malet@irsn.fr [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire, Saclay (France); Mimouni, S., E-mail: stephane.mimouni@edf.fr [Electricité de France, EDF MF2E, Chatou (France); Manzini, G., E-mail: giovanni.manzini@rse-web.it [RSE, Milano (Italy); Xiao, J., E-mail: jianjun.xiao@kit.edu [IKET, KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany); Vyskocil, L., E-mail: vyl@ujv.cz [UJV Rez (Czech Republic); Siccama, N.B., E-mail: siccama@nrg.eu [NRG, Safety and Power (Netherlands); Huhtanen, R., E-mail: risto.huhtanen@vtt.fi [VTT, PO Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT (Finland)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • This paper presents a benchmark performed in the frame of the SARNET-2 EU project. • It concerns momentum transfer between a PWR spray and the surrounding gas. • The entrained gas velocities can vary up to 100% from one code to another. • Simplified boundary conditions for sprays are generally used by the code users. • It is shown how these simplified conditions impact the gas entrainment. - Abstract: This paper presents a benchmark performed in the frame of the SARNET-2 EU project, dealing with momentum transfer between a real-scale PWR spray and the surrounding gas. It presents a description of the IRSN tests on the CALIST facility, the participating codes (8 contributions), code-experiment and code-to-code comparisons. It is found that droplet velocities are almost well calculated one meter below the spray nozzle, even if the spread of the spray is not recovered and the values of the entrained gas velocity vary up to 100% from one code to another. Concerning sensitivity analysis, several ‘simplifications’ have been made by the contributors, especially based on the boundary conditions applied at the location where droplets are injected. It is shown here that such simplifications influence droplet and entrained gas characteristics. The next step will be to translate these conclusions in terms of variables representative of interesting parameters for nuclear safety.

  8. Gas entrainment by one single French PWR spray, SARNET-2 spray benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.; Mimouni, S.; Manzini, G.; Xiao, J.; Vyskocil, L.; Siccama, N.B.; Huhtanen, R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper presents a benchmark performed in the frame of the SARNET-2 EU project. • It concerns momentum transfer between a PWR spray and the surrounding gas. • The entrained gas velocities can vary up to 100% from one code to another. • Simplified boundary conditions for sprays are generally used by the code users. • It is shown how these simplified conditions impact the gas entrainment. - Abstract: This paper presents a benchmark performed in the frame of the SARNET-2 EU project, dealing with momentum transfer between a real-scale PWR spray and the surrounding gas. It presents a description of the IRSN tests on the CALIST facility, the participating codes (8 contributions), code-experiment and code-to-code comparisons. It is found that droplet velocities are almost well calculated one meter below the spray nozzle, even if the spread of the spray is not recovered and the values of the entrained gas velocity vary up to 100% from one code to another. Concerning sensitivity analysis, several ‘simplifications’ have been made by the contributors, especially based on the boundary conditions applied at the location where droplets are injected. It is shown here that such simplifications influence droplet and entrained gas characteristics. The next step will be to translate these conclusions in terms of variables representative of interesting parameters for nuclear safety

  9. X-ray vision of fuel sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.

    2005-01-01

    With brilliant synchrotron X-ray sources, microsecond time-resolved synchrotron X-ray radiography and tomography have been used to elucidate the detailed three-dimensional structure and dynamics of high-pressure high-speed fuel sprays in the near-nozzle region. The measurement allows quantitative determination of the fuel distribution in the optically impenetrable region owing to the multiple scattering of visible light by small atomized fuel droplets surrounding the jet. X-radiographs of the jet-induced shock waves prove that the fuel jets become supersonic under appropriate injection conditions and that the quantitative analysis of the thermodynamic properties of the shock waves can also be derived from the most direct measurement. In other situations where extremely axial-asymmetric sprays are encountered, mass deconvolution and cross-sectional fuel distribution models can be computed based on the monochromatic and time-resolved X-radiographic images collected from various rotational orientations of the sprays. Such quantitative analysis reveals the never-before-reported characteristics and most detailed near-nozzle mass distribution of highly transient fuel sprays

  10. Comparative analysis of general characteristics of ischemic stroke of BAD and non-BAD CISS subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Bin; Liu, Guang-zhi; Yang, Yang; Liu, Yu-min; Cao, Jiang-hui; Zhang, Jun-jian

    2015-12-01

    Based on the recently proposed Chinese ischemic stroke subclassification (CISS) system, intracranial branch atheromatous disease (BAD) is divided into large artery atherosclerosis (LAA) and penetrating artery disease (PAD). In the current retrospective analysis, we compared the general characteristics of BAD-LAA with BAD-PAD, BAD-LAA with non-BAD-LAA and BAD-PAD with non-BAD-PAD. The study included a total of 80 cases, including 45 cases of BAD and 35 cases of non-BAD. Subjects were classified using CISS system: BAD-LAA, BAD-PAD, non-BAD-LAA and non-BAD-PAD. In addition to analysis of general characteristics, the correlation between the factors and the two subtypes of BAD was evaluated. The number of cases included in the analysis was: 32 cases of BAD-LAA, 13 cases of BAD-PAD, 21 cases of non-BAD-LAA, and 14 cases of non-BAD-PAD. Diabetes mellitus affected more non-BAD-LAA patients than BAD-LAA patients (P=0.035). In comparison with non-BAD-PAD, patients with BAD-PAD were younger (P=0.040), had higher initial NIHSS score (PBAD, the PAD subtype was associated with smoking (OR=0.043; P=0.011), higher low-density lipoprotein (OR=5.339; P=0.029), ischemic heart disease (OR=9.383; P=0.047) and diabetes mellitus (OR=12.59; P=0.020). It was concluded that large artery atherosclerosis was the primary mechanism of BAD. The general characteristics showed no significant differences between the CISS subtypes of LAA and PAD within BAD, as well as between the BAD and non-BAD within LAA subtype. Several differences between PAD subtypes of BAD and non-BAD were revealed.

  11. The Influence of Anode Inner Contour on Atmospheric DC Plasma Spraying Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kui Wen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In thermal plasma spraying process, anode nozzle is one of the most important components of plasma torch. Its inner contour controls the characteristics of plasma arc/jet, determining the motion and heating behaviors of the in-flight particles and hence influencing the coating quality. In this study, the effects of anode inner contour, standard cylindrical nozzle, and cone-shaped Laval nozzle with conical shape diverging exit (CSL nozzle on the arc voltage, net power, thermal efficiency, plasma jet characteristics, in-flight particle behaviors, and coating properties have been systematically investigated under atmospheric plasma spraying conditions. The results show that the cylindrical nozzle has a higher arc voltage, net power, and thermal efficiency, as well as the higher plasma temperature and velocity at the torch exit, while the CSL nozzle has a higher measured temperature of plasma jet. The variation trends of the plasma jet characteristics for the two nozzles are comparable under various spraying parameters. The in-flight particle with smaller velocity of CSL nozzle has a higher measured temperature and melting fraction. As a result, the coating density and adhesive strength of CSL nozzle are lower than those of cylindrical nozzle, but the deposition efficiency is greatly improved.

  12. Development and validation of spray models for investigating diesel engine combustion and emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Som, Sibendu

    Diesel engines intrinsically generate NOx and particulate matter which need to be reduced significantly in order to comply with the increasingly stringent regulations worldwide. This motivates the diesel engine manufacturers to gain fundamental understanding of the spray and combustion processes so as to optimize these processes and reduce engine emissions. Strategies being investigated to reduce engine's raw emissions include advancements in fuel injection systems, efficient nozzle orifice design, injection and combustion control strategies, exhaust gas recirculation, use of alternative fuels such as biodiesel etc. This thesis explores several of these approaches (such as nozzle orifice design, injection control strategy, and biodiesel use) by performing computer modeling of diesel engine processes. Fuel atomization characteristics are known to have a significant effect on the combustion and emission processes in diesel engines. Primary fuel atomization is induced by aerodynamics in the near nozzle region as well as cavitation and turbulence from the injector nozzle. The breakup models that are currently used in diesel engine simulations generally consider aerodynamically induced breakup using the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability model, but do not account for inner nozzle flow effects. An improved primary breakup (KH-ACT) model incorporating cavitation and turbulence effects along with aerodynamically induced breakup is developed and incorporated in the computational fluid dynamics code CONVERGE. The spray simulations using KH-ACT model are "quasi-dynamically" coupled with inner nozzle flow (using FLUENT) computations. This presents a novel tool to capture the influence of inner nozzle flow effects such as cavitation and turbulence on spray, combustion, and emission processes. Extensive validation is performed against the non-evaporating spray data from Argonne National Laboratory. Performance of the KH and KH-ACT models is compared against the evaporating and

  13. Clinical Characteristics of Herpes Simplex Virus Urethritis Compared With Chlamydial Urethritis Among Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Jason J; Morton, Anna N; Henzell, Helen R; Berzins, Karen; Druce, Julian; Fairley, Christopher K; Bradshaw, Catriona S; Read, Tim Rh; Hocking, Jane S; Chen, Marcus Y

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the clinical characteristics associated with herpes simplex virus (HSV) urethritis in men and to compare those with chlamydial urethritis. We compared clinical and laboratory data from men diagnosed with polymerase chain reaction confirmed HSV urethritis with those of men with chlamydial urethritis presenting to Melbourne Sexual Health Centre between 2000 and 2015. Eighty HSV urethritis cases were identified: 55 (68%, 95% confidence interval, 58-78) were by HSV-1 and 25 (32%, 95% confidence interval, 22-42) by HSV-2. Compared with chlamydial urethritis, men with HSV urethritis were significantly more likely to report severe dysuria (20% vs 0%, P < 0.01) or constitutional symptoms (15% vs 0%, P < 0.01). Men with HSV urethritis were significantly more likely to have meatitis (62% vs 23%, P < 0.01), genital ulceration (37% vs 0%, P < 0.01), or inguinal lymphadenopathy (30% vs 0%, P < 0.01) but less likely to have urethral discharge (32% vs 69%, P < 0.01). There was no significant difference in the proportion of men who had raised (≥5) polymorphonuclear leukocytes per high-powered field between the two groups (P = 0.46). The clinical presentation of HSV urethritis in men may differ from those of chlamydial urethritis and guide testing for HSV in men presenting with non-gonococcal urethritis.

  14. Comparative analysis of clinicoradiologic characteristics of lung adenocarcinomas with ALK rearrangements or EGFR mutations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, J.Y.; Zheng, J.; Chen, X.; Zhou, J.Y. [Zhejiang University, Department of Respiratory Disease, Thoracic Disease Center, First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Hangzhou (China); Yu, Z.F.; Xiao, W.B.; Jiang, L.N. [Zhejiang University, Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Hangzhou (China); Zhao, J.; Sun, K.; Wang, B.; Ding, W. [Zhejiang University, Department of Pathology, First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Hangzhou (China)

    2015-05-01

    To compare the clinicoradiologic features of tumours with echinoderm anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangements, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations, or wild type (WT) for both genes in a cohort of patients with lung adenocarcinoma to identify useful characteristics of different gene statuses. In 346 lung adenocarcinoma patients, ALK rearrangements were confirmed with fluorescence in situ hybridisation, and EGFR mutations were determined by pyrosequencing assay. Patients were divided into three groups: ALK rearrangement (ALK+ group, n = 48), EGFR mutation (EGFR+ group, n = 166), and WT for both genes (WT group, n = 132). Chest computed tomography (CT) examinations were performed in all patients. The percentages of ground-glass opacity volume (pGGO) and tumour shadow disappearance rate (TDR) were measured using semi-automated nodule assessment software. The pGGO was significantly lower in the ALK+ group (25.1 % ± 24.3) than in the EGFR+ group (37.2 % ± 25.7, p < 0.001) and the WT group (36.1 % ± 24.6, p = 0.001). The TDR in the ALK+ group (17.3 % ± 25.1) was significantly lower than in the EGFR+ group (26.8 % ± 24.9, p = 0.002) and the WT group (25.7 % ± 24.6, p = 0.003). Solid pattern with lower incidence of lobulated border, finely spiculated margins, pleural retraction, and bubble-like lucency on CT imaging are the main characteristics of ALK rearrangement tumours. (orig.)

  15. Image quality characteristics of a novel colour scanning digital ophthalmoscope (SDO) compared with fundus photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Rupert W; Krieglstein, Tina R; Priglinger, Siegfried G; Reis, Werner; Ulbig, Michael W; Kampik, Anselm; Neubauer, Aljoscha S

    2007-11-01

    To establish a set of quality parameters for grading image quality and apply those to evaluate the fundus image quality obtained by a new scanning digital ophthalmoscope (SDO) compared with standard slide photography. On visual analogue scales a total of eight image characteristics were defined: overall quality, contrast, colour brilliance, focus (sharpness), resolution and details, noise, artefacts and validity of clinical assessment. Grading was repeated after 4 months to assess repeatability. Fundus images of 23 patients imaged digitally by SDO and by Zeiss 450FF fundus camera using Kodak film were graded side-by-side by three graders. Lens opacity was quantified with the Interzeag Lens Opacity Meter 701. For all of the eight scales of image quality, good repeatability within the graders (mean Kendall's W 0.69) was obtained after 4 months. Inter-grader agreement ranged between 0.31 and 0.66. Despite the SDO's limited nominal image resolution of 720 x 576 pixels, the Zeiss FF 450 camera performed better in only two of the subscales - noise (p = 0.001) and artefacts (p = 0.01). Lens opacities significantly influenced only the two subscales 'resolution' and 'details', which deteriorated with increasing media opacities for both imaging systems. Distinct scales to grade image characteristics of different origin were developed and validated. Overall SDO digital imaging was found to provide fundus pictures of a similarly high level of quality as expert photography on slides.

  16. [Subjective illness beliefs of Turkish migrants with mental disorders--specific characteristics compared to german patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Michael; Lujić, Claudia; Koch, Eckhardt; Wüsten, Bernd; Yürük, Nergüz; Gallhofer, Bernd

    2007-10-01

    Knowledge about culture- and migration-specific characteristics of subjective illness beliefs in Turkish patients is necessary for adequate treatment. Analysis of subjective illness beliefs in Turkish patients (F3; F4; n = 79) in comparison to matched Germans (n = 79) using a modified version of the Illness Perception Questionnaire IPQ-R. Differences were explored by t-tests and chi(2)-tests. Turkish patients believed significantly stronger in a chronical timeline of illness and in negative illness consequences, while German patients believed significantly stronger in treatment control and personal control. Turkish patients more often mentioned external causes of their disease compared to Germans. The results provide explanations of the deficient health care situation for Turkish migrants in Germany.

  17. Stoichiometry and superconductive properties of YBaCuO films deposited by spray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conde-Gallardo, A.; Falcony, C.; Ortiz, A.

    1994-01-01

    The dependence of the stoichiometry and the superconducting characteristics of YBaCuO films deposited by spray pyrolysis on the spraying solution composition and the deposition conditions is reported. It has been found that a proper optimization of the starting materials concentration in the spraying solution results in superconducting films with zero resistance temperature of 91 K and a transition to superconducting state within a 3 K range. X-ray diffraction and resistance vs temperature measurements have been used to monitor the crystal composition and the conductive characteristics of the films as a function of the spraying solution composition and the deposition parameters

  18. [Characteristics and comparative study of a new drinking-water defluoridation adsorbent Bio-F].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chi; Zhao, Liang-Yuan; Yuan, Heng; Yang, Han-Ying; Li, Ang; Wang, Peng; Yang, Shao

    2009-04-15

    To evaluate the application potentiality pf a new type drinking-water defluoridation adsorbent Bio-F, comparative study on the defluoridation characteristics of common adsorbents activated alumina (AA), bone char (BC), activated clinoptilolite (AC) with Bio-F was conducted. The defluoridation characteristics under different conditions, such as particle diameter, pH, retention time, fluorine concentration, regeneration stability, were investigated by continuous-flow column experiments and static tests. The defluoridation efficiency of high fluoride underground water by four types of adsorbents was also compared. The results showed that F(-) adsorption kinetics of Bio-F fitted the Lagergren First-order equation (R2 = 0.9580). F(-) adsorption by Bio-F was found to fit the Langmuir adsorption isotherm (R2 = 0.9992). The results indicated that the static defluoridation capacity (DC) of Bio-F was 4.0883 mg x g(-1), which was about 1.8 folds and 5.8 folds of those of AA and AC respectively. DC of all four adsorbents was positively correlated with F(-) concentration and negatively correlated with particle size. High concentration of CO3(2-) and HCO3(-) reduced the DC of Bio-F (p retention time of Bio-F was 3-4 min, which was less than that of AC (20 min) and AA (11 min). The DC of Bio-F remained relatively stable in pH 4.0-9.0 and in regeneration since the DC variation was not more than 15%. The above results indicated that Bio-F was superior to AA, BC and AC in drinking-water defluoridation.

  19. Characteristics of patients with graves disease and intrathyroid hypovascularity compared to painless thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Toyoyoshi; Shigihara, Nayumi; Takeno, Kageumi; Komiya, Koji; Goto, Hiromasa; Abe, Hiroko; Sato, Junko; Honda, Akira; Fujitani, Yoshio; Watada, Hirotaka

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency and sonographic and laboratory characteristics of Graves disease with intrathyroid hypovascularity in Japanese patients and to compare these characteristics in patients with painless thyroiditis. A total of 194 consecutive patients with Graves disease and 21 patients with painless thyroiditis were enrolled. The patients underwent thyroid volume measurement, mean superior thyroid artery peak systolic velocity (PSV) measurement, power Doppler sonography, and proper blood testing to discriminate between Graves disease and painless thyroiditis. Based on the power Doppler sonographic findings, they were divided into 4 groups: from pattern 0 (most hypovascular thyroid) to pattern III (most hypervascular thyroid). Comparisons of multiple thyroid parameters were made among the groups. The prevalence of Graves disease with pattern 0 (n = 27) was 13.9% among the patients with Graves disease. The sonographic and laboratory data for patients with Graves disease and pattern 0 were compared to those of the 21 patients with painless thyroiditis, which typically shows intrathyroid hypovascularity. Free triiodothyronine and thyroxine levels and the superior thyroid artery PSV were significantly lower in patients with Graves disease and pattern 0 than those with patterns I, II, and III (P thyroid volume and thyrotropin receptor antibody level were significantly lower in patients with Graves disease and pattern 0 than those with pattern III. In the comparison between patients with Graves disease and pattern 0 and those with painless thyroiditis and pattern 0, apart from thyrotropin receptor antibody, only the superior thyroid artery PSV was different. Although the clinical features of patients with Graves disease and intrathyroid hypovascularity were similar to those patients with painless thyroiditis, the superior thyroid artery PSV showed a moderate ability to discriminate these patients. © 2014 by the American Institute of

  20. Visualization research on spray atomization, evaporation and combustion processes of ethanol–diesel blend under LTC conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Sheng; Deng, Peng; Huang, Ronghua; Wang, Zhaowen; Ma, Yinjie; Dai, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Spray combustion of E20 diesel in LTC condition shows a U-shape flame structure. • The chasing behavior of fuel spray exists near the spray axis. • Fuel ignition doesn’t initiate at the spray tip but in peripheral regions behind it. • An improper chamber structure may lead to a long post-combustion duration. - Abstract: Utilization of ethanol in diesel engines has been widely studied by means of engine experiments and emission detection. However, pertinent studies on the spray combustion process of ethanol–diesel blends are scarce. In order to verify the effect of ethanol in modern diesel engines, an experiment is conducted to visualize the spray combustion process of ethanol–diesel blend under LTC conditions. Stages including atomization, evaporation and combustion, are investigated individually to realize synergistic analysis. Meanwhile, considering the long time scale of combustion after fuel injection finishes, characteristics during and after injection period are both targeted in this paper. Moreover, measurement of macroscopic characteristics, such as spray tip penetration, spray spreading cone angle and flame lift off length, provides a quantitative profile of the spray structure. Results show that, evaporation, different from atomization, has little influence on spray penetration, but promotes the spray spreading angle and spray projected area. So does combustion, which enlarges the spray projected area further. Ignition takes place on the periphery behind the spray tip, then quickly extends to the whole head of the spray and forms a U-shape diffusion structure. After the injection period, the residual spray tail develops into wavelike structures due to absence of subsequent entrainment force. Also, the penetration speed falls greatly to an extent much slower than flame propagation, which frees the flame from the lift-off effect. Subsequently, the flame propagates upstream towards the nozzle orifice. After consumed all fuel in

  1. Sea Spray Aerosols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butcher, Andrew Charles

    emissions produced directly from bubble bursting as the result of air entrainment from breaking waves and particles generated from secondary emissions of volatile organic compounds. In the first paper, we study the chemical properties of particles produced from several sea water proxies with the use...... of a cloud condensation nuclei ounter. Proxy solutions with high inorganic salt concentrations and some organics produce sea spray aerosol particles with little change in cloud condensation activity relative to pure salts. Comparison is made between a frit based method for bubble production and a plunging...... a relationship between plunging jet particle ux, oceanic particle ux, and energy dissipation rate in both systems. Previous sea spray aerosol studies dissipate an order of magnitude more energy for the same particle ux production as the open ocean. A scaling factor related to the energy expended in air...

  2. Flame spraying of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varacalle, D.J. Jr.; Zeek, D.P.; Couch, K.W.; Benson, D.M.; Kirk, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    Statistical design-of-experiment studies of the thermal spraying of polymer powders are presented. Studies of the subsonic combustion (i.e., Flame) process were conducted in order to determine the quality and economics of polyester and urethane coatings. Thermally sprayed polymer coatings are of interest to several industries for anticorrosion applications, including the chemical, automotive, and aircraft industries. In this study, the coating design has been optimized for a site-specific application using Taguchi-type fractional-factorial experiments. Optimized coating designs are presented for the two powder systems. A substantial range of thermal processing conditions and their effect on the resultant polymer coatings is presented. The coatings were characterized by optical metallography, hardness testing, tensile testing, and compositional analysis. Characterization of the coatings yielded the thickness, bond strength, Knoop microhardness, roughness, deposition efficiency, and porosity. Confirmation testing was accomplished to verify the coating designs

  3. Plasma sprayed thermoregulating coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudinov, V.V.; Puzanov, A.A.; Zambrzhitskij, A.P.; Soboleva, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    Shown is the possibility of plasma spraying application for thermoregulating coating formation. Given are test results of service properties of BeO, Al 2 O 2 plasma coatings on the substrates of the MA2-1 magnesium alloy. Described is a device for studying durability of coating optical parameters under ultraviolet irradiation in deep vacuum. Dynamics of absorption coefficient, growth caused by an increase in absorption centers amount under such irradiation is investigated

  4. Emulsions from Aerosol Sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengelmolen; Vincent; Hassall

    1997-12-01

    An electrostatic emulsification apparatus has been designed for the purpose of studying diffusion from oil droplets which have a mean size in the range of approximately 1.5-3.5 &mgr;m, with standard deviations of 40-50%. The emulsification technique involves the collection of a spray of electrically charged oil droplets onto a rotating water film which is sustained from a reservoir. In this way, emulsions with volume fractions of approximately 10(-3) are produced within several minutes at oil flow rates of around 10(-2) ml min-1. Phase-Doppler anemometry (PDA) was used to assess droplet size distributions for the sprays and emulsions. Results show that the mean emulsion droplet size was smaller than the mean spray droplet size by several orders of magnitude. At flow rates around 10(-2) ml min-1, the spray droplet size distribution was little affected by the applied potential between about -4.20 and -4.65 kV (mean droplet size between approximately 7.6 and 7.8 &mgr;m, with standard deviations of approximately 20%), whereas the mean droplet size of the corresponding emulsion decreased more rapidly with applied potential. Above an applied potential of approximately -4.30 kV, which corresponded to an emulsion droplet size below approximately 2 &mgr;m, the measured volume fraction of the emulsion decreased with respect to the volume fraction as calculated on the basis of total amount of injected oil. Copyright 1997 Academic Press. Copyright 1997Academic Press

  5. Radiolysis of spray solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habersbergerova, A.; Janovsky, I.

    1985-01-01

    The factors were studied affecting thiosulfate radiolysis in the so-called spray solution for nuclear power plant containments. The reaction mechanism of primary radiolytic reactions leading to thiosulfate decomposition was studied using pulse radiolysis. Also measured was hydrazine loss in the irradiation of the bubbling solution intended for the capture of volatile chemical forms of radioiodine. Pulse radiolysis was used to study the kinetics of hydrazine reaction with elemental iodine. (author)

  6. Comparative Analysis of Membrane Vesicles from Three Piscirickettsia salmonis Isolates Reveals Differences in Vesicle Characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia I Tandberg

    Full Text Available Membrane vesicles (MVs are spherical particles naturally released from the membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. Bacterial MV production is associated with a range of phenotypes including biofilm formation, horizontal gene transfer, toxin delivery, modulation of host immune responses and virulence. This study reports comparative profiling of MVs from bacterial strains isolated from three widely disperse geographical areas. Mass spectrometry identified 119, 159 and 142 proteins in MVs from three different strains of Piscirickettsia salmonis isolated from salmonids in Chile (LF-89, Norway (NVI 5692 and Canada (NVI 5892, respectively. MV comparison revealed several strain-specific differences related to higher virulence capability for LF-89 MVs, both in vivo and in vitro, and stronger similarities between the NVI 5692 and NVI 5892 MV proteome. The MVs were similar in size and appearance as analyzed by electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The MVs from all three strains were internalized by both commercial and primary immune cell cultures, which suggest a potential role of the MVs in the bacterium's utilization of leukocytes. When MVs were injected into an adult zebrafish infection model, an upregulation of several pro-inflammatory genes were observed in spleen and kidney, indicating a modulating effect on the immune system. The present study is the first comparative analysis of P. salmonis derived MVs, highlighting strain-specific vesicle characteristics. The results further illustrate that the MV proteome from one bacterial strain is not representative of all bacterial strains within one species.

  7. [Comparative analysis of the clinical characteristics of orthopedic inpatients in Lushan and Wenchuan earthquakes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiao-Jun; Wang, Guang-Lin; Pei, Fu-Xing; Song, Yue-Ming; Yang, Tian-Fu; Tu, Chong-Qi; Huang, Fu-Guo; Liu, Hao; Lin, Wei

    2013-10-18

    To systematically analyze and compare the clinical characteristics of orthopedic inpatients in Lushan and Wenchuan earthquake, so as to provide useful references for future earthquakes injury rescue. Based on the orthopedic inpatients in Lushan and Wenchuan earthquakes, the data of the age, gender, injury causes, body injured parts and speed of transport were classified and compared. The duration of patients admitted to hospital lasted long and the peak appeared late in Wenchuan earthquake, which is totally opposed to Lushan earthquake. There was no significant difference in the patient's age and gender between the two earthquakes. However, the occurrence rate of crush syndrome, amputation, gas gangrene, vascular injury and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) in Wenchuan earthquake was much higher than that in Lushan earthquake. Blunt traumas or crush-related injuries (79.6%) are the major injury cause in Wenchuan earthquake, however, high falling injuries and falls (56.8%) are much higher than blunt trauma or crush-related injuries (39.2%) in Lushan earthquake. The incidence rate of foot fractures, spine fractures and multiple fractures in Lushan earthquake was higher than that in Wenchuan earthquake, but that of open fractures and lower limb fractures was lower than that in Wenchuan earthquake. The rapid rescue scene is the cornerstone of successful treatment, early rescue and transport obviously reduce the incidence of the wound infection, crush syndrome, MODS and amputation. Popularization of correct knowledge of emergency shelters will help to reduce the damage caused by blindly jumping or escaping while earthquake happens.

  8. Suboptimal Nutritional Characteristics in Male and Female Soldiers Compared to Sports Nutrition Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, Kim; Darnell, Matthew E; Lovalekar, Mita; Baker, Rachel A; Nagai, Takashi; San-Adams, Thida; Wirt, Michael D

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the nutrient intake of male and female Soldiers in the 101 st Airborne Division (Air Assault) compared to sports nutrition standards for athletes, and to identify suboptimal eating characteristics that may impair physical performance and jeopardize military readiness. Male and female Soldiers from the 101 st Airborne Division (Air Assault) completed a 24-hour dietary recall and nutrition history questionnaire before anthropometric and body composition measurements were taken. Compared to sports nutrition guidelines, Soldiers of the 101 st under consume carbohydrates (males: 3.9 ± 2.0 vs. 5.0 g/kg, p < 0.001; females: 4.0 ± 2.1 vs. 5.0 g/kg, p = 0.001), male Soldiers eat too much fat (32.4% of kcal vs. <30% of kcal, p = 0.000) and saturated fat (males: 10.5 ± 3.9% of kcal vs. 10.0% of kcal, p = 0.044), and both males and females follow a meal pattern that may not optimize energy availability throughout the day. Eating too much fat and under fueling carbohydrate may negatively impact the adaptations to physical training and compromise overall health. Although Soldiers continue to participate in arduous training programs, future research should be aimed at determining the energy and macronutrient needs to fuel and recover from specific types of military training. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  9. High-power electronics thermal management with intermittent multijet sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panão, Miguel R.O.; Correia, André M.; Moreira, António L.N.

    2012-01-01

    Thermal management plays a crucial role in the development of high-power electronics devices, e.g. in electric vehicles. The greatest energy demands occur during power peaks, implying dynamic thermal losses within the vehicle’s driving cycle. Therefore, the need for devising intelligent thermal management systems able to efficiently respond to these power peaks has become a technological challenge. Experiments have been performed with methanol in order to quantify the maximum heat flux removed by a multijet spray to keep the 4 cm 2 surface temperature stabilized and below the threshold of 125 °C. A multijet atomization strategy consists in producing a spray through the multiple and simultaneous impact of N j cylindrical jets. Moreover, the spray intermittency is expressed through the duty cycle (DC), which depends on the frequency and duration of injection. Results evidence that: i) a shorter time between consecutive injection cycles enables a better distribution of the mass flow rate, resulting in larger heat transfer coefficient values, as well as higher cooling efficiencies; ii) compared with continuous sprays, the analysis evidences that an intermittent spray allows benefiting more from phase-change convection. Moreover, the mass flux is mainly affecting heat transfer rather than differences induced in the spray structure by using different multijet configurations. - Highlights: ► Intermittent spray cooling (ISC) is advantageous for intelligent thermal management. ► Distributing the mass flow rate through ISC improves heat transfer. ► Multijet sprays with increasing number of jets have higher heat transfer rates. ► ISC with multijet sprays benefit more from phase-change than continuous sprays.

  10. Numerical studies of spray breakup in a gasoline direct injection (GDI engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafarmadar Samad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate Spray Breakup process of sprays injected from single and two-hole nozzles for gasoline direct Injection (GDI engines by using three dimensional CFD code. Spray characteristics were examined for spray tip penetration and other characteristics including: the vapor phase concentration distribution and droplet spatial distribution, which were acquired using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulation. Results showed that as the hole-axis-angle (γ of the two-hole nozzle decreased, the droplet coalescence increased and vapor mass decreased. The spray with cone angle (θ0 5 deg for single hole nozzle has the longest spray tip penetration and the spray with the γ of 30 deg and spray cone angle θ0=30 deg for two hole nozzles had the shortest one. Also, when the spray cone angle (θ0 and hole-axis-angle (γ increased from 5 to 30 deg, the Sauter mean diameter (SMD decreased for both single-hole and two-hole nozzles used in this study. For a single-hole nozzle, when spray cone angle increased from 5 to 30 deg, the vaporization rate very much because of low level of coalescence. The result of model for tip penetration is good agreement with the corresponding experimental data in the literatures.

  11. Frequent use of emergency departments by older people: a comparative cohort study of characteristics and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Maryann; Berry, Debra; Considine, Julie

    2018-04-12

    To characterise older people who frequently use emergency departments (EDs) and compare patient outcomes with older non-frequent ED attenders. Retrospective comparative cohort study. Logistic regression modelling of patient characteristics and health service usage, comparing older frequent ED attenders (≥4 ED attendances in 12 months) to non-frequent ED attenders. Three Australian public hospital EDs, with a total of 143 327 emergency attendances in the 12 months. People aged ≥65 years attending the ED in financial year 2013/2014. The primary outcome was frequent ED use; secondary outcomes were ED length of stay, discharge destination from ED, hospital length of stay, re-presentation within 48 h, hospital readmission within 30 days and in-hospital mortality. Five percent of older people were frequent attenders (n = 1046/21 073), accounting for 16.9% (n = 5469/32 282) of all attendances by older people. Frequent ED attenders were more likely to be male, aged 75-84 years, arrive by ambulance and have a diagnosis relating to chronic illness. Frequent attenders stayed 0.4 h longer in ED (P < 0.001), were more likely to be admitted to hospital (69.2% vs 67.2%; P = 0.004), and had a 1 day longer hospital stay (P < 0.001). In-hospital mortality for older frequent ED attenders was double that of non-frequent attenders (7.0% vs 3.2%, P < 0.001) over 12 months. Older frequent ED attenders had more chronic disease and care needs requiring hospital admission than non-frequent attenders. A new approach to care planning and coordination is recommended, to optimise the patient journey and improve outcomes.

  12. Skin Sterility After Application of a Vapocoolant Spray Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlynek, Karolina; Lyahn, Hwang; Richards, Bryson; Schleicher, William; Bassiri Gharb, Bahar; Procop, Gary; Tuohy, Marion; Zins, James

    2015-08-01

    Refrigerant sprays have been used for pain relief at the time of minor office procedures. However, their sterility remains in question. This study investigates the microbiologic effect of this vapocoolant when sprayed after 70 % isopropyl alcohol skin preparation. In 50 healthy volunteers, three skin culture samples were collected: Group 1 prior to alcohol application; Group 2 after preparation with alcohol, and Group 3 after preparation with alcohol followed with vapocoolant spray. Samples were cultured in a blinded fashion and analyzed after 5 days of incubation. Gram staining was performed when cultures were positive. Bacterial growth was found in 98 % of samples prior to any skin preparation. This was reduced to 54 % after alcohol use (Group 2). Spraying with the skin refrigerant further reduced bacterial growth to 46 % (Group 3). The results showed a significant reduction in the number of positive bacterial cultures following skin preparation with alcohol and when alcohol prep was followed by vapocoolant spray (p < 0.001) compared to initial cultures. No statistical difference was observed between Groups 2 and 3 (p = 0.74). The use of the vapocoolant spray does not compromise the sterility of the skin following alcohol prep. Both 70 % isopropyl alcohol antiseptic preparation and skin preparation followed by vapocoolant spray significantly reduce skin colonization when compared to unprepared skin (p < 0.001).

  13. Powder consolidation using cold spray process modeling and emerging applications

    CERN Document Server

    Moridi, Atieh

    2017-01-01

    This book first presents different approaches to modeling of the cold spray process with the aim of extending current understanding of its fundamental principles and then describes emerging applications of cold spray. In the coverage of modeling, careful attention is devoted to the assessment of critical and erosion velocities. In order to reveal the phenomenological characteristics of interface bonding, severe, localized plastic deformation and material jet formation are studied. Detailed consideration is also given to the effect of macroscopic defects such as interparticle boundaries and subsequent splat boundary cracking on the mechanical behavior of cold spray coatings. The discussion of applications focuses in particular on the repair of damaged parts and additive manufacturing in various disciplines from aerospace to biomedical engineering. Key aspects include a systematic study of defect shape and the ability of cold spray to fill the defect, examination of the fatigue behavior of coatings for structur...

  14. A Comparative Study of Recent Trends and Characteristics of Students Entering American Junior Colleges, 1968-72.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenske, Robert H.; Scott, Craig S.

    Recent changes in the background characteristics and attributes of students entering American junior colleges are compared with those of students entering colleges offering baccalaureate and graduate degrees. Comparisons are also made between students entering private and public junior colleges. The characteristics and attributes are: Level of…

  15. Plant canopy characteristics effect on spray deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    While it is common for applicators to standardize their application parameters to minimize changes in settings during a season, this practice does not necessarily provide the best delivery when targeting different types of plant canopies and different zones within the canopy. The objective of this w...

  16. Comparative microhabitat characteristics at oviposition sites of the California red-legged frog (Rana draytonii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Jeff A.; Cook, David G.; Yee, Julie L.; van Hattem, Michael G.; Fong, Darren R.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    We studied the microhabitat characteristics of 747 egg masses of the federally-threatened Rana draytonii (California red-legged frog) at eight sites in California. our study showed that a broad range of aquatic habitats are utilized by ovipositing R. draytonii, including sites with perennial and ephemeral water sources, natural and constructed wetlands, lentic and lotic hydrology, and sites surrounded by protected lands and nested within modified urban areas. We recorded 45 different egg mass attachment types, although the use of only a few types was common at each site. These attachment types ranged from branches and roots of riparian trees, emergent and submergent wetland vegetation, flooded upland grassland/ruderal vegetation, and debris. eggs were deposited in relatively shallow water (mean 39.7 cm) when compared to maximum site depths. We found that most frogs in artificial pond, natural creek, and artificial channel habitats deposited egg masses within one meter of the shore, while egg masses in a seasonal marsh averaged 27.3 m from the shore due to extensive emergent vegetation. Rana draytonii appeared to delay breeding in lotic habitats and in more inland sites compared to lentic habitats and coastal sites. eggs occurred as early as mid-december at a coastal artificial pond and as late as mid-April in an inland natural creek. We speculate that this delay in breeding may represent a method of avoiding high-flow events and/or freezing temperatures. Understanding the factors related to the reproductive needs of this species can contribute to creating, managing, or preserving appropriate habitat, and promoting species recovery.

  17. Comparing patients with spinal cord infarction and cerebral infarction: clinical characteristics, and short-term outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naess H

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Halvor Naess, Fredrik RomiDepartment of Neurology, Haukeland University Hospital, N-5021 Bergen, NorwayBackground: To compare the clinical characteristics, and short-term outcome of spinal cord infarction and cerebral infarction.Methods: Risk factors, concomitant diseases, neurological deficits on admission, and short-term outcome were registered among 28 patients with spinal cord infarction and 1075 patients with cerebral infarction admitted to the Department of Neurology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway. Multivariate analyses were performed with location of stroke (cord or brain, neurological deficits on admission, and short-term outcome (both Barthel Index [BI] 1 week after symptom onset and discharge home or to other institution as dependent variables.Results: Multivariate analysis showed that patients with spinal cord infarction were younger, more often female, and less afflicted by hypertension and cardiac disease than patients with cerebral infarction. Functional score (BI was lower among patients with spinal cord infarctions 1 week after onset of symptoms (P < 0.001. Odds ratio for being discharged home was 5.5 for patients with spinal cord infarction compared to cerebral infarction after adjusting for BI scored 1 week after onset (P = 0.019.Conclusion: Patients with spinal cord infarction have a risk factor profile that differs significantly from that of patients with cerebral infarction, although there are some parallels to cerebral infarction caused by atherosclerosis. Patients with spinal cord infarction were more likely to be discharged home when adjusting for early functional level on multivariate analysis.Keywords: spinal cord infarction, cerebral infarction, risk factors, short-term outcome

  18. ZK30-bioactive glass composites for orthopedic applications: A comparative study on fabrication method and characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huan, Z.G.; Leeflang, M.A. [Department of Biomechanical Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Zhou, J., E-mail: j.zhou@tudelft.nl [Department of Biomechanical Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Duszczyk, J. [Department of Biomechanical Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biodegradable Mg-bioglass composites were made using casting; powder metallurgy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bioglass powder retained its composition and morphology. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Accelerated deposition of Ca; P ions on composites occurred due to bioglass. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mg-bioglass composites made from powders had reduced degradation rates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Powder metallurgy appeared to be better for making biodegradable composites. - Abstract: Previous in vivo studies on biodegradable magnesium alloys for orthopedic implant applications showed the need to improve early-stage bioactivity. Introducing bioactive particles into a magnesium alloy to form a metal matrix composite (MMC) represents an effective way to enhance the bioactivity of the alloy. In this study, composites with the ZK30 alloy as the matrix and the 45S5 bioactive glass (BG) as the reinforcement phase were fabricated using a semi-solid casting (SSC) method and a powder metallurgy (P/M) method. The SSC and P/M biocomposites with the same weight percents of bioactive glass particles were compared. Optical microscopy showed homogeneously dispered BG particles in the SSC and P/M composites. SEM and EDX analyses confirmed the retention of the morphological characteristics and composition of BG particles in the composites. However, the SSC composites exhibited micro-porous structures, while the P/M composites had nearly fully densified structures. As compared with the ZK30 matrix, the SSC composites exhibited significantly higher degradation rates, while the P/M composites possessed lower degradation rates. On the surface of all the composites, accelerated deposition of Ca and P ions occurred during immersion in the cell culture medium, indicating an improved surface bioactivity of the composites. The P/M method was found to be advantageous over the SSC method and could yield magnesium-matrix composites with enhanced

  19. Evaluation of mechanical properties of Aluminum-Copper cold sprayed and alloy 625 wire arc sprayed coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashirzadeh, Milad

    This study examines microstructural-based mechanical properties of Al-Cu composite deposited by cold spraying and wire arc sprayed nickel-based alloy 625 coating using numerical modeling and experimental techniques. The microhardness and elastic modulus of samples were determined using the Knoop hardness technique. Hardness in both transverse and longitudinal directions on the sample cross-sections has been measured. An image-based finite element simulation algorithm was employed to determine the mechanical properties through an inverse analysis. In addition mechanical tests including, tensile, bending, and nano-indentation tests were performed on alloy 625 wire arc sprayed samples. Overall, results from the experimental tests are in relatively good agreement for deposited Al-Cu composites and alloy 625 coating. However, results obtained from numerical simulation are significantly higher in value than experimentally obtained results. Examination and comparison of the results are strong indications of the influence of microstructure characteristics on the mechanical properties of thermally spray deposited coatings.

  20. Comparative analysis of seronegative and seropositive rheumatoid arthritis regarding some epidemiological and anamnestic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahatçiu-Meka, Vjollca; Izairi, Remzi; Rexhepi, Sylejman; Manxhuka-Kerliu, Suzana

    2007-01-01

    Classifying patients into two subsets of the disease--seronegative RA and seropositive RA--has been the subject of many studies which aim to clarify this phenomenon--without any conclusive or acceptable answer so far. The aim of this prospective study was to establish a scientific comparative analysis between seronegative and seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) regarding some epidemiological and anamnestic characteristics. The studied group consisted of seronegative patients with titers lower than 1:64 as defined by Rose-Waaler test, while the control group consisted of seropositive patients with titers of 1:64 or higher. All patients belonged to 2nd and 3rd functional class according to the ARA criteria, were between 25-60 years of age (Xb=49.96), with disease duration between 1-27 years (Xb=6.41). Education, residence, economic and living conditions did not show any significant statistical difference regarding serostatus. Familial clustering of RA confirmed higher susceptibility in the seropositive group (chi2=7.02; p<0.01). In both subsets banal diseases, psychic and physical trauma, weakness, and numbness of hands and legs dominated, without any statistical differenceregarding serostatus. Some differences between groups regarding sex were noticed, but were not statistically significant, except regarding physical trauma, which was more present in seronegative females (chi2=8.05; p<0.01).

  1. Comparative studies of the pyrolytic and kinetic characteristics of maize straw and the seaweed Ulva pertusa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naihao Ye

    Full Text Available Seaweed has attracted considerable attention as a potential biofuel feedstock. The pyrolytic and kinetic characteristics of maize straw and the seaweed Ulva pertusa were studied and compared using heating rates of 10, 30 and 50°C min(-1 under an inert atmosphere. The activation energy, and pre-exponential factors were calculated by the Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO, Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS and Popescu methods. The kinetic mechanism was deduced by the Popescu method. The results indicate that there are three stages to the pyrolysis; dehydration, primary devolatilization and residual decomposition. There were significant differences in average activation energy, thermal stability, final residuals and reaction rates between the two materials. The primary devolatilization stage of U. pertusa can be described by the Avramic-Erofeev equation (n=3, whereas that of maize straw can be described by the Mampel Power Law (n=2. The average activation energy of maize straw and U. pertusa were 153.0 and 148.7 KJ mol(-1, respectively. The pyrolysis process of U.pertusa would be easier than maize straw. And co-firing of the two biomass may be require less external heat input and improve process stability. There were minor kinetic compensation effects between the pre-exponential factors and the activation energy.

  2. Comparative Study on the Characteristics of Weissella cibaria CMU and Probiotic Strains for Oral Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Jin Jang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics have been demonstrated as a new paradigm to substitute antibiotic treatment for dental caries, gingivitis, and chronic periodontitis. The present work was conducted to compare the characteristics of oral care probiotics: Weissella cibaria CMU (Chonnam Medical University and four commercial probiotic strains. Survival rates under poor oral conditions, acid production, hydrogen peroxide production, as well as inhibition of biofilm formation, coaggregation, antibacterial activity, and inhibition of volatile sulfur compounds were evaluated. The viability of W. cibaria CMU was not affected by treatment of 100 mg/L lysozyme for 90 min and 1 mM hydrogen peroxide for 6 h. Interestingly, W. cibaria produced less acid and more hydrogen peroxide than the other four probiotics. W. cibaria inhibited biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans at lower concentrations (S. mutans/CMU = 8 and efficiently coaggregated with Fusobacterium nucleatum. W. cibaria CMU and two commercial probiotics, including Lactobacillus salivarius and Lactobacillus reuteri, showed high antibacterial activities (>97% against cariogens (S. mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus, and against periodontopathogens (F. nucleatum and Porphyromonas gingivalis. All of the lactic acid bacterial strains in this study significantly reduced levels of hydrogen sulfide and methyl mercaptan produced by F. nucleatum and P. gingivalis (p < 0.05. These results suggest that W. cibaria CMU is applicable as an oral care probiotic.

  3. Comparative studies of the pyrolytic and kinetic characteristics of maize straw and the seaweed Ulva pertusa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Naihao; Li, Demao; Chen, Limei; Zhang, Xiaowen; Xu, Dong

    2010-09-10

    Seaweed has attracted considerable attention as a potential biofuel feedstock. The pyrolytic and kinetic characteristics of maize straw and the seaweed Ulva pertusa were studied and compared using heating rates of 10, 30 and 50°C min(-1) under an inert atmosphere. The activation energy, and pre-exponential factors were calculated by the Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO), Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS) and Popescu methods. The kinetic mechanism was deduced by the Popescu method. The results indicate that there are three stages to the pyrolysis; dehydration, primary devolatilization and residual decomposition. There were significant differences in average activation energy, thermal stability, final residuals and reaction rates between the two materials. The primary devolatilization stage of U. pertusa can be described by the Avramic-Erofeev equation (n=3), whereas that of maize straw can be described by the Mampel Power Law (n=2). The average activation energy of maize straw and U. pertusa were 153.0 and 148.7 KJ mol(-1), respectively. The pyrolysis process of U.pertusa would be easier than maize straw. And co-firing of the two biomass may be require less external heat input and improve process stability. There were minor kinetic compensation effects between the pre-exponential factors and the activation energy.

  4. Comparative indicators for cancer network management in England: Availability, characteristics and presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coleman Michel P

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2000, the national cancer plan for England created 34 cancer networks, new organisational structures to coordinate services across populations varying between a half and three million people. We investigated the availability of data sets reflecting measures of structure, process and outcome that could be used to support network management. Methods We investigated the properties of national data sets relating to four common cancers – breast, colorectal, lung and prostate. We reviewed the availability and completeness of these data sets, identified leading items within each set and put them into tables of the 34 cancer networks. We also investigated methods of presentation. Results The Acute Hospitals Portfolio and the Cancer Standards Peer Review recorded structural characteristics at hospital and cancer service level. Process measures included Hospital Episode Statistics, recording admissions, and Hospital Waiting-List data. Patient outcome measures included the National Survey of Patient Satisfaction for cancer, and cancer survival, drawn from cancer registration. Data were drawn together to provide an exemplar indicator set a single network, and methods of graphical presentation were considered. Conclusion While not as yet used together in practice, comparative indicators are available within the National Health Service in England for use in performance assessment by cancer networks.

  5. Simulation of oblique evaporating diesel sprays, and comparison with empirical correlations and simulated straight sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhry, I.A.; Mirza, M.R.; Rashid, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    The innovation in software analysis and various available programming facilities have urged the designers at various levels to do indispensable calculations for engine flows. Presently, the 3-D analysis approach is under practice to do simulations for various parameters involving engine operations using various soft wares, 'Fluent' being the trendiest at the moment for CFD modeling. The present work involves CFD modeling of diesel fuel sprays at a specified angle with cylinder axis. Fuel spray modeling includes sub-models for aerodynamic drag, droplet oscillation and distortion, turbulence effects, droplet breakup, evaporation, and droplet collision and coalescence. The data available from existing published work is used to model the fuel spray and the subsequent simulation results are compared to experimental results to test validity of the proposed models. (author)

  6. Automated Plasma Spray (APS) process feasibility study: Plasma spray process development and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetheroff, C. W.; Derkacs, T.; Matay, I. M.

    1979-01-01

    An automated plasma spray (APS) process was developed to apply two layer (NiCrAlY and ZrO2-12Y2O3) thermal-barrier coatings to aircraft gas turbine engine blade airfoils. The APS process hardware consists of four subsystems: a mechanical blade positioner incorporating two interlaced six-degree-of-freedom assemblies; a noncoherent optical metrology subsystem; a microprocessor-based adaptive system controller; and commercial plasma spray equipment. Over fifty JT9D first stage turbine blades specimens were coated with the APS process in preliminary checkout and evaluation studies. The best of the preliminary specimens achieved an overall coating thickness uniformity of + or - 53 micrometers, much better than is achievable manually. Factors limiting this performance were identified and process modifications were initiated accordingly. Comparative evaluations of coating thickness uniformity for manually sprayed and APS coated specimens were initiated. One of the preliminary evaluation specimens was subjected to a torch test and metallographic evaluation.

  7. Cold spray NDE for porosity and other process anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, S. W.; Larche, M. R.; Prowant, M. S.; Suter, J. D.; Lareau, J. P.; Jiang, X.; Ross, K. A.

    2018-04-01

    This paper describes a technology review of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods that can be applied to cold spray coatings. Cold spray is a process for depositing metal powder at high velocity so that it bonds to the substrate metal without significant heating that would be likely to cause additional residual tensile stresses. Coatings in the range from millimeters to centimeters are possible at relatively high deposition rates. Cold spray coatings that may be used for hydroelectric components that are subject to erosion, corrosion, wear, and cavitation damage are of interest. The topic of cold spray NDE is treated generally, however, but may be considered applicable to virtually any cold spray application except where there are constraints of the hydroelectric component application that bear special consideration. Optical profilometry, eddy current, ultrasound, and hardness tests are shown for one set of good, fair, and poor nickel-chrome (NiCr) on 304 stainless steel (304SS) cold spray samples to demonstrate inspection possibilities. The primary indicator of cold spray quality is the cold spray porosity that is most directly measured with witness-sample destructive examinations (DE)—mostly photo-micrographs. These DE-generated porosity values are correlated with optical profilometry, eddy current, ultrasound, and hardness test NDE methods to infer the porosity and other information of interest. These parameters of interest primarily include: • Porosity primarily caused by improper process conditions (temperature, gas velocity, spray standoff, spray angle, powder size, condition, surface cleanliness, surface oxide, etc.) • Presence/absence of the cold spray coating including possible over-sprayed voids • Coating thicknessOptical profilometry measurements of surface roughness trended with porosity plus, if compared with a reference measurement or reference drawing, would provide information on the coating thickness. Ultrasound could provide similar

  8. Spray-formed tooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, K. M.; Key, J. F.

    The United States Council for Automotive Research (USCAR) has formed a partnership with the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to develop a process for the rapid production of low-cost tooling based on spray forming technology developed at the INEL. Phase 1 of the program will involve bench-scale system development, materials characterization, and process optimization. In Phase 2, prototype systems will be designed, constructed, evaluated, and optimized. Process control and other issues that influence commercialization will be addressed during this phase of the project. Technology transfer to USCAR, or a tooling vendor selected by USCAR, will be accomplished during Phase 3. The approach INEL is using to produce tooling, such as plastic injection molds and stamping dies, combines rapid solidification processing and net-shape materials processing into a single step. A bulk liquid metal is pressure-fed into a de Laval spray nozzle transporting a high velocity, high temperature inert gas. The gas jet disintegrates the metal into fine droplets and deposits them onto a tool pattern made from materials such as plastic, wax, clay, ceramics, and metals. The approach is compatible with solid freeform fabrication techniques such as stereolithography, selective laser sintering, and laminated object manufacturing. Heat is extracted rapidly, in-flight, by convection as the spray jet entrains cool inert gas to produce undercooled and semi-solid droplets. At the pattern, the droplets weld together while replicating the shape and surface features of the pattern. Tool formation is rapid; deposition rates in excess of 1 ton/h have been demonstrated for bench-scale nozzles.

  9. Microplasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Arjun

    2015-01-01

    ""This unique book on development of microplasma sprayed HAp coating has been organized in a very compact yet comprehensive manner. This book also highlights the horizons of future research that invites the attention of global community, particularly those in bio-medical materials and bio-medical engineering field. This book will surely act as a very useful reference material for both graduate/post-graduate students and researchers in the field of biomedical, orthopedic and manufacturing engineering and research. I truly believ that this is the first ever effort which covers almost all the

  10. THE SPECIFIC CHARACTERISTICS OF PROMOTIONAL JOURNALISM – A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS WITH OTHER RELATED CONCEPTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRINA ANIŞOARA TRIFAN (LICA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose statement – This paper’s purpose is to contribute to the development of a specific know-how through the establishment of a theoretical framework of reference. This can facilitate the research steps which follow the identification; analysis; and interpretation of a new marketing instrument – promotional journalism. The objectives, of this study, relate not only to the establishment of theoretical but, also, to the practical characteristics, of promotional journalism. These are based on a comparative analysis with other related concepts and, also, on a qualitative analysis of the contents of the specific materials. Design – The research problem imposes a methodological interdisciplinary approach; this enables the identification; systematization; analysis; and theoretical interpretation of the fundamental concepts, theories and ideas, from the specialized literature, to be orientated towards studies and articles from separate fields. From the perspective of the research objectives and this interdisciplinary study of specilized literature, there was added a qualitative analysis of the content of the materials specific to promotional journalism found between 2002 and 2006, in the fashion magazine, Elle Romania. Overview - The specialized literature presented key-concepts; different terminologies; and meanings apparently for the same studied “reality“. This made the achievement of the process of conceptual delimitations even more difficult to the extent that promotional journalism was situated at the intersection of various sciences and the acknowledgment, of its related terms, were either similar or stated vaguely. Originality – This paper’s originality stems from the interdisciplinary perspective to the approach to the problematical aspect and the analysis and interpretitive complexity of the research results. These might prove useful both to the accomplishment of the studies in the field and for the practitioners and

  11. Comparative analysis of fracture characteristics of the developing mandible: the Mayo Clinic experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siwani, Rizwan; Tombers, Nicole M; Rieck, Kevin L; Cofer, Shelagh A

    2014-07-01

    To review and compare the epidemiology and treatment of mandibular fractures in subgroups of a pediatric population. We conducted a retrospective review of pediatric patients (age, ≤18 years) with mandibular fractures treated at our institution from January 1996 through November 2011. We identified 122 patients (93 [76%] male) with 216 mandibular fractures. The prevalent mechanisms of injury were motor vehicle accidents (n=52 [43%]), sports injuries (n=24 [20%]), and assault (n=13 [11%]). The most common fracture sites were subcondylar, parasymphyseal, angle, and body. Two patients (2%) were treated conservatively by observation only, 67 (55%) underwent maxillomandibular fixation alone, 41 (34%) underwent maxillomandibular fixation with plate fixation, and 7 (5.7%) underwent plate fixation only. The average duration of maxillomandibular fixation was 26 days (range, 7-49 days). Complications occurred in 11 patients (9.0%) over a mean follow-up of 92 days (range, 21-702 days). Fifty patients (41.0%) had comorbid conditions or a history of mental illness at the time of injury, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (n=11 [9%]), mental disorders other than attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (n=23 [19%]), and asthma (n=17 [14%]). Twenty-six patients (21%) had a history of substance use, the most common being tobacco (n=18 [15%]), alcohol (n=13 [11%]), and marijuana (n=11 [9%]). Treatment approach and outcomes were affected by age and fracture characteristics. In addition, a marked proportion of this cohort had preexisting mental disorders and history of substance use, which may have implications on treatment approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparative characteristics of grain classifications of soft wheat of Kazakhstan and major grain-producing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Shaimerdenova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft wheat is one of the most important crops, grown in more than 130 countries. To date, one-fifth of the world's wheat, or about 150 million tons a year, is sold on international markets. In the world trade traditionally dominated by the US, Australia, Canada and Argentina. Kazakhstan, being on the 15th place in the production of wheat grain, is among the first ten exporters - in 2017 the country exported about 8 million tons to the amount of 1.5 billion dollars. USA, then, as potential export opportunities are much higher, as evidenced by annual carryover stocks at 3 million tons. According to experts, considerable differences in the classification of wheat grain used in Kazakhstan and in other countries participating in the grain market and the methods for assessing the technological dignity indicators (TDs laid down in the classifications are a significant obstacle to increasing the export potential of wheat grains. In view of this, an analysis was made of grain classifications of wheat grains used in the most important grain producing countries, TD indicators were determined, methods for their evaluation, and differences were revealed. It is established that in countries that are stable in the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of grain, an insignificant list of TD indicators is adopted, while they characterize the physical quality and state of the grain, which may indicate a general suitability for grinding. It is determined that in Russia and Kazakhstan, in determining the contamination, such an indicator as dockage is not taken into account. Comparative tests of different methods of sampling and determination of contamination have been carried out, and correlation coefficients have been established between indicators of contamination determined by different methods.

  13. Comparing some anthropometric characteristics of the women according to various factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temur H. Bayram

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this academic study is to compare some anthropometric characteristics of the women in respect of their playing football or not and waist. For this purpose, 63 women included 34 not doing sports and 29 playing football for different clubs in Van are incorporated into the study . The control group is choosen among the students of Yüzüncü Yıl University. Human subjects’ average height is 160,62 ± 5,52 cm, average age is 19,87± 2,50 year and average weight is 54,78± 9,26 kg. Average sport history of the persons playing sport has been identified to be 4,31± 2,22 year. Besides, the girt of breast, waist, hip, thighbone, calf has been measured. Vertical jumping, left and right hand grip strengths, resting heart pulse, body fat percentage, body fat mass, body mass index values were measured. For analysing these values, One- Way Anova and t test were used. Consequently, it has been detected that there is significant difference on behalf of the women playing sport in vertical jumping length of football players and sedentery ones, at a level of p<0,01 between right and left hand grip strengths and p<0.05 in resting heart pulse variable and also there is not a significant difference (p<0,05 in other variables. . In addition, it is defined that there is significant (p<0,01 relation between the thickness of waist and breast, hip, thighbone, calf, resting heart pulse, body weight, body fat percentage, body fat mass, body mass index values.

  14. Micro/nano structured coatings of light alloys by cold spray for surface protection and repair of high value-added components: State of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedoya, J.; Cinca, N.; Guilemany, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    The Cold Gas Spray - CGS technique has greatly attracted the attention of the researchers in the last decade due to advantages compared to other conventional thermal spray processes. It presents outstanding characteristics such as high density coatings and absence of thermal degradation (oxidation or phase transformation). In addition, CGS is an efficient and green technology. This paper presents a bibliographic review related to micro/nano structured aluminium-based coatings of by CGS on light alloy substrates. It provides an overview of the feasibility of using the Cold Gas Spray as a technique for the protection, recovery and repair of high value-added components, especially those made of light alloys (aluminium and magnesium base) which, by their low density and mechanical properties, are widely used in several industrial sectors such as transport, aerospace and power generation. (Author)

  15. Handheld and automated ultrasonic spray deposition of conductive PEDOT:PSS films and their application in AC EL devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ely, Fernando; Matsumoto, Agatha; Zoetebier, Bram; Peressinotto, Valdirene S.; Hirata, Marcelo Kioshi; de Sousa, Douglas A.; Maciel, Rubens

    2014-01-01

    In this contribution we explore the spray deposition technique to achieve smooth films based on the conductive polymer PEDOT:PSS. Two different spray systems were used and compared namely: (a) handheld airbrush and (b) automated ultrasonic spray system. For each system a number of parameters were

  16. Spray rolling aluminum alloy strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHugh, Kevin M.; Delplanque, J.-P.; Johnson, S.B.; Lavernia, E.J.; Zhou, Y.; Lin, Y

    2004-10-10

    Spray rolling combines spray forming with twin-roll casting to process metal flat products. It consists of atomizing molten metal with a high velocity inert gas, cooling the resultant droplets in flight and directing the spray between mill rolls. In-flight convection heat transfer from atomized droplets teams with conductive cooling at the rolls to rapidly remove the alloy's latent heat. Hot deformation of the semi-solid material in the rolls results in fully consolidated, rapidly solidified product. While similar in some ways to twin-roll casting, spray rolling has the advantage of being able to process alloys with broad freezing ranges at high production rates. This paper describes the process and summarizes microstructure and tensile properties of spray-rolled 2124 and 7050 aluminum alloy strips. A Lagrangian/Eulerian poly-dispersed spray flight and deposition model is described that provides some insight into the development of the spray rolling process. This spray model follows droplets during flight toward the rolls, through impact and spreading, and includes oxide film formation and breakup when relevant.

  17. GO evaluation of a PWR spray system. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, W.T.

    1975-08-01

    GO is a reliability analysis methodology developed over the years from 1960 to the present by Kaman Sciences Corporation, Colorado Springs, Colorado. In this report the GO methodology is presented and its application demonstrated by performing a reliability analysis of a conceptual PWR Containment Spray System. Certain numerical results obtained are compared with those of a prior fault tree analysis of the same system as documented in the 11 January 1973 draft report, A Fault Tree Evaluation of a PWR Spray System

  18. Substrate system for spray forming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Men G. (Export, PA); Chernicoff, William P. (Harrisburg, PA)

    2002-01-01

    A substrate system for receiving a deposit of sprayed metal droplets including a movable outer substrate on which the sprayed metal droplets are deposited. The substrate system also includes an inner substrate disposed adjacent the outer substrate where the sprayed metal droplets are deposited on the outer substrate. The inner substrate includes zones of differing thermal conductivity to resist substrate layer porosity and to resist formation of large grains and coarse constituent particles in a bulk layer of the metal droplets which have accumulated on the outer substrate. A spray forming apparatus and associated method of spray forming a molten metal to form a metal product using the substrate system of the invention is also provided.

  19. ENVIORNMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: ANEST IWATA CORPORATION LPH400-LV HVLP SPRAY GUN

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Enviornmental Technology Verification reports on the characteristics of a paint spray gun. The research showed that the spray gun provided absolute and relative increases in transfer efficiency over the base line and provided a reduction in the use of paint.

  20. Effects of Water Hardness on Spray Droplet Size Under Aerial Application Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Nonimaging Light‐Scattering Instruments (ASTM, 2003). Table 1. Spray formulations for water hardness levels. Hardness (ppm) Tank, L (gal) Kocide, kg (lb...characteristics in a spray using optical nonimaging light‐scattering instruments. W. Conshohocken, Pa.: ASTM Intl. ASTM. 2004. E1620‐97. Standard

  1. Spray Characterization of Ultra-Low-Volume Sprayers Typically Used in Vector Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Standard test method for determining liquid drop size characteristics in a spray using optical nonimaging light-scattering instruments. An- nual book of...cloud was directed through the optical path of the laser varied between sprayers, depending on the width of the spray 1 Mention of a trademark

  2. [Study on Xinyueshu spray drying assisted with copovidone and its effect on powder property].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yan-Rong; Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Ding, Dong-Mei; Yan, Hong-Mei; Hu, Shao-Ying; Jia, Xiao-Bin

    2013-12-01

    To study the application characteristics of copovidone (PVP-S630) in Xinyueshu extracts during the spray drying process, and its effect on such pharmaceutical properties as micromeritics and drug release behavior. PVP-S630 was added into Xinyueshu extracts to study on the spray drying, the effect of different dosages of PVP-S630 against the wall sticking effect of the spray drying, as well as the power property of Xinyueshu spray drying power and the dissolution in vitro behavior of the effective component of hyperoside. The results showed that PVP-S630 revealed a significant anti-wall sticking effect, with no notable change in the grain size of the spray drying power, increase in the fluidity, improvement in the moisture absorption and remarkable rise in the dissolution in vitro behavior of hyperoside. It was worth further studying the application of PVP-S630 in spray drying power of traditional Chinese medicine.

  3. Cryogen spray cooling: Effects of droplet size and spray density on heat removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikkula, B M; Torres, J H; Tunnell, J W; Anvari, B

    2001-01-01

    Cryogen spray cooling (CSC) is an effective method to reduce or eliminate non-specific injury to the epidermis during laser treatment of various dermatological disorders. In previous CSC investigations, fuel injectors have been used to deliver the cryogen onto the skin surface. The objective of this study was to examine cryogen atomization and heat removal characteristics of various cryogen delivery devices. Various cryogen delivery device types including fuel injectors, atomizers, and a device currently used in clinical settings were investigated. Cryogen mass was measured at the delivery device output orifice. Cryogen droplet size profiling for various cryogen delivery devices was estimated by optically imaging the droplets in flight. Heat removal for various cryogen delivery devices was estimated over a range of spraying distances by temperature measurements in an skin phantom used in conjunction with an inverse heat conduction model. A substantial range of mass outputs were measured for the cryogen delivery devices while heat removal varied by less than a factor of two. Droplet profiling demonstrated differences in droplet size and spray density. Results of this study show that variation in heat removal by different cryogen delivery devices is modest despite the relatively large difference in cryogen mass output and droplet size. A non-linear relationship between heat removal by various devices and droplet size and spray density was observed. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Spray structure as generated under homogeneous flash boiling nucleation regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, M.; Levy, Y.; Sher, E.

    2014-01-01

    We show the effect of the initial pressure and temperature on the spatial distribution of droplets size and their velocity profile inside a spray cloud that is generated by a flash boiling mechanism under homogeneous nucleation regime. We used TSI's Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) to characterize the spray. We conclude that the homogeneous nucleation process is strongly affected by the initial liquid temperature while the initial pressure has only a minor effect. The spray shape is not affected by temperature or pressure under homogeneous nucleation regime. We noted that the only visible effect is in the spray opacity. Finally, homogeneous nucleation may be easily achieved by using a simple atomizer construction, and thus is potentially suitable for fuel injection systems in combustors and engines. - Highlights: • We study the characteristics of a spray that is generated by a flash boiling process. • In this study, the flash boiling process occurs under homogeneous nucleation regime. • We used Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) to characterize the spray. • The SMD has been found to be strongly affected by the initial liquid temperature. • Homogeneous nucleation may be easily achieved by using a simple atomizer unit

  5. Kinematic Optimization of Robot Trajectories for Thermal Spray Coating Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Sihao; Liang, Hong; Cai, Zhenhua; Liao, Hanlin; Montavon, Ghislain

    2014-12-01

    Industrial robots are widely used in the field of thermal spray nowadays. Due to their characteristics of high-accuracy and programmable flexibility, spraying on complex geometrical workpieces can be realized in the equipped spray room. However, in some cases, the robots cannot guarantee the process parameters defined by the robot movement, such as the scanning trajectory, spray angle, relative speed between the torch and the substrate, etc., which have distinct influences on heat and mass transfer during the generation of any thermally sprayed coatings. In this study, an investigation on the robot kinematics was proposed to find the rules of motion in a common case. The results showed that the motion behavior of each axis of robot permits to identify the motion problems in the trajectory. This approach allows to optimize the robot trajectory generation in a limited working envelop. It also minimizes the influence of robot performance to achieve a more constant relative scanning speed which is represented as a key parameter in thermal spraying.

  6. Characterization of fully functional spray-on antibody thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, Jhon [Department of Chemistry, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Ave., Tampa, FL 33620-5250 (United States); Magaña, Sonia; Lim, Daniel V. [Department of Cell Biology, Microbiology and Molecular Biology, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Ave., Tampa, FL 33620-7115 (United States); Schlaf, Rudy, E-mail: schlaf@eng.usf.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Ave., Tampa, FL 33620-5101 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    The authors recently demonstrated that fully functional Escherichia coli O157:H7 antibody thin films can be prepared using a simple pneumatic nebulizer on glass surface [1]. This paper focuses on the investigation of the morphology and physical properties of these films with the aim to better understand their performance. A series of E. coli O157:H7 antibody spray-on thin films were investigated by ellipsometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), immunoassays, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), fluorescence microscopy, atomic force microscope (AFM) and contact angle analysis. These data were compared to measurements on films prepared with the biotin–avidin covalent bonding scheme. The investigation showed that films created by a 2 min pneumatic spray deposition time can capture antigens similar as the avidin–biotin wet-chemical method. The results also suggests that an influential factor for the comparable capture cell ability between sprayed and covalent films is an increased antibody surface coverage for the sprayed films (non-equilibrium technique), which compensates for the lack of its antibody orientation. There was no significant antibody denaturation detected on any of the sprayed films. Both techniques led to the formation of cluster-aggregates, a factor that seems unavoidable due to the natural tendency of protein to cluster. The avidin–biotin bridge films generally had a higher roughness, which manifested itself in a higher wettability compared to the sprayed films.

  7. Microencapsulation of Garcinia fruit extract by spray drying and its effect on bread quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezhilarasi, Perumal Natarajan; Indrani, Dasappa; Jena, Bhabani Sankar; Anandharamakrishnan, Chinnaswamy

    2014-04-01

    (-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) is the major acid present in the fruit rinds of certain species of Garcinia. HCA has been reported to have several health benefits. As HCA is highly hygroscopic in nature and thermally sensitive, it is difficult to incorporate in foodstuffs. Hence, Garcinia cowa fruit extract was microencapsulated using three different wall materials such as whey protein isolate (WPI), maltodextrin (MD) and a combination of whey protein isolate and maltodextrin (WPI + MD) by spray drying. Further, these microencapsulated powders were evaluated for their impact on bread quality and HCA retention. Maltodextrin (MD) encapsulates had higher free (86%) and net HCA (90%) recovery. Microencapsulates incorporated breads had enhanced qualitative characteristics and higher HCA content than water extract incorporated bread due to efficient encapsulation during bread baking. Comparatively, bread with MD encapsulates showed softer crumb texture, desirable sensory attributes with considerable volume and higher HCA content. The higher HCA contents of encapsulate incorporated breads were sufficient to claim for functionality of HCA in bread. Comparatively, MD had efficiently encapsulated Garcinia fruit extract during spray drying and bread baking. Spray drying proved to be an excellent encapsulation technique for incorporation into the food system. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. User friendliness, efficiency & spray quality of stirrup pumps versus hand compression pumps for indoor residual spraying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vijay; Kesari, Shreekant; Chowdhury, Rajib; Kumar, Sanjiv; Sinha, Gunjan; Hussain, Saddam; Huda, M Mamun; Kroeger, Axel; Das, Pradeep

    2013-01-01

    Indoor residual spraying (IRS) is a proven tool to reduce visceral leishmaniasis vectors in endemic villages. In India IRS is being done with stirrup pumps, whereas Nepal, Bangladesh, and other countries use compression pumps. The present study was conducted with the objectives to compare the efficiency, cost and user friendliness of stirrup and compression pumps. The study was carried out in Gorigawan village of the Vaishali district in north Bihar and included a total population of 3259 inhabitants in 605 households. Spraying with 50 per cent DDT was done by two teams with 6 persons per team under the supervision of investigators over 5 days with each type of pump (10 days in total using 2 stirrup pumps and 3 compression pumps) by the same sprayers in an alternate way. The spraying technique was observed using an observation check list, the number of houses and room surfaces sprayed was recorded and an interview with sprayers on their satisfaction with the two types of pumps was conducted. On average, 65 houses were covered per day with the compression pump and 56 houses were covered with the stirrup pump. The surface area sprayed per squad per day was higher for the compression pump (4636 m²) than for the stirrup pump (4102 m²). Observation showed that it was easy to maintain the spray swath with the compression pump but very difficult with the stirrup pump. The wastage of insecticide suspension was negligible for the compression pump but high for the stirrup pump. The compression pump was found to be more user friendly due to its lower weight, easier to operate, lower operation cost, higher safety and better efficiency in terms of discharge rate and higher area coverage than the stirrup pump.

  9. Comparative study of the characteristics of some suction devices for gas sampling applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donguy, R.; Drouet, J.

    1959-06-01

    Gas sampling (used to determine the characteristics of dusts or aerosols contained in a gas) needs a suction device. In order to select the right device and the right conditions of use, the characteristics and performances of various suction devices (helicoidal and centrifugal aspirators, air pumps, volumetric pumps) have been experimentally measured: flow rate, head loss, sampling volume and duration, aerosol and dust concentration, gas density, nature of the gas, suction circuit configuration, etc

  10. Spray deposition and spray drift in orchard spraying by multiple row sprayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenneker, M.; Zande, van de J.C.; Michielsen, J.G.P.; Stallinga, H.; Velde, van P.

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation of the latest data on spray drift in orchard spraying in the Netherlands, and measurements of surface water quality parameters show that the current legislation and measures are insufficient to protect the surface water. To meet the national and European objectives regarding surface

  11. Comparing trace metal bioaccumulation characteristics of three freshwater decapods of the genus Macrobrachium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cresswell, Tom, E-mail: tom.cresswell@ansto.gov.au [Centre for Environmental Contaminants Research, CSIRO Land and Water, New Illawarra Rd, Lucas Heights, 2234, NSW (Australia); School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Plenty Road, Bundoora 3083, VIC (Australia); Smith, Ross E.W. [Hydrobiology, Lang Parade, Auchenflower 4066, QLD (Australia); Nugegoda, Dayanthi [School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Plenty Road, Bundoora 3083, VIC (Australia); Simpson, Stuart L. [Centre for Environmental Contaminants Research, CSIRO Land and Water, New Illawarra Rd, Lucas Heights, 2234, NSW (Australia)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • Exposed three species of prawns of same genus to solid- and dissolved-phase metals. • Cd bioaccumulated from dissolved phase was significantly different between species. • All three species retained >95% of bioaccumulated Cd during the depuration phase. • Bioaccumulation of As, Pb and Zn from solid phase was different between species. • Results highlight variability among species, even under controlled conditions. - Abstract: Potential sources and kinetics of metal bioaccumulation by the three Macrobrachium prawn species M. australiense, M. rosenbergii and M. latidactylus were assessed in laboratory experiments. The prawns were exposed to two scenarios: cadmium in water only; and exposure to metal-rich mine tailings in the same water. The cadmium accumulation from the dissolved exposure during 7 days, followed by depuration in cadmium-free water for 7 days, was compared with predictions from a biokinetic model that had previously been developed for M. australiense. M. australiense and M. latidactylus accumulated significant tissue cadmium during the exposure phase, albeit with different uptake rates. All three species retained >95% of the bioaccumulated cadmium during the depuration phase, indicating very slow efflux rates. Following exposure to tailings, there were significant (p < 0.05) differences in tissue arsenic, cadmium, lead and zinc concentrations among species. Cadmium and zinc concentrations were increased relative to controls for all three species but were not different between treatments (direct/indirect contact with tailings), suggesting these metals were primarily accumulated via the dissolved phase. All species bioaccumulated significantly greater arsenic and lead when in direct contact with mine tailings, demonstrating the importance of an ingestion pathway for these metals. Copper was not bioaccumulated above control concentrations for any species. The differences between the metal accumulation of the three prawns indicated

  12. [The comparative analysis of acute poisoning characteristics between cities and rural areas in Guangxi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dong-fang; Liu, Qing-hua

    2012-06-01

    To compare the acute-poisoning characteristics between city and rural areas of Guangxi Province in order to provide clinical data for the formation of treatment strategies of acute poisoning in Guangxi. Data of acute poisoning patients as treated in 36 municipal and 12 county hospitals, and also 15 rural clinics in 11 cities of Guangxi during 2005 to 2009 were collected and analyzed according to poisoning population, poisoning site, poisoning process, and poisoning degree. By analysing 3678 and 2153 cases of acute poisoning patients in rural and urban areas, the gender [χ (2) = 5.53, P old (11.17% vs. 8.69%), farmers by occupation (74.84% vs. 2.79%), home (80.64% vs. 78.07%), sites of labor (11.83% vs. 3.07%) and other sites (4.08% vs. 2.97%), and the chief causes were professional (3.10% vs. 1.30%), taken by mistake (21.85% vs. 20.91%), homicide (0.30% vs. 0.28%), and suicide (39.07% vs. 18.77%), and by pesticide (60.94% vs. 12.13%), plant (7.08% vs. 2.88%) and animal poisons (7.73% vs. 6.56%), belonging to severe poisoning (25.86% vs. 19.04%) were higher than those in town. In the town, poisoning occurred predominantly in female (55.09% vs. 51.90%), age below 19 years old (23.78% vs. 19.44%), unemployed (33.35% vs. 13.76%), student (17.53% vs. 8.43%), industrial workers (31.95% vs. 2.69%), executives (10.84% vs. 0.22%) and other professional (3.53% vs. 0.05%); occurred in schools (8.78% vs. 0.82%), restaurants (5.48% vs. 1.55%), place of entertainment (1.63% vs. 1.09%), by accidental (52.23% vs. 31.27%), therapeutic (4.46% vs. 2.56%), and other reasons (2.04% vs. 1.85%); by chemicals (33.19% vs. 8.55%), medicines (24.31% vs. 9.12%), and other types of poison (20.92% vs. 6.59%); light and medium degree of poisoning (44.87% vs. 41.22%, 36.09% vs. 32.93%) were higher than those in rural areas. Regarding the acute poisoning in Guangxi, the composition of population, the poisoning sites and causes, the types of poisons, the poisoning degree are distinctly different

  13. Emission characteristics of VOCs emitted from consumer and commercial products and their ozone formation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Trieu-Vuong; Kim, Su-Yeon; Son, Youn-Suk; Choi, In-Young; Park, Seong-Ryong; Sunwoo, Young; Kim, Jo-Chun

    2015-06-01

    The characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from several consumer and commercial products (body wash, dishwashing detergent, air freshener, windshield washer fluid, lubricant, hair spray, and insecticide) were studied and compared. The spray products were found to emit the highest amount of VOCs (~96 wt%). In contrast, the body wash products showed the lowest VOC contents (~1.6 wt%). In the spray products, 21.6-96.4 % of the VOCs were propane, iso-butane, and n-butane, which are the components of liquefied petroleum gas. Monoterpene (C10H16) was the dominant component of the VOCs in the non-spray products (e.g., body wash, 53-88 %). In particular, methanol was present with the highest amount of VOCs in windshield washer fluid products. In terms of the number of carbon, the windshield washer fluids, lubricants, insecticides, and hair sprays comprised >95 % of the VOCs in the range C2-C5. The VOCs in the range C6-C10 were predominantly found in the body wash products. The dishwashing detergents and air fresheners contained diverse VOCs from C2 to C11. Besides comprising hazardous VOCs, VOCs from consumer products were also ozone precursors. The ozone formation potential of the consumer and commercial spray products was estimated to be higher than those of liquid and gel materials. In particular, the hair sprays showed the highest ozone formation potential.

  14. Spray drying of fenofibrate loaded nanostructured lipid carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Dengning; Shrestha, Neha; van de Streek, Jacco

    2016-01-01

    into dry, easily reconstitutable powder using spray drying. A central composite face centered design (CCFD) was used to investigate the influence of the ratio of lipid to protectant (mannitol and trehalose) and crystallinity of spray-dried powder on the particle size, yield and residual moisture content...... of the dried powder. A linear relationship (R2 = 0.9915) was established between the crystalline content of the spray-dried powders against the ratio of mannitol to trehalose from 3:7 to 10:0 (w/w). Spray drying of NLC aqueous dispersion using a mannitol and trehalose mixture resulted in an increase...... in particle size of the NLCs after reconstitution in water as compared to that in the initial aqueous dispersion. The decrease in crystallinity of the dry powder by reducing the ratio of mannitol to trehalose could improve the reconstitution of the NLCs in water. However the yield and residual moisture...

  15. Process optimization of ultrasonic spray coating of polymer films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bose, Sanjukta; Keller, Stephan Sylvest; Boisen, Anja

    2013-01-01

    is developed for statistical analysis which identifies the distance between nozzle and substrate as the most significant parameter. Depending on the drying of the sprayed droplets on the substrate, we define two broad regimes, "dry" and "wet". The optimum condition of spraying lies in a narrow window between...... these two regimes, where we obtain a film of desired quality. Both with increasing nozzle-substrate distance and temperature, the deposition moves from a wet state to a dry regime. Similar results are also achieved for solvents with low boiling points. Finally, we study film formation during spray coating......In this work we have performed a detailed study of the influence of various parameters on spray coating of polymer films. Our aim is to produce polymer films of uniform thickness (500 nm to 1 μm) and low roughness compared to the film thickness. The coatings are characterized with respect...

  16. Elastic response of thermal spray deposits under indentation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leigh, S.H.; Lin, C.K.; Berndt, C.C.

    1997-01-01

    The elastic response behavior of thermal spray deposits at Knoop indentations has been investigated using indentation techniques. The ration of hardness to elastic modulus, which is an important prerequisite for the evaluation of indentation fracture toughness, is determined by measuring the elastic recovery of the in-surface dimensions of Knoop indentations. The elastic moduli of thermal spray deposits are in the range of 12%--78% of the comparable bulk materials and reveal the anisotropic behavior of thermal spray deposits. A variety of thermal spray deposits has been examined, including Al 2 O 3 , yttria-stabilized ZrO 2 (YSZ), and NiAl. Statistical tools have been used to evaluate the error estimates of the data

  17. Spray Droplet Characterization from a Single Nozzle by High Speed Image Analysis Using an In-Focus Droplet Criterion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minov, Sofija Vulgarakis; Cointault, Frédéric; Vangeyte, Jürgen; Pieters, Jan G; Nuyttens, David

    2016-02-06

    Accurate spray characterization helps to better understand the pesticide spray application process. The goal of this research was to present the proof of principle of a droplet size and velocity measuring technique for different types of hydraulic spray nozzles using a high speed backlight image acquisition and analysis system. As only part of the drops of an agricultural spray can be in focus at any given moment, an in-focus criterion based on the gray level gradient was proposed to decide whether a given droplet is in focus or not. In a first experiment, differently sized droplets were generated with a piezoelectric generator and studied to establish the relationship between size and in-focus characteristics. In a second experiment, it was demonstrated that droplet sizes and velocities from a real sprayer could be measured reliably in a non-intrusive way using the newly developed image acquisition set-up and image processing. Measured droplet sizes ranged from 24 μm to 543 μm, depending on the nozzle type and size. Droplet velocities ranged from around 0.5 m/s to 12 m/s. The droplet size and velocity results were compared and related well with the results obtained with a Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA).

  18. Comparing the characteristics of highly cited titles and highly alted titles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Didegah, F.; Bowman, T.D.; Bowman, S.; Hartley, J.

    2016-07-01

    This study examines differences in the types of titles for articles that show high altmetric activity (highly alted articles) versus highly cited articles. This work expands on previous research on document titles in combination with a grounded theory approach to develop a codebook in which articles were manually coded based on 11 characteristics. The results show that there are differences and similarities in titles across many of the examined characteristics; highly cited titles and highly mentioned titles on Wikipedia have some similar characteristics such as they have the the highest percentage of substantive words; in addition, there are no or very few titles referencing outside or with humor/lightness on both platforms. Twitter and Facebook also showed some similarities having the highest percentage of humorous/light titles and lowest percentage of substantive words in their titles. (Author)

  19. The pH sensing characteristics of the extended-gate field-effect transistors of multi-walled carbon-nanotube thin film using low-temperature ultrasonic spray method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Yun-Shan; Yang, Po-Yu; Tsai, Wan-Lin; Li, Yu-Ren; Chou, Chia-Hsin; Chou, Jung-Chuan; Cheng, Huang-Chung

    2012-07-01

    A novel, simple and low-temperature ultrasonic spray method was developed to fabricate the multi-walled carbon-nanotubes (MWCNTs) based extended-gate field-effect transistors (EGFETs) as the pH sensor. With an acid-treated process, the chemically functionalized two-dimensional MWCNT network could provide plenty of functional groups which exhibit hydrophilic property and serve as hydrogen sensing sites. For the first time, the EGFET using a MWCNT structure could achieve a wide sensing rage from pH = 1 to pH = 13. Furthermore, the pH sensitivity and linearity values of the CNT pH-EGFET devices were enhanced to 51.74 mV/pH and 0.9948 from pH = 1 to pH = 13 while the sprayed deposition reached 50 times. The sensing properties of hydrogen and hydroxyl ions show significantly dependent on the sprayed deposition times, morphologies, crystalline and chemical bonding of acid-treated MWCNT. These results demonstrate that the MWCNT-EGFETs are very promising for the applications in the pH and biomedical sensors.

  20. Indoor spray measurement of spray drift potential using a spray drift test bench : effect of drift-reducing nozzle types, spray boom height, nozzle spacing and forward speed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno Ruiz, J.R.

    2014-01-01

    In a series of indoor experiments spray drift potential was assessed when spraying over a spray drift testbench with two different driving speeds, 2m/s and 4m/s, two different spray boom heights, 30 cm and 50 cm, and two different nozzle spacing, 25 cm and 50 cm, for six different nozzle types. The

  1. Study of Spray Disintegration in Accelerating Flow Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurick, W. H.

    1972-01-01

    An analytical and experimental investigation was conducted to perform "proof of principlem experiments to establish the effects of propellant combustion gas velocity on propella'nt atomization characteristics. The propellants were gaseous oxygen (GOX) and Shell Wax 270. The fuel was thus the same fluid used in earlier primary cold-flow atomization studies using the frozen wax method. Experiments were conducted over a range in L* (30 to 160 inches) at two contraction ratios (2 and 6). Characteristic exhaust velocity (c*) efficiencies varied from SO to 90 percent. The hot fire experimental performance characteristics at a contraction ratio of 6.0 in conjunction with analytical predictions from the drovlet heat-up version of the Distributed Energy Release (DER) combustion computer proDam showed that the apparent initial dropsize compared well with cold-flow predictions (if adjusted for the gas velocity effects). The results also compared very well with the trend in perfomnce as predicted with the model. significant propellant wall impingement at the contraction ratio of 2.0 precluded complete evaluation of the effect of gross changes in combustion gas velocity on spray dropsize.

  2. Modelling of fuel spray and combustion in diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huttunen, M T; Kaario, O T [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    Fuel spray and air motion characteristics and combustion in direct injection (DI) diesel engines was studied using computational models of the commercial CFD-code FIRE. Physical subprocesses modelled included Lagrangian spray droplet movement and behaviour (atomisation, evaporation and interaction of spray droplets) and combustion of evaporated liquid spray in the gas phase. Fuel vapour combustion rate was described by the model of Magnussen and Hjertager. The standard k,{epsilon}-model was used for turbulence. In order to be able to predict combustion accurately, the fuel spray penetration should be predicted with reasonable accuracy. In this study, the standard drag coefficient had to be reduced in order to match the computed penetration to the measured one. In addition, the constants in the submodel describing droplet breakup also needed to be adjusted for closer agreement with the measurements. The characteristic time scale of fuel consumption rate k/C{sub R} {epsilon} strongly influenced the heat release and in-cylinder pressure. With a value around 2.0 to 5.0 for C{sub R}, the computed in-cylinder pressure during the compression stroke agreed quite well with the measurements. On the other hand, the in-cylinder pressure was underpredicted during the expansion stroke. This is partly due to the fact that hydrocarbon fuel combustion was modelled as a one-step reaction reading to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O and inadequate description of the mixing of reactants and combustion products. (author) 16 refs.

  3. Modelling of fuel spray and combustion in diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huttunen, M.T.; Kaario, O.T. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Fuel spray and air motion characteristics and combustion in direct injection (DI) diesel engines was studied using computational models of the commercial CFD-code FIRE. Physical subprocesses modelled included Lagrangian spray droplet movement and behaviour (atomisation, evaporation and interaction of spray droplets) and combustion of evaporated liquid spray in the gas phase. Fuel vapour combustion rate was described by the model of Magnussen and Hjertager. The standard k,{epsilon}-model was used for turbulence. In order to be able to predict combustion accurately, the fuel spray penetration should be predicted with reasonable accuracy. In this study, the standard drag coefficient had to be reduced in order to match the computed penetration to the measured one. In addition, the constants in the submodel describing droplet breakup also needed to be adjusted for closer agreement with the measurements. The characteristic time scale of fuel consumption rate k/C{sub R} {epsilon} strongly influenced the heat release and in-cylinder pressure. With a value around 2.0 to 5.0 for C{sub R}, the computed in-cylinder pressure during the compression stroke agreed quite well with the measurements. On the other hand, the in-cylinder pressure was underpredicted during the expansion stroke. This is partly due to the fact that hydrocarbon fuel combustion was modelled as a one-step reaction reading to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O and inadequate description of the mixing of reactants and combustion products. (author) 16 refs.

  4. Method and Process Development of Advanced Atmospheric Plasma Spraying for Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihm, Sebastian; Duda, Thomas; Gruner, Heiko; Thomas, Georg; Dzur, Birger

    2012-06-01

    Over the last few years, global economic growth has triggered a dramatic increase in the demand for resources, resulting in steady rise in prices for energy and raw materials. In the gas turbine manufacturing sector, process optimizations of cost-intensive production steps involve a heightened potential of savings and form the basis for securing future competitive advantages in the market. In this context, the atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) process for thermal barrier coatings (TBC) has been optimized. A constraint for the optimization of the APS coating process is the use of the existing coating equipment. Furthermore, the current coating quality and characteristics must not change so as to avoid new qualification and testing. Using experience in APS and empirically gained data, the process optimization plan included the variation of e.g. the plasma gas composition and flow-rate, the electrical power, the arrangement and angle of the powder injectors in relation to the plasma jet, the grain size distribution of the spray powder and the plasma torch movement procedures such as spray distance, offset and iteration. In particular, plasma properties (enthalpy, velocity and temperature), powder injection conditions (injection point, injection speed, grain size and distribution) and the coating lamination (coating pattern and spraying distance) are examined. The optimized process and resulting coating were compared to the current situation using several diagnostic methods. The improved process significantly reduces costs and achieves the requirement of comparable coating quality. Furthermore, a contribution was made towards better comprehension of the APS of ceramics and the definition of a better method for future process developments.

  5. The CO{sub 2} capture performance of a high-intensity vortex spray scrubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javed, K.H.; Mahmud, T.; Purba, E. [University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-15

    The present study focuses on the enhancement of CO{sub 2} capture efficiency using a high-intensity vortex spray scrubber by imparting swirl to the gas flow, which has the ability to augment the rates of heat and mass transfer. Experimental investigations into the reactive absorption of CO{sub 2} from a mixture of air-CO{sub 2} into an aqueous solution of NaOH in a laboratory-scale counter-current spray scrubber have been carried out. The mass transfer characteristics, in terms of the overall gas phase mass transfer coefficient (K{sub g}a) were investigated for both the swirling and the non-swirling (axial) gas flows through the scrubber in order to quantify the effect of swirl. The effects of the gas/liquid flow rates, flow arrangements, scrubber height and spray nozzle type on the CO{sub 2} capture performance were examined. For both the axial and the swirling flows, the K{sub g}a increases initially with increasing gas flow rate up to a certain limit, beyond which it becomes essentially constant, whereas the K{sub g}a increases continuously with the liquid flow rate within the measured range. The counter-current gas-droplets flow provides higher mass transfer rates compared with those in co-current flow. The K{sub g}a deceases with the increase in the tower height. The spray nozzle producing finer droplets provides enhanced mass transfer rates. It is found that imparting swirl in the gas flow enhances the K(g)a up to around 49% compared with that in axial flows.

  6. Molybdenum plasma spray powder, process for producing said powder, and coating made therefrom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafferty, W.D.; Cheney, R.F.; Pierce, R.H.

    1979-01-01

    Plasma spray powders of molybdenum particles containing 0.5 to 15 weight percent oxygen and obtained by reacting molybdenum particles with oxygen or oxides in a plasma, form plasma spray coatings exhibiting hardness comparable to flame sprayed coatings formed from molybdenum wire and plasma coatings of molybdenum powders. Such oxygen rich molybdenum powders may be used to form wear resistant coatings, such as for piston rings. (author)

  7. Some aspects of numerical analysis of turbulent gaseous and spray combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, T.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper numerical calculations and analysis on turbulent non-premixed gaseous and spray combustion are reviewed. Attentions were paid to the turbulent flow and combustion modeling applicable to predicting the flow, mixing and combustion of gaseous fuels and sprays. Some of the computed results of turbulent gaseous non-premixed (diffusion) flames with and without swirl and transient spray combustion were compared with experimental ones to understand the processes in the flame and to assure how the computations predict the experiments

  8. Effects of spray drying on antioxidant capacity and anthocyanidin content of blueberry by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kar; Ma, Mitzi; Dolan, Kirk D

    2011-09-01

    The effect of spray drying on degradation of nutraceutical components in cull blueberry extract was investigated. Samples collected before and after spray drying were tested for antioxidant capacity using oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC(FL) ) and total phenolics; and for individual anthocyanidins. In Study 1, four different levels of maltodextrin (blueberry solids to maltodextrin ratios of 5: 95, 10: 90, 30: 70, and 50: 50) were spray dried a pilot-scale spray dryer. There was significantly higher retention of nutraceutical components with increased levels of maltodextrin indicating a protective effect of maltodextrin on the nutraceutical components during spray drying. In Study 2, the air inlet temperature of the spray dryer was kept constant for all runs at 150 °C, with 2 different outlet temperatures of 80 and 90 °C. The degradation of nutraceutical components was not significantly different at the 2 selected outlet temperatures. ORAC(FL) reduction for blueberry samples after spray drying was 66.3% to 69.6%. After spray drying, total phenolics reduction for blueberry was 8.2% to 17.5%. Individual anthocyanidin reduction for blueberry was 50% to 70%. The experimental spray dried powders compared favorably to commercial blueberry powders. Results of the study show that use of blueberry by-products is feasible to make a value-added powder. Results can be used by producers to estimate final nutraceutical content of spray-dried blueberry by-products. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. Verification on spray simulation of a pintle injector for liquid rocket engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Min; Yu, Kijeong; Radhakrishnan, Kanmaniraja; Shin, Bongchul; Koo, Jaye

    2016-02-01

    The pintle injector used for a liquid rocket engine is a newly re-attracted injection system famous for its wide throttle ability with high efficiency. The pintle injector has many variations with complex inner structures due to its moving parts. In order to study the rotating flow near the injector tip, which was observed from the cold flow experiment using water and air, a numerical simulation was adopted and a verification of the numerical model was later conducted. For the verification process, three types of experimental data including velocity distributions of gas flows, spray angles and liquid distribution were all compared using simulated results. The numerical simulation was performed using a commercial simulation program with the Eulerian multiphase model and axisymmetric two dimensional grids. The maximum and minimum velocities of gas were within the acceptable range of agreement, however, the spray angles experienced up to 25% error when the momentum ratios were increased. The spray density distributions were quantitatively measured and had good agreement. As a result of this study, it was concluded that the simulation method was properly constructed to study specific flow characteristics of the pintle injector despite having the limitations of two dimensional and coarse grids.

  10. Cleansing technique using high-velocity steam-air micromist jet spray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Koichi; Ishihara, Masayuki; Murakami, Kaoru; Nakamura, Shingo; Sato, Yoko; Kuwabara, Masahiro; Fujita, Masanori; Kiyosawa, Tomoharu; Yokoe, Hidetaka

    2017-10-01

    Application of a high-velocity steam-air micromist jet spray (HVS-AMJS; micromist average diameter: 2.4 μm) for cleansing the skin is proposed. Low-pressure steam is mixed with compressed air (pH 6.5) in a nozzle, and then sprayed at a pressure of ≦0.25 MPa and a velocity of ≧0.34 m/s on the skin or surface of material located approximately 5-10 cm from the nozzle. The temperature on the sprayed surface and water flow rate could be controlled between 42 °C and 46 °C and at approximately 50 mL/min, respectively. Compared with ultrasonic cleansing with tap water and rubbing with only tap water, the HVS-AMJS successfully removed fluorescent lotion covering pieces of wood and significantly reduced both the number of coliforms and the total viable counts on pieces of wood and gauze. Furthermore, the HVS-AMJS effectively removed oily ink from the skin of hairless rats, and temporarily elevated the skin temperature and blood flow, indicating massage effects. The striking characteristics of this cleansing technique using HVS-AMJS are not only its ability to remove microbes and residue without using any chemicals or detergents but also its massage effects.

  11. Modifications Of A Commercial Spray Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Peter B.

    1993-01-01

    Commercial spray gun modified to increase spray rate and make sprayed coats more nearly uniform. Consists of gun head and pneumatic actuator. Actuator opens valves for two chemical components, called "A" and "B," that react to produce foam. Components flow through orifices, into mixing chamber in head. Mixture then flows through control orifice to spray tip. New spray tip tapered to reduce area available for accumulation of foam and makes tip easier to clean.

  12. Influence of powder and spray parameters on erosion and corrosion properties of HVOF sprayed WC-Co-Cr coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berget, John

    1998-07-01

    Thermal spraying is a generic term including various processes used to deposit coatings on surfaces. The coating material is in the form of powder or a wire and is melted or softened by means of a heat source. A gas stream accelerates the material towards a prepared surface and deposits it there to form the coating. Examples of components being maintained by application of thermal spray coatings are gate valves and ball valves for the offshore industry and turbine blades in power generations installations. Recent investigation has shown that the commonly used coating material WC-Co is not corrosion resistant. But it can be improved by the addition of Cr. The main objective of this thesis is to study the influence of spray process control variables and powder characteristics on the erosion and erosion-corrosion properties of the coatings. Spray process variables investigated include energy input, powder feed rate and spray distance. Powder characteristics studied are average size of the WC particles, relative proportions of Co and Cr in the metal phase and powder grain size distribution.

  13. [Categories and characteristics of BPH drug evaluation models: a comparative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dong-Yan; Wu, Jian-Hui; Sun, Zu-Yue

    2014-02-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a worldwide common disease in men over 50 years old, and the exact cause of BPH remains largely unknown. In order to elucidate its pathogenesis and screen effective drugs for the treatment of BPH, many BPH models have been developed at home and abroad. This article presents a comprehensive analysis of the categories and characteristics of BPH drug evaluation models, highlighting the application value of each model, to provide a theoretical basis for the development of BPH drugs.

  14. Electronic cigarette use: comparing smokers, vapers, and dual users on characteristics and motivational factors

    OpenAIRE

    Claire Schoren; Karin Hummel; Hein de Vries

    2017-01-01

    Introduction This study examined vaping behaviour, precursors of vaping, and motivational differences between smokers, dual users and vapers. The objectives were to assess a) vaping characteristics and reasons for use, b) differences in motivational factors and behavioural precursors associated with e-cigarette use, and c) socio-demographic and motivational factors associated with electronic cigarette use. Methods A cross-sectional survey among 259 vapers, 135 smokers, and 83 dual u...

  15. Comparing life history characteristics of Lake Michigan’s naturalized and stocked Chinook Salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, Janice A; Rogers, Mark W.; Bunnell, David B.; Claramunt, Randall M.; Collingsworth, Paris D.

    2016-01-01

    Lake Michigan supports popular fisheries for Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha that have been sustained by stocking since the late 1960s. Natural recruitment of Chinook Salmon in Lake Michigan has increased in the past few decades and currently contributes more than 50% of Chinook Salmon recruits. We hypothesized that selective forces differ for naturalized populations born in the wild and hatchery populations, resulting in divergent life history characteristics with implications for Chinook Salmon population production and the Lake Michigan fishery. First, we conducted a historical analysis to determine if life history characteristics changed through time as the Chinook Salmon population became increasingly naturalized. Next, we conducted a 2-year field study of naturalized and hatchery stocked Chinook Salmon spawning populations to quantify differences in fecundity, egg size, timing of spawning, and size at maturity. In general, our results did not indicate significant life history divergence between naturalized and hatchery-stocked Chinook Salmon populations in Lake Michigan. Although historical changes in adult sex ratio were correlated with the proportion of naturalized individuals, changes in weight at maturity were better explained by density-dependent factors. The field study revealed no divergence in fecundity, timing of spawning, or size at maturity, and only small differences in egg size (hatchery > naturalized). For the near future, our results suggest that the limited life history differences observed between Chinook Salmon of naturalized and hatchery origin will not lead to large differences in characteristics important to the dynamics of the population or fishery.

  16. Health Characteristics of Solo Grandparent Caregivers and Single Parents: A Comparative Profile Using the Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Deborah M; Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Brennenstuhl, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To describe the health characteristics of solo grandparents raising grandchildren compared with single parents. Methods. Using the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, respondents identified as a single grandparent raising a grandchild were categorized as a solo grandparent; grandparent responses were compared with single parents. Descriptive analysis compared health characteristics of 925 solo grandparents with 7,786 single parents. Results. Compared to single parents, grandparents have a higher prevalence of physical health problems (e.g., arthritis). Both parent groups have a high prevalence of lifetime depression. A larger share of grandparents actively smoke and did no recreational physical exercise in the last month. However, grandparents appear to have better access to health services in comparison with single parents. Conclusion. Solo grandparents may be at risk for diminished physical capacity and heightened prevalence of depression. Health professionals can be an important resource to increase grandparents' physical and emotional capacities.

  17. Health Characteristics of Solo Grandparent Caregivers and Single Parents: A Comparative Profile Using the Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah M. Whitley

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To describe the health characteristics of solo grandparents raising grandchildren compared with single parents. Methods. Using the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, respondents identified as a single grandparent raising a grandchild were categorized as a solo grandparent; grandparent responses were compared with single parents. Descriptive analysis compared health characteristics of 925 solo grandparents with 7,786 single parents. Results. Compared to single parents, grandparents have a higher prevalence of physical health problems (e.g., arthritis. Both parent groups have a high prevalence of lifetime depression. A larger share of grandparents actively smoke and did no recreational physical exercise in the last month. However, grandparents appear to have better access to health services in comparison with single parents. Conclusion. Solo grandparents may be at risk for diminished physical capacity and heightened prevalence of depression. Health professionals can be an important resource to increase grandparents’ physical and emotional capacities.

  18. Sociodemographic characteristics and attitudes towards motherhood among single women compared with cohabiting women treated with donor semen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomon, Maria; Sylvest, Randi; Hansson, Helena

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine sociodemographic characteristics, family backgrounds, reproductive histories, and attitudes towards motherhood in single vs. cohabiting women seeking treatment with donor semen. DESIGN: Baseline data collection in a multicenter cohort study. SETTING: All nine public fertility...... clinics in Denmark. SAMPLE: In total n = 311 childless women initiating assisted reproduction using donor semen. METHODS: Self-reported questionnaire responses from n = 184 single women seeking treatment by using donor semen were compared with responses from n = 127 cohabiting women. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES......: Sociodemographic characteristics, family backgrounds, reproductive histories, attitudes towards motherhood. RESULTS: Single women were 3.5 years older on average when initiating treatment compared with cohabiting women. No significant differences were found regarding sociodemographic characteristics, previous long...

  19. Absorption/desorption in sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naimpally, A.

    1987-01-01

    This survey paper shall seek to present the present state of knowledge concerning absorption and desorption in spray chambers. The first part of the paper presents the theories and formulas for the atomization and break-up of sprays in nozzles. Formulas for the average (sauter-mean) diameters are then presented. For the case of absorption processes, the formulas for the dimensionless mass transfer coefficients is in drops. The total; mass transfer is the total of the transfer in individual drops. For the case of desorption of sparingly soluble gases from liquids in a spray chamber, the mass transfer occurs in the spray just at the point of break-up of the jet. Formulas for the desorption of gases are presented

  20. Magnesium Repair by Cold Spray

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Champagne, V. K; Leyman, P.F; Helfritch, D. J

    2008-01-01

    .... Army Research Laboratory has developed a cold spray process to reclaim magnesium components that shows significant improvement over existing methods and is in the process of qualification for use on rotorcraft...

  1. A numerical study on dynamics of spray jets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The study of flow characteristics of spray jets in an injector nozzle, sol- gel process is very .... the physical properties of a fluid. .... to the nozzle is kept fixed, the walls are maintained at no slip conditions and the top of the ... represents the relationship between the axial distance from the nozzle outlet and the jet radius. Y. X.

  2. Multi-response optimization of process parameters using Taguchi method and grey relational analysis during turning AA 7075/SiC composite in dry and spray cooling environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Mishra

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Turning experiments were carried out on AA 7075/SiC composite workpiece in dry and spray cooling environments based on L16 Taguchi design of experiments. Multiple performance optimization of process parameters was performed using grey relational analysis. The performance characteristics considered were average surface roughness, cutting tool temperature and material removal rate. Uncoated carbide inserts were used for machining the workpiece in a high speed precision lathe. A grey relational grade obtained from grey relational analysis was used to optimize the process parameters. Optimal combination of process parameters was then determined by the Taguchi method using the grey relational grade as the performance index. Experimental results indicated that the turning in spray cooling environment was beneficial compared to that in dry environment for the quality response characteristics under consideration. Analysis of variance showed that feed was the most significant parameter for the multiple performance characteristics during turning in both the environments.

  3. Comparative analysis of some bioecological characteristics of Hungarian oak and Turkey oak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukin Marina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives an in-depth study of some bioecological characteristics of the Hungarian and Turkey oak, autochthonous oak species and edificators of climatogenic communities of central Serbia. Today, these forest complexes are mostly of coppice origin and as such, they require implementation of reclamation operations. In order to determine biological dominance, select the optimal reclamation operations and finally improve the state of these forests, we studied the environmental conditions, stand state, development and position of individual trees in a mixed coppice stand of Hungarian and Turkey oak in a suburban zone of the city of Belgrade.

  4. Experimental and numerical analysis of the cooling performance of water spraying systems during a fire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YaoHan Chen

    Full Text Available The water spray systems are effective protection systems in the confined or unconfined spaces to avoid the damage to building structures since the high temperature when fires occur. NFPA 15 and 502 have suggested respectively that the factories or vehicle tunnels install water spray systems to protect the machinery and structures. This study discussed the cooling effect of water spray systems in experimental and numerical analyses. The actual combustion of woods were compared with the numerical simulations. The results showed that although the flame continued, the cooling effects by water spraying process within 120 seconds were obvious. The results also indicated that the simulation results of the fifth version Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS overestimated the space temperature before water spraying in the case of the same water spray system.

  5. Thermal stability study of crystalline and novel spray-dried amorphous nilotinib hydrochloride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herbrink, Maikel; Vromans, Herman; Schellens, Jan Hm; Beijnen, Jos H; Nuijen, Bastiaan

    2018-01-01

    The thermal characteristics and the thermal degradation of crystalline and amorphous nilotinib hydrochloride (NH) were studied. The spray drying technique was successfully utilized for the amorphization of NH and was evaluated by spectroscopic techniques and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).

  6. The influence of spray properties on intranasal deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Mow Yee; Cheng, Yung-Sung; Su, Wei-Chung; Donovan, Maureen D

    2007-01-01

    While numerous devices, formulations, and spray characteristics have been shown to influence nasal deposition efficiency, few studies have attempted to identify which of these interacting factors plays the greatest role in nasal spray deposition. The deposition patterns of solutions with a wide range of surface tensions and viscosities were measured using an MRI-derived nasal cavity replica. The resulting spray plumes had angles between 29 degrees and 80 degrees and contained droplet sizes (D(v50)) from 37-157 microm. Each formulation contained rhodamine 590 as a fluorescent marker for detection. Administration angles of 30 degrees , 40 degrees , or 50 degrees above horizontal were tested to investigate the role of user technique on nasal deposition. The amount of spray deposited within specific regions of the nasal cavity was determined by disassembling the replica and measuring the amount of rhodamine retained in each section. Most of the spray droplets were deposited onto the anterior region of the model, but sprays with small plume angles were capable of reaching the turbinate region with deposition efficiencies approaching 90%. Minimal dependence on droplet size, viscosity, or device was observed. Changes in inspiratory flow rate (0-60 L/min) had no significant effect on turbinate deposition efficiency. Both plume angle and administration angle were found to be important factors in determining deposition efficiency. For administration angles of 40 degrees or 50 degrees , maximal turbinate deposition efficiency (30-50%) occurred with plume angles of 55-65 degrees , whereas a 30 degrees administration angle gave an approximately 75% deposition efficiency for similar plume angles. Deposition efficiencies of approximately 90% could be achieved with plume angles deposition efficiency, while many other spray parameters, including particle size, have relatively minor influences on deposition within the nasal cavity.

  7. A Planar-Fluorescence Imaging Technique for Studying Droplet-Turbulence Interactions in Vaporizing Sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santavicca, Dom A.; Coy, E.

    1990-01-01

    Droplet turbulence interactions directly affect the vaporization and dispersion of droplets in liquid sprays and therefore play a major role in fuel oxidizer mixing in liquid fueled combustion systems. Proper characterization of droplet turbulence interactions in vaporizing sprays require measurement of droplet size velocity and size temperature correlations. A planar, fluorescence imaging technique is described which is being developed for simultaneously measuring the size, velocity, and temperature of individual droplets in vaporizing sprays. Preliminary droplet size velocity correlation measurements made with this technique are presented. These measurements are also compared to and show very good agreement with measurements made in the same spray using a phase Doppler particle analyzer.

  8. Numerical model of sprayed air cooled condenser coupled to refrigerating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youbi-Idrissi, M.; Macchi-Tejeda, H.; Fournaison, L.; Guilpart, J.

    2007-01-01

    Because of technological, economic and environmental constraints, many refrigeration and air conditioning units are equipped with a simple air cooled condenser. Spraying the condenser seems to be an original solution to improve the energetic performances of such systems. To characterise this energetic benefit, a semi-local mathematical model was developed and applied to a refrigerating machine with and without spraying its air cooled condenser. It is found that, compared to a dry air cooled condenser, both the calorific capacity and machine COP increase by 13% and 55%, respectively. Furthermore, the model shows that a spray flow rate threshold occurs. It should not be exceeded to assure an effective and rational spray use

  9. The Comparative Analysis and Evaluation of Ecological Characteristics of Drum and Disk Wheel Brakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Revin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available It is well-known that automobile transport as well as industry are the main sources of air pollution. In addition to exhaust gases, the flow of traffic releases a cloud of dust, consisting of over 60% of micro- and ultramicroscopic particles with radius of 10.0–0.25 µm, which are formed due to wheel abrasion (caused by the road grip of a tyre and the use of the brake blocks (in braking. The products formed in the process of wearing of the wheel brake pads are also the sources of the mass of fine dispersed particles over an urban highway. The authors analyse and evaluate ecological characteristics of drum and disk wheel brakes of vehicles.Article in Russian

  10. Characteristic of leachate at Alor Pongsu Landfill Site, Perak, Malaysia: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nor Farhana Zakaria, Siti; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul

    2018-04-01

    Leachate is a harmful by product generated from the landfill site. Leachate contains a high concentration of pollutant which can cause serious pollution to environmental. In this study, characteristics of leachate in Alor Pongsu Landfill Site (APLS) were monitored and analyzed according to the Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (2005). Composition in leachate at APLS was monitored for one year starting from January 2015 until January 2016. Nine parameters were monitored including color, chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD5), ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N), biodegradability ratio (BOD5/COD), temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), total dissolved solid (TDS) and pH. Based on the analysis, Alor Pongsu Landfill leachate was categorized as stabilized landfill leachate by referring to the BOD5/COD < 0.1. Comparison with allowable discharge limits for leachate shows that most of parameters exceeded the standard discharge limitation. Thus, proper treatment is needed before leachate can be discharged to the environment.

  11. Design Optimization of Liquid Fueled High Velocity Oxy- Fuel Thermal Spraying Technique for Durable Coating for Fossil Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhuri, Ahsan [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States); Love, Norman [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States)

    2016-11-04

    High-velocity oxy–fuel (HVOF) thermal spraying was developed in 1930 and has been commercially available for twenty-five years. HVOF thermal spraying has several benefits over the more conventional plasma spray technique including a faster deposition rate which leads to quicker turn-around, with more durable coatings and higher bond strength, hardness and wear resistance due to a homogeneous distribution of the sprayed particles. HVOF thermal spraying is frequently used in engineering to deposit cermets, metallic alloys, composites and polymers, to enhance product life and performance. HVOF thermal spraying system is a highly promising technique for applying durable coatings on structural materials for corrosive and high temperature environments in advanced ultra-supercritical coal- fired (AUSC) boilers, steam turbines and gas turbines. HVOF thermal spraying is the preferred method for producing coatings with low porosity and high adhesion. HVOF thermal spray process has been shown to be one of the most efficient techniques to deposit high performance coatings at moderate cost. Variables affecting the deposit formation and coating properties include hardware characteristics such as nozzle geometry and spraying distance and process parameters such as equivalence ratio, gas flow density, and powder feedstock. In the spray process, the powder particles experience very high speeds combined with fast heating to the powder material melting point or above. This high temperature causes evaporation of the powder, dissolution, and phase transformations. Due to the complex nature of the HVOF technique, the control and optimization of the process is difficult. In general, good coating quality with suitable properties and required performance for specific applications is the goal in producing thermal spray coatings. In order to reach this goal, a deeper understanding of the spray process as a whole is needed. Although many researchers studied commercial HVOF thermal spray

  12. Programmable Ultrasonic Sensing System for Targeted Spraying in Orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Hočevar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This research demonstrates the basic elements of a prototype automated orchard sprayer which delivers pesticide spray selectively with respect to the characteristics of the targets. The density of an apple tree canopy was detected by PROWAVE 400EP250 ultrasound sensors controlled by a Cypress PSOC CY8C29466 microcontroller. The ultrasound signal was processed with an embedded computer built around a LPC1343 microcontroller and fed in real time to electro-magnetic valves which open/close spraying nozzles in relation to the canopy structure. The analysis focuses on the detection of appropriate thresholds on 15 cm ultrasound bands, which correspond to maximal response to tree density, and this was selected for accurate spraying guidance. Evaluation of the system was performed in an apple orchard by detecting deposits of tartrazine dye (TD on apple leaves. The employment of programmable microcontrollers and electro-magnetic valves decreased the amount of spray delivered by up to 48.15%. In contrast, the reduction of TD was only up to 37.7% at some positions within the tree crown and 65.1% in the gaps between trees. For all these reasons, this concept of precise orchard spraying can contribute to a reduction of costs and environmental pollution, while obtaining similar or even better leaf deposits.

  13. Programmable Ultrasonic Sensing System for Targeted Spraying in Orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stajnko, Denis; Berk, Peter; Lešnik, Mario; Jejčič, Viktor; Lakota, Miran; Štrancar, Andrej; Hočevar, Marko; Rakun, Jurij

    2012-01-01

    This research demonstrates the basic elements of a prototype automated orchard sprayer which delivers pesticide spray selectively with respect to the characteristics of the targets. The density of an apple tree canopy was detected by PROWAVE 400EP250 ultrasound sensors controlled by a Cypress PSOC CY8C29466 microcontroller. The ultrasound signal was processed with an embedded computer built around a LPC1343 microcontroller and fed in real time to electro-magnetic valves which open/close spraying nozzles in relation to the canopy structure. The analysis focuses on the detection of appropriate thresholds on 15 cm ultrasound bands, which correspond to maximal response to tree density, and this was selected for accurate spraying guidance. Evaluation of the system was performed in an apple orchard by detecting deposits of tartrazine dye (TD) on apple leaves. The employment of programmable microcontrollers and electro-magnetic valves decreased the amount of spray delivered by up to 48.15%. In contrast, the reduction of TD was only up to 37.7% at some positions within the tree crown and 65.1% in the gaps between trees. For all these reasons, this concept of precise orchard spraying can contribute to a reduction of costs and environmental pollution, while obtaining similar or even better leaf deposits. PMID:23202220

  14. Slurry spray distribution within a simulated laboratory scale spray dryer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertone, P.C.

    1979-01-01

    It was found that the distribution of liquid striking the sides of a simulated room temperature spray dryer was not significantly altered by the choice of nozles, nor by a variation in nozzle operating conditions. Instead, it was found to be a function of the spray dryer's configuration. A cocurrent flow of air down the drying cylinder, not possible with PNL's closed top, favorably altered the spray distribution by both decreasing the amount of liquid striking the interior of the cylinder from 72 to 26% of the feed supplied, and by shifting the zone of maximum impact from 1.0 to 1.7 feet from the nozzle. These findings led to the redesign of the laboratory scale spray dryer to be tested at the Savannah River Plant. The diameter of the drying chamber was increased from 5 to 8 inches, and a cocurrent flow of air was established with a closed recycle. Finally, this investigation suggested a drying scheme which offers all the advantages of spray drying without many of its limitations

  15. Plasma Sprayed Hydroxyapatite Coatings: Influence of Spraying Power on Microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd, S. M.; Abd, M. Z.; Abd, A. N.

    2010-01-01

    The plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings are used on metallic implants to enhance the bonding between the implant and bone in human body. The coating process was implemented at different spraying power for each spraying condition. The coatings formed from a rapid solidification of molten and partly molten particles that impact on the surface of substrate at high velocity and high temperature. The study was concentrated on different spraying power that is between 23 to 31 kW. The effect of different power on the coatings microstructure was investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and phase composition was evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The coatings surface morphology showed distribution of molten, partially melted particles and some micro-cracks. The produced coatings were found to be porous as observed from the cross-sectional morphology. The coatings XRD results indicated the presence of crystalline phase of HA and each of the patterns was similar to the initial powder. Regardless of different spraying power, all the coatings were having similar XRD patterns.

  16. Sex differences in gender characteristics of Australian nurses and male engineers: a comparative cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J Fisher, Murray

    2011-08-01

    There continue to be assumptions within the nursing literature that nursing is synonymous with a feminine sex role identity. A comparative cross-sectional survey consisting of the Bem Sex Role Inventory and the Australian sex role scale was used to determine sex difference in gender characteristics of Australian nurses and with male engineers. A statistically significant difference in femininity was found between all the samples (F((2,908)) = 20.24, p orientation (t = 27.67) and self display (t = 12.42). Whilst differences in expressive characteristics were found between male and female nurses, a similar difference was found between male nurses and male engineers, supporting the notion that male nurses perceive themselves as having feminine characteristics essentially required for nursing.

  17. Comparative analysis of risk characteristics of nuclear waste repositories and other disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, M.K.; Earle, T.C.; Nealey, S.M.

    1981-06-01

    Three fundamental questions concerning public perception of the measurement of radioactive wastes were addressed in this report. The first question centered on the perceived importance of nuclear waste management as a public issue: how important is nuclear waste management relative to other technological and scientific issues; do different segments of the public disagree on its importance; the second question concerned public attitudes toward a nuclear waste disposal facility: how great a risk to health and safety is a nuclear waste disposal facility relative to other industrial facilities; is there disagreement on its riskiness among various public groups; the third question pertained to the aspects of risks that affect overall risk perception: what are the qualitative aspects of a nuclear waste disposal facility that contribute to overall perceptions of risk; do different segments of the population associate different risk characteristics with hazardous facilities. The questions follow from one another: is the issue important; given the importance of the issue, is the facility designed to deal with it considered risky; given the riskiness of the facility, why is it considered risky. Also addressed in this report, and a main focus of its findings, were the patterns of differences among respondent groups on each of these questions

  18. Comparative proteomics reveal characteristics of life-history transitions in a social insect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amdam Gro V

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Honey bee (Apis mellifera workers are characterized by complex social behavior. Their life-history is dominated by a period of within-nest activity followed by a phase of long-distance flights and foraging. General insights into insect metabolism imply that foraging onset is associated with fundamental metabolic changes, and theory on social evolution suggests metabolic adaptations that are advantageous for the colony as a whole. Results Here we address the life-history characteristics of workers with LC-MS/MS based relative quantification of major proteins. Our approach includes: i. Calculation of a false positive rate for the identifications, ii. Support of relative protein quantification results obtained from spectral count by non-parametric statistics, and iii. Correction for Type 1 error inflation using a bootstrap iteration analysis. Our data are consistent with the use of glucose as the main fuel for honey bee flight. Moreover, the data delivers information on the expression of ATPsynthases/ATPases, and provide new insights into nurse- and forager-specific patterns of protection against oxidative stress. Conclusion The results show the suitability of this approach to investigate fundamental biochemical changes in an insect, and provide new evidence for metabolic specializations that occur during the social ontogeny of worker honey bees.

  19. Receiver operating characteristic analysis of eyewitness memory: comparing the diagnostic accuracy of simultaneous versus sequential lineups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickes, Laura; Flowe, Heather D; Wixted, John T

    2012-12-01

    A police lineup presents a real-world signal-detection problem because there are two possible states of the world (the suspect is either innocent or guilty), some degree of information about the true state of the world is available (the eyewitness has some degree of memory for the perpetrator), and a decision is made (identifying the suspect or not). A similar state of affairs applies to diagnostic tests in medicine because, in a patient, the disease is either present or absent, a diagnostic test yields some degree of information about the true state of affairs, and a decision is made about the presence or absence of the disease. In medicine, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis is the standard method for assessing diagnostic accuracy. By contrast, in the eyewitness memory literature, this powerful technique has never been used. Instead, researchers have attempted to assess the diagnostic performance of different lineup procedures using methods that cannot identify the better procedure (e.g., by computing a diagnosticity ratio). Here, we describe the basics of ROC analysis, explaining why it is needed and showing how to use it to measure the performance of different lineup procedures. To illustrate the unique advantages of this technique, we also report 3 ROC experiments that were designed to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of simultaneous versus sequential lineups. According to our findings, the sequential procedure appears to be inferior to the simultaneous procedure in discriminating between the presence versus absence of a guilty suspect in a lineup.

  20. Heating value characteristics of sewage sludge: a comparative study of different sludge types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young-JU.; Kang, Hae-Ok.; Qureshi, T.I.

    2005-01-01

    Heating value characteristics of three different types of sludge, i.e. domestic sewage sludge, industrial sludge, and industrial + domestic sewage sludge were investigated. Industrial + domestic sewage sludge (thickened) showed the highest heating value (5040 kcal/kg) than other sludge types. This may be due to increased amount of organic matter presents in thickened sludge than de-watered sludge. A gradual increase in organic matter of the sludge was observed with the increase of the moisture contents. Heating value of the sludge having 60% moisture contents was found in the range between 924-1656 kcal/kg and this amount was higher than the minimum heating value (800 kcal/kg) required sustaining auto thermal combustion in sludge incineration process. Energy consumption requirement for pre drying sludge operations revealed that industrial sludge (de-watered) required the minimum cost (13 $/ton of sludge) to make it a sludge of fuel grade (60% W), while mixed sludge cost the highest amount for its pre-drying operations. (author)

  1. Comparative analysis of mechanical characteristics of solidified concentrates from BWR system using Yugoslav and Italian cements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plecas, I.; Peric, A.; Drljaca, J.; Kostadinovic, A.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper, properties of Italian and Yugoslav cement mixture with BWR evaporation concentrates were compared, research was held upon fifteen samples, according to the adequate formulations. Samples were made in standard cube form, side 10 cm. Functional relationship between decreasing the compressive strength and amount of incorporated BWR concentrate cement mixture was developed. The results of research showed nearly the same mechanical properties of solidified BWR concentrate with Italian and Yugoslav cements. (author)

  2. Comparative analysis of individuals with and without chiropractic coverage: patient characteristics, utilization, and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legorreta, Antonio P; Metz, R Douglas; Nelson, Craig F; Ray, Saurabh; Chernicoff, Helen Oster; Dinubile, Nicholas A

    2004-10-11

    Back pain accounts for more than $100 billion in annual US health care costs and is the second leading cause of physician visits and hospitalizations. This study ascertains the effect of systematic access to chiropractic care on the overall and neuromusculoskeletal-specific consumption of health care resources within a large managed-care system. A 4-year retrospective claims data analysis comparing more than 700 000 health plan members with an additional chiropractic coverage benefit and 1 million members of the same health plan without the chiropractic benefit. Members with chiropractic insurance coverage, compared with those without coverage, had lower annual total health care expenditures ($1463 vs $1671 per member per year, P<.001). Having chiropractic coverage was associated with a 1.6% decrease (P = .001) in total annual health care costs at the health plan level. Back pain patients with chiropractic coverage, compared with those without coverage, had lower utilization (per 1000 episodes) of plain radiographs (17.5 vs 22.7, P<.001), low back surgery (3.3 vs 4.8, P<.001), hospitalizations (9.3 vs 15.6, P<.001), and magnetic resonance imaging (43.2 vs 68.9, P<.001). Patients with chiropractic coverage, compared with those without coverage, also had lower average back pain episode-related costs ($289 vs $399, P<.001). Access to managed chiropractic care may reduce overall health care expenditures through several effects, including (1) positive risk selection; (2) substitution of chiropractic for traditional medical care, particularly for spine conditions; (3) more conservative, less invasive treatment profiles; and (4) lower health service costs associated with managed chiropractic care. Systematic access to managed chiropractic care not only may prove to be clinically beneficial but also may reduce overall health care costs.

  3. Comparative study on current limiting characteristics of flux-lock type SFCL with series or parallel connection of two coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, S.H.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the current limiting characteristics of the flux-lock type superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) with series or parallel connection of two coils. These two flux-lock type SFCLs with magnetically coupled two coils have the same operational principle that the fault current can be limited by the magnetic flux generated between two coils of the SFCL when a fault happens. In addition, the inductance ratio and the winding direction of two coils in both the SFCLs are the major design parameters that affect the fault current limiting characteristics of the SFCL. On the other hand, the operational current and the limiting impedance of both the SFCLs under the same design condition have the different tendency, which results from the different winding methods of two coils on an iron core. Therefore, the comparative study for both the SFCLs from the current limiting performance of the SFCL point of view is needed. To compare the current limiting characteristics of both the SFCLs, the operational current and the limiting impedance of the SFCL, which describes the performance of the SFCL, were derived from each SFCL's electrical equivalent circuit. Through the analysis for the fault current limiting experiments of both the SFCLs, the different current limiting characteristics of both the SFCLs were discussed

  4. A comparative study of characteristics and risky behaviors among the Iranian opium and opium dross addicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noohi, Sima; Azar, Mahyar; Behzadi, Ashkan Heshmatzade; Sedaghati, Mahsa; Panahi, Sepideh Akbari; Dehghan, Nasir; Honarbakhsh, Yasamin; Akasheh, Amirpoya; Tahoori, Armin; Wilson, Denis

    2011-03-01

    Iran ranks first per capita in the use of opiates, but we have little information about possible differences regarding the 2 most commonly used illicit drugs, namely opium and its dross (residue). This is a cross-sectional study. A cross-sectional study about drug abuse and drug dependence in Iran was conducted from April 2006 to August 2008 in the prisons of 28 Iranian provinces, in the treatment centers, and in the streets. To pursue the objectives of this research, participants included 2979 opiate addicts including opium users (n = 2636) and dross users (n = 343), who were not significantly different by gender (P = 0.269) or age (P = 0.452). An anonymous questionnaire was completed through an interview that gathered sociodemographic characteristics and information about some high-risk behaviors. : By the end of the study, we concluded that dross addicts, in comparison with opium addicts, were mostly immigrants from rural areas to urban areas (P = 0.031 χ test, 95% confidence interval [CI]), mostly uneducated, illiterate, or semiliterate (P = 0.04 χ test, 95% CI), had illegal occupations (P = 0.048 χ test, 95% CI), were cigarette smokers (P < 0.000 χ test, 95% CI), and had experienced drug injections (P = 0.032 χ test, 95% CI) and drug overdose (P = 0.007 χ test, 95% CI). They also had a history of hospital admission within the preceding year because of drug overdose (P < 0.000) and a record of being arrested and jailed in the past year (P = 0.028 χ test, 95% CI). These results indicated the need for more intensive and effective care for the opioid addicts in Iran.

  5. Field experiment on spray drift: deposition and airborne drift during application to a winter wheat crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, André; Linnemann, Volker; van de Zande, Jan C; Vereecken, Harry

    2008-11-01

    A field experiment was performed to evaluate various techniques for measuring spray deposition and airborne drift during spray application to a winter wheat crop. The application of a spraying agent containing the fluorescent dye Brilliant Sulfo Flavine by a conventional boom sprayer was done according to good agricultural practice. Deposition was measured by horizontal collectors in various arrangements in and outside the treated area. Airborne spray drift was measured both with a passive and an active air collecting system. Spray deposits on top of the treated canopy ranged between 68 and 71% of the applied dose and showed only small differences for various arrangements of the collectors. Furthermore, only small variations were measured within the various groups of collectors used for these arrangements. Generally, the highest spray deposition outside the treated area was measured close to the sprayed plot and was accompanied by a high variability of values, while a rapid decline of deposits was detected in more remote areas. Estimations of spray deposits with the IMAG Drift Calculator were in accordance with experimental findings only for areas located at a distance of 0.5-4.5 m from the last nozzle, while there was an overestimation of a factor of 4 at a distance of 2.0-3.0 m, thus revealing a high level of uncertainty of the estimation of deposition for short distances. Airborne spray drift measured by passive and active air collecting systems was approximately at the same level, when taking into consideration the collector efficiency of the woven nylon wire used as sampling material for the passive collecting system. The maximum value of total airborne spray drift for both spray applications (0.79% of the applied dose) was determined by the active collecting system. However, the comparatively high variability of measurements at various heights above the soil by active and passive collecting systems revealed need for further studies to elucidate the spatial

  6. Injury Characteristics of Low-Energy Lisfranc Injuries Compared With High-Energy Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renninger, Christopher H; Cochran, Grant; Tompane, Trevor; Bellamy, Joseph; Kuhn, Kevin

    2017-09-01

    Lisfranc injuries result from high- and low-energy mechanisms though the literature has been more focused on high-energy mechanisms. A comparison of high-energy (HE) and low-energy (LE) injury patterns is lacking. The objective of this study was to report injury patterns in LE Lisfranc joint injuries and compare them to HE injury patterns. Operative Lisfranc injuries were identified over a 5-year period. Patient demographics, mechanism of injury, injury pattern, associated injuries, missed diagnoses, clinical course, and imaging studies were reviewed and compared. HE mechanism was defined as motor vehicle crash, motorcycle crash, direct crush, and fall from greater than 4 feet and LE mechanism as athletic activity, ground level twisting, or fall from less than 4 feet. Thirty-two HE and 48 LE cases were identified with 19.3 months of average follow-up. There were no differences in demographics or missed diagnosis frequency (21% HE vs 18% LE). Time to seek care was not significantly different. HE injuries were more likely to have concomitant nonfoot fractures (37% vs 6%), concomitant foot fractures (78% vs 4%), cuboid fractures (31% vs 6%), metatarsal base fractures (84% vs 29%), displaced intra-articular fractures (59% vs 4%), and involvement of all 5 rays (23% vs 6%). LE injuries were more commonly ligamentous (68% vs 16%), with fewer rays involved (2.7 vs 4.1). LE mechanisms were a more common cause of Lisfranc joint injury in this cohort. These mechanisms generally resulted in an isolated, primarily ligamentous injury sparing the lateral column. Both types had high rates of missed injury that could result in delayed treatment. Differences in injury patterns could help direct future research to optimize treatment algorithms. Level III, comparative series.

  7. Liquid sprays and flow studies in the direct-injection diesel engine under motored conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung Lee; Carpenter, Mark H.; Ramos, Juan I.; Schock, Harold J.; Stegeman, James D.

    1988-01-01

    A two dimensional, implicit finite difference method of the control volume variety, a two equation model of turbulence, and a discrete droplet model were used to study the flow field, turbulence levels, fuel penetration, vaporization, and mixing in diesel engine environments. The model was also used to study the effects of engine speed, injection angle, spray cone angle, droplet distribution, and intake swirl angle on the flow field, spray penetration and vaporization, and turbulence in motored two-stroke diesel engines. It is shown that there are optimum conditions for injection, which depend on droplet distribution, swirl, spray cone angle, and injection angle. The optimum conditions result in good spray penetration and vaporization and in good fuel mixing. The calculation presented clearly indicates that internal combustion engine models can be used to assess, at least qualitatively, the effects of injection characteristics and engine operating conditions on the flow field and on the spray penetration and vaporization in diesel engines.

  8. Comparing the performance characteristics of CSF-TRUST and CSF-VDRL for syphilis: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Weiming; Yang, Yang; Wu, Lei; Yang, Sheng; Ng, Lai-King

    2013-01-01

    Objective In this study, we aimed to determine the performance characteristics of toluidine red unheated serum test on cerebrospinal fluids (CSF-TRUST) as compared to venereal disease research laboratory test on cerebrospinal fluids (CSF-VDRL) for laboratory the diagnosis of neurosyphilis. Design A cross-sectional study. Setting Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) clinics. Participants and methods CSF and serum samples were collected from 824 individual STD clinic patients who have syphili...

  9. A cross-sectional observational study comparing foot and ankle characteristics in people with stroke and healthy controls

    OpenAIRE

    Kunkel, Dorit; Potter, Julia; Mamode, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore and compare foot and ankle characteristics in people with stroke and healthy controls; and between stroke fallers and non-fallers.Methods: Participants were recruited from community groups and completed standardized tests assessing sensation, foot posture, foot function, ankle dorsiflexion and first metatarsal phalangeal joint range of motion (1st MPJ ROM), hallux valgus presence and severity.Results: Twenty-three stroke participants (mean age...

  10. Heat removal tests for pressurized water reactor containment spray by largescale facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motoki, Y.; Hashimoto, K.; Kitani, S.; Naritomi, M.; Nishio, G.; Tanaka, M.

    1983-01-01

    Heat removal tests for pressurized water reactor (PWR) containment spray were carried out to investigate effectiveness of the depressurization by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute model containment (7-m diameter, 20 m high, and 708-m 3 volume) with PWR spray nozzles. The depressurization rate is influenced by the spray heat transfer efficiency and the containment wall surface heat transfer coefficient. The overall spray heat transfer efficiency was investigated with respect to spray flow rate, weight ratio of steam/air, and spray height. The spray droplet heat transfer efficiency was investigated whether the overlapping of spray patterns gives effect or not. The effect was not detectable in the range of large value of steam/air, however, it was better in the range of small value of it. The experimental results were compared with the calculated results by computer code CONTEMPT-LT/022. The overall spray heat transfer efficiency was almost 100% in the containment pressure, ranging from 2.5 to 0.9 kg/cm 2 X G, so that the code was useful on the prediction of the thermal hydraulic behavior of containment atmosphere in a PWR accident condition

  11. Residual stress determination in thermally sprayed metallic deposits by neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, Thomas; Margadant, Nikolaus; Pirling, Thilo; Riegert-Escribano, Maria J.; Wagner, Werner

    2004-01-01

    Neutron diffraction was used to obtain spatially resolved strain and stress profiles in thermally sprayed metallic 'NiCrAlY' deposits (chemical composition 67 wt.% Ni, 22 wt.% Cr, 10 wt.% Al, 1 wt.% Y) and the underlying steel substrates. Samples of four different spray techniques were analyzed: atmospheric and water stabilized plasma spraying (APS and WSP), flame spraying (FS) and wire arc spraying (WAS). The results are quantitatively compared with the average in-plane residual stress determined by complementary bending tests and the hole drilling technique. While the stress profiles from the surface to the interface in the deposits are similar for all investigated spray techniques, their absolute values and gradients vary strongly. This is attributed to different quenching stresses from the impinging particles, different thermal histories the deposit/substrate systems undergo during the spraying and subsequent cooling, and also to different coating properties. In the water stabilized plasma sprayed and the wire arc sprayed deposits, a gradient in the stress-free lattice parameter was observed. Crack formation is found to be a dominant mechanism for stress relaxation in the surface plane

  12. Residual stress determination in thermally sprayed metallic deposits by neutron diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Thomas; Margadant, Nikolaus; Pirling, Thilo; Riegert-Escribano, Maria J.; Wagner, Werner

    2004-05-25

    Neutron diffraction was used to obtain spatially resolved strain and stress profiles in thermally sprayed metallic 'NiCrAlY' deposits (chemical composition 67 wt.% Ni, 22 wt.% Cr, 10 wt.% Al, 1 wt.% Y) and the underlying steel substrates. Samples of four different spray techniques were analyzed: atmospheric and water stabilized plasma spraying (APS and WSP), flame spraying (FS) and wire arc spraying (WAS). The results are quantitatively compared with the average in-plane residual stress determined by complementary bending tests and the hole drilling technique. While the stress profiles from the surface to the interface in the deposits are similar for all investigated spray techniques, their absolute values and gradients vary strongly. This is attributed to different quenching stresses from the impinging particles, different thermal histories the deposit/substrate systems undergo during the spraying and subsequent cooling, and also to different coating properties. In the water stabilized plasma sprayed and the wire arc sprayed deposits, a gradient in the stress-free lattice parameter was observed. Crack formation is found to be a dominant mechanism for stress relaxation in the surface plane.

  13. Note: Automatic layer-by-layer spraying system for functional thin film coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seongmin; Lee, Sangmin; Park, Yong Tae

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we have constructed an automatic spray machine for producing polyelectrolyte multilayer films containing various functional materials on wide substrates via the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly technique. The proposed machine exhibits advantages in terms of automation, process speed, and versatility. Furthermore, it has several features that allow a fully automated spraying operation, such as various two-dimensional spraying paths, control of the flow rate and operating speed, air-assist fan-shaped twin-fluid nozzles, and an optical display. The robot uniformly sprays aqueous mixtures containing complementary (e.g., oppositely charged, capable of hydrogen bonding, or capable of covalent bonding) species onto a large-area substrate. Between each deposition of opposite species, samples are spray-rinsed with deionized water and blow-dried with air. The spraying, rinsing, and drying areas and times are adjustable by a computer program. Twenty-bilayer flame-retardant thin films were prepared in order to compare the performance of the spray-assisted LbL assembly with a sample produced by conventional dipping. The spray-coated film exhibited a reduction of afterglow time in vertical flame tests, indicating that the spray-LbL technique is a simple method to produce functional thin film coatings.

  14. Modification of the solid-state nature of sulfathiazole and sulfathiazole sodium by spray drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Stefano; Caron, Vincent; Tajber, Lidia; Corrigan, Owen I; Nolan, Lorraine; Hu, Yun; Healy, Anne Marie

    2012-06-01

    Solid-state characterisation of a drug following pharmaceutical processing and upon storage is fundamental to successful dosage form development. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of using different solvents, feed concentrations and spray drier configuration on the solid-state nature of the highly polymorphic model drug, sulfathiazole (ST) and its sodium salt (STNa). The drugs were spray-dried from ethanol, acetone and mixtures of these organic solvents with water. Additionally, STNa was spray-dried from pure water. The physicochemical properties including the physical stability of the spray-dried powders were compared to the unprocessed materials. Spray drying of ST from either acetonic or ethanolic solutions with the spray drier operating in a closed cycle mode yielded crystalline powders. In contrast, the powders obtained from ethanolic solutions with the spray drier operating in an open cycle mode were amorphous. Amorphous ST crystallised to pure form I at ≤35 % relative humidity (RH) or to polymorphic mixtures at higher RH values. The usual crystal habit of form I is needle-like, but spherical particles of this polymorph were generated by spray drying. STNa solutions resulted in an amorphous material upon processing, regardless of the solvent and the spray drier configuration employed. Moisture induced crystallisation of amorphous STNa to a sesquihydrate, whilst crystallisation upon heating gave rise to a new anhydrous polymorph. This study indicated that control of processing and storage parameters can be exploited to produce drugs with a specific/desired solid-state nature.

  15. Measurement of Spray Drift with a Specifically Designed Lidar System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorio, Eduard; Torrent, Xavier; Planas de Martí, Santiago; Solanelles, Francesc; Sanz, Ricardo; Rocadenbosch, Francesc; Masip, Joan; Ribes-Dasi, Manel; Rosell-Polo, Joan R

    2016-04-08

    Field measurements of spray drift are usually carried out by passive collectors and tracers. However, these methods are labour- and time-intensive and only provide point- and time-integrated measurements. Unlike these methods, the light detection and ranging (lidar) technique allows real-time measurements, obtaining information with temporal and spatial resolution. Recently, the authors have developed the first eye-safe lidar system specifically designed for spray drift monitoring. This prototype is based on a 1534 nm erbium-doped glass laser and an 80 mm diameter telescope, has scanning capability, and is easily transportable. This paper presents the results of the first experimental campaign carried out with this instrument. High coefficients of determination (R² > 0.85) were observed by comparing lidar measurements of the spray drift with those obtained by horizontal collectors. Furthermore, the lidar system allowed an assessment of the drift reduction potential (DRP) when comparing low-drift nozzles with standard ones, resulting in a DRP of 57% (preliminary result) for the tested nozzles. The lidar system was also used for monitoring the evolution of the spray flux over the canopy and to generate 2-D images of these plumes. The developed instrument is an advantageous alternative to passive collectors and opens the possibility of new methods for field measurement of spray drift.

  16. COMPAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuefner, K.

    1976-01-01

    COMPAR works on FORTRAN arrays with four indices: A = A(i,j,k,l) where, for each fixed k 0 ,l 0 , only the 'plane' [A(i,j,k 0 ,l 0 ), i = 1, isub(max), j = 1, jsub(max)] is held in fast memory. Given two arrays A, B of this type COMPAR has the capability to 1) re-norm A and B ind different ways; 2) calculate the deviations epsilon defined as epsilon(i,j,k,l): =[A(i,j,k,l) - B(i,j,k,l)] / GEW(i,j,k,l) where GEW (i,j,k,l) may be chosen in three different ways; 3) calculate mean, standard deviation and maximum in the array epsilon (by several intermediate stages); 4) determine traverses in the array epsilon; 5) plot these traverses by a printer; 6) simplify plots of these traverses by the PLOTEASY-system by creating input data blocks for this system. The main application of COMPAR is given (so far) by the comparison of two- and three-dimensional multigroup neutron flux-fields. (orig.) [de

  17. A Review on Atomization and Sprays of Biofuels for IC Engine Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Boggavarapu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ever increasing energy requirements, environmental concerns and energy security needs are strongly influencing engine researchers to consider renewable biofuels as alternatives to fossil fuels. Spray process being important in IC engine combustion, existing literature on various biofuel sprays is reviewed and summarized. Both experimental and computational research findings are reviewed in a detailed manner for compression ignition (CI engine sprays and briefly for spark ignition (SI engine sprays. The physics of basic atomization process of sprays from various injectors is included to highlight the most recent research findings followed by discussion highlighting the effect of physico-chemical properties on spray atomization for both biofuels and fossil fuels. Biodiesel sprays are found to penetrate faster and have narrow spray plume angle and larger droplet sizes compared to diesel. Results of analytical and computational models are shown to be useful in shedding light on the actual process of atomization. However, further studies on understanding primary atomization and the effect of fuel properties on primary atomization are required. As far as secondary atomization is concerned, changes in regimes are observed to occur at higher air-jet velocities for biodiesel compared to those of diesel. Evaporating sprays revealed that the liquid length is longer for biodiesel. Pure plant oil sprays with potential use in CI engines may require alternative injector technology due to slower breakup as compared to diesel. Application of ethanol to gasoline engines may be feasible without any modifications to port fuel injection (PFI engines. More studies are required on the application of alternative fuels to high pressure sprays used in Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI engines.

  18. Plasma spraying process of disperse carbides for spraying and facing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blinkov, I.V.; Vishnevetskaya, I.A.; Kostyukovich, T.G.; Ostapovich, A.O.

    1989-01-01

    A possibility to metallize carbides in plasma of impulsing capacitor discharge is considered. Powders granulation occurs during plasma spraying process, ceramic core being completely capped. X-ray phase and chemical analyses of coatings did not show considerable changes of carbon content in carbides before and after plasma processing. This distinguishes the process of carbides metallization in impulsing plasma from the similar processing in arc and high-frequency plasma generator. Use of powder composites produced in the impulsing capacitor discharge, for plasma spraying and laser facing permits 2-3 times increasing wear resistance of the surface layer as against the coatings produced from mechanical powders mixtures

  19. Characteristics and heterogeneity of schizoaffective disorder compared with unipolar depression and schizophrenia - a systematic literature review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rink, Lena; Pagel, Tobias; Franklin, Jeremy; Baethge, Christopher

    2016-02-01

    Comparisons of illness characteristics between patients with schizoaffective disorder (SAD) patients and unipolar depression (UD) are rare, even though UD is one of the most important differential diagnoses of SAD. Also, the variability of illness characteristics (heterogeneity) has not been compared. We compared illness characteristics and their heterogeneity among SAD, UD, and - as another important differential diagnosis - schizophrenia (S). In order to reduce sampling bias we systematically searched for studies simultaneously comparing samples of patients with SAD, UD, and S. Using random effects and Mantel-Haenszel models we estimated and compared demographic, illness course and psychopathology parameters, using pooled standard deviations as a measurement of heterogeneity. Out of 155 articles found by an earlier meta-analysis, 765 screened in Medline, 2738 screened in EMBASE, and 855 screened in PsycINFO we selected 24 studies, covering 3714 patients diagnosed according to RDC, DSM-III, DSM-IIIR, DSM-IV, or ICD-10. In almost all key characteristics, samples with schizoaffective disorders fell between unipolar depression and schizophrenia, with a tendency towards schizophrenia. On average, UD patients were significantly older at illness onset (33.0 years, SAD: 25.2, S: 23.4), more often women (59% vs. 57% vs. 39%) and more often married (53% vs. 39% vs. 27%). Their psychopathology was also less severe, as measured by BPRS, GAS, and HAMD. In demographic and clinical variables heterogeneity was roughly 5% larger in UD than in SAD, and samples of patients with schizophrenia had the lowest pooled heterogeneity. A similar picture emerged in a sensitivity analysis with coefficient of variation as the measurement of heterogeneity. Relative to bipolar disorder there are fewer studies including unipolar patients. No studies based on DSM-5 could be included. Regarding unipolar affective disorder this study confirms what we have shown for bipolar disorders in earlier

  20. Natural characteristics of Croatian littoral area as a comparative advantage for nautical tourism development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srećko Favro

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Having in mind Croatian littoral area with its unique attractive coast and islands, it can be said that nautical tourism is absolutely authentic and distinctly recognizable Croatian "tourist product". In spite of numerous comparative advantages, Croatian nautical tourism still has not taken the right place on the market of Mediterranean nautical tourism. Future development of nautical tourism with its complementary activities – nautical economy, should be considered as the driving force for social and economic development of Croatian coastal area and islands, and it should be correctly dimensioned in accordance with carrying capacity of the geographical basis and sustainable development principles. Adequate valorization of Croatia’s most important resources, coast and islands, based on sustainable development principles and long-term systematic actions would improve social and economic position of Croatian Adriatic area.

  1. Comparative analysis of the Performance and Emission Characteristics of ethanol-butanol-gasoline blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneja, Sumit; Singh, Perminderjit, Dr; Singh, Gurtej

    2018-02-01

    Global warming and energy security being the global problems have shifted the focus of researchers on the renewable sources of energy which could replace petroleum products partially or as a whole. Ethanol and butanol are renewable sources of energy which can be produced through fermentation of biomass. A lot of research has already been done to develop suitable ethanol-gasoline blends. In contrast very little literature available on the butanol-gasoline blends. This research focuses on the comparison of ethanol-gasoline fuels with butanol-gasoline fuels with regard to the emission and performance in an SI engine. Experiments were conducted on a variable compression ratio SI engine at 1600 rpm and compression ratio 8. The experiments involved the measurement of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen and unburned hydrocarbons emission and among performance parameters brake specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency were recorded at three loads of 2.5kgs (25%), 5kgs (50%) and 7.5kgs (75%). Results show that ethanol and butanol content in gasoline have decreased brake specific fuel consumption, carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbon emissions while the brake thermal efficiency and oxides of nitrogen are increased. Results indicate thatbutanol-gasoline blends have improved brake specific fuel consumption, carbon monoxide emissions in an SI engine as compared to ethanol-gasoline blends. The carbon dioxide emissions and brake thermal efficiencies are comparable for ethanol-gasoline blends and butanol-gasoline blends. The butanol content has a more adverse effect on emissions of oxides of nitrogen than ethanol.

  2. Comparative study of humic acid removal and floc characteristics by electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semerjian, Lucy; Damaj, Ahmad; Salam, Darine

    2015-11-01

    The current study aims at investigating the efficiency of electrocoagulation for the removal of humic acid from contaminated waters. In parallel, conventional chemical coagulation was conducted to asses humic acid removal patterns. The effect of varying contributing parameters (matrix pH, humic acid concentration, type of electrode (aluminum vs. iron), current density, solution conductivity, and distance between electrodes) was considered to optimize the electrocoagulation process for the best attainable humic acid removal efficiencies. Optimum removals were recorded at pH of 5.0-5.5, an electrical conductivity of 3000 μS/cm at 25 °C, and an electrode distance of 1 cm for both electrode types. With aluminum electrodes, a current density of 0.05 mA/cm2 outperformed 0.1 mA/cm2 yet not higher densities, whereas a current density of 0.8 mA/cm2 was needed for iron electrodes to exhibit comparable performance. With both electrode types, higher initial humic acid concentrations were removed at a slower rate but ultimately attained almost complete removals. On the other hand, the best humic acid removals (∼90%) by chemical coagulation were achieved at 4 mg/L for both coagulants. Also, higher removals were attained at elevated initial humic acid concentrations. Humic acid removals of 90% or higher at an initial HA concentration of 40 mg/L were exhibited, yet alum performed better at the highest experimented concentration. It was evident that iron flocs were larger, denser, and more geometrical in shape compared to aluminum flocs.

  3. Comparative Investigation of Mechanical–Physical Characteristics of Biodegradable and Non-Degradable Yarns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krikštanavičienė Kira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results from investigations of tensile tests, absorbency test and degradation test of biodegradable and non- or partly biodegradable yarns produced from pure poly hydroxybutyrate-co-valerate (PHBV, poly (lactide acid (PLA, isotactic polypropylene (iPP polymers and their blends. The results indicate that mechanical-physical properties of PHBV are improved by adding PLA and iPP to PHBV. The main results indicate that the PHBV/PLA and PHBV/iPP (70/30 blends had better mechanical properties than pure PHBV, as well as improved immiscibility and the same or lower degradation in sodium chloride solution, respectively. The PHBV/PLA and PHBV/iPP blends showed a tendency for lower crystallinity and stiffness of the yarns, rendering them less stiff and fragile. The absorption tests showed that absorption dynamic process depends on the structure and raw materials of the yarns. The disinfectant in all samples is absorbed faster than blood. Research results showed that pure PHBV yarns have good hydrophobic properties, compared with pure PLA and iPP yarns. The use of additional PLA and iPP polymers changed the wetting behaviour of yarns. Absorption time of blended yarns in disinfectant liquid decreases and absorption time in the case of blood significantly increases in comparison with PLA and iPP yarns and decreases compared with PHBV yarns. The degradation tests (within 90 days in a solution of sodium chloride showed that pure PHBV and PHBV/PLA blends degraded at different rates but with the loss of the same weight, while pure PHBV and PHBV/iPP blends degraded at the same rate, but PHBV/iPP blends had worse destruction results. Such improvements are expected to be important for the practical application of PHBV in some fields

  4. Comparative study of quality of life and psychosocial characteristics in patients with psoriasis and leg ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouris, Anargyros; Christodoulou, Christos; Efstathiou, Vasiliki; Tsatovidou, Revekka; Torlidi-Kordera, Evangelia; Zouridaki, Eftychia; Kontochristopoulos, George

    2016-03-01

    Psoriasis and leg ulcers have a marked impact on the patient's quality of life and represent a life-long burden for affected patients. The aim of this study is to compare the quality of life, anxiety and depression, self-esteem, and loneliness in patients with psoriasis and leg-ulcer patients. Eighty patients with leg ulcers, eighty patients with psoriasis, and eighty healthy controls were included in this study. The quality of life, depression and anxiety, loneliness of the patient, and self-esteem were assessed using the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the UCLA loneliness Scale (UCLA-Version 3), and the Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale (RSES), respectively. The DLQI score among patients with psoriasis was 12.74 ± 4.89 and leg ulcer patients was 13.28 ± 2.57. The patients with psoriasis presented statistically significant higher anxiety (9.87 ± 4.56) than both leg ulcer patients (8.26 ± 2.82) and controls (6.45 ± 1.89), while leg ulcer patients also presented higher anxiety than controls. Regarding self-esteem, although there were no significant differences between the patients with psoriasis (15.25 ± 3.20) and the ones with leg ulcers (15.89 ± 2.93), they both presented statistically significant lower self-esteem scores than control group (18.53 ± 3.04). The patients with psoriasis presented statistically significant higher levels of loneliness and social isolation (46.18 ± 6.63) compared to leg ulcer patients (43.73 ± 5.68) than controls (42.49 ± 3.41). Psoriasis and leg ulcers are long-term skin diseases associated with significant impairment of the patient's quality of life, anxiety, and self-esteem, which are frequently under-recognized. © 2016 by the Wound Healing Society.

  5. Center for Cold Spray Research and Development

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This is the only DoD facility capable of cold spray research and development, production, and field-repair. It features three stationary cold spray systems used for...

  6. Regimes of spray formation in gas-centered swirl coaxial atomizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivakumar, D.; Kulkarni, V. [Indian Institute of Science, Department of Aerospace Engineering, Bangalore (India)

    2011-09-15

    Spray formation in ambient atmosphere from gas-centered swirl coaxial atomizers is described by carrying out experiments in a spray test facility. The atomizer discharges a circular air jet and an axisymmetric swirling water sheet from its coaxially arranged inner and outer orifices. A high-speed digital imaging system along with a backlight illumination arrangement is employed to record the details of liquid sheet breakup and spray development. Spray regimes exhibiting different sheet breakup mechanisms are identified and their characteristic features presented. The identified spray regimes are wave-assisted sheet breakup, perforated sheet breakup, segmented sheet breakup, and pulsation spray regime. In the regime of wave-assisted sheet breakup, the sheet breakup shows features similar to the breakup of two-dimensional planar air-blasted liquid sheets. At high air-to-liquid momentum ratios, the interaction process between the axisymmetric swirling liquid sheet and the circular air jet develops spray processes which are more specific to the atomizer studied here. The spray exhibits a periodic ejection of liquid masses whose features are dominantly controlled by the central air jet. (orig.)

  7. From drop impact physics to spray cooling models: a critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitenbach, Jan; Roisman, Ilia V.; Tropea, Cameron

    2018-03-01

    Spray-wall interaction is an important process encountered in a large number of existing and emerging technologies and is the underlying phenomenon associated with spray cooling. Spray cooling is a very efficient technology, surpassing all other conventional cooling methods, especially those not involving phase change and not exploiting the latent heat of vaporization. However, the effectiveness of spray cooling is dependent on a large number of parameters, including spray characteristics like drop size, velocity and number density, the surface morphology, but also on the temperature range and thermal properties of the materials involved. Indeed, the temperature of the substrate can have significant influence on the hydrodynamics of drop and spray impact, an aspect which is seldom considered in model formulation. This process is extremely complex, thus most design rules to date are highly empirical in nature. On the other hand, significant theoretical progress has been made in recent years about the interaction of single drops with heated walls and improvements to the fundamentals of spray cooling can now be anticipated. The present review has the objective of summarizing some of these recent advances and to establish a framework for future development of more reliable and universal physics-based correlations to describe quantities involved in spray cooling.

  8. Comparative characterization of sewage sludge compost and soil: Heavy metal leaching characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wen; Wei, Yonghong; Liu, Jianguo

    2016-06-05

    The leaching and accumulation of heavy metals are major concerns following the land application of sewage sludge compost (SSC). We comparatively characterized SSC, the reference soil, and the SSC amended soil to investigate their similarities and differences regarding heavy metal leaching behavior and then to evaluate the effect of SSC land application on the leaching behavior of soil. Results showed that organic matter, including both of particulate organic matter (POM) and dissolved organic matter (DOM), were critical factors influencing heavy metal leaching from both of SSC and the soil. When SSC was applied to soil at the application rate of 48t/ha, the increase of DOM content slightly enhanced heavy metal leaching from the amended soil over the applicable pH domain (6leaching behavior of heavy metals. The geochemical speciation modeling revealed that heavy metal speciation in the solid phase were similar between the reference soil and the amended soil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A DOUBLE-CENTER RETROSPECTIVE 5 YEARS SURVEY OF 385 CABG CASES COMPARING GENDER CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Karimi

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery disease is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality especially in the indusirialzcd societies. This retrospective study was carried out on 385 patients who were referred to Shariati and Jamaran Hospitals from 1992 till 1997 and who underwent coronaty artery bypass grafting. The objective was to obtain a descriptive analysis of the important factors in this population and to draw a comparison betweent the two genders and to draw genders regarding these variables. The data were obtained from patients' files, angiography and operation notes; 82.9% of the study population were of male. The mean age of women was higher than men by 2.2years. The most common risk factors among the male gender were found to be smoking, hyperlipedemia, hypercholesterolemia and hypertension. Except for smoking which was omitted in women, all other risk factors showed a comparative low prevalence in this gender. Most patients (93.37% fell in group II and III of functional class as per NYHA classification and the most frequent signs and symptoms on admission being chest pain (81.5% and dyspnea (11.2%. The affected vessels in order of frequency were the left anterior descending, the right coronary and the circumflex arteries respectively. The average number of grafts utilized were 3 in the entire population. Overall mortality recorded was 2.1%.

  10. Comparative clinical characteristics of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders with and without medulla oblongata lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanqiang; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Bingjun; Dai, Yongqiang; Kang, Zhuang; Lu, Ciyong; Qiu, Wei; Hu, Xueqiang; Lu, Zhengqi

    2014-05-01

    Brainstem involvement, especially the medulla oblongata (MO), has been reported in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSDs). The purpose of this study was to investigate retrospectively and compare clinical, laboratory, and imaging features of NMOSDs with and without MO lesions. A total of 170 patients with NMOSDs were enrolled, including 44 patients with MO lesions and 126 patients without MO lesions. Clinical features, laboratory tests, and magnetic resonance imaging findings among these patients were assessed. MO lesions were found in 25.9 % of the NMOSDs patients. The mean duration was 13 months. Patients with MO lesions had a higher Annualized relapse rate and Expanded Disability Status Score Scale. Headache, dizziness, nystagmus, dysarthria, intractable hiccup and nausea, choking cough or dysphagia, movement disorders, and neuropathic pain were more common in MO lesion patients. Patients with MO lesions were more frequently complicated with thyroid diseases. Multiple brain involvement, More importantly, Longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis were more frequently found in patients with MO lesions. MO lesions might be a symbol of more severe neurologic deficits and worse prognosis of NMOSDs.

  11. Characteristic patterns in the fibrotic lung. Comparing idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis with chronic lung allograft dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Isis E; Heinzelmann, Katharina; Verleden, Stijn; Eickelberg, Oliver

    2015-03-01

    Tissue fibrosis, a major cause of death worldwide, leads to significant organ dysfunction in any organ of the human body. In the lung, fibrosis critically impairs gas exchange, tissue oxygenation, and immune function. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is the most detrimental and lethal fibrotic disease of the lung, with an estimated median survival of 50% after 3-5 years. Lung transplantation currently remains the only therapeutic alternative for IPF and other end-stage pulmonary disorders. Posttransplant lung function, however, is compromised by short- and long-term complications, most importantly chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD). CLAD affects up to 50% of all transplanted lungs after 5 years, and is characterized by small airway obstruction with pronounced epithelial injury, aberrant wound healing, and subepithelial and interstitial fibrosis. Intriguingly, the mechanisms leading to the fibrotic processes in the engrafted lung exhibit striking similarities to those in IPF; therefore, antifibrotic therapies may contribute to increased graft function and survival in CLAD. In this review, we focus on these common fibrosis-related mechanisms in IPF and CLAD, comparing and contrasting clinical phenotypes, the mechanisms of fibrogenesis, and biomarkers to monitor, predict, or prognosticate disease status.

  12. Effects of spray parameters on the microstructure and property of Al2O3 coatings sprayed by a low power plasma torch with a novel hollow cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Changjiu; Sun Bo

    2004-01-01

    Al 2 O 3 coating is deposited using a low power plasma torch with a novel hollow cathode through axial powder injection under a plasma power up to several kilowatts. The effects of the main processing parameters including plasma arc power, operating gas flow and spray distance on particle velocity during spraying, and the microstructure and property of the coating are investigated. The microstructure of the Al 2 O 3 coating is examined using optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The property of the coating is characterized by dry rubber wheel abrasive wear test. The velocity of in-flight particle is measured using a velocity/temperature measurement system for spray particle based on thermal radiation from the particle. The dependency of the microstructure and property of the coating on spray particle conditions are examined by comparing the particle velocity, and microstructure and abrasive wear weight loss of subsequent coating deposited by low power plasma spray with those of the coating by conventional plasma spray at a power one order higher. X-ray diffraction analysis of the coating revealed that Al 2 O 3 particles during low power plasma spraying reach to sufficiently melting state prior to impact on the substrate with a velocity comparable to that in conventional plasma spraying. The experiment results have shown that processing parameters have significant influence on the particle conditions and performance of deposited Al 2 O 3 coating. The coating of comparable microstructure and properties to that deposited by conventional plasma spray can be produced under a power one order lower. From the present study, it can be suggested that a comparable coating can be produced despite plasma power level if the comparable particle velocity and molten state are achieved

  13. Spray casting project final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churnetski, S.R.; Thompson, J.E.

    1996-08-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), along with other participating organizations, has been exploring the feasibility of spray casting depleted uranium (DU) to near-net shape as a waste minimization effort. Although this technology would be useful in a variety of applications where DU was the material of choice, this effort was aimed primarily at gamma-shielding components for use in storage and transportation canisters for high-level radioactive waste, particularly in the Multipurpose Canister (MPC) application. In addition to the waste-minimization benefits, spray casting would simplify the manufacturing process by allowing the shielding components for MPC to be produced as a single component, as opposed to multiple components with many fabrication and assembly steps. In earlier experiments, surrogate materials were used to simulate the properties (specifically reactivity and density) of DU. Based on the positive results from those studies, the project participants decided that further evaluation of the issues and concerns that would accompany spraying DU was warranted. That evaluation occupied substantially all of Fiscal Year 1995, yielding conceptual designs for both an intermediate facility and a production facility and their associated engineering estimates. An intermediate facility was included in this study to allow further technology development in spraying DU. Although spraying DU to near-net shape seems to be feasible, a number of technical, engineering, and safety issues would need to be evaluated before proceeding with a production facility. This report is intended to document the results from the spray-casting project and to provide information needed by anyone interested in proceeding to the next step

  14. A Comparative Study on Physicochemical Characteristics of Raw Goat Milk Collected from Different Farms in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar, Syarifah Hazirah Syd; Hashim, Roshada; Hassan, Zaiton; Arifin, Norlelawati

    2018-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine the physical and chemical composition of goat milk produced by eight local farms located in the central region of Malaysia. Farms 1 to 4 (F1-SC, F2-SP, F3-SP, F4-SBC) reared Saanen-type goats while farms 5 to 8 (F5-JK, F6-JPEC, F7-JTC, F8-JC), Jamnapari-type goats. The common feedstuffs used in all farms comprised of fresh or silage from Napier grass, feed pellets, and brans while two farms, F5-JK and F6-JPEC supplemented the feeds with soybean-based product. The total solid content, dry matter, and proximate composition of goat milk and feedstuffs from the different farms were determined and the results analysed using principal component analysis. Total solid content of goat milk from the Jamnapari crossbreed had the highest solid content ranging from 11.81% to 17.54% compared to milk from farms with Saanen and Saanen crossbreed (10.95% to 14.63%). Jamnapari-type goats from F5-JK, F6-JPEC, and F8-JC had significantly higher ( p milk fat and protein contents (7.36%, 7.14%, and 6.59% fat; 5.08%, 6.19%, and 4.23% protein, respectively) than milk from other farms but, milk produced by Saanen-type goats from F4-SBC contained similar protein content (4.34%) to that from F8-JC. Total ash and carbohydrate contents in milk ranged between 0.67% to 0.86% and 3.26% to 4.71%, respectively, regardless of goat breed. Feeding soybean-based products appear to have a positive influence on milk fat and protein content in Jamnaparitype goats.

  15. A Comparative Study on Physicochemical Characteristics of Raw Goat Milk Collected from Different Farms in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar, Syarifah Hazirah Syd; Hashim, Roshada; Hassan, Zaiton; Arifin, Norlelawati

    2018-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the physical and chemical composition of goat milk produced by eight local farms located in the central region of Malaysia. Farms 1 to 4 (F1-SC, F2-SP, F3-SP, F4-SBC) reared Saanen-type goats while farms 5 to 8 (F5-JK, F6-JPEC, F7-JTC, F8-JC), Jamnapari-type goats. The common feedstuffs used in all farms comprised of fresh or silage from Napier grass, feed pellets, and brans while two farms, F5-JK and F6-JPEC supplemented the feeds with soybean-based product. The total solid content, dry matter, and proximate composition of goat milk and feedstuffs from the different farms were determined and the results analysed using principal component analysis. Total solid content of goat milk from the Jamnapari crossbreed had the highest solid content ranging from 11.81% to 17.54% compared to milk from farms with Saanen and Saanen crossbreed (10.95% to 14.63%). Jamnapari-type goats from F5-JK, F6-JPEC, and F8-JC had significantly higher (p < 0.05) milk fat and protein contents (7.36%, 7.14%, and 6.59% fat; 5.08%, 6.19%, and 4.23% protein, respectively) than milk from other farms but, milk produced by Saanen-type goats from F4-SBC contained similar protein content (4.34%) to that from F8-JC. Total ash and carbohydrate contents in milk ranged between 0.67% to 0.86% and 3.26% to 4.71%, respectively, regardless of goat breed. Feeding soybean-based products appear to have a positive influence on milk fat and protein content in Jamnaparitype goats. PMID:29644024

  16. A LIF-PIV investigation of turbulence induced by sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Voort, Dennis; Dam, Nico; van de Water, Willem; Clercx, Herman

    2017-11-01

    During the breakup of a high-speed liquid jet, it drags along and mixes the air surrounding it, creating turbulence. This turbulence can, in turn, influence the dispersion of the droplets in the resulting spray. Very little is known about the small-scale characteristics of the ambient turbulent flow. This work investigated spray-induced turbulence using (gas-phase) laser-induced fluorescent tracer particle image velocimetry (LIF-PIV), which suppresses the strong light scattering of jet and droplets on the images. The results for both a heptane (h) and water (w) spray (135 m/s and 125 m/s respectively) show that the heptane spray generates stronger turbulence due to the difference in breakup between the two fluids. Using a large-eddy estimation, carefully compensating for the finite size of the PIV windows, the dissipation rate ɛ and the small-scale turbulence characteristics are estimated as ɛh = 190 +/-25 m2s-3, ɛw = 120 +/-30 m2s-3, Reλ,h = 380 +/-40, Reλ,w = 290 +/-40, ηh = 65 +/-3 μm, and ηw = 75 +/-5 μm. We will discuss the influence of the turbulent fluctuations in the surrounding air on the dispersion of droplets. This work is part of the research programme of the Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter (FOM), which is part of the Dutch Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO).

  17. Diesel spray characterization; Dieselmoottorin polttoainesuihkujen ominaisuudet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitkaenen, J.; Turunen, R.; Paloposki, T.; Rantanen, P.; Virolainen, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Internal Combustion Engine Lab.

    1997-10-01

    Fuel injection of diesel engines will be studied using large-scale models of fuel injectors. The advantage of large-scale models is that the measurement of large-scale diesel sprays will be easier than the measurement of actual sprays. The objective is to study the break-up mechanism of diesel sprays and to measure drop size distributions in the inner part of the spray. The results will be used in the development of diesel engines and diesel fuels. (orig.)

  18. Comparative characteristics of tuberculous pleurisy depending on HIV status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Korzh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Goal of the study: to study specific manifestations of tuberculous pleurisy in HIV patients, to evaluate the efficiency of video-assisted thoracoscopy when diagnosing tuberculous pleurisy in case of different HIV status of the patients.Materials and methods: 241 tuberculous pleurisy patients were examined. 88 – HIV positive (group 1, 153 – HIV negative (group 2. Average CD4 count in group 1 made 189 cells/mcl. The following parameters were compared in those groups: clinical and X-ray manifestations, microbiological, cytologic and biochemical rates in blood and effluent. 77 patients with isolated pleurisy (of them 33 HIV positive had video-assisted thoracoscopy with biopsy for diagnostic purposes. The data of histological examination of pleura, obtained through video-assisted thoracoscopy and autopsy have been presented.Results: tuberculous pleurisy with concurrent HIV infection is characterized by frequent occurrence of hemorrhagic effusion, scarce cellular sediment of effluent, expressed reduction of glucose level and increase of thymol test rates in effluent. Regardless of HIV status the frequency of tuberculous mycobacteria detection through microscopy and culture is low and does not exceed 10%. Histological testing of specimens obtained through video-assisted thoracoscopy allowed proving tuberculosis in all patients thus differentiating tuberculous changes from metastases. Thus video-assisted thoracoscopy can be recommended for diagnostics of difficult cases of tuberculous pleurisy regardless of HIV status.From morphological point of view tuberculous pleurisy was characterized by specific granulomas which were presented by lymphoid and epithelioid cells with Pirogov-Langhans cells with minor caseous necrosis in the center (9.1% or its complete absence (90.9%. 

  19. Comparative characteristics of osteosynthesis techniques in patients with comminuted diaphyseal femoral fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Barabash

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The comparative analysis of the results of the surgical treatment of 130 patients with closed comminuted unilateral diaphyseal femoral fractures, including assessment of anatomic functional outcomes of treatment according to the technique of the standardized investigations in traumatology and orthopedy and determination of quality of life according to SF-36 method is carried out. Osteosynthesis with the help of external fixation devices was performed in 36 patients, intramedullary interlocking osteosynthesis - in 57 patients, compression plating - in 37 patients. Level of anatomic functional rehabilitation of the patients in the early postoperative period made up 69-79 %, 6 months later increased up to 74-92%, and after the expiration of 12 months the level of rehabilitation reached 85-99%. During the treatment quality of life concerning physical component was within the limits from 36,8 up to 55,5 %, and concerning mental component - 54,3-60,8 %. After the expiration of a year increase in the parameters of physical and mental components up to 55,7 - 59,8 % and 57,2-65,8 % is detected respectively. In the group where the transosseous osteosynthesis technique was applied we got 93,7-95 % of positive outcomes, with the average disability period of 212,3±18,1 days. In 47,2 % of cases the following complications are observed: knee contracture - 7; inflammation of the soft tissues located near the transosseous fixators - 5 (13,9%; shortening of the limb less than 5% of its length - 3; false joint formation - 1; fracture union with formation of varus deformity in the femoral bone - 1. When using intramedullary interlocking osteosynthesis we had positive results in 96,5 % of cases, with the average period of disability 176±17,8 days. In 10,5 % cases the following complications are observed: suture sinus - 1(1,75 %; femoral osteomyelitis - 1; break of the design - 1; false joint formation - 1; knee contracture - 1; shortening of the limb less than 5

  20. CONCHAS-SPRAY, Reactive Flows with Fuel Sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cloutman, L.D.; Dukowicz, J.K.; Ramshaw, J.D.; Amsden, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    Description of program or function: CONCHAS-SPRAY solves the equations of transient, multicomponent, chemically reactive fluid dynamics, together with those for the dynamics of an evaporating liquid spray. The program was developed with applications to internal combustion engines in mind. The formulation is spatially two-dimensional, and encompasses both planar and axisymmetric geometries. In the latter case, the flow is permitted to swirl about the axis of symmetry. CONCHAS-SPRAY is a time-marching, finite- difference program that uses a partially implicit numerical scheme. Spatial differences are formed with respect to a generalized two- dimensional mesh of arbitrary quadrilaterals whose corner locations are specified functions of time. This feature allows a Lagrangian, Eulerian, or mixed description, and is particularly useful for representing curved or moving boundary surfaces. Arbitrary numbers of species and chemical reactions are allowed. The latter are subdivided into kinetic and equilibrium reactions, which are treated by different algorithms. A turbulent law-of-the-wall boundary layer option is provided. CONCHAS-SPRAY calls a number of LANL system subroutines to display graphic or numerical information on microfiche. These routines are not included, but are described in the reference report. Several routines called from LINPACK and SLATEC1.0 are included

  1. CFD Analysis of Fuel Atomization, Secondary Droplet Breakup and Spray Dispersion in the Premix Duct of a LPP Combustor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmehl, R.; Maier, G.; Wittig, S.

    2000-01-01

    The two phase flow in the premix duct of a LPP combustor is computed using a Lagrangian droplet tracking method. To reproduce the characteristic spray structure of an air-assisted pressure-swirl atomizer, a sheet spray model is de-rived from measured sheet parameters and combined with an advanced

  2. Albendazole Microparticles Prepared by Spray Drying Technique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To enhance the dissolution of albendazole (ABZ) using spray-drying technique. Method: ABZ binary mixtures with Kollicoat IR® (KL) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) in various drug to polymer ratios (1: 1, 1: 2 and 1; 4) were prepared by spray-drying. The spray-dried particles were characterized for particle shape, ...

  3. A new method for spray deposit assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester M. Himel; Leland Vaughn; Raymond P. Miskus; Arthur D. Moore

    1965-01-01

    Solid fluorescent particles suspended in a spray liquid are distributed in direct proportion to the size of the spray droplets. Use of solid fluorescent particles is the basis of a new method for visual recognition of the size and number of droplets impinging on target and nontarget portions of sprayed areas.

  4. Comparing the thermo-physical characteristics of lard and selected plant fats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanty, N. A. M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of the thermo-physical properties of lard and plant fats may help to formulate alternative fat substitutes for halal food applications. In this study, plant-based fats, namely avocado butter (Persea americana, cocoa butter (Theobroma cacao L., palm oil (Elaeis guinensis and mee fat (Madhuca longifolia are compared to lard with respect to the basic physico-chemical parameters, fatty acid and triacylglycerol (TAG compositions, and melting and solidification behaviors. Although plant fats are completely different from lard with respect to fatty acid and TAG compositions, they share some common thermal features with lard. Based on thermal analysis, lard and plant fats, except cocoa butter, are found to have thermal transitions in both low (< 0 °C and high (> 0 °C melting regions of their cooling and melting curves. According to pulse NMR data, mee fat and lard are found to display closely similar solidification profiles in the temperature range of 0-25 °C, while palm oil and lard are found to have similar solidification profiles in the temperature range between 25-40 °C. Hence, the thermo-physical property comparison between plant fats and lard may be useful to formulate a fat blend which simulates the thermal properties of lard.

    La comparación de las propiedades térmica y mecánicas de la manteca de cerdo y la de determinadas grasas de plantas, podría ayudar a formular sustitutos alternativos de las grasas para aplicaciones alimentarias. En este estudio, basado en materias grasas vegetales como, aguacate (Persea americana, manteca de cacao (Theobroma cacao L., palma aceitera (Elaeis guinensis y grasa de mee (Madhuca longifolia se comparan con la manteca de cerdo con respecto a parámetros físico-químicos, composiciones en ácidos grasos y triglicéridos (TAG, y comportamientos de los parámetros de fusión y de solidificación. Aunque las grasas de plantas

  5. Production of cocrystals in an excipient matrix by spray drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, David; Serrano, Dolores R; Worku, Zelalem Ayenew; Norris, Brid A; Healy, Anne Marie

    2018-01-30

    Spray drying is a well-established scale-up technique for the production of cocrystals. However, to the best of our knowledge, the effect of introducing a third component into the feed solution during the spray drying process has never been investigated. Cocrystal formation in the presence of a third component by a one-step spray drying process has the potential t