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Sample records for company european utility

  1. Communications architecture for an electric company, European utility communications architecture, EURUCA

    Uuspaeae, P [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    The scope of this research is integration and interoperability of various information systems and data communications for electric utilities. Utility Communication Architecture refers to an overall view of the communications needs and communication systems in an electric utility. The objective is to define and specify suitable and compatible communications procedures within the Utility and also to outside parties

  2. The European Model Company Act

    Cleff, Evelyne Beatrix

    2011-01-01

    European Company Law regulation is currently undergoing a reform. These reforms raise a number of regulatory questions, such as what should be the aims of companies' legislation, and how these aims should best be met by regulation. Many of the reforms and discussions (both on EU and national level...... an increasing influence on the framing of company legislation, such as the choice between mandatory or default rules. This article introduces the project 'European Company Law and the choice of Regulatory Method' which is carried out in collaboration with the 'European Model Company Act Group'. The project aims...

  3. Principles of European Company Law

    Werlauff, Erik

    2010-01-01

    The article focuses on how much we have in common in Europe within company law and its development, and on the principles which are the determining factors for the activities of European companies. The article shows that what we have in common greatly outweighs what divides us, and this is presen......The article focuses on how much we have in common in Europe within company law and its development, and on the principles which are the determining factors for the activities of European companies. The article shows that what we have in common greatly outweighs what divides us...

  4. Third European Company Survey: Workplace innovation in European companies

    Oeij, P.; Žiauberyté-Jakštiené, R.; Dhondt, S.; Corral, A.; Totterdill, P.; Preenen, P.

    2015-01-01

    Workplace innovation (WPI) is a developed and implemented practice or combination of practices which enables employees to participate in organisational change and renewal and hence improve the quality of working life and organisational performance. This report looks at reasons for enabling WPI, adoption and implementation, and impact on organisation and management, employees and employee representatives. The research is based on 51 companies identified in Eurofound’s third European Company Su...

  5. European Utility Requirements: European nuclear energy

    Komsi, M.; Patrakka, E.

    1997-01-01

    The work procedure and the content of the European Utility Requirements (EUR) concerning the future LWRs is described in the article. European Utility Requirements, produced by utilities in a number of European countries, is a document specifying the details relating to engineered safety, operating performance, reliability and economics of the reactors to be built by manufacturers for the European market

  6. The European Company : From a Swedish private company perspective

    Öster, Alexandra; Alm, Cecilia

    2006-01-01

    The development within the European Union is that we are heading towards a common internal market. The law has during the year become more harmo-nized within the Union in many areas. The company law within the European Union has become harmonized through several company law directives and the freedom of establishment, which is included in the EC Treaty. The aim of an internal market is about to be achieved, but there are still differences between the systems of law within the Member States. T...

  7. National companies : performance, ventures, utility

    Didier, F.

    1994-01-01

    The author shows how a performing National Company can efficiently contribute, in line with the producing State, to the negotiation with International Companies and the success of large oil ventures contemplated by reserves-short countries. Fully entrepreneurial, the National Company will usefully ''explore'' touchy matters, and bring closer national rationale and petroleum rationale. (Author)

  8. Performance evaluation of Central European companies

    Petr Fiala

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a modelling approach for performance comparison of Central European companies on three levels: country, industry, and company. The approach is based on Data Envelopment Analysis and Analytic Hierarchy Process. The proposed model consists of two basic sections. The first section estimates the importance of selected industries in the countries, whereas the second section evaluates the performance of companies within industries. The results of both sections are synthesized and finally the country performance is estimated. The evaluation is based on the data set resulting from a survey of companies from selected industries.

  9. The European Utility Requirement Document

    Roche, I.I.

    1999-01-01

    The major European electricity producers work on a common requirement document for future LWR plants since 1992. They aim at requirements acceptable together by the owners, the public and the authorities. Thus the designers can develop standard LWR designs acceptable everywhere in Europe and the utilities can open their consultations to vendors on common bases. Such a standardisation promotes an improvement of generation costs and of safety : public and authorities acceptance should be improved as well ; significant savings are expected in development and construction costs. Since the early stages of the project, the EUR group has grown significantly. It now includes utilities from nine European countries. Utilities from two other European countries are joining the group. Specific cooperation agreements are also in progress with a few extra-European partners

  10. Capacity Utilization in European Railways

    Khadem Sameni, Melody; Landex, Alex

    2013-01-01

    and unprecedented approach for this aim. Relative operational efficiency of 24 European railways in capacity utilization is studied for the first time by data envelopment analysis (DEA). It deviates from previous applications of DEA in the railway industry that are conducted to analyze cost efficiency of railways....... Six DEA models quantify various aspects of micro, macro and quality of railway capacity utilization in these countries. New inputs like gross domestic product, population and area of the country help to provide a better picture of the status of railways. Passenger satisfaction data about different...... aspects of railway services in European countries has recently been quantified by European commission and are used for the first time in the literature. Invaluable insights can be inferred from the results which can provide a ground basis for railway practitioners and policy makers....

  11. Electric utility companies and geothermal power

    Pivirotto, D. S.

    1976-01-01

    The requirements of the electric utility industry as the primary potential market for geothermal energy are analyzed, based on a series of structured interviews with utility companies and financial institution executives. The interviews were designed to determine what information and technologies would be required before utilities would make investment decisions in favor of geothermal energy, the time frame in which the information and technologies would have to be available, and the influence of the governmental politics. The paper describes the geothermal resources, electric utility industry, its structure, the forces influencing utility companies, and their relationship to geothermal energy. A strategy for federal stimulation of utility investment in geothermal energy is suggested. Possibilities are discussed for stimulating utility investment through financial incentives, amelioration of institutional barriers, and technological improvements.

  12. A decade of experience with the European Company

    Cremers, J.; Stollt, M.; Vitols, S.

    2013-01-01

    A little more than a decade ago one of the most significant developments in European company law and worker participation occurred: the European Union passed a Regulation and Directive on the European Company (or Societas Europaea, hereafter SE). This legislation is a major innovation in that it

  13. THE IMPACT OF FINANCIAL OPERATIONS OF UTILITY COMPANIES ON THE FINANCIAL POSITION OF THE CITY

    Milan Stanić

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the main topic will be the financing of utility companies and the financial impact on the budget of the local business units. A special emphasis will be placed on the financing of utility companies in Slavonski Brod. The paper defines each area of utility services and presents the utilities as services of public interest as well their privatization in general. The paper reports on the financing of these services and on the European Union regulations and directives concerning them. In addition, the paper includes an overview of the sources of funding of utility companies and loan opportunities. Guarantees and subsidies are included as financing measures of the activities of communal companies. The practical part presents an interview with key individuals of the city of Slavonski Brod with regard to the impact of the budget on the financing of utility services of the utility company in this city – “Komunalac Ltd.”.

  14. A Market for Company Incorporations in the European Union?

    Birkmose, Hanne Søndergaard

    2005-01-01

    The article discuss the European market for company incorporation in light of the recent decisions of the European Court of Justice; Centros (1999 E.C.R. at I-1487), Überseering (2002 E.C.R. at I-9919) and Inspire Art (2003 E.C.R. at I-10155)......The article discuss the European market for company incorporation in light of the recent decisions of the European Court of Justice; Centros (1999 E.C.R. at I-1487), Überseering (2002 E.C.R. at I-9919) and Inspire Art (2003 E.C.R. at I-10155)...

  15. THE EUROPEAN COMPANY (SOCIETAS EUROPAEA ON RIND SIGHT

    Liviana Andreea Niminet

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the rind aspects of European Company (also known by its Latin name Societas Europaea or SE, a “type of public limited-liability company regulated under European Union law”. Although this form of company was proposed more than 40 years ago, it was only in 2001 when the Council issued Regulation (EC No 2157/2001 of 8 October 2001 on the Statute for a European company defining the European company (SE as “a legal structure that permits a company to operate in different European Union (EU countries under a single statute”, as determined by the law of the Union and common to all EU countries. Being a new legal form, the SE coexists with the corporate forms that already were in each Member Statebeing governed by both European Regulation and national law. As it follows we address the rules, classification, conditions for settling an SE, organization structures, tax harmonization, employee involvement in the SE, advantages and disadvantages of SEs, as well as the opportunity of SPEs.

  16. Variation in Approaches to European Works Councils in Multinational Companies

    Paul Marginson; Jonathan Lavelle; Javier Quintanilla; Duncan Adam; Roc'o S?nchez-Mangas

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on a unique international data set of multinational companies' employment practices, the authors use logistic regression analysis to address variation in the existence of and management practice toward transnational social dialogue through European Works Councils (EWCs). Adopting a contingency perspective, they find that the degree of internationalization of companies' operations and management organization, international HR structure, and the presence of workforce organization exerci...

  17. 17 CFR 250.12 - Exemption of certain public utility companies from the definition of subsidiary companies of...

    2010-04-01

    ... utility companies from the definition of subsidiary companies of holding companies. 250.12 Section 250.12... REGULATIONS, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Registration and General Exemptions § 250.12 Exemption of certain public utility companies from the definition of subsidiary companies of holding companies...

  18. Why do European companies have Innovation Hubs in Silicon Valley

    Berger, Andreas; Brem, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Innovation hubs are gaining high attention in recent years, especially from European companies. Silicon Valley has been deemed as one of the most attractive and successful environments for establishing innovation hubs. This article highlights examples of companies from Europe that made the step...... to California—namely, Volkswagen, Swisscom, BMW, Axel Springer, Munich Re, and Innogy SE (RWE Group). Based on these companies’ experiences, recommendations are given on how companies might approach a setup in Silicon Valley for long-term success....

  19. Nuclear utility structure. Use of nuclear service companies

    Ring, L.E.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of utilities incorporating service companies to construct and maintain nuclear power plants is analyzed. Responsibilities of the service companies and the public opinion of the concept are discussed

  20. European Utility Requirements (EUR) - the organisation and its products

    Ingemarsson, K.F.

    2007-01-01

    The idea of a common specification for the development and construction of new nuclear power plants appeared in Usa in the eighties in the framework of the ALWR program (Advanced Light Water Reactors). Several European electricity producers had participated in the writing of the EPRI -Utility Requirement Document (URD)- together with a group of American and Asian companies, but in the early nineties, they also agreed to produce a European document. The point was to write a more open specification (open to non-US designs) that would take into account specific European requirements, in nuclear safety in particular, while still keeping strong references to the EPRI URD. In late 1991, five of the major European electricity producers set up an organisation to develop the EUR document. Their primary objective was to produce a common set of requirements that could be endorsed by the major European electricity producers and that would provide clear guidance to the designers. The EUR document (EUR stands for European Utility Requirements) was born. Building new nuclear plants would require undisputable competitiveness vs. alternate production sources. For that only standardisation could bring an adequate answer in the coming years. Standardisation of the designs call for harmonization of the design rules, especially the ones related to nuclear safety. The EUR utilities support the initiatives that would pave the way to harmonization of the safety design rules at European level. They nevertheless think that it may be needed to go further and eventually consider an overall re-optimisation of the safety design rules. All these developments shall be organised at European level, keeping strong connections with the other methodological works undertaken outside Europe. The European utilities and the vendors have now an updated and well-tuned tool that allows them to develop, to assess and to order modern LWR designs well fitted to their actual needs. It has been used as the base

  1. Why Do European Venture Capital Companies Syndicate?

    S. Manigart (Sophie); J. Bruining (Hans); A. Lockett (Andy); M. Meuleman (Miguel)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractFinancial theory, resource-based theory and access to deal flow are used to explain syndication practices among European venture capital (VC) firms. The desire to share risk and increase portfolio diversification is a more important motive for syndication than the desire to access

  2. European utilities requirements for future reactors

    Roch, M.

    1996-01-01

    The prospect for future nuclear power plants has led the utilities of seven European countries to launch an effort to define the requirements that should be common to all utilities for the next reactors to be built in Europe. These requirements will ultimately be part of a four-volume document and will cover all aspects of a plant: performance, grid connection, codes and standards, materials, quality assurance, cost, and, of course, safety. The seven European countries - France, the United Kingdom, Germany, Spain, Italy, the Netherlands, and Belgium - issued revision A of Vols 1 and 2 in Nov. 1994, which deal with all the general requirements, not specific to any design, originally issued in March 1994. Comments were requested from most of the nuclear utilities as well as from reactor vendors worldwide. This gave rise to an enormous number of comments, which were duly considered by the European Union. The relevant ones were incorporated into revision B of Vols. 1 and 2, which was issued in Nov 1995, the objective of this revision B being essentially to gain approval from the safety authorities. A particular aspect of the European approach resides in the fact that these European requirements will have to be discussed and agreed on by at least nine safety authorities, i.e., the authorities of the seven counties that launched revision B, plus the authorities of two newcomers, Finland and Sweden, which have just applied for European Union membership

  3. Multinational teams in European and American companies

    Numic, Aida

    2007-01-01

    Incorporating team context into research and practice concerning team effectiveness in multinational organizations still remains an ongoing challenge. The purpose of this dissertation was to explore the influence of industry, corporate culture, structure, strategy and task characteristics on MNTs in business organizations and to develop a more comprehensive framework connecting the internal dynamics with contextual aspects of MNTs functioning in companies in Europe and the USA. The study was ...

  4. NEW CHALLENGES FACED BY EUROPEAN COMPANIES AND THEIR STAKEHOLDERS

    BOBE Claudia-Maria

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The European Union is currently affected by the financial crisis that spread internationally. The member states face difficulties such as price volatility, uncertainties, liquidity issues, cases of bankruptcy, increased unemployment rate, and decreasing GDP. The present paper analyses the challenges faced under these new circumstances by the European companies and their stakeholders. By taking into consideration the threats and weaknesses faced by firms and other interested parties, we emphasize the importance that transparency and communication among companies and their stakeholder have in overcoming financial difficulties.

  5. The development strategies of the european electric power companies

    Heddebaud, D.

    2005-01-01

    This study takes stock on the european market of the electric power and of its development perspectives. It details the strategy and the place of the main operators and shows their forces and weaknesses. It provides a comparison of the financial performances of 28 companies (growth, margins, profitability, debt and war chest). (A.L.B.)

  6. European Trading Companies and Economic Development in the ...

    The paper focuses on the gradual planting of European colonial presence in the interior of the Basin through the agency of their trading companies and the activities of the African middlemen. With time, the result was the establishment of pioneer oil mills and a gradual but peaceful interaction with the rural dwellers of the ...

  7. Biomass utilization at Northern States Power Company

    Ellis, R.P.

    1994-01-01

    Northern States Power Company (open-quotes NSPclose quotes) generates, transmits and distributes electricity and distributes natural gas to customers in Minnesota, Wisconsin, North Dakota, South Dakota and Michigan. An important and growing component of the fuel needed to generate steam for electrical production is biomass. This paper describes NSP's historical use of biomass, current biomass resources and an overview of how NSP plans to expand its use of biomass in the future

  8. European Energy Companies. An Industry in Search of its Future

    2003-01-01

    In summer 2002 The Algemene Energieraad (General Energy Council) of The Netherlands has commissioned a research study to investigate the strategic behaviour of major European energy companies and the major governmental institutions in charge of regulating them. In total 18 electricity and gas companies and 9 governmental public institutions were analyzed. The aim of this research was to explore how the microeconomic view of analysing company and government strategy can contribute to understanding the likely future path of the energy industry, and what follows from that for the regulatory agenda and company strategy development. The is structured in seven chapters. The first chapter will first outline what the challenges for the European energy industry are. Most of the challenges result in the need for high investments and considerable changes in operating systems and business models. Against these challenges, the second chapter outlines what the expectations are of the industry. The public goods to be delivered by the industry is in the main to deliver high quality products at low prices and minimized environmental impact, in order to promote the conditions for economic growth of the European economy. Chapter 3 then describes the typical behaviour of the energy companies, being mostly engaged in a strategic conduct that is autonomy-oriented, short term and emergent planning with an international focus. Chapter 4 explains how the challenges and expectations could be better met with a strategic behaviour of companies that are network-oriented, long term deliberate planners and with a local focus. Chapter 5 explains that the observed strategic behaviour leads to an industrial structure that is geared towards maintaining static competition and avoiding innovation. Chapter 6 shows, how the current regulatory regime of the industry may reinforce this static competition even further. Chapter 7 finally concludes with alternative course of actions how the regulatory

  9. The strategy of European energy utilities

    Blakey, S.; Kramer, M.; Sauquet, P.; Sire, D.; Venet, D.; Lenoir, J.

    2007-01-01

    After a relatively quiet period, the concentration movement in the energy sector is growing up again. What will be the limit of this dynamics? What will be tomorrow's European energy actors? Will it be a mix of big groups, medium-size and small companies with a specialized activity like today, or only big groups with multi-energy supply and production activities which will directly supply the end-users? What is the provisions foreseen by such groups to ensure the security of supplies? What are the synergies in terms of size and/or multi-energy offers? Five participants and a journalist have debated these questions at this round table. (J.S.)

  10. Innovation policy of European chemical companies with special focus on large companies

    Supriyo Das

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available According to Arora et alii (1998, the chemical industry is one of the largest and most R&D-intensive manufacturing sectors in all the advanced economies, and its innovative patterns and productivity growth processes can have profound impacts on economic growth as a whole. The European chemical industry supplies virtually all sectors of the economy and accounts for 17.8% of the total sales of chemicals in the world. This paper gives an overview of the European chemical industry and the changing scenario of the world chemical industry by focusing on the top fifteen chemical companies in Europe. It describes the current problems this industry is facing in Europe especially after the economic crisis and shows that the region and the top companies are investing in R&D to bring about innovation and overcome the current challenges. It shows that R&D spending in absolute terms has hardly changed over the years and that the industry is still globally the largest investor in R&D activities. In terms of R&D, BASF has made the greatest investment followed by Bayer and Syngenta, while R&D intensity is highest for Syngenta and Bayer. BASF and Bayer have made most patent applications and have also had the highest number of patents granted. The quality of research in most chemical companies is very high and most of the large European companies make their first patent application in Europe rather than elsewhere. All the large chemical companies use Merger & Acquisition (M&A to gain access to innovation. Industry-academia collaboration is one way to generate innovation in the chemical industry in Europe. Chemical clusters and the geographical distribution of chemical companies play a significant role in generating innovation.

  11. How companies utilize mascots in their digital marketing

    Terning, Maja

    2013-01-01

    The commissioner for this thesis was Spinfy, a children’s mobile applications developer. From August 2012 to December 2012, the author conducted her internship at Spinfy and during this time initiated a marketing stunt/project utilizing the company mascot as an online marketing tool. The main goal of this thesis was to provide the commissioner with a comprehensive digital mar-keting communications plan for their mascot, Spinky. A company mascot can take on various marketing roles, depending o...

  12. The impact of production capacity utilization on metallurgical companies financing

    J. Kutáč

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The most important and the most problematic in-house sources of financing of metallurgical companies are profit and depreciations. In the event that the aggregate value of the economic result and depreciations goes over to negative values, then this kind of in-house financing ceases to increase Cash Flow of the company but, on the contrary, it will cause its reduction. It means that this type of financing is to some extent uncertain, particularly in times of crisis, when there are noticeable fluctuations in sales volumes, leading to a significant influence of the volume of production on the amount of profit. The article discusses the impact of production capacity utilization on metallurgical companies financing.

  13. Climate Change - A New Risk Reality for Utility Companies

    Nelson, William R.; Cramer, Espen; Torstad, Elisabeth; Rosnes, Olafr

    2010-09-15

    Climate change introduces new and complex risk factors affecting the power sector. In DNV's experience, the companies that manage to control risk and take advantage of the opportunities in a changing business environment are more likely to succeed. This paper gives an overview of the main risks and opportunities of climate change facing the sector. Through a survey of the European and North American power sector, DNV has mapped the industry's views on the risk picture. The survey identifies what the industry players consider to be viable strategies for the sector in tackling the new risk reality of climate change.

  14. Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935: 1935--1992

    1993-01-15

    This report provides an economic and legislative history and analysis of the Public Utilities Holding Company Act (PUHCA) of 1935. This Act was substantially amended for the first time in 1992 by passage of the Energy Policy Act (EPACT). The report also includes a discussion of the issues which led to the amendment of PUHCA and projections of the impact of these changes on the electric industry. The report should be of use to Federal and State regulators, trade associations, electric utilities, independent power producers, as well as decision-makers in Congress and the Administration.

  15. The european passive plant (EPP) design: compliance with the european utilities requirements (EUR)

    Noviello, L.; Oyarzabal, M.

    1996-01-01

    Back 1986, most of the European firms have participated to the American program called the Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWR) including the development of the Utilities Requirements as well as four projects as for instance AP600. Later, in the year 1990, seven European firms have begun to develop the European Utilities Requirements. This development is justified by the fact that the lessons learned by the nuclear power plants designs programs of the years 1980 can be incorporated and the European specific conditions can be taken into consideration. Thus, in 1994, eight European firms - Westinghouse and their industrial partners - have decided to launch a multiphase program in order to check the AP600 compliance with the European Utilities Requirements (EUR) and to develop the required alterations. Today, the phase I of the EPP (European Passive Plant) program has been completed. In this phase, the main important objectives have been reached. (O.M.)

  16. Do Large Companies Have Lower Effective Corporate Tax Rates? A European Survey

    Gaëtan Nicodème

    2007-01-01

    The current debate in corporate taxation is focusing on leveling the tax playing field within the European Union for companies operating across-countries. However, tax burdens could also vary with the size of companies within the same country, raising the question whether large companies pay their share of the burden. This paper uses firm-level data for 21 European countries between 1992 and 2004. The paper finds a robust negative correlation between the number of employees and the effective ...

  17. Towards a benchmarking paradigm in European water utilities

    Marques, R.C.; de Witte, K.

    2010-01-01

    This article explains the benefits of using benchmarking tools in the public sector to drive up performance. The authors examine the case of European water utilities, focusing on four countries: Portugal, Belgium, The Netherlands and the UK. They argue for the creation of a European ‘observatory’ to

  18. Uranium purchasing and stockpiling policies of European utilities

    Messer, K.P.

    1984-01-01

    When preparing my little presentation I was wondering whether a title like 'Policies of European utilities to minimise the inflow of uranium not needed and to reduce excessive stockpiles' would not be more appropriate. But I hop that I shall be able to convince you that we European utilities are not that short-sighted and that we do have a more far-sighted policy regarding uranium supplies

  19. 18 CFR 366.7 - Procedures for obtaining exempt wholesale generator and foreign utility company status.

    2010-04-01

    ... definition of exempt wholesale generator or foreign utility company (including stating the location of its... obtaining exempt wholesale generator and foreign utility company status. 366.7 Section 366.7 Conservation of... THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT BOOKS AND...

  20. 77 FR 10501 - Northeast Utilities Service Company; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order

    2012-02-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL12-25-000] Northeast Utilities Service Company; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order Take notice that on February 8, 2012, Northeast Utilities Service Company (NUSCO), on behalf of the Connecticut Light and Power Company, Public...

  1. 17 CFR 250.27 - Classification of accounts prescribed for utility companies not already subject thereto.

    2010-04-01

    ... any company whose public utility activities are so limited that the application to it of such system of accounts is clearly inappropriate. A company claiming that its activities are thus limited, shall... thereof, which is a public utility company and which is not required by either the Federal Energy...

  2. Uranium purchasing and stockpiling policies of European utilities

    Messer, K.P.

    1984-01-01

    Most European utilities almost entirely depend on uranium imports. Around 1970 there was a worldwide oversupply of uranium, and utilities concluded short and medium term supply contracts for initial power plant programs. A few years later the situation had changed, with uranium becoming scarce and expensive. Many European utilities decided to participate, directly or indirectly, in the exploration and development of uranium resources. In 1984 most utilities believed that long term contracts from each of the big producer regions should supply 20-25% of their demand. Some remaining demand was reserved for the spot market and reprocessed fuel. This buying policy has t be supplemented by uranium stockpiles corresponding to the demand for the coming two years. However, with the declining worldwide economy power demand has not grown as predicted, and supply contracts have obliged utilities to take delivery of more uranium than needed. Stockpiles have grown larger than planned. (L.L.) (7 figs.)

  3. European Union Funds as a Source of Financing the Companies Investments

    Katarzyna Kornet

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurs are main beneficiaries of the funds from European Union. The process of financial support from EU for entrepreneurs conducting business activities in Poland is an important issue, which should be taken up by entrepreneurs, government and other offices and institutions, which participate in the process of absorption of the financial support. Introduction of the possibilities of financing and realization of the investment originating from various EU programs in new the 2007–2013 programming perspective, understanding of the stages of preparation of the project and application form, knowled - ge about financing principles of the investments from granted support are essential. Co-financing of project realized from EU financial resources is connected with a lot of advantages. First of all, the donations present an additional source of financial sup - port for enterprises which allow to accomplish the investment bear considerably with lo - wer costs than by using other sources (for example credit. Secondly, the donation allows accomplishing the investment faster, to create new additional job positions and utilize modern technology, which company couldn’t afford to by using its own funds. Moreover, the resources from various European Funds have a favorable effect (impact on enterprise develop ment and on improvement its competitiveness in the market. The company and all technologies, which could be implemented, can become more innovative. If the firm has an access to such sources of financing, it would have an opportunity for considera - bly faster development in comparison with other forms of financing its activity. Thirdly, the range of support for enterprises is very wide. Company can request for funding of project from various areas, from purchasing fixed as sets and buying land or from purcha - sing intangible as sets to take advantage of an advisory service.

  4. Are EMS environmentally effective? The link between environmental management systems and environmental performance in European companies

    Hertin, J.; Berkhout, F.G.H.; Wagner, M.; Tyteca, D.

    2008-01-01

    Based on the analysis of a large dataset on the environmental performance of European companies in five industrial sectors, this paper examines the question of whether the presence of an environmental management system (EMS) has a positive impact on the eco-efficiency of companies. It begins with a

  5. Transformation strategies for multi-utility companies; Transformationsstrategien fuer Multi Utility-Unternehmen

    Apking, W.; Bosse, F.; Kroepelin, C.; Schaudinn, D.; Uhlmann, K. [PriceWaterhouseCoopers Unternehmensberatung GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    2000-05-01

    Energy supply companies (resellers) and electric utilities as traders in the liberalized markets increasingly focus their activities on their core businesses and offer their capabilites also in other branches of industry, thus achieving synergistic effects. The evolution of e-commerce in the energy supply sector in Germany is described in this article, and recommendations are given to companies as to suitable change management strategies for successful marketing and procurement via the world wide web, using IP technologies as a basis for transactions. (CB) [German] Energieversorgungsunternehmen (EVU) besinnen sich auf ihre Kernkompetenzen, bieten diese auch in anderen Branchen an und erzielen damit Synergieeffekte. Ein weiterer Aspekt ist die zunehmende Vernetzung der europaeischen Stromnetze. Die Konvergenz der Maerkte wird ferner durch den Einsatz von IP(Internet-Protokoll)-Technologien vorangetrieben, da das Internet eine Informations- und Transaktionsplattform fuer saemtliche Marktteilnehmer schafft. Welche diesbezueglichen Transformationsstrategien von den EVU bereits heute zu ergreifen sind, wird anschaulich aus einem hierzu entwickelten Modell abgeleitet. (orig./CB)

  6. E-commerce between a European and a Chinese company

    de Boer, S.J.; Wei, Y.; Zhong, Y.X.; Shi, J.; Lin, X.

    2001-01-01

    With the rapid development of the Chinese economy in general, and the Internet in China in particular, the scope for international business cooperation is increasing. This paper presents an e-commerce case study between a listed Chinese Internet service provider (ISP) company and a small Dutch IT

  7. The impact of European integration on U.S. companies

    Ludolph, C.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the European Market for Minerals, particularly coal has been growing rapidly. The primary sources of demand are electrical production which for a variety of environmental and energy policy reasons has become the energy source of choice in the European community in the 1990s. The EC integration process will increase demand for electrical energy and coal in the north since this is the primary source of energy and alternatives like nuclear have stabilized for at least the next ten years. Coal and electricity demand in the south of Europe should increase even more rapidly because new markets are opening as electricity use intensifies

  8. Natural gas opportunities, utilization and trades (in a European context)

    Corke, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    The historical development of natural gas consumption in Europe has relied heavily on requirements for space heating energy in the residential/commercial sector and for process energy and feedstock in the industrial sector. This paper reviews historical gas utilization trends and considers how these are likely to develop in the future. In addition to the above somewhat negative factors, the bright outlook for gas utilization in both large scale and small scale power and cogeneration facilities is reviewed and the implications of power industry restructuring for natural gas utilization are discussed. Finally, the outlook for overall European natural gas demand and trade is briefly considered. (author)

  9. The European Model Company Act: How to choose an efficient regulatory approach?

    Cleff, Evelyne Beatrix

    ) on the organization of company laws reflect an interesting paradigm shift. Whereas, previously company law was primarily focused on preventing abuse, there is now a trend towards legislation that promote commerce and satisfy the needs of business. This means that the goal of economic efficiency is having...... an increasing influence on the framing of company legislation, such as the choice between mandatory or default rules. This article introduces the project "European Company Law and the choice of Regulatory Method" which is carried out in collaboration with the European Model Company Act Group. The project aims...... to analyze the appropriateness of different regulatory methods which are available to achieve the regulatory goals.   ...

  10. Customer satisfaction from private utility companies: An explanatory study

    Eleni-Plousia Kosteroglou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The present study examines the factors that have an impact on "customer satisfaction" in the context of private utility companies. The main purpose of the study is accomplished through the development and the empirical testing of a conceptual frame-work (research model. The proposed framework includes six dimensions (research factors: (a tangibles, (b reliability, (c responsiveness, (d assurance, (e empathy, and (f customer satisfaction. Design/methodology/approach – The present study adopted the SERVQUAL approach (model, only after analytically testing its suitability for use within the investigated area. In that direction, the focus group methodology was used. Finally, the proposed con-ceptual framework was tested on a random sample of gas consumers residing in the area of Thessaloniki, Greece. The final sample consisted of 437 adult consumers. The reliability and the validity of the questionnaire were thoroughly examined. Empirical data were analysed using the “Structural Equation Modelling” (SEM technique. The present study is empirical, explanatory, deductive and, mainly, quantitative. Findings – Empirical results indicate that "reliability" has the highest impact on "customer satisfaction", while "empathy" has no impact at all. More specifically, the impact of "reliability" on "customer satisfaction" is indirect, mediated through three other di-mensions of the conceptual framework (namely, "tangibles", "responsiveness" and "empathy". Research limitations/implications – A limitation stemming from the implemented methodology is the use of self-reported scales for the measurement of the six research factors. Moreover, the paper lacks a longitudinal approach. Finally, the empirical research (survey is focused on one organisation and, therefore, offers relatively limited generalizability. Originality/value – Very few studies have utilised the SERVQUAL approach in the context of an explanatory research. This approach

  11. 17 CFR 210.3A-05 - Special requirements as to public utility holding companies.

    2010-04-01

    ... Consolidated and Combined Financial Statements § 210.3A-05 Special requirements as to public utility holding companies. There shall be shown in the consolidated balance sheet of a public utility holding company the... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION FORM AND CONTENT OF AND REQUIREMENTS FOR FINANCIAL STATEMENTS, SECURITIES...

  12. Implications of European Directives in the Assessment of Insurance Companies

    Ionel BOSTAN

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present a vision in the sphere of the problematic of assets and liabilities’ evaluation that are reflected in the balance sheet of the insurance companies, inside the theory of the contingent claims, and of the marginal theory inside the insurance sphere. Our references take into consideration all the principles and evaluation norms of a company’s liabilities, company operating in the life insurance domain, including the general request introduced by the IFRS. Also, we argument the fact that the making of the new IFRS standards’ frame must take into consideration the accelerated globalization of the trading and the internalization of the financial markets, factors that have made pass onto the first place the necessity of a standardized financial reporting system. Because for so long the evaluating inadequacy of the assets at their fair value and the liabilities at their fair cost has persisted for so long, we underline that we find even in this a vast debate subject between the insurance companies’ representatives and the IASB, especially in the second step of the IFRS4’s implementation in the life insurance contract.

  13. 17 CFR 250.7 - Companies deemed not to be electric or gas utility companies.

    2010-04-01

    ... status afforded by paragraph (b)(1) of this section, any such company shall file with this Commission a... a statement of receipts and expenditures for such year and of financial status at its end. (3) As a prerequisite to retaining the status afforded by paragraph (b)(1) of this section, any such company shall...

  14. Independents in European Gas Markets after liberalisation - downstream integration of upstream oil and gas companies

    Eikeland, Per Ove

    2005-01-01

    A central objective of gas market liberalisation in Europe in the 1990s was to increase competition by opening end-use markets for independent suppliers. Upstream oil and gas companies in Europe reacted to this opportunity by announcing strategies to integrate forward in European gas markets. By late 2004, however, upstream companies still recorded generally weak downstream strategy implementation in Europe. The article concludes that this general implementation gap should be explained by political failure in EU member states to abolish gas market barriers to entry for independents. Variation between companies in degree of implementation should be explained by variation in conditions in the companies' home markets / wider business spheres and internal company factors. (Author)

  15. Setting Up a Limited Liability Company with Sole Shareholder in the European Union Countries

    Simona Petrina GAVRILA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Given the importance of legal rules as closely as possible to the legal systems of the European Union Member States in respect of the companies, several directives have been adopted, of which twelve present the essence of the operational mechanisms harmonization . The consecration of single-member company in positive law is determined by multiple motivations, and the relevance of its objectives is complex, for the reason of the diverse role it plays in the economic and social life, from which the existence of different single-member business derives:limited liability company, joint stock company, simplified joint stock company, dedicated assets, subjected to a personal legal system, difficult to compare, each of them to be therefore studied in the legal, economic, social and tax context of each country.

  16. The European Utility Requirements (EUR). Status and near term activities

    Berbey, Pierre; Hedin, Francois

    2010-01-01

    In 1991 5 major European Utilities participating in the US ALWR program decided to develop together a common specification that would contribute to keep the nuclear option open. The European Utility Requirements (EUR) are addressed to the designers and suppliers of LWR plants in order to allow the development of standards designs that can be build and licensed in several European countries with only minor variations. The EUR organization has kept enlarging; today 16 utilities are members of the EUR organization. Seven compliance analyses dedicated respectively to the BWR90, EPR, EPP, ABWR, SWR1000, AP1000 and to the AES92 projects have been already published. The revised version of the EPR subset of the EUR volume 3 was finalized in mid 2009. New LWR projects of potential interest for the EUR utilities are being contemplated. For instance a preliminary assessment of compliance of MHI's APWR project has been worked out in the first months of 2008. Recently EUR organization has decided to launch coordinated actions with other industry groups and other stakeholders. In particular EUR and ENISS organizations have decided to join their efforts in their relations with the IAEA and WENRA organizations with respect to the LWR Gen3 designs. In addition EUR and CORDEL (Cooperation in Reactor Design Evaluation and Licensing), which is a WNA (World Nuclear Association) working group decided also to coordinate their efforts for the industry benefit, in relation with the MDEP (Multinational Design Evaluation Program) initiative of safety nuclear regulators. Contacts have been also initiated with ENEN and the WNU in order to develop new courses for young professionals. (orig.)

  17. Intercultural aspects and success factors of European companies entering the Indian market

    Pilný, Ondřej

    2015-01-01

    This bachelor thesis focuses on the Intercultural aspects and success factors of European companies entering the Indian market. Its main objective is to evaluate Intercultural aspects and success factors. Partial aims are to evaluate attractive-ness of chosen emerging segments in Indian market. Analyse external business environment in India. Recommend market entry strategy, business communica-tion and Intercultural management.

  18. Renewable energy utilization in 3 european cities. Part 1

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    Energy production based on fossil fuels produces CO2, SO2 and NOx, which are harmful to the environment. It is agreed, both nationally and internationally, that it is necessary to considerably reduce the energy consumption. The difference between different European countries politically, financially, culturally, and socially needs to be acknowledged when energy initiatives are considered for implementation on a local as well as an international scale. This was the basis for the initiation of the project `Renewable Energy Utilization in 3 European Cities`. Three very different cities with different problems and thus different interests got together and joined efforts to develop action plans to increase renewable energy use to reduce the burden on the environment from energy consumption in the urban and regional areas. The work has been undertaken by the working group presented in appendix 3. (EG) ALTENER. 25 refs.

  19. The liberalization of the European energy market from the perspective of the Austrian regional power company

    Sander, H.

    1999-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the liberalization of the European energy sector from an Austrian perspective, emphasizing its effect on a regional power company (KELAG). The energy market's changing conditions are creating new opportunities for consumers that allow them to optimize their ability to fulfill their power requirements. Decentralized solutions are now just as viable for large industrial customers as the ability to have all energy supplied through the utility network. In addition, partnerships with independent power producers (IPP's) or cooperation between the large customers in energy production can be considered. From a regional perspective, the central management concept of KELAG is the answer to an altered market situation, since this concept created tremendous potential for streamlining the management of energy production and operation of the network. The liberalization of the energy market for large industrial customers in Carinthia's electricity sector was preceded by a series of important decisions. The Verbundgesellschaft combine their generating facilities. In the future the power plants of Draukraft in Carinthia will be supervised and controlled remotely from KELAG's central control unit in Klagenfurt, as a result of which the central control unit becomes the primary energy control for Carinthia. (author)

  20. Multi utility - a successful conception for energy supply companies?; Multi-Utility - Erfolgskonzept fuer Energieversorger? Zusammenwachsen der Maerkte

    Schmidt, C. [LBD-Beratungsgesellschaft mbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2003-06-02

    Multi-utility is seen as the most promising marketing strategy for energy companies. In the future, experts say, only the combined supply of electricity, natural gas, water, waste management and services will allow companies to grow. But are today's multi-utility-products answering the needs of the customers? The author goes further into this question and finds the answer: Multi-utility needs to be further developed. Only products from growth and competition markets can generate additional margins. (orig.) [German] Multi-Utility gilt als die Marketingstrategie fuer Energieversorger. Nur wer zukuenftig Strom, Gas, Wasser, Entsorgung und Service aus einer Hand anbietet, heisst es in der Branche, kann im Markt wachsen. Doch inwieweit entspricht das heutige Multi-Utility-Angebot wirklich dem Kundenbeduerfnis? Die Verfasserin geht dieser Frage nach und kommt zu dem Schluss: Die Multi-Utility-Palette muss weiterentwickelt werden. Nur mit Produkten aus Wachstums- und Wettbewerbsmaerkten kann zusaetzliche Marge generiert werden. (orig.)

  1. Issues related to gas use by European power utilities

    Jonchere, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    Gas-fired combined cycle frequently appears as a least-cost option for newly built power plants. Moreover, this option also brings obvious environmental benefits. But, power utilities, facing unavoidable long term uncertainties about electricity demand are not at ease with long term commitments such a a take-or-pay formula or a price indexation not reflecting the market place in the power generation industry. Due to the flexibilities in the management of existing power plants (deferred closures, etc...) or even on the demand side (load shifting, peak clipping, etc...), early decision making is not compulsory. Therefore, a gas breakthrough in the power sector interfuel competition will require a mutual understanding of constraints and flexibilities faced by partners: gas sellers and power utilities. A fair rent sharing between them would certainly be a prerequisite to a large but possibly temporary access of natural gas to the European power sector. 4 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  2. Adapting United States training practices to European utilities

    Walsh, T.E.

    1983-01-01

    The factors which must be considered in the process of adapting United States nuclear utility training programs to the needs of a European utility are discussed. Following a review of the present situation and drawing up of a new training program, the management commitments in terms of personnel and finance must be considered. Short term, medium and long term programs are outlined. The long term objectives should include the establishment of a total training centre. This facility should be capable of providing all the training necessary to operate a power plant safely. This would include specific simulator training, classroom training for operators, technician training, staff training, management training etc. In addition to a simulator, it should include an emergency response facility to train personnel. (U.K.)

  3. European Health Claims for Small and Medium-Sized Companies – Utopian Dream or Future Reality?

    Sonja Brandenburger

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In December 2007, the European Regulation (EC 1924/2006 on nutrition and health claims came into force. The European Union wanted to regulate the use of health claims on products. An online survey was carried out to evaluate the situation, particularly of small and medium-sized companies, dealing with the new regulation. Methods: The online survey on health claims was conducted with 16 enterprises. To underline the findings a SWOT (Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats analysis was made of the nutrition and health claims regulation regarding small and medium-sized companies in the European food and drink market. Results: The findings of this study indicated that the European Union did a step in the right direction. Most companies defined the decent competition, the simplified trade within the inner-European market, and the consumer protection as positive aspects. The biggest threat is seen in false investment conditioned by the limited research and development budgets, especially of small and medium-sized enterprises, and the cost intensive scientific evaluation to reach an authorized health claim. Conclusions: Overall, there are several strengths and opportunities speaking for SMEs and health claims in the near future. The most promising ones are the publishing of the new European Union Register of Nutrition and Health Claims and the learning effects that will occur. The biggest threat is, and will remain to be, false investment and the possible loss of a lot of money. Nevertheless, health claims for small and medium-sized enterprises will inevitably be the future to keep the European food and drink market competitive.

  4. Study on analysis of potential competition and discrimination issues relating to a pilot project for an EU tax consolidation scheme for the European Company statute (Societas Europaea)

    Deloitte

    2004-01-01

    Would a specific tax regime that i) grants to companies formed under the European Company Statute the possibility to or ii) requires companies formed under the European Company Statute to establish the consolidated tax base for their EU wide activities according to one set of rules(either European or that of their ?home state?) and does not provide this possibility for companies which are run under a different legal form discriminate against these latter companies and/or provide state aid to ...

  5. Accession to the European Union: Advantage or Disadvantage for Czech Companies?

    Dušan Litva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper has been studied effects of accession to the EU on Czech companies which were selected and grouped according to 5 parameters: region, legal form, operation area, business sector and size of the company defined by number of employees. Questionnaire containing 14 questions have replied in total 146 respondents. It is possible to conclude that accession to the EU brought more advantages to big global joint- stock companies than to small regional companies which were mostly negative and claimed worsening of business results due to European integration. Most of the 146 respondents asked via questionnaire containing 14 questions did not agree with acceptance of Euro, while those who agreed had been estimated 2020 as ideal year to access Eurozone. Companies in quaternary sector were mostly positive on the opposite to the companies in tertiary sector which were negative. Companies in Prague and Central Bohemia were much more positive towards EU benefits than in rest of the Czech Republic regions.

  6. Intellectual Capital and Profitability: A Firm Value Approach in the European Companies

    Maria Manuela Martins

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Intangibles are, at a knowledge-based economy, the most important resources, driving companies towards systematic and sometimes unexpected returns. This paper follows a positivist approach and aims to investigate the association between the degree of intangibility, value of firms and their profitability. Based on the 500 largest European companies, rated by Financial Times, the most relevant insights emerge from the association between firms’ knowledge intensity level and its degree of profitability. These insights consolidate the evidences that immaterial resources act as drivers of future benefits and are embodied on firms’ profitability ratios.

  7. The deregulation connection : utility competition creates new niche company

    Roy, C.

    1999-01-01

    Deregulation in Ontario's utility market has created incentives for local utilities to add new services to attract and keep customers, knowing that in a competitive energy market, only those utilities which offer the best services will survive. London Hydro, which provides power to southwestern Ontario launched a private enterprise called LondonConnect Inc. The new enterprise offers high-speed digital services to area businesses. London Hydro made this unique move to take advantage of the fact that 20 per cent of businesses communicate electronically. London Hydro believes that in the next five years, that number will increase to 80 per cent. The Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) gives businesses greater connectivity to the Internet and web services. One of the network's capabilities is realtime video conferencing between hydro locations. MAN can also be used to create a secure and private virtual community-wide area network of computers and office machines. The advantages are numerous. For example, hospitals will be able to exchange information between remote sites at incredible speeds. MAN is made up of fiber-optic cables and electronic routers. LondonConnect is expecting to provide access throughout London by the fall of 1999. A dozen clients have already signed up for the service. Installation of the system will cost $1,000 with fixed monthly rates. The cost will vary depending on the level of service. The network will cost London Hydro $3 million, but it is expected to generate $2.5 million annually in its first two years. 3 figs

  8. The deregulation connection : utility competition creates new niche company

    Roy, C

    1999-08-01

    Deregulation in Ontario's utility market has created incentives for local utilities to add new services to attract and keep customers, knowing that in a competitive energy market, only those utilities which offer the best services will survive. London Hydro, which provides power to southwestern Ontario launched a private enterprise called LondonConnect Inc. The new enterprise offers high-speed digital services to area businesses. London Hydro made this unique move to take advantage of the fact that 20 per cent of businesses communicate electronically. London Hydro believes that in the next five years, that number will increase to 80 per cent. The Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) gives businesses greater connectivity to the Internet and web services. One of the network's capabilities is realtime video conferencing between hydro locations. MAN can also be used to create a secure and private virtual community-wide area network of computers and office machines. The advantages are numerous. For example, hospitals will be able to exchange information between remote sites at incredible speeds. MAN is made up of fiber-optic cables and electronic routers. LondonConnect is expecting to provide access throughout London by the fall of 1999. A dozen clients have already signed up for the service. Installation of the system will cost $1,000 with fixed monthly rates. The cost will vary depending on the level of service. The network will cost London Hydro $3 million, but it is expected to generate $2.5 million annually in its first two years. 3 figs.

  9. The deregulation connection : utility competition creates new niche company

    Roy, C.

    1999-08-01

    Deregulation in Ontario`s utility market has created incentives for local utilities to add new services to attract and keep customers, knowing that in a competitive energy market, only those utilities which offer the best services will survive. London Hydro, which provides power to southwestern Ontario launched a private enterprise called LondonConnect Inc. The new enterprise offers high-speed digital services to area businesses. London Hydro made this unique move to take advantage of the fact that 20 per cent of businesses communicate electronically. London Hydro believes that in the next five years, that number will increase to 80 per cent. The Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) gives businesses greater connectivity to the Internet and web services. One of the network`s capabilities is realtime video conferencing between hydro locations. MAN can also be used to create a secure and private virtual community-wide area network of computers and office machines. The advantages are numerous. For example, hospitals will be able to exchange information between remote sites at incredible speeds. MAN is made up of fiber-optic cables and electronic routers. LondonConnect is expecting to provide access throughout London by the fall of 1999. A dozen clients have already signed up for the service. Installation of the system will cost $1,000 with fixed monthly rates. The cost will vary depending on the level of service. The network will cost London Hydro $3 million, but it is expected to generate $2.5 million annually in its first two years. 3 figs.

  10. Negotiated forms of worker involvement in the European Company (SE): First empirical evidence and conclusions

    Keller, Berndt; Werner, Frank

    2008-01-01

    This article analyses the negotiations on worker involvement in the first almost four years of the European Company SE and their outcomes. First, some basic institutional aspects of the SE itself and its current empirical situation are described and explained. Then, the focus is on questions of employee involvement in this new legal form. Again some main institutional provisions on employee involvement are assessed, before a detailed empirical analysis on specific issues is presented. A final...

  11. Managing Media Supply Chains in European Publishing Companies : Strategic issues, values and partnerships

    Kabiraj, Sajal

    2007-01-01

    European publishing companies are quickly digitizing their businesses to achieve cost savings, and increased market reach and penetration. IT is increasingly affecting the ways in which the whole value chain operates. Interaction and collaboration costs have been slashed. Physical assets are no longer the cornerstone of competitive success and value propositions. This situation became more critical mainly due to continuous increase in consumer expectations, longer demand chain, conventional m...

  12. INVESTIGATING FINANCIAL INNOVATION AND EUROPEAN CAPITAL MARKETS. THE CASE OF CATASTROPHE BONDS AND LISTED REINSURANCE COMPANIES

    CONSTANTIN LAURA-GABRIELA; CERNAT-GRUICI BOGDAN; IAMANDI IRINA-EUGENIA

    2014-01-01

    Focusing on the financial innovation – stock market interconnections, the present research studies the association between the insurance-linked market activity of European (re)insurance companies and their evolution on the capital markets. With the aim of emphasizing the connections from the perspective of the stock performance and their risk, the empirical analysis is based on vector autoregression (VAR) and Granger causality analyses. The proposed examination is further develope...

  13. INVESTIGATING FINANCIAL INNOVATION AND EUROPEAN CAPITAL MARKETS. THE CASE OF CATASTROPHE BONDS AND LISTED REINSURANCE COMPANIES

    CONSTANTIN LAURA-GABRIELA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on the financial innovation – stock market interconnections, the present research studies the association between the insurance-linked market activity of European (reinsurance companies and their evolution on the capital markets. With the aim of emphasizing the connections from the perspective of the stock performance and their risk, the empirical analysis is based on vector autoregression (VAR and Granger causality analyses. The proposed examination is further developed by considering both impulse response functions and variance decomposition insights. The proxies of the catastrophe bond market, as financial innovation, there are employed both the size and the number of catastrophe bonds transactions, while the stock returns and their standard deviation stand for representatives of the evolution of the reinsurance companies on the capital markets in terms of financial performance and risk. The main results confirm other studies, suggesting that the effects of issuing cat bonds on the ceding companies is reflected rather in terms of stocks’ risk diminishing

  14. INVESTIGATING FINANCIAL INNOVATION AND EUROPEAN CAPITAL MARKETS. THE CASE OF CATASTROPHE BONDS AND LISTED REINSURANCE COMPANIES

    CONSTANTIN LAURA-GABRIELA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on the financial innovation – stock market interconnections, the present research studies the association between the insurance-linked market activity of European (reinsurance companies and their evolution on the capital markets. With the aim of emphasizing the connections from the perspective of the stock performance and their risk, the empirical analysis is based on vector autoregression (VAR and Granger causality analyses. The proposed examination is further developed by considering both impulse response functions and variance decomposition insights. The proxies of the catastrophe bond market, as financial innovation, there are employed both the size and the number of catastrophe bonds transactions, while the stock returns and their standard deviation stand for representatives of the evolution of the reinsurance companies on the capital markets in terms of financial performance and risk. The main results confirm other studies, suggesting that the effects of issuing cat bonds on the ceding companies is reflected rather in terms of stocks’ risk diminishing.

  15. European Utility Requirements: leveling the European electricity producers' playing ground for new NPPs

    Bernard Roche

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Since 1992, the European Utility Requirement (EUR) document has been developed by the major European electricity producers. The main driver to this work has been the construction of a unified European market. The electricity producers have set out design requirements adapted to this new European environment, while keeping in mind experience feedback from operating NPPs worldwide. The EUR document is now fully operational and its set of generic requirements have been recently used as bid specification in Finland and in China. The EUR document keeps developing in two directions: 1- completing the assessment of the projects that could be proposed by the vendors for the European market. Five projects have been assessed between 1999 and 2002: BWR90, EPR, EP1000, ABWR and SWR1000. Two new projects are being assessed, the Westinghouse AP1000 and the Russian VVER AES92. It is currently planned to publish these two new assessments in the first half of 2006. Others may be undertaken meanwhile. 2- revision of the generic requirements. A revision C of the volume 4 dedicated to power generation plant is being completed. It includes responses to vendors comments and feedback from the TVO call for bid for Finland 5. A revision D of the volumes 1 and 2 dedicated to nuclear islands is foreseen. The main contributions to this revision are the harmonization actions going on in Europe about nuclear safety (WENRA study on reactor safety harmonization, EC works, evolution of the IAEA guides and requirements), the harmonization works on the conditions of connection to the European HV grid as well as harmonization works on other matters, like codes and standards. This has given a unified frame in which the future nuclear plants can be designed and built. In this frame development of standards designs usable throughout Europe without major design change is possible, thus helping to increase competition, and ultimately to save investment and operating costs

  16. Climate change and energy - 2004. European carbon factor. Comparison of CO2 emissions of the main European electric utilities

    2004-01-01

    This joint PWC/Enerpresse brochure publishes the 2003 results of a study about the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of the 23 main European electric power producers. The study shows an increase by 5% of the cumulated emissions of power companies with respect to 2002. These 23 companies represent 55% of the emissions of the power/heat sector in Europe (25 countries). The first 10 companies are responsible of 43% of the GHG emissions of this sector in Europe. Among those, 2 show stable emissions while 3 have reduced their emissions. (J.S.)

  17. Climate change and electricity - 2008. European carbon factor. Comparison of CO2 emissions of the main European electric utilities

    2008-01-01

    This joint PWC/Enerpresse brochure publishes the 2007 results of a study about the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of the 22 main European electric power producers. The study shows an increase by 3% of the cumulated emissions of power companies with respect to 2006. These 22 companies represent 59% of the emissions of the power/heat sector in Europe (27 countries). The first 10 companies are responsible of 50% of the GHG emissions of this sector in Europe. Among those, 7 show stable emissions while the others have increased their emissions. (J.S.)

  18. Climate change and electricity - 2006. European carbon factor. Comparison of CO2 emissions of the main European electric utilities

    2006-01-01

    This joint PWC/Enerpresse brochure publishes the 2005 results of a study about the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of the 23 main European electric power producers. The study shows an increase by 1.7% of the cumulated emissions of power companies with respect to 2001. These 23 companies represent 55% of the emissions of the power/heat sector in Europe (25 countries). The first 10 companies are responsible of 45% of the GHG emissions of this sector in Europe. Among those, 7 show stable emissions while 3 have reduced their emissions. (J.S.)

  19. Climate change and electricity - 2003. European carbon factor. Comparison of CO2 emissions of the main European electric utilities

    2003-01-01

    This joint PWC/Enerpresse brochure publishes the 2002 results of a study about the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of the 21 main European electric power producers. The study shows an increase by 0.8% of the cumulated emissions of power companies with respect to 2001. These 21 companies represent 75% of the emissions of the power/heat sector in Europe (25 countries). The first 10 companies are responsible of 60% of the GHG emissions of this sector in Europe. Among those, 7 have increased their emissions while 3 have reduced them. (J.S.)

  20. Westinghouse Electric Company experiences in chemistry on-line monitoring in Eastern European nuclear power plants

    Balavage, J.

    2001-01-01

    Westinghouse Electric Company has provided a number of Chemistry On-Line Monitoring (OLM) Systems to Nuclear Power Plants in Eastern Europe. Eleven systems were provided to the Temelin Nuclear Power Plant in the south of the Czech Republic. Four systems were provided to the Russian NPP at Novovoronezh. In addition, a system design was developed for primary side chemistry monitoring for units 5 and 6 of another eastern European VVER. The status of the Temelin OLM systems is discussed including updates to the Temelin designs, and the other Eastern European installations and designs are also described briefly. Some of the problems encountered and lessons learned from these projects are also discussed. (R.P.)

  1. The main challenges for manufacturing companies in implementing and utilizing configurators

    Kristjansdottir, Katrin; Shafiee, Sara; Hvam, Lars

    2018-01-01

    Companies providing customized products increasingly apply configurators in supporting sales and design activities, thus improving lead-times, quality, cost, benefits perceived by customers, and customer satisfaction. While configurator advantages have been substantially investigated....... Finally, it is investigated whether the importance of the main categories of challenges varies according to a number of potential context variables. The results of the survey, which studies manufacturing companies that use configurators in providing customized products, offer new insights......, the challenges of implementing and utilizing configurators have less often been considered. By reviewing relevant literature, the present study first categorizes the main challenges faced by manufacturing companies when implementing and utilizing configurators. Six main categories of challenges are identified...

  2. Allocating service parts in two-echelon networks at a utility company

    van den Berg, D.; van der Heijden, Matthijs C.; Schuur, Peter

    2014-01-01

    We study a multi-item, two-echelon, continuous-review inventory problem at a Dutch utility company, Liander. We develop a model that optimizes the quantities of service parts and their allocation in the two-echelon network under an aggregate waiting time restriction. Specific aspects that we address

  3. 77 FR 73646 - Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator or Foreign Utility Company Status

    2012-12-11

    ... Renewable Energy Infrastructure FC12-10-000 Limited Partnership. Project AMBG2 LP FC12-11-000 SunBridge Wind... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket Nos. EG12-108-000, et al.] Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator or Foreign Utility Company Status [[Page 73647...

  4. 77 FR 42719 - Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator or Foreign Utility Company Status

    2012-07-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [EG12-43-000, EG12-53-000, EG12-54-000, et al.] Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator or Foreign Utility Company Status Docket Nos. Sherbino I Wind Farm LLC EG12-43-000 Eagle Point Power Generation LLC....... EG12-53-000...

  5. Profit maximization algorithms for utility companies in an oligopolistic energy market with dynamic prices and intelligent users

    Tiansong Cui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic energy pricing provides a promising solution for the utility companies to incentivize energy users to perform demand side management in order to minimize their electric bills. Moreover, the emerging decentralized smart grid, which is a likely infrastructure scenario for future electrical power networks, allows energy consumers to select their energy provider from among multiple utility companies in any billing period. This paper thus starts by considering an oligopolistic energy market with multiple non-cooperative (competitive utility companies, and addresses the problem of determining dynamic energy prices for every utility company in this market based on a modified Bertrand Competition Model of user behaviors. Two methods of dynamic energy pricing are proposed for a utility company to maximize its total profit. The first method finds the greatest lower bound on the total profit that can be achieved by the utility company, whereas the second method finds the best response of a utility company to dynamic pricing policies that the other companies have adopted in previous billing periods. To exploit the advantages of each method while compensating their shortcomings, an adaptive dynamic pricing policy is proposed based on a machine learning technique, which finds a good balance between invocations of the two aforesaid methods. Experimental results show that the adaptive policy results in consistently high profit for the utility company no matter what policies are employed by the other companies.

  6. Project of law modified by the Senate relative to the electric and gas public utilities and to the electric and gas companies

    2004-07-01

    This project of law aims to adapt the electricity and gas sector to the new economical context of opening of the energy markets to competition. It gives to energy companies the internal organization base necessary to warrant a high level of service and a transparent and non-discriminatory access of third parties to transport and distribution networks. These evolutions will allow Electricite de France (EdF) and Gaz de France (GdF) companies to compete on equal terms with their European competitors. It confirms first the prime role of public utility of both companies and then transposes the dispositions of the European directives relative to the organization of EdF and GdF integrated companies. It foresees the creation of two daughter companies for the management of energy transport activities. The project of law foresees also the change of the status of EdF and GdF companies and the reform of the retirement pensions of the personnel. This report presents the modifications added by the Senate to the text of law adopted at first reading by the House of Commons. (J.S.)

  7. How the largest electric and gas utility companies administer public relations

    Bogart, J.D.

    1979-04-12

    This article describes the findings of a survey conducted by the author in the second half of 1978 to determine the sizes of the public relations staffs of the nation's largest operating electric and gas utilities, their budgets, organizational differences, and specific functions. Common public relations issues and major public relations problems of the utilities are identified, as well as recent trends or changes in budgeting and organization. Some functional variations of public relations departments among utility companies were detected and described.

  8. Several companies will not be able to earn amounts necessary to meet strictest European Union standards

    Zackova, K.; Sobinkovic, B.

    2003-01-01

    Costs of meeting environmental laws, regulations and directives applying to industrial companies are relatively high. Some companies are therefore concerned that they will not be in the position to accumulate sufficient funds to meet the requirements of newly introduced legislation reflecting the European Union (EU) environmental standards. And those plants that will not manage to comply with the new regulation by the set deadline, will face a threat of being closed down. In some cases the threat will be softened by transition periods agreed on in course of pre-entry negotiations on the chapter environment and through time schedules provided for in the newly introduced regulations. Danish consultant company Niras in co-operation with Institute of Slovak and World Economy at SAV (Slovak Academy of Science) calculated that the costs related to implementation EU environmental standards by 2035 would amount to 437 bn Slovak crowns (Sk) (10.57 billion Euro). Chief Negotiator of Slovakia's EU-entry, Jan Figel confirmed that from financial point of view the implementation of environmental standards was the most demanding requirement of all. Experts cannot predict yet what part of these costs will be covered by companies themselves. The highest amount should be spent on water protection - 185 billion Sk (4.47 billion Euro) until 2030. In the waste disposal industry the necessary investments during the same period are estimated to 130 billion Sk (3.14 billion Euro) and another 90 billion Sk (2.18 billion Euro) will have to be spent on big incineration facilities. The mentioned amount of 437 billion Sk (10.57 billion Euro) does not include any costs related to liquidation of old environmental burdens. But this problem will be partially solved through the new environmental arrangements. Several industrial companies are not allowed to build new waste dumps as long as they have not liquidated the old ones or at leas have addressed the matter of contaminated soil. There is no

  9. Practices of Dividend Policies Adopted by Energy and Utilities Companies Listed on the BSE

    Dorel Berceanu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to highlight how dividend practices are implemented by major energy and utility companies listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange. The analyzed sector is of particular importance due to the fact that the firms in this category are always in the attention of investors, knowing that the obtained profits are quite consistent. In addition, for three of the five surveyed companies, the state is the majority shareholder and for the fourth, SNP, it still has a significant package. Therefore, it is interesting to see to what extent the majority and minority shareholders' interests are harmonized, given that the dividend decision is also a means of selecting the shareholder.

  10. RISK AND FIRM VALUE IN EUROPEAN COMPANIES: A DYNAMIC PANEL DATA APPROACH

    Claudiu Botoc

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent uncertainties in financial markets and several company bankruptcies reinforce the relationship between risk and return as a cornerstone in corporate finance. Enterprise risk management theories offer unambiguous predictions about the relation between firm value and risk. The main aim of the paper is to provide new empirical evidence on the risk as a driver for company value creation process for European developed countries over the period 2001-2011. Using dynamic panel data model with two-step GMM-SYS method and enterprise multiple as a new approach to measure for firm value the results suggest that firm value is negatively related with risk, which is consistent with Bowman’s risk and return paradox. The negative relation between firm value and risk is robust through alternative measures, but it does not hold for companies from civil law countries. Additional control variables included in the model are significant and suggest that both growth and capital structure are negatively related with firm value.

  11. Modelling the role of transmission companies in the downstream European gas market

    Boots, M.A.; Rijkers, F.A.M.

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes the empirical model GASTALE and shows several analyses of the European gas market using this model. These analyses are mainly focused on the role of the downstream transmission companies. Producers of natural gas are assumed to form an oligopoly throughout the paper. Considering an oligopolistic transmission structure our model results show that the level of transmitters' profits strongly depends on the possibilities of discrimination on the border prices. If price discrimination by producers is allowed, these producers collect the main part of the margins on end-use prices. Without price discrimination the transmission companies collect most of the margins. Assuming an oligopolistic downstream structure, end-use prices converge to prices corresponding to perfect competition when the number of transmitters increases. Given the oligopolistic structure of the upstream industry, it is of importance to prevent (or abolish) monopolistic structures in the downstream gas market. In the case where oligopolistic competition between downstream gas companies cannot be prevented, vertical integration should be supported (or at least not be discouraged). 14 refs

  12. European utility requirements (EUR) volume 3 assessment for AP1000

    Saiu, G.; Demetri, K.J.

    2005-01-01

    The EUR (European Utility Requirements) Volume 3 is intended to report the Plant Description, the Compliance Assessment to EUR Volumes 1 and 2, and finally, the Specific Requirements for each specific Nuclear Power Plant Design considered by the EUR. Five subsets of EUR Volume 3, based on EUR Revision B, are already published; all of which are next generation plant designs being developed for Europe beyond 2000. They include : 1) EP1000 - Passive Pressurized Light Water Reactor (3-Loop, 1000 MWe) 2) EPR - Evolutionary Pressurized Light Water Reactor (1500 MWe) 3) BWR90/90+ - Evolutionary Boiling Water Reactor (1400 MWe) 4) ABWR - Evolutionary Boiling Water Reactor (1400 MWe) 5) SWR 1000 - Boiling Water Reactor With Passive Features (1000 MWe) In addition, the following subsets are currently being developed: 1) AP1000 - Passive Pressurized Light Water Reactor (2-Loop, 1117 MWe) 2) VVER AES 92 - Pressurized Water Reactor With Passive Features (1000 MWe) The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the program, which started in January 2004 with the EUR group to prepare an EUR Volume 3 Subset for the AP1000 nuclear plant design. The AP1000 EUR compliance assessment, to be performed against EUR Revision C requirements, is an important step for the evaluation of the AP1000 design for application in Europe. The AP1000 compliance assessment is making full use of AP1000 licensing documentation, EPP Phase 2 design activities and EP1000 EUR detailed compliance assessment. As of today, nearly all of the EUR Chapters have been discussed within the EUR Coordination Group. Based on the results of the compliance assessment, it can be stated that the AP1000 design shows a good level of compliance with the EUR Revision C requirements. Nevertheless, the compliance assessment has highlighted areas for where the AP1000 plant deviates from the EUR. The EPP design group has selected the most significant ones for performing detailed studies to quantify the degree of compliance

  13. The utilization of VUJE specialists non-destructive testing qualification at international cooperation with company TECNATOM

    Kuna, M.

    2006-01-01

    The utilization of VUJE specialists non-destructive testing qualification at cooperation with company TECNATOM. The obtain of QDA qualification for ET examination for possibility of qualified evaluation in the foreign NPP (USA, Brazil). The acquired practical experiences by evaluation of ET data from NPP Angra Brazil and Waltz Mill USA. The obtain of SNT-TC-1A and EPRI qualification for the UT evaluation of penetration tube welds measurements. The practical experience during the measurement on NPP Shearon Harris (Author)

  14. European Model Company Act jako nowy instrument harmonizacji europejskiego prawa spółek

    Możdżeń, Kamila

    2016-01-01

    Przedmiotem żywej dyskusji w dziedzinie harmonizacji europejskiego prawa spółek stał się ostatnio przełomowy szkic europejskiej ustawy modelowej o spółkach - European Model Company Act (EMCA), który po kilku latach prac najwybitniejszych ekspertów z całej Europy ujrzał światło dzienne. Modelowy europejski kodeks spółek handlowych, który państwa członkowskie będą mogły dobrowolnie implementować, ma pełnić rolę obiecującego dopełnienia dotychczasowych instrumentów harmonizacyjnych oraz inspirow...

  15. Energy service companies in European countries: Current status and a strategy to foster their development

    Bertoldi, Paolo [European Commission, DG JRC, TP 450, I-21020 Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See,) (Italy)]. E-mail: paolo.bertoldi@cec.eu.int; Rezessy, Silvia [Department of Environmental Sciences and Policy, Central European University, Nador u. 9, H-1051 Budapest (Hungary)]. E-mail: ephlas01@phd.ceu.hu; Vine, Edward [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Building 90-4000, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)]. E-mail: elvine@lbl.gov

    2006-09-15

    Although the European Commission and the Member States of the European Union (EU) have promoted a number of policy initiatives to foster the Energy Services Company (ESCO) industry, a recent survey of ESCO businesses in Europe has indicated that major differences exist in the development of the ESCO business among the various countries. In some countries a large number of ESCOs have been successfully operating for a number of years, while in other countries only a few ESCOs have recently started to operate. This difference could be explained by several factors, such as different levels of support offered to ESCOs by national and regional energy authorities, local market structures and rules, and variation in the definitions, roles and activities of ESCOs. This paper reviews and analyses the development and the current status of ESCO industries in the EU and the New Accession Countries. Based on the review and the analysis, a long-term strategy to foster the development of ESCOs in Europe is formulated. The strategic actions recommended build on successful experience in Europe and are proposed with an eye to existing and planned legislative measures, such as the proposed Energy Service Directive and the deployment of the Kyoto flexible mechanisms.

  16. Energy service companies in European countries: Current status and a strategy to foster their development

    Bertoldi, Paolo; Rezessy, Silvia; Vine, Edward

    2006-01-01

    Although the European Commission and the Member States of the European Union (EU) have promoted a number of policy initiatives to foster the Energy Services Company (ESCO) industry, a recent survey of ESCO businesses in Europe has indicated that major differences exist in the development of the ESCO business among the various countries. In some countries a large number of ESCOs have been successfully operating for a number of years, while in other countries only a few ESCOs have recently started to operate. This difference could be explained by several factors, such as different levels of support offered to ESCOs by national and regional energy authorities, local market structures and rules, and variation in the definitions, roles and activities of ESCOs. This paper reviews and analyses the development and the current status of ESCO industries in the EU and the New Accession Countries. Based on the review and the analysis, a long-term strategy to foster the development of ESCOs in Europe is formulated. The strategic actions recommended build on successful experience in Europe and are proposed with an eye to existing and planned legislative measures, such as the proposed Energy Service Directive and the deployment of the Kyoto flexible mechanisms

  17. Do acquisitions by electric utility companies create value? Evidence from deregulated markets

    Kishimoto, Jo; Goto, Mika; Inoue, Kotaro

    2017-01-01

    In the early 1990s, the United Kingdom (the UK) initiated widespread reforms in the electricity industry through a series of market liberalization policies. Several other countries have subsequently followed the lead and restructured their electricity industry. A major outcome of the deregulation effort is the spate of takeovers, both domestic and global, by electric utility companies. With the entry of new players and increasing competition, the business environment of the electricity industry has changed dramatically. This study analyzes the economic impact of mergers and acquisitions (M&As) in the electric utility industry after deregulation. We have examined acquisitions that took place between 1998 and 2013 in the United States, Canada, the UK, Germany, and France. Although previous studies showed no evidence of a positive effect on acquiring firms through M&As, we find that acquisitions by electric utility companies increased the acquiring firms’ share value and improved their operating performance, primarily through efficiency gains after the deregulation. These results are consistent with the empirical evidence and implications presented by Andrade et al. (2001) that M&A created value for the shareholders of the acquiring and target combined firms. - Highlights: • This study examined mergers and acquisitions (M&A) in electric utility industry. • The sample covered M&A between 1998 and 2013 in North America and Europe. • We found M&A significantly increased acquiring firms’ share value and operating performance. • Deregulation policy realized gains for shareholders without incurring costs for consumers.

  18. CONSIDERING CHANGES IN WOOD UTILIZATION -A EUROPEAN PERSPECTIVE

    Resch, Helmuth

    2008-01-01

    Worldwide, continuous change is evident. What impact does it have on the utilization of wood? What should be considered when educating professionals in Wood Science and Technology (WS&T)? Where did we come from and where do we need to go? .Throughout history, forests provided important social, ecological, and economic values. Wood utilization advanced along with an unprecedented and exciting industrial evolution and WS&T became an interdisciplinary field. Recently, stronger environmental conc...

  19. The Specifics of Tax Arbitrage in The Reorganization of The European Companies Through Acquisitions, Mergers, Spin-Offs and Disinvestments

    Anda Simona Rădulescu (Dîrvă

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on fiscal issues, in this paper we analyzed the trend of European companies to streamline their activity through legal reorganization (i.e. takeovers, mergers, spin-offs, divestments starting from tax benefits which may result from such operations.

  20. Prospects for European Company Law after the Judgment of the European Court of Justice in Centros Ltd

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2000-01-01

    This contribution analysis the implication of the judgment in Centros Ltd, whereby a company can be incorporated in one state and used for activities in other Member States of the EU. The consequence is that businesses can chose to incorporate in the state of their own choice and Member State may...... as a result start to compete to attract incorporations of companies (the Delaware Syndrome). This may call for further harmonization of company laws in the EU....

  1. Work-life Balance: The effect on Absenteeism among Employeesin a Malaysian Utility Company

    Mohd, Idaya Husna; Shah, Maimunah Mohd; Anwar, Nur Aizureen; Mahzumi, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Employees spend at least one-third of their day at their work place. Since most of the time is spent at the work place, excess in working hours can cause the employees to feel burned out at the end of the week. These high emotional exhaustion and less personal time will cause the employees to adjust their own time in order to achieve preference hours of work. The utility company involves in this study practices 5.5 working days. Feeling overemployed, this will lead the employees to adjust the...

  2. The policies of social welfare produced effects in performance of the company? Comparative analysis of European companies

    Teresa M. Monllau Jaques

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper is to study and analyze the public well being policies and its repercussions in the efficacy and efficiency of the companies that give services to dependant people (CNAE 87 and 88 Codes. Design/methodology/approach: For the making of the present study several companies which gives services in countries with different patterns when applying public well being policies have been compared. These countries have been Spain, Germany, UK and Netherlands. The data has been obtained through AMADEUS. The period of the study has been 2008-2012. The variables used are the operating margin (OMR rate and the rotation assets rate (RAT. Findings and Originality/value: From the results obtained we have not been able to establish a significant statistic relationship between Companies behaviour and public well being policies. Originality/value: Up to date few extracts have been done, in Spain, about the financial behaviour of the companies which give services to the elderly. The business development entails an economic growth which balances with the cost inherent in the elderly population.

  3. Accounting conservatism in Europe : Insights in the degree of balance sheet conservatism and earnings conservatism in financial statements of European companies during the period 1991-2005

    R. Brouwer (Remco)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis study investigates how the degree of accounting conservatism in the financial statements of European companies evolves over time during period 1996-2005. This study concludes that the financial statement information of European companies shows a certain degree of balance sheet

  4. [European Marketing Authorisation: a long process. Experiences of small biotech companies with the ATMP regulation].

    Buljovčić, Z

    2011-07-01

    On 30 December 2008, the Regulation (EC) 1394/2007 on advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs) entered into force. Herewith the first EU-wide regulatory framework for ATMPs was established. It requires a central marketing authorisation application to the EMA (European Medicinal Agency). This new framework especially changes the code of regulatory practice for tissue engineered products (TEPs), as no registration procedure had been previously required for autologous TEPs. This also meant that no clinical proof of efficacy achieved by a pivotal clinical trial was necessary. Difficulties and their background as well as the vast requirements for product development that have to be addressed by small companies within a very short time frame are presented. Hereby, it is obvious that regulatory experience which is required to identify and implement the resulting implications was not in place yet and still had to be established. The lack of regulatory experience also resulted in difficulties with scientific advice preparation, expectations toward regulatory agencies, consultants, and transformation of regulatory requirements. Addressing the regulatory requirements within the transition period is even more difficult for entrepreneurs with products which are assigned for indications resulting in complex challenges to the trial design. Due to the enormous time pressure to generate data and due to the implied financial pressure, different adaptation strategies are evolving. In Germany the "hospital exemption" according to §4b AMG (German Medicinal Products Law) is of major importance. A reorientation toward acellular products and a slow down in development of new ATMP products is expected.

  5. Disclosure of weather risks of European Utilities : Assessment of the current situation of listed utilities domiciled in Germany, France, Austria, United Kingdom and Switzerland

    Leibfried, Peter; Schuchter, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    With regards to the scientific fact about climate change, weather risk is of increased importance to companies in weather dependent industries. Increasing volatility in temperatures and precipitation as well as unseasonal weather result in increased financial risk to weather dependent companies. This white paper assesses the current situation disclosure of weather dependency and weather risks of European exchange listed companies with the aim to promote transparency in risk reporting to ...

  6. Spent fuel transportation - lessons drawn and ways forward: European utilities perspective

    Debes, M.; Schimmele, J.G.; Sannen, H.; Patak, H.

    2001-01-01

    Surface contamination that was found on surfaces of spent fuel shipping containers (flasks) in 1998 was treated differently by authorities in different European countries. In two countries, Germany and Switzerland, spent fuel shipments were stopped for an indefinite period by Government authorities. This paper, co-authored by representatives of utilities from four European countries, explains the rationale for surface contamination limits in transport regulations and attempts to place the observed contamination in proper perspective. (author)

  7. Corporate social responsibility in coal industry (practices of russian and european companies)

    Т. В. Пономаренко; Р. Вольник; О. А. Маринина

    2016-01-01

    Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is built on interaction between companies and the society which is especially important for major companies that exploit natural resources and play the role of city-forming socially significant entities. Various interpretations of the notion of social responsibility define the varying levels of influence companies have on the society, different levels of contribution of companies in the said process and the degree and level of implementation of CSR. The r...

  8. Company Tax Integration in the European Union During Economic Crisis – Why and How?

    A. Sting (Anna)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Company tax integration in the EU is yet to be realised. This article first outlines the main benefits of company tax integration for the Economic and Monetary Union, and also discusses the main legal obstacles the EU Treaties pose for harmonisation of company tax.

  9. Study on Economic Regulation of Collaborative Strategies among Container Shipping Companies Following Repeal of European Union Regulation 4056/86

    Rawindaran Nair

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The European Union removed the block exemption granted under Regulation 4056/86, to liner shipping companies to provide scheduled services on a collaborative basis effective October 2008. This has also been followed by the proposed P3 alliance with participation of Maersk, MSC and CMA CGM. This paper explores, the arguments adopted by the US Federal Maritime Commission, the European Commission and the Ministry of Commerce of China, in rejecting the case proposed by the P3 alliance. The findings of this paper will inform on understanding strategies adopted by major Competition Regulatory authorities in their interpretation of horizontal collaboration in the industry.

  10. Human resource development for nuclear generation - from the perspective of a utility company

    Kahar, Wan Shakirah Wan Abdul; Mostafa, Nor Azlan; Salim, Mohd Faiz

    2017-01-01

    Malaysia is currently in the planning phase of its nuclear power program, with the first unit targeted to be operational in 2030. Training of nuclear power plant (NPP) staffs are usually long and rigorous due to the complexity and safety aspects of nuclear power. As the sole electricity utility in the country, it is therefore essential that Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) prepares early in developing its human resource and nuclear expertise as a potential NPP owner-operator. A utility also has to be prudent in managing its work force efficiently and effectively, while ensuring that adequate preparations are being made to acquire the necessary nuclear knowledge with sufficient training lead time. There are several approaches to training that can be taken by a utility company with no experience in nuclear power. These include conducting feasibility studies and benchmarking exercises, preparing long term human resource development, increasing the exposure on nuclear power technology to both the top management and general staff, and employing the assistance of relevant agencies locally and abroad. This paper discusses the activities done and steps taken by TNB in its human resource development for Malaysia's nuclear power program.

  11. Owners of nuclear power plants: Percentage ownership of commercial nuclear power plants by utility companies

    Wood, R.S.

    1987-08-01

    The following list indicates percentage ownership of commercial nuclear power plants by utility companies as of June 1, 1987. The list includes all plants licensed to operate, under construction, docked for NRC safety and environmental reviews, or under NRC antitrust review. It does not include those plants announced but not yet under review or those plants formally canceled. In many cases, ownership may be in the process of changing as a result of altered financial conditions, changed power needs, and other reasons. However, this list reflects only those ownership percentages of which the NRC has been formally notified. Part I lists plants alphabetically with their associated applicants/licensees and percentage ownership. Part II lists applicants/licensees alphabetically with their associated plants and percentage ownership. Part I also indicates which plants have received operating licenses (OL's). Footnotes for both parts appear at the end of this document

  12. IAS 40 : The effects of the implementation of IAS 40 for listed investment property companies within the European Union

    Aronsson, Robert; Högberg, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Background: The increased globalization and trade over domestic borders within the European Union (EU) has lead to the implementation of new international accounting standards. This is necessary to create an effective capital market, where comparisons between companies located in different countries can be made, due to a more harmonized accounting. Obstacles to overcome when establish a more harmonized accounting in the EU is for example different accounting backgrounds and valuation methods....

  13. Value Relevance of Consolidated Versus Parent Company Financial Statements: Evidence from the Largest Three European Capital Markets

    Victor-Octavian MULLER

    2011-01-01

    Within the European Union, parent companies have to prepare and publish both consolidated and individual financial statements. The objective of financial statements with general purpose is to give information regarding the financial position, performance and changes in financial position of the reporting entity, information that is useful to investors and other users in making economic decisions. In order to be useful, financial information needs to be relevant to the decision-making process ...

  14. The Influence of Intellectual Capital on Corporate Performance: Evidence from European Companies over the Period 2004–2014

    Molodchik, M.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: The paper overviews the findings of 5-year research project of International Laboratory of Intangible driven Economy (ID LAB). The main research question of project concerns the strategic decision making with regard to intangibles and consequences of these decisions; in other words, the impact of intangibles on corporate performance. The unique dataset collected by ID LAB includes financial and non-financial indicators of more than 1700 public European companies over the period 2004–2014. The methodology uses indicators for six types of intellectual resources: human resources, management capability, innovation capability, business processes capability, clients’ loyalty and networking capability. For hypotheses estimations different econometric tools such as structural equation modelling, panel data analysis and dummy variable regression are applied. The most important and insightful findings are as follows. Firstly, intellectual resources have simultaneous impact on company outperforming (measured by Economic Value Added) and investor expectations (measured by Market Value Added), meanwhile managers tend to accumulate intellectual resources that are positively recognized by investors. Secondly, two knowledge-intensive profiles of European companies were found. Thirdly, accumulation of intangibles during economic crisis have positive influence on future performance, as well as better endowment of intangibles allows acceleration effect when recovering after the crisis. Fourthly, SMEs gain more from intellectual resources than large companies do. (author

  15. Corporate social responsibility in coal industry (practices of russian and european companies

    Т. В. Пономаренко

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Corporate social responsibility (CSR is built on interaction between companies and the society which is especially important for major companies that exploit natural resources and play the role of city-forming socially significant entities. Various interpretations of the notion of social responsibility define the varying levels of influence companies have on the society, different levels of contribution of companies in the said process and the degree and level of implementation of CSR. The relations between social responsibility and economic results and the effects of implementing CSR policies are often not obvious.This study offers an assessment of present-day state of corporate social responsibility policies in coal companies of Russia and Poland and formulates proposals on implementing social responsibility projects with consideration of state-of-the-art CSR concepts.The results of the study are as follows: the achieved level of social responsibility in coal companies of Russia and Poland has been assessed; it is proven that most companies in the coal industry are at the level of fragmentary application of CSR concepts; an analysis has been carried out of tools available in the area of social responsibility of coal companies.

  16. THE ANALYSE OF THE REGULATIONS AT THE EUROPEAN LEVEL REGARDING CARTELS. CASE SUDY: CARTEL BETWEEN THE COMPANIES CHIQUITA AND PACIFIC

    Berinde Mihai

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper tries to make an analyse of the policy in the field of competition, at the level of the European Union, more exactly the policy applied on cartels. It is important to know the regulations regarding cartels, especially the way in which procedures are done in the case of a cartel. Cartels have a negative impact on competition and consumers, and that’s why it is extremely important that they are discovered on time and after that, by using correction measures to try to recuperate the created damage. The used research method is the analyze of the legislation in force regarding cartels and the study of the existing literature in this field, and in order to give an example of the procedures in the case of a cartel, we analyzed the cartel between two companies Chiquita and Pacific. It is extremely important for these regulations to be known, and in order to discourage such practices, the European Committee has thought of a series of advantages for the companies that give information and evidence regarding the existence of a cartel. Among these advantages we could mention immunity to fine, that permits the company to be absolved of all its fines. The paper presents schematically the legislation that forbids anti-competitive practices, at the level of the European Union, and after that the applied procedure when a law violation is discovered. The modality in which the procedures are applied, in the case of suspecting a cartel, have been presented step by step, and after that, the case study does not exist only to give an example of procedures, but also to present the applied methods, in the case of success in proving the existence of a cartel. The importance of competition policy at a European level cannot be denied because of the fact that only by implementing of a proper policy in this field, an economy can develop further.

  17. Relative Pricing of Publicly Traded U.S. Electric Utility Companies

    Jewczyn, Nicholas Stephen

    In the financial turmoil of 2008, U.S. firms reported debt-ratios that differed from the debt-ratios calculated from balance sheets. The problem is that investors bought common stock expecting initial investment return and lost money when companies delisted. The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine sample securities pricing with the application of synthetic assets and debt accrued. Addressed in the research questions was whether those securities were (a) underpriced compared with return-on-assets (ROA), (b) overpriced compared with ROA, (c) a debt-ratio higher than 60% and also overpriced, (d) underpriced with a synthetic asset added, or (e) related by relative pricing to variant pricing and market capitalization. The study's base theory was Pan's efficient market hypothesis (EMH) of security price prediction of market prices versus model prices. The data from the financial statements of 16 publicly traded U.S. electric utility companies were analyzed via correlations and multiple regression analyses to determine securities pricing and suitability. The findings from the analyses of the sample's variables of market price, book value, market-to-book, and study constructed variables from those variable data were statistically significant. The alternate hypotheses were accepted for all 5 research questions since the analytical operationalization of the hypothetical constructs led to significant relationships. Results suggest that the use of more pricing determinants in securities evaluation may lead to investors losing less money and earning the expected returns for a more efficient capital market, leading to a stronger economy and macroeconomic stability.

  18. The influence of the European Union on the Range of Employees’ Management participation in the Companies from Poland

    Roman Śmietański

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acknowledging the accession, and as a result, joining the European Union in May 2004 required Poland to make a number of changes, including a number that related to labor rights. These changes were partially based on resolving legal barriers in Polish law in order to bring them into compliance with the European Union's law. These efforts are reflected in the laws related to the so-called employee participation. Generally speaking, this is the right of workers to co-manage and be consulted in the activities of the enterprise for which they work. The most important provisions in this regard (those which Poland had to implement in the past few years are, among others, the directives on the development of the European Works Councils and on the right of workers to establish councils of workers within their company. When the European Parliament and the Council of the European Union established the directives which referred to employee participation, it was the result of the promotion of social dialogue between representatives of management and representatives of workers (which is a particular goal of the EU community and its member states. Unfortunately, in Poland these rights are not honored for the majority of employees.

  19. Accounting conservatism in Europe: Insights in the degree of balance sheet conservatism and earnings conservatism in financial statements of European companies during the period 1991-2005

    Brouwer, Remco

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis study investigates how the degree of accounting conservatism in the financial statements of European companies evolves over time during period 1996-2005. This study concludes that the financial statement information of European companies shows a certain degree of balance sheet conservatism and earnings conservatism during period 1991-2005; this degree of balance sheet conservatism and earnings conservatism evolves over time. The research findings do not indicate that the intr...

  20. Psychosocial and ergonomic survey of office and field jobs in a utility company.

    Coelho, Denis A; Tavares, Carla S D; Lima, Tânia M; Lourenço, Miguel L

    2017-08-04

    The effect of different kinds of work on the psychosocial assessment of workers under the same management and organizational environment is investigated. A voluntary assessment in a utility company was carried out using the short version of the Copenhagen psychosocial questionnaire (CoPsoQ) on two occasions, 1.5 years apart. Initially, 25 office workers (11 men and 14 women) participated, while 14 of those workers (8 women and 6 men) participated in the second assessment together with 32 field workers. The sewage, water treatment and maintenance workers, totaling 32 men, also participated in a field ergonomics assessment using the Washington State Department of Labor and Industries field work ergonomic checklist. The longitudinal outlook was fairly stable, with sustained severe scores in many CoPsoQ subscales and intensification of severity of workers' control over work and esteem for men. A significantly higher esteem score resulted for field rather than office workers. Workers subjected to foul odors showed similar severity of psychosocial factors. For most psychosocial dimensions, the organizational design and management system in place, as well as the overall cultural environment in which it operates, create a much stronger and more decisive impact than job-specific factors.

  1. The characteristic of marketing macro environment of European developing countries and Ukraine for company's marketing activity

    Peresadko, Galina; Bakastov, Ihor

    2013-01-01

    Іn the report the comparative analysis of different European macro-marketing in developing countries and Ukraine. The analysis of the demographic, economic, natural, technological, political and cultural factors. Also the perspectives for Ukraine's marketing macro environment.

  2. Utilization of European Funds in the Public Administration. Study case - Galati County Council

    Manuela Panaitescu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this paper are to reveal some aspects regarding European funds‟ utilization, starting with the comprehension of EU philosophy regarding cohesion policy and emphasizing the important role played by Structural and Cohesion Funds for public administration, especially in times of economic downturn when the financial resources are difficult to access. Prior Work: this work continues prior research carried out for the “European Programs and Projects Management” MA thesis. Approach: The main methods employed for capturing the research evidence consists in management strategies analysis in the public administration, especially in studying the capacity of absorption of European funds in the case Galati County Council. The main results of this paper show that the risks of absorption capacity decrease of EU funds are linked to a number of factors, such as financial problems, poor information, lack of managerial experience, etc.

  3. A strategic Analysis of the European Companies in the ICT Sales Channel

    Raffaello Balocco

    2012-07-01

    The goal of this paper is to provide a detailed picture of the ICT sales channel and its players in the European market. A classification framework is proposed and eleven different business models are identified. The paper is based on a case study methodology that included 53 semi‐standardized\tinterviews\twith\tCEOs\t(Chief Executive Officers and marketing and communications managers at leading European ICT suppliers coupled with the literature review.

  4. Assignment of personnel to work in Switzerland by companies from the European Union / EFTA(1)

    DG Unit

    2011-01-01

    Before performing any services at CERN, companies not established in Switzerland are required under the Swiss legislation in force to make a declaration to the Swiss Federal Office for Migration or to obtain work permits from the Geneva authorities for the employees they intend to assign to work on the Swiss part of the CERN Site. At the request of the Swiss authorities, CERN cannot register employees to whom this legislation applies except in the following circumstances: Case No. 1: Work lasting less than 90 days in the case of companies from the EU-25/EFTA; Case No. 2: Work lasting less than 90 days in the case of EU-2 companies (Bulgaria and Romania); Case No. 3: Work lasting more than 90 days in the case of companies from the EU-27/EFTA. In case No. 1, an attestation d’annonce (declaration certificate) must be obtained. The declaration must be made via the Internet, using the official declaration form, at least 8 days before the start of the services. It is required only if the company pe...

  5. Communications technologies for demand side management, DSM, and European utility communications architecture, EurUCA

    Kaerkkaeinen, S.; Kekkonen, V. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Rissanen, P. [Tietosavo Oy (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    In this project the main target is to develop and assess methods for DSM (Demand Side Management) and distribution automation planning from the utility`s point of view. The final goal is to integrate these methods for the strategic planning of electric utilities. In practice the project is divided into four main parts: The development and assessment of DSM/IRP planning methods and cost/benefit analysis as a part of international co-operation (IEA DSM Agreement: Annex IV, European Cost/Benefit analysis of DSM, EUBC, and Finnish SAVE-project started in 1995 in co-operation with SRC International and six electric utilities in Finland); Development of PC-based DSM planning and assessment tools at VTT; Development of a decision support system of distribution network planning including DSM options at Tietosavo Oy and Integration of DSM planning and network planning tools in co-operation with VTT Energy and Tietosavo Oy

  6. Communications technologies for demand side management, DSM, and European utility communications architecture, EurUCA

    Kaerkkaeinen, S; Kekkonen, V [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Rissanen, P [Tietosavo Oy (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    In this project the main target is to develop and assess methods for DSM (Demand Side Management) and distribution automation planning from the utility`s point of view. The final goal is to integrate these methods for the strategic planning of electric utilities. In practice the project is divided into four main parts: The development and assessment of DSM/IRP planning methods and cost/benefit analysis as a part of international co-operation (IEA DSM Agreement: Annex IV, European Cost/Benefit analysis of DSM, EUBC, and Finnish SAVE-project started in 1995 in co-operation with SRC International and six electric utilities in Finland); Development of PC-based DSM planning and assessment tools at VTT; Development of a decision support system of distribution network planning including DSM options at Tietosavo Oy and Integration of DSM planning and network planning tools in co-operation with VTT Energy and Tietosavo Oy

  7. EUR, an European utility requirements documents for future LWR power stations

    Berbey, Pierre; Lienard, Michel; Redon, Ramon; Essmann, Juergen; Taylor, David T.

    2004-01-01

    A group of the major European utilities are developing a common requirement document which will be used for the LWR nuclear power plants to be built in Europe from the beginning of the next century. This document provides harmonised policies and technical requirements that will allow the implementation of a design developed in one country into another one. The objectives and contents of the document, the organisation set up for its production and the main requirements are summarised in the paper. (author)

  8. Municipal energy concepts. A service task for electric utility companies; Kommunale Energiekonzepte. Eine Dienstleistungsaufgabe fuer Energieversorgungsuntemehmen

    Just, W. [Stadtwerke Gelsenkirchen GmbH (Germany)

    1994-11-01

    The article explains to what extent suitable measures can be realized and supported in a municipality with municipal energy concepts or even climate protection concepts. The target is to attain with limited financial means the most favourable economic and ecological effects in the municipality or in the region. Many electric utilities have in the last years forced the realization of energy conservation measures and have become energy service companies. With their expert knowledge they are ideal partners for politics, public adminstration and citizens. They have the best qualificatons for the development and realization of municipal concepts. In many cases it shows that with detailed studies the target can be quicker and more effectively attained as with extensive, time-consuming and expensive studies which are not particularly realization-oriented. The report is to give examples which might be helpful for the development of a concept. (orig./UA) [Deutsch] Der Beitrag erlaeutert, inwieweit umfangreiche kommunale Energiekonzepte oder sogar Klimaschutzkonzepte geeignete Massnahmen in der Kommune realisieren und foerdern koennen. Ziel sollte sein, mit begrenztem Mitteleinsatz die oekonomisch-oekologisch groessten Effekte in der Kommune bzw. in der Region zu erzielen. Viele Energie-Versorgungsunternehmen haben in den letzten Jahren die Realisierung von Energieparmassnahmen vorangetrieben und sich zu Energie-Dienstleistungsunternehmen entwickelt. Mit ihrer Sachkompetenz sind sie der ideale Partner fuer Politik, oeffentliche Verwaltung und Buerger/innen. Sie bringen die besten Voraussetzungen mit bei der Erarbeitung und Umsetzung von kommunalen Konzepten. Vielfach zeigt sich, dass Detailkonzepte schneller und wirkungsvoller zum Ziel fuehren, als umfachreiche, zeitaufwendige und teure Studien, die wenig umsetzungsorientiert sind. Die nachfolgenden Ausfuehrungen sind als Beispiele gedacht. Sie koennen Anregungen fuer die Erstellung eines Konzeptes vermitteln. (orig./UA)

  9. Separation of energy companies. Judicial aspects. The separation and the European law

    Slotboom, M.M.; Ter Heegde, A.

    2005-01-01

    There is much discussion in the Netherlands about the plan of the Dutch government to separate energy companies into a commercial energy supply business and a network business. In a series of articles attention will be paid to the legal aspects of the separation [nl

  10. Status of food safety management activities in fresh produce companies in the European Union and beyond

    Kirezieva, K.; Luning, P.A.; Jacxsens, L.; Uyttendaele, M.

    2015-01-01

    An increase in food safety incidences linked to fresh produce has been reported in recent years. Imports from the transitional economies have often been blamed for these incidences. However, limited information is available about the status of food safety management activities in companies in

  11. Sustainability inter-linkages in reporting vindeicated: a study of European companies

    Lozano, R.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, there has been a rapid growth in company sustainability reporting, as well as an improvement in quality of reports. A number of guidelines have been instrumental in this process; however, they still do not consider the importance of the inter-linkages and synergies among the different

  12. Assignment of personnel to work in Switzerland by companies from the European Union / EFTA(1)

    DG Unit

    2011-01-01

      *** Obsolete information ***     Before performing any services at CERN, companies not established in Switzerland are required under the Swiss legislation in force to make a declaration to the Swiss Federal Office for Migration or to obtain work permits from the Geneva authorities for the employees they intend to assign to work on the Swiss part of the CERN Site. At the request of the Swiss authorities, CERN cannot register employees to whom this legislation applies except in the following circumstances: Case No. 1: Work lasting less than 90 days in the case of companies from the EU-25/EFTA; Case No. 2: Work lasting less than 90 days in the case of EU-2 companies (Bulgaria and Romania); Case No. 3: Work lasting more than 90 days in the case of companies from the EU-27/EFTA. In case No. 1, an attestation d’annonce (declaration certificate) must be obtained. The declaration must be made via the Internet, using the official declaration form, at le...

  13. Cost structure analysis of commercial nuclear power plants in Japan based on corporate financial statements of electric utility companies

    Kunitake, Norifumi; Nagano, Koji; Suzuki, Tatsujiro

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze past and current cost structure of commercial nuclear power plants in Japan based on annual corporate financial statements published by the Japanese electric utility companies, instead of employing the conventional methodology of evaluating the generation cost for a newly constructed model plant. The result of our study on existing commercial nuclear plants reveals the increasing significance of O and M and fuel cycle costs in total generation cost. Thus, it is suggested that electric power companies should take more efforts to reduce these costs in order to maintain the competitiveness of nuclear power in Japan. (author)

  14. Beyond the Hype - e-Business Strategy in Leading European Companies

    Pieper, R.; Kouwenhoven, V.; Hamminga, S.

    In this examination of the current state of business technology, two successful e-businessmen combine interviews of 20 captains of European industry regarding their visions of the future of e-business with their own insights, providing inside information on Internet hype as well as ideas for future

  15. The Demand of Part-time in European Companies: A Multilevel Modeling Approach

    2011-01-01

    Part-time work is one of the most well-known « atypical » working time arrangements in Europe, shaping working time regimes across countries and mapping work-life balance patterns. Comparative studies on part-time work across European countries have pointed to large differences in the development, extent and quality of part-time employment. To explain such differences, the focus has been mainly on labor supply consideration and on public policies and/or institutional arrangements pertaining t...

  16. European utility requirements: common rules to design next LWR plants in an open electricity market

    Berbey, Pierre; Ingemarsson, Karl-Fredrik

    2004-01-01

    The major European electricity producers want to keep able to build new nuclear power plants and they believe 3. generation LWRs would be the most adapted response to their needs in the first decades of this century. Producing a common European Utility Requirement (EUR) document has been one of the basic tasks towards this objective. In this common frame, standardized and competitive LWR NPPs could be developed and offered to the investors. This idea is now well supported by all the other actors on the European electricity market: vendors, regulators, grid managers, administrations although in the competitive and unified European electricity market that is emerging, the electricity producers' stakes are more and more different from the other electricity business actors'. The next term objectives of the electricity producers involved in EUR are focused on negotiating common rules of the game together with the regulators. This covers the nuclear safety approaches, the conditions requested to connect a plant to a HV grid, as well as the design standards. Discussions are going on between the EUR organization and all the corresponding bodies to develop stabilized and predictable design rules that would meet the constraints of nuclear electricity generation in this new environment. Finally there cannot be competition without competitors. The EUR organization has proven to be the right place to establish trustful relationship between the vendors and their potential customers, through fair assessment of the proposed designs performance vs. the utility needs. This will be continued and developed with the main vendors present in Europe, so as to keep alive a list of 4 to 6 designs 'qualified', i.e. showing an acceptable score of non-compliance vs. EUR. (authors)

  17. Market (in)efficiency in valuing electric utilities-The case of Norwegian generating companies

    Kjaerland, Frode

    2010-01-01

    After deregulation of the energy market in Norway, a number of mergers and acquisitions of hydropower generating companies have taken place. However, valuation of these companies has proved controversial. From an ex-post perspective, there is support for the criticism that generation assets have been sold too cheaply. This article presents a simple valuation model providing evidence of how value has evolved. On the basis of these results, we discuss the valuation from an ex ante perspective and in the light of the market efficiency hypothesis of (Fama, 1970) and (Fama, 1991).

  18. Project of law relative to the electricity and gas public utilities and to the power and gas companies; Projet de loi relatif au service public de l'electricite et du gaz et aux entreprises electriques et gazieres

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This document is the definitive text of this project of law adopted by the French house of commons. The aim of this law is to allow the administrations to avoid to use their eligibility right with the opening of the electricity and gas markets to competition. It changes the juridical status of the two public utilities Electricite de France (EdF) and Gaz de France (GdF) into two anonymous companies and creates two additional companies for the management of the power and gas networks. It ensures also the transposition of the European directives from June 26, 2003 (2003/54/CE and 2003/55/CE). It contains some proper dispositions and modifies various existing French laws, in particular the law no. 46-628 from April 8, 1946 about the electricity and gas nationalization and the law no. 2000-108 from February 10, 2000 relative to the modernization and development of the electric public utility. (J.S.)

  19. Energy consumption across European Union farms: Efficiency in terms of farming output and utilized agricultural area

    Martinho, Vítor João Pereira Domingues

    2016-01-01

    Energy consumption is a global concern, namely due to the limited availability of energy sources and the consequences in terms of gas emissions, with its implications upon greenhouse gas emissions. In the agricultural sector this question bears an additional concern, considering that it is an economic activity which is sensitive to the dimension of the costs associated with production factors. In this way, the objective of the study presented here is to analyze, the efficiency of energy consumption, for the twelve former European Union countries, at farm level, in terms of farming output and utilized agricultural area, over the period 1989–2009 and for the years 2004–2012, with data available in the Farm Accountancy Data Network. On the other hand, the implications of energy consumption in farms' economic performance were analyzed, through econometric techniques (time series, panel data and generalized method of moments) and models based on the Kaldor developments. As a main conclusion, to stress the decrease in efficiency related with energy consumption by farms in the twelve former European Union countries. - Highlights: • It was analyzed the efficiency of energy consumption. • It was considered data for the twelve former European Union states at farm level. • They were evaluated the implications of energy consumption in farms performance. • The conclusions stress the decrease in efficiency of the farms energy consumption.

  20. The European utility requirements - purposes and requirements to be fulfilled by the next generation of LWRs

    Broecker, B.; Essmann, J.

    1995-01-01

    With the first big phase of nuclear power reactor engineering and construction having come to an end in west european countries, and current activities of reactor manufacturers being reduced to building few plants for meeting growing electricity demand, or replacing retired power plants, the available market for manufacturers of nuclear power systems has become so small that the market of one country alone does not justify investment for the development of novel reactor types, or design enhancements. In all countries of Western Europe, the facility operators are responsible for safe and economically efficient operation of their nuclear power reactors, and this is why they decided to jointly elaborate and present to both manufacturers and supervising authorities as well as to the general public their requirements for the forthcoming generation of nuclear power plants. The resulting European Utility Requirements is a document specifying the details relating to engineered safety, reliability, operating performance, and economics of the reactors to be built by manufacturers for the European market. (orig./UA) [de

  1. A fully updated version of the european utility requirement (EUR) document is available

    Berbey, P.

    2001-01-01

    The major European electricity producers have worked on a common requirement document for future LWR plants since 1992 to get specifications acceptable together by the owners, the public and the authorities. Thus the designers can develop standard LWR designs that could be acceptable everywhere in Europe and the utilities can open their consultations to vendors on common bases. Public and authority's acceptance should be improved as well. Significant savings are expected in development and construction costs. Since the release of the last versions of the EUR texts in 1996, a lot of work has been carried out: reviews by the regulators and other external organisations, comparisons, assessment of compliance of designs vs. EUR and clarification works on the controversial topics that deserved changes or clarification. At the beginning of 1999 enough material was available to start a complete revision of the EUR document. In-depth works have been carried out during the last couple of year to develop this revision. The European utilities and the vendors have now an updated and well-tuned tool that allow them to develop, to assess and eventually to order modern LWR designs well fitted to their actual needs. (author)

  2. A prior authorization program of a radiology benefits management company and how it has affected utilization of advanced diagnostic imaging.

    Levin, David C; Bree, Robert L; Rao, Vijay M; Johnson, Jean

    2010-01-01

    Radiology benefits management companies have evolved in recent years to meet the need to control the rapid growth in advanced diagnostic imaging. The Obama administration and other key policymakers have proposed using them as a cost-control mechanism, but little is known about how they operate or what results they have produced. The main tool they use is prior authorization. The authors describe the inner workings of the call center of one radiology benefits management company and how its prior authorization program seems to have slowed the growth in the utilization of MRI, CT, and PET in the large markets of one commercial payer. Copyright 2010 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A European Quality Control Programme as a cooperative tool between users and a diagnostic company.

    Costongs, G M; Janson, P C

    1993-12-01

    Achievement of appropriate precision is a major challenge for the clinical laboratory, particularly in specialized fields such as enzymology and immunochemistry. Especially in immunochemistry, where accuracy can only poorly be checked because of a lack of reference methods and a multitude of detectable epitopes, precision remains an important index of quality. In immunochemical methods there are three main sources of variation: differences in methodology, lot-to-lot variation and performance of the assay, the latter including the skill of the technicians and instrument performance. The results of a European Quality Control Programme for the users of one type of automated immunoassay analyser were compared with a similar Italian Quality Control Programme for users of different immunometric techniques. The precisions (%CV) of the two programmes were compared, as well as the number of values lying within one half of the biological variation of the analysed serum components. Feedback between users and manufacturers leads to a clear improvement in analysis performance, so that most of the considered values come to lie within the acceptable limits of 1/2 of the biological variation. It is concluded that both national and international quality control programmes are very useful for indicating the intrinsic quality of the quantities used in the clinical laboratory.

  4. A fully updated version of the European utility requirement (EUR) documents is to be available

    Chatry, J.P.; Berbey, P.

    2001-01-01

    The major European electricity producers have worked on a common requirement document for future LWR plants since 1992 to get specifications acceptable together by the owners, the public and the authorities. Thus the designers can develop standard LWR designs that could be acceptable everywhere in Europe and the utilities can open their consultations to vendors on common bases. Public and authority's acceptance should be improved as well. Significant savings are expected in development and construction costs. Since the release of the last versions of the EUR texts in 1996, a lot of work has been carried out: reviews by the regulators and other external organisations, comparisons, assessment of compliance of designs vs. EUR and clarification works on the controversial topics that deserved changes or clarification. At the beginning of 1999 enough material was available to start a complete revision of the EUR document. Volumes 1 and 2 of the EUR document list generic nuclear island requirements. The main NPP vendors are developing advanced LWR designs for the European market, with reference to the EUR document. Volume 3 deals with the application of EUR to those designs. The EUR utilities -with contributions of the vendors- are writing specific parts of the EUR document that address some of these designs. Each part includes a plant description and an assessment of its level of compliance with EUR. The first three parts deal with EPR (1500 MW PWR developed by NPI, Framatome and Siemens), EPP (1000 MW PWR with passive safety features developed by Westinghouse and Ansaldo) and BWR 90 (1300 MW BWR developed by ABB Atom). Two other subsets are: one for ABWR (1300 MW BWR developed by GE), the other one for SWR 1000 (1000 MW BWR with passive safety features developed by Siemens). This large and diverse set of designs actually gives the EUR document a very strong base. Revision B of Volume 4 incorporates responses to the comments collected on revision A. Considering all that

  5. Introduction: Company Tax Integration in the European Union – A Necessary Step to Neutralise ‘Excessive’ Behaviour within the EU?

    A.C.G.A.C. de Graaf (Arnaud); K. Heine (Klaus)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This special issue of the Erasmus Law Review is the result of an interdisciplinary workshop on ‘Company Tax Integration in the European Union – a Necessary Step to Neutralise “Excessive” Behaviour within the EU?’, held at the Erasmus School of Law in June

  6. Performance assessment of food safety management systems in animal-based food companies in view of their context characteristics: A European study

    Luning, P.A.; Kirezieva, K.; Hagelaar, G.; Rovira, J.; Uyttendaele, M.; Jacxsens, L.

    2015-01-01

    Recurrently the question arises if efforts in food safety management system (FSMS) have resulted in effective systems in animal-based food production systems. The aim of this study was to gain an insight in the performance of FSMS in European animal-based food production companies in view of their

  7. Competence and Human Resource Development in Multinational Companies in Three European Union Member States: A Comparative Analysis between Austria, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. CEDEFOP Panorama Series.

    Markowitsch, Jorg; Kollinger, Iris; Warmerdam, John; Moerel, Hans; Konrad, John; Burell, Catherine; Guile, David

    A comparative analysis of human resources development and management in the subsidiaries of three multinational companies (Xerox, Glaxo Wellcome, and AXA Nordstern Colonia) was conducted in these three European Union (EU) member states: Austria, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands. Case studies were used, focusing on competence needs and…

  8. Making the Connection: Beneficial Collaboration Between Army Installations and Energy Utility Companies

    2011-01-01

    the Army should be considered. Reduced Adverse Impacts on the Environment Reduce harmful emissions and discharges from energy and fuel use. Conduct...NOTE: “Facilities” consist of cogenerators , other industrial generators, and qualifying facilities that are selling energy to industrial or...acceptable mission and environmental impacts ,6 favorable utility rates, and favor- able renewable energy credits and incentives. Fort Carson partnered

  9. Implementation of utilities operation and maintenance experience into the European pressurized water reactor design

    Zaiss, W.; Lallier, M.

    1999-01-01

    Since 1992 Electricite de France EDF and German Utilities GU work together with Nuclear Power International NPI, a subsidiary of Framatome and Siemens, in the development of the future European Pressurized Water Reactor EPR. The EPR is an evolutionary concept, based on the French N4 plants and the German KONVOI plants. From the beginning, experienced operation and maintenance people from the precursor plants participate at the design process. Their experience will lead to a plant, which is not only characterised by low investment costs, but also by good operability, high availability and low operation and maintenance costs. No expensive back-fittings should be necessary after commissioning, to reach these availability and maintenance targets. The utility specialists give design requirements for outage performance, system design, and layout. These design requirements are really determining the system performances, and not what was design basis before. It does not necessarily lead to system increases. Mainly it is a shifting of the emphasis to other items. There are even cases, where the system performances can be reduced. Mostly very small modifications, which are nearly cost neutral when implemented early in the design, have big impact on the further operation. If there are big cost influences, a sound balance between investment and gained availability is made together with the designers. There is very fruitful discussion between designers and operators, which is highly estimated by both sides. In this frame also new, revolutionary ideas are coming up, which are going mostly in the direction of investment cost reduction, without loosing operation freedom. It is the first time in Europe, that designers and operators are working so close together. It is also the first time, that the management and the decision making is dominated by the utilities. (author)

  10. Successful diversification strategies of electricity companies: An explorative empirical study on the success of different diversification strategies of German electricity companies in the wake of the European market liberalization

    Mueller, Ralf; Steinert, Martin; Teufel, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    Based on the EC directive 96/92, the liberalization of electricity markets is forcing electricity companies, to rethink their product and market strategy. However, neither the level of the initiated diversification efforts of former monopolies, nor their direction or their success are known or have been analyzed before. Therefore, Mueller [2006. Diversifikationsstrategien von Stromversorgungsunternehmen: Handlungsempfehlungen fuer schweizerische Stromversorgungsunternehmen auf der Basis einer empirischen Analyse des liberalisierten deutschen Strommarktes. IIMT University Press, Fribourg] has quantitatively determined the extent and direction of the diversification efforts in the electricity sector. Additionally, based on an exploratory case study research, successful diversification strategies have been identified and incorporated into 73 observations which form the basis of a set of normative recommendations for diversifying electricity companies. Since the analyses are based on the German electricity market, which fully liberalized earlier than most of its continental European counterparts, the results may especially guide other European electricity companies in their strategic diversification decisions. This paper publishes both the quantitative analysis on the degree and extents of diversification (sample time frame 1995-2000) as well as the qualitative analysis on the success of diversification strategies (sample time frame 1995-2003). Additionally, based on the obtained explorative observations, the diversification strategy of an idealized-electricity company is firstly presented for practitioners as normative recommendation, and secondly for academics, as starting point for future quantitative analysis framework. (author)

  11. Is vaccination good value for money? A review of cost-utility analyses of vaccination strategies in eight European countries

    Barbieri, Marco; Capri, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study is to review published cost-utility analyses of vaccination strategies in eight European countries and to assess whether there are differences in cost-effectiveness terms among countries and vaccinations. Methods: A systematic search of the literature was conducted using the National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database and the PubMed database. Cost-utility analyses of any type of vaccination that used quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) as me...

  12. Energy policy and European utilities' strategy: Lessons from the liberalisation and privatisation of the energy sector in Romania

    Haar, Laura N., E-mail: laura.n.haar@mbs.ac.u [University of Manchester, Manchester Business School, Booth Street West, Manchester M15 6PB (United Kingdom); Marinescu, Nicolae, E-mail: marinescu@unitbv.r [Transylvania University of Brasov, Faculty of Economic Sciences, 29 Eroilor Bd, Brasov 500 036 (Romania)

    2011-05-15

    In the context of energy sector reforms pursued by Romanian government since 1990s, we compare and contrast the market outcomes of European utilities' investment with the host government policy objectives. We begin with energy market reform in Romania and review governments' efforts to attract foreign direct investment (FDI) and to gradually withdraw from the distribution and supply segments of electricity market. Subsequently, we illustrate the scope European utilities have had, market policy and design notwithstanding, for consolidating market power through regional dominance. We examine the extent to which these utilities have sought to enhance their positions through horizontal and vertical integration, counter to the EU plans for a competitive market structure. We find that the investments of European incumbents have not been resoundingly successful: although market entrance may have been justified on long-term strategic grounds, in the immediate term, segments acquired through competitive auctions have yielded modest regulated returns. Finally, we discuss the extent to which policy makers have achieved their goals. Although the short-term benefits of a competitive market structure have reached some consumers, a renewed interest in promoting 'national champions' reflect frustration with market mechanisms as a means of ensuring long-term strategic investments in the sector. - Research highlights: {yields} We analyze the European Utilities activities in Romania after market liberalization. {yields} We find government efforts to reform energy sector attracted foreign direct investment. {yields} We find utilities consolidated market power horizontally in Central European region. {yields} The short-term benefits of competitive forces contrast the weak returns by utilities. {yields} To encourage further investment, government should not promote national champions.

  13. Energy policy and European utilities' strategy: Lessons from the liberalisation and privatisation of the energy sector in Romania

    Haar, Laura N.; Marinescu, Nicolae

    2011-01-01

    In the context of energy sector reforms pursued by Romanian government since 1990s, we compare and contrast the market outcomes of European utilities' investment with the host government policy objectives. We begin with energy market reform in Romania and review governments' efforts to attract foreign direct investment (FDI) and to gradually withdraw from the distribution and supply segments of electricity market. Subsequently, we illustrate the scope European utilities have had, market policy and design notwithstanding, for consolidating market power through regional dominance. We examine the extent to which these utilities have sought to enhance their positions through horizontal and vertical integration, counter to the EU plans for a competitive market structure. We find that the investments of European incumbents have not been resoundingly successful: although market entrance may have been justified on long-term strategic grounds, in the immediate term, segments acquired through competitive auctions have yielded modest regulated returns. Finally, we discuss the extent to which policy makers have achieved their goals. Although the short-term benefits of a competitive market structure have reached some consumers, a renewed interest in promoting 'national champions' reflect frustration with market mechanisms as a means of ensuring long-term strategic investments in the sector. - Research highlights: → We analyze the European Utilities activities in Romania after market liberalization. → We find government efforts to reform energy sector attracted foreign direct investment. → We find utilities consolidated market power horizontally in Central European region. → The short-term benefits of competitive forces contrast the weak returns by utilities. → To encourage further investment, government should not promote national champions.

  14. Evaluation of the European Commission's proposal to set aside emission allowances. Effects on the EU carbon price and Dutch ETS companies

    Verdonk, M.; Vollebergh, H.

    2012-11-15

    A set-aside of CO2 allowances would reduce the current oversupply in the European Emissions Trading System (ETS). This would result in temporary higher CO2 prices. However, a literature study has shown that the impact of the European Commission's proposal on CO2 prices is likely to be limited, because the total amount of allowances up to 2020 would remain unchanged. However, the proposal sends out a signal to investors that the functioning of the ETS is a priority for politicians, and increases the likelihood of further reforms. Any negative impact of back loading on ETS companies in the Netherlands is likely to be limited.

  15. Financial costs due to excess health risks among active employees of a utility company.

    Yen, Louis; Schultz, Alyssa; Schnueringer, Elaine; Edington, Dee W

    2006-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the health risk-related excess costs of time away from work, medical claims, pharmacy claims, and total costs with and without considering the prevalence of health risks. A total of 2082 of 4266 employees of a Midwest utility participated in a health risk appraisal (HRA). Individuals were classified by their HRA participation status and also by 15 health risks. Total and excess costs were analyzed for all employees. There were significant excess costs due to individual risks and overall excess health risks in all cost measures. Both excess cost per risk and prevalence of the risk were important factors in determining the excess costs in the population. As compared with low-risk participants, HRA nonparticipants and the medium- and high-risk participants were 1.99, 2.22, and 3.97 times more likely to be high cost status. Approximately one third of corporate costs in medical claims, pharmacy claims, and time away from work could be defined as excess costs associated with excess health risks.

  16. Recent achievements of the EUR organisation (European utility requirements for advanced light water reactors) - 15365

    Jacquart, G.; Guelfi, A.; Vanhoenacker, L.; Pouget-Abadie, X.; Engstroem, J.

    2015-01-01

    For more than twenty years now, the European Utility Requirements (EUR) organisation has been actively developing and promoting harmonized technical specifications for the new designs to be proposed by the vendors in Europe. The EUR Document consists of a comprehensive set of requirements covering the whole Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). These terms of reference can be used by the utilities (guide for design assessment, technical reference for call for bids) and by the vendors (as a technical guide). The harmonization and standardization which is sought after by the EUR aims at delivering the safest and most competitive designs based on common rules shared all over Europe. Fifteen major nuclear operators across Europe are now members of the Organisation. Over the last few years, the EUR organisation has been extremely active. After the publication of the Revision D of the EUR Document (October 2012), the EUR organisation released in March 2013 its road map for the period. This paper describes the main results obtained during that period of time and the new challenges in the three following fields. First, the revision of the EUR Document in order to maintain it at a state-of-the-art level remains the highest priority for the Organisation. The paper presents the technical scope of the on-going new major revision (Revision E) which is scheduled to be issued in 2016. This project will deliver significant updates of the EUR document in many fields among which: revised Safety requirements taking into account lessons learned from the Fukushima accident and consistent with the most recent international safety standards, Instrumentation and Control, Seismic Approach, Probabilistic Safety Assessments. The assessment of new designs is the second main technical activity of the EUR organisation. The MHI EU-APWR design has been assessed against the revision D between 2012 and 2014 and new design assessments applications have been received by the EUR organisation (namely KEPCO

  17. Effects of dietary tannin on growth, feed utilization and digestibility, and carcass composition in juvenile European seabass ( Dicentrarchus labrax L.)

    Omnes, Marie-Hélène; Le Goasduff, Julien; Le Delliou, Hervé; Le Bayon, Nicolas; Quazuguel, Patrick; Robin, Jean H.

    2017-01-01

    Plant-based products in fish diets are valuable protein alternatives to fishmeal for the aquafeed industry. Many plant feed ingredients contain polyphenolic compounds, including tannins, which can have beneficial or adverse effects. The tolerable threshold of ingested tannins is unknown for marine carnivorous fishes. We studied the effects of tannic acid (TA) supplementation to the diet of juvenile European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) by measuring growth, feed utilization and digestibility...

  18. An analysis of strategy plan on business performance of a water utility : a Midvaal water company case study / Erven Sello Malatji

    Malatji, Erven Sello

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to assess the strategic management process of a water utility in South Africa. The research focused on Midvaal Water Company, a section 21 water utility based in South Africa, North West Province town of Klerksdorp. The objectives of the study were; (a) to assess the organisational level of knowledge when it comes to SMP, (b) to determine different perceptions with regards to SMP between management and employees, (c) to determine the organisational profiles (ag...

  19. Project of law modified by the Senate relative to the electric and gas public utilities and to the electric and gas companies; Projet de loi modifie par le Senat relatif au service public de l'electricite et du gaz et aux entreprises electriques et gazieres

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This project of law aims to adapt the electricity and gas sector to the new economical context of opening of the energy markets to competition. It gives to energy companies the internal organization base necessary to warrant a high level of service and a transparent and non-discriminatory access of third parties to transport and distribution networks. These evolutions will allow Electricite de France (EdF) and Gaz de France (GdF) companies to compete on equal terms with their European competitors. It confirms first the prime role of public utility of both companies and then transposes the dispositions of the European directives relative to the organization of EdF and GdF integrated companies. It foresees the creation of two daughter companies for the management of energy transport activities. The project of law foresees also the change of the status of EdF and GdF companies and the reform of the retirement pensions of the personnel. This report presents the modifications added by the Senate to the text of law adopted at first reading by the House of Commons. (J.S.)

  20. Cooperation between West and East German gas transmission companies - an example of collaboration with Eastern European gas suppliers

    Geweke, J.

    1994-01-01

    In the future, it can be assumed there will be a new quality of co-operation between the East and the West. The tremendous growth in demand for natural gas in Europe necessitates the development of new, increasingly distant gas resources. The investment required can not be raised by a few countries on their own. A strategy is needed for all states integrated in the European natural gas transmission system. Due to their geographic location, Eastern and Southern European countries have a key role to play. Central Europe will become the heart of the international natural gas business. Then the future co-operation between East and Western Europe must be taken into account. An important prerequisite for equal partners in the European gas industry will be coordination, if natural gas is to continue to make a growing contribution to an environmentally compatible and efficient energy supply in all European states and beyond. (orig.)

  1. The Growth of open source: A look at how companies are utilizing open source software in their business models

    Feare, David

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines how open source software is being incorporated into the business models of companies in the software industry. The goal is to answer the question of whether the open source model can help sustain economic growth. While some companies are able to maintain a "pure" open source approach with their business model, the reality is that most companies are relying on proprietary add-on value in order to generate revenue because open source itself is simply not big business. Ultima...

  2. Communications technologies for demand side management, DSM, and European utility communications architecture, EurUCA

    Uuspaeae, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The scope of this research is data communications for electric utilities. Demand Side Management (DSM) calls for communication between the Electric Utility and the Customer. The communication capacity needed will depend on the functions that are chosen for DSM, and on the number of customers. Some functions may be handled with one-way communications, some functions require two-way communication. Utility Communication Architecture looks for an overall view of the communications needs and communication systems in an electric utility. The objective is to define and specify suitable and compatible communications procedures within the Utility and also to outside parties. (27 refs.)

  3. Communications technologies for demand side management, DSM, and European utility communications architecture, EurUCA

    Uuspaeae, P [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The scope of this research is data communications for electric utilities. Demand Side Management (DSM) calls for communication between the Electric Utility and the Customer. The communication capacity needed will depend on the functions that are chosen for DSM, and on the number of customers. Some functions may be handled with one-way communications, some functions require two-way communication. Utility Communication Architecture looks for an overall view of the communications needs and communication systems in an electric utility. The objective is to define and specify suitable and compatible communications procedures within the Utility and also to outside parties. (27 refs.)

  4. Family Ownership and the Entrenchment Effect on Intellectual Capital Utilization: A Study of High-Technology Companies in Indonesia Dealing with the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC

    Bima Cinintya Pratama

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available At the end of 2015, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN brought into being the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC. Due to the AEC, the firms in ASEAN should utilize their resources more effectively and efficiently, so that the firms can survive and grow despite strong competition in the AEC. Indonesia, as the country with the largest economy in the region, needs to address this issue so that companies in Indonesia can face the challenges resulting from the AEC. This study aimed to examine the positive relationship between the intellectual capital (IC and the financial performance of high-technology (high-tech companies that are listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange, and also to examine whether the entrenchment effect of family ownership exists. This study was conducted from 2008 to 2014. The final sample used in this study consisted of 31 companies with a total of 144 observations. This study used a panel data regression model analysis. The results showed that, for a company, IC has a positive impact on financial performance. This result indicated that the efficient and effective use of their IC will help the firms to achieve higher financial performance, and will be useful for dealing with the AEC. There was no evidence that the entrenchment effect exists in the family ownership of high-tech companies in Indonesia and hampers the utilization of IC.

  5. Family Ownership and the Entrenchment Effect on Intellectual Capital Utilization: A Study of High-Technology Companies in Indonesia Dealing with the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC

    Bima Cinintya Pratama

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available At the end of 2015, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN brought into being the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC. Due to the AEC, the firms in ASEAN should utilize their resources more effectively and efficiently, so that the firms can survive and grow despite strong competition in the AEC. Indonesia, as the country with the largest economy in the region, needs to address this issue so that companies in Indonesia can face the challenges resulting from the AEC. This study aimed to examine the positive relationship between the intellectual capital (IC and the financial performance of high-technology (high-tech companies that are listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange, and also to examine whether the entrenchment effect of family ownership exists. This study was conducted from 2008 to 2014. The final sample used in this study consisted of 31 companies with a total of 144 observations. This study used a panel data regression model analysis. The results showed that, for a company, IC has a positive impact on financial performance. This result indicated that the efficient and effective use of their IC will help the firms to achieve higher financial performance, and will be useful for dealing with the AEC. There was no evidence that the entrenchment effect exists in the family ownership of high-tech companies in Indonesia and hampers the utilization of IC.

  6. Mining of high utility itemsets of size-2 with pruning strategies and negative item values for B2C companies based on experiential marketing approach

    Gaurav Gahlot

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Business to customer (B2C marketing for the retail organisations is the most rapid adoption made by the developed countries, while it has the pitfalls in the developing nations. B2C companies have been continually putting some or the other lucrative offers and schemes on their manufactured products. There happens to be no logical demand of clubbing the sale of two products. The only need of such clubbing is the financial crisis which the company wants to overcome. Information technology can renew and make the competitive advantage for B2C companies. In this paper, a novel way for finding the itemset clubs is proposed, hence extending Apriori algorithm. The proposed methodology aims at finding the combinations of the products which can be sold together with the high levels of utility. This allows for making good profits for the company. Unlike contemporary way of items bearing positive values, negative item values have been looked into. The MHUIS-2wPS algorithm utilises the transactional experiences of the retail stores and outputs the size-2 clubs. The MHUI-NIV algorithm caters for the items with negative item values. The dissertation applies various pruning strategies for the discovery of high utility itemsets. These prunings will help remove the unnecessary formation of the low utility extensions. Later, various datasets have been used to show the essence of the algorithms.

  7. Preparing Canada`s power systems for transition to the Year 2000: Y2K readiness assessment results for Canadian electric utility companies: second quarter 1999

    NONE

    1999-08-25

    The report describes the state of readiness of Canadian electric utility companies with respect to the Year 2000 computer challenge. It complements the North American Electric Reliability Council Report entitled `Preparing the Electric Power Systems of North America for Transition to the Year 2000: A Status and Work Plan.` Two surveys were employed to gather information for this report. The first, a detailed survey prepared by NERC, was forwarded to all major electric utilities that comprise the Bulk Electricity System in North America. CEA has removed the Canadian findings from the overall North American results, and has presented those findings in this report. The second was a shorter, more simplified study, conducted by CEA and Natural Resources Canada. Whereas small companies involved only in the distribution aspect of the electricity business were not asked to complete the NERC assessment, all Canadian electric utility companies were part of the shorter survey. Chapter 2 covers specifically the readiness status and project management for non-nuclear generation, nuclear generation, energy management systems, telecommunications systems, substation controls, system protection and distribution systems, business information systems, and small distribution companies.

  8. Assessing the needs of new technology based firms (NTBFs): An investigation among spin-off companies from six European Universities

    Kirwan, P.M.; van der Sijde, Peter; Groen, Arend J.

    2006-01-01

    New technology based firms (NTBFs) play a major role in the development and commercialisation of new technologies and the development of national economies. Using an entrepreneurship-in-networks approach, this paper examines the early stages of the development of these companies, i.e. from

  9. The relationship between intellectual capital quality and corporate performance: An empirical study of Russian and European companies

    Shakina Elena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to develop cost-effectiveness tools for the analysis of company’s intellectual resources, in terms of resource-based and value-based approaches. Our study focuses on the evaluation of intellectual capital methods to discover the drivers of company growth. We suppose that the potential effectiveness of intellectual capital resources varies according to different institutional factors. Several statistical methods will be used for the empirical issues in this research, including common cross-sectional and panel data analysis, and the instrumental variables method. The database collected for this purpose will consist of financial and economic indicators underlying the intellectual capital evaluation, such as strategic performance indicators (EVA© and FGV©. The dataset includes companies from different countries and industries according to the Knowledge Economy Index of the World Bank. The industries presented in the dataset are selected according to the predominance of several intellectual capital elements. The database includes financial services, wholesale and retail trade, machinery and equipment manufacture, the chemical industry, and transport and communications. As a result of the empirical research, we expect to answer the following questions: • Is there a close relationship between intellectual capital quality and company performance? • What are the external and internal factors affecting this relationship? (country, industry, company size, market dynamics, etc.

  10. The Utilization Of Resources And Regulation Along With Companys Strategies In Managing Oil And Natural Gas Industry In Indonesia

    Sigit Rahardjo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Oil and gas production in Indonesia has been declined since 1995 up to now the effort to increase the production has been done but it does not result yet. In contrast day by day the investment is getting increased and huge on the other hands it becomes a problem and a challenge for Indonesia to meet oil needs as raw material for refined fuel oil either for transportation or industries. Day by day the needs of refined fuel oil is getting increased and huge as it is correlated to the increasing of the number of motorcycles either two-wheeled or four-wheeled as well as the increasing of oil and gas or non-oil and gas industries. Oil and natural industry Resource Base has specific characteristics those are internal factor that uses resource such as high technology huge investment cost as well as competent human resources. Besides the external factor those are good regulations either in the central and regional levels as well as the sector which is very important toward the production performance and the of company managements strategies to manage this industry. This paper attempts to figure out the impact of internal factor in the form of resources and external factor in the form of regulation as well as the effect of production performance toward petroleum companies of upstream sectors in Indonesia and managements role especially petroleum industrialists in managing the company. The wane of oil production and the increasing of refined fuel oil need in Indonesia as well as the increasing of oil production cost then it will affect the industrialists strategies in managing the companies. The resources consist of human resource oil reserve as well as petroleum technologies. While regulation consists of law central and regional government regulations and rules in oil and gas sector. Whereas the companys strategies are explained by production volume and selling volume of oil. Companys performance which sets to work in upstream sector is influenced by

  11. Perspectives at the East European engineering companies in the field of power industry in the power-plant construction globalization conditions

    Ganchev, R.

    2001-01-01

    A large group of companies, institutes, boiler and power engineering work ect. from East European countries, currently in process of reorganization or already transformed into new-established private companies and corporations possess significant intellectual property in the field of thermal power technologies and equipment and broad experience in the design and the erection of thermal power plants. In many cases this know-how is not only competitive to that of the large companies of the West and of the Far East, but frequently it also proves to have a number of advantages. However, in the years of transition in these countries and simultaneous globalization, the owners of this potentials meet with difficulties and restrictions to realize it fully. Large investment projects - for new or replacement capacities or comprehensive rehabilitation or refurbishment of TPPs - are accessible only for the financially powerful EPC-contractors and key equipment suppliers, for which large bank credits are accessible. The near future perspective, for the scientists and experts that have accumulated this capital, is in the opportunity to employ the extensive experience and know-how of this firms in the forthcoming large-scale rehabilitation projects in these countries, and primarily, in the solution of specific problems, that have not been solved so far, provided that the projects are awarded not on the basis of the financial power of the contractors but on the basis of the efficiency of the proposed original solutions

  12. Leading Players of the European Power and Gas Industry Overview of Groups - SWOTs - Benchmarking - Company Profiles and Financials

    2017-09-01

    This study presents: The medium-term and mega trends of the industry market developments and geographical segments; The competitive landscape and the main corporate rankings; The main conclusions of the report, summarised in 10 analytical slides. Content: 1. Overview: The Sector, Ranking, Performance Analysis; 2. Company Profiles: EDF, Enel, Engie, RWE, E.ON, SSE, Iberdrola, Gas Natural Fenosa, Vattenfall, EDP; 3. Sources; 4. Annexes

  13. R and D and Innovation Electric Utilities Challenges: the USA EPRI perspective and the European Horizon2020 framework

    Tagle, J. A.; Garcia Martin, J.; Martin Gomez, M.

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the real challenges for the utilities worldwide to move the scientific and technological knowledge existing in our hands out of the laboratory and put it into the market place as rapidly as possible to provide a global electrification needed for a better worldwide life. Six main issues have been identified and each one is confronted with top ten challenges: Long-term operation of future and existing assets; Renewable energies; Zero-emission technologies; Energy Efficiency; Smart grids and cities and Water resources management. The corresponding challenges for each issue are described from both sides the USA utilities perspective and the European strategy with special emphasis in the road map for future R and D and innovation efforts needed for a Nuclear Energy renaissance policy.

  14. R and D and Innovation Electric Utilities Challenges: the USA EPRI perspective and the European Horizon2020 framework

    Tagle, J. A.; Garcia Martin, J.; Martin Gomez, M.

    2013-07-01

    The paper presents the real challenges for the utilities worldwide to move the scientific and technological knowledge existing in our hands out of the laboratory and put it into the market place as rapidly as possible to provide a global electrification needed for a better worldwide life. Six main issues have been identified and each one is confronted with top ten challenges: Long-term operation of future and existing assets; Renewable energies; Zero-emission technologies; Energy Efficiency; Smart grids and cities and Water resources management. The corresponding challenges for each issue are described from both sides the USA utilities perspective and the European strategy with special emphasis in the road map for future R and D and innovation efforts needed for a Nuclear Energy renaissance policy.

  15. VALUE RELEVANCE OF GROUP FINANCIAL STATEMENTS BASED ON ENTITY VERSUS PARENT COMPANY THEORY: EVIDENCE FROM THE LARGEST THREE EUROPEAN CAPITAL MARKETS

    Müller Victor-Octavian

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Financial statementsn#8217; main objective is to give information on the financial position, performance and changes in financial position of the reporting entity, which is useful to investors and other users in making economic decisions. In order to be useful, financial information needs to be relevant to the decision-making process of users in general, and investors in particular. Regarding consolidated financial statements, the accounting theory knows four perspectives (theories on which the preparation of those statements is based, namely, the proprietary theory, the parent company theory, the parent company extension theory and the entity theory (Baxter and Spinney, 1975. Of practical importance are especially the parent company extension perspective and the entity perspective. The IASB and FASB decided (within an ED regarding the Improvement of the Conceptual Framework that consolidated financial statements should be presented from the perspective of the group entity, and not from the perspective of the parent-company. However, this support for the entity theory is to our knowledge not backed by empirical findings in the academic literature. Therefore, in our paper we set to contribute with empirical arguments to finding an actual answer to the question about the superior market value relevance of one of the two concurrent perspectives (theories. We set to carry out an empirical association study on the problem of market value relevance of consolidated financial statements based on the entity theory respectively on the parent company (extension theory, searching for an answer to the above question. In this sense, we pursued an analysis of market value relevance of consolidated accounting information (based on the two perspectives of listed entities between 2003-2008 on the largest three European Stock Exchanges (London, Paris and Frankfurt. The obtained results showed that a n#8222;restrainedn#8221; entity perspective, which would combine

  16. Nuclear option: one of several choices open to electric utilities; the European case

    Charrault, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    Acknowledging a difference of opinion on nuclear energy between the US and Europe, the author states the European Community's main energy problems and the solutions that are planned, gives the economic aspects of interfuel competition for electricity generation, and promotes nuclear energy as a secure source of electricity supply. Fast-breeder-reactor (FBR) technology and nuclear-fusion technology are discussed as the reliable successors to nuclear power in the beginning of the next century when uranium shortages and failing renewable energy substitutes will be inadequate to meet Europe's electricity needs

  17. Clinical utility of the PCA3 urine assay in European men scheduled for repeat biopsy.

    Haese, A.; Taille, A. De La; Poppel, H. van; Marberger, M.; Stenzl, A.; Mulders, P.F.A.; Huland, H.; Abbou, C.C.; Remzi, M.; Tinzl, M.; Feyerabend, S.; Stillebroer, A.B.; Gils, M.P.M.Q.; Schalken, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Prostate CAncer gene 3 (PCA3) assay has shown promise as an aid in prostate cancer (pCA) diagnosis in identifying men with a high probability of a positive (repeat) biopsy. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the clinical utility of the PROGENSA PCA3 assay. DESIGN, SETTING, AND

  18. The independence principle for the subject of administration of stock trading companies. Comparative study of European legislation

    Dragoş-Mihail Daghie

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the main contemporary reforms of the trading companies in Romania has been realized through Lawno. 441/2006, through which, besides the introduction of corporatist government principles, other legislations and otherconceptions of absolute novelty have been transplanted. Among these new principles there is also the independentadministrator, which founds its regulation in art. 1382 from Law no. 31/1990 according to which „through the constitutivepaper or through the decision of the general assembly of the stock holders, can foresee that one or more members of theadministration committee to be independent”. The appointment of some independent administrators represents putting inapplication of the principles of the Organization for Cooperation and Economical Development concerning newcorporatist governing concepts by implementing of some fundamental rights of the stock holders, rights that the stockholders detain apart from their participation to the social capital. In Romania, in comparison with countries like England,France, Spain, Germany, where the corporative governing has reached another implementation level, the new principlesbrought in the life of the stock trading company, concerning its management, is at the beginning of the road; the next stepis to confirm or, on the contrary, contest their necessity.

  19. The European Private Company: Do We Need Another 28th Private Legal Form in the EU? On Regulatory Competition of Corporate Law

    Martina Eckardt

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs are of vital importance for employment, innovation and growth in the EU member states. However, so far only a rather small number participates in international business activities. The European private company is intended to support SMEs’ internationalization. In this paper we analyse whether such an additional supranational legal form is necessary. In a first step we show that from the normative point of view of interjurisdictional competition arguments from welfare economics, public choice and evolutionary economics are mainly in favour of it. In a next step we ask from a positive point of view whether it is nevertheless necessary at all. We discuss to what extent horizontal competition on legal forms is already working within the EU. We find that there is some competition taking place, however, so far it does not address specifically the needs of SMEs when doing business internationally

  20. Law no. 2004-803 from August 9, 2004 relative to electricity and gas public utilities and to the power and gas companies; Loi no. 2004-803 du 9 aout 2004 relative au service public de l'electricite et du gaz et aux entreprises electriques et gazieres

    NONE

    2004-09-01

    The aim of this law is to allow the administrations to avoid to use their eligibility right with the opening of the electricity and gas markets to competition. It changes the juridical status of the two public utilities Electricite de France (EdF) and Gaz de France (GdF) into two anonymous companies and creates two additional companies for the management of the power and gas networks. It ensures also the transposition of the European directives from June 26, 2003 (2003/54/CE and 2003/55/CE). It contains some proper dispositions and modifies various existing French laws, in particular the law no. 46-628 from April 8, 1946 about the electricity and gas nationalization and the law no. 2000-108 from February 10, 2000 relative to the modernization and development of the electric public utility. (J.S.)

  1. Aircraft-crash-protected roof design for the European SBWR

    Posta, B.A.; Kadar, I.; Rao, A.S.

    1995-01-01

    The European utility requirement document (EURD) places significant emphasis on aircraft crash protection of the reactor building - Alternative concepts were evaluated for protecting the dry-well head and the fuel pool from the effect of the spalling concrete for the General Electric Company's European simplified boiling water reactor (ESBWR) designs

  2. The Commission White Paper on a Strategy for a Future EU Chemicals Policy: the view of European companies of American parentage.

    Montfort, Jean-Philippe

    2003-04-01

    After years of good service, EU legislation on chemicals is currently subject to a major review. This process, initiated by the Council of Ministers at Chester in April 1998, will soon lead to new legislative proposals. In the meantime, a review of the Commission's White Paper on "Strategy for a Future Chemicals Policy," published in February 2001, clearly shows that the regulatory landscape in this area will be significantly reshaped and that a new burden will be imposed on industry to demonstrate that the production and use of chemicals indeed conform to high standards of protection of human health and the environment. In the view of industry, on both sides of the Atlantic, while the objectives of the proposed reform can be supported, the measures proposed in the White Paper to implement these objectives are not properly balanced and will lead to substantial societal and economic drawbacks, unless significant adjustments are made. The purpose of this article is to present the pitfalls and difficulties of the reform as they are perceived by the EU Committee of the American Chamber of Commerce in Brussels, an organization that regroups about 150 European companies of American parentage, belonging to a broad range of European business sectors, including producers and users of chemicals. In view of the transatlantic and cross-business character of its membership, the EU Committee offers a different perspective on the debate.

  3. CONSIDERATIONS ON UTILIZED AGRICULTURAL LAND AND FARM STRUCTURE IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Agatha POPESCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to analyze the EU-27 agricultural land, farms structure and size based on Eurostat data. In the EU, farm structure shows that farms have a small size accounting for 12 ha in average. The highest farm size is in Czech Republic (152 ha and the smallest one in Romania and Cyprus (3 ha. The size of farms has slowly increased from a year to another while the number of farms declined. About 80 % farms are situated in Romania, Italy, Poland, Spain, Greece, Hungary and France. Three countries France, Italy and Germany produces 50.51 % gross margin of the EU-27 which accounted for Euro 278.33 Billion in 2010. A number of 199,400 farms achieved 46.6 % of the total gross margin, more exactly Euro 129,810 million. These farms utilized 25 % of the Eu-27 agricultural land. The farms with less than Euro 2,000 gross margin represent 45.44 % of the total number of farms and keep 5 % of the utilized agricultural land and produce 3.39 % of the EU-27 gross margin. The farms with a higher dimension produce the highest gross margin proving that farm size has a direct influence on profitability and economic efficiency.

  4. Multi-purpose utilization and development of geothermal water: European overseas investigation

    Ochiai, T [Natl. Research Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Japan

    1978-01-01

    In order to investigate the agricultural utilization of geothermal waters, a fact-finding team visited France, Italy, Iceland, and Turkey. In France, it was seen that the development and utilization of geothermal waters is in accord with Japanese practices. The production and reinjection wells are drilled to a depth of 1800 m. They are spaced about 10 m apart at the surface and about 800 m apart at the bottom. This is accomplished by drilling at an angle. The hot water is produced at a rate of about 90 t/h. It is passed through a heat exchanger where it warms surface water to about 70/sup 0/C. The warmed water is then supplied for purposes of district heating, greenhouse culture, and fish farming. The used hot water is then returned to the producing stratum via the reinjection well. Iceland began the production of hot geothermal water in 1925, and, at present, 99% of the city of Reykjavik is heated geothermally. The deepest production wells at Reykjavik reach 2000 m. The water produced has a temperature of 90-103/sup 0/C, and is also used for agricultural purposes.

  5. Electric Holding Company Areas

    Department of Homeland Security — Holding companies are electric power utilities that have a holding company structure. This vector polygon layer represents the area served by electric power holding...

  6. ARGE DFC - A European approach to MCFC commercialization

    Kraus, P.; Huppmann, G. [MTU Friedrichshafen GmbH, Muenchen (Germany); Heiming, A. [Ruhgras AG, Dorsten (Germany)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The largest European program for the commercialization of the molten carbonate fuel cell technology is carried out by the European Direct Fuel Cell Consortium (ARGE DFC). The consortium consists of the following companies: (1) MTU Friedrichshafen GmbH (Germany), within the DaimlerBenz Group responsible for off-road propulsion and decentralized energy systems. (2) Haldor Topsoe A/S (Denmark), a plant engineering company and specialist for catalytic processes (3) Elkraft A.m.b.A. (Denmark), one of the countries two utility companies (4) Ruhrgas AG (Germany), the largest German gas company (5) RWE AG (Germany), the largest German electrical utility company MTU acts as a consortium leader. The company shares a license and technology exchange agreement with Energy Research Corporation of Danbury, Connecticut.

  7. The Volatility of Market Risk In Viet Nam Listed Public Utilities Company Groups during and after the Financial Crisis 2007-2009

    Dinh Tran Ngoc Huy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study estimates market risk of total 45 listed companies in Viet Nam public utilities, natural gas and oil industry during the financial crisis period 2007-2009. Firstly, we found out in the research sample that there are 82% of firms, of total listed firms, with beta values lower than ( 1, meaning having stock returns fluctuating more than the market benchmark. Thirdly, among three (3 groups, the systemic risk in the electric power industry is the smallest, shown by estimated values of equity and asset beta mean, and asset beta variance in this industry is also the smallest. Finally, this paper generates some analytical outcomes that enable companies and government to have more evidence in establishing their policies in investments and in governance

  8. On the way to becoming ''quite ordinary enterprises''. Strategic orientation of the power utilities in the European market

    Harig, H.D.

    1996-01-01

    Competition is an indispensable prerequisite of evolution. In the sector of electricity supply it is defined, inter alia, by the choice of source of primary energy. On the other hand, opening of the European market entails new challenges. In many European countries, electric energy is converted at less expense than in Germany. The builders of capital intensive power grid systems are trying to protect themselves against their competitive chances deteriorating also by their being required to make these grid systems available to competitors not having to bear these expenses. Nuclear power plants are among the most capital intensive generating units in the power industry. However, operating them is not only a matter of the power utilities; to them, nuclear power is one tpye of primary energy out of many others. Instead, the government must indicate the direction, through its energy policy, in which future technologies are to create international competitive advantages to domestic industries. In addition, the government must provide the funds necessary in the launching phase. (orig.) [de

  9. Cannabis Use and Drug Related Problems Among Adolescents in 27 European Countries: The Utility of the Prevention Paradox

    Romelsjö Anders

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIMS – To study the prevalence of cannabis use and drug-related problems among European adolescents and the utility of the prevention paradox. METHODS – Survey data from the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD in 2007 in the 27 countries with information about drug use and drug-related problems was used. We analysed the proportion of all drug-related problems that occurred in a high risk group and among others who had used cannabis in the previous 12 months. The cut-off for the high risk group was chosen to include 10-15 % of the most frequent cannabis users. RESULTS – The high risk groups accounted for a substantial, but a minority, of drug-related problems among boys as well as girls. A minority of those who had used cannabis reported any drug-related problem. The proportion of adolescents with drug-related problems and the average number of problems increased with frequency of cannabis use. CONCLUSIONS – We find support for policy measures of more general character, supported by the prevention paradox. However, this does not exclude a policy supporting frequent drug users if they can be identified

  10. European perspective on the management of rheumatoid arthritis: clinical utility of tofacitinib.

    Kawalec, Paweł; Śladowska, Katarzyna; Malinowska-Lipień, Iwona; Brzostek, Tomasz; Kózka, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Xeljanz ® (tofacitinib) is an oral small-molecule inhibitor that reversibly inhibits Janus-activated kinase (JAK)-dependent cytokine signaling, thus reducing inflammation. As a result of these mechanisms, effects on the immune system such as a moderate decrease in the total lymphocyte count, a dose-dependent decrease in natural killer (NK) cell count, and an increase in B-cell count have been observed. Therefore, tofacitinib provides an innovative approach to modulating the immune and inflammatory responses in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), which is especially important in individuals who do not respond to tumor necrosis factor inhibitors or show a loss of response over time. The aim of this article was to review studies on the pharmacology, mode of action, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of tofacitinib in patients with RA. Tofacitinib has been shown to reduce symptoms of RA and improve the quality of life in the analyzed groups of patients. Moreover, it showed high efficacy and an acceptable safety profile in Phase III randomized clinical trials on RA and was the first JAK inhibitor approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMA) in the RA therapy, thus providing a useful alternative treatment strategy. Randomized controlled studies revealed a significant benefit over placebo in efficacy outcomes (American College of Rheumatology [ACR] 20 and ACR50 response rates); accordingly, clinically meaningful improvements in patient-related outcomes compared with placebo have been reported. The safety profile seems acceptable, although some severe adverse effects have been observed, including serious infections, opportunistic infections (including tuberculosis and herpes zoster), malignancies, and cardiovascular events, which require strict monitoring irrespective of the duration of tofacitinib administration. As an oral drug, tofacitinib offers an alternative to subcutaneous or intravenous biologic drugs and

  11. Transferability of results of cost utility analyses for biologicals in inflammatory conditions for Central and Eastern European countries.

    Gulácsi, László; Rencz, Fanni; Péntek, Márta; Brodszky, Valentin; Lopert, Ruth; Hevér, Noémi V; Baji, Petra

    2014-05-01

    Several Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries require cost-utility analyses (CUAs) to support reimbursement formulary listing. However, CUAs informed by local evidence are often unavailable, and the cost-effectiveness of the several currently reimbursed biologicals is unclear. To estimate the cost-effectiveness as multiples of per capita GDP/quality adjusted life years (QALY) of four biologicals (infliximab, etanercept, adalimumab, golimumab) currently reimbursed in six CEE countries in six inflammatory rheumatoid and bowel disease conditions. Systematic literature review of published cost-utility analyses in the selected conditions, using the United Kingdom (UK) as reference country and with study selection criteria set to optimize the transfer of results to the CEEs. Prices in each CEE country were pro-rated against UK prices using purchasing power parity (PPP)-adjusted per capita GDP, and local GDP per capita/QALY ratios estimated. Central and Eastern European countries list prices were 144-333% higher than pro rata prices. Out of 85 CUAs identified by previous systematic literature reviews, 15 were selected as a convenience sample for estimating the cost-effectiveness of biologicals in the CEE countries in terms of per capita GDP/QALY. Per capita GDP/QALY values varied from 0.42 to 6.4 across countries and conditions (Bulgaria: 0.97-6.38; Czech Republic: 0.42-2.76; Hungary: 0.54-3.54; Poland: 0.59-3.90; Romania: 0.77-5.07; Slovakia: 0.55-3.61). While results must be interpreted with caution, calculating pro rata (cost-effective) prices and per capita GDP/QALY ratios based on CUAs can aid reimbursement decision-making in the absence of analyses using local data.

  12. Is vaccination good value for money? A review of cost-utility analyses of vaccination strategies in eight European countries

    Marco Barbieri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study is to review published cost-utility analyses of vaccination strategies in eight European countries and to assess whether there are differences in cost-effectiveness terms among countries and vaccinations. Methods: A systematic search of the literature was conducted using the National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database and the PubMed database. Cost-utility analyses of any type of vaccination that used quality-adjusted life years (QALYs as measure of benefit and conducted in Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Sweden, the Netherlands or the UK were included. Results: A total of 94 studies were identified. As a result of our search methodology, the vast majority of studies were conducted in the Netherlands or UK (33 and 30 studies, respectively. The most frequent vaccination types were against Human papillomavirus (HPV with 23 studies, followed by vaccination against pneumococcal infections (19 studies. The analysed vaccinations were generally cost-effective but with high variability. Considering an incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER of 40,000€/QALY, we noticed that the following vaccinations studies are below this threshold, i.e. all varicella and influenza (with one outlier studies, 90% of the studies for HPV and 75% of the studies for pneumococcal vaccinations. Rotavirus vaccination was considered as not cost-effective, with only 30% of studies below the threshold of 40,000€/QALY. There was no clear trend for vaccinations being more cost-effective in some countries. Conclusions: The published literature has shown that vaccination strategies are generally cost-effective in European countries. High heterogeneity in the results among studies and countries was found.

  13. Independent versus non-independent outside directors in European companies: Who has a say on CEO compensation?

    Pablo de Andrés

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Our study reveals how two separate dimensions of board composition—the proportion of independent directors and of non-independent directors—influence CEO compensation in Western European firms. Controlling for the simultaneous determination of CEO pay structure and board design, we find that firms with a higher proportion of non-independent outsiders on their boards pay less direct compensation (salary + bonus and less equity-linked compensation to their CEOs. By contrast, CEOs working for firms with more independent boards receive more equity based-pay. When we control for the fact that equity linked is not granted systematically in Europe we find that firms with more independent directors on the board tend to grant equity-linked compensation more often than firms with more non independent outside directors. Our results challenge the commonly accepted view of independent directors as safeguards of shareholder value, uncovering the relevance of non-independent outsiders for pay moderation and incentives.

  14. Network calculation in the low voltage network of the Düsseldorf utility company in respect of future electromobility

    Sánchez García, Josefina

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, everybody talk about Electromobility as something revolutionary but distant. Over recent years there has been a given social awareness about global warming due to greenhouse gases. People are aware of the need of changing in order to the current situation does not harm future generations. This has resulted in policies and laws at national and European level, in addition to global agreements like the Kyoto protocol, and more recently the Copenhagen summit. In particula...

  15. European perspective on the management of rheumatoid arthritis: clinical utility of tofacitinib

    Kawalec P

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Paweł Kawalec,1 Katarzyna Śladowska,2 Iwona Malinowska-Lipień,3 Tomasz Brzostek,3 Maria Kózka4 1Drug Management Department, Institute of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Jagiellonian University Medical College, 2Department of Experimental Hematology, Institute of Zoology and Biomedical Research, Faculty of Biology and Earth Sciences, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland; 3Department of Internal and Community Nursing, Institute of Nursing and Midwifery, Faculty of Health Sciences, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland; 4Department of Clinical Nursing, Institute of Nursing and Midwifery, Faculty of Health Sciences, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland Abstract: Xeljanz® (tofacitinib is an oral small-molecule inhibitor that reversibly inhibits Janus-activated kinase (JAK-dependent cytokine signaling, thus reducing inflammation. As a result of these mechanisms, effects on the immune system such as a moderate decrease in the total lymphocyte count, a dose-dependent decrease in natural killer (NK cell count, and an increase in B-cell count have been observed. Therefore, tofacitinib provides an innovative approach to modulating the immune and inflammatory responses in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA, which is especially important in individuals who do not respond to tumor necrosis factor inhibitors or show a loss of response over time. The aim of this article was to review studies on the pharmacology, mode of action, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of tofacitinib in patients with RA. Tofacitinib has been shown to reduce symptoms of RA and improve the quality of life in the analyzed groups of patients. Moreover, it showed high efficacy and an acceptable safety profile in Phase III randomized clinical trials on RA and was the first JAK inhibitor approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA and European Medicines Agency (EMA in the RA therapy, thus providing a useful alternative

  16. Outsourcing of distribution and marketing modules - market opportunity for public utility companies; Outsourcing von Vertriebs- und Marketingmodulen - eine Marktchance fuer Stadtwerke

    Kiefer, B. [ELEMENTERRA GmbH, Iserlohn (Germany)

    2007-09-15

    As a result of the liberalisation of the electricity market, growing domestic and international competition and, most importantly, unbundling legislation, German suppliers are compelled to make their network infrastructure available at attractive price levels and thus to abandon the formerly widespread practice of cross-subsidising distribution. Municipal utility companies are thus faced with the growing necessity to make their distribution processes for products and services profitable in themselves. Sophisticated direct distribution concepts involving the collaboration of external service providers in combination with green electricity products are a promising approach.

  17. Impact of Contingent Liabilities Reclassification on Financial Performance: An Analysis with Brazilian Companies of Electricity Utilities Sector

    Carlos Henrique Silva do Carmo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research is to verify the effect of a reconfiguration of contingent liabilities in the financial performance of Brazilian companies in the electricity sector in the years 2013 to 2015. The sample consisted of 53 companies and 153 financial statements were analyzed. The model used to reconfigure the contingent liabilities into provisions was developed by Rose (2014. The author classifies the reversal in 5 scenarios: Optimistic (20% Partially Optimistic (40%, moderate (60% Partially Pessimistic (80% and Pessimistic (100%. To represent the economic and financial performance we selected three indicators: General Liquidity (LG, General Indebtedness (EG and Return Over Assets (ROA. The results showed that for worst-case scenarios, there is a significant difference between the indicators calculated on the original data in comparison with those calculated within the reclassified scenarios. The Statistics D of Cohen (1988 pointed out that, in addition to statistically significant, in the worst scenarios, the size effect was also too high, especially for the ROA and the Indebtedness. For Liquidity the differences were not so significant. The findings of this research serve as a warning to users of financial statements and pointed out that they should be aware of the financial effect of different interpretations of the individuals involved in decisions about the likelihood of loss in provision and Contingent liabilities.

  18. Utilization of geothermal energy for methane production for J. A. Albertson Land and Cattle Company. Final report

    1980-07-01

    The feasibility of an integrated system to utilize a geothermal resource for a bioconversion plant. This integrated facility would use the manure from approximately 30,000 head of feedlot cattle as a feedstock for an anaerobic digestion plant. The findings on engineering design, geological assessment, environmental, economic, and institutional requirements of the proposed project are summarized. (MHR)

  19. Regulating technological change - The strategic reactions of utility companies towards subsidy policies in the German, Spanish and UK electricity markets

    Stenzel, Till; Frenzel, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on how incumbent electric utilities strategically react to subsidy schemes supporting renewable energy technologies in the UK, Germany, and Spain. Firms coordinate the development of their technological capabilities and their political activities to shape their regulatory environment. Analysing the diffusion of wind power in these countries, we show that the different ways, in which firms coordinate their technological and political strategies, lead to very different market outcomes, both for the firms' market share and the size of the overall market. Although incumbents are usually seen as being resistant to change in energy systems, we show that Spanish utilities proactively drive the diffusion of wind power. We speculate about the relation between the ownership structure of the energy system and its inertia with respect to the integration of new technologies. We derive novel policy implications that explicitly take into account the strategic actions of incumbent firms shaping the technological and regulatory system

  20. Pioglitazone utilization, efficacy & safety in Indian type 2 diabetic patients: A systematic review & comparison with European Medicines Agency Assessment Report.

    Pai, Sarayu A; Kshirsagar, Nilima A

    2016-11-01

    With pioglitazone ban and subsequent revoking in India along with varying regulatory decisions in other countries, it was decided to carry out a systematic review on its safety, efficacy and drug utilization in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in India and compare with the data from the European Medicines Agency Assessment Report (EMA-AR). Systematic review was performed as per the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, searching Medline/PubMed, Google Scholar and Science Direct databases using 'pioglitazone AND India AND human' and 'pioglitazone AND India AND human AND patient' and compared with EMA-AR. Spontaneous reports in World Health Organization VigiBase from India were compared with VigiBase data from other countries. Sixty six publications, 26 (efficacy), 32 (drug utilization) and eight (safety), were retrieved. In India, pioglitazone was used at 15-30 mg/day mostly with metformin and sulphonylurea, being prescribed to 26.7 and 8.4 per cent patients in north and south, respectively. The efficacy in clinical trials (CTs) was similar to those in EMA-AR. Incidence of bladder cancer in pioglitazone exposed and non-exposed patients was not significantly different in an Indian retrospective cohort study. There were two cases and a series of eight cases of bladder cancer published but none reported in VigiBase. In India, probably due to lower dose, lower background incidence of bladder cancer and smaller sample size in epidemiological studies, association of bladder cancer with pioglitazone was not found to be significant. Reporting of CTs and adverse drug reactions to Clinical Trials Registry of India and Pharmacovigilance Programme of India, respectively, along with compliance studies with warning given in package insert and epidemiological studies with larger sample size are needed.

  1. Third European Company Survey: Workplace innovation in European companies

    Oeij, P.; Žiauberyté-Jakštiené, R.; Dhondt, S.; Corral, A.; Totterdill, P.; Preenen, P.

    2015-01-01

    Workplace innovation (WPI) is a developed and implemented practice or combination of practices which enables employees to participate in organisational change and renewal and hence improve the quality of working life and organisational performance. This report looks at reasons for enabling WPI,

  2. Formerly utilized MED/AEC sites remedial action program. Radiological survey of the Harshaw Chemical Company, Cleveland, Ohio

    Wynveen, R.A.; Smith, W.H.; Sholeen, C.M.; Justus, A.L.; Flynn, K.F.

    1984-04-01

    During the MED/AEC era, the Harshaw Chemical Company processed large quantities of normal uranium to produce both oxide and fluoride compounds. This work was done under contract to MED and its successor, AEC. Records indicated that at the time the AEC contract was terminated, the facility was decontaminated by Harshaw and released from AEC control in 1960. However, a search of AEC records indicated that documentation was insufficient to determine whether the decontamination work was adequate by current guidelines. Hence, a radiological assessment of the site ws initiated in 1976. The entire grounds and all buildings were surveyed using surface survey instruments to detect surface contamination and radiation detectors to determine general radiation levels. Extensive surface contamination was found throughout the site. While the major contamination was found in Plant C, significant levels of contamination also were found in 16 other buildings and at 32 exterior locations. The contaminating material seemed to be normal uranium exclusively. Air samples were taken at numerous indoor locations throughout the site, but no elevated levels of radon were detected. This was as expected since normal uranium has been separated from radium and hence radon levels are very low. Several soil samples were taken from around the site. Analyses of these samples indicated extensive soil contamination, as well as suspected contamination of the river bed in the vicinity of the plant outfall. Scheduled subsurface investigation of the site, as well as of the river bed and sewer system, have not been conducted. Levels of contamination at this site are significantly above guidelines for release of the site for unrestricted use. 57 figures, 7 tables

  3. Law project modified by the Senate after urgency declaration relative to the electric and gas public utilities and to the power and gas companies; Projet de loi modifie par le Senat apres declaration d'urgence relatif au service public de l'electricite et du gaz et aux entreprises electriques et gazieres

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This document is the modifications made by the French Senate after the first reading of the law project adopted by the House of Commons and relative to the change of status of the power and gas public utilities in the framework of the deregulation of European energy markets. This law changes the juridical status of the two state monopolies Electricite de France (EdF) and Gaz de France (GdF) into two anonymous companies and creates two additional companies for the management of the power and gas networks. It ensures also the transposition of the European directives from June 26, 2003 (2003/54/CE and 2003/55/CE). It contains some proper dispositions and modifies various existing French laws, in particular the law no. 46-628 from April 8, 1946 about the electricity and gas nationalization and the law no. 2000-108 from February 10, 2000 relative to the modernization and development of the electric public utility. The document lists the modifications made by the Senate article by article. (J.S.)

  4. FINANCIAL STATEMENT UTILIZATION DURING DECISION MAKING PROCESS IN SMEs: A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON EUROPEAN AND TURKISH MANAGERS

    İbicioğlu, Hasan; Kocabıyık, Turan; Dalğar, Hüseyin

    2014-01-01

    This study examines financial information requirement for decision making in small and medium sized enterprises. 131 SME managers’ responses were collected from Turkey and 8 different European countries. According to both Turkish and European managers, financial statements are mostly important to foresee the probable liquidity and financial crisis. And they find experience more important than financial statement data. A comparative analysis of Turkish and European SME managers is stated. Smal...

  5. Effects of dietary tannin on growth, feed utilization and digestibility, and carcass composition in juvenile European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.

    Marie-Hélène Omnes

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant-based products in fish diets are valuable protein alternatives to fishmeal for the aquafeed industry. Many plant feed ingredients contain polyphenolic compounds, including tannins, which can have beneficial or adverse effects. The tolerable threshold of ingested tannins is unknown for marine carnivorous fishes. We studied the effects of tannic acid (TA supplementation to the diet of juvenile European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax by measuring growth, feed utilization and digestibility, and carcass composition. We randomly allocated groups of fish (initial mean body weight of 10.2 ± 0.7 g; n = 40 fish per tank to 12 replicate cylindrical-conical tanks (three per treatment. The fish were assigned to one of four dietary treatments for five weeks: control diet (C with tannin-free protein sources (mostly fishmeal as the base diet, containing 55.7% dry matter (DM crude protein, gross energy 22.3 kJ g−1 DM and three experimental diets supplemented with 10, 20, or 30 g TA kg−1 (called TA1, TA2, and TA3, respectively. Tannin ingestion resulted in significantly decreased cumulative feed intake, growth, feed and protein efficiencies, apparent digestibility coefficients, hepatosomatic index, and carcass lipids. The protein digestibility in fish fed the 10 g kg−1 tannin-containing diet was significantly lower than that in fish fed the control diet. This threshold should be taken into account when using novel terrestrial and aquatic plant ingredients for temperate marine fishes.

  6. The way ahead through European collaboration

    Vaughan, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    The paper on the ''Way ahead through European Collaboration'' was presented to the seminar on ''European commercial fast reactor programme'', London, 1987. A description is given of the world energy consumption, world nuclear energy consumption, and uranium resources. It is suggested that the fast reactor is likely to be developed first in Western Europe, and more particularly in the European Economic Community. Collaboration in Europe has taken a positive step forward with the decision of the European Fast Reactor Utilities Group to open a dialogue with the design and construction companies, working together. The companies are invited to prepare jointly a new design for a demonstration fast reactor to be ordered in the early 1990's. (U.K.)

  7. Preparing Canada's power systems for transition to the year 2000: the Y2K programs of Canada's electric utility companies: province-by-province report

    Anon.

    1999-09-01

    The province-by-province report covers BC Hydro; TransAlta, ATCO Ltd., EPCOR, and Enmax, SaskPower, Manitoba Hydro, Winnipeg Hydro, Ontario Power Generation, Ontario Hydro Services Company, Toronto Hydro, Hydro-Quebec and Energie Maclaren, Newfoundland and Labrador Hydro, Newfoundland Power, Nova Scotia Power, Maritime Electric,Yukon and Northwest Territories,Yukon Electrical Company Ltd., Northland Utilities (Yellowknife) Ltd. and Northland Utilities (NWT) Ltd. A report typically deals with inventory, testing and remediation of business systems, inventory, testing and remediation of operational control devices, business partner reviews, and preparation and exercising of contingency plans, as well as Y2K status and readiness reports, and dateline preparations.

  8. European works councils

    Knudsen, Herman Lyhne

    2004-01-01

    The theme addressed by this artcle is the opportunities for European Works Councils of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies.......The theme addressed by this artcle is the opportunities for European Works Councils of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies....

  9. The EU's major electricity and gas utilities since market liberalization

    Schuelke, Christian

    2011-06-01

    A major change has taken place in the company structure of the European electricity and gas markets. Twenty years ago, national or regional monopolies dominated the markets and there was strictly no competition between utilities. But since the liberalization of EU energy markets began in the 1990's, companies like E.ON, GDF Suez, EDF, Enel, and RWE have become European giants with activities in a large number of Member States. The advocates of market liberalization did not expect, or even intend, the emergence of a small number of large utilities that control an increasing part of the EU market. Some observers already claim that liberalization has led to an oligopoly with detrimental consequences for competition. Based on extensive background research, this book presents a fact-based analysis of the changes in the European utility sector since the 1990's. Case studies of the seven largest utilities illustrate how companies adapted their strategies to the changing market environment. The author underlines diverging choices and common trends like geographic expansion into new markets via mergers and acquisitions or diversification of business activities with the aim of using synergies between electricity and gas. Contents: Executive Summary. Introduction. Seven Case Studies of Changing Strategies of Major European Energy Utilities since Market Liberalization (E.ON, GDF Suez, EDF, Enel, RWE, Iberdrola, Vattenfall, Other European Utilities). Overview of Major National and Regional Electricity and Gas Market in the EU (Germany, France, United Kingdom, Italy, Spain, Nordic, Belgium and the Netherlands, Central and Eastern Europe). Conclusions. Annex. Bibliography

  10. THESEUS - the first utility-scale 50 MWe. THErmal Solar EUropean power Station for the island of Crete, Greece

    Cobi, A. [PreussenElektra AG, Hannover (Germany); Tzatzanis, A.

    1997-12-31

    When the European Commission`s Directorate for Energy (DG XVII) opened the second application window for THERMIE proposals under the Fourth Framework Programme on September 15, 1995, Europe`s solar thermal power community discovered a remarkable modification to the previous call for proposals. For the first time since solar thermal electricity was introduced for THERMIE demonstration projects, it now became eligible for EU financial support. Right now, the European Commission committed funding for the design and engineering phase of the THESEUS project implementation. (orig.)

  11. Human Resource Development and New Technology in the Automobile Industry: A Case Study of Ford Motor Company's Dearborn Engine Plant. The Development and Utilization of Human Resources in the Context of Technological Change and Industrial Restructuring.

    Chen, Kan; And Others

    This report centers around a plant-level study of the development and utilization of human resources in the context of technological change and industrial restructuring in the crankshaft production area of Ford Motor Company's Dearborn Engine Plant (DEP). The introductory chapter describes how the study was conducted, provides an introduction to…

  12. Utilizing remote sensing data for modeling water and heat regimes of the Black Earth Region territory of the European Russia

    Muzylev, Eugene; Startseva, Zoya; Uspensky, Alexander; Volkova, Elena; Uspensky, Sergey

    2014-05-01

    At present physical-mathematical modeling processes of water and heat exchange between vegetation covered land surfaces and atmosphere is the most appropriate method to describe peculiarities of water and heat regime formation for large territories. The developed model of such processes (Land Surface Model, LSM) is intended for calculation evaporation, transpiration by vegetation, soil water content and other water and heat regime characteristics, as well as distributions of the soil temperature and humidity in depth utilizing remote sensing data from satellites on land surface and meteorological conditions. The model parameters and input variables are the soil and vegetation characteristics and the meteorological characteristics, correspondingly. Their values have been determined from ground-based observations or satellite-based measurements by radiometers AVHRR/NOAA, MODIS/EOS Terra and Aqua, SEVIRI/Meteosat-9, -10. The case study has been carried out for the part of the agricultural Central Black Earth region with coordinates 49.5 deg. - 54 deg. N, 31 deg. - 43 deg. E and a total area of 227,300 km2 located in the steppe-forest zone of the European Russia for years 2009-2012 vegetation seasons. From AVHRR data there have been derived the estimates of three types of land surface temperature (LST): land surface skin temperature Tsg, air-foliage temperature Ta and efficient radiation temperature Ts.eff, emissivity E, normalized vegetation index NDVI, vegetation cover fraction B, leaf area index LAI, cloudiness and precipitation. From MODIS data the estimates of LST Tls, E, NDVI and LAI have been obtained. The SEVIRI data have been used to build the estimates of Tls, Ta, E, LAI and precipitation. Previously developed method and technology of above AVHRR-derived estimates have been improved and adapted to the study area. To check the reliability of the Ts.eff and Ta estimations for named seasons the error statistics of their definitions has been analyzed through

  13. Do countries matter? Explaining the variation in the use of numerical flexibility arrangements across European companies using a Multi-level model

    Chung, Heejung

    2007-01-01

    Do countries matter, especially compared to other aspects that affect the flexibility behaviours of companies? Many studies on the labour market assume that there are country differences, cross-national variances, and that it is a crucial factor in explaining the actual practices of the labour market by individuals and companies. The supposition is that although there are variations across countries, the behaviour of actors within the country is rather homogeneous. Thus, due to country level ...

  14. Report made on behalf of the mixed parity commission in charge of the text proposal about the remaining dispositions to be discussed of the project of law relative to the electric and gas public utilities and to the electric and gas companies; Rapport fait au nom de la Commission mixte paritaire chargee de proposer un texte sur les dispositions restant en discussion du projet de loi relatif au service public de l'electricite et du gaz et aux entreprises electriques et gaziere

    Lenoir, J.C.; Poniatowski, L

    2004-07-01

    This project of law aims to adapt the electricity and gas sector to the new economical context of opening of the energy markets to competition. It gives to energy companies the internal organization base necessary to warrant a high level of service and a transparent and non-discriminatory access of third parties to transport and distribution networks. These evolutions will allow Electricite de France (EdF) and Gaz de France (GdF) companies to compete on equal terms with their European competitors. It confirms first the prime role of public utility of both companies and then transposes the dispositions of the European directives relative to the organization of EdF and GdF integrated companies. It foresees the creation of two daughter companies for the management of energy transport activities. The project of law foresees also the change of the status of EdF and GdF companies and the reform of the retirement pensions of the personnel. This report presents, first, in a comparative table the articles adopted by the French house of commons and the changes adopted by the Senate. Then, a common text is proposed by the mixed parity commission for the articles that remained under discussion. (J.S.)

  15. Costs and resource utilization for diagnosis and treatment during the initial year in a European inflammatory bowel disease inception cohort

    Burisch, Johan; Vardi, Hillel; Pedersen, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    :: The EpiCom cohort is a prospective population-based inception cohort of unselected inflammatory bowel disease patients from 31 Western and Eastern European centers. Patients were followed every third month from diagnosis, and clinical data regarding treatment and investigations were collected. Costs were...

  16. Advice presented on behalf of the commission of finances, economy and plan about the law project (no. 1613) relative to the electric and gas public utilities and to the power and gas companies; Avis presente au nom de la Commission des finances, de l'economie generale et du plan sur le projet de loi (no. 1613), relatif au service public de l'electricite et du gaz et aux entreprises electriques et gazieres

    Carayon, B.

    2004-06-01

    The aim of this report is to present to the French deputies the advice of the commission of finances and economy about the law project relative to the change of status of the power and gas public utilities in the framework of the deregulation of European energy markets. This law changes the juridical status of the two state monopolies Electricite de France (EdF) and Gaz de France (GdF) into two anonymous companies and creates two additional companies for the management of the power and gas networks. It ensures also the transposition of the European directives from June 26, 2003 (2003/54/CE and 2003/55/CE). It contains some proper dispositions and modifies various existing French laws, in particular the law no. 46-628 from April 8, 1946 about the electricity and gas nationalization and the law no. 2000-108 from February 10, 2000 relative to the modernization and development of the electric public utility. The first part of the document reports on the general discussions and comments made by the commission about the law project while the second part concerns the detailed analysis of the articles 16 and 22 about the pension funds of EdF and GdF agents and the change of the status of both utilities. The amendments adopted by the commission for these articles conclude the report. (J.S.)

  17. Conferring of contracts by utilities in the Single European Market. Transposition of the sectoral directive where it concerns construction and delivery orders into German law

    Pick, H.; Wetzel, U.

    1994-01-01

    After the enactment of the Second Law Amending the Law on Budgetary Principles, the Ordinance on the Confering of Contracts, and the Ordinance on Verification; and the amendment of the ordinances on the placing of construction and delivery orders (VOB and VOL) the European Directives on so-called ''public'' tendering can be said to be transposed into German law as far as they concern construction and delivery orders. This means that as of 1 March 1994 besides the ''classical'' public contractors utilities, too, must invite bids Europe-wide. According to European law this also applies to service orders as of 1 July 1994, but this provision still awaits transposition into German law. (orig.) [de

  18. How to Analyze Company Using Social Network?

    Palus, Sebastian; Bródka, Piotr; Kazienko, Przemysław

    Every single company or institution wants to utilize its resources in the most efficient way. In order to do so they have to be have good structure. The new way to analyze company structure by utilizing existing within company natural social network and example of its usage on Enron company are presented in this paper.

  19. MANAGING INDUSTRIAL PHARMACEUTICAL RESEARCH-AND-DEVELOPMENT - A COMPARATIVE-STUDY OF MANAGEMENT CONTROL AND INNOVATIVE EFFECTIVENESS IN EUROPEAN AND ANGLO-AMERICAN COMPANIES

    OMTA, SWF; BOUTER, LM; VANENGELEN, JML

    1994-01-01

    Drug regulation and pricing have put strong pressure on the cost-benefit ratio of the innovative pharmaceutical industry. Therefore a study has been conducted in fourteen large and medium sized companies to determine some important organisational and managerial factors influencing success in

  20. Utility and Actual Use of European and Spanish Guidelines on the Management of Endometrial Cancer Among Gynecologic Oncologists in Spain.

    Zapardiel, Ignacio; Blancafort, Claudia; Cibula, David; Jaunarena, Ibon; Gorostidi, Mikel; Gil-Moreno, Antonio; De Santiago, Javier

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the current management of endometrial cancer across Spain and to evaluate the use and applicability of the national and international guidelines. An electronic 30-question survey was distributed among all Spanish Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology-registered specialists dedicated to gynecologic oncology in Spain by e-mail. Data were collected anonymously and analyzed using SPSS program. One hundred forty-five (17.8%) surveys were collected. Significant differences were observed between tertiary hospitals and secondary or private hospitals in terms of appropriate (according to European Society of Gynaecologic Oncology guidelines) nodal staging in low-risk cases (96 [95%] vs 27 [61.4%], respectively; P comparing centers with less than 20 cases per year to centers with more than 40 cases annually, with significant differences in the management of low-risk and intermediate-risk endometrial cancers. This cross-sectional study demonstrates a broad heterogeneity of care giving between the clinical national and international guidelines and the actual practice in Spain. Although most of the responders refer to base their endometrial cancer management on Spanish and European Society of Gynaecologic Oncology guidelines (64.1%), many discrepancies have been observed, mainly in the management of intermediate-risk cases and follow-up. It may be caused by the lack of consensus on certain points, lack of facilities in lower case load centers, and also due to disagreement or unawareness on the current knowledge.

  1. GRS current activities in East-European countries overview

    Teske, H.; Janke, R.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents the following items: agreement between the Federal Government and Utility Companies about the future utilization of the existing nuclear power plants in Germany, June 2001; GRS current activities in the Eastern European countries; science-technical co-operation with Russia; assessment of safety significance of the events for German NPP; Leningrad in-depth safety assessment, co-operation SEC NRS and GRS

  2. Forest-edge utilization by carnivores in relation to local and landscape habitat characteristics in central European farmland

    Šálek, Martin; Červinka, J.; Pavluvčík, P.; Poláková, S.; Tkadlec, Emil

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 3 (2014), s. 176-182 ISSN 1616-5047 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Carnivores * Farmland * Forest-edge utilization * Landscape characteristics * Local characteristics Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.478, year: 2014

  3. Report made on behalf of the commission of economic affairs, environment and territory about the law project (no. 1613), relative to the electric and gas public utilities and to the power and gas companies; Rapport fait au nom de la Commission des affaires economiques, de l'environnement et du territoire sur le projet de loi (no. 1613), relatif au service public de l'electricite et du gaz et aux entreprises electriques et gazieres

    Lenoir, J.C.

    2004-06-01

    The aim of this report is to present to the French deputies the comments made by the commission of economic affairs, environment and territory about the law project relative to the change of status of the power and gas public utilities in the framework of the deregulation of European energy markets. This law changes the juridical status of the two state monopolies Electricite de France (EdF) and Gaz de France (GdF) into two anonymous companies and creates two additional companies for the management of the power and gas networks. It ensures also the transposition of the European directives from June 26, 2003 (2003/54/CE and 2003/55/CE). It contains some proper dispositions and modifies various existing French laws, in particular the law no. 46-628 from April 8, 1946 about the electricity and gas nationalization and the law no. 2000-108 from February 10, 2000 relative to the modernization and development of the electric public utility. The first part of the document reports on the general discussions about the law project while the second part makes a detailed analysis of each article with some proposals of modifications. A comparative table puts in parallel the existing texts, the law project and the proposals made by the commission. (J.S.)

  4. European utility industry response to the demand (constraints and solutions for base-load and semi-base-load)

    Beeuwsaert, D.

    2000-01-01

    The weakening of the link between generation, transmission and distribution; the market internationalization; new activities; customer freedom; competition; and short payback investments are few of the new challenges facing the European electricity sector. What will tomorrow's equipment look like? What will the sources of energy be? How will the new technologies evolve? What is the future of proven technologies like nuclear power? Should we be anxious about or confident in our capability to cope with a future which today seems uncertain? All these questions lead to reactions from the actors. One thing is certain: all the respective actors have a joint responsibility to come up with specific solutions while complying with fundamental and ethical rules in areas as diverse as safety or environmental protection. (author)

  5. Smart Companies.

    Galagan, Patricia A.

    1997-01-01

    Capturing and leveraging knowledge is an important new management trend that is as yet undefined. Some companies are accounting for their intellectual capital and applying it to the company balance sheets. (JOW)

  6. Utilization and perceived problems of online medical resources and search tools among different groups of European physicians.

    Kritz, Marlene; Gschwandtner, Manfred; Stefanov, Veronika; Hanbury, Allan; Samwald, Matthias

    2013-06-26

    There is a large body of research suggesting that medical professionals have unmet information needs during their daily routines. To investigate which online resources and tools different groups of European physicians use to gather medical information and to identify barriers that prevent the successful retrieval of medical information from the Internet. A detailed Web-based questionnaire was sent out to approximately 15,000 physicians across Europe and disseminated through partner websites. 500 European physicians of different levels of academic qualification and medical specialization were included in the analysis. Self-reported frequency of use of different types of online resources, perceived importance of search tools, and perceived search barriers were measured. Comparisons were made across different levels of qualification (qualified physicians vs physicians in training, medical specialists without professorships vs medical professors) and specialization (general practitioners vs specialists). Most participants were Internet-savvy, came from Austria (43%, 190/440) and Switzerland (31%, 137/440), were above 50 years old (56%, 239/430), stated high levels of medical work experience, had regular patient contact and were employed in nonacademic health care settings (41%, 177/432). All groups reported frequent use of general search engines and cited "restricted accessibility to good quality information" as a dominant barrier to finding medical information on the Internet. Physicians in training reported the most frequent use of Wikipedia (56%, 31/55). Specialists were more likely than general practitioners to use medical research databases (68%, 185/274 vs 27%, 24/88; χ²₂=44.905, Presources on the Internet and frequent reliance on general search engines and social media among physicians require further attention. Possible solutions may be increased governmental support for the development and popularization of user-tailored medical search tools and open

  7. The other aspect of solar energy utilization. Solar technologies export enhancement: A central European point of view

    Winter, C. J.; Nitsch, J.; Klaiss, H.; Voigt, C.

    1985-11-01

    It is shown that solar energy utilization can, on a moderate scale, supplement the indigenous energy supply of the Federal Republic of Germany. It can contribute to the prevention of fatal ecological damage, open an attractive export market and, in the long run, prepare ground for North-South compensation, where energy-poor but technology rich countries cooperate with countries of the Third World, which are often rich in raw materials and are situated in the solar belt of the world, for the benefit of the implementation of a solar industry or the production of a marketable synthetic solar energy carrier.

  8. Energy Service Companies in Europe: assembling the puzzle. Preliminary analysis of the results to date from the first European ESCO database

    Rezessy, Silvia; Bertoldi, Paolo; Adnot, Jerome; Dupont, Maxime

    2005-01-01

    A recent survey of energy service companies (ESCOs) in the EU-25 has indicated that the ESCO industry is still in its infancy stage and that major differences exist in the development of the ESCO business among the various countries. With a few notable exceptions, such as Germany, Austria, and Hungary and to certain extent France, ESCO industries are still struggling to get off the ground. Major differences exist among Member States not only in the development of national ESCO industries, but also in terms of actual type of ESCO projects (sectors, sizes, etc.) and their implementation (contractual terms, financing, etc.). The present paper builds on and summarizes the first results of an ongoing in-depth survey of ESCO businesses in Europe (EU-25 plus candidate countries and selected neighbouring countries) and analyses a selection of ESCO projects, both ongoing and completed. The paper has three major parts. First, we review the most common types of companies providing energy services in Europe. Second, we discuss ESCO project specifics, such as the most widespread types of projects, preferred end-use technologies, sectors that receive most of the project developers' attention, most 'appealing' categories of clients and most common financing sources. Finally, we summarize on a country-by-country basis the features of the ESCO industry in selected EU Member States and candidate countries

  9. Renewable energy burden sharing. REBUS. Requirements and expectations of utilities and consumer organisations in the European energy sector

    Voogt, M.H.; Uyterlinde, M.A.; Skytte, K.; Leonardi, M.; Whiteley, M.H.

    2001-05-01

    Creation of an internal market for renewable electricity will involve a political negotiation process, similar to previous EU greenhouse gas negotiations. The Energy Ministers in the EU have agreed on an overall target of 21.7% of electricity supply from Renewable Energy Sources (RES-E) and a distribution of targets over the individual Member States. The REBUS project aimed at providing insights in the effects of implementing targets for renewable electricity generation at EU Member State level and the impact of introducing burden sharing systems within the EU, such as a Tradable Green Certificate (TGC) system. Member States can participate in such burden sharing systems to reduce the costs of achieving targets for electricity from renewable sources (RES-E), compared to strictly national implementation measures. The project concentrated on the development of the REBUS model, which quantifies the impact of trade (in green certificates, quotas or targets) and the implementation of different rules to setting targets at individual Member State level. In addition, the project has paid special attention to the participation of stakeholders such as utilities, traders, and consumers of electricity. What is their opinion on the target setting, on the design of a trading system and its practical implementation and monitoring aspects? Utilities and consumer organisations in Denmark, Italy, The Netherlands and the United Kingdom have been asked to comment on these issues. This report is a result of a series of interviews with these stakeholders on their reaction to different burden sharing proposals, and on the socio-economic and financial impacts they foresee. The utilities take a critical view of their position in the renewable energy market and possible future international trading scheme. The main conclusions from the interviews are: Generally, target setting and burden sharing are regarded political questions, on which governments should decide; Stakeholders emphasise

  10. Preparing Canada's power systems for transition to the year 2000 : Y2K readiness assessment results for Canadian electric utility companies : first quarter 1999

    1999-01-01

    The effort made by Canadian electric utilities to minimize any power disruptions during the year 2000 (Y2K) transition is discussed and the state of readiness of the electric power industry with respect to the Y2K computer challenge is outlined. Canadian utilities started addressing Y2K issues several years ago, and today, reports show that every major electric utility in Canada is either on, or ahead of schedule to meet the industry established milestones for Y2K readiness. This report includes the assessment of all of Canada's large electric utilities, plus about 95 per cent of Canada's small distribution utilities. On average, the bulk electric utilities in Canada expect to be Y2K ready by mid-June 1999. This means that equipment and systems will operate properly for all dates including Y2K, or that there will be an operating strategy in place to mitigate the effects of any improper operations of equipment or systems. In terms of overall preparations for Y2K, Canada is ahead of the North American averages. Bulk electric utilities for non-nuclear generation are now 100 per cent complete in the inventory phase, 99 per cent complete in the assessment phase, and 91 per cent complete in the remediation/testing phase. For nuclear generation, completion rates are the same except for the remediation/testing phase which is 97 per cent complete. 1 tab., 21 figs

  11. Animation company "Fast Forwards" production with HP Utility Data Center; film built using Adaptive Enterprise framework enabled by shared, virtual resource

    2003-01-01

    Hewlett Packard have produced a commercial-quality animated film using an experimental rendering service from HP Labs and running on an HP Utility Data Center (UDC). The project demonstrates how computing resources can be managed virtually and illustrates the value of utility computing, in which an end-user taps into a large pool of virtual resources, but pays only for what is used (1 page).

  12. Chinese Companies in Switzerland

    Esther Kessler

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, some of China’s leading firms have made headlines with their European expansion, by either opening new facilities or by acquiring or merging with significant enterprises in Europe. The goal of this paper is to contribute to the existing literature by examining Chinese enterprises expanding into Switzerland. The study also allows some conclusions for Chinese companies entering Central and Eastern Europe. We analyze via interviews the motivations of Chinese companies to expand into Switzerland as well as their behavior and the impediments in their internationalization process. Our findings show that Chinese companies fail to take advantage of certain benefits of western economies (such as open information and stable rule of law. To move forward efficiently, they should develop competence in dealing systematically with readily available market information, building professional networks that recognize a separation between business life and personal life, and managing their Chinese and foreign employees in the foreign cultural environment.

  13. Design description of the European pressurized water reactor

    Leverenz, R.

    1999-01-01

    The EPR (the European Pressurized Water Reactor) is an evolutionary PWR developed by Nuclear Power International and its parent companies, Framatome and Siemens, in co-operation with Electricite de France and German Utilities. NPI can rely on the huge experience gained by its parent companies; they have constructed more than 100 nuclear power plants throughout the world. The total installed capacity exceeds 100,000 MW - about 25% of the total world-wide figure. Following the conceptual design phase of the so-called Common Product conducted by NPI, Framatome and Siemens, from 1989 through 1991, Electricite de France (EDF) and several major German utilities decided to merge their own development programmes, - the N4 Plus and REP 2000 projects on the French side and the further development of the KONVOI technology on the German side, - with the NPI project. From that time on, the NPI project became one single common development line for both countries. In parallel, EDF and the German utilities decided to establish, together with other European utilities, specifications that would represent common utility views on the design and performance of future nuclear power plants. These are documented in the European Utility Requirements (EURs). The basic design has been completed in 1997, and in 1998 a design optimization is being carried out with the goal to even increase the economic competitiveness of nuclear power. This paper provides a brief design description of the EPR. (author)

  14. Health Resource Utilization Associated with Skeletal-Related Events in Patients with Advanced Prostate Cancer: A European Subgroup Analysis from an Observational, Multinational Study

    Amit Bahl

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to increase the understanding of health resource utilization (HRU associated with skeletal-related events (SREs occurring in patients with bone metastases secondary to advanced prostate cancer. A total of 120 patients from Germany, Italy, Spain and the United Kingdom were enrolled in this observational study. They had bone metastases secondary to prostate cancer and had experienced at least one SRE in the 97 days before giving informed consent. HRU data were collected retrospectively for 97 days before enrolment and prospectively for up to 18–21 months. HRU, including the number and duration of inpatient hospitalizations, number of outpatient and emergency department visits and procedures, was independently attributed by investigators to an SRE. Of the 222 SREs included in this analysis, 26% were associated with inpatient stays and the mean duration per SRE was 21.4 days (standard deviation (SD 17.8 days. Overall, 174 SREs (78% required an outpatient visit and the mean number of visits per SRE was 4.6 (SD 4.6. All SREs are associated with substantial HRU. Preventing SREs in patients with advanced prostate cancer and bone metastases may help to reduce the burden to both patients and European healthcare systems.

  15. Formerly utilized MED/AEC sites, Remedial Action Program: radiological survey of the Hooker Chemical Company, Niagara Falls, New York. Final report

    1977-01-01

    Results of a radiological survey of a portion of the Hooker Chemical Company, Niagara Falls, New York, are presented. The survey was conducted over 5.5-acres in which uranium-bearing materials were handled in the early 1940's. The survey included direct measurements of alpha, beta-gamma, and external gamma radiation throughout the site, measurement of transferable alpha and beta contamination levels in the buildings, determination of uranium and radium concentrations in the soild on the site, measurement of radon and radon daughter concentrations in the buildings, and determination of radionuclide concentrations in surface water samples. The results of the survey indicate that radiation levels throughout the site are within pertinent guidelines for unrestricted release of the property

  16. The strategy of players on the European gas market

    Lecarpentier, A.

    2006-01-01

    One result of opening up the European gas market to competition has been to increase the number and diversity of the players involved, whether producers, suppliers or electric utilities. However, while the gas on offer is still controlled by a handful of market players given the increasing importance of state-owned companies from exporting countries outside Europe, the downstream gas sector continues to show a strong concentration of incumbent operators seeking a dominant position in the supply of gas. (author)

  17. The strategy of players on the European gas market

    Lecarpentier, A

    2006-07-01

    One result of opening up the European gas market to competition has been to increase the number and diversity of the players involved, whether producers, suppliers or electric utilities. However, while the gas on offer is still controlled by a handful of market players given the increasing importance of state-owned companies from exporting countries outside Europe, the downstream gas sector continues to show a strong concentration of incumbent operators seeking a dominant position in the supply of gas. (author)

  18. The EU's Major Electricity and Gas Utilities since Market Liberalization

    Schulke, Ch.

    2010-01-01

    A major change has taken place in the company structure of the European electricity and gas markets. Twenty years ago, national or regional monopolies dominated the markets and there was strictly no competition between utilities. But since the liberalization of EU energy markets began in the 1990's, companies like E.ON, GDF Suez, EDF, Enel, and RWE have become European giants with activities in a large number of Member States. The advocates of market liberalization did not expect, or even intend, the emergence of a small number of large utilities that control an increasing part of the EU market. Some observers already claim that liberalization has led to an oligopoly with detrimental consequences for competition. Based on extensive background research, this book presents a fact-based analysis of the changes in the European utility sector since the 1990's. Case studies of the seven largest utilities illustrate how companies adapted their strategies to the changing market environment. The author underlines diverging choices and common trends like geographic expansion into new markets via mergers and acquisitions or diversification of business activities with the aim of using synergies between electricity and gas. (author)

  19. Ames and other European networks in integrity of ageing structures

    Davies, L.M.; Von Estorff, U.; Crutzen, S.

    1996-01-01

    Several European institutions and organisations and the Joint Research Centre have developed co-operative programmes now organised into Networks for mutual benefit. They include utilities, engineering companies, Research and Development laboratories and regulatory bodies. Networks are organised and managed like the successful Programme for the Inspection of Steel Components (PISC). The JRC's Institute for Advanced Materials of the European Commission plays the role of Operating Agent and manager of these Networks: ENIQ. AMES, NESC, each of them dealing with specific aspect of fitness for purpose of materials in structural components. This paper describes the structure and the objectives of these networks. Particular emphasis is given to the network AMES

  20. As empresas de serviços públicos na Argentina (1880-2000 Public utility companies in Argentina (1880-2000

    Diego Bussola

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho analisa-se a evolução da propriedade das empresas de serviços públicos na Argentina desde a sua criação até às privatizações de finais do século xx. Neste percurso, coloca-se a ênfase nas práticas empresariais que no início do século xx conduziram a situações não concorrenciais, nos protestos dos consumidores no período de entre guerras, nas nacionalizações durante o governo de Perón e nas privatizações no governo de Menem. O objectivo é explicar o aparente paradoxo de as mudanças no regime de propriedade (nacionalizações e privatizações terem ocorrido durante governos peronistas.In this paper we analyze the changes in the ownership of Argentinean public utilities from their creation until their privatization at the end of the 20th century. We focus our study on: entrepreneurial tactics during the beginning of the 20th century that produced a monopolized sector; consumer's complaints during the interwar period; Peron's nationalizations; and Menem's privatizations. Our main aim is to explain an apparent paradox: why both types of change in the ownership of public utilities (nationalization and privatization occurred during peronist governments.

  1. The European Community eco-management and audit regulations and the ISO standard 14001 for eco-management systems: significance and consequences for the eco-management of utilities

    Gudet, C.

    1996-01-01

    Various companies in the electrical industries have concerned themselves with the EMAS regulations and the private sector industries standards BS 7750 and ISO 14001. In various pilot experiments, investigations were carried out on the suitability of these management instruments for utilities. Several power plants in Holland and England have already instituted standards-complying environmental management systems and had them partly certificated. The paper shows in which existing legal frameworks the new management instruments have an effect and what elements they consist of. There is shown, on the basis of an example, which regions of the utility are affected by the environmental management system and how it is co-ordinated into the whole company organisation. (author) 4 figs., 11 refs

  2. Company analysis

    Jenster, Per V.; Hussey, David

    This volume looks at the company appraisal as a whole, examining the continuing need to appraise companies as part of the continuing strategy process. Building from a sound basis of theory, the text aims to be practical and to give guidance to senior managers and others involved in the strategy...... process. It is thus a book primarily aimed at managers, but should also be useful for MBA students undertaking strategy assignments It provides helpful, practical guidance and identifies weaknesses of traditional methods. It also presents a variety of tools which may be used in the appraisal process...

  3. Company cases Denmark

    Tølle, Martin; Pedersen, Jørgen Lindgaard

    2005-01-01

    for government sector in Denmark. DC employed 1,000 persons and had a market share on 75 % in the market of large government institutions when it was taken over. Danish government wanted to sell DC in order to get more intensity in competion in IT - markets in general and especially in the market for public...... IT - solitions. CSC wanted to buy DC to penetrate the Nordic market. Some effects can be mentioned: Employment in CSC - DK is in 2003 1,700 persons or 2,600 including other companies bought up recently. In innovation positive effects can be registered from contacts with CSC - International. Not only from access...... - Laboratoriet, Benzon - Pharma and Pharma - Medica during years 1988 - 1991.Nycomed wants to establish itself as a company on European level.After a decade with different owners, fusions and splitting ups a construction in which head quarter and R&D move to Denmark close to Copenhagen. The importance...

  4. Feasibility study on the utilization of high sulfur pet. coke as a by-product at SINOPEC Fujian Petrochemical Company Limited

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of conserving energy and reducing greenhouse effect gas emission, an investigational study was conducted for the project on the effective utilization of high-sulfur petroleum coke at Fujian Petrochemical Co., Fujian Province, China. In the project, IGCC (integrated gasification combined cycle) power generation facilities are introduced to the refinery of Fujian Petrochemical Co. By gasifying the residues produced from the refinery as raw material, the gas clean the same as natural gas is produced and is used as power generation use fuel. As a result of the study, the energy conservation amount was 94,300 toe/y, and was 1,414,500 toe in cumulative amount during 15 years. Further, the amount of greenhouse effect gas reduction was 291,600 t-CO2/y, and was 4,374,000 t-CO2 in cumulative amount during 15 years. The construction cost of the project is approximately 29.7 billion yen. The annual profit to be obtained from the project is approximately 8.66 billion yen, which is indicated by difference between before and after the implementation of the project. The calculated years required for return of investment were 3.4. (NEDO)

  5. The Dutch private company: successfully relaunched?

    van der Elst, C.F.; Vermeulen, E.P.M.; De Cordt, Y.; Navez, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    This Chapter in a comparative book on private limited liability companies starts with an illustration of the former success of the Dutch limited liability company (BV). Next it addresses the competitive European legal environment within which the Dutch BV has to operate. The study shows how the

  6. Financial Structure Analysis of Publicly Held Lodging Companies: An International Comparison

    Erdinç KARADENİZ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze financial structure and preference of lodging companies that issues traded in European and Turkish stock markets by using ratio analysis technique. In this context, statements of financial positions of 51 lodging companies from European stock markets and 12 lodging companies from Borsa Istanbul used and calculated 10 financial structure ratios for each company between 2011-2012-2013 years. In the results of ratio analysis, it is determined that Turkish lodging companies use mainly equity while European lodging companies prefer liabilities and debt to finance their activities. In respect to maturity of liabilities it is determined that European lodging companies prefer long term debt while Turkish lodging companies use short term liabilities. Finally, it is determined that European lodging companies use leasing but no Turkish lodging companies to choose leasing.

  7. Natural gas industry in European Community and european single market

    Cadoret, I.

    1992-01-01

    Common Market of natural gas is dominated by some companies. In several Member Countries, one company only manages the whole industry. European Economic Community thinks this type of structure induce hindrances to free circulation of natural gas in Europe. 10 refs

  8. A European consensus report on blood cell identification: terminology utilized and morphological diagnosis concordance among 28 experts from 17 countries within the European LeukemiaNet network WP10, on behalf of the ELN Morphology Faculty

    Zini, Gina; Bain, Barbara; Bettelheim, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology used to develop a consensual glossary for haematopoietic cells within Diagnostics-WP10 of European-LeukemiaNet EU-project. This highly interactive work was made possible through the use of the net, requiring only a single two-day meeting of actual confrontation...

  9. A European consensus report on blood cell identification: terminology utilized and morphological diagnosis concordance among 28 experts from 17 countries within the European LeukemiaNet network WP10, on behalf of the ELN Morphology Faculty

    Zini, Gina; Bain, Barbara; Bettelheim, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology used to develop a consensual glossary for haematopoietic cells within Diagnostics-WP10 of European-LeukemiaNet EU-project. This highly interactive work was made possible through the use of the net, requiring only a single two-day meeting of actual confrontatio...

  10. Exploring the differences in general practitioner and health care specialist utilization according to education, occupation, income and social networks across Europe: findings from the European social survey (2014) special module on the social determinants of health.

    Fjær, Erlend L; Balaj, Mirza; Stornes, Per; Todd, Adam; McNamara, Courtney L; Eikemo, Terje A

    2017-02-01

    Low socioeconomic position (SEP) tends to be linked to higher use of general practitioners (GPs), while the use of health care specialists is more common in higher SEPs. Despite extensive literature in this area, previous studies have, however, only studied health care use by income or education. The aim of this study is, therefore, to examine inequalities in GP and health care specialist use by four social markers that may be linked to health care utilization (educational level, occupational status, level of financial strain and size and frequency of social networks) across 20 European countries and Israel. Logistic regression models were employed using data from the seventh round of the European Social Survey; this study focused upon people aged 25–75 years, across 21 countries. Health care utilization was measured according to self-reported use of GP or specialist care within 12 months. Analyses tested four social markers: income (financial strain), occupational status, education and social networks. We observed a cross-national tendency that countries with higher or equal probability of GP utilization by lower SEP groups had a more consistent probability of specialist use among high SEP groups. Moreover, countries with inequalities in GP use in favour of high SEP groups had comparable levels of inequalities in specialist care utilization. This was the case for three social markers (education, occupational class and social networks), while the pattern was less pronounced for income (financial strain). There are significant inequalities associated with GP and specialist health care use across Europe—with higher SEP groups more likely to use health care specialists, compared with lower SEP groups. In the context of health care specialist use, education and occupation appear to be particularly important factors. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  11. European Union and oil

    Paillard, Christophe Alexandre

    2004-01-01

    In a context of oil price increase, problems about a Russian oil company (Loukos), and uncertainties in the Middle-East, the possibility of a new oil shock is a threat for Europe, and raises the issue of a true European energy policy which would encompass, not only grid development, environmental issues or market regulation issues, but also strategic issues related to energy supply security. This article proposes an overview of the European policy: first steps for a future European energy and oil policy in the green paper of the European Commission published in November 2000, issues of pollution and safety for hydrocarbon maritime transport. The article then examines the possibility of a third oil shock due to a crisis in the Middle East, and discusses whether European must have strategic stocks to face an outage of oil supplies

  12. SAFER - Company Snapshot - SAFER - Company Snapshot

    Department of Transportation — The Company Snapshot is a concise electronic record of company identification, size, commodity information, and safety record, including the safety rating (if any),...

  13. Structural and temporal variation in the genetic diversity of a European collection of spring two-row barley cultivars and utility for association mapping of quantitative traits

    Tondelli, Alessandro; Xu, Xin; Moragues, Marc

    2013-01-01

    the traits investigated, some of which co-map with selected regions. Collectively, these data show that the genetic makeup of European two-row spring barley is evolving under breeder selection, with signs of extinction of diversity in some genomic regions, suggesting that “breeding the best with the best...

  14. European innovation and technology development

    Johnson, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    The promotion of technological innovation by European national governments and the EC in pursuit of both increased recovery and the anchoring of technology in supply, manufacturing and service sector companies has been a feature of the strategic involvement by European states in exploration and production research and development. This paper summaries past trends in this activity and reviews the targets for future industry innovation which will enable European (primarily the North Sea) production to be sustained for a further generation

  15. A new concept of agreement between a gas utility company and its suppliers; Uma parceria revolucionaria entre uma empresa de rede (gas canalizado) e um dos seus principais fornecedores

    Fiorese, Alessandro [ACTARIS, SP (Brazil); Venancio, Jorge [COMGAS, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents a new kind of alliance between a gas utility company (COMGAS - Sao Paulo - Brazil) and a meter supplier (Actaris). This partnership, being implemented in a new gas market, is in accordance with the modern energy regulatory strategies of development countries, for example the energy multiple transparency concepts. The scope of the contract between these two players is a meter park calibration and replacement program. Initially COMGAS meter park will be described according to a metrological point of view before the project, as well as, the reasons which drove COMGAS and Actaris to adopt this new contract philosophy. It will be mentioned also, the operational problems relating to the execution of this contract, the agreements with the Sao Paulo state energy regulator (CSPE) and the Brazilian metrological agency (INMETRO). Finally, the results of this alliance will be presented, emphasizing the gains obtained from the implementation of a fair metering policy and its cost-effectiveness, which demonstrates the viability of the application of modern energy market concepts relating to elaboration of partnerships between natural gas market players, in non consolidated gas markets, like the Brazilian natural gas market. (author)

  16. Procurement of natural gas in power supply companies. Strategies of procurement for EVU; Gasbeschaffung in Energieversorgungsunternehmen. Beschaffungsstrategien fuer EVU

    Weber, Janina; Soennecken, Arno [IEBT GmbH Institute for Energy Business and Technology, Herdecke (Germany)

    2012-09-10

    Since the implementation of the EU directive on the liberalization of the gas market, the time of monopolistic areal supply is gone. Within the Energy Economy Law (EnWG) the European regulations on the internal electricity and gas market have been transposed into national law. Due to the rapid development utility companies need to burst old structures in order to remain competitive and to take advantage of opportunities arising in the market.

  17. A European Approach to Lifelong Learning: Goals and Realities.

    Thery, Michel; Roussel, Patrick; Zygmunt, Christian

    2003-01-01

    Comparison of company practices regarding continuing training of employees shows great diversity among the 15 European Union member states. In 11 countries, over 70 percent of companies are "training involved" (TICs). South European countries have a low percentage of TICs; the proportion of TICs in north European countries is over 80…

  18. Online Company-stakeholder Communication

    Eriksen, Rikke Augustinus; Morsing, Mette

    Based on a systematic data collection we study one of the first pioneering company-stakeholder communication campaigns in social media: the case of energy company Vattenfall A/S’s pan-European campaign ‘The Climate Manifesto’. Our findings challenge the general assumption, that stakeholder...... lacked between the company and stakeholders. Vattenfall was accused of green-washing, resulting in a communications crisis. Negative stakeholder reactions consisted of prejudiced and non-negotiable argumentation indicating that social media imposes new managerial challenges since communication processes...... technologies and we question to what extent social media serve the enhancement of improved understandings across corporate and civil society on CSR issues. This paper suggests that managers face a risk of the “double-edge of stakeholder communication” when incorporating social media into their CSR strategies...

  19. Zenn Motor Company

    Clifford, I. [Zenn Motor Company, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Zenn Motor company is a leader in the electric vehicle space and builds and markets a low speed vehicle known as the zero emission, no noise (ZENN). This presentation provided background information on the Zenn Motor Company as well as on EEStor, a company that develops four-wheeled vehicles and that is seeking partners to fund the development for a modified barium titanate-based ultracapacitor. In 2004, ZENN entered into a technology agreement with EEStor that secured certain exclusive and non-exclusive rights to purchase and deploy EEStor's EESU technology as part of its ZENNergy solutions in several markets, including exclusive rights for new four-passenger vehicles with a curb weight of up to 1,400 kilograms; exclusive rights for the neighbourhood electric vehicles (NEV) and golf carts market; exclusive rights for utility vehicles; and exclusive rights for the aftermarket conversion to ZENNergy of any four-wheeled vehicles. The presentation also addressed ZENNergy and the art of integrating high energy drive solutions. Lessons learned and EEStor's technology attributes were discussed. A hypothetical case study was also offered. The presentation concluded with a discussion of EEStor technology status and opportunity horizons. It was concluded that a better battery is needed to enable the mass adoption of electric vehicles. tabs.

  20. CSR in TSL companies

    Joanna DYCZKOWSKA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available TSL companies are characterized by high dynamics of an increase of incomes, and hence increased shipping. Owing to a rational policy in the area of the consolidation of production and distribution, they may boast of a better use of the means of transport. The purpose of this article is to present the activities in the area of the eco-friendly CSR aspect in the activities of TSL companies taking into consideration particularly logistic operators. The research methods used in the study include an analysis of secondary data, observations and comparative analyses. Road transport in the shipping structure comes first and it constitutes 84% of freights. In the year 2009, in Poland greenhouse gas emissions from road transport amounted to 42.5 million tons (4.84% of the EU member states and CO emissions were 41.9 million tons (analogically, 4.83% of environment pollutions in the European Union. This causes an emission of fumes into the atmosphere. The policy of sustainable development pursued by logistic operators under corporate social responsibility is a response to the abovementioned data. They take decisions concerning social and environmental aspects. The activities of TSL companies under CSR need to provide an answer to customer expectations and needs, and they have to cause an increase of competitiveness on the market. The selected four largest logistic operators conduct the following eco-friendly activities on the highest level: fume emission reports and the control of these emissions, transport of hazardous goods (ADR, voluntary services in the scope of environmental protection and cooperation with eco-friendly organizations. There are those activities which call for improvement: a limitation of the emission of fumes, waste management and sewage treatment policy.

  1. The ties between the strategy of players on the European gas market

    Lecarpentier, A.

    2006-01-01

    One result of opening up the European gas market to competition has been to increase the number and diversity of the players involved, whether producers, suppliers or electric utilities. However, while the gas on offer is still controlled by a handful of market players given the increasing importance of state-owned companies from exporting countries outside Europe, the downstream gas sector continues to show a strong concentration of incumbent operators seeking a dominant position in the supply of gas. (author)

  2. The EU's Major Electricity and Gas Utilities since Market Liberalization

    Schulke, Ch.

    2010-07-01

    A major change has taken place in the company structure of the European electricity and gas markets. Twenty years ago, national or regional monopolies dominated the markets and there was strictly no competition between utilities. But since the liberalization of EU energy markets began in the 1990's, companies like E.ON, GDF Suez, EDF, Enel, and RWE have become European giants with activities in a large number of Member States. The advocates of market liberalization did not expect, or even intend, the emergence of a small number of large utilities that control an increasing part of the EU market. Some observers already claim that liberalization has led to an oligopoly with detrimental consequences for competition. Based on extensive background research, this book presents a fact-based analysis of the changes in the European utility sector since the 1990's. Case studies of the seven largest utilities illustrate how companies adapted their strategies to the changing market environment. The author underlines diverging choices and common trends like geographic expansion into new markets via mergers and acquisitions or diversification of business activities with the aim of using synergies between electricity and gas. (author)

  3. Deregulation and regulation by the national and European antitrust laws. The development and amendment of antitrust laws and their effects on the public utilities. Papers

    Baur, J.F.

    1994-01-01

    The papers presented at the meeting discuss the following subjects: The public utilities and their scope of exemptions from provisions of the antitrust laws as established by court rulings; reimbursement for electricity supplied to the grid and the phasing out of franchise agreements; the competition policy of the Federal Cartel Office towards the public utilities; legal and economic implications of the competition policy adopted by the Federal Cartel Office for the structures of the public sector of the power supply industry; ensuring safe and priceworthy power supply in Europe. The five papers can be separately retrieved from the database. (HSCH) [de

  4. The influence of different dietary energy content and feeding regimes on growth and feed utilization of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L.

    Pier Paolo Gatta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing importance of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax in aquaculture underlines the need to optimize the feeding strategy for this fish species. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of dietary energy content and feeding regime on growth performance, feed uti- lization and feeding costs for European sea bass. Seven hundreds and forthyfourfish(averageinitial forthyfourfish(averageinitial four fish ( average initial body weight 68g were randomly allocated into twelve tanks 800 l in a closed recirculation system (water temperature: 22°C; dissolved oxygen ≥90% of saturation. Three isoproteic (47% crude protein extruded diets were formulated with different lipid levels i.e. 16% (diet D16, 24% (diet D24 and 32% (diet D32 and each diet was fed at two different feeding regimes (satiation and 80% satiation accord- ing to a bifactorial experimental design. Feed intake (FI was recorded daily. After 77 days, fish were bulk weighed and growth, SGR and FCR were calculated. Feedingregimesaffectedall theanalysed Feeding regimes affected all the analysed parameters (P<0.05, whereas diet influenced only FCR, FI, protein and lipid intake and the economic efficiency ratio (EER. Fish fed the lowest energy content diet (D16 to satiation resulted in the highest feed intake, a FCR similar to that of fish fed diets D24 and D32 and in the lowest EER.

  5. Evaluation of a merger of electricity companies from the angle of EC law. European Commission, decision of 17 March 1998, IV/M. 1107 -EDF/ESTAG; Gemeinschaftsrechtliche Beurteilung eines Zusammenschlusses von Stromversorgungsunternehmen. EG-Kommission, Entscheidung vom 17.3.1998, IV/M. 1107 - EDFI/ESTAG -

    Anon.

    1998-12-31

    The (appealable) head note of the decision of the European Commission states:``A merger of electricity companies each holding a dominant market position in geographically different markets is not considered to create or strengthen a dominant market position in the European market area, or a major part of the area.`` The full text of the decision in German is reproduced but not commented. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Der nicht amtliche Leitsatz der Entscheidung der EG-Kommission lautet: ``Ein Zusammenschluss von Stromversorgungsunternehmen, die auf geographisch voneinander getrennten Maerkten beherrschend sind, fuehrt nicht zu einer Schaffung oder Verstaerkung einer marktbeherrschenden Stellung im europaeischen Wirtschaftsraum oder einem wesentlichen Teil dieses Gebietes.`` Die Entscheidung ist vollstaendig abgedruckt aber nicht kommentiert. (orig./CB)

  6. Regulation of the re utilization of water in refineries - analysis of the european and american models, and perspectives for the Brazilian scenery; Regulamentacao do reuso da agua em refinarias - analise dos modelos europeu e americano e perspectivas para o cenario nacional

    Barbosa, Fernanda Leite; Szklo, Alexandre

    2006-07-01

    The present work analyses the european and american experiences in the re utilization of water in refineries and to point out perspectives for the regulation of water re utilization in Brazil, by using the present management instruments of the hydraulic resources.

  7. 2009 energy prices in the European Union

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, the natural gas price fell down in the European Union (EU). This drop was of about -5% (excluding taxes) as an average for companies, and of about -3% for households (including taxes). On the other hand, the electricity prices raised by 3% for companies and by 5% for households. In France, only the gas price for companies has dropped between 2008 and 2009. The electricity prices remain significantly lower than the EU average: -29% for companies and -30% for households. The gas price in France remains close to the European average but is significantly lower than the average price in the euro area. (J.S.)

  8. SAFER - Company Snapshot

    Department of Transportation — The Company Snapshot is a concise electronic record of company identification, size, commodity information, and safety record, including the safety rating (if any),...

  9. Chinese outbound to tourism : new challenges for european tourism

    Andreu, Rosario; Claver, Enrique; Quer, Diego

    2013-01-01

    The growth of China’s outbound tourism is a source of both threats and opportunities for European countries. Therefore, European tourism institutions and companies should focus their attention on this emerging market. The objective of this paper is to analyze the consequences that the boom in Chinese tourism could have for European tourism. A critical analysis provides the basis for actions and measures that the main European tourism institutions and companies should adopt i...

  10. Chinese outbound tourism: new challenges for European tourism

    Andreu, Rosario; Claver-Cortés, Enrique; Quer, Diego

    2013-01-01

    The growth of China’s outbound tourism is a source of both threats and opportunities for European countries. Therefore, European tourism institutions and companies should focus their attention on this emerging market. The objective of this paper is to analyze the consequences that the boom in Chinese tourism could have for European tourism. A critical analysis provides the basis for actions and measures that the main European tourism institutions and companies should adopt in order to face th...

  11. WAYS OF INCREASING THE EFFICIENCY OF QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN THE COMMERCIAL COMPANIES UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF THE ROMANIAN LOCAL COUNCIL IN THE POST-ACCESSION PERIOD TO THE EUROPEAN MARKET

    Tudor Pendiuc

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available More and more companies under the authority of the Local Council are interested in implementing a quality management system following the quality assurance models proposed by the ISO9000 type international standards. Almost 200 organizations have in place a quality management system certified based on these standards. These organizatios requested certification in order to enjoy a number of advantages, especially as regards their position on the market towards competition, by establishing new contractual relationships, foreseeing customers' demands, creating products and services to better fulfill these demands, at better prices. According to some surveys, many commercial companies under the authority of the Loal Council managed to obtain these advantages to gether with other ones such as: a better working structure, motivation of the workers, improvement of the product quality, an increase in the efficiency, productivity and market quota. As more and more similar products manufactured using the same technologies emerge on the market, quality becomes the main selection factor of the commercial companies under the authority of the Local Council on the market, thus the main mean of competitiveness. Thus, lately, in our county we witness an increasingly intense concern in this field, the change of quality-related aspects, this being the main motivation for drafting this article.

  12. European Union

    Schaller, K.

    1995-01-01

    Different instruments used by European Commission of the European Union for financial support radioactive waste management activities in the Russian Federation are outlined. Three particular programmes in the area are described

  13. A Virtual Company for Educational Purpose

    Thorsteinsson, Uffe

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents an overview of a proposed project with the goal to develop an educational system to be used for education of industrial engineer students at European universities. The system is based on Internet and multimedia applications and constists of following elements: A virtual company...

  14. Czech Companies Involved in the ARTEMIS Programme

    Kadlec, Jiří

    -, special issue (2013), s. 4-5 ISSN 1210-9592 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LE13020 Keywords : ARTEMIS JU * embedded systems * european technology platforms * FP7 * ICT * microelectronics * ENIAC JU Subject RIV: AF - Documentation, Librarianship, Information Studies http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/ZS/kadlec-czech companies involved in the artemis programme.pdf

  15. MERGER ACCOUTING FOR COMPANIES

    SUCIU GHEORGHE

    2014-01-01

    Companies, especially nowadays, are characterized through great mobility, fast circulation of capital, occurring in their chase for profit. In this context, companies look for alliances, economical and political assistance. These objectives can materialize through merging of companies. The merger can be internal (between Romanian companies) or transboundary, which includes foreign companies. In order to correctly reflect these events, the merger operations must be regulated and mu...

  16. 17 CFR 256.108 - Accumulated provision for depreciation and amortization of service company property.

    2010-04-01

    ..., unless the company maintains costs and related reserves for specific units or types of property. (c... depreciation and amortization of service company property. 256.108 Section 256.108 Commodity and Securities... COMPANIES AND SUBSIDIARY SERVICE COMPANIES, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Balance Sheet...

  17. Evaluation. The actions of european towns on the utilization of new little cogeneration technologies. Contract n. 99.07.071; Etat de l'Art. Les actions de villes europeennes sur l'utilisation des nouvelles technologies de petite cogeneration. Contrat n. 99.07.071

    Schilken, P

    2001-04-01

    After many experiences in the large cogeneration domain, some european municipalities, especially in Germany, develop now little cogeneration projects. This study aims to examine in a first part the policies and experiences of the municipalities and of the energy municipal companies in term of appropriate technology and in a second part the integration of these installations in the existing systems. The study brings also information on the technical aspects and the organization, in particular the difficulties and the results. (A.L.B.)

  18. Evaluation. The actions of european towns on the utilization of new little cogeneration technologies. Contract n. 99.07.071; Etat de l'Art. Les actions de villes europeennes sur l'utilisation des nouvelles technologies de petite cogeneration. Contrat n. 99.07.071

    Schilken, P.

    2001-04-01

    After many experiences in the large cogeneration domain, some european municipalities, especially in Germany, develop now little cogeneration projects. This study aims to examine in a first part the policies and experiences of the municipalities and of the energy municipal companies in term of appropriate technology and in a second part the integration of these installations in the existing systems. The study brings also information on the technical aspects and the organization, in particular the difficulties and the results. (A.L.B.)

  19. New European context for gas producers/operators

    Deyirmendjian, J.

    2008-01-01

    The development of the European Union towards more integration would enter a new phase if the draft Third Directive regarding the natural gas industry and the deregulation of gas markets would be validated as it stands. The stakes for gas producing/operating companies are very high: they must position themselves either as networks and installations companies or as production and trading companies - meaning regulation and recurring revenues or the opportunities and risks of production and trade. Changes such these, added to the globalisation of gas flows linked to the development of liquefied natural gas (LNG), require more investments than in the past. These additional investments and this technological progress nevertheless give hope that this transformation will not noticeably weaken the security of gas supplies within the European Union (EU) despite the greater volatility of the markets, which are increasingly dominated by the strategies of financial operators. The author reviews the history of the development of the gas distribution networks in Europe and discusses details of the new draft directive aiming at more competition on a market that has been dominated so far by vertical structures. Similarities and differences to the deregulation of the European electricity market are discussed. The divergent attitudes of the EU Member States and the negotiation strategy of the European Commission are discussed. Merges of gas and electricity utilities are on the agenda. The author then reviews the current situation of natural gas consumption and supplies and the transportation and distribution facilities. Political factors influencing the security of supply are discussed. Underground gas storage facilities are crucial in this context. Several projects for new main gas pipelines are discussed. Diversification of supply sources is considered as of strategic relevance. The article is richly illustrated and includes several maps and diagrams.

  20. Safety criteria for the next generation of European reactors

    Dominguez Bautista, M.T.

    1995-01-01

    For the next generation of reactors, European companies operating in the electricity sector have drawn up a document called European Utilities Requirement (EUR), which sets out the requirements to be met by the designers of future reactors. The main objective of these new requirements is to increase the safety in existing reactors, making good use of operating experience available and the technological developments of the last decade. This paper offers an in-depth analysis of the most significant characteristics, describing how the EUR requirements have been prepared and how they are being implemented by the designers. Areas covered are: - Combining deterministic and probabilistic criteria - Automation of control systems - Design extension for severe accidents - Containment design - Emergency plans - Autonomy versus manual operation

  1. 18 CFR 367.14 - Transactions with associate companies.

    2010-04-01

    ... all transactions with associate companies. The statements may be required to show the general nature... associate companies. 367.14 Section 367.14 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005...

  2. 78 FR 43197 - Duke Energy Florida, Inc.; Florida Power & Light Company; Tampa Electric Company; Orlando...

    2013-07-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [ER13-1922-000; ER13-1929-000; ER13-1932-000; NJ13-11-000] Duke Energy Florida, Inc.; Florida Power & Light Company; Tampa Electric Company; Orlando Utilities Commission; Notice of Compliance Filings Take notice that on July 10, 2013, Duke Energy...

  3. Japanese utilities' plutonium utilization program

    Matsuo, Yuichiro.

    1996-01-01

    Japan's 10 utility companies are working and will continue to work towards establishing a fully closed nuclear fuel cycle. The key goals of which are: (1) reprocessing spent fuel; (2) recycling recovered uranium and plutonium; and (3) commercializing fast breeder technology by around the year 2030. This course of action by the Japanese electric power industry is in full accordance with Japan's national policy outlined in the government's report ''The Long-Term Program for Research, Development, and Nuclear Energy,'' which was published in June 1994. The Japanese civilian nuclear program is a long-term program that looks into the 21st century and beyond. It is quite true that sustaining the recycling option for energy security and the global environment demands a large investment. For it to be accepted by the public, safety must be the highest priority and will be pursued at a great cost if necessary. In its history, Japan has learned that as technology advances, costs will come down. The Japanese utility industry will continue investment in technology without compromising safety until the recycling option becomes more competitive with other options. This effort will be equally applied to the development of the commercial FBRs. The Japanese utility industry is confident that Japan's stable policy and strong objective to develop competitive and peaceful technology will contribute to the global economy and the environment without increasing the threat of plutonium proliferation

  4. Company law as another beggar-my-neighbour policy : Blog

    Cremers, Jan

    2017-01-01

    In a Blog (Progressive-Economy@TASC), Jan Cremers (UvT) describes the paradigm change that took place in company law in the 1990s. Since the introduction of the European internal market, company law has been increasingly judged in terms of its impact on ‘competitiveness’. This has led to some

  5. Good practice guide to internal flexibility policies in companies

    Goudswaard, A.; Oeij, P.; Brugman, T.

    2009-01-01

    This report sets out to contribute to the present debate on the need for European companies and their workers to become more flexible and adaptable in the face of ongoing economic change and business restructuring. The guide should therefore provide useful and practical tips for company-level actors

  6. Corporate Political Strategies related to Decisions of European Competition Commission on Regulatory Issues in the European Telecommunications Industry

    Kranenburg, H.L. van; Ross, T.

    2014-01-01

    The European regulatory institution has the tasks to protect fair competition and equal opportunities for all companies in the European telecommunications industry and to protect the welfare of the consumers. This regulator is responsible for the adherence of telecommunications companies to

  7. Natural gas in the European Community

    Kalim, Z.

    1991-01-01

    A report is presented on 'Natural Gas in the European Community'. Aspects discussed include the challenges facing the gas industry in the EC, the development of the European gas industry, the structure and role of European gas companies, the sources of European supply, gas contracts and the influences that operate on sales into end markets, electricity generation from natural gas, evolving markets for natural gas in the EC, life in the private sector using British Gas as a role model and country profiles for eleven European countries. (UK)

  8. 75 FR 42432 - Northern Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC...

    2010-07-21

    ... Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC, Transcontinental... abandonment of facilities by Northern Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas... resources, fisheries, and wetlands; Cultural resources; Vegetation and wildlife; Endangered and threatened...

  9. Expected utility without utility

    Castagnoli, E.; Licalzi, M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper advances an interpretation of Von Neumann–Morgenstern’s expected utility model for preferences over lotteries which does not require the notion of a cardinal utility over prizes and can be phrased entirely in the language of probability. According to it, the expected utility of a lottery can be read as the probability that this lottery outperforms another given independent lottery. The implications of this interpretation for some topics and models in decision theory are considered....

  10. European communion

    Manners, Ian James

    2013-01-01

    Political theory of European union, through an engagement between political concepts and theoretical understandings, provides a means of identifying the EU as a political object. It is argued that understanding the projects, processes and products of European union, based on ‘sharing’ or ‘communion......’, provides a better means of perceiving the EU as a political object rather than terms such as ‘integration’ or ‘co-operation’. The concept of ‘European communion’ is defined as the ‘subjective sharing of relationships’, understood as the extent to which individuals or groups believe themselves to be sharing...... relations (or not), and the consequences of these beliefs for European political projects, processes and products. By exploring European communion through an engagement with contemporary political theory, using very brief illustrations from the Treaty of Lisbon, the article also suggests that European...

  11. US utility partnerships

    Worthington, B.

    1995-01-01

    Activities of the United States Energy Association were reviewed, as well as the manner in which its members are benefitting from the Association's programs. The principal cooperative program set up is the Utility Partnership Program, which was described. Through this program the Association is matching US companies, both electric utilities and gas utilities, with counterparts in Eastern Europe or the former Soviet Union. So far, about 25 partnerships were signed, e.g. in the Czech Republic, in Kazakhstan, in Poland, and in Slovakia. It was estimated that the return to the United States from the investments made by the American government in these Utility Partnership Programs has been well over 100-fold

  12. Global oil company profiles

    1997-01-01

    Global Oil Company Profiles provides a comprehensive review of 50 of the top oil companies in the world. Each chapter is devoted to an individual company, providing an invaluable insight into the organisation, its structure and operations. Using the most recent data available, the report offers an up-to-date analysis of performance and future direction, as well as a unique benchmarking system for each company profiled. (author)

  13. Global gas company profiles

    1997-01-01

    This report provides a detailed assessment of 60 of the top gas companies form around the world, analysing them according to their internal dynamics and in relation to their competitors. It devotes each chapter to an individual company, providing invaluable insight into the organisation's operational background, financial performance and strategic goals. Using the most up-to-date information available, Global Gas Company Profiles allows you to make detailed analysis of each company's performance and future direction. (author)

  14. Book Review: Diversity in European Marketing

    Hana Machková

    2012-01-01

    The case book “Diversity in European Marketing” is the result of the scientific cooperation of the CEMS Marketing Faculty Group. Prestigious Central European Universities - Corvinius University of Budapest and University of Economic, Prague - are members of CEMS - the Global Alliance in Management Education of 26 leading business schools and 70 multinational companies. Four authors from these two Universities share in this book their experience of Central European Marketing specifics.

  15. Section 1: Company directory

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This is a 1992 directory of those companies doing business in all areas of the independent power producers industry. The listing includes the company name, address, telephone and FAX numbers, and the name of a company contact. The listing is international in scope

  16. Utilizing QFD model to determine quality characteristics of the products and priority needs of customers in the medical industry products (Case Study: Plasma seat product in mashhad`s Sahateb medical equipment company

    Zeinab Armoun

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Quality Function Deployment (QFD as one of the quality engineering methods; originates from market study and product or service customers identification, where by determining their needs; tries to involve them in all stages of product or service development. This study uses QFD method to apply customers’ criteria in production of Coach Plasma in Mashhad`s Sahateb Company. Coach Plasma is used for healthy bloodletting. The proposed study of this paper designed and distributed a questionnaire, which includes identification & determination of customers’ needs and investigation of their satisfaction of manufactured products, while looking for technical and engineering characteristics related to their needs. The Coach Plasma costumers are categorized into two groups of local and external customers. Data collection was done based on available documents, experts opinions, structured interview with managers and questionnaire. Customers’ needs were studied in QFD teams. Collecting essential information such as needs importance degree and competitive benchmarking of customer`s needs, the weight of each need has been evaluated. In this research, House of Quality was used from first matrix of QFD leading to estimation of engineering & technical characteristics in order to enter to the quality deployment matrix. Take a look at obtained results, we could mention the role of each of these external factors in satisfaction of Sahateb Company customers and technical characteristics of the company in providing these factors and the prioritization of the customer's needs.

  17. MERGER ACCOUTING FOR COMPANIES

    SUCIU GHEORGHE

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Companies, especially nowadays, are characterized through great mobility, fast circulation of capital, occurring in their chase for profit. In this context, companies look for alliances, economical and political assistance. These objectives can materialize through merging of companies. The merger can be internal (between Romanian companies or transboundary, which includes foreign companies. In order to correctly reflect these events, the merger operations must be regulated and must respect national and international regulations. One important request concerning the merger operations is that the accounting values of the assets, debts and ownership equity must be brought to the present financial value.

  18. How campaigns enhance European issues voting during European Parliament elections

    Beach, Derek; Møller Hansen, Kasper; Larsen, Martin Vinæs

    2017-01-01

    Based on findings from the literature on campaign effects on the one hand, and the literature on European Parliament elections on the other, we propose a model of European Parliamentary elections in which the campaign shift the calculus of electoral support, making differences in national political...... allegiances less important and attitudes about the European project more important by informing voters of and getting them interested in European politics. In effect, we argue that the political campaign leading up to the election makes European Parliament elections less second-order. While previous studies...... have demonstrated that EU attitudes can matter for voting behavior in European Parliament elections, existing research has drawn on post-election surveys that do not enable us to capture campaign effects. Our contribution is to assess the impact of a campaign by utilizing a rolling cross sectional...

  19. European Institutions?

    Meacham, Darian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to sketch a phenomenological theory of political institutions and to apply it to some objections and questions raised by Pierre Manent about the project of the European Union and more specifically the question of “European Construction”, i.e. what is the aim of the

  20. European Whiteness?

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    2008-01-01

    Born out of the United States’ (U.S.) history of slavery and segregation and intertwined with gender studies and feminism, the field of critical whiteness studies does not fit easily into a European setting and the particular historical context that entails. In order for a field of European...

  1. Inventory of activation analysis facilities available in the European Community to Industrial users

    Pauwels, J.

    1975-01-01

    This inventory includes lists of activation equipment produced in the European Community, facilities available for industrial users and activation laboratories existing in the European companies. The aim of this inventory is to provide all information that may be useful, to companies interested in activation analysis, as well as to give an idea on existing routine applications and on the European market in facilities

  2. Canadian company innovates dam repair

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    Successful repair without any downtime, of the Sabana Yegua power and irrigation structure in the western Dominican Republic by Aquatic Sciences Ltd., a St. Catherine, Ontario-based underwater specialist company, is discussed. The structure was damaged by Hurricane George last when when rising water levels damaged a major valve in the control gate chamber. The repair strategy designed by Aquatic Sciences used a remotely operated vehicle with a mechanical arm for minor tasks which placed a specially-made plug into the inlet pipe. The work was completed in one week, saving the utility company a great deal of money by making it possible to make the repairs remotely in the gate chamber without having to drain the tunnel, as would have been necessary had the repair been completed manually. The remotely operated vehicles use a scanning sonar as well as light to find their way. They are particularly well adapted to work underwater under low-visibility conditions

  3. European opportunities for fuel cell commercialisation

    Gibbs, C. E.; Steel, M. C. F.

    1992-01-01

    developing European sub-systems, others have chosen to develop their own novel cell technology. This paper will survey the extent of the fuel cell activities in Europe and emphasise the particular markets which fuel cell manufacturers are targeting. Demand for fuel cells in defence and military applications will be the first sector to be commercially viable — European companies such as Siemens, Elenco and VSEL are already marketing AFC or PEM systems for naval and aerospace applications. The small-scale CHP sector is also a likely early market for fuel cell plant. Co-generation fuel cells are of great interest to gas companies like ENAGAS and British Gas looking to promote sales of gas by installing on-site gas-fired generators on their customers' premises. The market for utility scale fuel cell plants is expected to develop later in the decade. The largest demonstration planned for Europe is the 1 MW PAFC for Milan, due to come onstream in 1992. MBB GmbH is considering developing MW-scale MCFC plants with the US company ERC — a 2 MW demonstration is planned for the end of 1993. The potential market for utility fuel cells is large — installation rates could reach 500-1000 MW/year by the turn of the century. Fuel cells will probably not achieve significant use in transport applications in Europe until after the turn of the century unless very stringent emissions legislation for vehicles is introduced. The likely early markets for fuel cells in the transport sector seem to be for delivery and fleet vehicles. Examples of European projects in this area include the Amsterdam city bus project which will use Elenco's AFC technology and Siemens' fork lift truck which will incorporate a PEM fuel cell. Fuel cells also link conveniently with renewable energy systems — coupled with an electrolyser a fuel cell can store solar, wind or wave power. The electrolysis proces is used to generate hydrogen from water at times of surplus energy while the fuel cell consumes hydrogen fuel

  4. Deriving a preference-based utility measure for cancer patients from the European Organisation for the Research and Treatment of Cancer's Quality of Life Questionnaire C30: a confirmatory versus exploratory approach

    Costa DSJ

    2014-11-01

    from the European Organisation for the Research and Treatment of Cancer's core HRQOL questionnaire, Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ-C30, given its well-established domain structure.Methods: QLQ-C30 (Version 3 data were collected from 356 patients receiving palliative radiotherapy for recurrent/metastatic cancer (various primary sites. The dimensional structure of the QLQ-C30 was tested with EFA and CFA, the latter informed by the established QLQ-C30 structure and views of both patients and clinicians on which are the most relevant items. Dimensions determined by EFA or CFA were then subjected to Rasch analysis.Results: CFA results generally supported the proposed QLQ-C30 structure (comparative fit index =0.99, Tucker–Lewis index =0.99, root mean square error of approximation =0.04. EFA revealed fewer factors and some items cross-loaded on multiple factors. Further assessment of dimensionality with Rasch analysis allowed better alignment of the EFA dimensions with those detected by CFA.Conclusion: CFA was more appropriate and efficient than EFA in producing clinically interpretable results for the HSCS for a proposed new cancer-specific MAUI. Our findings suggest that CFA should be recommended generally when deriving a preference-based measure from a HRQOL measure that has an established domain structure.Keywords: multi attribute utility instrument, health state classification system, confirmatory factor analysis, exploratory factor analysis, European Organisation for the Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30

  5. Open Source Telecommunication Companies

    Peter Liu

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about companies whose core business is selling telecommunications products that lever open source projects. Open source telecommunications (OST companies operate in markets that are very different from typical software product markets. The telecommunications market is regulated, vertically integrated, and proprietary designs and special chips are widely used. For a telecommunications product to be useful, it must interact with both access network products and core network products. Due to specifications in Service Agreements Levels, penalties for failures of telecommunications products are very high. This article shares information that is not widely known, including a list of OST companies and the open source projects on which they depend, the size and diversity of venture capital investment in OST companies, the nature of the commercial product-open source software and company-project relationships, ways in which OST companies make money, benefits and risks of OST companies, and competition between OST companies. Analysis of this information provides insights into the ways in which companies can build business models around open source software. These findings will be of interest to entrepreneurs, top management teams of incumbent companies that sell telecommunications products, and those who care about Ontario's ability to compete globally.

  6. Selective Europeanization

    Hoch Jovanovic, Tamara; Lynggaard, Kennet

    2014-01-01

    and rules. The article examines the reasons for both resistance and selectiveness to Europeanization of the Danish minority policy through a “path dependency” perspective accentuating decision makers’ reluctance to deviate from existing institutional commitments, even in subsequently significantly altered...... political contexts at the European level. We further show how the “translation” of international norms to a domestic context has worked to reinforce the original institutional setup, dating back to the mid-1950s. The translation of European-level minority policy developed in the 1990s and 2000s works most...

  7. Gender and Self-Employment: The Role of Mini-Companies

    Johansen, Vegard

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate to what degree participation in mini-companies impact young women and men with regard to the perceived desirability and perceived feasibility of self-employment. The Company Programme (CP) is the largest mini-company scheme in European secondary school. Design/methodology/approach: The data derived…

  8. Public Shareholdership Energy Companies

    Kist, A.W.; Crone, F.J.M.; Hudig, D.F.; Ketting, N.G.; De Swaan, T.; Willems, R.

    2008-06-01

    National and international developments on the energy markets and changes in legislation and regulation require a renewed strategic orientation of energy companies and their shareholders. Decentralized authorities will have to reconsider their position as a shareholder in energy companies carefully. This report provides an overview of the recommendations of the Kist Commission on how provinces and municipalities can make a well-considered choice as shareholder of energy companies. [mk] [nl

  9. Privatised companies and market

    Salini, M. P.

    2001-01-01

    The Italian Government decided to adopt the public company structure where a little group of medium-term investors had the task of supporting the transition of the privatised companies to the market. The article examines the reasons for this decision and its failure in attaining the purpose, not excluding the possibility for the public company of imposing itself in the long period and in a context of a minor legislative intervention and more effective Corporate Governance rules [it

  10. The Danish East India Company

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2005-01-01

    The article analysis the first Danish East India Company incorporated in 1616, which was the first Danish Stock Company and which has impacts even on modern Danish company la......The article analysis the first Danish East India Company incorporated in 1616, which was the first Danish Stock Company and which has impacts even on modern Danish company la...

  11. European Security

    Møller, Bjørn

    Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"......Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"...

  12. 18 CFR 367.30 - Cost accumulation system for associate companies.

    2010-04-01

    ... to the types of services performed and chargeable to the associate companies served. Service company... system for associate companies. 367.30 Section 367.30 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY...

  13. EUROPEAN ACCOUNTING REGULATION - HISTORY AND PERSPECTIVES

    Mariana Farcas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The first directive regarding the financial reporting at the level of European Union is published in 1978 (The Fourth Directive and whereas its content does not refer to the group companies, this directive was supplemented by another directive (The Seventh Directive published in 1983. The two directives regulate in parallel the issues concerning the preparing of the annual financial statements of individual companies, respectively of the group companies. Since 2008 have begun to take shape the point of views regarding the need of the development and publication of some regulations to simplify and to reduce the administrative burdens of the companies, including on the issue of financial reporting. The steps in the direction of simplification of the regulation in accounting area have resulted in June 2013 in The 34th Directive regarding the annual financial statements, the consolidated financial statements and the related reports of certain types of companies. As a member of the European Union, Romania must take into account the implementation of the European legislation in all areas, including in the field of accounting. In this respect, The Fourth Directive regarding the annual accounts of certain types of companies and The Seventh Directive regarding the consolidated accounts have been transposed into Romanian legislation since 2006 through OMFP 1752/2005 when the Romanian accounting regulations have become in accordance to the European directives and not only harmonized with these, and OMFP 3055/2009 brings additional information concerning the rules relating to the consolidation of accounts.

  14. European Community.

    1987-05-01

    The European Community was established in 1951 to reconcile France and Germany after World War II and to make possible the eventual federation of Europe. By 1986, there were 12 member countries: France, Italy, Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Denmark, Ireland, the United Kingdom, Greece, Spain, and Portugal. Principal areas of concern are internal and external trade, agriculture, monetary coordination, fisheries, common industrial and commercial policies, assistance, science and research, and common social and regional policies. The European Community has a budget of US$34.035 billion/year, funded by customs duties and 1.4% of each member's value-added tax. The treaties establishing the European Community call for members to form a common market, a common customs tariff, and common agricultural, transport, economic, and nuclear policies. Major European Community institutions include the Commission, Council of Ministers, European Parliament, Court of Justice, and Economic and Social Committee. The Community is the world's largest trading unit, accounting for 15% of world trade. The 2 main goals of the Community's industrial policy are to create an open internal market and to promote technological innovation in order to improve international competitiveness. The European Community aims to contribute to the economic and social development of Third World countries as well.

  15. THE IMAGE OF INVESTMENT AND FINANCIAL SERVICES COMPANIES IN WWW LANDSCAPE (WORLD WIDE WEB

    Iancu Ioana Ancuta

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In a world where the internet and its image are becoming more and more important, this study is about the importance of Investment and Financial Services Companies web sites. Market competition, creates the need of studies, focused on assessing and analyzing the websites of companies who are active in this sector. Our study wants to respond at several questions related to Romanian Investment and Financial Services Companies web sites through four dimensions: content, layout, handling and interactivity. Which web sites are best and from what point of view? Where should financial services companies direct their investments to differentiate themselves and their sites? In fact we want to rank the 58 Investment and Financial Services Companies web sites based on 127 criteria. There are numerous methods for evaluating web pages. The evaluation methods are similar from the structural point of view and the most popular are: Serqual, Sitequal, Webqual / Equal EtailQ, Ewam, e-Serqual, WebQEM (Badulescu, 2008:58. In the paper: "Assessment of Romanian Banks E-Image: A Marketing Perspective" (Catana, Catana and Constantinescu, 2006: 4 the authors point out that there are at least four complex variables: accessibility, functionality, performance and usability. Each of these can be decomposed into simple ones. We used the same method, and we examined from the utility point of view, 58 web sites of Investment and Financial Services Companies based on 127 criteria following a procedure developed by Institut fur ProfNet Internet Marketing, Munster (Germany. The data collection period was 1-30 September 2010. The results show that there are very large differences between corporate sites; their creators are concentrating on the information required by law and aesthetics, neglecting other aspects as communication and online service. In the future we want to extend this study at international level, by applying the same methods of research in 5 countries from

  16. 18 CFR 367.1110 - Account 111, Accumulated provision for amortization of service company property.

    2010-04-01

    ... THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR CENTRALIZED SERVICE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO THE PROVISIONS OF THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING... (§ 367.4040), for the current amortization of limited-term service company property investments. (2...

  17. WHY DO COMPANIES FROM EMERGING COUNTRIES MANAGE EARNINGS?

    Susana Callao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides evidence in terms of the incentives which lead managers from emerging European countries to manage earnings. In particular, we focused on four Eastern European countries: the Czech Republic, Poland, Hungary and Slovakia, as the majority of studies on earnings management in developing countries were based on the Asian emerging market. The market of developing European countries is still barely explored. After we confirmed that managers from emerging European companies manage earnings, we find that within the different incentives which lead managers to earnings management, the avoidance of debt covenants violations is a strong incentive for managers. Additionally, those firms considered as poor investments (with less value have incentives to manage earnings down as a consequence to opt for market niche. Moreover, emerging Eastern European companies have incentives to flatten earnings of current periods in order to benefit in the future as the source of future nonmanipulated earnings will be insufficient, as they may expect reduced, or at least lower future performance of their companies affected by increasing global competition. Finally, we confirm that privately-owned companies tend to maximize accounting earnings more than state-owned companies because they are in a weaker position related to a specific political and historical factors.

  18. Analisys of subcultures existence in a european multinational company stablished in Brazil Análise da existência de subculturas em uma multinacional européia sediada no Brasil

    André Cardoso

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Corporate culture is one of the main sources of organizational identity. In large corporations, the existence of a "backbone" seems to be evident; however, the manifestation of subcultures is a natural phenomenon due to the complexity of operations and diversity of people who are part of the organizational system. This article tries to identify the existence of subcultures in a European multinational organization installed in Brazil. The selected method, case study research, was based on the problematic of identifying and comparing the main cultural elements in Sales and Service departments of this organization. This paper aimed to compare main values, artifacts, leadership, decision making process and communication in both departments, using empirical investigation compounded by deep structured interviews and non-participant observations. The main contributions raise up that each department show its own way of acting, based on its own meanings and urgency sense. The theoretical basis for this study was Schein's concept of organizational culture (SCHEIN, 1992; 2007 and the three cultural perspectives defined by Martin (1999.A cultura é uma das principais fontes da identidade organizacional. Em grandes corporações, a existência de uma "espinha dorsal" parece ser evidente, entretanto, a manifestação de subculturas é um fenômeno natural devido à complexidade das operações e diversidade de sujeitos que fazem parte do sistema organizacional. Este artigo procura identificar a existência de subculturas em uma organização multinacional de origem européia sediada no Brasil. O método escolhido, estudo de caso qualitativo, foi amparado na problemática de identificar e comparar os principais elementos culturais dos departamentos de vendas e serviços desta organização. Este trabalho se propôs comparar os principais valores, artefatos, liderança, processo de tomada de decisão e comunicação destes dois departamentos, a partir da

  19. Gestión estratégica de la comunicación digital en la empresa ecuatoriana. Perspectiva comparada con la realidad Europea / Strategic management of digital communication in the Ecuadorian company. Comparative perspective with the European reality

    Rosario Puertas Hidalgo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available En la era de la convergencia digital, la consecución en las organizaciones de un modelo de relación y gestión de intereses con los públicos simétrico y bidireccional requieren de la construcción de una imagen y una reputación, resultado de una planificación estratégica de la comunicación. Sin embargo, esta perspectiva sistémica -en la que la comunicación se vuelve eje transversal a todos procesos organizacional- y que le asigna al profesional de la comunicación una función directiva –Dircom-, no es una constante en la realidad en las empresas ecuatorianas. Este artículo es resultado de la investigación que lleva adelante el Observatorio de la Comunicación Estratégica del Ecuador de la Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja-Ecuador, el constituido en 2014 para estudiar el perfil profesional de los comunicadores en el ámbito de la comunicación interna, corporativa, digital y la comercial así como la Responsabilidad Social Corporativa. Para este primer año, se ha enfocado en la identificación de la situación actual de la Comunicación Estratégica: profesionales formados para desempeñar esta función, organización, función de la comunicación estratégica en las empresas, estrategias y acciones ejecutadas, y tendencias. Los resultados recogidos en este trabajo se han contrastado con algunos de los resultados del trabajo realizado en el European Communication Monitor 2014. Descubriendo que tanto en Europa como en Ecuador, la tendencia del uso de tecnologías para las diversas tareas y actividades en el área de comunicación se incrementa. Es necesario entonces encontrar un escenario común de diálogo y aportaciones hacia un mismo objetivo: conseguir una experiencia equilibrada de relación simétrica con las personas.

  20. Deriving a preference-based utility measure for cancer patients from the European Organisation for the Research and Treatment of Cancer’s Quality of Life Questionnaire C30: a confirmatory versus exploratory approach

    Costa, Daniel SJ; Aaronson, Neil K; Fayers, Peter M; Grimison, Peter S; Janda, Monika; Pallant, Julie F; Rowen, Donna; Velikova, Galina; Viney, Rosalie; Young, Tracey A; King, Madeleine T

    2014-01-01

    Background Multi attribute utility instruments (MAUIs) are preference-based measures that comprise a health state classification system (HSCS) and a scoring algorithm that assigns a utility value to each health state in the HSCS. When developing a MAUI from a health-related quality of life (HRQOL) questionnaire, first a HSCS must be derived. This typically involves selecting a subset of domains and items because HRQOL questionnaires typically have too many items to be amendable to the valuation task required to develop the scoring algorithm for a MAUI. Currently, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) followed by Rasch analysis is recommended for deriving a MAUI from a HRQOL measure. Aim To determine whether confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) is more appropriate and efficient than EFA to derive a HSCS from the European Organisation for the Research and Treatment of Cancer’s core HRQOL questionnaire, Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ-C30), given its well-established domain structure. Methods QLQ-C30 (Version 3) data were collected from 356 patients receiving palliative radiotherapy for recurrent/metastatic cancer (various primary sites). The dimensional structure of the QLQ-C30 was tested with EFA and CFA, the latter informed by the established QLQ-C30 structure and views of both patients and clinicians on which are the most relevant items. Dimensions determined by EFA or CFA were then subjected to Rasch analysis. Results CFA results generally supported the proposed QLQ-C30 structure (comparative fit index =0.99, Tucker–Lewis index =0.99, root mean square error of approximation =0.04). EFA revealed fewer factors and some items cross-loaded on multiple factors. Further assessment of dimensionality with Rasch analysis allowed better alignment of the EFA dimensions with those detected by CFA. Conclusion CFA was more appropriate and efficient than EFA in producing clinically interpretable results for the HSCS for a proposed new cancer-specific MAUI. Our findings suggest

  1. EDF, the market and Europe. The future of a public utility

    Fitoussi, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    European governments have decided, in the framework of the unique market, to open their national market to competition. Electricite de France (EdF), like the overall French public utilities, has to adapt to this new situation. The question is: how to perform this mutation and avoid ultra-liberalism? This is the main guideline of this book which aim is to define the modalities of the necessary implication of the government and the ones of a new kind of company governance in a sector where regulation errors can have dramatic consequences (like the power outage in the US). The objective of the author is not to propose a simple compromise between market and public utility logics, but to consider the double opening of markets and companies capital as new opportunities to improve both the public utility and the companies efficiency. Such a company 'of the third kind' (somewhere between governmental and private) can be built only if the new rules and reforms are made in a clever and profitable way, i.e. in compliance with sustainable development principles, in the respect of management transparency, and for the benefit of general people and in particular the end-users. (J.S.)

  2. Virtual Company and Modelbank

    Thorsteinsson, Uffe

    1996-01-01

    Ansøgning til Socrates programmet vedr. Tematisk netværk inden for området Virtual Company and Modelbank......Ansøgning til Socrates programmet vedr. Tematisk netværk inden for området Virtual Company and Modelbank...

  3. Conclusion: The balanced company

    Scheuer, John Damm; Jensen, Inger

    2013-01-01

    This concluding chapter brings together the various research findings of the book "The balanced company - organizing for the 21st Century" and develops a general overview of their implications for our understanding of the balancing processes unfolding in companies and organizations....

  4. VULNERABILITY OF COMPANIES

    ARMEAN ANDREEA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In present, the study of vulnerability of companies is increasing in every field due to the unstable economic environment influences. The object of this research is to define and identify vulnerabilities of companies and the establishment of evaluation methods at their level. This article emphasizes the importance and usefulness of one of the best known model in this way, from our point of view, namely Băileşteanu, Negrila Pattern. This pattern covers both external factors and internal ones, that increase vulnerabilities of companies, and fit the companies in which the state of vulnerability are (vitality, viability, vulnerability, high vulnerability, difficulty and high difficulty, with a matrix. The result of the research is that any company belonging to any field, can be analyzed using this model, and assigned to one of the conditions defined within.

  5. The Japanese power equipment market - potential for foreign companies

    Bell, G.D.; Matsumoto, Satoru

    1993-01-01

    The potential for foreign companies for sales of heavy electrical equipment in Japan is assessed. The Japanese heavy electrical equipment industry (HEI) has very close links with the electricity supply industry. Traditionally a small circle of domestic manufacturers have supplied all the electric utilities. However, there is criticism in Japan of the inefficiencies which have arisen as a result of the close relationship and the cost competitiveness of domestic products has been eroded by the appreciation of the yen. The chief driving force in the opening of the market to foreign products is political, though. Friction between Japan and the USA and European Community on the subject of trade imbalance, has led the Ministry of Internal Trade and Industry to encourage major utilities to increase their imports from abroad. Consequently, opportunities now exist for foreign suppliers to gain access to the Japanese HEI market but only if they are willing to make a long term investment. Market entry is still likely to be very difficult, however, and unlikely to produce quick returns. In the longer term, though, access to the Japanese market could open up even wider opportunities. (UK)

  6. The Exchange Rate Exposure of Danish Non-Financial Companies

    Aabo, Tom

    1999-01-01

    of the extra-market exchange rate exposure of individual companies. As such, only a minority of companies has significant exposures when using the effective Danish exchange rate in an OLS regression analysis while half of the companies have significant exposures when using five main exchange rates. A GARCH(1......A shortcut to measuring exchange rate exposure at the company level can be to exploit the information content in the stock prices. A regression analysis is conducted for the main Danish non-financial companies. The use of one all-comprising exchange rate indicator fails to address the complexity......,1) regression analysis is shown to further improve the detection of exposures. The success in identifying exposures for Danish non-financial companies is in contrast to earlier US studies and is relevant in a European context....

  7. European visit

    2006-01-01

    The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, (on the right) visited the CMS assembly hall accompanied by Jim Virdee, Deputy Spokesman of CMS (on the left), and Robert Aymar, Director-General of CERN. The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, visited CERN on Tuesday 31 January. He was welcomed by the Director-General, Robert Aymar, who described the missions and current activities of CERN to him, in particular the realisation of the LHC with its three components: accelerator, detectors, storage and processing of data. The European Commissioner then visited the CMS assembly hall, then the hall for testing the LHC magnets and the ATLAS cavern. During this first visit since his appointment at the end of 2004, Janez Potočnik appeared very interested by the operation of CERN, an example of successful scientific co-operation on a European scale. The many projects (30 on average) that CERN and the European Commission carry out jointly for the benefit of res...

  8. Driver rostering for bus transit companies

    Nurmi, K.; Kyngäs, J.; Post, Gerhard F.

    2011-01-01

    Staff scheduling has become increasingly important for both the public sector and private companies. Good rosters have many benefits for an organization, such as lower costs, more effective utilization of resources and fairer workloads and distribution of shifts. The process of constructing

  9. COMPETITIVENESS AND INNOVATION OF THE ROMANIAN COMPANIES

    Csaba Nagy

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In front of the Romanian economy which has been integrated only for a few years, lies the challenge of competitiveness which in many cases is associated with innovation. To turn from a close center oriented economy to market economy required an enormous effort from the population and from the companies as well, but the real challenge is still to come. The requirements of competitiveness and innovation of the United European Market are compulsory, from the point of view of the Romanian entrepreneurs is vital for their survival and development. The studies made so far are not very promising. There are many things to be done, many problems are still not solved in the European Union. The European Union is behind its traditional competitors USA and Japan. This is why one of the major concerns of the EU is competitiveness and innovation.

  10. European wind turbine catalogue

    1994-01-01

    The THERMIE European Community programme is designed to promote the greater use of European technology and this catalogue contributes to the fulfillment of this aim by dissemination of information on 50 wind turbines from 30 manufacturers. These turbines are produced in Europe and are commercially available. The manufacturers presented produce and sell grid-connected turbines which have been officially approved in countries where this approval is acquired, however some of the wind turbines included in the catalogue have not been regarded as fully commercially available at the time of going to print. The entries, which are illustrated by colour photographs, give company profiles, concept descriptions, measured power curves, prices, and information on design and dimension, safety systems, stage of development, special characteristics, annual energy production, and noise pollution. Lists are given of wind turbine manufacturers and agents and of consultants and developers in the wind energy sector. Exchange rates used in the conversion of the prices of wind turbines are also given. Information can be found on the OPET network (organizations recognised by the European Commission as an Organization for the Promotion of Energy Technologies (OPET)). An article describes the development of the wind power industry during the last 10-15 years and another article on certification aims to give an overview of the most well-known and acknowledged type approvals currently issued in Europe. (AB)

  11. European industry outlook

    Robinson, G.

    1991-01-01

    Europe's offshore oil and gas industry is estimated to spend around Pound 14bn per year out of a world total of some Pound 43bn, showing that despite its maturity the North West European Continental Shelf remains a dominant segment of the world's offshore business. Especially in the U.K. sector, expenditure is booming and 1991 is expected to be a record year. This activity level is likely to continue into 1992, but there are factors which could limit activity later in the 1990s. This volume lists some 225 undeveloped discoveries and fields under development in the U.K. sector, 80 each in Norway and the Netherlands, and 17 in Denmark. New technologies, particularly subsea separation and multiphase flow will be prominent factors in ensuring that the numerous small oilfields within this inventory of discoveries will eventually achieve commercial development. The effects of likely European Community legislation continue to concern many in the industry, with a more open and regulated purchasing regime for major contracts becoming more certain. A major step has been taken towards open access rights, and if this policy is pursued it could open the European gas industry to a new era of free competition, especially if a U.K.-Continental transmission link were to be realised. The long term implications of the increased share of natural gas in the total energy mix to virtually all companies engaged in offshore activities (and many not so engaged) are likely to be fundamental and far-reaching. (author)

  12. European hadrons

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The European Hadron Facility (EHF) is a project for particle and nuclear physics in the 1990s which would consist of a fast cycling high intensity proton synchrotron of about 30 GeV primary energy and providing a varied spectrum of intense high quality secondary beams (polarized protons, pions, muons, kaons, antiprotons, neutrinos). The physics case of this project has been studied over the last two years by a European group of particle and nuclear physicists (EHF Study Group), whilst the conceptual design for the accelerator complex was worked out (and is still being worked on) by an international group of machine experts (EHF Design Study Group). Both aspects have been discussed in recent years in a series of working parties, topical seminars, and workshops held in Freiburg, Trieste, Heidelberg, Karlsruhe, Les Rasses and Villigen. This long series of meetings culminated in the International Conference on a European Hadron Facility held in Mainz from 10-14 March

  13. CNG: Aiming to be an energy company, not a gas company

    Wheatley, R.

    1997-01-01

    Long before regulatory changes in the US paved the way for the union of natural gas and electric utility companies, Consolidated Natural Gas Co. (CNG) embarked on a strategy that would serve the company well in the 1990s. In 1995, CNG began a corporate repositioning to meet mounting competition, switching emphasis from its regulated businesses to the non-regulated side. The goal: to become an energy player, not only in the US but internationally. This paper focuses on the company's operations, business plans, and management strategies. The paper gives an overview, then discusses production of oil and gas, the growing exploration program and plans for the future

  14. Formerly utilized MED/AEC sites remedial action program. Radiological survey of Universal Cyclopes, Inc., Titusville, Plant (formerly Vulcan Crucible Steel Company, Aliquippa, Pennsylvania, May 2-8, 1978)

    Wynveen, R.A.; Smith, W.H.; Mundis, R.L.; Mayes, C.B.

    1982-05-01

    A radiological survey was conducted at the Universal Cyclops, Inc. Titusville Plant (formerly Vulcan Crucible Steel Company), in Aliquippa, Pennsylvania, to determine the location and quantities of any radioactive materials remaining on the site as a result of MED/AEC activities in the late 1940s. This facility was used for rolling uranium billets during the MED/AEC era. The survey included measurements of alpha and beta-gamma contamination, both fixed and removable; beta-gamma exposure readings at contact and at 1 m (3 ft) above the floor or ground level; and measurements of the concentrations of radon daughters in air and concentrations of 137 Cs, the 232 Th decay chain, the 226 Ra decay chain, and uranium in the soil on the site. Fourteen spots of contamination exceeded the allowable limits for natural uranium. Under current use conditions, the potential for radiation exposure of occupants of the building from these sources of contamination is remote. Concentrations of radon daughters were below the 0.01 WL limit. Calculated radon concentrations based on the radon-daughter determinations ranged from 0.11 to 0.27 pCi/l. The concentration guide for 222 Rn in uncontrolled areas is 3 pCi/l. Analysis of soil samples from the site indicated elevated concentrations of uranium (15.1 +- 0.7 to 109.0 +- 5.5 pCi/g) at one sampling location near the building. There currently are no regulatory limits for uranium concentration in soil, but, a proposed guide value is pCi/g. After evaluation of results of the survey, it was concluded that although some areas of the Universal Cyclops facility are contaminated, these areas do not pose a significant risk to the present occupants of the building. Nonetheless, in a few cases the contamination does exceed accepted guidelines. Remedial measures are indicated to bring the contaminated areas within the guidelines

  15. Industrial conflict and its management in selected Nigerian manufacturing companies

    Solaja Oludele Mayowa

    2015-01-01

    This study examined industrial conflict and its management strategies in selected manufacturing companies in Lagos State, Nigeria. The study utilized co-relational survey method which involves the use of structured questionnaire and personal observation to elicit information from the respondents. Participants comprised of staffs of three manufacturing companies in Lagos, Nigeria. Multistage sampling technique was employed in selecting the respondents from the three manufacturing companies und...

  16. KNOWLEDGE IN LEARNING COMPANIES

    Alexandrina Cristina VASILE

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Changes are the only constant value in the current unpredictable economy. Under these circumstances leaders and employees must manage the external and internal environment and bring profitability for their companies. This paper gives an introductory approach to different perspective over learning companies in international literature. Different theoretical aspects, models and theories are taken into account for having a higher visibility to the complex concept of learning companies from leadership side to multiculturalism as the firm profitability should be the final goal of each economic system. The article concludes that not the process of learning is important but the adaptability to every different environment must be seen as vital.

  17. European Cinema

    Elsaesser, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    In the face of renewed competition from Hollywood since the early 1980s and the challenges posed to Europe's national cinemas by the fall of the Wall in 1989, independent filmmaking in Europe has begun to re-invent itself. European Cinema: Face to Face with Hollywood re-assesses the different

  18. Good practice guide to internal flexibility policies in companies

    Goudswaard, A.; Oeij, P.; Brugman, T.

    2009-01-01

    This report sets out to contribute to the present debate on the need for European companies and their workers to become more flexible and adaptable in the face of ongoing economic change and business restructuring. The guide should therefore provide useful and practical tips for company-level actors concerning the potential benefits of developing more flexible internal workplace policies. Equally, it has been developed to assist practitioners and social partners wishing to review and/or learn...

  19. EU emissions trading: Distinctive behavior of small companies

    Naegele, Helene; Zaklan, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    The EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) is the cornerstone of the European Union's climate policy and covers just under half of the EU's greenhouse gas emissions. More than ten years since the EU ETS was first introduced, there continues to be substantial research interest regarding its functioning and the behavior of participating companies. DIW Berlin conducted three econometric studies based on microdata at company and/or installation level. The findings suggest that, overall, there are o...

  20. Statistics of interstate natural gas pipeline companies, 1991

    1993-01-01

    This report, presents financial and operating information of all major interstate natural gas pipeline companies that operated in the United States during 1991. This report is used by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), State utility commissions, other government agencies, and the general public. The information is taken from FERC Form 2, ''Annual Report of Major Natural Gas Companies,'' as filed with FERC

  1. How a traditional company seeded new analytics capabilities

    Gust, G. (Gunther); D. Neumann (Dirk); Flath, C.M. (Christoph M.); T. Brandt (Tobias); Ströhle, P. (Philipp)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractDeveloping state-of-the art data analytics capabilities is a challenge for traditional companies with long-established processes and legacy systems. We describe how one such company (a Swiss electricity utility) conducted a seed project-a bottom-up initiative to develop an analytics

  2. Pareto utility

    Ikefuji, M.; Laeven, R.J.A.; Magnus, J.R.; Muris, C.H.M.

    2013-01-01

    In searching for an appropriate utility function in the expected utility framework, we formulate four properties that we want the utility function to satisfy. We conduct a search for such a function, and we identify Pareto utility as a function satisfying all four desired properties. Pareto utility

  3. Bull Moose Tube Company

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against the Bull Moose Tube Company, a business located at 1819 Clarkson Road, Chesterfield, MO, 63017, for alleged violations at the facility located at 406 East Industrial Drive,

  4. Company environmental communication

    Andriola, L.; Luciani, R.; Borghini, S.

    2001-01-01

    Environmental communication is becoming a sine qua non for companies which are more and more pressed by the need to reinforce communication with interested parties: environmental groups, local communities, local and national authorities, employees, share-holders, banks, insurance companies, customers and consumers. Reliable environmental information, just like economical and property data, is now required during both company take-over and financing, and in some cases it can affect insurance premiums. In fact, environmental guarantees are more and more often required because breaching environmental regulations can entail legal sanctions going as far as suspension of business. There now also Green investment funds that engage their resources only against specific environmental guarantees on the part of the companies that, before being selected for the investment, are submitted to rather accurate questionnaires by the investment manager [it

  5. Cross-border Mobility of the Companies in EU

    Saša Prelič

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The fr eedom of establishment, provided by the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, is a suitable legal basis for effective cross-border corporate restructuring of companies in European Union. There are some possible methods to exercise this freedom, specially regulated with secondary acts, like cross-border mergers and the establishment and economic operation in the legal form of Societas Europaea, whereas the cross-border transfer of the company (its seat shall be in the light of the case law of the Court of Justice of the European Union admitted on the basis of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union. Companies therefore in their intention for cross-border mobility do not need to reconstruct by using the general provisions on establishment and liquidation of companies and through the way of singular succession. There are possibilities, regulated on the EU level, through which companies shall emigrate or spread their business activities to other Member States much simpler and with less cost on the basis of universal succession. The regulation of procedures and the advantages of the mentioned reconstruction methods will be analysed in this article.

  6. Play the European card

    Majewski, O.

    1999-01-01

    Dr. Otto Majewski, Chief Executive Officer of the Bayernwerk AG utility, in his capacity as Chairman of the European Nuclear Council pointed out at ENC 98 in Nice that national energy policies constituted a major danger to the use of nuclear power. At the same time, he indicated ways and means by which to evade that danger. The decisions taken in Sweden and in the Federal Republic of Germany to opt out of the use of nuclear power show that national energy policies can seriously jeopardize the use of nuclear power. Bayernwerk CEO Dr. Majewski urged nuclear power plant operators to counteract these tendencies by playing the European card. Nuclear power anyway was a classical topic of European cooperation which, in the past, had resulted in higher safety standards and in the development of the EPR. It should also be attempted, by working on European institutions, to strengthen the use of nuclear power, even on a national level. He invoked economic arguments against nuclear opponents, especially the preservation of competitiveness by means of lower electricity prices, and arguments of climate protection. (orig.) [de

  7. Open Source Telecommunication Companies

    Peter Liu

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about companies whose core business is selling telecommunications products that lever open source projects. Open source telecommunications (OST) companies operate in markets that are very different from typical software product markets. The telecommunications market is regulated, vertically integrated, and proprietary designs and special chips are widely used. For a telecommunications product to be useful, it must interact with both access network products and core network pro...

  8. The virtual oil company

    Garibaldi, C.A.; Haney, R.M.; Ross, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    In anticipation of continuing declines in upstream activity levels over the next 15 years, the virtual oil company model articulates a vision of fewer, leaner, but financially stronger firms that concentrate only on their core competencies and outsource the rest through well-structured partnering arrangements. Freed from the ''clutter,'' these leading companies will be in better position to focus on those opportunities that offer the potential for renewed reserve and revenue growth

  9. Approaching comparative company law

    Donald, David C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper identifies some common errors that occur in comparative law, offers some guidelines to help avoid such errors, and provides a framework for entering into studies of the company laws of three major jurisdictions. The first section illustrates why a conscious approach to comparative company law is useful. Part I discusses some of the problems that can arise in comparative law and offers a few points of caution that can be useful for practical, theoretical and legislative comparative ...

  10. Physician-owned companies.

    Kostuik, John P

    2007-05-15

    The author relates his experience in the development of a spinal implant development company (K2M) that is significantly advised by physicians. To provide information about the development of a spinal implant company (K2M) advised by a group of professional spinal surgeons. To relate the federal laws (STARK and anti-kickback) as they pertain to surgeon-influenced companies. To discuss the role of a scientific advisory board. A self-developed company was developed together with significant, but minority physician financial input and majority scientific advice. A privately owned spinal implant development corporation (K2M) was developed 3 years ago. Physician financial participation was less than 20% (Stark laws state no more than 40%). Users of product are greater than 60% non-investor physicians. The development of a large scientific advisory board has been very influential in product development. A privately owned spinal implant company (K2M) has been developed strictly within Federal laws. Its board of scientific advisors that receives recompense commissurate only with effort significantly impacts the company policy.

  11. 75 FR 13524 - Northern Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC...

    2010-03-22

    ... Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC, Transcontinental... notice that on March 5, 2010, Northern Natural Gas Company (Northern Natural), 1111 South 103rd Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68124- 1000, filed on behalf of itself and other owners, Southern Natural Gas Company...

  12. Financial management of insurance companies in the context of the new regime Solvency II

    Istrate Costin; Badea Dumitru

    2017-01-01

    The new solvency regime Solvency II represents a solid and harmonized prudential framework applicable by insurance companies in the European area. Solvency II was implemented in the European Union by adopting Directives 2009/138/EC respectively 2014/51/EU, replacing existing directives regulating solvency former regime, known as Solvency I. Thus, the new European legislation in insurance, applicable from 1 January 2016, was aimed at unifying the main European insurance market and ensuring con...

  13. Utility franchises reconsidered

    Weidner, B.

    1981-11-01

    It is easier to obtain a public utility franchise than one for a fast food store because companies like Burger King value the profit share and control available with a franchise arrangement. The investor-owned utilities (IOUs) in Chicago and elsewhere gets little financial or regulatory benefit, although they do have an alternative because the franchise can be taken over by the city with a one-year notice. As IOUs evolved, the annual franchise fee has been incorporated into the rate in a move that taxes ratepayers and maximizes profits. Cities that found franchising unsatisfactory are looking for ways to terminate the franchise and finance a takeover, but limited-term and indeterminate franchises may offer a better mechanism when public needs and utility aims diverge. A directory lists franchised utilities by state and comments on their legal status. (DCK)

  14. Ariane: NASA's European rival

    The successful test launch of two three-quarter ton satellites in the European Space Agency's (ESA) Ariane rocket last June firmly placed ESA in competition with NASA for the lucrative and growing satellite launching market. Under the auspices of the private (but largely French-government financed) Arianespace company, ESA is already attracting customers to its three-stage rocket by offering low costs.According to recent reports [Nature, 292, pp. 785 and 788, 1981], Arianespace has been able to win several U.S. customers away from NASA, including Southern Pacific Communications, Western Union, RCA, Satellite Television Corporation, and GTE. Nature [292, 1981] magazine in an article entitled ‘More Trouble for the Hapless Shuttle’ suggests that it will be possible for Ariane to charge lower prices for a launch than NASA, even with the space shuttle.

  15. Institutional Ownership and Corporate Social Performance: Empirical Evidence from Indonesian Companies

    Hasan Fauzi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Prior research on the relationships of institutional ownership and corporate social responsibility has focused on North American (U.S. and Canada and European companies.  With the passage of Indonesian Law No. 40 in 2007, Indonesian companies are now obligated to conduct CSP. As these companies objected to the passage of this law, awareness of how CSP may benefit Indonesian companies in terms of its positive impact on institutional investors needs to be investigated. Thus, this paper examines the relationships of IO and CSP for Indonesian companies. Unfortunately, contrary to the results for North American and European companies, we found no relationships between institutional ownership and corporate social responsibility for Indonesian companies. This finding suggests that most institutional investors do not include CSP as part of their investment decisions.

  16. Countries and companies

    Jenning, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    The trends and factors currently emerging are likely to have significant influence on the way the upstream oil and gas industry evolves in the coming decade. This paper discusses how these trends might influence events in the 1990s, particularly how they might influence relationships between host countries and companies in the oil industry. State owned companies will dominate the industry in resource terms. These statcos fall into three groups: a small group of technically able, financially sound, well-managed companies; a group of consumer statcos that have limited domestic production but significant domestic demand; a large group that are finding it difficult to maintain their production facilities in good standing to maximize recovery from their resources. This paper describes the future private sector as consisting of the Surviving Sisters and smaller, private companies very active in the upstream. How will these various players behave in the years to come? Conventional activity in the upstream will continue as companies seek to optimize their upstream portfolios

  17. Third European Company Survey – Direct and indirect employee participation

    Akkerman, Agnes; Sluiter, Roderick; Jansen, Giedo

    2015-01-01

    This report studies practices in EU establishments for direct and indirect employee participation in decision-making. Indirect employee participation is the involvement of employee representatives in decision-making processes, while direct employee participation describes direct interaction between

  18. European coal technology applied by the Danish power companies

    Frydenberg, B. [Elsamprojekt A/S, Fredericia (Denmark)

    1996-12-31

    The development of coal-fired power plants has shown remarkable improvements with regard to efficiency and cleaner technology, and as coal remains the most important fuel for electric power production, it is important to make use of this technological development to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Of the three available technologies: Integrated Coal Gasification and Combined Cycle, Fluid Bed Combustion and Pulverised Coal with Ultra Supercritical Steam Data, the technology chosen by I/S ELSAM is the PC-USC with power production efficiencies growing from 45% to 50%. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Regulation of Cross-holdings between European Companies

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2003-01-01

    Cross-holdings can be a barrier to takeovers, and they may have other disadvantages. This article analyses how cross-holdings may be regulated to avoid these negative effects.......Cross-holdings can be a barrier to takeovers, and they may have other disadvantages. This article analyses how cross-holdings may be regulated to avoid these negative effects....

  20. Investment Strategy and Efficiency of Investment Activity of European Insurers

    Zhabynets Olga Yo.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article studies investment strategy and efficiency of investment activity of European insurance companies. In particular, it analyses the share of investments of insurance companies of Europe in GDP, investment portfolio of European insurers and its structure, contribution of insurance companies – leaders of investment activity – into the European investment portfolio. It studies influence of the financial crisis upon investment strategy of European insurers and analyses efficiency of investment activity of European insurers in risk insurance and life insurance. The article proves that investment business models of insurance companies are capable of resisting crisis phenomena more efficiently than other financial institutions. It marks out that measures of insurance companies that are directed at increase of profitability of investments require from them both significant expenditures on creation of the system of investment risk management and open access to different categories of financial assets and markets, which influences the general risk level, taken upon by an insurance company. The author draws a conclusion that, taking into account recent developments, European insurers should focus on equity and investment risk management, finding new possibilities for their (investments growth and also adaptation of new systems and operations for solution of these important tasks.

  1. Companies as "Cyborgs"?

    Thompson, Grahame

    This paper investigates the legal and commercial consequences of companies being considered as both an entity and a person in law – hence the notion of ‘cyborg’ in its title. It concentrates upon legal personhood and relates this particular feature to the issue of corporate citizenship. In turn...... corporate citizenship provides a link to considering the political role of companies, since in claiming citizenship they are implicitly at least claiming a particular set of political rights consequent upon that status, and announcing a particular politically constrained context associated...... with their operational characteristics. But what would be involved in granting companies full citizenship rights in the image of natural person citizenship? The paper explores this issue in connection to the differences between corporate social responsibility and an earlier idea of the socially responsible corporation...

  2. RESTRUCTURING COMPANIES UNDER CRISIS

    Hezi Aviram SHAYB

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nobody is planning to fail, but many companies are failing because of lack of planning. Real business experience showed during the years that crisis can be prevented, avoided or limited. If detected in time, the risks associated with the crisis can be mitigated and the effects can be diminished, with the condition that the actions required are done fast, in a sharp and accurate manner. When it comes, a crisis brings an intense level of pressure and under these conditions there is no time or room for mistakes. Delays, losing focus and lack of planning will bring a company one step away from failure. The right way to deal with crisis, if required measures are not done in time, is to minimize the losses and reposition in the best way possible. Analysing the success stories of some of the biggest and strongest companies in the world, led to an important conclusion: the majority of these companies were in the situation to face huge crises which threatened their ability to survive in certain moments, on their way to success. With the right planning and by setting a proper organisational structure, the negative aspects of the crisis can be turned into benefits and opportunities for the company. The most critical challenge for management is to assess the level of exposure to risk of the company and identify the key points to focus on in order to overcome the crisis and create value. In order to set up a strong plan in dealing with crisis, a business organisation needs reliable, efficient and effective tools and this is what this article is all about.

  3. PREVENTION OF COMPANY RISKS

    SUCI U GHEORGHE

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A company’s manager has to create and maintain a healthy internal control system. An efficient internal control system implies the implementation in the company of risk management. Each company, but also each individual, who tries to attain certain objectives, establishes the activities which lead to the achievement of goals and, at the same time, tries to identify as many “threats” as possible, in order to take the necessary measures to eliminate them. Thus, even if one is not familiar with the concepts of risk and risk management, one acts, consciously or not, for that purpose.

  4. COMPANY ACTIVITY FINANCIAL RISK

    Caruntu Genu Alexandru

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In economic and financial activity, risk is an inherent financial decisions, encountered in daily agenda of managers of companies. Unexpected changes in the price of a product development not only affect the financial results of a company, but can cause even bankruptcy. In fact, the nature of financial decisions involve uncertainty. Financial decisions are made based on cash flows under future contracts, which are par excellence incerte.Activitatea an enterprise that holds any weight in the industry is subject to risks, since it can not predict with certainty different components of its outcome (cost, quantity, price and operating cycle (purchase, processing, sales.

  5. Nr 832 and Nr 833 - Report made on the behalf of the foreign affairs Commission on: - the bill project nr 4 authorizing the approval of the amendment protocol of the convention between the Government of the French Republic and the Swiss Federal Council related to the extension in the French territory of the domain of the European Organisation for Nuclear Research concluded on the 13 September 1965, and - the bill project nr 5 authorizing the approval of the agreement between the Government of the French Republic, the Swiss Federal Council, and the European organisation for nuclear research on the law applicable to companies intervening on the Organisation's domain to provide services with a trans-national character, and Appendix: texts of the Commission of foreign affairs

    Bataille, Christian

    2013-01-01

    This report first presents the European organisation for nuclear research as an example of a European achievement, and as a significant source of fallouts for the French economy. It comments the complex application of territoriality rules in the field of labour law, and notably the fact that the location of work performance prevails for the determination of the applicable law, and that this issue has significant implications for French companies. The third part recalls the long negotiation process and comments the content of both agreements

  6. Oil Companies Climb Global List

    JESSY ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    @@ Backed by the huge market size,China's energy companies have been ranked in the group of the world's largest industry players. On September 6th,eight companies from the Chinese mainland and six companies from Hong Kong SAR were included in this year's Platts Top 250 Energy Companies List.

  7. Study on Municipal Energy Companies

    2009-07-01

    This is a summarizing overview of the local, renewable energy initiatives that are grouped under the heading of 'municipal energy company'. A municipal energy company (or sustainable energy company) is a local energy company that initiates, coordinates and/or manages sustainable energy projects with the primary objective of realizing the climate objectives. [nl

  8. IMPACT OF IFRS ADOPTION ON ROMANIAN COMPANIES

    Adriana Florina POPA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Accounting globalization follows the transformation of the accounting system into an economic and financial model, able to inform more correctly and rapidly the users of the accounting information, amongst which the investors and the creditors are clearly delimited. Within this context, the need of a harmonized and well oriented accounting system has become imperative. The adoption of a set of international accounting standards in Europe is intended to provide uniform and high quality financial information on the financial markets which would consolidate the global market efficiency, reducing the cost of capital accessing for European companies. There are numerous opinions according to which the IFRS adoption could be an element of abolishing the discrepancies between the accounting systems, offering at the same time a high level of transparency of the financial information. Our objective is to analyze the opportunity of implementing the IAS/IFRS referential by the Romanian companies, as well as their instant reaction within this context.

  9. Co-creation : Embedding companies'innovation practices in innovation ecosystem dynamics

    Hahn, Katrin; Kuhlmann, Stefan; Konrad, Kornelia; Visscher, Klaasjan

    2017-01-01

    Societal challenges – such as climate change, sustainable production and consumption, demographic change, healthcare (European Commission 2017), and the ongoing digitization – lead companies more often to think about topics and technologies beyond their established research and innovation practices.

  10. Utility Computing: Reality and Beyond

    Ivanov, Ivan I.

    Utility Computing is not a new concept. It involves organizing and providing a wide range of computing-related services as public utilities. Much like water, gas, electricity and telecommunications, the concept of computing as public utility was announced in 1955. Utility Computing remained a concept for near 50 years. Now some models and forms of Utility Computing are emerging such as storage and server virtualization, grid computing, and automated provisioning. Recent trends in Utility Computing as a complex technology involve business procedures that could profoundly transform the nature of companies' IT services, organizational IT strategies and technology infrastructure, and business models. In the ultimate Utility Computing models, organizations will be able to acquire as much IT services as they need, whenever and wherever they need them. Based on networked businesses and new secure online applications, Utility Computing would facilitate "agility-integration" of IT resources and services within and between virtual companies. With the application of Utility Computing there could be concealment of the complexity of IT, reduction of operational expenses, and converting of IT costs to variable `on-demand' services. How far should technology, business and society go to adopt Utility Computing forms, modes and models?

  11. The nuclear industry in the European Community

    Gasterstaedt, N.

    1990-01-01

    In its reference program of 1984, the Commission presented the guidelines for the objectives in the field of nuclear electricity production within the Community. In addition, the effects have been investigated which concern the realization of these objectives for all persons involved in nuclear energy: local government, utility companies and industry. The question of nuclear energy is part of the general energy policy. Therefore, the reference program of 1984 was one of the elements which has been considered up to 1995 by the Council when defining the objectives for energy economy. The guidelines of the Commission in the reference program of 1984 are still valid today. It is important, however, to check the effects of the completion of the internal market on nuclear industry. Therefore, the Commission announced in its working program of 1989 that it will revise the reference nuclear program with regard to the prospects of the European internal market. The present document fulfills this obligation. The problems of the industry for the design and construction of nuclear power plants are treated intentionally. After the Commission for Economic and Social Affairs has given its statement, the commission will publish the document officially. (orig./UA) [de

  12. The role of the Joint Research Centre from the European Commission in the European Structural Integrity Networks AMES, ENIQ and NESC

    Estorff, U. von; Torronen, K.

    1999-01-01

    Due to the reduction in many countries of the research budget for nuclear safety several European institutions and organisations and the Institute for Advanced Materials (IAM) of the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission (EC) have developed co-operative programmes now organised into 'Networks' for mutual benefit. They include utilities, engineering companies, research and development (R and D) laboratories and regulatory bodies. These Networks are all organised and managed in a similar way, i.e. like the successful Programme for the Inspection of Steel Components (PISC). The IAM plays the role of Operating Agent, Reference Laboratory and Network Manager of these Networks: European Network on Ageing Materials Evaluation and Studies (AMES), European Network for Inspection Qualification (ENIQ) and Network for Evaluating Steel Components (NESC), each of them dealing with a specific aspect of fitness for purpose of materials in structural components. This article will describe how the network organisation works, which was the positive experience from the past, why the networks are a tool for integrating fragmented research in Europe and how they fit into the mission of the JRC and therefore follow the EC policy. (orig.)

  13. Kyriakos Kyriakou: Big companies overanalyze and thus lose perspective

    Tomáš Poucha

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In his exclusive interview for Central European Business Review, the Regional Managing Director ofNielsen CEE, Kyriakos Kyriakou, talks about lack of trust in the manufacturer – retailer relationship,about consumer data and how companies should work with it, about selling on discounts and promotionalspirals, about marketing – sales cooperation and about other interesting topics.

  14. Corporate Negative Equity: The Evidence from the European Union

    Natalia Mokhova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After the Global Financial Crisis the frequency of reported losses of companies has increased significantly in countries of the European Union. Moreover, the financial leverage of companies have increased and even exceeded 100% in several countries. The reason of this development is negative equity that companies find themselves to report. At first sight negative equities are caused by accumulated losses from prior periods. However, there are some other reasons that can result in increasing negative equities in companies. They remain adequate as long as a company is able to pay its bills. Nevertheless, a company with negative equity is exposed to risks. This paper investigates whether the corporate negative equity is a sign of the future failure of a company. We examine non-financial manufactured companies from selected countries of the European Union within the period 2005–2012 from database Amadeus (Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Poland and Germany. By the means of comparison between negative and positive equities we applied descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation analysis. We find that in all surveyed countries the size positively influences the equity of companies. Other factors as profitability and growth opportunities do not influence the corporate equity. In addition the binary logistic regression analysis has been conducted based on the evidence from Czech companies. Our results indicate that negative equities are not a sign of bankruptcy or insolvency of a company. But the low profitability or low business activities (that are predictors of bankruptcy might lead to negative equities in the balance sheet.

  15. Company Town Shutdown.

    Turnage, Martha A.

    Saltville, Virginia, is a former company town whose main employer, a soda ash plant, shut down on July 1, 1971. The closure of the chemical plant displaced 700 workers, and created a crisis that threatened not only the existence of the town, but of the entire region. In response, Virginia Highlands Community College (VHCC), in cooperation with the…

  16. Electric and gas utility marketing of residential energy conservation case studies

    None

    1980-05-01

    The objective of this research was to obtain information about utility conservation marketing techniques from companies actively engaged in performing residential conservation services. Many utilities currently are offering comprehensive services (audits, listing of contractors and lenders, post-installation inspection, advertising, and performing consumer research). Activities are reported for the following utilities: Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation; Tampa Electric Company; Memphis Light, Gas, and Water Division; Northern States Power-Wisconsin; Public Service Company of Colorado; Arizona Public Service Company; Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Sacramento Municipal Utility District; and Pacific Power and Light Company.

  17. Corporate Social Responsibility in Food Manufacturing Companies – Environmental Dimensions

    Ľudmila Nagyová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The degree of a company’s acceptance and integration of the CSR concept is directly reflected in the fundamental principles of the company. Through the environmental sustainability, a company can make a positive contribution to the society and the natural environment. Competitive and cost pressures are the key drivers of sustainable development in the industry. Today, many international food and drink companies are delivering excellent achievements. The present paper tries to highlight how much are food manufacturing companies committed to caring for the environment as a main component of their CSR strategy. In order to fulfil the defined objectives of the paper, the primary and secondary sources of information were collected and used, as well as there was used the method of interview, using a questionnaire (total number of respondents was 100 food manufacturing companies. In our research the highest percentage of large, SMC and micro companies indicated the reduction of negative operational impacts as the most important commitment of companies in relation to environment. Most large companies invest to installing pollution reducing technology to improve environmental quality (67% and utilizing more environmentally friendly raw materials (51%. These areas indicated the highest percentage as well as for SMC. In the case of large companies there are more visible movements in environmental practices than in micro and small-medium companies.

  18. The account manager: Link between the customer and the energy distribution company

    Van Gelder, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    The monopolistic utility companies are rapidly turning into customer-oriented and efficient organizations. To be able to put client-oriented ideas into practice the whole organization has to be changed. A new job is that of account manager, the satellite between customer and energy company. Views and experiences of two distribution companies and the Nederlandse Gasunie are given and discussed. 3 ills

  19. 75 FR 54618 - CAlifornians for Renewable Energy, Inc. (CARE) v. Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Southern...

    2010-09-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL10-84-000] CAlifornians for Renewable Energy, Inc. (CARE) v. Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Southern California Edison Company, San Diego Gas & Electric Company, California Public Utilities Commission; Notice of Complaint...

  20. 75 FR 66744 - Californians for Renewable Energy, Inc. (CARE) v. Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Southern...

    2010-10-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL10-84-001] Californians for Renewable Energy, Inc. (CARE) v. Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Southern California Edison Company, San Diego Gas & Electric Company, California Public Utilities Commission; Notice of Amended...

  1. Industrial democracy from a European perspective : the example of SEs

    Keller, Berndt; Werner, Frank

    2010-01-01

    The article deals with the forthcoming challenges to the German system of co-determination (Mitbestimmung ) arising from the Europeanization of industrial relations (IR) in general and the European Company (Societas Europaea — SE) in particular. After some short remarks on co-determination’s national history and present challenges, recent political controversies are discussed. Then the most important European regulations on employee involvement are analysed from a German perspective. The main...

  2. EUROPEAN INTEGRATION FROM POLAND’S VIEWPOINT. SELECTED ISSUES

    Iwona M. Pawlas

    2014-01-01

    It has been ten years since Poland joined the European Union in May 2004. Integration with the EU structures resulted in considerable economic, social and political advantages. On the other hand membership in the EU created new challenges for Poland, the Polish companies and the Polish citizens. The paper reviews selected issues of Poland’s integration with the European Union with special focus on net financial effect of membership, competitiveness of Polish goods on single European market, p...

  3. Utility prudency issues

    Charnoff, G.

    1986-01-01

    The conventional legal standard of prudence found in the common law of public utility regulation precludes a judgment about past decisions based on present knowledge of whether the decisions proved in time to have been right or wrong. The proper inquiry is not whether every management decision proved to be correct. Rather, the proper inquiry as stated by the New York Public Service Commission in Re Consolidated Edison Co. of New York, Inc. is ...whether the company's conduct was reasonable at the time, under all of the circumstances, considering that the company had to solve its problems prospectively.... The exercise of prudence does not guarantee performance on schedule or within budget, or the making of correct decisions, when judged after the fact. But it does require or involve the exercise of reasoned decision making within a framework of reasonably available alternatives

  4. Film and television production in the Netherlands - a comparison between three medium-sized companies.

    Sanders, Willemien; Puijk, Roel

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the different ways in which production companies established in similar ways can develop over time. It takes three Dutch private film- and television companies as cases. The research forms part of the Dutch component of a European partnership project, Success in the Film and

  5. Kaizen-Driven Approach While Managing Industrial Projects. A Scandinavian Company Succeeds in Eastern Europe

    Popescu Daniel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Eastern European companies have experienced various and radical transformations, as resultof the economic crises and turbulences, which exposed structural weaknesses. In the meantime, long-term challenges - such as globalization, shift of power centers from the nationallevel to international structures or scarcity of resources - intensify. Given this context, it ismandatory for companies to develop strategies aiming at being competitive.

  6. Westinghouse European trainee program

    Jimenez, G.

    2010-01-01

    Westinghouse Electric Company is proud of giving its employees the possibility to work and act globally. The company's European Trainee Program provides an opportunity to work within different fields of business within Westinghouse, participating in a wide range of projects and experiencing and learning from the different cultures of the company. In 2006 the first Trainee Program started with seven Swedish Trainees. During these eighteen months they worked 12 months in Sweden and then went off to six-month-assignments in France and in the US. In April 2008, the first European Trainee Program was launched with ten Trainees from four different countries: five from Sweden, two from Germany, two from Spain and one from Belgium. As with the previous program, its length was eighteen months. During the first year, the European Trainees had the opportunity to work in various areas within their country of hire, as well as to visit different Westinghouse headquarters in Europe and the US to learn more about the global business. Their kick-off session took place in Vaesteraas, Sweden in April 2008. During four days, the Trainees participated in group dynamic exercises as well as presentations of the business of Westinghouse abroad and in Sweden. Two of the most interesting parts of this session were the visits to the Fuel Factory and to the Field Services mock-ups. The second session took place in June 2008 in Monroeville, Pennsylvania (USA), where Westinghouse had its main headquarters, nowadays located in Cranberry, PA. During two weeks, the trainees got to know even more about Westinghouse through visits, lectures and forums for open discussions. The visits comprised for example the tubing factory at Blairsville, the Field Services main headquarters in Madison and the George Westinghouse Research and Technology Park near Pittsburgh. The meetings included presentations of each Westinghouse business unit, detailed information about future projects and round table discussions

  7. Scottish Nuclear, the company

    Yeomans, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    A former chief executive of Scottish Nuclear, formed when United Kingdom electricity generation was privatized, describes the financial viability of the company and considers the future of nuclear power. Scottish Nuclear owns and operates the Advanced Gas Cooled (AGR) and Magnox reactors at Hunterston and the AGR reactor at Torness and is a separate company from those dealing with hydro-electric and non-nuclear generation of electricity. Costs of running the reactors is identified as a proportion of the whole for certain key issues such as station costs, depreciation, decommissioning and insurance. While nuclear power generation using outmoded Magnox reactors is costly, the ecological cost of global warming is seen as more of a problem. Future policy for nuclear power in Scotland must include new plant, probably pressurized water reactors and a clear policy of safety enhancement. (UK)

  8. Happy oil companies

    Maincent, G.

    2009-01-01

    The decay of demand, the bad financial results of the first half of 2009 and the hypothetical depletion of reserves must not hide a reality: oil companies are passing through the economic crisis without much trouble. Even if profits have marked time in volume (-57% for BP, -65% for Shell..), the net margins have not significantly suffered and the available cash remains comfortable (14 billion euros for Total as an example). The perspectives offered by the new offshore sites (like Santos in Brazil) added to the fabulous promises of the Iraqi market where 'majors' can now make their come-back will be the key of success of oil companies. The overall exploration-production investments should start up again by the beginning of 2011. For the only offshore drilling domain, they should rise up by 32% during the 2009-2013 period which represents a sum of 367 billion dollars. (J.S.)

  9. The Balanced Company

    through control or trust. Human resource specialists need to make balanced decisions about how to design tasks and jobs in order to make them attractive as well as motivating. Marketers need to make balanced decisions about how to market products in the light of what is now important in consumers...... in their environments. Communication specialists need to make balanced decisions which take the different value systems and assumptions of stakeholders into consideration. Change specialists need to balance the need for continuity and change. Managers need to make balanced decisions about whether to achieve goals...... the creation and recreation of balanced relationships. Chapters in The Balanced Company ask and provide answers to questions about corporately responsible and ethically driven balanced decision making, such as: • How can a company and its stakeholders identify what should be taken into consideration - What...

  10. Utilities practices toward sustainable development

    2008-01-01

    The strategy toward a Sustainable Development is not standardised and it is useful to compare approaches of companies. WG C3.03 analysed a number of Sustainability Reports or Environmental Reports, published by Utilities, exposing their current approaches to the three 'Pillars': environmental aspects, society development and economical performances. Case studies, relevant to the three 'Pillars', show examples of practices

  11. Oil companies make cutbacks

    Dupin, Ludovic

    2014-01-01

    As oil prices are falling, the oil sector faces company restructuring, merger projects, closure of oil fields, and so on. Restructuring is motivated by the costs of offshore exploration and oil production projects. Saudi Arabia tries to fight the emergence of shale gases by reducing oil prices, and somehow succeeds as some projects in the USA are put into question again. Experts perceive this situation as an opportunity for the sector to improve its efficiency and reduce over-staffing

  12. Building Company Loyalty System

    Haniková, Alžběta

    2010-01-01

    The thesis discusses the importance of loyal customers, and loyalty system as a tool for building loyalty. It defines loyalty and customer satisfaction, it deals with the issue of customer retention. It describes the history and types of loyalty programs, important factors for deciding on their implementation and problems associated with them. The practical part is concerned with the clothing market, Orsay company and its Orsay Club loyalty systeme. The work also includes a survey of the loya...

  13. Tax optimization of companies

    Dědinová, Pavla

    2017-01-01

    This diploma thesis deals with tax optimization of companies. The thesis is divided into two main parts - the theoretical and practical part. The introduction of the theoretical part describes the history of taxes, their basic characteristics and the importance of their collection for today's society. Subsequently, the tax system of the Czech Republic with a focus on value added tax and corporation tax is presented. The practical part deals with specific possibilities of optimization of the a...

  14. Are listed property companies in Sweden ready for fair value accounting?  

    Muyingo, Henry

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this Masters thesis has been to find out if, and how, listed Swedish property companies have prepared themselves for the regulation passed by the European Parliament that requires all EU companies listed in a regulated market as well as companies preparing admission to trading, at the latest from 2005 onwards, to prepare their consolidated financial statements in accordance with a single set of accounting standards, International Accounting Standards (IAS). The thesis work has been...

  15. Environmental accounting and reporting of energy utility companies. Research notes

    Heiskanen, E.; Heininen, M.; Heurlin, E.; Lovio, R.; Paenkaelaeinen, M.

    1997-09-01

    The research note consists of articles written by a number of authors. The aim of the articles is to describe general development trends of environmental accounting and reporting from the point of view of the energy sector

  16. Changes in the European business

    Stoehle, S.J.

    1997-12-31

    The paper gives a view on some of the changes that the European gas business is currently undergoing and the possible effects of these changes. There are two major items that stand out in this respect covering the continued deregulation of the UK gas market and the final content of EU`s gas Directive. No participant in the European gas business will be unaffected by these two events. According to the author, the dynamics of these changes to the gas business will create interesting business opportunities for those companies and individuals that are anticipating the future and willing to take risks in order to succeed. Topics are: Infrastructure; the market - supply and demand; main changes. 14 figs.

  17. Does Technology Transfer Help Small and Medium Companies? Empirical Evidence from Korea

    Dae-Hwan Kim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We challenge the view that technology transfer from big companies to small and medium (SM size companies helps SM companies to prosper. With a large dataset of SM companies in Korea, we utilize the stochastic production frontier (SPF model to examine the productivity of inputs and the generalized linear model (GLM to compare business performance between two groups of SM companies: SM companies that receive technology transfer and those that do not receive technology transfer from big companies. The empirical results demonstrate that the transfer of technology from big companies to SM companies help SM companies to enjoy productivity of capital. Nonetheless, SM companies receiving technology transfer were found to underperform in terms of labor productivity and profit margin compared to their counterparts. We further investigate the reasons why SM companies receiving technology transfer from big companies underperform relative to their counterparts, and our findings shows that the former do not export much of their product and face more difficulties such as lower price for their products imposed by big companies than the latter. By identifying the negative rather than the conventionally assumed positive effect of technology transfer, this paper contributes to the literature on the relationship between technology transfer and SM companies’ prosperity in the case of Korea. Our findings have important implications for how SM companies should strategize and rethink about the clauses embedded in the transfer of technology that they receive from big companies because technology transfer plays as a barrier to their prosperity.

  18. Company Vision and Organizational Learning

    Vojko Toman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of a company is largely dependent on the company itself; it depends above all on its corporate governance, management, and implementation, as well as on decision-making processes and coordination. Many authors believe that organizational learning and knowledge are the most relevant aspects of company effectiveness. If a company wants to be effective it needs to create and realize its vision; to do this, it needs creativity, imagination, and knowledge, which can be obtained or enhanced through learning. This paper defines vision, learning, creativity and management and, above all, their relationships. The author argues that company vision influences the learning and knowledge of employees in the company through the vision’s content, through the vision-creating process, and through the vision enforcement process. Conversely, the influence of learning on company vision is explained. The paper is aimed at the use in the practice of companies and helps them to increase their effectiveness.

  19. Strategies of development of European power producers

    Heddebaut, D.

    2007-12-01

    This economical study answers the following questions: what is the dynamics of European power markets? What is the relative competitiveness of the different power production means? What are the determining factors of electricity wholesale prices? Who are the operators the most threatened by the rise of wholesale prices? To what extend power producers are impacted by the CO 2 constrain? Who are the most efficient producers? The analysis is based on 18 of the most representative groups of the European electric utilities. The first volume of the study presents the strategic perspectives of European power producers: dynamics and basic characteristics of European power markets, strategic options of European operators, typology and financial results of European power producers, scenarios of market reorganization according to Eurostaf (possible mega-mergers in the future, competition). Volume 2 makes a detailed analysis of the positioning and perspectives of the 18 selected groups: key figures, sourcing strategies, production means management, Eurostaf's diagnosis. (J.S.)

  20. Risk Management in Insurance Companies

    Yang, Xufeng

    2006-01-01

    Insurance is the uncertain business in uncertain society. Today, insures face more complex and difficult risks. Efficient risk management mechanisms are essential for the insurers. The paper is set out initially to explore UK insurance companies risk management and risk disclosure by examining companies annual report after all the listed insurance companies are required to disclose risk information in their annual report, which seeks to reflect the recent development in UK insurance companies...

  1. Organizational architecture of multinational companies

    Sikorová, Lenka

    2009-01-01

    The main goal of the bachelor thesis Organizational Architecture of Multinational Companies is to elaborate the overview of organizational structures that are used by modern global companies. The thesis contains an analysis of such companies development, principles of functioning, pros and cons and the opportunities which these brings. It also contains a description of the basic concepts associated with organizational architecture such as globalization, multinational companies and organizatio...

  2. Strategy Assessment of Company ECOPOSTES

    Cortazar Sanabria, Javier Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    This thesis focuses on developing a research on the different types of strategies a company can implement depending on their situation and the various analyses that must be completed before making the strategy decision. External and internal environment methods are described together with the various forms of corporate restructure methods a company can use if needed. The whole process is followed step by step to provide a strategy assessment to company Ecopostes, a Colombian company focused o...

  3. Managing the nuclear utility

    Williams, J.W. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The Florida Power and Light Company (FP and L) is the fifth largest investor-owned utility in the country. The success of nuclear power generation at the St. Lucie Units 1 and 2 and Turkey Point Units 3 and 4 has resulted from a continuing management commitment to the nuclear program. The management of the power plants rely strongly on teamwork for most large projects and activities whether they entail plant operation, construction, or maintenance. Various examples of how teamwork has been used to realize the successful completion of projects or solutions to problems are given

  4. IMPLEMENTATION OF QUALITATIVE RULES IN COMPANY`S INFORMATION MANAGEMENT

    Anna WOLNOWSKA

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the article there were presented chosen issues of quality management. Important role of information and work processes in companies were emphasized . Based on eight rules of quality management, TQM standards and ideas of discipline pioneers like Deming, Juran, Crosby and Shewart, author has constructed way of using chosen rules and assumptions to company`s information circulation. Analogy, suggested by author, has not only emphasized importance of information as a company`s resource, but also has pointed to possibility of improving ways of managing this information.

  5. Multilingualism in Companies: An Introduction

    Sherman, Tamah; Strubell, Miquel

    2013-01-01

    This thematic collection of four papers explores a number of perspectives on companies in which multiple languages are used. The "organisational" perspective concerns the question of how the presence of or demand for multiple languages in the company is managed--how companies are guided by national and other policies in regard to the use…

  6. Organizational architecture of multinational company

    Vrbová, Tereza

    2012-01-01

    The Bachelor's Thesis ,,Organizational architecture of multinational company" sets the target to analyse organizational structures used in multinational companies at present. In the teoretical section is briefly described development of this subject, basic concepts associated with organizational architecture such as globalization, multinational companies and organizational architecture. I also generalized main characteristics of organizational forms and describe their pros and cons. The pract...

  7. VUJE, Inc. Company mission

    2008-01-01

    VUJE is an engineering company that performs design, supply, implementation, research and training activities, particularly in the field of nuclear and conventional power generation. Our earlier research specialization in the field of nuclear power generation has gradually diversified into design and engineering activities during performing particular tasks. Nowadays we are able to provide all activities related to construction, operation, modernisation and finally termination of operation mainly of power generating facilities. Our objective is to offer complex, professional and quality solutions according to our customers' needs and thus assist to show real asset of nuclear energy generation. (author)

  8. Contribution of service companies

    Sole, L. M.; Cortes, A.

    2002-01-01

    The most influential aspect when choosing the model of contract between Client and Contractor relapses into the maturity reached by both parts. The service supplier will have to show his competence with his resume, not only technical, but also of actual actions concerning availability reliability, maintainability, security, environment and costs. That maturity may have been the reason why most of the service companies, of national scope, that carry out maintenance of nuclear power stations electricity and instrumentation nowadays, are present from the assembly and implementation phases of these nuclear power stations. (Author)

  9. Reading and company

    Kuzmičová, Anežka; Dias, Patrícia; Vogrinčič Čepič, Ana

    2017-01-01

    in the environment where one engages in individual silent reading. The primary goal of the study was to explore the role and possible associations of a number of variables (text type, purpose, device) in selecting generic (e.g. indoors vs outdoors) as well as specific (e.g. home vs library) reading environments....... Across all six samples included in the study, participants spontaneously attested to varied, and partly surprising, forms of sensitivity to company and social space in their daily efforts to align body with mind for reading. The article reports these emergent trends and discusses their potential...

  10. Hedging Life and Pension Company Balance Sheets with Hybrid Derivatives

    Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    2009-01-01

    Life and Pension companies are facing enhanced risks of market due to dynamic interest rates and unprecedented volatility in equities, jeopardising guarantee of performance to policyholders and shareholders. Evolving statutory requirements and financial reporting standards, add to the challenges...... for these companies. This paper highlights the utility of "Hybrid Derivatives" and the new risk based solvency reporting system, know as "Traffic Light System" adopted by the Danish Financial Supervisory Authority, as an answer to the challenges posed....

  11. Waste heat utilization in agriculture

    Horacek, P.

    1983-01-01

    The Proceedings contain 17 papers presented at meetings of the Working Group for Waste Heat Utilization of the Committee of the European Society of Nuclear Methods in Agriculture of which 7 fall under the INIS scope. The working group met in May 1980 in Brno, Czechoslovakia, in October 1981 in Aberdeen, Scotland and in September 1982 in Brno. (Z.M.)

  12. Customer relationship management influence on sales of selected companies

    Jana Němeček

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available General awareness of information technology and business strategy Customer Relationship Management (CRM among managers in the Czech Republic is for several years, but in comparison with Western states of the European Union the Czech companies are underdeveloped. Apparently also because of the economic crisis is CRM in the Czech Republic begins to be used more. The main goal of implementing CRM is to help to company increase the quality of relationship and communication with customers. In this article are the most common definitions of CRM.The main content of this article is about the analysing and comparing of Trading Income of selected companies doing business in the Czech Republic. There are compared selected companies with implemented information technology and business strategy CRM with companies without implemented CRM and how it could have an impact to the Trading Income of these selected companies. Has CRM implementation helped to increase the positive Trading Income during the economic crisis? Included is an analysis of Trading Income from 2007 to 2010 for selected companies grouped by number of employees. The conclusion summarizes the analysis of results and assumptions and benefits of CRM.

  13. Expanding opportunities. Strategic buying of utilities in new EU member states

    LaBelle, Michael

    2009-01-01

    During the 1990s, limited investment opportunities in Western Europe, the opening of the energy markets in Eastern Europe, and the future expansion of the European Union (EU) prompted an expansionist strategy by energy companies from the original EU member states. In this paper, the acquisition and divestiture activities and strategies of utilities from France and Germany are analyzed in the context of the 2004 and 2007 EU enlargements. Through quantitative and qualitative data analysis, including the development of two case studies, the strategy for expansion and evolution in new member states is examined. The results demonstrate a concerted effort to establish economies of scale through ownership of distribution companies. A change in strategy occurs as these privatization opportunities disappear. Generation and trading activity become the growth area for these companies as electricity supply becomes another factor that can contribute to the economies of scale. Recent EU-supported efforts towards regionalization of electricity markets, positions these companies well due to their strong regional presence. This paper will explore these issues in the context of ownership and geographic distribution. (author)

  14. Bioremediation in Germany: Markets, technologies, and leading companies

    Raphael, T.; Glass, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    Bioremediation has become an internationally accepted remediation tool. Commercial bioremediation activities take place in many European countries, but Germany and the Netherlands are the clear European leaders, with both having a long history of public and private sector activity in biological technologies. The German bioremediation market has been driven by government regulation, in particular the waste laws that apply to contaminated soils. The 1994 German market for bioremediation is estimated at $70 to 100 million (US $). There are at least 150 companies active in bioremediation in Germany, most of which practice bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils, either in situ or ex situ. Because of their predominance in the current European market, German firms are well positioned to expand into those nations in the European Union (EU) currently lacking an environmental business infrastructure

  15. Project financing consequences on cogeneration: industrial plant and municipal utility co-operation in Sweden

    Sundberg, Gunnel; Sjoedin, J.Joergen

    2003-01-01

    The liberalisation of the European electricity market influences investment decisions in combined heat and power plants. Energy companies modify their business strategies and their criteria for investments in power generation capacity. In this paper, the gains from a co-operation between a paper mill and municipal utility are studied. We find that a widened system boundary, including both the industrial plant and the district heating company, increases cost-effectiveness by 7-11%, compared to a situation with two separately optimised systems. Furthermore, optimal investments are strongly influenced by the actors' different required returns. With a relatively low required rate of return on energy investments, typical for a municipally owned utility, the most profitable investment is a wood chips-fuelled cogeneration plant. With a higher rate of return on capital, typical for a competitive industry, the optimal investment is mainly a heat-only steam boiler. Finally, some general influences on required rate of return caused by electricity market deregulation are observed. Whilst tending to increase companies' required returns, deregulation may, besides extending the outlet for locally generated electricity, also obstruct long-term high-cost investments such as cogeneration based on conventional technology

  16. Does the Company Programme Have the Same Impact on Young Women and Men? A Study of Entrepreneurship Education in Norwegian Upper Secondary Schools

    Johansen, Vegard

    2017-01-01

    This paper asks whether a European entrepreneurship programme called the "Company Programme" (CP) has an impact on young women and men with regard to career preferences, and perceptions of business skills and the likelihood of having a company. CP is taught to 270,000 students in 39 European countries, and approximately 15% of Norwegian…

  17. European Commission policies

    Coldwell, R.

    1993-01-01

    This debate discusses the debate surrounding the proposed European Community (EC) Directive on the completion of the internal energy market for natural gas and electric power. The context in which the liberalisation program is proposed is described for electricity, considering political issues, international ownership patterns and trade between Eastern and Western Europe. The author then argues for Member States to be consistent and fair, bearing in mind existing variations in liberalisation of national energy markets. Finally the components of the directive are examined. The United Kingdom, with its already liberalised electricity industry has much to gain from the Directive, while other countries which oppose it, are seen as protecting the vested interests of their own utilities. (UK)

  18. Company Profile: Selventa, Inc.

    Fryburg, David A; Latino, Louis J; Tagliamonte, John; Kenney, Renee D; Song, Diane H; Levine, Arnold J; de Graaf, David

    2012-08-01

    Selventa, Inc. (MA, USA) is a biomarker discovery company that enables personalized healthcare. Originally founded as Genstruct, Inc., Selventa has undergone significant evolution from a technology-based service provider to an active partner in the development of diagnostic tests, functioning as a molecular dashboard of disease activity using a unique platform. As part of that evolution, approximately 2 years ago the company was rebranded as Selventa to reflect its new identity and mission. The contributions to biomedical research by Selventa are based on in silico, reverse-engineering methods to determine biological causality. That is, given a set of in vitro or in vivo biological observations, which biological mechanisms can explain the measured results? Facilitated by a large and carefully curated knowledge base, these in silico methods generated new insights into the mechanisms driving a disease. As Selventa's methods would enable biomarker discovery and be directly applicable to generating novel diagnostics, the scientists at Selventa have focused on the development of predictive biomarkers of response in autoimmune and oncologic diseases. Selventa is presently building a portfolio of independent, as well as partnered, biomarker projects with the intention to create diagnostic tests that predict response to therapy.

  19. The European wind energy programmes

    Beurskens, H.J.M.; Lalas, D.

    1993-01-01

    A general review is given of national wind energy programmes in European countries. First, tendencies of the past wind energy programmes are described and linked to the present developments. Not only the separate aspects are reviewed (R+D, wind turbine development, market stimulation, utility involvement, regulatory issues and operational experiences), but also the synergetic aspects of their integration is addressed. The main conclusion is that the integration of R+D, industrial development and market stimulation works. 4 ills., 3 tabs

  20. Individualisation of Lean Concept in Companies Dealing with Mass Production

    Bednár, Roman

    2012-12-01

    The methods of lean manufacturing primarily designed for businesses dealing with serial production, are also used in other types of production. However the concept of lean production was not designed for these types of businesses, they are utilized only partially. Paper focuses on applying methods of lean concept in companies which are dealing with mass production and their options of exchange for other methods in the event of disagreement. Basis of the article is a list of lean methods with its description and its utilization in practice. The questionnaire was utilized to identify information from the practice. Based on this survey were identified the critical methods that are no longer appropriate for companies dealing with mass production. However, there are alternative methods of describing the problem. It is possible to say that companies are trying to get closer to their goal by modification of the basic concepts. And the concept of Lean Enterprise serves as a standard.

  1. Pork in good company?

    Verbeke, Wim; Perez-Cueto, Federico J.; de Barcellos, Marcia D.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the association between pork as the main meal component and the choice for side dishes and beverages depending on foodscape and individual characteristics, including overweight and obesity among fresh pork consumers (n=2,156) in five European countries...... to combine pork with sauces or condiments. Heavy users of pork were more likely (odds ratio=1.43) to combine pork with sauces or condiments. The study also found an association between being overweight or obese and higher consumption of carbohydrate rich staple foods (odds ratio=1.30) and caloric drinks...

  2. A common vision of energy risk? Energy securitisation and company perceptions of risk in the EU

    Edward Stoddard

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the European Union, energy security is provided by EU institutions, member states and commercial energy companies. However, despite the important role companies play in the provision of European energy security, it is not immediately evident to what extent the interests of the internationally operating energy firms are in line with the energy security preferences held by EU institutions. Analysing this relationship from the perspective of perceptions of energy security and energy business risk, this paper examines the extent to which there is a convergence between the energy securitisation of the European Commission and the observation of business risk as perceived by major European and international energy firms. It finds that while there are some significant areas where Commission securitisation contradicts energy company interests (e.g. climate change and energy prices there is also a high degree of convergence, in particular regarding perceptions of upstream political risk.

  3. A Literature Review of Foreign Ownership and Company Performance

    Iuliana Oana MIHAI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to review the results of research papers conducted in the area of foreign ownership impact on company’s performance and to highlight the specifics of this linkage in the environment of transition economies. Several authors have documented greater efficiency of private companies compared to state-owned. According to different studies, an alternative option for transition economies is foreign ownership. Recent studies show that the effect of ownership forms on companies and financial performance is more significant in Eastern European countries compared to developed countries. However, study results are often contradictory, therefore they require additional research.

  4. Company Law as a Restriction to Free Movement

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2014-01-01

    . There is evidence that non-discriminatory obstacles to free movement found in company law can be restrictions. However, recent cases show that the Court may be willing to apply a more restrictive approach where only non-discriminatory measures that have a qualified deterrent effect may constitute restrictions.......Focusing on recent judgments from the Court of Justice of the European Union, this article investigates how the notion of ‘restriction’ – which is the first step in examining whether there is an infringement of the free movement rights – is used in cases involving company law measures...

  5. Networking strategies of the microscopy community for improved utilization of advanced instruments: (3) Two European initiatives to support TEM infrastructures and promote electron microscopy over Europe, ESTEEM (2006-2011) and ESTEEM 2 (2012-2016)

    Snoeck, E.; Van Tendeloo, G.

    2014-01-01

    The ESTEEM consortium of electron microscopy laboratories for materials science and solid-state physics has been created as an EU-supported delocalized infrastructure to bring together the major electron microscopy centres in Europe. Its main objectives were to develop networking, to offer trans-national access to these centres with specialized and complementary techniques and skills and to upgrade in close collaboration different technical and methodological aspects such as tomography, spectroscopy, holography, detectors, and specimen holders. These efforts were aimed to strengthen the position of European microscopy and to generate new technologies potentially of high relevance in many domains identified as strategic. Following the success of the first program, ESTEEM has been conducted again in 2012 for 4 more years with an enlarged set of partners. (authors)

  6. European gas market developments. Opportunities and threats

    Van Oostvoorn, F.

    1998-09-01

    The paper is based on two studies conducted by ECN, namely a study entitled 'An analysis of the West-European gas market: a company approach' and another entitled 'Developments of gas markets across Europe' to be published in November 1998. The paper addresses the past driving factors responsible for the increasing share of gas in the EU energy demand. Furthermore it very briefly discusses the rising dependency of the European Union (EU) on gas imports from non-EU sources such as Russia and the expected gas-to-gas competition in a large number of EU countries in the next decades. 25 refs

  7. Transfer Pricing in the European Union

    Gheorghe MATEI

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The transfer pricing mechanism is a tool commonly used to transfer the tax base from countries with high taxation in countries with low taxation. In the European Union, this financial operations generate significant tax revenue losses. In an attempt to limit the handling of corporate tax systems, many public authorities have introduced regulations on transfer pricing, but the effectiveness of these rules has proved limited, and they contributed to the increasing complexity of tax laws and to the appearance of additional costs for companies. A solution to the solving of the transfer pricing problem in the European Union is represented by the introduction of the common consolidated corporate tax base.

  8. THE MANAGEMENT OF THE ENERGY COMPANIES

    Ionescu (Sas Mihaela

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to contribute to a better knowledge of the problems of energy services provided that both the international economic literature and in the Romanian, it continues to be addressed in a low position. Therefore, the author examines energy services through mechanisms that can be saved primary energy and final energy in the context of declining energy reserves worldwide. Economic and financial crisis and the current recession contribute to preventing the development of the energy services market and solutions on the framework conditions of political, economic, legal and financial aspects of energy performance contracts associated with these companies. Some Member States have already established a system requiring the national energy industry to achieve energy savings, achieving positive results: there were savings of up to 6% of final energy consumption. In a system of this type, utilities are required to obtain a fixed amount of energy savings by implementing energy efficiency improvements in their clients (such as households, companies, government or housing associations and other sectors and energy production and transport. As an alternative to savings by themselves, some systems allow utilities to purchase energy savings from other actors such as energy service companies (ESCOs. Energy saving obligations stimulate providers to change their business model from retail energy products to the provision of energy services. Energy Service Companies continues to be a key area for financing energy efficiency in the EU. In this respect, several Member States mention providing model contracts for energy services, the introduction of legislation or removing legal barriers for ESCO access to energy services in the public sector. Meanwhile, many of the measures encouraged on ESCO contain too little detail on specific actions to be taken.

  9. Utilization of research reactors

    1962-01-01

    About 200 research reactors are now in operation in different parts of the world, and at least 70 such facilities, which are in advanced stages of planning and construction, should be critical within the next two or three years. In the process of this development a multitude of problems are being encountered in formulating and carrying out programs for the proper utilization of these facilities, especially in countries which have just begun or are starting their atomic energy work. An opportunity for scientific personnel from different Member States to discuss research reactor problems was given at an international symposium on the Programing and Utilization of Research Reactors organized by the Agency almost immediately after the General Conference session. Two hundred scientists from 35 countries, as well as from the European Nuclear Energy Agency and EURATOM, attended the meeting which was held in Vienna from 16 to 21 October 1961

  10. Energy, postal services and telecommunications: which future for the public utilities in france and in Europe?; Energie, poste et telecommunications: quel avenir pour le service public en France et en Europe?

    Strauss-Kahn, D. [Ministere de l`Economie, des Finances et de l`Industrie, 75 - Paris (France). Direction Generale de L`Energie et des Matieres Premieres; Cresson, E. [Commission Europeenne, DG III, Bruxelles (Belgium); Fournier, J.

    1998-12-31

    This colloquium was initiated by the French State secretary of industry and profited by the participation of the ministry of economy, finance and industry and of the prime minister. The colloquium comprises two plenary sessions: `competition, public utilities and Europe` and `regulation and public policies`, and three sectorial round-tables: `telecommunications`, `energy` and `postal services`. The round-table on energy permitted to precise the behaviour of the main French energy producing and consuming companies with respect to the competition and to the public utilities in the European market. (J.S.)

  11. 17 CFR 250.41 - Exemption of public utility subsidiaries with respect to limited acquisition of utility assets.

    2010-04-01

    ... Exemption of public utility subsidiaries with respect to limited acquisition of utility assets. Any public... derived from its operations as a public-utility company during the preceding calendar year. (d... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemption of public utility...

  12. Service supply company experience

    Shouldice, S.P.

    1995-01-01

    The motivations for a small company to go international were reviewed, as well as the efforts required to identify markets compatible with what one has to offer. The variety of approaches taken to capitalize on the perceived opportunities were summarized. Motives for going international include minimization of risk by market diversification, revenue growth, and improved profitability where there is a run-up in demand. Getting started usually includes the following six steps: (1) selecting a target market, (2) interpreting market needs, (3) understanding local decision making, (4) deciding on a proposal, (5) seeking project financing, and (6) overcoming hurdles. Setting up shop also implies seeking market commitment, finding suitable long-term accommodation, finding suitable local workers, and exploring local sourcing for materials and equipment. Having a competitive advantage is essential to penetrating international markets. A cost advantage is the most valuable. Patience, persistence and perseverance were also identified as essential virtues

  13. Property company's sustainability goals.

    Ormsby, Kim

    2014-11-01

    In a keynote presentation on the second morning of this year's Healthcare Estates conference, Kim Ormsby (pictured), national corporate social responsibility (CSR) and sustainability manager at NHS Property Services, discussed how, as part of its broader goals of 'supporting the NHS in delivering clinical services', and 'helping to enhance the experience' of patients visiting its buildings, the organization would continue to pursue and embed in its activities sustainable policies wherever and whenever possible, encouraging both its staff and tenants to take a similar approach. In an informative address, she highlighted some of the key steps the property company had already taken to encourage a proactive approach. Echoing the sentiments of Day One keynote speaker, Julian Hartley (see pages 55-60), she argued that one of the fundamentals to success was wide-ranging staff engagement.

  14. A forward looking company

    Christian, David A.

    2004-01-01

    The article is an excerpt of an interview with David A. Christian, Senior Vice President-Nuclear and Chief Nuclear Officer, Dominion Generation conducted at NEI's Nuclear Energy Assembly in New Orleans, Louisiana on 13 May 2004. It highlights the company's energy diversity, and in particular, activities related to early-site permits and possible future plans for nuclear power plant development in the U.S. The interview touches on questions related to the Consortium (composed of Dominion, AECL Technologies, the U.S. subsidiary of AECL, Hatachi America and Bechtel Power Corp.) and the DOE financial support involved (approximately 50%) along with comments related to job impacts, energy security and climate change impacts, human resource issues (particularly about getting high school students interested in jobs related to the nuclear industry) and public policy. The interview ends with a discussion of investment interest and the state of standardization in the industry

  15. Estimating Utility

    Arndt, Channing; Simler, Kenneth R.

    2010-01-01

    A fundamental premise of absolute poverty lines is that they represent the same level of utility through time and space. Disturbingly, a series of recent studies in middle- and low-income economies show that even carefully derived poverty lines rarely satisfy this premise. This article proposes a......, with the current approach tending to systematically overestimate (underestimate) poverty in urban (rural) zones.......A fundamental premise of absolute poverty lines is that they represent the same level of utility through time and space. Disturbingly, a series of recent studies in middle- and low-income economies show that even carefully derived poverty lines rarely satisfy this premise. This article proposes...... an information-theoretic approach to estimating cost-of-basic-needs (CBN) poverty lines that are utility consistent. Applications to date illustrate that utility-consistent poverty measurements derived from the proposed approach and those derived from current CBN best practices often differ substantially...

  16. Measuring the Company Performance

    Ion Stancu

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the logics of the efficient capital investment, the management of the investment of the saving capital in the company’s assets must conclude, on the end of the financial year, with a plus ofreal value (NPV > 0. From this point of view, in this paper we suggest the usage of an investment valuationmodel for the assessment of the company managerial and technological performance. Supposing the book value is a proxy of the just value (of assets and operational results and supposing the capital cost iscorrectly estimated, we evaluate the company’s performance both by the net present value model, and also by the company’s ability to create a surplus of the invested capital (NPV >0.Our paper also aims to identify the performance of the financial breakeven point (for which NPV is at least equal to zero as the minimum acceptable level for the company’s activity. Under this critical sales point, the company goes through the undervaluation of shareholders fortune even if the company’s sales are greater than accounting breakeven point. The performance’s activity level is one which the managers recover and surpass the cost of capital, cost which stand for the normal activity benchmark.The risks of applying of our suggested model we support go down to the confidence of accounting data and of the cost of capital estimating. In spite all of this, the usage of a sensitivity analysis to search anaverage NPV would leads to the company’s performance valuation within investment logic with a high information power.

  17. Measuring the Company Performance

    Ion Stancu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the logics of the efficient capital investment, the management of the investment of the saving capital in the company’s assets must conclude, on the end of the financial year, with a plus of real value (NPV > 0. From this point of view, in this paper we suggest the usage of an investment valuation model for the assessment of the company managerial and technological performance. Supposing the book value is a proxy of the just value (of assets and operational results and supposing the capital cost is correctly estimated, we evaluate the company’s performance both by the net present value model, and also by the company’s ability to create a surplus of the invested capital (NPV >0. Our paper also aims to identify the performance of the financial breakeven point (for which NPV is at least equal to zero as the minimum acceptable level for the company’s activity. Under this critical sales point, the company goes through the undervaluation of shareholders fortune even if the company’s sales are greater than accounting breakeven point. The performance’s activity level is one which the managers recover and surpass the cost of capital, cost which stand for the normal activity benchmark. The risks of applying of our suggested model we support go down to the confidence of accounting data and of the cost of capital estimating. In spite all of this, the usage of a sensitivity analysis to search an average NPV would leads to the company’s performance valuation within investment logic with a high information power.

  18. Public utilities with renewable energy sources. Proceedings; Stadtwerke mit Erneuerbaren Energien. Konferenzbeitraege

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Within the Second EUROSOLAR Conference of EUROSOLAR, the European Association for Renewable Energy (Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany) between 15th and 16th May, 2008, at the Waterworks Braunschweig (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) The municipal public utility: The paradigm shift from power distribution companies to municipal infrastructure provider (C. Jaenig); (2) Public utilities and their concepts (Z. Meszaros); (3) The BS Energy Group (U.Lehmann-Grube); (4) New ways with energy (T. Westerheide); (5) Public utilities and their concepts (R. Edzards); (6) Public utilities with renewable energy (P. Asmuth); (7) Total concept of the public utility Wolfhagen (M. Ruehl); (8) Municipal energy concepts for the expansion of the combined heat and power generation and renewable energies (J. van Bergen); (9) Storage of renewable energy (T. Blank); (10) Public utility as a confident partner of a renewable regional economy (R. Hemmers); (11) The regenerative combined cycle power plant (M. Meyr); (12) The solar power system of systaic (O. Achilles); (13) The concession contract as an instrument for restructuring (J. Schwarz); (14) EEG 2009, GasNZV and EEWaermeG: The changed legal framework as a chance for a restructured power generation (M. Altrock).

  19. Company Secretaries: Their duties and powers

    2009-01-01

    Every company must have a company secretary. Their main role is to: carry out the directors’ instructions; help ensure that the company obeys the law and its own constitutional rules; and prepare and maintain the associated company documents.

  20. Modeling renewable energy company risk

    Sadorsky, Perry

    2012-01-01

    The renewable energy sector is one of the fastest growing components of the energy industry and along with this increased demand for renewable energy there has been an increase in investing and financing activities. The tradeoff between risk and return in the renewable energy sector is, however, precarious. Renewable energy companies are often among the riskiest types of companies to invest in and for this reason it is necessary to have a good understanding of the risk factors. This paper uses a variable beta model to investigate the determinants of renewable energy company risk. The empirical results show that company sales growth has a negative impact on company risk while oil price increases have a positive impact on company risk. When oil price returns are positive and moderate, increases in sales growth can offset the impact of oil price returns and this leads to lower systematic risk.

  1. Coomunication Culture in a company

    M V Korotitskaya

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The article substantiates the interconnections between the level of communicative culture in a company and the level of management, which shows the investment and financial attractiveness of the enterprise. The article reveals principles and methods of sociocommunicative technology, whose application positively affects the state of communicative culture of within a company. Application examples of these principles and methods in management of power grid companies in the Belgorod region are also given.

  2. Benchmarking in Mobarakeh Steel Company

    Sasan Ghasemi; Mohammad Nazemi; Mehran Nejati

    2008-01-01

    Benchmarking is considered as one of the most effective ways of improving performance in companies. Although benchmarking in business organizations is a relatively new concept and practice, it has rapidly gained acceptance worldwide. This paper introduces the benchmarking project conducted in Esfahan's Mobarakeh Steel Company, as the first systematic benchmarking project conducted in Iran. It aims to share the process deployed for the benchmarking project in this company and illustrate how th...

  3. SKILLS MISMATCH OF THE YOUNG PEOPLE AT THE EUROPEAN LEVEL

    Hatos Roxana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Transition from school to work is a main issue with many fields of study. Studies on transition from school to work, have highlight the importance of two categories of factors at the level of the individual formal proceedings which may affect how easy it is to graduate to integrate into the labor market: 1 so far as the educational systems are transmitting specific competences as compared with those general and 2 so far as there are direct links between employers and the education system. In this way, are reduced the costs of selection and allocation for employers. A poor articulation between educational institutions and the labor market produce a high level of unmatched competences of assimilated by formal education and competencies required of the labor market (skill mismatch (Parodi et al., 2012. The surveys with European employers reflect particular difficulties that they are experiencing in employment vacancies. Investigation on the European companies in the spring of 2013 found that 40% of the firms in the EU have difficulty in finding employees with suitable qualification (CEDEFOP-European Center for the Development of the Vocational Training, 2014. Skills mismatch is a generic term that refers to various types of imbalances between skills and competences offered and those required in the labor market. Concept has become one intensely discussed and submitted to measurement in international research on the background concerns the under-utilization human resource. Numerous opinion polls with employers come to the same unexpected conclusion - that despite high unemployment many posts can't find occupants satisfactorily prepared and identify the causes: most of them criticized the lack of skills of the candidates or the absence of skills specific to the workplace. Based on the latest studies on international databases have built a set of questions that, through secondary analysis, we tried to find answers. Questions that we try to give answer

  4. Quality management in shipping companies

    Đergović Dragana M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As international business becomes more competitive, companies are finding that they need to work more effectively to stay in business. Quality assurance has become very important to the majority of production and service companies with international activity. Shipping companies were also required to implement a quality management system. The huge importance of safety in maritime transport operations resulted in the International Safety Management Code (ISM Code by the International Maritime Organization. The general management system principles embodied by the maritime ISM Code and generics ISO standards, have enabled their complementary application in establishing a quality management system in shipping companies, within a safety management system as its subset.

  5. The big shedding of the European refining

    Lepetit, V.

    2007-01-01

    Everywhere in Europe the oil companies are selling their refineries. Even if they work at full capacity, the interest of the European market is far below the one of Asia where demand is in full expansion and Middle-East where the raw matter is abundant. The world refining capacity is of 86 million barrel per day and should reach 106 million barrel per day in 2020. (J.S.)

  6. The Western European Mobile Service Market

    Henten, Anders; Tadayoni, Reza; Hjarup, Søren

    The aim of the paper is to analyse the development of the structure in the Western European mobile services market, based primarily on technological and economic parameters. The focus of the analysis is on the market consolidation process, taking place horizontally, i.e. among the mobile network...... operators, and on the new companies entering the mobile field vertically, delivering, e.g., content and portal services, as convergence with Internet develops....

  7. The European structural integrity research programme

    Townley, C.H.A.; Acker, D.; Laue, H.

    1990-01-01

    A thermal hydraulics evaluation of the European Fast Reactor (EFR) design followed by structural analysis is presented in this article to assess the structural integrity research programme to date. Improved design methods are being achieved as a result of the structural integrity programme for the EFR. Excellent collaboration between the nationally based research organizations and the design and construction companies has been important in achieving these improvements. (UK)

  8. NEW OFFSHORE LOCATIONS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    RADULESCU IRINA GABRIELA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The offshore activity provides benefits for the host market and has positive effects on services, and on producers that use intermediate services. FDI in services has an important impact on the offshore activity, especially through transfer of technology. Many transnational companies have recognized the advantages of offshoring and the fact that it becomes a key globalization force. Recently, the Central European countries have become popular destinations among offshoring

  9. A European Project SysPAQ

    Muller , Birgit; Dahms , Arne; Muller , Dirk; Knudsen , Henrik; Afshari , Alireza; Wargocki , Pawel; Olesen , Bjarne; Berglund , Brigitta; Ramalho , Olivier; Goschnick , Joachim; Jann , Oliver; Horn , Wolfgang; Nesa , Daniel; Chanier , Eric; Ruponen , Mika

    2007-01-01

    International audience; The European research project Innovative Sensor System for Measuring Perceived Air Quality and Brand Specific Odours (SysPAQ) is started under the VIth framework programme under the work programme "New and Emerging Science and Technology" (NEST PATHFINDER "Measuring the Impossible"). The Kick-of of the project was on the first of September 2006. Ten partners (3 Companies, 3 Universities, 4 research Institutes) from 5 countries are involved. The main goal of this projec...

  10. Impact of the legislation on electric utilities

    De Long, M.

    1982-01-01

    The possible impact of Federal nuclear waste legislation on electric utilities is discussed. The proposed legislation will set forth a well defined program enabling utilities with nuclear plants to make long term plans under a statutory mandate committed to an available technology and implementation timetable. The legislation includes the necessary specificity for the utility companies to fulfill their responsibilities in describing their waste disposal plans to their customers, the concerned public, and state and local legislators

  11. ENIQ: European Network for Inspection Qualification

    Champigny, F.; Crutzen, S.; Lemaitre, P.

    1995-01-01

    Many countries are currently considering their own approach to inspection qualification and are carefully assessing experience to date. ENIQ, which stands for European Network for Inspection Qualification, groups the major part of the utilities in Western Europe. The general objective of ENIQ is to coordinate and manage at European level expertise and resources for the assessment and qualification of NDE inspection techniques and procedures, primarily for nuclear components. Also non-nuclear heavy duty components will be considered. Within ENIQ there is a growing consensus of opinion on the general principles of a European approach towards inspection qualification. In this paper the main activities, organization and actual status of ENIQ will be discussed

  12. The Impact of the Macroeconomic Environment on Insurance Companies

    Čepeláková, Lenka

    2015-01-01

    i Abstract: This thesis assesses the impact of economic, institutional and demographic factors on the life and non-life gross written premiums of insurance companies. A dynamic panel data regression using the system generalized method of mo- ments is applied on data of 29 European countries collected by EIOPA covering the period from 2005 to 2013. The results reveal that economic and institutio- nal factors drive both life and non-life insurance industry. On the other hand, we cannot confirm ...

  13. Company profile VUJE

    Anon

    2007-01-01

    At the present time the whole world realizes the serious need for energy for the preservation of perpetually sustainable development. A distinctive place in the life of modern society belongs to electric energy,its safe production and reliable delivery according high standards of quality. When our company was established 30 years ago, we assumed research and development challenges directly related to the safe, reliable and economical production of electric energy from nuclear power plants, as well as the elimination of potential negative influences on the environment and employees. During our existence, we have gradually expanded our activities and specializations. Our first job was ti train plant personnel. We trained specialists to meet the needs not only of (what was then) Czechoslovakia, but also of Germany and Hungary. Gradually, we also met the problems of processing and storing radioactive waste, maintaining the service-life of our equipment and deactivating and disposing of contaminated devices at the end their operating lives. Industry requirements and concerns led us to broaden our services in energy production to include renewable sources of energy. Our youngest division of activity deals with the distribution of hydro-electrical energy via the electric grid. By continually updating the specialized skills of our elmasil and by investing in the latest equipment, our challenges and operational issues in the energy sector. Responding to developmental trends and the requirements of our consumers, we have established a system of quality management, which complies with the ISO 9001 and 14001 standards certified by the LRQA Corporation of Great Britain. Throughout the years, our company has been consistently proving to the operators of power facilities, both in Slovakia and abroad, our viability and high, innovative potential, in recognition of this, in 2005, when we participated in the sixth EU Framework Programme in R and D, the Slovak Ministry of Education

  14. Company profile VUJE

    Anon

    2007-01-01

    At the present time the whole world realizes the serious need for energy for the preservation of perpetually sustainable development. A distinctive place in the life of modern society belongs to electric energy,its safe production and reliable delivery according high standards of quality. When our company was established 30 years ago, we assumed research and development challenges directly related to the safe, reliable and economical production of electric energy from nuclear power plants, as well as the elimination of potential negative influences on the environment and employees. During our existence, we have gradually expanded our activities and specializations. Our first job was ti train plant personnel. We trained specialists to meet the needs not only of (what was then) Czechoslovakia, but also of Germany and Hungary. Gradually, we also met the problems of processing and storing radioactive waste, maintaining the service-life of our equipment and deactivating and disposing of contaminated devices at the end their operating lives. Industry requirements and concerns led use to broaden our services in energy production to include renewable sources of energy. Our youngest division of activity deals with the distribution of hydro-electrical energy via the electric grid. By continually updating the specialized skills of our employees and by investing in the latest equipment, our challenges and operational issues in the energy sector. Responding to developmental trends and the requirements of our consumers, we have established a system of quality management, which complies with the ISO 9001 and 14001 standards certified by the LRQA Corporation of Great Britain. Throughout the years, our company has been consistently proving to the operators of power facilities, both in Slovakia and abroad, our viability and high, innovative potential, in recognition of this, in 2005, when we participated in the sixth EU Framework Programme in R and D, the Slovak Ministry of

  15. Discerning a key characteristic of a European style of management: Managing the tension between integration opportunities and the constraining diversity in Europe

    Boone, Peter; Bosch, Frans

    1996-01-01

    textabstractIn 1991, Thurley and Wirdenius claimed that international companies operating in European countries could, and should, make a strategic choice whether or not to develop a "European" approach or style of management. After the acceptance of the Treaty of Maastricht, and with the new European Union preparing to absorb applicants from the European Free Trade Association, their claim is becoming even more important. Not surprisingly, a European style of management, or "European managem...

  16. Company Value Anatomy

    Luiz Nelson Guedes de Carvalho

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The seminal propositions by Modigliani and Miller started a new study area in modern finance theory. Over time, their basic assumptions were relaxed, to the extent that, nowadays, situations in which they can be fully applied, with consistent and satisfactory results, are rare. On the other hand, as this simple set of propositions became known worldwide and was easily applicable, it was adopted as a rule of thumb for general enterprise valuation. However, in situations without methodological bias, the resulting enterprise values obtained by traditional methodologies are abstruse and do not allow for the analysis and management of the individual values that make up the firm and own capital values. In order to avoid this kind of abstruseness in company valuation, this study theoretically deducts an alternative valuation methodology, which permits the identification of assets’ value independently of their financing; moreover, we identify the gain on debt value that the debt provides to the shareholders, the debt tax shield and the value loss of assets and tax shield due to the increase in shareholder risk because of the leverage capital structure.

  17. European Union funded project on the development of a whole complement deficiency screening ELISA

    Würzner, Reinhard; Tedesco, Francesco; Garred, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A whole complement ELISA-based assay kit, primarily designed to screen for deficiencies in components of the complement system was developed during a European Union grant involving more than a dozen European scientists and a small-medium enterprise company (Wieslab, which later merged into Eurodi......A whole complement ELISA-based assay kit, primarily designed to screen for deficiencies in components of the complement system was developed during a European Union grant involving more than a dozen European scientists and a small-medium enterprise company (Wieslab, which later merged...

  18. On the Creation, Utility and Sustaining of Rare Diseases Research Networks: Lessons learned from the Urea Cycle Disorders Consortium, the Japanese Urea Cycle Disorders Consortium and the European Registry and Network for Intoxication Type Metabolic Diseases.

    Summar, Marshall L; Endo, Fumio; Kölker, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The past two decades has seen a rapid expansion in the scientific and public interest in rare diseases and their treatment. One consequence of this has been the formation of registries/longitudinal natural history studies for these disorders. Given the expense and effort needed to develop and maintain such programs, we describe our experience with three linked registries on the same disease group, urea cycle disorders. The Urea Cycle Disorders Consortium (UCDC) was formed in the U.S. in 2003 in response to a request for application from the National Institutes of Health (NIH); the European Registry and Network for Intoxication Type Metabolic Diseases (E-IMD) was formed in 2011 in response to a request for applications from the Directorate-General for Health and Consumers (DG SANCO) of the EU; and the Japanese Urea Cycle Disorders Consortium (JUCDC) was founded in 2012 as a sister organization to the UCDC and E-IMD. The functions of these groups are to collect natural history data, educate the professional and lay population, develop and test new treatments, and establish networks of excellence for the care for these disorders. The UCDC and JUCDC focus exclusively on urea cycle disorders while the E-IMD includes patients with urea cycle disorders and organic acidurias. More than 1400 patients have been enrolled in the three consortia, and numerous projects have been developed and joint meetings held including an international UCDC/E-IMD/JUCDC Urea Cycle meeting in Barcelona in 2013. This article summarizes some of the experiences from the three groups regarding formation, funding, and models for sustainability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Utility of the American-European Consensus Group and American College of Rheumatology Classification Criteria for Sjögren's syndrome in patients with systemic autoimmune diseases in the clinical setting.

    Hernández-Molina, Gabriela; Avila-Casado, Carmen; Nuñez-Alvarez, Carlos; Cárdenas-Velázquez, Francisco; Hernández-Hernández, Carlos; Luisa Calderillo, María; Marroquín, Verónica; Recillas-Gispert, Claudia; Romero-Díaz, Juanita; Sánchez-Guerrero, Jorge

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and performance of the American-European Consensus Group (AECG) and ACR Classification Criteria for SS in patients with systemic autoimmune diseases. Three hundred and fifty patients with primary SS, SLE, RA or scleroderma were randomly selected from our patient registry. Each patient was clinically diagnosed as probable/definitive SS or non-SS following a standardized evaluation including clinical symptoms and manifestations, confirmatory tests, fluorescein staining test, autoantibodies, lip biopsy and medical chart review. Using the clinical diagnosis as the gold standard, the degree of agreement with each criteria set and between the criteria sets was estimated. One hundred fifty-four (44%) patients were diagnosed with SS. The AECG criteria were incomplete in 36 patients (10.3%) and the ACR criteria in 96 (27.4%; P vs 62.3 and a specificity of 94.3 vs 91.3, respectively. Either set of criteria was met by 123 patients (80%); 95 (61.7%) met the AECG criteria and 96 (62.3%) met the ACR criteria, but only 68 (44.2%) patients met both sets. The concordance rate between clinical diagnosis and AECG or ACR criteria was moderate (k statistic 0.58 and 0.55, respectively). Among 99 patients with definitive SS sensitivity was 83.3 vs 77.7 and specificity was 90.8 vs 85.6, respectively. A discrepancy between clinical diagnosis and criteria was seen in 59 patients (17%). The feasibility of the SS AECG criteria is superior to that of the ACR criteria, however, their performance was similar among patients with systemic autoimmune diseases. A subset of SS patients is still missed by both criteria sets. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Transforming Ontario's Power Generation Company

    Manley, J.; Epp, J.; Godsoe, P.C.

    2004-01-01

    The OPG Review Committee was formed by the Ontario Ministry of Energy to provide recommendations and advice on the future role of Ontario Power Generation Inc. (OPG) in the electricity sector. This report describes the future structure of OPG with reference to the appropriate corporate governance and senior management structure. It also discusses the potential refurbishing of the Pickering A nuclear generating Units 1, 2 and 3. The electricity system in Ontario is becoming increasingly fragile. The province relies heavily on electricity imports and the transmission system is being pushed to near capacity. Three nuclear generating units are out of service. The problems can be attributed to the fact that the electricity sector has been subjected to unpredictable policy changes for more than a decade, and that the largest electricity generator (OPG) has not been well governed. OPG has had frequent senior management change, accountability has been weak, and cost overruns have delayed the return to service of the Pickering nuclear power Unit 4. It was noted that the generating assets owned and operated by OPG are capable of providing more than 70 per cent of Ontario's electricity supply. Decisive action is needed now to avoid a potential supply shortage of about 5,000 to 7,000 megawatts by 2007. In its current state, OPG risks becoming a burden on ratepayers. Forty recommendations were presented, some of which suggest that OPG should become a rate-regulated commercial utility focused on running and maintaining its core generating assets. This would require that the government act as a shareholder, and the company operate like a commercial business. It was also emphasized that the market must be allowed to bring in new players. refs., tabs., figs

  1. Multiattribute Utility Theory without Expected Utility Foundations

    Stiggelbout, A.M.; Wakker, P.P.

    1995-01-01

    Methods for determining the form of utilities are needed for the implementation of utility theory in specific decisions. An important step forward was achieved when utility theorists characterized useful parametric families of utilities, and simplifying decompositions of multiattribute utilities.

  2. Multiattribute utility theory without expected utility foundations

    Wakker, P.P.; Miyamoto, J.

    1996-01-01

    Methods for determining the form of utilities are needed for the implementation of utility theory in specific decisions. An important step forward was achieved when utility theorists characterized useful parametric families of utilities, and simplifying decompositions of multiattribute utilities.

  3. Climate change and energy - 2005. European carbon factor 4

    2005-01-01

    This joint PWC/Enerpresse brochure publishes the 2004 results of a study about the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of the 23 main European electric power producers. The study shows a slight decay (-1%) of cumulated emissions of power companies with respect to 2003. These 23 companies represent 53% of the emissions of the power/heat sector in Europe (25 countries). (J.S.)

  4. Market opening: how will European gas supply evolve?

    Delon, Ch.

    1999-01-01

    With the implementation of the gas directive, European gas companies are facing many new challenges. Some concern the upstream gas sector in particular, notably with the new rules of competition in Europe, the changes in the structure of gas industries and their adaptation to the new Europe-wide market. For this first round table to the 116. gas conference, chaired by Sophie Mayeux, journalist and editor of the Est Eco journal, four representatives of major European companies and one representative of the banking sector examined the possible future scenarios for gas supply in Europe. (authors)

  5. Integrated pollution prevention and control scares industrial companies

    Zackova, K.; Sobinkovic, B.

    2003-01-01

    It will not be easy to obtain a permit to open a new industrial plant. And not only the new ones but all important operating industrial productions will require a so called integrated permit. Both authorities and company managers consider the validation process to be more demanding compared to the current procedure for obtaining a building or user permit. As of August 1, 2003 - the day a new Act on Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) is expected to enter into force - only integrated permits will be given. The related bill has been passed to the parliament for the second reading. As of end of April next year the future of 31 industrial plants will depend on whether they will be granted a integrated permit or not. IPPC is a terror for companies due to its seriousness, complexity and the relatively short time given, should they not manage to obtain a permit the plant may be closed down. The European Commission (EC) Directive 96/61/EC Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control raises the same concerns among companies in European Union (EU) member states. It is one of the most strict environmental standards and one of the sensitive conditions of EU entry. That is one of the reasons transition periods for this Directive were negotiated for ten Slovak companies. (Authors)

  6. A research company in transition

    Hatcher, S.R.

    1989-01-01

    The role of Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd's Research Company is to perform the research, development, demonstration and marketing needed to apply nuclear sciences and their associated technologies for the maximum benefit of Canada. This article by its president, Dr S R Hatcher, describes the Research Company as it attempts to fulfil its mission in very altered circumstances. (Author)

  7. Oil companies and human rights

    Chandler, Geoffrey

    1997-01-01

    This article highlights the need for oil companies in the future to take into account human rights in corporate decision making. The influence oil companies can bring to bear on government violating human rights, excuses for not voicing condemnation of abuses, and the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights are discussed. (UK)

  8. A strategy for company improvement.

    Howley, L

    2000-03-01

    Strategies based on the kaizen methodology are designed to continuously improve company performance without the need for large capital investments. This article looks at how one company used simple kaizen principles to its advantage, achieving 67% increase in productivity and 10% reduction in the standard cost of product.

  9. Company Development Through the Employees

    Møller, Niels; Hvenegaard, Hans; Limborg, Hans Jørgen

    2003-01-01

    Human Deveoplment and Working Life - Work for Welfare explores whether the development of human resources at company level can improve individuals' quality of life, companies' possibilities of development, and welfare and democracy in society. Chapter four documents the the proces and results...

  10. Environmental management system in companies

    Bonanno, C.

    1995-01-01

    The environmental management system, as the whole coordinated initiatives 'environmental oriented' introduced by companies in their organization, is discussed. Strategic weight that companies have to be present at the environmental management system is enlisted. Finally, the new professional figures of environmental technicians and environmental manager is discussed

  11. Organisational architectres of multinationale companies

    Křivanová, Jana

    2009-01-01

    At work I try to define a few concepts - globalization, multinational companies and organizational architecture. Should also bring the development and analyze the structures of multinational companies, and show their use in practice. Zoom in further development of organizational structures with regard to the global crisis.

  12. Responsibilities of Companies towards Employees

    Monray Marsellus Botha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Central to company law is the promotion of corporate governance. An important question in company law still today is in whose interest the company should be managed. Corporate governance needs to address the entire span of responsibilities to stakeholders of the company such as customers, employees, shareholders, suppliers and the community at large. The promotion of human rights in the application of company law must also take place. This is extremely important given the significant role of enterprises within the social and economic life of the nation. The interests of various stakeholder groups in the context of the corporation as a "social institution" should be enhanced and protected. Because corporations are part of society and the community, like all of us, it is required of them to be socially responsible and have greater accountability to all stakeholders of the company. Although directors must act in the best interests of shareholders collectively they must also consider the interests of other stakeholders. Sustainable relationships with all the relevant stakeholders are thus important. The advancement of social justice is thus important to corporations in that they should take note of the Constitution, labour legislation and company law legislation when social justice issues are dealt with. Employees have become very important stakeholders of companies and their needs should be taken into account in the bigger corporate governance and social responsibility framework.

  13. Company's Data Security - Case Study

    Stera, Piotr

    This paper describes a computer network and data security problems in an existing company. Two main issues were pointed out: data loss protection and uncontrolled data copying. Security system was designed and implemented. The system consists of many dedicated programs. This system protect from data loss and detected unauthorized file copying from company's server by a dishonest employee.

  14. Gamification in a Consulting Company

    Blaauw, Frank; Bazylevska, L.; Aiello, M.

    2014-01-01

    Gamification refers to the use of game-design elements in a non-gaming context. The consulting company Capgemini has set up a rudimentary Gamification platform to help motivating the people to do extra work for the company in their spare time. In order to re- ward people for this effort, they can

  15. 5th European Rheology Conference

    1998-01-01

    Global sustainable development of the world economy requires better understanding and utilization of natural recourses. In this endeavor rheology has an indispensable role. The Rheology Conferences are therefore always an important event for science and technology. The Fifth European Rheology Conference, held from September 6 to 11 in the Portoro-z, Slovenia, will be the first AlI-European rheology meeting after the formal constitution of the European Society ofRheology. As such it will be a special historical event. At this meeting the European Society of Rheology will introduce the Weissenberg Medal, to be bestowed every four years to an individual for hislhers contribution to the field of Rheology. The recipient ofthe first award will be professor G. Marrucci ofthe Universita degli Studi di Napoli, Italy. Two mini Symposia will be part of the Conference. The first, on Industrial Rheology, will commemorate the late professor G. Astarita. The second will honor the eightieth birthday of professor N.W. Tschoeg...

  16. E-Commerce for utilities

    Malicky, M. [Metzler and Associates, Deerfield, IL (United States)

    1999-07-01

    The use of E-Commerce by energy utility and service companies was discussed. E-Commerce was described as being all communication via the web including Internet, Intranet and Extranet. E-Commerce communication includes the exchange of information, data, money services, products, ideas, conversations, knowledge, inventory and events. E-Commerce can be applied to electric and gas utilities to enhance energy marketing, delivery, retail energy, energy services, retail services and customer satisfaction. This means of communication is quickly becoming an essential part of customer care strategy. It reduces costs and improves performance. It was forecasted that E-Commerce will more than double from 1998 to 2001. 15 refs.

  17. European needs for uranium in relation to world supply and demand

    Davis, M.

    1977-01-01

    The paper explains why Western Europe, and in particular the European Community, is engaged in an important diversification of energy sources to nuclear generated electricity. The resulting Western European demand for uranium (most of which will have to be imported) is quantified and discussed in relation to the needs of North America and Japan and the latest estimates of world uranium resources and production capability. The European Community will be the largest purchaser of uranium from a variety of sources on the world market. It is shown that the lower limits of past estimates for uranium demand appear to be the most reliable so far; the causes and effects of uncertainty for the future are outlined; and the need for exploration is emphasized. It is maintained that although close collaboration between electricity utilities and mining companies is highly desirable, the goal of an orderly market (which should be achievable for uranium) will not be achieved without a positive and constructive contribution being made by public authorities. (author)

  18. The storage location assignment problem: application in an agribusiness company

    Helton C. Gomes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work is propose an efficient storage scheme for a company in the agribusiness sector. The company studied herein is located in the Alto Paranaíba region of Minas Gerais, and exports coffee beans. Efficient storage can provide improvements in the use of space, operational resources, and staff time, as well as facilitating the order picking process. To accomplish this, the problem was mathematically modeled as a Storage Location Assignment Problem (SLAP, aimed at minimizing handling costs and maximizing space utilization and storage efficiency. The mathematical model using the company data was solved using the CPLEX solver, version 12.1. The results obtained were compared with the actual company scenario, and several advantages were observed.

  19. FINANCIAL ANALYSIS FUNDAMENT FOR ASSESSMENT THE COMPANY'S VALUE

    Goran Karanovic

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Lack of capital market development cause that calculating the value of companies in the small markets, such as the Croatian market, is carried out primarily from the analysis of financial statements. Lack of market development is evident from the unrealistic and unobjective corporate values, as result of too small volumeof securities trading in financial markets. The primary financial analysis is the basic method for estimating company value, and represents the foundation for an objective determination of cash flow components that will be discounted. Trought analysis investors are trying to answer the questions such as: status of the assets,liabilities and capital, the dynamics of business enterprises, the level of solvency and liquidity, utilization of fixed assets, contribution of fixed assets in total income, company profitability rates and investment in the company. Investors use financial analysis only as a basis and as a tool to predict the potential for creating new business value.

  20. Orchestration of Globally Distributed Knowledge for Innovation in Multinational Companies

    Sajadirad, Solmaz; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann

    Conducting a multiple-case study in five companies from Danish industry, this paper explores how multinational companies orchestrate knowledge from their globally distributed subsidiaries for innovation. Comparisons of knowledge orchestration within headquarter and subsidiaries for improvement...... and innovation show that a combination of the dynamic use of inter-firm objects and a well-established knowledge orchestration process underlies knowledge orchestration for innovation in multinational companies, as it advances headquarters’ abilities to effectively acquire, evaluate, disseminate, and utilize...... globally distributed knowledge. This study contributes to the understanding of knowledge orchestration between headquarter and distributed subsidiaries in multinational companies and how it is related to innovation. Specifically, this paper has important implications regarding the use of inter-firm objects...

  1. Industrial conflict and its management in selected Nigerian manufacturing companies

    Solaja Oludele Mayowa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined industrial conflict and its management strategies in selected manufacturing companies in Lagos State, Nigeria. The study utilized co-relational survey method which involves the use of structured questionnaire and personal observation to elicit information from the respondents. Participants comprised of staffs of three manufacturing companies in Lagos, Nigeria. Multistage sampling technique was employed in selecting the respondents from the three manufacturing companies under the study. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistic including tables, frequency counts, and percentages as well as mean scores. The findings revealed that the causes of conflict in manufacturing companies in Lagos State, Nigeria include poor means of communicating grievances to top managers, unfavorable economic and industrial policies, poor employee compensation and welfare among others. Therefore, this study concluded that managers should combine strategies such as bargaining, collaboration and avoidance when dealing with industrial conflict to maintain cordial and productive labour-management relationship.

  2. Clean energy utilization technology

    Honma, Takuya

    1992-01-01

    The technical development of clean energy including the utilization of solar energy was begun in 1973 at the time of the oil crisis, and about 20 years elapsed. Also in Japan, the electric power buying system by electric power companies for solar light electric power and wind electric power has been started in 1992, namely their value as a merchandise was recognized. As for these two technologies, the works of making the international standards and JIS were begun. The range of clean energy or natural energy is wide, and its kinds are many. The utilization of solar heat and the electric power generation utilizing waves, tide and geotherm already reached the stage of practical use. Generally in order to practically use new energy, the problem of price must be solved, but the price is largely dependent on the degree of spread. Also the reliability, durability and safety must be ensured, and the easiness of use, effectiveness and trouble-saving maintenance and operation are required. For the purpose, it is important to packaging those skillfully in a system. The cases of intelligent natural energy systems are shown. Solar light and wind electric power generation systems and the technology of transporting clean energy are described. (K.I.)

  3. Towards Sustainable Marketing: Strategy in Slovak Companies

    Juraj Chebeň

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the growing attention that is being paid to sustainability in the literature, little empirical research has been conducted on developing the link between sustainability and marketing strategy and moreover, only a few empirical studies have investigated this issue in Central and Eastern Europe. The conducted empirical survey examines the relationship between marketing strategy and sustainability from the perspective of enterprises in Slovakia. The authors have used binary logistic regression as an evaluation method. The empirical findings are based on 896 responses from different forms of companies in Slovak Republic. The results show that the legal form of a business organization is a relevant determinant of philosophy of sustainability when organization defines a marketing strategy and implements it into corporate strategy. Based on the results it can also be concluded that the environmental aspect of sustainability is determined by the size of organization and the sector of national economy where a company operates, while the social aspect is mainly determined by the share of foreign capital in the ownership structure of an organisation. This study contributes to the European research that studies the relation between sustainability and the marketing strategy by means of an empirical investigation in business organisations in a transition economy such as Slovakia.

  4. Production and Logistics Performance of Czech and Slovak Companies

    Polakova Veronika

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This contribution deals with the issues of production and logistics performance of Czech and Slovak companies. The goal of the research was to analyze logistic processes, methods of industrial engineering, methods and evaluation of manufacturing, software tools utilized for measurement and management of performance, which are currently applied in manufacturing companies in the Czech and Slovak Republic. This analysis was done with the utilization of qualitativeresearch conducted in 80 selected manufacturing companies in 2009. The results are compared in the continuity with the conclusions from previous researches on manufacturing and logistic factors of the competitiveness of Czech industrial manufacturers carried out during the period 2000-2001 in the framework of the research project of the Faculty of Economics and Management completed in 2004.

  5. EUROPEAN HARMONIZATION OF CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS REGULATIONS?

    Cirstea Andreea

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the degree of formal accounting harmonization within the European Union with respect to the EC Regulation No. 1606/2002 adopted by the European Parliament and European Council on the 19th of July 2002, which regulates the application of IAS/IFRS regarding the financial reporting of listed European companies. The conclusions of the paper were drawn after the completion of a thorough analysis performed by using correlation and/ or association coefficients, namely: the Jaccard’s Correlation Coefficients, Rogers and Tanimoto Coefficient, Lance and Williams Coefficient and Binary Euclidian Distance Coefficient. The results lead us to conclude that although our first hypothesis is verified, the degree of harmonization between the accounting systems of EU Member States could be truly quantified only through an analysis of the material accounting harmonization, more precisely by analyzing the way the companies put into practice the requirements imposed through the EC Regulation No. 1606/2002.

  6. Plant design and beam utilization

    Svendsen, E.B.

    1983-01-01

    Plant design and beam utilization are two things closely tied together: without a proper plant design, one can never get good beam utilization. When a company decides to build an irradiation facility, there are some major decisions to be made right in the beginning. These decisions can be most important for the long-term success or failure of the irradiation facility, because the company normally will have to live with these decisions during the whole life-time of the irradiation equipment. To start with the decision has to be made whether to select a cobalt-60 irradiation plant or an accelerator irradiation plant. This decision can only be reached after a careful study of the products and the 'weight' and the material of the products the company wants to irradiate. As an old accelerator-man, I tend to personally favor accelerators, although I am very impressed by the newer cobalt-60 pallet irradiation plants from A.E.C.L. I believe that they have a great future in the emerging field of food irradiation. As I have primarily been involved with accelerators during the last 14 years, this paper is only dealing with different design approaches and utilizations of accelerator-plants. (author)

  7. THE STEEL EUROPEAN STOCK MARKET EFFICIENCY

    Viorica CHIRILA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Testing the hypothesis of informational efficiency is a permanent preoccupation of researchers because the theories and the models of modern finance are based on it. This paper presents the results obtained after testing the efficiency hypothesis, in the weak form, for the European stock market of the companies that belong to the economic steel sub-sector. Following the use of both linear and non-linear tests of autocorrelation of returns we can conclude that the European stock market in the economic steel sub-sector is inefficient from an informational point of view and the investors in these stocks may obtain better results than those of the European market in general.

  8. The European hadron therapy community touches base

    Audrey Ballantine, Manuela Cirilli, Evangelia Dimovasili, Manjit Dosanjh, Seamus Hegarty

    2010-01-01

    The European hadron therapy community gathered in Stockholm from 3 to 5 September for the annual ENLIGHT workshops. Three of the four EC-funded projects born under the umbrella of ENLIGHT (see box) were discussed in the prestigious Nobel Forum at the Karolinska Institutet.   Souvenir photo from the ENLIGHT workshops On its second birthday, the PARTNER Initial Training Network was especially under the spotlight, as the European Commission conducted a formal project review bringing together the institutes, companies and young researchers involved. The 21 PARTNER researchers experienced the thrill of presenting their work in this privileged setting. During the coffee breaks, they joked about this being their only chance in life to speak in the Nobel Forum – but who knows what these brilliant young minds will achieve! They certainly impressed the European Commission’s Project Officer Gianluca Coluccio and Expert Reviewer Kaisa Hellevuo, who stated that PARTNER is a showcase proj...

  9. LDHI opportunities for offshore European production

    Clark, L. W.; Anderson, J.; Frostman, L.; Poynton, N.

    2006-03-15

    Low Dosage Hydrate Inhibitors (LDHIs) are gaining worldwide acceptance as a viable alternative to the more conventional methods of hydrate flow assurance control. Use of this LDHI technology in the European area is becoming more common as operators are beginning to implement and gain from the advantages of LDHIs. This paper will review the basic applicability of the various LDHIs and will review LDHI case histories worldwide in order to show how this technology could be implemented to a greater extent into European production systems. Case histories will illustrate the use and advantages of multifunctional products indicating how operating companies can reduce operating costs and capital expenditure through their implementation. Differing production scenarios will be covered indicating how different LDHIs can be used to cover a range of applications in the field, such as those found in the European region. These will cover both the use of Anti-Agglomerants (AA) and Kinetic Hydrate Inhibitors (KHI). (Author)

  10. About the interest of an agreement for a european passport for workers in european regulated nuclear installations

    Gorin, M.; Bailloeuil, C.; Petrequin, A.

    2002-01-01

    The European directive 96/29 applicable to EU member states is, or will be transposed in each country according to national conditions which could prove to be more restrictive than the demands of the directive. Additionally, specific organisations in each country, reinforce the disparities where radioprotection, and medical and dosimetric follow-up are concerned. In April 2001, on the initiative of a group of French company medical officers (EDF CEA COGEMA), a meeting with company medical officers from various member states of the EEC: Great Britain, Italy, Spain, Belgium, Germany, was organised in order to bring to attention the issue of the movement of contract workers in European regulated nuclear installations

  11. Radiological protection. Responsibility of the Safety Engineering Company

    Netto, A.L.

    1987-01-01

    This subject takes care of the Safety Engineering at the Radiologic Protection area on the X and Gama Rays Services. It mainly emphasis the case of that companies that, due do not have proper X and Gama Rays Services utilize partime task force on this area, but answer themselves for the safety of their employees in case of any accident occurence. (author) [pt

  12. Valuation of Company Merger from the Shareholders’ Point of View

    Christian Toll

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available By means of a company merger formerly legally and economically independent companies are tied up to an economic entity. To order the financial state of affairs after the merger, the current shareholders must revalue their stake in the merged company. The interest is focused on the valuation of shares and, consequently, on the allocation of the future economic benefits of the merged company to each owner. Despite the apparent relevance of company mergers in practice, the scientific literature deals with this topic only in an unsatisfying manner. After some early simple model-oriented approaches with the aim to define an ideal exchange ratio, the valuation problem of a merger was taken up again not earlier than in Hering (2004. Based on his considerations, the aim of our paper is to extend and generalize the valuation methods for a company merger and foremost to set the algebra for the computation of the critical share by using maximization of wealth as target function on a firm foundation. We assign a certain marginal quota to the shareholders representing the minimum share in the merged company which puts them in a financial position no worse than compared to the going concern basis. For this reason, we introduce the state marginal quota model as an innovative valuation approach that considers both existing market imperfections and individual expectations of a specific shareholder. To pinpoint our key finding: If private financial redistributions are available, our extended and generalized model shows that the marginal quota * in question cannot be “trivially” obtained as a ratio of utilities. Instead, it is essential to consider the private decision field of a shareholder to allow a restructuring of the dividend payout stream offered by the merged company in order to reach at least a level of utility which is comparable to the state before the merger.

  13. The Utilization of CRM in Small Business

    Leimu, Santeri

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to explore how a small-size company could utilize Customer Relationship Management theories for being more successful in their business. The main objective was to create a model for the case company based on CRM theories itself as well as empirical observations. The case company’s field of business is in inspections of global import and export trade. The amount of employees is less than ten. Work in the company divides into two sections, i.e. office work and...

  14. Municipal climate protection as a measure for sustainable energy supply under the conditions of globalization and liberalization? An empirical investigation considering the municipal actors and public utility companies; Kommunaler Klimaschutz als Instrument einer nachhaltigen Energieversorgung unter den Bedingungen von Globalisierung und Liberalisierung? Eine empirische Untersuchung unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung der Akteure Kommune und Stadtwerke

    Bielitza-Mimjaehner, Ralf

    2007-03-01

    With the background of the threatening global warming that requires a reduction of greenhouse gas emission by 20 % until 2010 und by 80% until 2050 in Germany, t is reasonable to consider local or municipal climate protection activities. A climate protection politics ''from the bottom'' is not only contributing to a real greenhouse gas reduction, but also triggering the stagnant international climate politics and enhances the sustainable development on a local level. Due to this fact amongst others the Enquete commission of the German Bundestag ''sustainable energy supply under the conditions of globalization and liberalization'' identifies the municipal climate protection activities as important part within the mix of measures that will allow the initiation of an alteration of the actual energy system toward a sustainable energy supply in the long-run. The consequences of globalization and liberalization on the municipal level have not yet been discussed or considered by the Enquete commission. This thesis analyses the conditions induced by the globalization and liberalization on the municipal climate protection activities as constituent of a sustainable energy supply. The project is focusing on the municipal actors and the public utility companies as central point of the considerations. [German] Vor dem Hintergrund einer drohenden globalen Erwaermung, die eine Reduktion der klimawirksamen Treibhausgase bundesweit um 20 % bis 2010 und um 80 % bis 2050 noetig macht, sind Klimaschutzaktivitaeten auf einer lokalen oder kommunalen Ebene in mehreren Dimensionen sinnvoll. Den tatsaechlichen, bezifferbaren Reduktionen von CO2, die hier geleistet werden, gesellt sich ein ''vorbildhafter'' Druck auf eine stockende internationale Klimapolitik hinzu, ebenso leistet die ''Klimaschutzpolitik von unten'' einer nachhaltigen Entwicklung der lokalen Ebene durch Lerneffekte Vorschub. Unter anderem aus

  15. Europeans come together on qualification

    Whittle, J.

    1996-01-01

    Utilities operating nuclear power plants in Europe have formed the European Network for Inspection Qualification (ENIQ) to produce a common approach to demonstrating that non-destructive testing is capable providing the information to ensure the absence of significant defects in nuclear plants. Major developments over recent months have included the issue by ENIQ of a formal document defining the methodology for the conduct of qualification which sets out the principles that detailed systems, within an individual country context, should embody. A pilot study on pipe welds typical of those in BWR recirculation loops is being conducted to explore the issues involved in the practical application of the methodology. In parallel with ENIQ, the European Nuclear Regulators Working Group has set up a Task Force in an attempt to define a common regulatory position on non-destructive testing qualifications and has produced its own document which is wider in scope than that of ENIQ. (UK)

  16. European public information activities

    Gauvenet, A.J.

    1975-01-01

    The opposition to nuclear energy in Europe evolved along with some collective phenomena, such as the greater preoccupation toward environment, that began primarily in the U. S. Everywhere people are demanding more information and a greater participation in decision-making processes. Controversy is being strengthened by this trend toward ''direct democracy''; this was particularly perceptible in centralized countries such as France, but was also apparent in such federal countries as Germany and Switzerland. Proper information cannot be easily dispensed in such an overheated atmosphere. The role of mass media has been and will be very important, but the media usually prefer broadcasting the alarming rather than the reassuring news. The credibility of information sources is a major point. State-owned utilities (in Britain or France) draw some benefit from their financial independence, although they are considered as responsible for decisions on nuclear projects. Atomic energy commissions and ministerial licensing or controlling bodies remain independent from the industrial companies. Scientific associations are not greatly developed in Europe although the situation is beginning to change. Presently, it seems essential to rely on such intermediate bodies as physicians, politicians, and university professors to inform the man in the street

  17. Saving Energy in Industrial Companies: Case Studies of Energy Efficiency Programs in Large U.S. Industrial Corporations and the Role of Ratepayer-Funded Support

    None, None

    2017-03-08

    This paper is designed for companies looking to cut costs through energy savings, ratepayer-funded program administrators interested in increasing large industrial company participation in energy efficiency program offerings, and state utility commissions.

  18. Survey on the Use of LCA in European Chemical Industry

    Olsen, Stig Irving

    1999-01-01

    During 1997 a questionnaire was sent to 40 European chemical manufacturers representing different positions in the supply chain. 25 companies (62.5%) responded, of which 23 had been involved in LCA to some degree. The questionnaire consisted of 30 questions divided into four parts dealing...... industry has taken up the LCA methodology and is testing its applicability for their purposes, although they still feel the methodology is a bit immature. The resources devoted to LCA depends to a great extent on the company's position in the supply chain and on the size of the company. Many of the LCA...

  19. Aerojet Energy Conversion Company mobile volume reduction system

    Smith, K.R.

    1984-01-01

    Over the past few years, rapidly increasing costs for the disposal of low level radioactive waste (LLW) have generated the need for utilities to volume-reduce their LLW prior to shipment and burial. Incineration systems have been selected by several utilities to fulfill this need for maximum volume reduction. Until recently, all of the incineration systems selected by utilities were designed to be housed and operated in a facility erected by the utility. Now, however, lack of capital and rising design/erection costs are causing utilities to reevaluate their plans for purchasing incineration systems to process their LLW. The result is a growing demand for incineration services. Once again, Commonwealth Edison Company (Com-Ed) is leading the industry with an ongoing program to utilize incineration services provided by Aerojet Energy Conversion Company (AECC) for the Dresden Quad Cities, LaSalle, and Zion Nuclear Stations. At the stations, combustible dry active waste and contaminated oil will be processed in a Mobile Volume Reduction System (MVRS) designed and fabricated by AECC. The MVRS is a totally self-contained system consisting of a controlled-air incinerator and a liquid offgas cleanup system. No buildings are required to house the system, and the MVRS achieves volume reduction factors similar to systems currently available for permanent in-plant installation. The result is an option for the utility having the benefits of volume reduction without the capital commitment normally required by the utility

  20. European Vegetation Archive (EVA)

    Chytrý, Milan; Hennekens, S.M.; Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja; Schaminée, J.H.J.; Haveman, Rense; Janssen, J.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The European Vegetation Archive (EVA) is a centralized database of European vegetation plots developed by the IAVS Working Group European Vegetation Survey. It has been in development since 2012 and first made available for use in research projects in 2014. It stores copies of national and