WorldWideScience

Sample records for compact supermassive binary

  1. Imaging Compact Supermassive Binary Black Holes with Very Long Baseline Interferometry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Taylor, G. B; Rodriguez, C; Zavala, R. T; Peck, A. B; Pollack, L. K; Romani, R. W

    2007-01-01

    .... These results are based upon multi-frequency imaging using the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) which reveal two compact, variable, at-spectrum, active nuclei within the elliptical host galaxy of 0402...

  2. GALAXY ROTATION AND RAPID SUPERMASSIVE BINARY COALESCENCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Khan, Fazeel Mahmood, E-mail: k.holley@vanderbilt.edu [Institute of Space Technology (IST), Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2015-09-10

    Galaxy mergers usher the supermassive black hole (SMBH) in each galaxy to the center of the potential, where they form an SMBH binary. The binary orbit shrinks by ejecting stars via three-body scattering, but ample work has shown that in spherical galaxy models, the binary separation stalls after ejecting all the stars in its loss cone—this is the well-known final parsec problem. However, it has been shown that SMBH binaries in non-spherical galactic nuclei harden at a nearly constant rate until reaching the gravitational wave regime. Here we use a suite of direct N-body simulations to follow SMBH binary evolution in both corotating and counterrotating flattened galaxy models. For N > 500 K, we find that the evolution of the SMBH binary is convergent and is independent of the particle number. Rotation in general increases the hardening rate of SMBH binaries even more effectively than galaxy geometry alone. SMBH binary hardening rates are similar for co- and counterrotating galaxies. In the corotating case, the center of mass of the SMBH binary settles into an orbit that is in corotation resonance with the background rotating model, and the coalescence time is roughly a few 100 Myr faster than a non-rotating flattened model. We find that counterrotation drives SMBHs to coalesce on a nearly radial orbit promptly after forming a hard binary. We discuss the implications for gravitational wave astronomy, hypervelocity star production, and the effect on the structure of the host galaxy.

  3. GALAXY ROTATION AND RAPID SUPERMASSIVE BINARY COALESCENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Khan, Fazeel Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    Galaxy mergers usher the supermassive black hole (SMBH) in each galaxy to the center of the potential, where they form an SMBH binary. The binary orbit shrinks by ejecting stars via three-body scattering, but ample work has shown that in spherical galaxy models, the binary separation stalls after ejecting all the stars in its loss cone—this is the well-known final parsec problem. However, it has been shown that SMBH binaries in non-spherical galactic nuclei harden at a nearly constant rate until reaching the gravitational wave regime. Here we use a suite of direct N-body simulations to follow SMBH binary evolution in both corotating and counterrotating flattened galaxy models. For N > 500 K, we find that the evolution of the SMBH binary is convergent and is independent of the particle number. Rotation in general increases the hardening rate of SMBH binaries even more effectively than galaxy geometry alone. SMBH binary hardening rates are similar for co- and counterrotating galaxies. In the corotating case, the center of mass of the SMBH binary settles into an orbit that is in corotation resonance with the background rotating model, and the coalescence time is roughly a few 100 Myr faster than a non-rotating flattened model. We find that counterrotation drives SMBHs to coalesce on a nearly radial orbit promptly after forming a hard binary. We discuss the implications for gravitational wave astronomy, hypervelocity star production, and the effect on the structure of the host galaxy

  4. Modeling AGN outbursts from supermassive black hole binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka T.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available When galaxies merge to assemble more massive galaxies, their nuclear supermassive black holes (SMBHs should form bound binaries. As these interact with their stellar and gaseous environments, they will become increasingly compact, culminating in inspiral and coalescence through the emission of gravitational radiation. Because galaxy mergers and interactions are also thought to fuel star formation and nuclear black hole activity, it is plausible that such binaries would lie in gas-rich environments and power active galactic nuclei (AGN. The primary difference is that these binaries have gravitational potentials that vary – through their orbital motion as well as their orbital evolution – on humanly tractable timescales, and are thus excellent candidates to give rise to coherent AGN variability in the form of outbursts and recurrent transients. Although such electromagnetic signatures would be ideally observed concomitantly with the binary’s gravitational-wave signatures, they are also likely to be discovered serendipitously in wide-field, high-cadence surveys; some may even be confused for stellar tidal disruption events. I discuss several types of possible “smoking gun” AGN signatures caused by the peculiar geometry predicted for accretion disks around SMBH binaries.

  5. Binary pairs of supermassive black holes - Formation in merging galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valtaoja, L.; Valtonen, M.J.; Byrd, G.G. (Turku Univ. (Finland); Alabama Univ., Tuscaloosa (USA))

    1989-08-01

    A process in which supermassive binary blackholes are formed in nuclei of supergiant galaxies due to galaxy mergers is examined. There is growing evidence that mergers of galaxies are common and that supermassive black holes in center of galaxies are also common. Consequently, it is expected that binary black holes should arise in connection with galaxy mergers. The merger process in a galaxy modeled after M87 is considered. The capture probability of a companion is derived as a function of its mass. Assuming a correlation between the galaxy mass and the blackholes mass, the expected mass ratio in binary black holes is calculated. The binary black holes formed in this process are long lived, surviving longer than the Hubble time unless they are perturbed by black holes from successive mergers. The properties of these binaries agree with Gaskell's (1988) observational work on quasars and its interpretation in terms of binary black holes. 39 refs.

  6. EFFICIENT MERGER OF BINARY SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES IN MERGING GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Fazeel Mahmood; Just, Andreas; Merritt, David

    2011-01-01

    In spherical galaxies, binary supermassive black holes (SMBHs) have difficulty reaching sub-parsec separations due to depletion of stars on orbits that intersect the massive binary-the 'final parsec problem'. Galaxies that form via major mergers are substantially non-spherical, and it has been argued that the centrophilic orbits in triaxial galaxies might provide stars to the massive binary at a high enough rate to avoid stalling. Here we test that idea by carrying out fully self-consistent merger simulations of galaxies containing central SMBHs. We find hardening rates of the massive binaries that are indeed much higher than in spherical models and essentially independent of the number of particles used in the simulations. Binary eccentricities remain high throughout the simulations. Our results constitute a fully stellar-dynamical solution to the final parsec problem and imply a potentially high rate of events for low-frequency gravitational wave detectors like LISA.

  7. ASTRONOMICAL PLATE ARCHIVES AND SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE BINARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Hudec

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent extensive digitisation of astronomical photographic plate archives, the development of new dedicated software and the use of powerful computers have for the first time enabled effective data mining in extensive plate databases, with wide applications in various fields of recent astrophysics. As an example, analyses of supermassive binary black holes (binary blazars require very long time intervals (50 years and more, which cannot be provided by other data sources. Examples of data obtained from data mining in plate archives are presented and briefly discussed.

  8. Searching for Signatures of Supermassive Black Hole Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Megan; Gezari, Suvi; Liu, Tingting

    2018-01-01

    Theoretical studies suggest that supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs) are an inevitable consequence of major galaxy mergers. Additionally, as SMBHBs coalesce they are expected to be sources of tremendous gravitational wave emission. Interest in these sources motivates the search for detection of the first definitive SMBHB and observational signatures to methodize the search. We present spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for a sample of candidate SMBHBs selected from quasars demonstrating optical periodic variability from the Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey. The SEDs were constructed using existing archival data spanning from radio to X-ray emission. For each candidate SMBHB, we also present models of the theoretical spectrum emitted from the circumbinary and minidisks of the SMBHB system using the predictions of Roedig et al. (2014) and inferred parameters of the candidates (combined mass, mass ratio, binary separation, accretion rate). We compare the observational SED for each source to its respective binary model as well as to the expected mean SED of a normal non-binary system quasar to look for supporting evidence of a SMBHB system. This project was supported in part by the NSF REU grant AST-1358980 and by the Nantucket Maria Mitchell Association.

  9. The birth of a supermassive black hole binary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Hugo; Lupi, Alessandro; Capelo, Pedro R.; Volonteri, Marta; Bellovary, Jillian M.; Dotti, Massimo

    2017-11-01

    We study the dynamical evolution of supermassive black holes, in the late stage of galaxy mergers, from kpc to pc scales. In particular, we capture the formation of the binary, a necessary step before the final coalescence, and trace back the main processes causing the decay of the orbit. We use hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy mergers with different resolutions, from 20 pc down to 1 pc, in order to study the effects of the resolution on our results, remove numerical effects, and assess that resolving the influence radius of the orbiting black hole is a minimum condition to fully capture the formation of the binary. Our simulations include the relevant physical processes, namely star formation, supernova feedback, accretion on to the black holes and the ensuing feedback. We find that, in these mergers, dynamical friction from the smooth stellar component of the nucleus is the main process that drives black holes from kpc to pc scales. Gas does not play a crucial role and even clumps do not induce scattering or perturb the orbits. We compare the time needed for the formation of the binary to analytical predictions and suggest how to apply such analytical formalism to obtain estimates of binary formation times in lower resolution simulations.

  10. H I OBSERVATIONS OF THE SUPERMASSIVE BINARY BLACK HOLE SYSTEM IN 0402+379

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, C.; Taylor, G. B.; Pihlstroem, Y. M.; Zavala, R. T.; Peck, A. B.

    2009-01-01

    We have recently discovered a supermassive binary black hole system with a projected separation between the two black holes of 7.3 pc in the radio galaxy 0402+379 (Rodriguez et al. 2006). This is the most compact supermassive binary black hole pair yet imaged by more than two orders of magnitude. We present Global VLBI observations at 1.3464 GHz of this radio galaxy, taken to improve the quality of the H I data. Two absorption lines are found toward the southern jet of the source, one redshifted by 370 ± 10 km s -1 and the other blueshifted by 700 ± 10 km s -1 with respect to the systemic velocity of the source, which, along with the results obtained for the opacity distribution over the source, suggests the presence of two mass clumps rotating around the central region of the source. We propose a model consisting of a geometrically thick disk, of which we only see a couple of clumps, that reproduces the velocities measured from the H I absorption profiles. These clumps rotate in circular Keplerian orbits around an axis that crosses one of the supermassive black holes of the binary system in 0402+379. We find an upper limit for the inclination angle of the twin jets of the source to the line of sight of θ = 66 deg., which, according to the proposed model, implies a lower limit on the central mass of ∼7 x 10 8 M sun and a lower limit for the scale height of the thick disk of ∼12 pc.

  11. Evolution of Binary Supermassive Black Holes in Rotating Nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasskazov, Alexander; Merritt, David [School of Physics and Astronomy and Center for Computational Relativity and Gravitation, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States)

    2017-03-10

    The interaction of a binary supermassive black hole with stars in a galactic nucleus can result in changes to all the elements of the binary’s orbit, including the angles that define its orientation. If the nucleus is rotating, the orientation changes can be large, causing large changes in the binary’s orbital eccentricity as well. We present a general treatment of this problem based on the Fokker–Planck equation for f , defined as the probability distribution for the binary’s orbital elements. First- and second-order diffusion coefficients are derived for the orbital elements of the binary using numerical scattering experiments, and analytic approximations are presented for some of these coefficients. Solutions of the Fokker–Planck equation are then derived under various assumptions about the initial rotational state of the nucleus and the binary hardening rate. We find that the evolution of the orbital elements can become qualitatively different when we introduce nuclear rotation: (1) the orientation of the binary’s orbit evolves toward alignment with the plane of rotation of the nucleus and (2) binary orbital eccentricity decreases for aligned binaries and increases for counteraligned ones. We find that the diffusive (random-walk) component of a binary’s evolution is small in nuclei with non-negligible rotation, and we derive the time-evolution equations for the semimajor axis, eccentricity, and inclination in that approximation. The aforementioned effects could influence gravitational wave production as well as the relative orientation of host galaxies and radio jets.

  12. Formation and evolution of compact binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluijs, Marcel Vincent van der

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis we investigate the formation and evolution of compact binaries. Chapters 2 through 4 deal with the formation of luminous, ultra-compact X-ray binaries in globular clusters. We show that the proposed scenario of magnetic capture produces too few ultra-compact X-ray binaries to explain

  13. The fate of close encounters between binary stars and binary supermassive black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Han; Leigh, Nathan; Yuan, Ye-Fei; Perna, Rosalba

    2018-04-01

    The evolution of main-sequence binaries that reside in the Galactic Centre can be heavily influenced by the central supermassive black hole (SMBH). Due to these perturbative effects, the stellar binaries in dense environments are likely to experience mergers, collisions, or ejections through secular and/or non-secular interactions. More direct interactions with the central SMBH are thought to produce hypervelocity stars (HVSs) and tidal disruption events (TDEs). In this paper, we use N-body simulations to study the dynamics of stellar binaries orbiting a central SMBH primary with an outer SMBH secondary orbiting this inner triple. The effects of the secondary SMBH on the event rates of HVSs, TDEs, and stellar mergers are investigated, as a function of the SMBH-SMBH binary mass ratio. Our numerical experiments reveal that, relative to the isolated SMBH case, the TDE and HVS rates are enhanced for, respectively, the smallest and largest mass ratio SMBH-SMBH binaries. This suggests that the observed event rates of TDEs and HVSs have the potential to serve as a diagnostic of the mass ratio of a central SMBH-SMBH binary. The presence of a secondary SMBH also allows for the creation of hypervelocity binaries. Observations of these systems could thus constrain the presence of a secondary SMBH in the Galactic Centre.

  14. A close-pair binary in a distant triple supermassive black hole system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, R P; Paragi, Z; Jarvis, M J; Coriat, M; Bernardi, G; Fender, R P; Frey, S; Heywood, I; Klöckner, H-R; Grainge, K; Rumsey, C

    2014-07-03

    Galaxies are believed to evolve through merging, which should lead to some hosting multiple supermassive black holes. There are four known triple black hole systems, with the closest black hole pair being 2.4 kiloparsecs apart (the third component in this system is at 3 kiloparsecs), which is far from the gravitational sphere of influence (about 100 parsecs for a black hole with mass one billion times that of the Sun). Previous searches for compact black hole systems concluded that they were rare, with the tightest binary system having a separation of 7 parsecs (ref. 10). Here we report observations of a triple black hole system at redshift z = 0.39, with the closest pair separated by about 140 parsecs and significantly more distant from Earth than any other known binary of comparable orbital separation. The effect of the tight pair is to introduce a rotationally symmetric helical modulation on the structure of the large-scale radio jets, which provides a useful way to search for other tight pairs without needing extremely high resolution observations. As we found this tight pair after searching only six galaxies, we conclude that tight pairs are more common than hitherto believed, which is an important observational constraint for low-frequency gravitational wave experiments.

  15. Gravitational waves from binary supermassive black holes missing in pulsar observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, R M; Ravi, V; Lentati, L T; Lasky, P D; Hobbs, G; Kerr, M; Manchester, R N; Coles, W A; Levin, Y; Bailes, M; Bhat, N D R; Burke-Spolaor, S; Dai, S; Keith, M J; Osłowski, S; Reardon, D J; van Straten, W; Toomey, L; Wang, J-B; Wen, L; Wyithe, J S B; Zhu, X-J

    2015-09-25

    Gravitational waves are expected to be radiated by supermassive black hole binaries formed during galaxy mergers. A stochastic superposition of gravitational waves from all such binary systems would modulate the arrival times of pulses from radio pulsars. Using observations of millisecond pulsars obtained with the Parkes radio telescope, we constrained the characteristic amplitude of this background, A(c,yr), to be gravitational waves. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  16. Observing the dynamics of supermassive black hole binaries with pulsar timing arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingarelli, C M F; Grover, K; Sidery, T; Smith, R J E; Vecchio, A

    2012-08-24

    Pulsar timing arrays are a prime tool to study unexplored astrophysical regimes with gravitational waves. Here, we show that the detection of gravitational radiation from individually resolvable supermassive black hole binary systems can yield direct information about the masses and spins of the black holes, provided that the gravitational-wave-induced timing fluctuations both at the pulsar and at Earth are detected. This in turn provides a map of the nonlinear dynamics of the gravitational field and a new avenue to tackle open problems in astrophysics connected to the formation and evolution of supermassive black holes. We discuss the potential, the challenges, and the limitations of these observations.

  17. Testing the Binary Hypothesis: Pulsar Timing Constraints on Supermassive Black Hole Binary Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesana, Alberto; Haiman, Zoltán; Kocsis, Bence; Kelley, Luke Zoltan

    2018-03-01

    The advent of time domain astronomy is revolutionizing our understanding of the universe. Programs such as the Catalina Real-time Transient Survey (CRTS) or the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) surveyed millions of objects for several years, allowing variability studies on large statistical samples. The inspection of ≈250 k quasars in CRTS resulted in a catalog of 111 potentially periodic sources, put forward as supermassive black hole binary (SMBHB) candidates. A similar investigation on PTF data yielded 33 candidates from a sample of ≈35 k quasars. Working under the SMBHB hypothesis, we compute the implied SMBHB merger rate and we use it to construct the expected gravitational wave background (GWB) at nano-Hz frequencies, probed by pulsar timing arrays (PTAs). After correcting for incompleteness and assuming virial mass estimates, we find that the GWB implied by the CRTS sample exceeds the current most stringent PTA upper limits by almost an order of magnitude. After further correcting for the implicit bias in virial mass measurements, the implied GWB drops significantly but is still in tension with the most stringent PTA upper limits. Similar results hold for the PTF sample. Bayesian model selection shows that the null hypothesis (whereby the candidates are false positives) is preferred over the binary hypothesis at about 2.3σ and 3.6σ for the CRTS and PTF samples respectively. Although not decisive, our analysis highlights the potential of PTAs as astrophysical probes of individual SMBHB candidates and indicates that the CRTS and PTF samples are likely contaminated by several false positives.

  18. A supermassive black hole in an ultra-compact dwarf galaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Anil C; van den Bosch, Remco; Mieske, Steffen; Baumgardt, Holger; den Brok, Mark; Strader, Jay; Neumayer, Nadine; Chilingarian, Igor; Hilker, Michael; McDermid, Richard; Spitler, Lee; Brodie, Jean; Frank, Matthias J; Walsh, Jonelle L

    2014-09-18

    Ultra-compact dwarf galaxies are among the densest stellar systems in the Universe. These systems have masses of up to 2 × 10(8) solar masses, but half-light radii of just 3-50 parsecs. Dynamical mass estimates show that many such dwarfs are more massive than expected from their luminosity. It remains unclear whether these high dynamical mass estimates arise because of the presence of supermassive black holes or result from a non-standard stellar initial mass function that causes the average stellar mass to be higher than expected. Here we report adaptive optics kinematic data of the ultra-compact dwarf galaxy M60-UCD1 that show a central velocity dispersion peak exceeding 100 kilometres per second and modest rotation. Dynamical modelling of these data reveals the presence of a supermassive black hole with a mass of 2.1 × 10(7) solar masses. This is 15 per cent of the object's total mass. The high black hole mass and mass fraction suggest that M60-UCD1 is the stripped nucleus of a galaxy. Our analysis also shows that M60-UCD1's stellar mass is consistent with its luminosity, implying a large population of previously unrecognized supermassive black holes in other ultra-compact dwarf galaxies.

  19. MCMC exploration of supermassive black hole binary inspirals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornish, Neil J; Porter, Edward K

    2006-01-01

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna will be able to detect the inspiral and merger of super massive black hole binaries (SMBHBs) anywhere in the universe. Standard matched filtering techniques can be used to detect and characterize these systems. Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods are ideally suited to this and other LISA data analysis problems as they are able to efficiently handle models with large dimensions. Here we compare the posterior parameter distributions derived by an MCMC algorithm with the distributions predicted by the Fisher information matrix. We find excellent agreement for the extrinsic parameters, while the Fisher matrix slightly overestimates errors in the intrinsic parameters

  20. Insights into the astrophysics of supermassive black hole binaries from pulsar timing observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sesana, A

    2013-01-01

    Pulsar timing arrays (PTAs) are designed to detect the predicted gravitational wave (GW) background produced by a cosmological population of supermassive black hole (SMBH) binaries. In this contribution, I review the physics of such GW background, highlighting its dependence on the overall binary population, the relation between SMBHs and their hosts, and their coupling with the stellar and gaseous environment. The latter is particularly relevant when it drives the binaries to extreme eccentricities (e > 0.9), which might be the case for stellar-driven systems. This causes a substantial suppression of the low-frequency signal, potentially posing a serious threat to the effectiveness of PTA observations. A future PTA detection will allow us to directly observe for the first time subparsec SMBH binaries on their way to the GW-driven coalescence, providing important answers of the outstanding questions related to the physics underlying the formation and evolution of these spectacular sources. (paper)

  1. THE FIRST SPECTROSCOPICALLY RESOLVED SUB-PARSEC ORBIT OF A SUPERMASSIVE BINARY BLACK HOLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bon, E.; Jovanovic, P.; Bon, N.; Popovic, L. C. [Astronomical Observatory, Volgina 7, 11060 Belgrade (Serbia); Marziani, P. [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Padova (Italy); Shapovalova, A. I. [Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian AS, Nizhnij Arkhyz, Karachaevo-Cherkesia 369167 (Russian Federation); Borka Jovanovic, V.; Borka, D. [Isaac Newton Institute of Chile, Yugoslavia Branch, Belgrade (Serbia); Sulentic, J. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, CSIC, Apdo. 3004, E-18080 Granada (Spain)

    2012-11-10

    One of the most intriguing scenarios proposed to explain how active galactic nuclei are triggered involves the existence of a supermassive binary black hole (BH) system in their cores. Here, we present an observational evidence for the first spectroscopically resolved sub-parsec orbit of a such system in the core of Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151. Using a method similar to those typically used for spectroscopic binary stars, we obtained radial velocity curves of the supermassive binary system, from which we calculated orbital elements and made estimates about the masses of the components. Our analysis shows that periodic variations in the light and radial velocity curves can be accounted for by an eccentric, sub-parsec Keplerian orbit with a 15.9 year period. The flux maximum in the light curve corresponds to the approaching phase of the secondary component toward the observer. According to the obtained results, we speculate that the periodic variations in the observed H{alpha} line shape and flux are due to shock waves generated by the supersonic motion of the components through the surrounding medium. Given the large observational effort needed to reveal this spectroscopically resolved binary orbital motion, we suggest that many such systems may exist in similar objects even if they are hard to find. Detecting more of them will provide us with insight into the BH mass growth process.

  2. THE FIRST SPECTROSCOPICALLY RESOLVED SUB-PARSEC ORBIT OF A SUPERMASSIVE BINARY BLACK HOLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bon, E.; Jovanović, P.; Bon, N.; Popović, L. Č.; Marziani, P.; Shapovalova, A. I.; Borka Jovanović, V.; Borka, D.; Sulentic, J.

    2012-01-01

    One of the most intriguing scenarios proposed to explain how active galactic nuclei are triggered involves the existence of a supermassive binary black hole (BH) system in their cores. Here, we present an observational evidence for the first spectroscopically resolved sub-parsec orbit of a such system in the core of Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151. Using a method similar to those typically used for spectroscopic binary stars, we obtained radial velocity curves of the supermassive binary system, from which we calculated orbital elements and made estimates about the masses of the components. Our analysis shows that periodic variations in the light and radial velocity curves can be accounted for by an eccentric, sub-parsec Keplerian orbit with a 15.9 year period. The flux maximum in the light curve corresponds to the approaching phase of the secondary component toward the observer. According to the obtained results, we speculate that the periodic variations in the observed Hα line shape and flux are due to shock waves generated by the supersonic motion of the components through the surrounding medium. Given the large observational effort needed to reveal this spectroscopically resolved binary orbital motion, we suggest that many such systems may exist in similar objects even if they are hard to find. Detecting more of them will provide us with insight into the BH mass growth process.

  3. Constraints on the Dynamical Environments of Supermassive Black-Hole Binaries Using Pulsar-Timing Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Stephen R; Simon, Joseph; Sampson, Laura

    2017-05-05

    We introduce a technique for gravitational-wave analysis, where Gaussian process regression is used to emulate the strain spectrum of a stochastic background by training on population-synthesis simulations. This leads to direct Bayesian inference on astrophysical parameters. For pulsar timing arrays specifically, we interpolate over the parameter space of supermassive black-hole binary environments, including three-body stellar scattering, and evolving orbital eccentricity. We illustrate our approach on mock data, and assess the prospects for inference with data similar to the NANOGrav 9-yr data release.

  4. STRUCTURE AND EVOLUTION OF CIRCUMBINARY DISKS AROUND SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafikov, Roman R.

    2013-01-01

    We explore properties of circumbinary disks around supermassive black hole (SMBH) binaries in centers of galaxies by reformulating standard viscous disk evolution in terms of the viscous angular momentum flux F J . If the binary stops gas inflow and opens a cavity in the disk, then the inner disk evolves toward a constant-F J (rather than a constant M-dot ) state. We compute disk properties in different physical regimes relevant for SMBH binaries, focusing on the gas-assisted evolution of systems starting at separations 10 –4 – 10 –2 pc, and find the following. (1) Mass pileup at the inner disk edge caused by the tidal barrier accelerates binary inspiral. (2) Binaries can be forced to merge even by a disk with a mass below that of the secondary. (3) Torque on the binary is set non-locally, at radii far larger than the binary semi-major axis; its magnitude does not reflect disk properties in the vicinity of the binary. (4) Binary inspiral exhibits hysteresis—it depends on the past evolution of the disk. (5) The Eddington limit can be important for circumbinary disks even if they accrete at sub-Eddington rates, but only at late stages of the inspiral. (6) Gas overflow across the orbit of the secondary can be important for low secondary mass, high- M-dot systems, but mainly during the inspiral phase dominated by the gravitational wave emission. (7) Circumbinary disks emit more power and have harder spectra than constant M-dot disks; their spectra are very sensitive to the amount of overflow across the secondary orbit

  5. SECULAR EVOLUTION OF COMPACT BINARIES NEAR MASSIVE BLACK HOLES: GRAVITATIONAL WAVE SOURCES AND OTHER EXOTICA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonini, Fabio; Perets, Hagai B.

    2012-01-01

    The environment near supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in galactic nuclei contains a large number of stars and compact objects. A fraction of these are likely to be members of binaries. Here we discuss the binary population of stellar black holes and neutron stars near SMBHs and focus on the secular evolution of such binaries, due to the perturbation by the SMBH. Binaries with highly inclined orbits with respect to their orbit around the SMBH are strongly affected by secular Kozai processes, which periodically change their eccentricities and inclinations (Kozai cycles). During periapsis approach, at the highest eccentricities during the Kozai cycles, gravitational wave (GW) emission becomes highly efficient. Some binaries in this environment can inspiral and coalesce at timescales much shorter than a Hubble time and much shorter than similar binaries that do not reside near an SMBH. The close environment of SMBHs could therefore serve as a catalyst for the inspiral and coalescence of binaries and strongly affect their orbital properties. Such compact binaries would be detectable as GW sources by the next generation of GW detectors (e.g., advanced-LIGO). Our analysis shows that ∼0.5% of such nuclear merging binaries will enter the LIGO observational window while on orbits that are still very eccentric (e ∼> 0.5). The efficient GW analysis for such systems would therefore require the use of eccentric templates. We also find that binaries very close to the SMBH could evolve through a complex dynamical (non-secular) evolution, leading to emission of several GW pulses during only a few years (though these are likely to be rare). Finally, we note that the formation of close stellar binaries, X-ray binaries, and their merger products could be induced by similar secular processes, combined with tidal friction rather than GW emission as in the case of compact object binaries.

  6. TIDAL NOVAE IN COMPACT BINARY WHITE DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, Jim; Lai Dong

    2012-01-01

    Compact binary white dwarfs (WDs) undergoing orbital decay due to gravitational radiation can experience significant tidal heating prior to merger. In these WDs, the dominant tidal effect involves the excitation of outgoing gravity waves in the inner stellar envelope and the dissipation of these waves in the outer envelope. As the binary orbit decays, the WDs are synchronized from outside in (with the envelope synchronized first, followed by the core). We examine the deposition of tidal heat in the envelope of a carbon-oxygen WD and study how such tidal heating affects the structure and evolution of the WD. We show that significant tidal heating can occur in the star's degenerate hydrogen layer. This layer heats up faster than it cools, triggering runaway nuclear fusion. Such 'tidal novae' may occur in all WD binaries containing a CO WD, at orbital periods between 5 minutes and 20 minutes, and precede the final merger by 10 5 -10 6 years.

  7. The late inspiral of supermassive black hole binaries with circumbinary gas discs in the LISA band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yike; Haiman, Zoltán; MacFadyen, Andrew

    2018-05-01

    We present the results of 2D, moving-mesh, viscous hydrodynamical simulations of an accretion disc around a merging supermassive black hole binary (SMBHB). The simulation is pseudo-Newtonian, with the BHs modelled as point masses with a Paczynski-Wiita potential, and includes viscous heating, shock heating, and radiative cooling. We follow the gravitational inspiral of an equal-mass binary with a component mass Mbh = 106 M⊙ from an initial separation of 60rg (where rg ≡ GMbh/c2 is the gravitational radius) to the merger. We find that a central, low-density cavity forms around the binary, as in previous work, but that the BHs capture gas from the circumbinary disc and accrete efficiently via their own minidiscs, well after their inspiral outpaces the viscous evolution of the disc. The system remains luminous, displaying strong periodicity at twice the binary orbital frequency throughout the entire inspiral process, all the way to the merger. In the soft X-ray band, the thermal emission is dominated by the inner edge of the circumbinary disc with especially clear periodicity in the early inspiral. By comparison, harder X-ray emission is dominated by the minidiscs, and the light curve is initially more noisy but develops a clear periodicity in the late inspiral stage. This variability pattern should help identify the electromagnetic counterparts of SMBHBs detected by the space-based gravitational-wave detector LISA.

  8. Gravitational interactions of stars with supermassive black hole binaries. I. Tidal disruption events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbha, Siva; Coughlin, Eric R.; Kasen, Daniel; Quataert, Eliot

    2018-04-01

    Stars approaching supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in the centers of galaxies can be torn apart by strong tidal forces. We study the physics of tidal disruption by a circular, binary SMBH as a function of the binary mass ratio q = M2/M1 and separation a, exploring a large set of points in the parameter range q ∈ [0.01, 1] and a/rt1 ∈ [10, 1000]. We simulate encounters in which field stars approach the binary from the loss cone on parabolic, low angular momentum orbits. We present the rate of disruption and the orbital properties of the disrupted stars, and examine the fallback dynamics of the post-disruption debris in the "frozen-in" approximation. We conclude by calculating the time-dependent disruption rate over the lifetime of the binary. Throughout, we use a primary mass M1 = 106M⊙ as our central example. We find that the tidal disruption rate is a factor of ˜2 - 7 times larger than the rate for an isolated BH, and is independent of q for q ≳ 0.2. In the "frozen-in" model, disruptions from close, nearly equal mass binaries can produce intense tidal fallbacks: for binaries with q ≳ 0.2 and a/rt1 ˜ 100, roughly ˜18 - 40% of disruptions will have short rise times (trise ˜ 1 - 10 d) and highly super-Eddington peak return rates (\\dot{M}_{peak} / \\dot{M}_{Edd} ˜ 2 × 10^2 - 3 × 10^3).

  9. Testing the relativistic Doppler boost hypothesis for supermassive black hole binary candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charisi, Maria; Haiman, Zoltán; Schiminovich, David; D'Orazio, Daniel J.

    2018-06-01

    Supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs) should be common in galactic nuclei as a result of frequent galaxy mergers. Recently, a large sample of sub-parsec SMBHB candidates was identified as bright periodically variable quasars in optical surveys. If the observed periodicity corresponds to the redshifted binary orbital period, the inferred orbital velocities are relativistic (v/c ≈ 0.1). The optical and ultraviolet (UV) luminosities are expected to arise from gas bound to the individual BHs, and would be modulated by the relativistic Doppler effect. The optical and UV light curves should vary in tandem with relative amplitudes which depend on the respective spectral slopes. We constructed a control sample of 42 quasars with aperiodic variability, to test whether this Doppler colour signature can be distinguished from intrinsic chromatic variability. We found that the Doppler signature can arise by chance in ˜20 per cent (˜37 per cent) of quasars in the nUV (fUV) band. These probabilities reflect the limited quality of the control sample and represent upper limits on how frequently quasars mimic the Doppler brightness+colour variations. We performed separate tests on the periodic quasar candidates, and found that for the majority, the Doppler boost hypothesis requires an unusually steep UV spectrum or an unexpectedly large BH mass and orbital velocity. We conclude that at most approximately one-third of these periodic candidates can harbor Doppler-modulated SMBHBs.

  10. The Evolution of a Supermassive Retrograde Binary Embedded in an Accretion Disk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanov P. B.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this note we discuss the main results of a study of a massive binary with unequal mass ratio, q, embedded in an accretion disk, with its orbital rotation being opposed to that of the disk. When the mass ratio is sufficiently large, a gap opens in the disk, but the mechanism of gap formation is very different from the prograde case. Inward migration occurs on a timescale of tev ~ Mp/Ṁ, where Mp is the mass of the less massive component (the perturber, and Ṁ is the accretion rate. When q ≪ 1, the accretion takes place mostly onto the more massive component, with the accretion rate onto the perturber being smaller than, or of order of, q1/3 Ṁ. However, this rate increases when supermassive binary black holes are considered and gravitational wave emission is important. We estimate a typical duration of time for which the accretion onto the perturber and gravitational waves could be detected.

  11. Did ASAS-SN Kill the Supermassive Black Hole Binary Candidate PG1302-102?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tingting; Gezari, Suvi; Miller, M. Coleman

    2018-05-01

    Graham et al. reported a periodically varying quasar and supermassive black hole binary candidate, PG1302-102 (hereafter PG1302), which was discovered in the Catalina Real-time Transient Survey (CRTS). Its combined Lincoln Near-Earth Asteroid Research (LINEAR) and CRTS optical light curve is well fitted to a sinusoid of an observed period of ≈1884 days and well modeled by the relativistic Doppler boosting of the secondary mini-disk. However, the LINEAR+CRTS light curve from MJD ≈52,700 to MJD ≈56,400 covers only ∼2 cycles of periodic variation, which is a short baseline that can be highly susceptible to normal, stochastic quasar variability. In this Letter, we present a reanalysis of PG1302 using the latest light curve from the All-sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN), which extends the observational baseline to the present day (MJD ≈58,200), and adopting a maximum likelihood method that searches for a periodic component in addition to stochastic quasar variability. When the ASAS-SN data are combined with the previous LINEAR+CRTS data, the evidence for periodicity decreases. For genuine periodicity one would expect that additional data would strengthen the evidence, so the decrease in significance may be an indication that the binary model is disfavored.

  12. A Hamiltonian Monte–Carlo method for Bayesian inference of supermassive black hole binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, Edward K; Carré, Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the use of a Hamiltonian Monte–Carlo to map out the posterior density function for supermassive black hole binaries. While previous Markov Chain Monte–Carlo (MCMC) methods, such as Metropolis–Hastings MCMC, have been successfully employed for a number of different gravitational wave sources, these methods are essentially random walk algorithms. The Hamiltonian Monte–Carlo treats the inverse likelihood surface as a ‘gravitational potential’ and by introducing canonical positions and momenta, dynamically evolves the Markov chain by solving Hamilton's equations of motion. This method is not as widely used as other MCMC algorithms due to the necessity of calculating gradients of the log-likelihood, which for most applications results in a bottleneck that makes the algorithm computationally prohibitive. We circumvent this problem by using accepted initial phase-space trajectory points to analytically fit for each of the individual gradients. Eliminating the waveform generation needed for the numerical derivatives reduces the total number of required templates for a 10 6 iteration chain from ∼10 9 to ∼10 6 . The result is in an implementation of the Hamiltonian Monte–Carlo that is faster, and more efficient by a factor of approximately the dimension of the parameter space, than a Hessian MCMC. (paper)

  13. A possible close supermassive black-hole binary in a quasar with optical periodicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Matthew J; Djorgovski, S G; Stern, Daniel; Glikman, Eilat; Drake, Andrew J; Mahabal, Ashish A; Donalek, Ciro; Larson, Steve; Christensen, Eric

    2015-02-05

    Quasars have long been known to be variable sources at all wavelengths. Their optical variability is stochastic and can be due to a variety of physical mechanisms; it is also well-described statistically in terms of a damped random walk model. The recent availability of large collections of astronomical time series of flux measurements (light curves) offers new data sets for a systematic exploration of quasar variability. Here we report the detection of a strong, smooth periodic signal in the optical variability of the quasar PG 1302-102 with a mean observed period of 1,884 ± 88 days. It was identified in a search for periodic variability in a data set of light curves for 247,000 known, spectroscopically confirmed quasars with a temporal baseline of about 9 years. Although the interpretation of this phenomenon is still uncertain, the most plausible mechanisms involve a binary system of two supermassive black holes with a subparsec separation. Such systems are an expected consequence of galaxy mergers and can provide important constraints on models of galaxy formation and evolution.

  14. Pulsar Timing Array Based Search for Supermassive Black Hole Binaries in the Square Kilometer Array Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Mohanty, Soumya D

    2017-04-14

    The advent of next generation radio telescope facilities, such as the Square Kilometer Array (SKA), will usher in an era where a pulsar timing array (PTA) based search for gravitational waves (GWs) will be able to use hundreds of well timed millisecond pulsars rather than the few dozens in existing PTAs. A realistic assessment of the performance of such an extremely large PTA must take into account the data analysis challenge posed by an exponential increase in the parameter space volume due to the large number of so-called pulsar phase parameters. We address this problem and present such an assessment for isolated supermassive black hole binary (SMBHB) searches using a SKA era PTA containing 10^{3} pulsars. We find that an all-sky search will be able to confidently detect nonevolving sources with a redshifted chirp mass of 10^{10}  M_{⊙} out to a redshift of about 28 (corresponding to a rest-frame chirp mass of 3.4×10^{8}  M_{⊙}). We discuss the important implications that the large distance reach of a SKA era PTA has on GW observations from optically identified SMBHB candidates. If no SMBHB detections occur, a highly unlikely scenario in the light of our results, the sky-averaged upper limit on strain amplitude will be improved by about 3 orders of magnitude over existing limits.

  15. Supermassive Black Hole Binary Candidates from the Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tingting; Gezari, Suvi

    2018-01-01

    Supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs) should be a common product of the hierarchal growth of galaxies and gravitational wave sources at nano-Hz frequencies. We have performed a systematic search in the Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey for periodically varying quasars, which are predicted manifestations of SMBHBs, and identified 26 candidates that are periodically varying on the timescale of ~300-1000 days over the 4-year baseline of MDS. We continue to monitor them with the Discovery Channel Telescope and the LCO network telescopes and thus are able to extend the baseline to 3-8 cycles and break false positive signals due to stochastic, normal quasar variability. From our imaging campaign, five candidates show persistent periodic variability and remain strong SMBHB candidates for follow-up observations. We calculate the cumulative number rate of SMBHBs and compare with previous work. We also compare the gravitational wave strain amplitudes of the candidates with the capability of pulsar timing arrays and discuss the future capabilities to detect periodic quasar and SMBHB candidates with the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope.

  16. Identifying decaying supermassive black hole binaries from their variable electromagnetic emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haiman, Zoltan; Menou, Kristen [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Kocsis, Bence [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Lippai, Zoltan; Frei, Zsolt [Institute of Physics, Eoetvoes University, Budapest (Hungary)

    2009-05-07

    Supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs) with masses in the mass range approx(10{sup 4}-10{sup 7}) M{sub o-dot}/(1 + z), produced in galaxy mergers, are thought to complete their coalescence due to the emission of gravitational waves (GWs). The anticipated detection of the GWs by the future Laser Interferometric Space Antenna (LISA) will constitute a milestone for fundamental physics and astrophysics. While the GW signatures themselves will provide a treasure trove of information, if the source can be securely identified in electromagnetic (EM) bands, this would open up entirely new scientific opportunities, to probe fundamental physics, astrophysics and cosmology. We discuss several ideas, involving wide-field telescopes, that may be useful in locating electromagnetic counterparts to SMBHBs detected by LISA. In particular, the binary may produce a variable electromagnetic flux, such as a roughly periodic signal due to the orbital motion prior to coalescence, or a prompt transient signal caused by shocks in the circumbinary disc when the SMBHB recoils and 'shakes' the disc. We discuss whether these time-variable EM signatures may be detectable, and how they can help in identifying a unique counterpart within the localization errors provided by LISA. We also discuss a possibility of identifying a population of coalescing SMBHBs statistically, in a deep optical survey for periodically variable sources, before LISA detects the GWs directly. The discovery of such sources would confirm that gas is present in the vicinity and is being perturbed by the SMBHB-serving as a proof of concept for eventually finding actual LISA counterparts.

  17. Identifying decaying supermassive black hole binaries from their variable electromagnetic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haiman, Zoltan; Menou, Kristen; Kocsis, Bence; Lippai, Zoltan; Frei, Zsolt

    2009-01-01

    Supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs) with masses in the mass range ∼(10 4 -10 7 ) M o-dot /(1 + z), produced in galaxy mergers, are thought to complete their coalescence due to the emission of gravitational waves (GWs). The anticipated detection of the GWs by the future Laser Interferometric Space Antenna (LISA) will constitute a milestone for fundamental physics and astrophysics. While the GW signatures themselves will provide a treasure trove of information, if the source can be securely identified in electromagnetic (EM) bands, this would open up entirely new scientific opportunities, to probe fundamental physics, astrophysics and cosmology. We discuss several ideas, involving wide-field telescopes, that may be useful in locating electromagnetic counterparts to SMBHBs detected by LISA. In particular, the binary may produce a variable electromagnetic flux, such as a roughly periodic signal due to the orbital motion prior to coalescence, or a prompt transient signal caused by shocks in the circumbinary disc when the SMBHB recoils and 'shakes' the disc. We discuss whether these time-variable EM signatures may be detectable, and how they can help in identifying a unique counterpart within the localization errors provided by LISA. We also discuss a possibility of identifying a population of coalescing SMBHBs statistically, in a deep optical survey for periodically variable sources, before LISA detects the GWs directly. The discovery of such sources would confirm that gas is present in the vicinity and is being perturbed by the SMBHB-serving as a proof of concept for eventually finding actual LISA counterparts.

  18. COSMIC probes into compact binary formation and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Katelyn

    2018-01-01

    The population of compact binaries in the galaxy represents the final state of all binaries that have lived up to the present epoch. Compact binaries present a unique opportunity to probe binary evolution since many of the interactions binaries experience can be imprinted on the compact binary population. By combining binary evolution simulations with catalogs of observable compact binary systems, we can distill the dominant physical processes that govern binary star evolution, as well as predict the abundance and variety of their end products.The next decades herald a previously unseen opportunity to study compact binaries. Multi-messenger observations from telescopes across all wavelengths and gravitational-wave observatories spanning several decades of frequency will give an unprecedented view into the structure of these systems and the composition of their components. Observations will not always be coincident and in some cases may be separated by several years, providing an avenue for simulations to better constrain binary evolution models in preparation for future observations.I will present the results of three population synthesis studies of compact binary populations carried out with the Compact Object Synthesis and Monte Carlo Investigation Code (COSMIC). I will first show how binary-black-hole formation channels can be understood with LISA observations. I will then show how the population of double white dwarfs observed with LISA and Gaia could provide a detailed view of mass transfer and accretion. Finally, I will show that Gaia could discover thousands black holes in the Milky Way through astrometric observations, yielding view into black-hole astrophysics that is complementary to and independent from both X-ray and gravitational-wave astronomy.

  19. Manifold corrections on spinning compact binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Shuangying; Wu Xin

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals mainly with a discussion of three new manifold correction methods and three existing ones, which can numerically preserve or correct all integrals in the conservative post-Newtonian Hamiltonian formulation of spinning compact binaries. Two of them are listed here. One is a new momentum-position scaling scheme for complete consistency of both the total energy and the magnitude of the total angular momentum, and the other is the Nacozy's approach with least-squares correction of the four integrals including the total energy and the total angular momentum vector. The post-Newtonian contributions, the spin effects, and the classification of orbits play an important role in the effectiveness of these six manifold corrections. They are all nearly equivalent to correct the integrals at the level of the machine epsilon for the pure Kepler problem. Once the third-order post-Newtonian contributions are added to the pure orbital part, three of these corrections have only minor effects on controlling the errors of these integrals. When the spin effects are also included, the effectiveness of the Nacozy's approach becomes further weakened, and even gets useless for the chaotic case. In all cases tested, the new momentum-position scaling scheme always shows the optimal performance. It requires a little but not much expensive additional computational cost when the spin effects exist and several time-saving techniques are used. As an interesting case, the efficiency of the correction to chaotic eccentric orbits is generally better than one to quasicircular regular orbits. Besides this, the corrected fast Lyapunov indicators and Lyapunov exponents of chaotic eccentric orbits are large as compared with the uncorrected counterparts. The amplification is a true expression of the original dynamical behavior. With the aid of both the manifold correction added to a certain low-order integration algorithm as a fast and high-precision device and the fast Lyapunov

  20. Evolution of binaries with compact objects in globular clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanova, Natalia

    2017-01-01

    Dynamical interactions that take place between objects in dense stellar systems lead to frequent formation of exotic stellar objects, unusual binaries, and systems of higher multiplicity. They are most important for the formation of binaries with neutron stars and black holes, which are usually observationally revealed in mass-transferring binaries. Here we review the current understanding of compact object's retention, of the metallicity dependence on the formation of low-mass X-ray binaries...

  1. Supermassive Black Hole Binaries: Multi-Messenger Astrophysics and Long Baselines with the Next-Generation Very Large Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke-Spolaor, Sarah; Lazio, Joseph; Nyland, Kristina; Blecha, Laura; Bogdanovic, Tamara; Comerford, Julie; Liu, Xin; Taylor, Gregory; Shen, Yue; Maccarone, T. J.; Chomiuk, Laura; Reines, Amy

    2018-01-01

    Dual ( physical processes that drive both the remnant's dynamics and the inspiral of the black hole pair. A systematic census of the dual supermassive black hole population will also directly constrain the strength and distribution of objects emitting gravitational waves that will be detected by pulsar timing arrays and future space-based laser interferometers. Although the population of dual supermassive black holes in galaxy merger products is central to these topics and others, few have yet been discovered.A suite of radio, visible-infrared, and X-ray telescopes have just begun to reveal the population of kiloparsec-separation dual active nuclei. This poster will present the unique capability of radio observations to explore the dual and binary population of supermassive black hole binaries, and will highlight the observational techniques and discoveries expected for the Next-Generation Very Large Array.Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The NANOGrav project receives support from NSF Physics Frontier Center award number 1430284.

  2. Testing the Binary Black Hole Nature of a Compact Binary Coalescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnendu, N V; Arun, K G; Mishra, Chandra Kant

    2017-09-01

    We propose a novel method to test the binary black hole nature of compact binaries detectable by gravitational wave (GW) interferometers and, hence, constrain the parameter space of other exotic compact objects. The spirit of the test lies in the "no-hair" conjecture for black holes where all properties of a Kerr black hole are characterized by its mass and spin. The method relies on observationally measuring the quadrupole moments of the compact binary constituents induced due to their spins. If the compact object is a Kerr black hole (BH), its quadrupole moment is expressible solely in terms of its mass and spin. Otherwise, the quadrupole moment can depend on additional parameters (such as the equation of state of the object). The higher order spin effects in phase and amplitude of a gravitational waveform, which explicitly contains the spin-induced quadrupole moments of compact objects, hence, uniquely encode the nature of the compact binary. Thus, we argue that an independent measurement of the spin-induced quadrupole moment of the compact binaries from GW observations can provide a unique way to distinguish binary BH systems from binaries consisting of exotic compact objects.

  3. Studying Variance in the Galactic Ultra-compact Binary Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Shane; Breivik, Katelyn

    2017-01-01

    In the years preceding LISA, Milky Way compact binary population simulations can be used to inform the science capabilities of the mission. Galactic population simulation efforts generally focus on high fidelity models that require extensive computational power to produce a single simulated population for each model. Each simulated population represents an incomplete sample of the functions governing compact binary evolution, thus introducing variance from one simulation to another. We present a rapid Monte Carlo population simulation technique that can simulate thousands of populations on week-long timescales, thus allowing a full exploration of the variance associated with a binary stellar evolution model.

  4. Compact binary hashing for music retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jin S.

    2014-03-01

    With the huge volume of music clips available for protection, browsing, and indexing, there is an increased attention to retrieve the information contents of the music archives. Music-similarity computation is an essential building block for browsing, retrieval, and indexing of digital music archives. In practice, as the number of songs available for searching and indexing is increased, so the storage cost in retrieval systems is becoming a serious problem. This paper deals with the storage problem by extending the supervector concept with the binary hashing. We utilize the similarity-preserving binary embedding in generating a hash code from the supervector of each music clip. Especially we compare the performance of the various binary hashing methods for music retrieval tasks on the widely-used genre dataset and the in-house singer dataset. Through the evaluation, we find an effective way of generating hash codes for music similarity estimation which improves the retrieval performance.

  5. The Post-Newtonian Approximation for Relativistic Compact Binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Futamase Toshifumi

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available We discuss various aspects of the post-Newtonian approximation in general relativity. After presenting the foundation based on the Newtonian limit, we show a method to derive post-Newtonian equations of motion for relativistic compact binaries based on a surface integral approach and the strong field point particle limit. As an application we derive third post-Newtonian equations of motion for relativistic compact binaries which respect the Lorentz invariance in the post-Newtonian perturbative sense, admit a conserved energy, and are free from any ambiguity.

  6. ORBITAL EVOLUTION OF COMPACT WHITE DWARF BINARIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, David L. [Physics Department, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); Bildsten, Lars [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Kohn Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Steinfadt, Justin D. R., E-mail: kaplan@uwm.edu, E-mail: bildsten@kitp.ucsb.edu, E-mail: jdrsteinfadt@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Broida Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

    2012-10-10

    The newfound prevalence of extremely low mass (ELM, M{sub He} < 0.2 M{sub Sun }) helium white dwarfs (WDs) in tight binaries with more massive WDs has raised our interest in understanding the nature of their mass transfer. Possessing small (M{sub env} {approx} 10{sup -3} M{sub Sun }) but thick hydrogen envelopes, these objects have larger radii than cold WDs and so initiate mass transfer of H-rich material at orbital periods of 6-10 minutes. Building on the original work of D'Antona et al., we confirm the 10{sup 6} yr period of continued inspiral with mass transfer of H-rich matter and highlight the fact that the inspiraling direct-impact double WD binary HM Cancri likely has an ELM WD donor. The ELM WDs have less of a radius expansion under mass loss, thus enabling a larger range of donor masses that can stably transfer matter and become a He mass transferring AM CVn binary. Even once in the long-lived AM CVn mass transferring stage, these He WDs have larger radii due to their higher entropy from the prolonged H-burning stage.

  7. Limits on the cosmological abundance of supermassive compact objects from a millilensing search in gamma-ray burst data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemiroff, R J; Marani, G F; Norris, J P; Bonnell, J T

    2001-01-22

    A new search for the gravitational lens effects of a significant cosmological density of supermassive compact objects (SCOs) on gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) has yielded a null result. We inspected the timing data of 774 BATSE-triggered GRBs for evidence of millilensing: repeated peaks similar in light-curve shape and spectra. Our null detection leads us to conclude that, in all candidate universes simulated, Omega(SCO)<0.1 is favored for SCO masses in the range 10(5)

  8. EVIDENCE FROM THE VERY LONG BASELINE ARRAY THAT J1502SE/SW ARE DOUBLE HOTSPOTS, NOT A SUPERMASSIVE BINARY BLACK HOLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrobel, J. M.; Walker, R. C.; Fu, H.

    2014-01-01

    SDSS J150243.09+111557.3 is a merging system at z = 0.39 that hosts two confirmed active galactic nuclei (AGNs), one unobscured and one dust-obscured, offset by several kiloparsecs. Deane et al. recently reported evidence from the European VLBI Network (EVN) that the dust-obscured AGN exhibits two flat-spectrum radio sources, J1502SE/SW, offset by 26 mas (140 pc), with each source being energized by its own supermassive black hole (BH). This intriguing interpretation of a close binary BH was reached after ruling out a double-hotspot scenario, wherein both hotspots are energized by a single, central BH, a configuration occurring in the well-studied compact symmetric objects. When observed with sufficient sensitivity and resolution, an object with double hotspots should have an edge-brightened structure. We report evidence from the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) for just such a structure in an image of the obscured AGN with higher sensitivity and resolution than the EVN images. We thus conclude that a double-hotspot scenario should be reconsidered as a viable interpretation for J1502SE/SW, and suggest further VLBA tests of that scenario. A double-hotspot scenario could have broad implications for feedback in obscured AGNs. We also report a VLBA detection of high-brightness-temperature emission from the unobscured AGN that is offset several kiloparsecs from J1502SE/SW

  9. Evolution and merging of binaries with compact objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethe, Hans A.; Brown, Gerald E.; Lee, Chang-Hwan

    2007-01-01

    In the light of recent observations in which short γ-ray bursts are interpreted as arising from black-hole(BH), neutron-star(NS) or NS-NS mergings we would like to review our research on the evolution of compact binaries, especially those containing NS's. These were carried out with predictions for LIGO in mind, but are directly applicable to short γ-ray bursts in the interpretation above. Most important in our review is that we show that the standard scenario for evolving NS-NS binaries always ends up with a low-mass BH (LMBH), NS binary. Bethe and Brown [1998, Astrophys. J. 506, 780] showed that this fate could be avoided if the two giants in the progenitor binary burned He at the same time, and that in this way the binary could avoid the common envelope evolution of the NS with red giant companion which sends the first born NS into a BH in the standard scenario. The burning of He at the same time requires, for the more massive giants such as the progenitors of the Hulse-Taylor binary NS that the two giants be within 4% of each other in zero age main sequence (ZAMS) mass. Applying this criterion to all binaries results in a factor ∼5 of LMBH-NS binaries as compared with NS-NS binaries. Although this factor is substantially less than the originally claimed factor of 20 which Bethe and Brown (1998) estimated, largely because a careful evolution has been carried through here, our factor 5 is augmented by a factor of ∼8 arising from the higher rate of star formation in the earlier Galaxy from which the BH-NS binaries came from. Furthermore, here we calculate the mergers for short-hard gamma-ray bursts, whereas Bethe and Brown's factor 20 included a factor of 2 for the higher chirp masses in a BH-NS binary as compared with NS-NS one. In short, we end up with an estimate of factor ∼40 over that calculated with NS-NS binary mergers in our Galaxy alone. Our total rate is estimated to be about one merging of compact objects per year. Our scenario of NS-NS binaries

  10. EMISSION SIGNATURES FROM SUB-PARSEC BINARY SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES. I. DIAGNOSTIC POWER OF BROAD EMISSION LINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Khai; Bogdanović, Tamara [Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta GA 30332 (United States)

    2016-09-10

    Motivated by advances in observational searches for sub-parsec supermassive black hole binaries (SBHBs) made in the past few years, we develop a semi-analytic model to describe spectral emission-line signatures of these systems. The goal of this study is to aid the interpretation of spectroscopic searches for binaries and to help test one of the leading models of binary accretion flows in the literature: SBHB in a circumbinary disk. In this work, we present the methodology and a comparison of the preliminary model with the data. We model SBHB accretion flows as a set of three accretion disks: two mini-disks that are gravitationally bound to the individual black holes and a circumbinary disk. Given a physically motivated parameter space occupied by sub-parsec SBHBs, we calculate a synthetic database of nearly 15 million broad optical emission-line profiles and explore the dependence of the profile shapes on characteristic properties of SBHBs. We find that the modeled profiles show distinct statistical properties as a function of the semimajor axis, mass ratio, eccentricity of the binary, and the degree of alignment of the triple disk system. This suggests that the broad emission-line profiles from SBHB systems can in principle be used to infer the distribution of these parameters and as such merit further investigation. Calculated profiles are more morphologically heterogeneous than the broad emission lines in observed SBHB candidates and we discuss improved treatment of radiative transfer effects, which will allow a direct statistical comparison of the two groups.

  11. EMISSION SIGNATURES FROM SUB-PARSEC BINARY SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES. I. DIAGNOSTIC POWER OF BROAD EMISSION LINES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Khai; Bogdanović, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by advances in observational searches for sub-parsec supermassive black hole binaries (SBHBs) made in the past few years, we develop a semi-analytic model to describe spectral emission-line signatures of these systems. The goal of this study is to aid the interpretation of spectroscopic searches for binaries and to help test one of the leading models of binary accretion flows in the literature: SBHB in a circumbinary disk. In this work, we present the methodology and a comparison of the preliminary model with the data. We model SBHB accretion flows as a set of three accretion disks: two mini-disks that are gravitationally bound to the individual black holes and a circumbinary disk. Given a physically motivated parameter space occupied by sub-parsec SBHBs, we calculate a synthetic database of nearly 15 million broad optical emission-line profiles and explore the dependence of the profile shapes on characteristic properties of SBHBs. We find that the modeled profiles show distinct statistical properties as a function of the semimajor axis, mass ratio, eccentricity of the binary, and the degree of alignment of the triple disk system. This suggests that the broad emission-line profiles from SBHB systems can in principle be used to infer the distribution of these parameters and as such merit further investigation. Calculated profiles are more morphologically heterogeneous than the broad emission lines in observed SBHB candidates and we discuss improved treatment of radiative transfer effects, which will allow a direct statistical comparison of the two groups.

  12. Compact Binary Progenitors of Short Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomazzo, Bruno; Perna, Rosalba; Rezzolla, Luciano; Troja, Eleonora; Lazzati, Davide

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, detailed observations and accurate numerical simulations have provided support to the idea that mergers of compact binaries containing either two neutron stars (NSs) or an NS and a black hole (BH) may constitute the central engine of short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs). The merger of such compact binaries is expected to lead to the production of a spinning BH surrounded by an accreting torus. Several mechanisms can extract energy from this system and power the SGRBs. Here we connect observations and numerical simulations of compact binary mergers, and use the current sample of SGRBs with measured energies to constrain the mass of their powering tori. By comparing the masses of the tori with the results of fully general-relativistic simulations, we are able to infer the properties of the binary progenitors that yield SGRBs. By assuming a constant efficiency in converting torus mass into jet energy epsilon(sub jet) = 10%, we find that most of the tori have masses smaller than 0.01 Solar M, favoring "high-mass" binary NSs mergers, i.e., binaries with total masses approx >1.5 the maximum mass of an isolated NS. This has important consequences for the gravitational wave signals that may be detected in association with SGRBs, since "high-mass" systems do not form a long-lived hypermassive NS after the merger. While NS-BH systems cannot be excluded to be the engine of at least some of the SGRBs, the BH would need to have an initial spin of approx. 0.9 or higher.

  13. Magnetospheres of accreting compact objects in binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, J.J.

    1985-09-01

    Bright pulsating X-ray sources (X-ray pulsars, AM Her stars,...) have been identified as strongly magnetized compact objects accreting matter from a binary companion. We give here a summary of some of the work which has been recently done to try to understand the interaction between the magnetic field of the compact object and the matter around. We examine in turn the models describing the interaction of the field with: i) a spherically symmetric accretion flow; ii) a thin keplerian accretion disk; iii) the companion itself. In all these cases, we pay particular attention to the following problems: i) how the external plasma interacting with the magnetosphere can get mixed with the field; ii) by which mechanism the magnetic field controls the mass-momentum-energy exchanges between the two stars. In conclusion, we compare the magnetosphere of an accreting compact object with that one of a planet [fr

  14. High-energy gamma-ray emission in compact binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerutti, Benoit

    2010-01-01

    Four gamma-ray sources have been associated with binary systems in our Galaxy: the micro-quasar Cygnus X-3 and the gamma-ray binaries LS I +61 degrees 303, LS 5039 and PSR B1259-63. These systems are composed of a massive companion star and a compact object of unknown nature, except in PSR B1259-63 where there is a young pulsar. I propose a comprehensive theoretical model for the high-energy gamma-ray emission and variability in gamma-ray emitting binaries. In this model, the high-energy radiation is produced by inverse Compton scattering of stellar photons on ultra-relativistic electron-positron pairs injected by a young pulsar in gamma-ray binaries and in a relativistic jet in micro-quasars. Considering anisotropic inverse Compton scattering, pair production and pair cascade emission, the TeV gamma-ray emission is well explained in LS 5039. Nevertheless, this model cannot account for the gamma-ray emission in LS I +61 degrees 303 and PSR B1259-63. Other processes should dominate in these complex systems. In Cygnus X-3, the gamma-ray radiation is convincingly reproduced by Doppler-boosted Compton emission of pairs in a relativistic jet. Gamma-ray binaries and micro-quasars provide a novel environment for the study of pulsar winds and relativistic jets at very small spatial scales. (author)

  15. Jet Precession Driven by a Supermassive Black Hole Binary System in the BL Lac Object PG 1553+113

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caproni, Anderson; Abraham, Zulema; Motter, Juliana Cristina; Monteiro, Hektor

    2017-12-01

    The recent discovery of a roughly simultaneous periodic variability in the light curves of the BL Lac object PG 1553+113 at several electromagnetic bands represents the first case of such odd behavior reported in the literature. Motivated by this, we analyzed 15 GHz interferometric maps of the parsec-scale radio jet of PG 1553+113 to verify the presence of a possible counterpart of this periodic variability. We used the Cross-entropy statistical technique to obtain the structural parameters of the Gaussian components present in the radio maps of this source. We kinematically identified seven jet components formed coincidentally with flare-like features seen in the γ-ray light curve. From the derived jet component positions in the sky plane and their kinematics (ejection epochs, proper motions, and sky position angles), we modeled their temporal changes in terms of a relativistic jet that is steadily precessing in time. Our results indicate a precession period in the observer’s reference frame of 2.24 ± 0.03 years, compatible with the periodicity detected in the light curves of PG 1553+113. However, the maxima of the jet Doppler boosting factor are systematically delayed relative to the peaks of the main γ-ray flares. We propose two scenarios that could explain this delay, both based on the existence of a supermassive black hole binary system in PG 1553+113. We estimated the characteristics of this putative binary system that also would be responsible for driving the inferred jet precession.

  16. Complete waveform model for compact binaries on eccentric orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, E. A.; Kumar, Prayush; Agarwal, Bhanu; George, Daniel; Schive, Hsi-Yu; Pfeiffer, Harald P.; Haas, Roland; Ren, Wei; Chu, Tony; Boyle, Michael; Hemberger, Daniel A.; Kidder, Lawrence E.; Scheel, Mark A.; Szilagyi, Bela

    2017-01-01

    We present a time domain waveform model that describes the inspiral, merger and ringdown of compact binary systems whose components are nonspinning, and which evolve on orbits with low to moderate eccentricity. The inspiral evolution is described using third-order post-Newtonian equations both for the equations of motion of the binary, and its far-zone radiation field. This latter component also includes instantaneous, tails and tails-of-tails contributions, and a contribution due to nonlinear memory. This framework reduces to the post-Newtonian approximant TaylorT4 at third post-Newtonian order in the zero-eccentricity limit. To improve phase accuracy, we also incorporate higher-order post-Newtonian corrections for the energy flux of quasicircular binaries and gravitational self-force corrections to the binding energy of compact binaries. This enhanced prescription for the inspiral evolution is combined with a fully analytical prescription for the merger-ringdown evolution constructed using a catalog of numerical relativity simulations. We show that this inspiral-merger-ringdown waveform model reproduces the effective-one-body model of Ref. [Y. Pan et al., Phys. Rev. D 89, 061501 (2014)., 10.1103/PhysRevD.89.061501] for quasicircular black hole binaries with mass ratios between 1 to 15 in the zero-eccentricity limit over a wide range of the parameter space under consideration. Using a set of eccentric numerical relativity simulations, not used during calibration, we show that our new eccentric model reproduces the true features of eccentric compact binary coalescence throughout merger. We use this model to show that the gravitational-wave transients GW150914 and GW151226 can be effectively recovered with template banks of quasicircular, spin-aligned waveforms if the eccentricity e0 of these systems when they enter the aLIGO band at a gravitational-wave frequency of 14 Hz satisfies e0GW 150914≤0.15 and e0GW 151226≤0.1 . We also find that varying the spin

  17. A complete waveform model for compact binaries on eccentric orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Daniel; Huerta, Eliu; Kumar, Prayush; Agarwal, Bhanu; Schive, Hsi-Yu; Pfeiffer, Harald; Chu, Tony; Boyle, Michael; Hemberger, Daniel; Kidder, Lawrence; Scheel, Mark; Szilagyi, Bela

    2017-01-01

    We present a time domain waveform model that describes the inspiral, merger and ringdown of compact binary systems whose components are non-spinning, and which evolve on orbits with low to moderate eccentricity. We show that this inspiral-merger-ringdown waveform model reproduces the effective-one-body model for black hole binaries with mass-ratios between 1 to 15 in the zero eccentricity limit over a wide range of the parameter space under consideration. We use this model to show that the gravitational wave transients GW150914 and GW151226 can be effectively recovered with template banks of quasicircular, spin-aligned waveforms if the eccentricity e0 of these systems when they enter the aLIGO band at a gravitational wave frequency of 14 Hz satisfies e0GW 150914 <= 0 . 15 and e0GW 151226 <= 0 . 1 .

  18. Evolution of highly compact binary stellar systems in globular clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolik, J.H.; Meiksin, A.; Joss, P.C.

    1984-01-01

    We have calculated the secular evolution of a highly compact binary stellar system, composed of a collapsed object and a low-mass secondary star, in the core of a globular cluster. The binary evolves under the combined influences of (i) gravitational radiation losses from the system, (ii) the evolution of the secondary star, (iii) the resultant gradual mass transfer, if any, from the secondary to the collapsed object, and (iv) occasional encounters with passing field stars. We calculate all these effects in detail, utilizing some simplifying approximations appropriate to low-mass secondaries. The times of encounters with field stars, and the initial parameter specifying those encounters, were chosen by use of a Monte Carlo technique; the subsequent gravitational interactions were calculated utilzing a three-body integrator, and the changes in the binary orbital parmeters were thereby determined. We carried out a total of 20 such evolutionary calculations for each of two cluster core densities (1 and 3 x 10 3 stars pc -3 ). Each calculation was continued until the binary was disrupted or until 2 x 10 10 yr had elapsed

  19. Physics of Relativistic Objects in Compact Binaries: From Birth to Coalescence

    CERN Document Server

    Colpi, Monica; Gorini, Vittorio; Moschella, Ugo; Possenti, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive, authoritative and timely review of the astrophysical approach to the investigation of gravity theories. Particular attention is paid to strong-field tests of general relativity and alternative theories of gravity, performed using collapsed objects (neutron stars, black holes and white dwarfs) in relativistic binaries as laboratories. The book starts with an introduction which gives the background linking experimental gravity in cosmic laboratories to astrophysics and fundamental physics. Subsequent chapters cover observational and theoretical aspects of the following topics: from binaries as test-beds of gravity theories to binary pulsars as cosmic laboratories; from binary star evolution to the formation of relativistic binaries; from short gamma-ray bursts to low mass X-ray binaries; from stellar-mass black hole binaries to coalescing super-massive black holes in galaxy mergers. The book will be useful to researchers, PhD and graduate students in Astrophysics, Cosmology, ...

  20. Nonconformally flat initial data for binary compact objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uryu, Koji; Limousin, Francois; Gourgoulhon, Eric; Friedman, John L.; Shibata, Masaru

    2009-01-01

    A new method is described for constructing initial data for a binary neutron-star system in quasiequilibrium circular orbit. Two formulations for nonconformally flat data, waveless and near-zone helically symmetric, are introduced; in each formulation, the Einstein-Euler system, written in 3+1 form on an asymptotically flat spacelike hypersurface, is exactly solved for all metric components, including the spatially nonconformally flat potentials, and for irrotational flow. A numerical method applicable to both formulations is explained with an emphasis on the imposition of a spatial gauge condition. Results are shown for solution sequences of irrotational binary neutron-stars with matter approximated by parametrized equations of state that use a few segments of polytropic equations of state. The binding energy and total angular momentum of solution sequences computed within the conformally flat--Isenberg-Wilson-Mathews--formulation are closer to those of the third post-Newtonian (3PN) two point particles up to the closest orbits, for the more compact stars, whereas sequences resulting from the waveless/near-zone helically symmetric formulations deviate from the 3PN curve even more for the sequences with larger compactness. We think it likely that this correction reflects an overestimation in the Isenberg-Wilson-Mathews formulation as well as in the 3PN formula, by ∼1 cycle in the gravitational-wave phase during the last several orbits. The work suggests that imposing spatial conformal flatness results in an underestimate of the quadrupole deformation of the components of binary neutron-star systems in the last few orbits prior to merger.

  1. Tidal disruption of stars in a supermassive black hole binary system: the influence of orbital properties on fallback and accretion rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigneron, Quentin; Lodato, Giuseppe; Guidarelli, Alessio

    2018-06-01

    The disruption of a star by a supermassive black hole generates a sudden bright flare. Previous studies have focused on the disruption by single black holes, for which the fallback rate decays as ∝ t-5/3. In this paper, we generalize the study to the case of a supermassive black hole binary (SMBHB), using both analytical estimates and hydrodynamical simulations, looking for specific observable signatures. The range of binary separation for which it is possible to distinguish between the disruption created by a single or a binary black hole concerns typically separations of the order of a few milliparsecs for a primary of mass ˜106 M⊙. When the fallback rate is affected by the secondary, it undergoes two types interruptions, depending on the initial inclination θ of the orbit of the star relative to the plane of the SMBHB. For θ ≲ 70°, periodic sharp interruptions occur and the time of first interruption depends on the distance of the secondary black hole with the debris. If θ ≳ 70°, a first smooth interruption occurs, but not always followed by a further recovery of the fallback rate. This implies that most of the TDEs around a SMBHB will undergo periodic sharp interruptions of their light curve.

  2. Compact binary merger and kilonova: outflows from remnant disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Tuan; Gu, Wei-Min; Liu, Tong; Kumar, Rajiv; Mu, Hui-Jun; Song, Cui-Ying

    2018-05-01

    Outflows launched from a remnant disc of compact binary merger may have essential contribution to the kilonova emission. Numerical calculations are conducted in this work to study the structure of accretion flows and outflows. By the incorporation of limited-energy advection in the hyper-accretion discs, outflows occur naturally from accretion flows due to imbalance between the viscous heating and the sum of the advective and radiative cooling. Following this spirit, we revisit the properties of the merger outflow ejecta. Our results show that around 10-3 ˜ 10-1 M⊙ of the disc mass can be launched as powerful outflows. The amount of unbound mass varies with the disc mass and the viscosity. The outflow-contributed peak luminosity is around 1040 ˜ 1041 erg s-1. Such a scenario can account for the observed kilonovae associated with short gamma-ray bursts, including the recent event AT2017gfo (GW170817).

  3. Second post-Newtonian Lagrangian dynamics of spinning compact binaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Li; Wu, Xin [Nanchang University, Department of Physics and Institute of Astronomy, Nanchang (China); Ma, DaZhu [Hubei University for Nationalities, School of Science, Enshi (China)

    2016-09-15

    The leading-order spin-orbit coupling is included in a post-Newtonian Lagrangian formulation of spinning compact binaries, which consists of the Newtonian term, first post-Newtonian (1PN) and 2PN non-spin terms and 2PN spin-spin coupling. This leads to a 3PN spin-spin coupling occurring in the derived Hamiltonian. The spin-spin couplings are mainly responsible for chaos in the Hamiltonians. However, the 3PN spin-spin Hamiltonian is small and has different signs, compared with the 2PN spin-spin Hamiltonian equivalent to the 2PN spin-spin Lagrangian. As a result, the probability of the occurrence of chaos in the Lagrangian formulation without the spin-orbit coupling is larger than that in the Lagrangian formulation with the spin-orbit coupling. Numerical evidences support this claim. (orig.)

  4. Resurvey of order and chaos in spinning compact binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xin; Xie Yi

    2008-01-01

    This paper is mainly devoted to applying the invariant, fast, Lyapunov indicator to clarify some doubt regarding the apparently conflicting results of chaos in spinning compact binaries at the second-order post-Newtonian approximation of general relativity from previous literatures. It is shown with a number of examples that no single physical parameter or initial condition can be described as responsible for causing chaos, but a complicated combination of all parameters and initial conditions is responsible. In other words, a universal rule for the dependence of chaos on each parameter or initial condition cannot be found in general. Chaos does not depend only on the mass ratio, and the maximal spins do not necessarily bring the strongest effect of chaos. Additionally, chaos does not always become drastic when the initial spin vectors are nearly perpendicular to the orbital plane, and the alignment of spins cannot trigger chaos by itself

  5. A massive pulsar in a compact relativistic binary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniadis, John; Freire, Paulo C C; Wex, Norbert; Tauris, Thomas M; Lynch, Ryan S; van Kerkwijk, Marten H; Kramer, Michael; Bassa, Cees; Dhillon, Vik S; Driebe, Thomas; Hessels, Jason W T; Kaspi, Victoria M; Kondratiev, Vladislav I; Langer, Norbert; Marsh, Thomas R; McLaughlin, Maura A; Pennucci, Timothy T; Ransom, Scott M; Stairs, Ingrid H; van Leeuwen, Joeri; Verbiest, Joris P W; Whelan, David G

    2013-04-26

    Many physically motivated extensions to general relativity (GR) predict substantial deviations in the properties of spacetime surrounding massive neutron stars. We report the measurement of a 2.01 ± 0.04 solar mass (M⊙) pulsar in a 2.46-hour orbit with a 0.172 ± 0.003 M⊙ white dwarf. The high pulsar mass and the compact orbit make this system a sensitive laboratory of a previously untested strong-field gravity regime. Thus far, the observed orbital decay agrees with GR, supporting its validity even for the extreme conditions present in the system. The resulting constraints on deviations support the use of GR-based templates for ground-based gravitational wave detectors. Additionally, the system strengthens recent constraints on the properties of dense matter and provides insight to binary stellar astrophysics and pulsar recycling.

  6. Kilonova/Macronova Emission from Compact Binary Mergers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaomi Tanaka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We review current understanding of kilonova/macronova emission from compact binary mergers (mergers of two neutron stars or a neutron star and a black hole. Kilonova/macronova is emission powered by radioactive decays of r-process nuclei and it is one of the most promising electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational wave sources. Emission from the dynamical ejecta of ~0.01M⊙ is likely to have a luminosity of ~1040–1041 erg s−1 with a characteristic timescale of about 1 week. The spectral peak is located in red optical or near-infrared wavelengths. A subsequent accretion disk wind may provide an additional luminosity or an earlier/bluer emission if it is not absorbed by the precedent dynamical ejecta. The detection of near-infrared excess in short GRB 130603B and possible optical excess in GRB 060614 supports the concept of the kilonova/macronova scenario. At 200 Mpc distance, a typical peak brightness of kilonova/macronova with 0.01M⊙ ejecta is about 22 mag and the emission rapidly fades to >24 mag within ~10 days. Kilonova/macronova candidates can be distinguished from supernovae by (1 the faster time evolution, (2 fainter absolute magnitudes, and (3 redder colors. Since the high expansion velocity (v~0.1–0.2c is a robust outcome of compact binary mergers, the detection of smooth spectra will be the smoking gun to conclusively identify the gravitational wave source.

  7. A RADIAL VELOCITY TEST FOR SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE BINARIES AS AN EXPLANATION FOR BROAD, DOUBLE-PEAKED EMISSION LINES IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jia; Halpern, Jules P. [Astronomy Department, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Eracleous, Michael [Department of Astronomy and Institute for Gravitation and The Cosmos, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2016-01-20

    One of the proposed explanations for the broad, double-peaked Balmer emission lines observed in the spectra of some active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is that they are associated with sub-parsec supermassive black hole (SMBH) binaries. Here, we test the binary broad-line region hypothesis through several decades of monitoring of the velocity structure of double-peaked Hα emission lines in 13 low-redshift, mostly radio-loud AGNs. This is a much larger set of objects compared to an earlier test by Eracleous et al. and we use much longer time series for the three objects studied in that paper. Although systematic changes in radial velocity can be traced in many of their lines, they are demonstrably not like those of a spectroscopic binary in a circular orbit. Any spectroscopic binary period must therefore be much longer than the span of the monitoring (assuming a circular orbit), which in turn would require black hole masses that exceed by 1–2 orders of magnitude the values obtained for these objects using techniques such as reverberation mapping and stellar velocity dispersion. Moreover, the response of the double-peaked Balmer line profiles to fluctuations of the ionizing continuum and the shape of the Lyα profiles are incompatible with an SMBH binary. The binary broad-line region hypothesis is therefore disfavored. Other processes evidently shape these line profiles and cause the long-term velocity variations of the double peaks.

  8. GPU accelerated manifold correction method for spinning compact binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Chong-xi; Liu, Song; Zhong, Shuang-ying

    2018-04-01

    The graphics processing unit (GPU) acceleration of the manifold correction algorithm based on the compute unified device architecture (CUDA) technology is designed to simulate the dynamic evolution of the Post-Newtonian (PN) Hamiltonian formulation of spinning compact binaries. The feasibility and the efficiency of parallel computation on GPU have been confirmed by various numerical experiments. The numerical comparisons show that the accuracy on GPU execution of manifold corrections method has a good agreement with the execution of codes on merely central processing unit (CPU-based) method. The acceleration ability when the codes are implemented on GPU can increase enormously through the use of shared memory and register optimization techniques without additional hardware costs, implying that the speedup is nearly 13 times as compared with the codes executed on CPU for phase space scan (including 314 × 314 orbits). In addition, GPU-accelerated manifold correction method is used to numerically study how dynamics are affected by the spin-induced quadrupole-monopole interaction for black hole binary system.

  9. Sparse representations of gravitational waves from precessing compact binaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Jonathan; Szilagyi, Bela; Galley, Chad R; Tiglio, Manuel

    2014-07-11

    Many relevant applications in gravitational wave physics share a significant common problem: the seven-dimensional parameter space of gravitational waveforms from precessing compact binary inspirals and coalescences is large enough to prohibit covering the space of waveforms with sufficient density. We find that by using the reduced basis method together with a parametrization of waveforms based on their phase and precession, we can construct ultracompact yet high-accuracy representations of this large space. As a demonstration, we show that less than 100 judiciously chosen precessing inspiral waveforms are needed for 200 cycles, mass ratios from 1 to 10, and spin magnitudes ≤0.9. In fact, using only the first 10 reduced basis waveforms yields a maximum mismatch of 0.016 over the whole range of considered parameters. We test whether the parameters selected from the inspiral regime result in an accurate reduced basis when including merger and ringdown; we find that this is indeed the case in the context of a nonprecessing effective-one-body model. This evidence suggests that as few as ∼100 numerical simulations of binary black hole coalescences may accurately represent the seven-dimensional parameter space of precession waveforms for the considered ranges.

  10. Global symplectic structure-preserving integrators for spinning compact binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shuang-Ying; Wu, Xin; Liu, San-Qiu; Deng, Xin-Fa

    2010-12-01

    This paper deals mainly with the application of the second-order symplectic implicit midpoint rule and its symmetric compositions to a post-Newtonian Hamiltonian formulation with canonical spin variables in relativistic compact binaries. The midpoint rule, as a basic algorithm, is directly used to integrate the completely canonical Hamiltonian system. On the other hand, there are symmetric composite methods based on a splitting of the Hamiltonian into two parts: the Newtonian part associated with a Kepler motion, and a perturbation part involving the orbital post-Newtonian and spin contributions, where the Kepler flow has an analytic solution and the perturbation can be calculated by the midpoint rule. An example is the second-order mixed leapfrog symplectic integrator with one stage integration of the perturbation flow and two semistage computations of the Kepler flow at every integration step. Also, higher-order composite methods such as the Forest-Ruth fourth-order symplectic integrator and its optimized algorithm are applicable. Various numerical tests including simulations of chaotic orbits show that the mixed leapfrog integrator is always superior to the midpoint rule in energy accuracy, while both of them are almost equivalent in computational efficiency. Particularly, the optimized fourth-order algorithm compared with the mixed leapfrog scheme provides good precision and needs no expensive additional computational time. As a result, it is worth performing a more detailed and careful examination of the dynamical structure of chaos and order in the parameter windows and phase space of the binary system.

  11. Eccentric binaries of compact objects in strong-field gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, Roman

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis we study the dynamics as well as the resulting gravitational radiation from eccentric binaries of compact objects in the non-linear regime of General Relativity. For this purpose we solve Einstein's field equation numerically in a 3+1 decomposition using the moving-puncture technique. We focus our study on very particular orbits, arising as a purely relativistic phenomenon of the two-body problem in General Relativity, which are associated with unstable circular orbits. They are governed by a fast, nearly circular revolution at a short distance followed by a slow, radial motion on a nearly elliptic trajectory. Due to the unique features of their orbital trajectories they are called zoom-whirl orbits. We analyze how the peculiar dynamics manifests itself in the emitted gravitational radiation and to which extent one can infer the orbital properties from observations of the gravitational waves. In the first part, we consider black hole binaries. We perform a comprehensive parameter study by varying the initial eccentricity, computing and characterizing the resulting gravitational waveforms. We address aspects, which can only be obtained from non-perturbative methods, and which are crucial to the astrophysical relevance of these orbits. In particular, our results imply a fairly low amount of fine-tuning necessary to spot zoom-whirl effects. We find whirl orbits for values of the eccentricities, which fall in disjunct intervals extending to rather low values. Furthermore, we show that whirl effects just before merger cause a signal with significant amplitude. In the second part, we investigate neutron star binaries on eccentric orbits in full General Relativity, which has not been studied so far. We explore their phenomenology and study the consequences for the matter after the neutron stars have merged. In these evolutions the merged neutron stars sooner or later collapse to form a black hole. During the collapse most of the matter is accreted on to the

  12. Eccentric binaries of compact objects in strong-field gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gold, Roman

    2011-09-27

    In this thesis we study the dynamics as well as the resulting gravitational radiation from eccentric binaries of compact objects in the non-linear regime of General Relativity. For this purpose we solve Einstein's field equation numerically in a 3+1 decomposition using the moving-puncture technique. We focus our study on very particular orbits, arising as a purely relativistic phenomenon of the two-body problem in General Relativity, which are associated with unstable circular orbits. They are governed by a fast, nearly circular revolution at a short distance followed by a slow, radial motion on a nearly elliptic trajectory. Due to the unique features of their orbital trajectories they are called zoom-whirl orbits. We analyze how the peculiar dynamics manifests itself in the emitted gravitational radiation and to which extent one can infer the orbital properties from observations of the gravitational waves. In the first part, we consider black hole binaries. We perform a comprehensive parameter study by varying the initial eccentricity, computing and characterizing the resulting gravitational waveforms. We address aspects, which can only be obtained from non-perturbative methods, and which are crucial to the astrophysical relevance of these orbits. In particular, our results imply a fairly low amount of fine-tuning necessary to spot zoom-whirl effects. We find whirl orbits for values of the eccentricities, which fall in disjunct intervals extending to rather low values. Furthermore, we show that whirl effects just before merger cause a signal with significant amplitude. In the second part, we investigate neutron star binaries on eccentric orbits in full General Relativity, which has not been studied so far. We explore their phenomenology and study the consequences for the matter after the neutron stars have merged. In these evolutions the merged neutron stars sooner or later collapse to form a black hole. During the collapse most of the matter is accreted on

  13. Compact stars and the evolution of binary systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, E.P.J.

    2011-01-01

    The Chandrasekhar limit is of key importance for the evolution of white dwarfs in binary systems and for the formation of neutron stars and black holes in binaries. Mass transfer can drive a white dwarf in a binary over the Chandrasekhar limit, which may lead to a Type Ia supernova (in case of a CO

  14. The formation of eccentric compact binary inspirals and the role of gravitational wave emission in binary-single stellar encounters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samsing, Johan; MacLeod, Morgan; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    The inspiral and merger of eccentric binaries leads to gravitational waveforms distinct from those generated by circularly merging binaries. Dynamical environments can assemble binaries with high eccentricity and peak frequencies within the LIGO band. In this paper, we study binary-single stellar scatterings occurring in dense stellar systems as a source of eccentrically inspiraling binaries. Many interactions between compact binaries and single objects are characterized by chaotic resonances in which the binary-single system undergoes many exchanges before reaching a final state. During these chaotic resonances, a pair of objects has a non-negligible probability of experiencing a very close passage. Significant orbital energy and angular momentum are carried away from the system by gravitational wave (GW) radiation in these close passages, and in some cases this implies an inspiral time shorter than the orbital period of the bound third body. We derive the cross section for such dynamical inspiral outcomes through analytical arguments and through numerical scattering experiments including GW losses. We show that the cross section for dynamical inspirals grows with increasing target binary semi-major axis a and that for equal-mass binaries it scales as a 2/7 . Thus, we expect wide target binaries to predominantly contribute to the production of these relativistic outcomes. We estimate that eccentric inspirals account for approximately 1% of dynamically assembled non-eccentric merging binaries. While these events are rare, we show that binary-single scatterings are a more effective formation channel than single-single captures for the production of eccentrically inspiraling binaries, even given modest binary fractions.

  15. r-Process Nucleosynthesis in the Early Universe Through Fast Mergers of Compact Binaries in Triple Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonetti, Matteo; Perego, Albino; Capelo, Pedro R.; Dotti, Massimo; Miller, M. Coleman

    2018-05-01

    Surface abundance observations of halo stars hint at the occurrence of r-process nucleosynthesis at low metallicity ([Fe/H] scale of the inner compact object binaries. Our results are highly sensitive to the assumed initial distribution of the inner binary semi-major axes. Distributions with mostly wide compact object binaries are most affected by the third object, resulting in a strong increase (by more than a factor of 2) in the fraction of fast coalescences. If instead the distribution preferentially populates very close compact binaries, general relativistic precession prevents the third body from increasing the inner binary eccentricity to very high values. In this last case, the fraction of coalescing binaries is increased much less by tertiaries, but the fraction of binaries that would coalesce within 108 yr even without a third object is already high. Our results provide additional support to the compact-binary merger scenario for r-process nucleosynthesis.

  16. A template bank to search for gravitational waves from inspiralling compact binaries: I. Physical models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babak, S; Balasubramanian, R; Churches, D; Cokelaer, T; Sathyaprakash, B S

    2006-01-01

    Gravitational waves from coalescing compact binaries are searched for using the matched filtering technique. As the model waveform depends on a number of parameters, it is necessary to filter the data through a template bank covering the astrophysically interesting region of the parameter space. The choice of templates is defined by the maximum allowed drop in signal-to-noise ratio due to the discreteness of the template bank. In this paper we describe the template-bank algorithm that was used in the analysis of data from the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO) and GEO 600 detectors to search for signals from binaries consisting of non-spinning compact objects. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we study the efficiency of the bank and show that its performance is satisfactory for the design sensitivity curves of ground-based interferometric gravitational wave detectors GEO 600, initial LIGO, advanced LIGO and Virgo. The bank is efficient in searching for various compact binaries such as binary primordial black holes, binary neutron stars, binary black holes, as well as a mixed binary consisting of a non-spinning black hole and a neutron star

  17. Gravitational Radiation from Post-Newtonian Sources and Inspiralling Compact Binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Blanchet

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available To be observed and analyzed by the network of gravitational wave detectors on ground (LIGO, VIRGO, etc. and by the future detectors in space (eLISA, etc., inspiralling compact binaries -- binary star systems composed of neutron stars and/or black holes in their late stage of evolution -- require high-accuracy templates predicted by general relativity theory. The gravitational waves emitted by these very relativistic systems can be accurately modelled using a high-order post-Newtonian gravitational wave generation formalism. In this article, we present the current state of the art on post-Newtonian methods as applied to the dynamics and gravitational radiation of general matter sources (including the radiation reaction back onto the source and inspiralling compact binaries. We describe the post-Newtonian equations of motion of compact binaries and the associated Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms, paying attention to the self-field regularizations at work in the calculations. Several notions of innermost circular orbits are discussed. We estimate the accuracy of the post-Newtonian approximation and make a comparison with numerical computations of the gravitational self-force for compact binaries in the small mass ratio limit. The gravitational waveform and energy flux are obtained to high post-Newtonian order and the binary's orbital phase evolution is deduced from an energy balance argument. Some landmark results are given in the case of eccentric compact binaries -- moving on quasi-elliptical orbits with non-negligible eccentricity. The spins of the two black holes play an important role in the definition of the gravitational wave templates. We investigate their imprint on the equations of motion and gravitational wave phasing up to high post-Newtonian order (restricting to spin-orbit effects which are linear in spins, and analyze the post-Newtonian spin precession equations as well as the induced precession of the orbital plane.

  18. A Comparative Study of the Compaction Properties of Binary and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Halder et al. Trop J Pharm Res, August 2012;11 (4): 585 ... No significant difference was observed between the tensile strength of binary and ... porosity, particle size, particle shape, etc [5-. 9]. ... °C until they were dried properly and constant ...

  19. Improving timing sensitivity in the microhertz frequency regime: limits from PSR J1713+0747 on gravitational waves produced by super-massive black-hole binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, B. B. P.; Stappers, B. W.; Babak, S.; Keith, M. J.; Antoniadis, J.; Bassa, C. G.; Caballero, R. N.; Champion, D. J.; Cognard, I.; Desvignes, G.; Graikou, E.; Guillemot, L.; Janssen, G. H.; Karuppusamy, R.; Kramer, M.; Lazarus, P.; Lentati, L.; Liu, K.; Lyne, A. G.; McKee, J. W.; Osłowski, S.; Perrodin, D.; Sanidas, S. A.; Sesana, A.; Shaifullah, G.; Theureau, G.; Verbiest, J. P. W.; Taylor, S. R.

    2018-05-01

    We search for continuous gravitational waves (CGWs) produced by individual super-massive black-hole binaries (SMBHBs) in circular orbits using high-cadence timing observations of PSR J1713+0747. We observe this millisecond pulsar using the telescopes in the European Pulsar Timing Array (EPTA) with an average cadence of approximately 1.6 days over the period between April 2011 and July 2015, including an approximately daily average between February 2013 and April 2014. The high-cadence observations are used to improve the pulsar timing sensitivity across the GW frequency range of 0.008 - 5 μHz. We use two algorithms in the analysis, including a spectral fitting method and a Bayesian approach. For an independent comparison, we also use a previously published Bayesian algorithm. We find that the Bayesian approaches provide optimal results and the timing observations of the pulsar place a 95 per cent upper limit on the sky-averaged strain amplitude of CGWs to be ≲ 3.5 × 10-13 at a reference frequency of 1 μHz. We also find a 95 per cent upper limit on the sky-averaged strain amplitude of low-frequency CGWs to be ≲ 1.4 × 10-14 at a reference frequency of 20 nHz.

  20. Template banks to search for compact binaries with spinning components in gravitational wave data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Den Broeck, Chris; Cokelaer, Thomas; Harry, Ian; Jones, Gareth; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Brown, Duncan A.; Tagoshi, Hideyuki; Takahashi, Hirotaka

    2009-01-01

    Gravitational waves from coalescing compact binaries are one of the most promising sources for detectors such as LIGO, Virgo, and GEO600. If the components of the binary possess significant angular momentum (spin), as is likely to be the case if one component is a black hole, spin-induced precession of a binary's orbital plane causes modulation of the gravitational-wave amplitude and phase. If the templates used in a matched-filter search do not accurately model these effects then the sensitivity, and hence the detection rate, will be reduced. We investigate the ability of several search pipelines to detect gravitational waves from compact binaries with spin. We use the post-Newtonian approximation to model the inspiral phase of the signal and construct two new template banks using the phenomenological waveforms of Buonanno, Chen, and Vallisneri [A. Buonanno, Y. Chen, and M. Vallisneri, Phys. Rev. D 67, 104025 (2003)]. We compare the performance of these template banks to that of banks constructed using the stationary phase approximation to the nonspinning post-Newtonian inspiral waveform currently used by LIGO and Virgo in the search for compact binary coalescence. We find that, at the same false alarm rate, a search pipeline using phenomenological templates is no more effective than a pipeline which uses nonspinning templates. We recommend the continued use of the nonspinning stationary phase template bank until the false alarm rate associated with templates which include spin effects can be substantially reduced.

  1. arXiv Gravitational Wave Signatures of Highly Compact Boson Star Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Palenzuela, Carlos; Bezares, Miguel; Cardoso, Vitor; Lehner, Luis; Liebling, Steven

    2017-11-30

    Solitonic boson stars are stable objects made of a complex scalar field with a compactness that can reach values comparable to that of neutron stars. A recent study of the collision of identical boson stars produced only nonrotating boson stars or black holes, suggesting that rotating boson stars may not form from binary mergers. Here we extend this study to include an analysis of the gravitational waves radiated during the coalescence of such a binary, which is crucial to distinguish these events from other binaries with LIGO and Virgo observations. Our studies reveal that the remnant’s gravitational wave signature is mainly governed by its fundamental frequency as it settles down to a nonrotating boson star, emitting significant gravitational radiation during this post-merger state. We calculate how the waveforms and their post-merger frequencies depend on the compactness of the initial boson stars and estimate analytically the amount of energy radiated after the merger.

  2. Maximum mass ratio of AM CVn-type binary systems and maximum white dwarf mass in ultra-compact X-ray binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbutina Bojan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available AM CVn-type stars and ultra-compact X-ray binaries are extremely interesting semi-detached close binary systems in which the Roche lobe filling component is a white dwarf transferring mass to another white dwarf, neutron star or a black hole. Earlier theoretical considerations show that there is a maximum mass ratio of AM CVn-type binary systems (qmax ≈ 2/3 below which the mass transfer is stable. In this paper we derive slightly different value for qmax and more interestingly, by applying the same procedure, we find the maximum expected white dwarf mass in ultra-compact X-ray binaries.

  3. Circular polarimetry of the magnetic compact binary AM Herculis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piirola, V; Vilhu, O; Tuominen, I

    1982-01-01

    Circular polarimetry in the red and simultaneous photometric observations in the UBVRI bands during the period June 1 to 3, 1981, of AM Herculis are discussed. Peak value of negative circular polarization (- 15 %) is stronger than observed in 1976 to 1979. Variations in the shape of the polarization and light curves occur from night to night. Positive crossover and reversal of the sign of the circular polarization are only marginal. Long term changes in polarization may be partly due to precession of the axis of rotation of the white dwarf about the binary axis. However, the duration of the phase interval where circular polarization remains close to zero changes on a time scale of days, casting doubt on precession models. The changing shape and position of the accretion columns with respect to the magnetic axis could explain short term variations. (ESA)

  4. Inspiral waveforms for spinning compact binaries in a new precessing convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Anuradha; Gopakumar, Achamveedu

    2016-01-01

    It is customary to use a precessing convention, based on Newtonian orbital angular momentum L N , to model inspiral gravitational waves from generic spinning compact binaries. A key feature of such a precessing convention is its ability to remove all spin precession induced modulations from the orbital phase evolution. However, this convention usually employs a postNewtonian (PN) accurate precessional equation, appropriate for the PN accurate orbital angular momentum L , to evolve the L N -based precessing source frame. This motivated us to develop inspiral waveforms for spinning compact binaries in a precessing convention that explicitly use L to describe the binary orbits. Our approach introduces certain additional 3PN order terms in the orbital phase and frequency evolution equations with respect to the usual L N -based implementation of the precessing convention. The implications of these additional terms are explored by computing the match between inspiral waveforms that employ L and L N -based precessing conventions. We found that the match estimates are smaller than the optimal value, namely 0.97, for a non-negligible fraction of unequal mass spinning compact binaries. (paper)

  5. Optical and X-ray studies of Compact X-ray Binaries in NGC 5904

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalotia, Vanshree; Beck-Winchatz, Bernhard

    2018-06-01

    Due to their high stellar densities, globular cluster systems trigger various dynamical interactions, such as the formation of compact X-ray binaries. Stellar collisional frequencies have been correlated to the number of X-ray sources detected in various clusters and we hope to measure this correlation for NGC 5904. Optical fluxes of sources from archival HST images of NGC 5904 have been measured using a DOLPHOT PSF photometry in the UV, optical and near-infrared. We developed a data analysis pipeline to process the fluxes of tens of thousands of objects using awk, python and DOLPHOT. We plot color magnitude diagrams in different photometric bands in order to identify outliers that could be X-ray binaries, since they do not evolve the same way as singular stars. Aligning previously measured astrometric data for X-ray sources in NGC 5904 from Chandra with archival astrometric data from HST will filter out the outlier objects that are not X-ray producing, and provide a sample of compact binary systems that are responsible for X-ray emission in NGC 5904. Furthermore, previously measured X-ray fluxes of NGC 5904 from Chandra have also been used to measure the X-ray to optical flux ratio and identify the types of compact X-ray binaries responsible for the X-ray emissions in NGC 5904. We gratefully acknowledge the support from the Illinois Space Grant Consortium.

  6. Gravitational Radiation from Post-Newtonian Sources and Inspiralling Compact Binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanchet Luc

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the current status of a theoretical approach to the problem of the emission of gravitational waves by isolated systems in the context of general relativity. Part A of the article deals with general post-Newtonian sources. The exterior field of the source is investigated by means of a combination of analytic post-Minkowskian and multipolar approximations. The physical observables in the far-zone of the source are described by a specific set of radiative multipole moments. By matching the exterior solution to the metric of the post-Newtonian source in the near-zone we obtain the explicit expressions of the source multipole moments. The relationships between the radiative and source moments involve many non-linear multipole interactions, among them those associated with the tails (and tails-of-tails of gravitational waves. Part B of the article is devoted to the application to compact binary systems. We present the equations of binary motion, and the associated Lagrangian and Hamiltonian, at the third post-Newtonian (3PN order beyond the Newtonian acceleration. The gravitational-wave energy flux, taking consistently into account the relativistic corrections in the binary moments as well as the various tail effects, is derived through 3.5PN order with respect to the quadrupole formalism. The binary's orbital phase, whose prior knowledge is crucial for searching and analyzing the signals from inspiralling compact binaries, is deduced from an energy balance argument.

  7. Extreme gravity tests with gravitational waves from compact binary coalescences: (II) ringdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berti, Emanuele; Yagi, Kent; Yang, Huan; Yunes, Nicolás

    2018-05-01

    The LIGO/Virgo detections of binary black hole mergers marked a watershed moment in astronomy, ushering in the era of precision tests of Kerr dynamics. We review theoretical and experimental challenges that must be overcome to carry out black hole spectroscopy with present and future gravitational wave detectors. Among other topics, we discuss quasinormal mode excitation in binary mergers, astrophysical event rates, tests of black hole dynamics in modified theories of gravity, parameterized "post-Kerr" ringdown tests, exotic compact objects, and proposed data analysis methods to improve spectroscopic tests of Kerr dynamics by stacking multiple events.

  8. Study of statistical properties of hybrid statistic in coherent multi-detector compact binary coalescences Search

    OpenAIRE

    Haris, K; Pai, Archana

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we revisit the problem of coherent multi-detector search of gravitational wave from compact binary coalescence with Neutron stars and Black Holes using advanced interferometers like LIGO-Virgo. Based on the loss of optimal multi-detector signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), we construct a hybrid statistic as a best of maximum-likelihood-ratio(MLR) statistic tuned for face-on and face-off binaries. The statistical properties of the hybrid statistic is studied. The performance of this ...

  9. Short gamma-ray bursts and gravitational-wave observations from eccentric compact binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wei-Wei; Fan, Xi-Long; Wang, F. Y.

    2018-03-01

    Mergers of compact binaries, such as binary neutron stars (BNSs), neutron star-black hole binaries (NSBHs) and binary black holes (BBHs), are expected to be the best candidates for sources of gravitational waves (GWs) and the leading theoretical models for short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs). Based on observations of SGRBs, we can derive the merger rates of these compact binaries and study stochastic GW backgrounds (SGWBs) or the co-detection rates of GWs associated with SGRBs (GW-SGRBs). Before that, however, the most important thing is to derive the GW spectrum from a single GW source. Usually, a GW spectrum from a circular-orbit binary is assumed. However, observations of the large spatial offsets of SGRBs from their host galaxies imply that SGRB progenitors may be formed by dynamical processes and will merge with residual eccentricities (er). The orbital eccentricity has an important effect on GW spectra and therefore on the SGWB and GW-SGRB co-detection rate. Our results show that the power spectra of SGWBs from eccentric compact binaries are greatly suppressed at low frequencies (e.g. f ≲ 1 Hz). In particular, SGWBs from binaries with high residual eccentricities (e.g. er ≳ 0.1 for BNSs) will be hard to detect (above the detection frequency of ˜ 100 Hz). Regarding the co-detection rates of GW-SGRB events, they could be ˜1.4 times higher than the circular case within some particular ranges of er (e.g. 0.01 ≲ er ≲ 0.1 for BBHs), but greatly reduced for high residual eccentricities (e.g. er > 0.1 for BNSs). In general, BBH progenitors produce 200 and 10 times higher GW-SGRB events than BNS and NSBH progenitors, respectively. Therefore, binaries with low residual eccentricities (e.g. 0.001 ≲ er ≲ 0.1) and high total masses will be easier to detect by Advanced LIGO (aLIGO). However, only a small fraction of BBHs can be SGRB progenitors (if they can produce SGRBs), because the predicted GW-SGRB event rate (60˜100 per year) is too high compared with recent

  10. Performance comparison of multi-detector detection statistics in targeted compact binary coalescence GW search

    OpenAIRE

    Haris, K; Pai, Archana

    2016-01-01

    Global network of advanced Interferometric gravitational wave (GW) detectors are expected to be on-line soon. Coherent observation of GW from a distant compact binary coalescence (CBC) with a network of interferometers located in different continents give crucial information about the source such as source location and polarization information. In this paper we compare different multi-detector network detection statistics for CBC search. In maximum likelihood ratio (MLR) based detection appro...

  11. GW170817: Implications for the Stochastic Gravitational-Wave Background from Compact Binary Coalescences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B P; Abbott, R; Abbott, T D; Acernese, F; Ackley, K; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R X; Adya, V B; Affeldt, C; Afrough, M; Agarwal, B; Agathos, M; Agatsuma, K; Aggarwal, N; Aguiar, O D; Aiello, L; Ain, A; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Allen, G; Allocca, A; Altin, P A; Amato, A; Ananyeva, A; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Angelova, S V; Antier, S; Appert, S; Arai, K; Araya, M C; Areeda, J S; Arnaud, N; Arun, K G; Ascenzi, S; Ashton, G; Ast, M; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Atallah, D V; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; AultONeal, K; Austin, C; Avila-Alvarez, A; Babak, S; Bacon, P; Bader, M K M; Bae, S; Baker, P T; Baldaccini, F; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S W; Banagiri, S; Barayoga, J C; Barclay, S E; Barish, B C; Barker, D; Barkett, K; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barta, D; Bartlett, J; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Basti, A; Batch, J C; Bawaj, M; Bayley, J C; Bazzan, M; Bécsy, B; Beer, C; Bejger, M; Belahcene, I; Bell, A S; Berger, B K; Bergmann, G; Bero, J J; Berry, C P L; Bersanetti, D; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Bhagwat, S; Bhandare, R; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Billman, C R; Birch, J; Birney, R; Birnholtz, O; Biscans, S; Biscoveanu, S; Bisht, A; Bitossi, M; Biwer, C; Bizouard, M A; Blackburn, J K; Blackman, J; Blair, C D; Blair, D G; Blair, R M; Bloemen, S; Bock, O; Bode, N; Boer, M; Bogaert, G; Bohe, A; Bondu, F; Bonilla, E; Bonnand, R; Boom, B A; Bork, R; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Bossie, K; Bouffanais, Y; Bozzi, A; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Briant, T; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Brockill, P; Broida, J E; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Brown, D D; Brunett, S; Buchanan, C C; Buikema, A; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Byer, R L; Cabero, M; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Cahillane, C; Bustillo, J Calderón; Callister, T A; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Canepa, M; Canizares, P; Cannon, K C; Cao, H; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Capocasa, E; Carbognani, F; Caride, S; Carney, M F; Diaz, J Casanueva; Casentini, C; Caudill, S; Cavaglià, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cepeda, C B; Cerdá-Durán, P; Cerretani, G; Cesarini, E; Chamberlin, S J; Chan, M; Chao, S; Charlton, P; Chase, E; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chatterjee, D; Cheeseboro, B D; Chen, H Y; Chen, X; Chen, Y; Cheng, H-P; Chia, H; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Chmiel, T; Cho, H S; Cho, M; Chow, J H; Christensen, N; Chu, Q; Chua, A J K; Chua, S; Chung, A K W; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Ciolfi, R; Cirelli, C E; Cirone, A; Clara, F; Clark, J A; Clearwater, P; Cleva, F; Cocchieri, C; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P-F; Cohen, D; Colla, A; Collette, C G; Cominsky, L R; Constancio, M; Conti, L; Cooper, S J; Corban, P; Corbitt, T R; Cordero-Carrión, I; Corley, K R; Cornish, N; Corsi, A; Cortese, S; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M W; Coughlin, S B; Coulon, J-P; Countryman, S T; Couvares, P; Covas, P B; Cowan, E E; Coward, D M; Cowart, M J; Coyne, D C; Coyne, R; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T D; Cripe, J; Crowder, S G; Cullen, T J; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Dal Canton, T; Dálya, G; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Dasgupta, A; Da Silva Costa, C F; Dattilo, V; Dave, I; Davier, M; Davis, D; Daw, E J; Day, B; De, S; DeBra, D; Degallaix, J; De Laurentis, M; Deléglise, S; Del Pozzo, W; Demos, N; Denker, T; Dent, T; De Pietri, R; Dergachev, V; De Rosa, R; DeRosa, R T; De Rossi, C; DeSalvo, R; de Varona, O; Devenson, J; Dhurandhar, S; Díaz, M C; Di Fiore, L; Di Giovanni, M; Di Girolamo, T; Di Lieto, A; Di Pace, S; Di Palma, I; Di Renzo, F; Doctor, Z; Dolique, V; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doravari, S; Dorrington, I; Douglas, R; Dovale Álvarez, M; Downes, T P; Drago, M; Dreissigacker, C; Driggers, J C; Du, Z; Ducrot, M; Dupej, P; Dwyer, S E; Edo, T B; Edwards, M C; Effler, A; Eggenstein, H-B; Ehrens, P; Eichholz, J; Eikenberry, S S; Eisenstein, R A; Essick, R C; Estevez, D; Etienne, Z B; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T M; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fair, H; Fairhurst, S; Fan, X; Farinon, S; Farr, B; Farr, W M; Fauchon-Jones, E J; Favata, M; Fays, M; Fee, C; Fehrmann, H; Feicht, J; Fejer, M M; Fernandez-Galiana, A; Ferrante, I; Ferreira, E C; Ferrini, F; Fidecaro, F; Finstad, D; Fiori, I; Fiorucci, D; Fishbach, M; Fisher, R P; Fitz-Axen, M; Flaminio, R; Fletcher, M; Fong, H; Font, J A; Forsyth, P W F; Forsyth, S S; Fournier, J-D; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Frey, V; Fries, E M; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fulda, P; Fyffe, M; Gabbard, H; Gadre, B U; Gaebel, S M; Gair, J R; Gammaitoni, L; Ganija, M R; Gaonkar, S G; Garcia-Quiros, C; Garufi, F; Gateley, B; Gaudio, S; Gaur, G; Gayathri, V; Gehrels, N; Gemme, G; Genin, E; Gennai, A; George, D; George, J; Gergely, L; Germain, V; Ghonge, S; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gill, K; Glover, L; Goetz, E; Goetz, R; Gomes, S; Goncharov, B; González, G; Gonzalez Castro, J M; Gopakumar, A; Gorodetsky, M L; Gossan, S E; Gosselin, M; Gouaty, R; Grado, A; Graef, C; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Greco, G; Green, A C; Gretarsson, E M; Groot, P; Grote, H; 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Karvinen, K S; Kasprzack, M; Katolik, M; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, S; Kawabe, K; Kéfélian, F; Keitel, D; Kemball, A J; Kennedy, R; Kent, C; Key, J S; Khalili, F Y; Khan, I; Khan, S; Khan, Z; Khazanov, E A; Kijbunchoo, N; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J C; Kim, K; Kim, W; Kim, W S; Kim, Y-M; Kimbrell, S J; King, E J; King, P J; Kinley-Hanlon, M; Kirchhoff, R; Kissel, J S; Kleybolte, L; Klimenko, S; Knowles, T D; Koch, P; Koehlenbeck, S M; Koley, S; Kondrashov, V; Kontos, A; Korobko, M; Korth, W Z; Kowalska, I; Kozak, D B; Krämer, C; Kringel, V; Krishnan, B; Królak, A; Kuehn, G; Kumar, P; Kumar, R; Kumar, S; Kuo, L; Kutynia, A; Kwang, S; Lackey, B D; Lai, K H; Landry, M; Lang, R N; Lange, J; Lantz, B; Lanza, R K; Lartaux-Vollard, A; Lasky, P D; Laxen, M; Lazzarini, A; Lazzaro, C; Leaci, P; Leavey, S; Lee, C H; Lee, H K; Lee, H M; Lee, H W; Lee, K; Lehmann, J; Lenon, A; Leonardi, M; Leroy, N; Letendre, N; Levin, Y; Li, T G F; Linker, S D; Littenberg, T B; Liu, J; Lo, R K L; Lockerbie, N A; 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    2018-03-02

    The LIGO Scientific and Virgo Collaborations have announced the event GW170817, the first detection of gravitational waves from the coalescence of two neutron stars. The merger rate of binary neutron stars estimated from this event suggests that distant, unresolvable binary neutron stars create a significant astrophysical stochastic gravitational-wave background. The binary neutron star component will add to the contribution from binary black holes, increasing the amplitude of the total astrophysical background relative to previous expectations. In the Advanced LIGO-Virgo frequency band most sensitive to stochastic backgrounds (near 25 Hz), we predict a total astrophysical background with amplitude Ω_{GW}(f=25  Hz)=1.8_{-1.3}^{+2.7}×10^{-9} with 90% confidence, compared with Ω_{GW}(f=25  Hz)=1.1_{-0.7}^{+1.2}×10^{-9} from binary black holes alone. Assuming the most probable rate for compact binary mergers, we find that the total background may be detectable with a signal-to-noise-ratio of 3 after 40 months of total observation time, based on the expected timeline for Advanced LIGO and Virgo to reach their design sensitivity.

  12. GW170817: Implications for the Stochastic Gravitational-Wave Background from Compact Binary Coalescences

    Science.gov (United States)

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M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Healy, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hinderer, T.; Hoak, D.; Hofman, D.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Horst, C.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hreibi, A.; Hu, Y. M.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Indik, N.; Inta, R.; Intini, G.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J.-M.; Isi, M.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Junker, J.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kamai, B.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Kapadia, S. J.; Karki, S.; Karvinen, K. S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katolik, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kawabe, K.; Kéfélian, F.; Keitel, D.; Kemball, A. J.; Kennedy, R.; Kent, C.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan, S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J. C.; Kim, K.; Kim, W.; Kim, W. S.; Kim, Y.-M.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinley-Hanlon, M.; Kirchhoff, R.; Kissel, J. S.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Knowles, T. D.; Koch, P.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Krämer, C.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Królak, A.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kumar, S.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Kwang, S.; Lackey, B. D.; Lai, K. H.; Landry, M.; Lang, R. N.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lanza, R. K.; Lartaux-Vollard, A.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, H. W.; Lee, K.; Lehmann, J.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Li, T. G. F.; Linker, S. D.; Littenberg, T. B.; Liu, J.; Lo, R. K. L.; Lockerbie, N. A.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lousto, C. O.; Lovelace, G.; Lück, H.; Lumaca, D.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Macas, R.; Macfoy, S.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña Hernandez, I.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Magaña Zertuche, L.; Magee, R. M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Man, N.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markakis, C.; Markosyan, A. S.; Markowitz, A.; Maros, E.; Marquina, A.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Martynov, D. V.; Mason, K.; Massera, E.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matas, A.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McCuller, L.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McNeill, L.; McRae, T.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Mehmet, M.; Meidam, J.; Mejuto-Villa, E.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, B. B.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Milovich-Goff, M. C.; Minazzoli, O.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moffa, D.; Moggi, A.; Mogushi, K.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Muñiz, E. A.; Muratore, M.; Murray, P. G.; Napier, K.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Neilson, J.; Nelemans, G.; Nelson, T. J. N.; Nery, M.; Neunzert, A.; Nevin, L.; Newport, J. M.; Newton, G.; Ng, K. K. Y.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nichols, D.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Noack, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; North, C.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; O'Dea, G. D.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Okada, M. A.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; Ormiston, R.; Ortega, L. F.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ossokine, S.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pace, A. E.; Page, J.; Page, M. A.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, Howard; Pan, Huang-Wei; Pang, B.; Pang, P. T. H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Parida, A.; Parker, W.; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patil, M.; Patricelli, B.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perez, C. J.; Perreca, A.; Perri, L. M.; Pfeiffer, H. P.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pirello, M.; Pitkin, M.; Poe, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Porter, E. K.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Pratt, J. W. W.; Pratten, G.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Pürrer, M.; Qi, H.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajan, C.; Rajbhandari, B.; Rakhmanov, M.; Ramirez, K. E.; Ramos-Buades, A.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Read, J.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Ren, W.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Ricker, P. M.; Rieger, S.; Riles, K.; Rizzo, M.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, J. D.; Romano, R.; Romel, C. L.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Ross, M. P.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Rutins, G.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Sakellariadou, M.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sampson, L. M.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sanchez, L. E.; Sanchis-Gual, N.; Sandberg, V.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Scheel, M.; Scheuer, J.; Schmidt, J.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schönbeck, A.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schulte, B. W.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwalbe, S. G.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Seidel, E.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T. J.; Shah, A. A.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaner, M. B.; Shao, L.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, B.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, R. J. E.; Somala, S.; Son, E. J.; Sonnenberg, J. A.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Spencer, A. P.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staats, K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stevenson, S. P.; Stone, R.; Stops, D. J.; Strain, K. A.; Stratta, G.; Strigin, S. E.; Strunk, A.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sunil, S.; Suresh, J.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepańczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Tait, S. C.; Talbot, C.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Taracchini, A.; Tasson, J. D.; Taylor, J. A.; Taylor, R.; Tewari, S. V.; Theeg, T.; Thies, F.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tonelli, M.; Tornasi, Z.; Torres-Forné, A.; Torrie, C. I.; Töyrä, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trinastic, J.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tsang, K. W.; Tse, M.; Tso, R.; Tsukada, L.; Tsuna, D.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ueno, K.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Varma, V.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Venugopalan, G.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Viets, A. D.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, M.; Walet, R.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, J. Z.; Wang, W. H.; Wang, Y. F.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Watchi, J.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L.-W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Wessel, E. K.; Weßels, P.; Westerweck, J.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whiting, B. F.; Whittle, C.; Wilken, D.; Williams, D.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Wofford, J.; Wong, K. W. K.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, D. S.; Wysocki, D. M.; Xiao, S.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yang, L.; Yap, M. J.; Yazback, M.; Yu, Hang; Yu, Haocun; Yvert, M.; ZadroŻny, A.; Zanolin, M.; Zelenova, T.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, Y.-H.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, S. J.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zweizig, J.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration

    2018-03-01

    The LIGO Scientific and Virgo Collaborations have announced the event GW170817, the first detection of gravitational waves from the coalescence of two neutron stars. The merger rate of binary neutron stars estimated from this event suggests that distant, unresolvable binary neutron stars create a significant astrophysical stochastic gravitational-wave background. The binary neutron star component will add to the contribution from binary black holes, increasing the amplitude of the total astrophysical background relative to previous expectations. In the Advanced LIGO-Virgo frequency band most sensitive to stochastic backgrounds (near 25 Hz), we predict a total astrophysical background with amplitude ΩGW(f =25 Hz )=1. 8-1.3+2.7×10-9 with 90% confidence, compared with ΩGW(f =25 Hz )=1. 1-0.7+1.2×10-9 from binary black holes alone. Assuming the most probable rate for compact binary mergers, we find that the total background may be detectable with a signal-to-noise-ratio of 3 after 40 months of total observation time, based on the expected timeline for Advanced LIGO and Virgo to reach their design sensitivity.

  13. Accuracy requirements for the calculation of gravitational waveforms from coalescing compact binaries in numerical relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Mark

    2005-01-01

    I discuss the accuracy requirements on numerical relativity calculations of inspiraling compact object binaries whose extracted gravitational waveforms are to be used as templates for matched filtering signal extraction and physical parameter estimation in modern interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Using a post-Newtonian point particle model for the premerger phase of the binary inspiral, I calculate the maximum allowable errors for the mass and relative velocity and positions of the binary during numerical simulations of the binary inspiral. These maximum allowable errors are compared to the errors of state-of-the-art numerical simulations of multiple-orbit binary neutron star calculations in full general relativity, and are found to be smaller by several orders of magnitude. A post-Newtonian model for the error of these numerical simulations suggests that adaptive mesh refinement coupled with second-order accurate finite difference codes will not be able to robustly obtain the accuracy required for reliable gravitational wave extraction on Terabyte-scale computers. I conclude that higher-order methods (higher-order finite difference methods and/or spectral methods) combined with adaptive mesh refinement and/or multipatch technology will be needed for robustly accurate gravitational wave extraction from numerical relativity calculations of binary coalescence scenarios

  14. New Evidence for a Black Hole in the Compact Binary Cygnus X-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrader, Chris R.; Titarchuk, Lev; Shaposhnikov, Nikolai

    2010-01-01

    The bright and highly variable X-ray and radio source known as Cygnus X-3 was among the first X-ray sources discovered, yet it remains in many ways an enigma. Its known to consist of a massive. Wolf-Rayet primary in an extremely tight orbit with a compact object. Yet one of the most basic of pa.ranietern the mass of the compact object - is not known. Nor is it even clear whether its is a neutron star or a black hole. In this Paper we present our analysis of the broad-band high-energy continua covering a substantial range in luminosity and spectral morphology. We apply these results to a recently identified scaling relationship which has been demonstrated to provide reliable estimates of the compact object mass in a number of accretion powered binaries. This analysis leads us to conclude that the compact object in Cygnus X-3 has a mass greater than 4.2 solar mass thus clearly indicative of a black hole and as such resolving a longstanding issue. The full range of uncertainty in our analysis and from using a. range of recently published distance estimates constrains the compact object mass to lie between 4.2 solar mass and 14.4 solar mass. Our favored estimate, based on a 9.0 kpc distance estimate is approx. l0 solar mass, with the. error margin of 3.2 solar masses. This result may thus pose challenges to shared-envelope evolutionary models of compact binaries. as well as establishing Cygnus X-3 as the first confirmed accretion-powered galactic gamma: ray source.

  15. Compressibility of binary powder formulations: investigation and evaluation with compaction equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentis, Nicolaos D; Betz, Gabriele

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate and evaluate the powder compressibility of binary mixtures containing a well-compressible compound (microcrystalline cellulose) and a brittle active drug (paracetamol and mefenamic acid) and its progression after a drug load increase. Drug concentration range was 0%-100% (m/m) with 10% intervals. The powder formulations were compacted to several relative densities with the Zwick material tester. The compaction force and tensile strength were fitted to several mathematical models that give representative factors for the powder compressibility. The factors k and C (Heckel and modified Heckel equation) showed mostly a nonlinear correlation with increasing drug load. The biggest drop in both factors occurred at far regions and drug load ranges. This outcome is crucial because in binary mixtures the drug load regions with higher changeover of plotted factors could be a hint for an existing percolation threshold. The susceptibility value (Leuenberger equation) showed varying values for each formulation without the expected trend of decrease for higher drug loads. The outcomes of this study showed the main challenges for good formulation design. Thus, we conclude that such mathematical plots are mandatory for a scientific evaluation and prediction of the powder compaction process. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Gravitational waves from inspiralling compact binaries: Hexagonal template placement and its efficiency in detecting physical signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cokelaer, T.

    2007-01-01

    Matched filtering is used to search for gravitational waves emitted by inspiralling compact binaries in data from the ground-based interferometers. One of the key aspects of the detection process is the design of a template bank that covers the astrophysically pertinent parameter space. In an earlier paper, we described a template bank that is based on a square lattice. Although robust, we showed that the square placement is overefficient, with the implication that it is computationally more demanding than required. In this paper, we present a template bank based on an hexagonal lattice, which size is reduced by 40% with respect to the proposed square placement. We describe the practical aspects of the hexagonal template bank implementation, its size, and computational cost. We have also performed exhaustive simulations to characterize its efficiency and safeness. We show that the bank is adequate to search for a wide variety of binary systems (primordial black holes, neutron stars, and stellar-mass black holes) and in data from both current detectors (initial LIGO, Virgo and GEO600) as well as future detectors (advanced LIGO and EGO). Remarkably, although our template bank placement uses a metric arising from a particular template family, namely, stationary phase approximation, we show that it can be used successfully with other template families (e.g., Pade resummation and effective one-body approximation). This quality of being effective for different template families makes the proposed bank suitable for a search that would use several of them in parallel (e.g., in a binary black hole search). The hexagonal template bank described in this paper is currently used to search for nonspinning inspiralling compact binaries in data from the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO)

  17. DIVERSITY OF SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURST AFTERGLOWS FROM COMPACT BINARY MERGERS HOSTING PULSARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holcomb, Cole; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; De Colle, Fabio; Montes, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    Short-duration gamma-ray bursts (sGRBs) are widely believed to result from the mergers of compact binaries. This model predicts an afterglow that bears the characteristic signatures of a constant, low-density medium, including a smooth prompt-afterglow transition, and a simple temporal evolution. However, these expectations are in conflict with observations for a non-negligible fraction of sGRB afterglows. In particular, the onset of the afterglow phase for some of these events appears to be delayed and, in addition, a few of them exhibit late-time rapid fading in their light curves. We show that these peculiar observations can be explained independently of ongoing central engine activity if some sGRB progenitors are compact binaries hosting at least one pulsar. The Poynting flux emanating from the pulsar companion can excavate a bow-shock cavity surrounding the binary. If this cavity is larger than the shock deceleration length scale in the undisturbed interstellar medium, then the onset of the afterglow will be delayed. Should the deceleration occur entirely within the swept-up thin shell, a rapid fade in the light curve will ensue. We identify two types of pulsar that can achieve the conditions necessary for altering the afterglow: low-field, long-lived pulsars, and high-field pulsars. We find that a sizable fraction (≈20%-50%) of low-field pulsars are likely to reside in neutron star binaries based on observations, while their high-field counterparts are not. Hydrodynamical calculations motivated by this model are shown to be in good agreement with observations of sGRB afterglow light curves

  18. Compact Binary Mergers and the Event Rate of Fast Radio Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiao-Feng; Yu, Yun-Wei; Zhou, Xia

    2018-05-01

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are usually suggested to be associated with mergers of compact binaries consisting of white dwarfs (WDs), neutron stars (NSs), or black holes (BHs). We test these models by fitting the observational distributions in both redshift and isotropic energy of 22 Parkes FRBs, where, as usual, the rates of compact binary mergers (CBMs) are connected with cosmic star formation rates by a power-law distributed time delay. It is found that the observational distributions can well be produced by the CBM model with a characteristic delay time from several tens to several hundreds of megayears and an energy function index 1.2 ≲ γ ≲ 1.7, where a tentative fixed spectral index β = 0.8 is adopted for all FRBs. Correspondingly, the local event rate of FRBs is constrained to {(3{--}6)× {10}4{f}{{b}}-1({ \\mathcal T }/270{{s}})}-1{({ \\mathcal A }/2π )}-1 {Gpc}}-3 {yr}}-1 for an adopted minimum FRB energy of E min = 3 × 1039 erg, where f b is the beaming factor of the radiation, { \\mathcal T } is the duration of each pointing observation, and { \\mathcal A } is the sky area of the survey. This event rate, about an order of magnitude higher than the rates of NS–NS/NS–BH mergers, indicates that the most promising origin of FRBs in the CBM scenario could be mergers of WD–WD binaries. Here a massive WD could be produced since no FRB was found to be associated with an SN Ia. Alternatively, if all FRBs can repeat on a timescale much longer than the period of current observations, then they could also originate from a young active NS that forms from relatively rare NS–NS mergers and accretion-induced collapses of WD–WD binaries.

  19. Next-order spin-orbit contributions to chaos in compact binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuzhao; Wu Xin

    2011-01-01

    This paper is mainly devoted to numerically investigating the effects of the next-order spin-orbit interactions including the 2.5 post-Newtonian order term of the equations of motion and the second post-Newtonian order terms of the spin precession equations on chaos in the conservative Lagrangian dynamics of a spinning compact binary system. It is shown sufficiently through individual orbit simulations, the dependence of the invariant fast Lyapunov indicators on the variations of initial spin angles and the phase space scans for chaos, that the next-order spin-orbit contributions do play an important role in the amplification of chaos.

  20. Parameter estimation of compact binaries using the inspiral and ringdown waveforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna, Manuel; Sintes, Alicia M

    2006-01-01

    We analyse the problem of parameter estimation for compact binary systems that could be detected by ground-based gravitational wave detectors. So far, this problem has only been dealt with for the inspiral and the ringdown phases separately. In this paper, we combine the information from both signals, and we study the improvement in parameter estimation, at a fixed signal-to-noise ratio, by including the ringdown signal without making any assumption on the merger phase. The study is performed for both initial and advanced LIGO and VIRGO detectors

  1. Recent achievements in the Hamiltonian treatment of the dynamics and motion of compact binaries in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schäfer, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    The current knowledge in the post-Newtonian (PN) dynamics and motion of non-spinning and spinning compact binaries will be presented based on the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner Hamiltonian approach to general relativity. The presentation will cover the binary dynamics with non-spinning components up to the 4PN order and for spinning binaries up to the next-to-next-to-leading order in the spin-orbit and spin-spin couplings. Radiation reaction will be treated for both non-spinning and spinning binaries. Explicit analytic expressions for the motion will be given, innermost stable circular orbits will be discussed

  2. Contribution of High-Mass Black Holes to Mergers of Compact Binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethe, H.A.; Brown, G.E.

    1999-01-01

    We consider the merging of compact binaries consisting of a high-mass black hole and a neutron star. From stellar evolutionary calculations that include mass loss, we estimate that a zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) mass of approx-gt 80 M circle-dot is necessary before a high-mass black hole can result from a massive O star progenitor. We first consider how Cyg X-1, with its measured orbital radius of ∼17 R circle-dot , might evolve. Although this radius is substantially less than the initial distance of two O stars, it is still so large that the resulting compact objects will merge only if an eccentricity close to unity results from a high kick velocity of the neutron star in the final supernova explosion. We estimate the probability of the necessary eccentricity to be ∼1%; i.e., 99% of the time the explosion of a Cyg X-1 endash type object will end as a binary of compact stars, which will not merge in Hubble time (unless the orbit is tightened in common envelope evolution, which we discuss later). Although we predict ∼7 massive binaries of Cyg X-1 type, we argue that only Cyg X-1 is narrow enough to be observed, and that only Cyg X-1 has an appreciable chance of merging in Hubble time. This gives us a merging rate of ∼3x10 -8 yr -1 in the galaxy, the order of magnitude of the merging rate found by computer-driven population syntheses, if extrapolated to our mass limit of 80 M circle-dot ZAMS mass for high-mass black hole formation. Furthermore, in both our calculation and in those of population syntheses, almost all of the mergings involve an eccentricity close to unity in the final explosion of the O star. From this first part of our development we obtain only a negligible contribution to our final results for mergers, and it turns out to be irrelevant for our final results. In our main development, instead of relying on observed binaries, we consider the general evolution of binaries of massive stars. The critical stage is when the more massive star A has

  3. Topics in the Detection of Gravitational Waves from Compact Binary Inspirals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapadia, Shasvath Jagat

    Orbiting compact binaries - such as binary black holes, binary neutron stars and neutron star-black hole binaries - are among the most promising sources of gravitational waves observable by ground-based interferometric detectors. Despite numerous sophisticated engineering techniques, the gravitational wave signals will be buried deep within noise generated by various instrumental and environmental processes, and need to be extracted via a signal processing technique referred to as matched filtering. Matched filtering requires large banks of signal templates that are faithful representations of the true gravitational waveforms produced by astrophysical binaries. The accurate and efficient production of templates is thus crucial to the success of signal processing and data analysis. To that end, the dissertation presents a numerical technique that calibrates existing analytical (Post-Newtonian) waveforms, which are relatively inexpensive, to more accurate fiducial waveforms that are computationally expensive to generate. The resulting waveform family is significantly more accurate than the analytical waveforms, without incurring additional computational costs of production. Certain kinds of transient background noise artefacts, called "glitches'', can masquerade as gravitational wave signals for short durations and throw-off the matched-filter algorithm. Identifying glitches from true gravitational wave signals is a highly non-trivial exercise in data analysis which has been attempted with varying degrees of success. We present here a machine-learning based approach that exploits the various attributes of glitches and signals within detector data to provide a classification scheme that is a significant improvement over previous methods. The dissertation concludes by investigating the possibility of detecting a non-linear DC imprint, called the Christodoulou memory, produced in the arms of ground-based interferometers by the recently detected gravitational waves. The

  4. Probing extra dimension through gravitational wave observations of compact binaries and their electromagnetic counterparts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Hao; Gu, Bao-Min; Wang, Yong-Qiang; Liu, Yu-Xiao [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Huang, Fa Peng [Theoretical Physics Division, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 918-4, Beijing 100049 (China); Meng, Xin-He, E-mail: yuh13@lzu.edu.cn, E-mail: gubm15@lzu.edu.cn, E-mail: huangfp@ihep.ac.cn, E-mail: yqwang@lzu.edu.cn, E-mail: xhm@nankai.edu.cn, E-mail: liuyx@lzu.edu.cn [School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2017-02-01

    The future gravitational wave (GW) observations of compact binaries and their possible electromagnetic counterparts may be used to probe the nature of the extra dimension. It is widely accepted that gravitons and photons are the only two completely confirmed objects that can travel along null geodesics in our four-dimensional space-time. However, if there exist extra dimensions and only GWs can propagate freely in the bulk, the causal propagations of GWs and electromagnetic waves (EMWs) are in general different. In this paper, we study null geodesics of GWs and EMWs in a five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space-time in the presence of the curvature of the universe. We show that for general cases the horizon radius of GW is longer than EMW within equal time. Taking the GW150914 event detected by the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory and the X-ray event detected by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor as an example, we study how the curvature k and the constant curvature radius l affect the horizon radii of GW and EMW in the de Sitter and Einstein-de Sitter models of the universe. This provides an alternative method for probing extra dimension through future GW observations of compact binaries and their electromagnetic counterparts.

  5. Smearing of mass accretion rate variation by viscous processes in accretion disks in compact binary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, A.; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.

    2016-09-01

    Variation of mass supply rate from the companion can be smeared out by viscous processes inside an accretion disk. Hence, by the time the flow reaches the inner edge, the variation in X-rays need not reflect the true variation of the mass supply rate at the outer edge. However, if the viscosity fluctuates around a mean value, one would expect the viscous time scale t_{{visc}} also to spread around a mean value. In high mass X-ray binaries, which are thought to be primarily wind-fed, the size of the viscous Keplerian disk is smaller and thus such a spread could be lower as compared to the low mass X-ray binaries which are primarily fed by Roche lobe overflow. If there is an increasing or decreasing trend in viscosity, the interval between enhanced emission would be modified systematically. In the absence of a detailed knowledge about the variation of mass supply rates at the outer edge, we study ideal circumstances where modulation must take place exactly in orbital time scales, such as when there is an ellipticity in the orbit. We study a few compact binaries using long term All Sky monitor (ASM) data (1.5-12 keV) of Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) and all sky survey data (15-50 keV) of Swift satellites by different methods to look for such smearing effects and to infer what these results can tell us about the viscous processes inside the respective disks. We employ three different methods to seek imprints of periodicity on the X-ray variation and found that in all the cases, the location of the peak in the power density spectra is consistent with the orbital frequencies. Interestingly, in high mass X-ray binaries the peaks are sharp with high rms values, consistent with a small Keplerian disk in a wind fed system. However, in low mass X-ray binaries with larger Keplerian disk component, the peaks are spreaded out with much lower rms values. X-ray reflections, or superhump phenomena which may also cause such X-ray modulations would not be affected by the size of

  6. A template bank to search for gravitational waves from inspiralling compact binaries: II. Phenomenological model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cokelaer, T

    2007-01-01

    Matched filtering is used to search for gravitational waves emitted by inspiralling compact binaries in data from ground-based interferometers. One of the key aspects of the detection process is the deployment of a set of templates, also called a template bank, to cover the astrophysically interesting region of the parameter space. In a companion paper, we described the template bank algorithm used in the analysis of Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) data to search for signals from non-spinning binaries made of neutron star and/or stellar-mass black holes; this template bank is based upon physical template families. In this paper, we describe the phenomenological template bank that was used to search for gravitational waves from non-spinning black hole binaries (from stellar mass formation) in the second, third and fourth LIGO science runs. We briefly explain the design of the bank, whose templates are based on a phenomenological detection template family. We show that this template bank gives matches greater than 95% with the physical template families that are expected to be captured by the phenomenological templates

  7. Frequency-domain reduced order models for gravitational waves from aligned-spin compact binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pürrer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Black-hole binary coalescences are one of the most promising sources for the first detection of gravitational waves. Fast and accurate theoretical models of the gravitational radiation emitted from these coalescences are highly important for the detection and extraction of physical parameters. Spinning effective-one-body models for binaries with aligned-spins have been shown to be highly faithful, but are slow to generate and thus have not yet been used for parameter estimation (PE) studies. I provide a frequency-domain singular value decomposition-based surrogate reduced order model that is thousands of times faster for typical system masses and has a faithfulness mismatch of better than ∼0.1% with the original SEOBNRv1 model for advanced LIGO detectors. This model enables PE studies up to signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of 20 and even up to 50 for total masses below 50 M ⊙ . This paper discusses various choices for approximations and interpolation over the parameter space that can be made for reduced order models of spinning compact binaries, provides a detailed discussion of errors arising in the construction and assesses the fidelity of such models. (paper)

  8. Post-Newtonian corrections to the gravitational-wave memory for quasicircular, inspiralling compact binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favata, Marc

    2009-01-01

    The Christodoulou memory is a nonlinear contribution to the gravitational-wave field that is sourced by the gravitational-wave stress-energy tensor. For quasicircular, inspiralling binaries, the Christodoulou memory produces a growing, nonoscillatory change in the gravitational-wave 'plus' polarization, resulting in the permanent displacement of a pair of freely-falling test masses after the wave has passed. In addition to its nonoscillatory behavior, the Christodoulou memory is interesting because even though it originates from 2.5 post-Newtonian (PN) order multipole interactions, it affects the waveform at leading (Newtonian/quadrupole) order. The memory is also potentially detectable in binary black-hole mergers. While the oscillatory pieces of the gravitational-wave polarizations for quasicircular, inspiralling compact binaries have been computed to 3PN order, the memory contribution to the polarizations has only been calculated to leading order (the next-to-leading order 0.5PN term has previously been shown to vanish). Here the calculation of the memory for quasicircular, inspiralling binaries is extended to 3PN order. While the angular dependence of the memory remains qualitatively unchanged, the PN correction terms tend to reduce the memory's magnitude. Explicit expressions are given for the memory contributions to the plus polarization and the spin-weighted spherical-harmonic modes of the metric and curvature perturbations. Combined with the recent results of Blanchet et al.[Classical Quantum Gravity 25, 165003 (2008)], this completes the waveform polarizations to 3PN order. This paper also discusses: (i) the difficulties in extracting the memory from numerical relativity simulations, (ii) other nonoscillatory effects that enter the waveform polarizations at high PN orders, and (iii) issues concerning the observability of the memory in gravitational-wave detectors.

  9. Compaction behaviour and mechanical strength of lactose-sodium starch glycolate and lactose-croscarmellose sodium binary tablets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashikin Yaakub, Nur; Shamsul Anuar, Mohd; Tahir, Suraya Mohd

    2018-04-01

    The focus of this study is to elucidate the effects of adding super disintegrants (SSG and Acdisol) to a filler (lactose) in terms of the compaction behaviour and mechanical strength of the formed binary tablets. The tablets were formed in a uniaxial die compaction process with compaction pressures ranging from 37.7MPa to 150.7 MPa. Consequently, the findings indicated that the increasing of the compaction pressure and the percentage mass composition of the super disintegrants would led to the increased in the strength of the tablets as well as their plastic energies, where this was more apparent for the case of the binary lactose/Acdisol tablets. In addition, as the compaction pressure increased, the maximum ejection pressure required to eject the tablet from the die cavity also increased. In contrast, a decreased in the maximum ejection pressure was observed as the composition of both super disintegrants increased in the lactose-super disintegrant binary tablets. In conclusion, the addition of super disintegrant; SSG with lactose and Acdisol with lactose; would enhanced the mechanical strength of lactose based tablets especially for the case of acdisol-lactose binary tablets in the experimental conditions adopted in this current work.

  10. Effect of eccentricity on searches for gravitational waves from coalescing compact binaries in ground-based detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Duncan A.; Zimmerman, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    Inspiralling compact binaries are expected to circularize before their gravitational-wave signals reach the sensitive frequency band of ground-based detectors. Current searches for gravitational waves from compact binaries using the LIGO and Virgo detectors therefore use circular templates to construct matched filters. Binary formation models have been proposed which suggest that some systems detectable by the LIGO-Virgo network may have non-negligible eccentricity. We investigate the ability of the restricted 3.5 post-Newtonian order TaylorF2 template bank, used by LIGO and Virgo to search for gravitational waves from compact binaries with masses M≤35M · , to detect binaries with nonzero eccentricity. We model the gravitational waves from eccentric binaries using the x-model post-Newtonian formalism proposed by Hinder et al.[I. Hinder, F. Hermann, P. Laguna, and D. Shoemaker, arXiv:0806.1037v1]. We find that small residual eccentricities (e 0 · · . For eccentricities e 0 > or approx. 0.1, the loss in matched filter signal-to-noise ratio due to eccentricity can be significant and so templates which include eccentric effects will be required to perform optimal searches for such systems.

  11. Application of a zero-latency whitening filter to compact binary coalescence gravitational-wave searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukada, Leo; Cannon, Kipp; Hanna, Chad; Keppel, Drew; Meacher, Duncan; Messick, Cody

    2018-05-01

    Joint electromagnetic and gravitational-wave (GW) observation is a major goal of both the GW astronomy and electromagnetic astronomy communities for the coming decade. One way to accomplish this goal is to direct follow-up of GW candidates. Prompt electromagnetic emission may fade quickly, therefore it is desirable to have GW detection happen as quickly as possible. A leading source of latency in GW detection is the whitening of the data. We examine the performance of a zero-latency whitening filter in a detection pipeline for compact binary coalescence (CBC) GW signals. We find that the filter reproduces signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) sufficiently consistent with the results of the original high-latency and phase-preserving filter for both noise and artificial GW signals (called "injections"). Additionally, we demonstrate that these two whitening filters show excellent agreement in χ2 value, a discriminator for GW signals.

  12. Efficiently enclosing the compact binary parameter space by singular-value decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, Kipp; Hanna, Chad; Keppel, Drew

    2011-01-01

    Gravitational-wave searches for the merger of compact binaries use matched filtering as the method of detecting signals and estimating parameters. Such searches construct a fine mesh of filters covering a signal parameter space at high density. Previously it has been shown that singular-value decomposition can reduce the effective number of filters required to search the data. Here we study how the basis provided by the singular-value decomposition changes dimension as a function of template-bank density. We will demonstrate that it is sufficient to use the basis provided by the singular-value decomposition of a low-density bank to accurately reconstruct arbitrary points within the boundaries of the template bank. Since this technique is purely numerical, it may have applications to interpolating the space of numerical relativity waveforms.

  13. Low-latency analysis pipeline for compact binary coalescences in the advanced gravitational wave detector era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, T; Buskulic, D; Germain, V; Marion, F; Mours, B; Guidi, G M; Montani, M; Piergiovanni, F; Wang, G

    2016-01-01

    The multi-band template analysis (MBTA) pipeline is a low-latency coincident analysis pipeline for the detection of gravitational waves (GWs) from compact binary coalescences. MBTA runs with a low computational cost, and can identify candidate GW events online with a sub-minute latency. The low computational running cost of MBTA also makes it useful for data quality studies. Events detected by MBTA online can be used to alert astronomical partners for electromagnetic follow-up. We outline the current status of MBTA and give details of recent pipeline upgrades and validation tests that were performed in preparation for the first advanced detector observing period. The MBTA pipeline is ready for the outset of the advanced detector era and the exciting prospects it will bring. (paper)

  14. Numerical Investigations of Post-Newtonian Hamiltonian Dynamics for Spinning Compact Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, S. Y.

    2012-03-01

    Spinning compact binaries, consisting of neutron stars or black holes, not only have rich dynamic phenomena of resonance and chaos, but also are the most promising source for detecting gravitational waves. There should be a certain relation between the dynamics of the gravitational bodies and the gravitational waveforms. Based on the least-squares correction, several manifold correction schemes like the single-scaling method and the dual-scaling method are designed to suppress numerical errors from 6 integrals of motion in a conservative post-Newtonian (PN) Hamiltonian of spinning compact binaries. Taking a fifth order Runge-Kutta algorithm as a basic integrator, we wonder whether the PN contributions, the spin effects, and the classification of orbits exert some influences on these correction schemes and the Nacozy's approach. It is found that they are almost the same in correcting the integrals for the pure Kepler problem. Once the third-order PN contributions are added to the pure orbital part, there are explicit differences of correction effectiveness among these methods. As an interesting case, the efficiency of correction is better for chaotic eccentric orbits than for quasicircular regular ones. In all cases tested, the new momentum-position dual-scaling scheme does always have the optimal performance. It costs a little but not much expensive additional computational cost when the spin effects exist, and several time-saving techniques are used. The corrected numerical results are more accurate than the uncorrected ones, so that chaos from the numerical errors can be avoided. See Phys. Rev. D 81, 104037 (2010) for more details. Lubich et al. (Phys. Rev. D 81, 104025 (2010)) presented a noncanonically symplectic integrator for the PN Hamiltonian of a spinning compact binary. However, the Euler mixed integrator is problematic because of its bad numerical stability.We improved the work by constructing the second-order and the fourth-order fixed symplectic

  15. Hereditary effects in eccentric compact binary inspirals to third post-Newtonian order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loutrel, Nicholas; Yunes, Nicolás

    2017-02-01

    While there has been much success in understanding the orbital dynamics and gravitational wave emission of eccentric compact binaries in the post-Newtonian formalism, some problems still remain. The largest of these concerns hereditary effects: non-linear phenomena related to the scattering off of the background curved spacetime (tails) and to the generation of gravitational waves by gravitational waves (memory). Currently, these hereditary effects are only known numerically for arbitrary eccentricity through infinite sums of Bessel functions, with closed-form, analytic results only available in the small eccentricity limit. We here calculate, for the first time, closed-form, analytic expressions for all hereditary effects to third post-Newtonian order in binaries with arbitrary eccentricity. For the tails, we first asymptotically expand all Bessel functions in high eccentricity and find a superasymptotic series for each enhancement factor, accurate to better than 10-3 relative to post-Newtonian numerical calculations at all eccentricities. We further improve the small-eccentricity behavior of the superasymptotic series by generating hyperasymptotic expressions for each enhancement factor, typically accurate to better than 10-8 at all eccentricities. For the memory, we discuss its computation within the context of an osculating approximation of the binary’s orbit and the difficulties that arise. Our closed-form analytic expressions for the hereditary fluxes allow us to numerically compute orbital phases that are identical to those found using an infinite sum of Bessel functions to double numerical precision.

  16. Hereditary effects in eccentric compact binary inspirals to third post-Newtonian order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loutrel, Nicholas; Yunes, Nicolás

    2017-01-01

    While there has been much success in understanding the orbital dynamics and gravitational wave emission of eccentric compact binaries in the post-Newtonian formalism, some problems still remain. The largest of these concerns hereditary effects: non-linear phenomena related to the scattering off of the background curved spacetime (tails) and to the generation of gravitational waves by gravitational waves (memory). Currently, these hereditary effects are only known numerically for arbitrary eccentricity through infinite sums of Bessel functions, with closed-form, analytic results only available in the small eccentricity limit. We here calculate, for the first time, closed-form, analytic expressions for all hereditary effects to third post-Newtonian order in binaries with arbitrary eccentricity. For the tails, we first asymptotically expand all Bessel functions in high eccentricity and find a superasymptotic series for each enhancement factor, accurate to better than 10 −3 relative to post-Newtonian numerical calculations at all eccentricities. We further improve the small-eccentricity behavior of the superasymptotic series by generating hyperasymptotic expressions for each enhancement factor, typically accurate to better than 10 −8 at all eccentricities. For the memory, we discuss its computation within the context of an osculating approximation of the binary’s orbit and the difficulties that arise. Our closed-form analytic expressions for the hereditary fluxes allow us to numerically compute orbital phases that are identical to those found using an infinite sum of Bessel functions to double numerical precision. (paper)

  17. Leading order finite size effects with spins for inspiralling compact binaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levi, Michele [Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris VI, CNRS-UMR 7095, Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, 75014 Paris (France); Sorbonne Universités, Institut Lagrange de Paris, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, 75014 Paris (France); Steinhoff, Jan [Max-Planck-Institute for Gravitational Physics - Albert-Einstein-Institute,Am Mühlenberg 1, 14476 Potsdam-Golm (Germany); Centro Multidisciplinar de Astrofisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade de Lisboa,Avenida Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2015-06-10

    The leading order finite size effects due to spin, namely that of the cubic and quartic in spin interactions, are derived for the first time for generic compact binaries via the effective field theory for gravitating spinning objects. These corrections enter at the third and a half and fourth post-Newtonian orders, respectively, for rapidly rotating compact objects. Hence, we complete the leading order finite size effects with spin up to the fourth post-Newtonian accuracy. We arrive at this by augmenting the point particle effective action with new higher dimensional nonminimal coupling worldline operators, involving higher-order derivatives of the gravitational field, and introducing new Wilson coefficients, corresponding to constants, which describe the octupole and hexadecapole deformations of the object due to spin. These Wilson coefficients are fixed to unity in the black hole case. The nonminimal coupling worldline operators enter the action with the electric and magnetic components of the Weyl tensor of even and odd parity, coupled to even and odd worldline spin tensors, respectively. Moreover, the non relativistic gravitational field decomposition, which we employ, demonstrates a coupling hierarchy of the gravito-magnetic vector and the Newtonian scalar, to the odd and even in spin operators, respectively, which extends that of minimal coupling. This observation is useful for the construction of the Feynman diagrams, and provides an instructive analogy between the leading order spin-orbit and cubic in spin interactions, and between the leading order quadratic and quartic in spin interactions.

  18. Search for gravitational waves from low mass compact binary coalescence in 186 days of LIGO's fifth science run

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Adhikari, R.; Anderson, S. B.; Araya, M.; Armandula, H.; Aso, Y.; Ballmer, S.; Barton, M. A.; Betzwieser, J.; Billingsley, G.; Black, E.; Blackburn, J. K.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Brooks, A. F.; Cannon, K. C.; Cardenas, L.; Cepeda, C.; Chalermsongsak, T.

    2009-01-01

    We report on a search for gravitational waves from coalescing compact binaries, of total mass between 2 and 35M · , using LIGO observations between November 14, 2006 and May 18, 2007. No gravitational-wave signals were detected. We report upper limits on the rate of compact binary coalescence as a function of total mass. The LIGO cumulative 90%-confidence rate upper limits of the binary coalescence of neutron stars, black holes and black hole-neutron star systems are 1.4x10 -2 , 7.3x10 -4 and 3.6x10 -3 yr -1 L 10 -1 , respectively, where L 10 is 10 10 times the blue solar luminosity.

  19. Supermassive black hole spin-flip during the inspiral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gergely, Laszlo A; Biermann, Peter L; Caramete, Laurentiu I

    2010-01-01

    During post-Newtonian evolution of a compact binary, a mass ratio ν different from 1 provides a second small parameter, which can lead to unexpected results. We present a statistics of supermassive black hole candidates, which enables us first to derive their mass distribution, and then to establish a logarithmically even probability in ν of the mass ratios at their encounter. In the mass ratio range ν in (1/30, 1/3) of supermassive black hole mergers representing 40% of all possible cases, the combined effect of spin-orbit precession and gravitational radiation leads to a spin-flip of the dominant spin during the inspiral phase of the merger. This provides a mechanism for explaining a large set of observations on X-shaped radio galaxies. In another 40% with mass ratios ν in (1/30, 1/1000) a spin-flip never occurs, while in the remaining 20% of mergers with mass ratios ν in (1/3, 1) it may occur during the plunge. We analyze the magnitude of the spin-flip angle occurring during the inspiral as a function of the mass ratio and original relative orientation of the spin and orbital angular momentum. We also derive a formula for the final spin at the end of the inspiral in this mass ratio range.

  20. Nonthermal Supermassive Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Daniel J. H.; Kolb, Edward W.; Riotto, Antonio

    1999-01-01

    We discuss several cosmological production mechanisms for nonthermal supermassive dark matter and argue that dark matter may he elementary particles of mass much greater than the weak scale. Searches for dark matter should ma be limited to weakly interacting particles with mass of the order of the weak scale, but should extend into the supermassive range as well.

  1. Nonthermal Supermassive Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, D.J.; Chung, D.J.; Kolb, E.W.; Kolb, E.W.; Riotto, A.

    1998-01-01

    We discuss several cosmological production mechanisms for nonthermal supermassive dark matter and argue that dark matter may be elementary particles of mass much greater than the weak scale. Searches for dark matter should not be limited to weakly interacting particles with mass of the order of the weak scale, but should extend into the supermassive range as well. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  2. Nonthermal Supermassive Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Daniel J. H.; Kolb, Edward W.; Riotto, Antonio

    1998-01-01

    We discuss several cosmological production mechanisms for nonthermal supermassive dark matter and argue that dark matter may be elementary particles of mass much greater than the weak scale. Searches for dark matter should not be limited to weakly interacting particles with mass of the order of the weak scale, but should extend into the supermassive range as well.

  3. Radiation Backgrounds at Cosmic Dawn: X-Rays from Compact Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madau, Piero; Fragos, Tassos

    2017-05-01

    We compute the expected X-ray diffuse background and radiative feedback on the intergalactic medium (IGM) from X-ray binaries prior to and during the epoch of reionization. The cosmic evolution of compact binaries is followed using a population synthesis technique that treats separately neutron stars and black hole binaries in different spectral states and is calibrated to reproduce the observed X-ray properties of galaxies at z ≲ 4. Together with an updated empirical determination of the cosmic history of star formation, recent modeling of the stellar mass-metallicity relation, and a scheme for absorption by the IGM that accounts for the presence of ionized H II bubbles during the epoch of reionization, our detailed calculations provide refined predictions of the X-ray volume emissivity and filtered radiation background from “normal” galaxies at z ≳ 6. Radiative transfer effects modulate the background spectrum, which shows a characteristic peak between 1 and 2 keV. Because of the energy dependence of photoabsorption, soft X-ray photons are produced by local sources, while more energetic radiation arrives unattenuated from larger cosmological volumes. While the filtering of X-ray radiation through the IGM slightly increases the mean excess energy per photoionization, it also weakens the radiation intensity below 1 keV, lowering the mean photoionization and heating rates. Numerical integration of the rate and energy equations shows that the contribution of X-ray binaries to the ionization of the bulk IGM is negligible, with the electron fraction never exceeding 1%. Direct He I photoionizations are the main source of IGM heating, and the temperature of the largely neutral medium in between H II cavities increases above the temperature of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) only at z ≲ 10, when the volume filling factor of H II bubbles is already ≳0.1. Therefore, in this scenario, it is only at relatively late epochs that neutral intergalactic hydrogen

  4. Radiation Backgrounds at Cosmic Dawn: X-Rays from Compact Binaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madau, Piero [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Fragos, Tassos [Geneva Observatory, University of Geneva, Chemin des Maillettes 51, 1290 Sauverny (Switzerland)

    2017-05-01

    We compute the expected X-ray diffuse background and radiative feedback on the intergalactic medium (IGM) from X-ray binaries prior to and during the epoch of reionization. The cosmic evolution of compact binaries is followed using a population synthesis technique that treats separately neutron stars and black hole binaries in different spectral states and is calibrated to reproduce the observed X-ray properties of galaxies at z ≲ 4. Together with an updated empirical determination of the cosmic history of star formation, recent modeling of the stellar mass–metallicity relation, and a scheme for absorption by the IGM that accounts for the presence of ionized H ii bubbles during the epoch of reionization, our detailed calculations provide refined predictions of the X-ray volume emissivity and filtered radiation background from “normal” galaxies at z ≳ 6. Radiative transfer effects modulate the background spectrum, which shows a characteristic peak between 1 and 2 keV. Because of the energy dependence of photoabsorption, soft X-ray photons are produced by local sources, while more energetic radiation arrives unattenuated from larger cosmological volumes. While the filtering of X-ray radiation through the IGM slightly increases the mean excess energy per photoionization, it also weakens the radiation intensity below 1 keV, lowering the mean photoionization and heating rates. Numerical integration of the rate and energy equations shows that the contribution of X-ray binaries to the ionization of the bulk IGM is negligible, with the electron fraction never exceeding 1%. Direct He i photoionizations are the main source of IGM heating, and the temperature of the largely neutral medium in between H ii cavities increases above the temperature of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) only at z ≲ 10, when the volume filling factor of H ii bubbles is already ≳0.1. Therefore, in this scenario, it is only at relatively late epochs that neutral intergalactic

  5. EXPLICIT SYMPLECTIC-LIKE INTEGRATORS WITH MIDPOINT PERMUTATIONS FOR SPINNING COMPACT BINARIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Junjie; Wu, Xin; Huang, Guoqing [Department of Physics and Institute of Astronomy, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China); Liu, Fuyao, E-mail: xwu@ncu.edu.cn [School of Fundamental Studies, Shanghai University of Engineering Science, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2017-01-01

    We refine the recently developed fourth-order extended phase space explicit symplectic-like methods for inseparable Hamiltonians using Yoshida’s triple product combined with a midpoint permuted map. The midpoint between the original variables and their corresponding extended variables at every integration step is readjusted as the initial values of the original variables and their corresponding extended ones at the next step integration. The triple-product construction is apparently superior to the composition of two triple products in computational efficiency. Above all, the new midpoint permutations are more effective in restraining the equality of the original variables and their corresponding extended ones at each integration step than the existing sequent permutations of momenta and coordinates. As a result, our new construction shares the benefit of implicit symplectic integrators in the conservation of the second post-Newtonian Hamiltonian of spinning compact binaries. Especially for the chaotic case, it can work well, but the existing sequent permuted algorithm cannot. When dissipative effects from the gravitational radiation reaction are included, the new symplectic-like method has a secular drift in the energy error of the dissipative system for the orbits that are regular in the absence of radiation, as an implicit symplectic integrator does. In spite of this, it is superior to the same-order implicit symplectic integrator in accuracy and efficiency. The new method is particularly useful in discussing the long-term evolution of inseparable Hamiltonian problems.

  6. Dynamics of High-Order Spin-Orbit Couplings about Linear Momenta in Compact Binary Systems*

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Li; Wu Xin; Huang Guo-Qing; Mei Li-Jie

    2017-01-01

    This paper relates to the post-Newtonian Hamiltonian dynamics of spinning compact binaries, consisting of the Newtonian Kepler problem and the leading, next-to-leading and next-to-next-to-leading order spin-orbit couplings as linear functions of spins and momenta. When this Hamiltonian form is transformed to a Lagrangian form, besides the terms corresponding to the same order terms in the Hamiltonian, several additional terms, third post-Newtonian (3PN), 4PN, 5PN, 6PN and 7PN order spin-spin coupling terms, yield in the Lagrangian. That means that the Hamiltonian is nonequivalent to the Lagrangian at the same PN order but is exactly equivalent to the full Lagrangian without any truncations. The full Lagrangian without the spin-spin couplings truncated is integrable and regular. Whereas it is non-integrable and becomes possibly chaotic when any one of the spin-spin terms is dropped. These results are also supported numerically. (paper)

  7. On the use of higher order wave forms in the search for gravitational waves emitted by compact binary coalescences

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKechan, David J. A.

    2010-11-01

    This thesis concerns the use, in gravitational wave data analysis, of higher order wave form models of the gravitational radiation emitted by compact binary coalescences. We begin with an introductory chapter that includes an overview of the theory of general relativity, gravitational radiation and ground-based interferometric gravitational wave detectors. We then discuss, in Chapter 2, the gravitational waves emitted by compact binary coalescences, with an explanation of higher order waveforms and how they differ from leading order waveforms we also introduce the post-Newtonian formalism. In Chapter 3 the method and results of a gravitational wave search for low mass compact binary coalescences using a subset of LIGO's 5th science run data are presented and in the subsequent chapter we examine how one could use higher order waveforms in such analyses. We follow the development of a new search algorithm that incorporates higher order waveforms with promising results for detection efficiency and parameter estimation. In Chapter 5, a new method of windowing time-domain waveforms that offers benefit to gravitational wave searches is presented. The final chapter covers the development of a game designed as an outreach project to raise public awareness and understanding of the search for gravitational waves.

  8. GW170817: Implications for the Stochastic Gravitational-Wave Backgroud from Compact Binary Coalescences

    OpenAIRE

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Adhikari, R. X.; Ananyeva, A.; Anderson, S. B.; Appert, S.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barish, B. C.; Berger, B. K.; Billingsley, G.; Biscans, S.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.

    2018-01-01

    The LIGO Scientific and Virgo Collaborations have announced the event GW170817, the first detection of gravitational waves from the coalescence of two neutron stars. The merger rate of binary neutron stars estimated from this event suggests that distant, unresolvable binary neutron stars create a significant astrophysical stochastic gravitational-wave background. The binary neutron star component will add to the contribution from binary black holes, increasing the amplitude of the total astro...

  9. An evaluation of three-dimensional modeling of compaction cycles by analyzing the densification behavior of binary and ternary mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picker, K M; Bikane, F

    2001-08-01

    The aim of the study is to use the 3D modeling technique of compaction cycles for analysis of binary and ternary mixtures. Three materials with very different deformation and densification characteristics [cellulose acetate (CAC), dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (EM) and theophylline monohydrate (TM)] have been tableted at graded maximum relative densities (rhorel, max) on an eccentric tableting machine. Following that, graded binary mixtures from CAC and EM have been compacted. Finally, the same ratios of CAC and EM have been tableted in a ternary mixture with 20 vol% TM. All compaction cycles have been analyzed by using different data analysis methods. Three-dimensional modeling, conventional determination of the slope of the Heckel function, determination of the elastic recovery during decompression, and calculations according to the pressure-time function were the methods of choice. The results show that the 3D model technique is able to gain the information in one step instead of three different approaches, which is an advantage for formulation development. The results show that this model enables one to better distinguish the compaction properties of mixtures and the interaction of the components in the tablet than 2D models. Furthermore, the information by 3D modeling is more precise since in the slope K of the Heckel-plot (in die) elasticity is included, and in the parameters of the pressure-time function beta and gamma plastic deformation due to pressure is included. The influence of time and pressure on the displacement can now be differentiated.

  10. The scenario of two families of compact stars. Pt. 1. Equations of state, mass-radius relations and binary systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drago, Alessandro; Pagliara, Giuseppe [Ferrara Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica e Scienze della Terra; INFN, Ferrara (Italy); Lavagno, Andrea; Pigato, Daniele [Politecnico di Torino (Italy). Dept. of Applied Science and Technology; INFN, Torino (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    We present several arguments which favor the scenario of two coexisting families of compact stars: hadronic stars and quark stars. Besides the well-known hyperon puzzle of the physics of compact stars, a similar puzzle exists also when considering delta resonances. We show that these particles appear at densities close to twice saturation density and must be therefore included in the calculations of the hadronic equation of state. Such an early appearance is strictly related to the value of the L parameter of the symmetry energy that has been found, in recent phenomenological studies, to lie in the range 40 < L < 62 MeV. We discuss also the threshold for the formation of deltas and hyperons for hot and lepton-rich hadronic matter. Similarly to the case of hyperons, also delta resonances cause a softening of the equation of state, which makes it difficult to obtain massive hadronic stars. Quark stars, on the other hand, can reach masses up to 2.75M {sub CircleDot} as predicted by perturbative QCD calculations. We then discuss the observational constraints on the masses and the radii of compact stars. The tension between the precise measurements of high masses and the indications of the existence of very compact stellar objects (with radii of the order of 10 km) is relieved when assuming that very massive compact stars are quark stars and very compact stars are hadronic stars. Finally, we discuss recent interesting measurements of the eccentricities of the orbits of millisecond pulsars in low mass X-ray binaries. The high values of the eccentricities found in some cases could be explained by assuming that the hadronic star, initially present in the binary system, converts to a quark star due to the increase of its central density. (orig.)

  11. CONSOLIDATION AND COMPACTION OF POWDER MIXTURES .3. BINARY-MIXTURES OF DIFFERENT PARTICLE-SIZE FRACTIONS OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF CRYSTALLINE LACTOSE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    RIEPMA, KA; ZUURMAN, K; BOLHUIS, GK; DEBOER, AH; LERK, CF

    1992-01-01

    Tablets were compacted from a coarse fraction (250-315 mum), a fine fraction (32-45 mum) and from binary blends of a coarse and a fine fraction of different types of crystalline lactose. The results showed differences in consolidation and compaction between the granular lactose types, i.e.,

  12. Effects of data quality vetoes on a search for compact binary coalescences in Advanced LIGO’s first observing run

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Bejger, M.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Broida, J. E.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Brunett, S.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Callister, T.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Casanueva Diaz, J.; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Cerboni Baiardi, L.; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Cheeseboro, B. D.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D’Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dasgupta, A.; Da Silva Costa, C. F.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; De, S.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.; De Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Devine, R. C.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Fenyvesi, E.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fournier, J.-D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Geng, P.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gonzalez Castro, J. M.; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Henry, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hofman, D.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J.-M.; Isi, M.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jang, H.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jian, L.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Haris, K.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Kapadia, S. J.; Karki, S.; Karvinen, K. S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kéfélian, F.; Kehl, M. S.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Kennedy, R.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan, S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chi-Woong; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Kim, N.; Kim, W.; Kim, Y.-M.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kissel, J. S.; Klein, B.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Królak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, K.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Lewis, J. B.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lombardi, A. L.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Magaña Zertuche, L.; Magee, R. M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McRae, T.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, A.; Miller, B. B.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B. C.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Nelson, T. J. N.; Neri, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; O’Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O’Reilly, B.; O’Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Patrick, Z.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Perri, L. M.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poe, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Pratt, J.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Pürrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Qiu, S.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajan, C.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Rizzo, M.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, J. D.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Sakellariadou, M.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O. E. S.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, J.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schönbeck, A.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Setyawati, Y.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, N. D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sunil, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepańczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Tornasi, Z.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Töyrä, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifirò, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D. V.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, M.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L.-W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Weßels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whiting, B. F.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, D. S.; Wu, G.; Yablon, J.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yu, H.; Yvert, M.; Zadrożny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration

    2018-03-01

    The first observing run of Advanced LIGO spanned 4 months, from 12 September 2015 to 19 January 2016, during which gravitational waves were directly detected from two binary black hole systems, namely GW150914 and GW151226. Confident detection of gravitational waves requires an understanding of instrumental transients and artifacts that can reduce the sensitivity of a search. Studies of the quality of the detector data yield insights into the cause of instrumental artifacts and data quality vetoes specific to a search are produced to mitigate the effects of problematic data. In this paper, the systematic removal of noisy data from analysis time is shown to improve the sensitivity of searches for compact binary coalescences. The output of the PyCBC pipeline, which is a python-based code package used to search for gravitational wave signals from compact binary coalescences, is used as a metric for improvement. GW150914 was a loud enough signal that removing noisy data did not improve its significance. However, the removal of data with excess noise decreased the false alarm rate of GW151226 by more than two orders of magnitude, from 1 in 770 yr to less than 1 in 186 000 yr.

  13. Third post-Newtonian dynamics of compact binaries: equations of motion in the centre-of-mass frame

    CERN Document Server

    Blanchet, L

    2003-01-01

    The equations of motion of compact binary systems and their associated Lagrangian formulation have been derived in previous works at the third post-Newtonian (3PN) approximation of general relativity in harmonic coordinates. In the present work, we investigate the binary's relative dynamics in the centre-of-mass frame (centre of mass located at the origin of the coordinates). We obtain the 3PN-accurate expressions of the centre-of-mass positions and equations of the relative binary motion. We show that the equations derive from a Lagrangian (neglecting the radiation reaction), from which we deduce the conserved centre-of-mass energy and angular momentum at the 3PN order. The harmonic-coordinates centre-of-mass Lagrangian is equivalent, via a contact transformation of the particles' variables, to the centre-of-mass Hamiltonian in ADM coordinates that is known from the post-Newtonian ADM-Hamiltonian formalism. As an application we investigate the dynamical stability of circular binary orbits at the 3PN order.

  14. A unified approach to χ2 discriminators for searches of gravitational waves from compact binary coalescences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhurandhar, Sanjeev; Gupta, Anuradha; Gadre, Bhooshan; Bose, Sukanta

    2017-11-01

    We describe a general mathematical framework for χ2 discriminators in the context of the compact binary coalescence (CBC) search. We show that with any χ2 is associated a vector bundle over the signal manifold, that is, the manifold traced out by the signal waveforms in the function space of data segments. The χ2 is then defined as the square of the L2 norm of the data vector projected onto a finite-dimensional subspace (the fibre) of the Hilbert space of data trains and orthogonal to the signal waveform. Any such fibre leads to a χ2 discriminator, and the full vector bundle comprising the subspaces and the base manifold constitute the χ2 discriminator. We show that the χ2 discriminators used so far in the CBC searches correspond to different fibre structures constituting different vector bundles on the same base manifold, namely, the parameter space. Several benefits accrue from this general formulation. It most importantly shows that there are a plethora of χ2's available and further gives useful insights into the vetoing procedure. It indicates procedures to formulate new χ2's that could be more effective in discriminating against commonly occurring glitches in the data. It also shows that no χ2 with a reasonable number of degrees of freedom is foolproof. It could also shed light on understanding why the traditional χ2 works so well. We show how to construct a generic χ2 given an arbitrary set of vectors in the function space of data segments. These vectors could be chosen such that glitches have maximum projection on them. Further, for glitches that can be modeled, we are able to quantify the efficiency of a given χ2 discriminator by a probability. Second, we propose a family of ambiguity χ2 discriminators that is an alternative to the traditional one [B. Allen, Phys. Rev. D 71, 062001 (2005), 10.1103/PhysRevD.71.062001, B. Allen et al., Phys. Rev. D 85, 122006 (2012)., 10.1103/PhysRevD.85.122006]. Any such ambiguity χ2 makes use of the filtered

  15. GPU-accelerated low-latency real-time searches for gravitational waves from compact binary coalescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yuan; Du Zhihui; Chung, Shin Kee; Hooper, Shaun; Blair, David; Wen Linqing

    2012-01-01

    We present a graphics processing unit (GPU)-accelerated time-domain low-latency algorithm to search for gravitational waves (GWs) from coalescing binaries of compact objects based on the summed parallel infinite impulse response (SPIIR) filtering technique. The aim is to facilitate fast detection of GWs with a minimum delay to allow prompt electromagnetic follow-up observations. To maximize the GPU acceleration, we apply an efficient batched parallel computing model that significantly reduces the number of synchronizations in SPIIR and optimizes the usage of the memory and hardware resource. Our code is tested on the CUDA ‘Fermi’ architecture in a GTX 480 graphics card and its performance is compared with a single core of Intel Core i7 920 (2.67 GHz). A 58-fold speedup is achieved while giving results in close agreement with the CPU implementation. Our result indicates that it is possible to conduct a full search for GWs from compact binary coalescence in real time with only one desktop computer equipped with a Fermi GPU card for the initial LIGO detectors which in the past required more than 100 CPUs. (paper)

  16. Parameter estimation of inspiralling compact binaries using 3.5 post-Newtonian gravitational wave phasing: The nonspinning case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arun, K.G.; Iyer, Bala R; Sathyaprakash, B.S.; Sundararajan, Pranesh A

    2005-01-01

    We revisit the problem of parameter estimation of gravitational-wave chirp signals from inspiralling nonspinning compact binaries in the light of the recent extension of the post-Newtonian (PN) phasing formula to order (v/c) 7 beyond the leading Newtonian order. We study in detail the implications of higher post-Newtonian orders from 1PN up to 3.5PN in steps of 0.5PN (∼v/c), and examine their convergence. In both initial and advanced detectors the estimation of the chirp mass (M) and symmetric mass ratio (η) improve at higher PN orders but oscillate with every half-a-PN order. In initial LIGO, for a 10M · -10M · binary at a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 10, the improvement in the estimation of M (η) at 3.5PN relative to 2PN is ∼19% (52%). We compare parameter estimation in different detectors and assess their relative performance in two different ways: at a fixed SNR, with the aim of understanding how the bandwidth improves parameter estimation, and for a fixed source, to gauge the importance of sensitivity. Errors in parameter estimation at a fixed SNR are smaller for VIRGO than for both initial and advanced LIGO. This is because of the larger bandwidth over which it observes the signals. However, for sources at a fixed distance it is advanced LIGO that achieves the lowest errors owing to its greater sensitivity. Finally, we compute the amplitude corrections due to the 'frequency-sweep' in the Fourier domain representation of the waveform within the stationary phase approximation and discuss its implication on parameter estimation. We find that the amplitude corrections change the errors in M and η by less than 10% for initial LIGO at a signal-to-noise ratio of 10. Our analysis makes explicit the significance of higher PN order modeling of the inspiralling compact binary on parameter estimation

  17. Detecting gravitational waves from precessing binaries of spinning compact objects: Adiabatic limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buonanno, Alessandra; Chen Yanbei; Vallisneri, Michele

    2003-01-01

    Black-hole (BH) binaries with single-BH masses m=(5-20)M · , moving on quasicircular orbits, are among the most promising sources for first-generation ground-based gravitational-wave (GW) detectors. Until now, the development of data-analysis techniques to detect GWs from these sources has been focused mostly on nonspinning BHs. The data-analysis problem for the spinning case is complicated by the necessity to model the precession-induced modulations of the GW signal, and by the large number of parameters needed to characterize the system, including the initial directions of the spins, and the position and orientation of the binary with respect to the GW detector. In this paper we consider binaries of maximally spinning BHs, and we work in the adiabatic-inspiral regime to build families of modulated detection templates that (i) are functions of very few physical and phenomenological parameters, (ii) model remarkably well the dynamical and precessional effects on the GW signal, with fitting factors on average > or approx. 0.97, (iii) but, however, might require increasing the detection thresholds, offsetting at least partially the gains in the fitting factors. Our detection-template families are quite promising also for the case of neutron-star-black-hole binaries, with fitting factors on average ≅0.93. For these binaries we also suggest (but do not test) a further template family, which would produce essentially exact waveforms written directly in terms of the physical spin parameters

  18. On the likelihood of detecting gravitational waves from Population III compact object binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belczynski, Krzysztof; Ryu, Taeho; Perna, Rosalba; Berti, Emanuele; Tanaka, Takamitsu L.; Bulik, Tomasz

    2017-11-01

    We study the contribution of binary black hole (BH-BH) mergers from the first, metal-free stars in the Universe (Pop III) to gravitational wave detection rates. Our study combines initial conditions for the formation of Pop III stars based on N-body simulations of binary formation (including rates, binary fraction, initial mass function, orbital separation and eccentricity distributions) with an updated model of stellar evolution specific for Pop III stars. We find that the merger rate of these Pop III BH-BH systems is relatively small (≲ 0.1 Gpc-3 yr-1) at low redshifts (z 1 per cent) contribution of these stars to low-redshift BH-BH mergers. However, it remains to be tested whether (and at what level) rapidly spinning Pop III stars in the homogeneous evolution scenario can contribute to BH-BH mergers in the local Universe.

  19. Long-term activity of two ultra-compact X-ray binaries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimon, Vojtěch

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 132, - (2004), s. 656-659 ISSN 0920-5632. [BeppoSAX Conference /2./. Amsterdam, 05.05.2003-08.05.2003] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : neutron stars * X-rays * close binaries Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.944, year: 2004

  20. Relativistic (3+1) dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of compact interacting binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, G.J.; Evans, C.R.; Wilson, J.R.

    1986-09-01

    We discuss the development of a relativistic hydrodynamic code for describing the evolution of astrophysical systems in three spatial dimensions. The application of this code to several test problems is presented. Preliminary results from the simulation of the dynamics of accreting binary white dwarf and neutron star systems are discussed. 14 refs., 4 figs

  1. A robust and coherent network statistic for detecting gravitational waves from inspiralling compact binaries in non-Gaussian noise

    CERN Document Server

    Bose, S

    2002-01-01

    The robust statistic proposed by Creighton (Creighton J D E 1999 Phys. Rev. D 60 021101) and Allen et al (Allen et al 2001 Preprint gr-gc/010500) for the detection of stationary non-Gaussian noise is briefly reviewed. We compute the robust statistic for generic weak gravitational-wave signals in the mixture-Gaussian noise model to an accuracy higher than in those analyses, and reinterpret its role. Specifically, we obtain the coherent statistic for detecting gravitational-wave signals from inspiralling compact binaries with an arbitrary network of earth-based interferometers. Finally, we show that excess computational costs incurred owing to non-Gaussianity is negligible compared to the cost of detection in Gaussian noise.

  2. Numerical relativity reaching into post-Newtonian territory: a compact-object binary simulation spanning 350 gravitational-wave cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheel, Mark; Szilagyi, Bela; Blackman, Jonathan; Chu, Tony; Kidder, Lawrence; Pfeiffer, Harald; Buonanno, Alessandra; Pan, Yi; Taracchini, Andrea; SXS Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    We present the first numerical-relativity simulation of a compact-object binary whose gravitational waveform is long enough to cover the entire frequency band of advanced gravitational-wave detectors such as LIGO, Virgo and KAGRA, for mass ratio 7 and total mass as low as 45 . 5M⊙ . We find that effective-one-body models, either uncalibrated or calibrated against substantially shorter numerical-relativity waveforms at smaller mass ratios, reproduce our new waveform remarkably well, with a loss in detection rate due to modeling error smaller than 0 . 3 % . In contrast, post-Newtonian inspiral waveforms and existing phenomenological inspiral-merger-ringdown waveforms display much greater disagreement with our new simulation. The disagreement varies substantially depending on the specific post-Newtonian approximant used.

  3. Reconstructing the Sky Location of Gravitational-Wave Detected Compact Binary Systems: Methodology for Testing and Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidney, T.; Aylott, B.; Christensen, N.; Farr, B.; Farr, W.; Feroz, F.; Gair, J.; Grover, K.; Graff, P.; Hanna, C.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The problem of reconstructing the sky position of compact binary coalescences detected via gravitational waves is a central one for future observations with the ground-based network of gravitational-wave laser interferometers, such as Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo. Different techniques for sky localization have been independently developed. They can be divided in two broad categories: fully coherent Bayesian techniques, which are high latency and aimed at in-depth studies of all the parameters of a source, including sky position, and "triangulation-based" techniques, which exploit the data products from the search stage of the analysis to provide an almost real-time approximation of the posterior probability density function of the sky location of a detection candidate. These techniques have previously been applied to data collected during the last science runs of gravitational-wave detectors operating in the so-called initial configuration. Here, we develop and analyze methods for assessing the self consistency of parameter estimation methods and carrying out fair comparisons between different algorithms, addressing issues of efficiency and optimality. These methods are general, and can be applied to parameter estimation problems other than sky localization. We apply these methods to two existing sky localization techniques representing the two above-mentioned categories, using a set of simulated inspiralonly signals from compact binary systems with a total mass of equal to or less than 20M solar mass and nonspinning components. We compare the relative advantages and costs of the two techniques and show that sky location uncertainties are on average a factor approx. equals 20 smaller for fully coherent techniques than for the specific variant of the triangulation-based technique used during the last science runs, at the expense of a factor approx. equals 1000 longer processing time.

  4. CONSOLIDATION AND COMPACTION OF POWDER MIXTURES .2. BINARY-MIXTURES OF DIFFERENT PARTICLE-SIZE FRACTIONS OF ALPHA-LACTOSE MONOHYDRATE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    RIEPMA, KA; VEENSTRA, J; DEBOER, AH; BOLHUIS, GK; ZUURMAN, K; LERK, CF; VROMANS, H

    1991-01-01

    Binary mixtures of different particle size fractions of alpha-lactose monohydrate were compacted into tablets. The results showed decreased crushing strengths and decreased internal specific surface areas of the tablets as compared with the values calculated by linear interpolation of the data

  5. Electromagnetic transients as triggers in searches for gravitational waves from compact binary mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Luke Zoltan; Mandel, Ilya; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico

    2013-06-01

    The detection of an electromagnetic transient which may originate from a binary neutron star merger can increase the probability that a given segment of data from the LIGO-Virgo ground-based gravitational-wave detector network contains a signal from a binary coalescence. Additional information contained in the electromagnetic signal, such as the sky location or distance to the source, can help rule out false alarms and thus lower the necessary threshold for a detection. Here, we develop a framework for determining how much sensitivity is added to a gravitational-wave search by triggering on an electromagnetic transient. We apply this framework to a variety of relevant electromagnetic transients, from short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) to signatures of r-process heating to optical and radio orphan afterglows. We compute the expected rates of multimessenger observations in the advanced detector era and find that searches triggered on short GRBs—with current high-energy instruments, such as Fermi—and nucleosynthetic “kilonovae”—with future optical surveys, like the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope—can boost the number of multimessenger detections by 15% and 40%, respectively, for a binary neutron star progenitor model. Short GRB triggers offer precise merger timing but suffer from detection rates decreased by beaming and the high a priori probability that the source is outside the LIGO-Virgo sensitive volume. Isotropic kilonovae, on the other hand, could be commonly observed within the LIGO-Virgo sensitive volume with an instrument roughly an order of magnitude more sensitive than current optical surveys. We propose that the most productive strategy for making multimessenger gravitational-wave observations is using triggers from future deep, optical all-sky surveys, with characteristics comparable to the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, which could make as many as ten such coincident observations a year.

  6. Gravitational-wave confusion background from cosmological compact binaries: Implications for future terrestrial detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regimbau, T.; Hughes, Scott A.

    2009-01-01

    Increasing the sensitivity of a gravitational-wave (GW) detector improves our ability to measure the characteristics of detected sources. It also increases the number of weak signals that contribute to the data. Because GW detectors have nearly all-sky sensitivity, they can be subject to a confusion limit: Many sources which cannot be distinguished may be measured simultaneously, defining a stochastic noise floor to the sensitivity. For GW detectors operating at present and for their planned upgrades, the projected event rate is sufficiently low that we are far from the confusion-limited regime. However, some detectors currently under discussion may have large enough reach to binary inspiral that they enter the confusion-limited regime. In this paper, we examine the binary inspiral confusion limit for terrestrial detectors. We consider a broad range of inspiral rates in the literature, several planned advanced gravitational-wave detectors, and the highly advanced 'Einstein telescope' design. Though most advanced detectors will not be impacted by this limit, the Einstein telescope with a very low-frequency 'seismic wall' may be subject to confusion noise. At a minimum, careful data analysis will be require to separate signals which will appear confused. This result should be borne in mind when designing highly advanced future instruments.

  7. Fresh and hardened properties of binary blend high strength self compacting concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Vivek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Self compacting concrete (SCC made a remarkable impact on the concrete construction industry because of its innovative nature. Assessment of optimal ratio between chemical and mineral admixtures plays a vital role in developing SCC. In the present work three different mineral admixtures were used as partial substitute in different proportions to cement to produce SCC with a characteristic compressive strength of 60 MPa. All the three types of SCC were investigated for its fresh and hardened properties. From the results, 50% GGBFS, 10% SF and 20% MK were found to the optimum values as partial substitute to cement.

  8. Black holes in binary stellar systems and galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherepashchuk, A. M.

    2014-04-01

    In the last 40 years, following pioneering papers by Ya B Zeldovich and E E Salpeter, in which a powerful energy release from nonspherical accretion of matter onto a black hole (BH) was predicted, many observational studies of black holes in the Universe have been carried out. To date, the masses of several dozen stellar-mass black holes (M_BH = (4{-}20) M_\\odot) in X-ray binary systems and of several hundred supermassive black holes (M_BH = (10^{6}{-}10^{10}) M_\\odot) in galactic nuclei have been measured. The estimated radii of these massive and compact objects do not exceed several gravitational radii. For about ten stellar-mass black holes and several dozen supermassive black holes, the values of the dimensionless angular momentum a_* have been estimated, which, in agreement with theoretical predictions, do not exceed the limiting value a_* = 0.998. A new field of astrophysics, so-called black hole demography, which studies the birth and growth of black holes and their evolutionary connection to other objects in the Universe, namely stars, galaxies, etc., is rapidly developing. In addition to supermassive black holes, massive stellar clusters are observed in galactic nuclei, and their evolution is distinct from that of supermassive black holes. The evolutionary relations between supermassive black holes in galactic centers and spheroidal stellar components (bulges) of galaxies, as well as dark-matter galactic haloes are brought out. The launch into Earth's orbit of the space radio interferometer RadioAstron opened up the real possibility of finally proving that numerous discovered massive and highly compact objects with properties very similar to those of black holes make up real black holes in the sense of Albert Einstein's General Relativity. Similar proofs of the existence of black holes in the Universe can be obtained by intercontinental radio interferometry at short wavelengths \\lambda \\lesssim 1 mm (the international program, Event Horizon Telescope).

  9. Compact binary coalescences in the band of ground-based gravitational-wave detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandel, Ilya; O'Shaughnessy, Richard

    2010-01-01

    As the ground-based gravitational-wave telescopes LIGO, Virgo and GEO 600 approach the era of first detections, we review the current knowledge of the coalescence rates and the mass and spin distributions of merging neutron-star and black-hole binaries. We emphasize the bi-directional connection between gravitational-wave astronomy and conventional astrophysics. Astrophysical input will make possible informed decisions about optimal detector configurations and search techniques. Meanwhile, rate upper limits, detected merger rates and the distribution of masses and spins measured by gravitational-wave searches will constrain astrophysical parameters through comparisons with astrophysical models. Future developments necessary to the success of gravitational-wave astronomy are discussed.

  10. VLBA Reveals Closest Pair of Supermassive Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    black holes," Taylor said. The VLBA is a continent-wide system of ten radio-telescope antennas. It provides the greatest ability to see fine detail, called resolving power, of any telescope in astronomy. "Astronomers have thought for a long time that close pairs of black holes should result from galaxy collisions," Rodriguez said. Still, finding them has proven difficult. Until now, the closest confirmed pairs of supermassive black holes were at least 4,500 light-years apart. Pairs of smaller black holes, each only a few times the mass of the Sun, have been found in our own Milky Way Galaxy, but 0402+379 harbors the pair of supermassive black holes that are the closest to each other yet found. Galactic collisions are common throughout the Universe, and astronomers think that the binary pairs of supermassive black holes that result can have important effects on the subsequent evolution of the galaxies. In a number of predicted scenarios, such giant pairs of black holes will themselves collide, sending gravitational waves out through the Universe. Such gravitational waves could be detected with a proposed joint space mission between NASA and the European Space Agency, the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna. "Such black-hole collisions undoubtedly are important processes, and we need to understand them. Finding ever-closer pairs of supermassive black holes is the first step in that process. Even finding one such system has dramatically changed our expectations, and informed us about what to look for," Taylor said. Taylor and his collaborators are currently using the VLBA to carry out the largest survey of compact radio-emitting objects ever undertaken, in the hope of finding more such pairs. Rodriguez and Taylor worked with Robert Zavala of the U.S. Naval Observatory, Allison Peck of the SubMillimeter Array of the Harvard- Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Lindsey Pollack of the University of California at Santa Cruz, and Roger Romani of Stanford University. Their

  11. Less accurate but more efficient family of search templates for detection of gravitational waves from inspiraling compact binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronopoulos, Andreas E.; Apostolatos, Theocharis A.

    2001-01-01

    for detecting gravitational waves from inspiraling, compact, nonspinning, binaries. Apart from this useful quantitative result, this study constitutes an application of the template-numbering technique, introduced by Owen, for families of templates that are not described by the same mathematical expression as the assumed signals. For example, this analysis will be very useful when constructing sufficiently simple templates for detecting precessing spinning binaries

  12. Faster implementation of the hierarchical search algorithm for detection of gravitational waves from inspiraling compact binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengupta, Anand S.; Dhurandhar, Sanjeev; Lazzarini, Albert

    2003-01-01

    The first scientific runs of kilometer scale laser interferometric detectors such as LIGO are under way. Data from these detectors will be used to look for signatures of gravitational waves from astrophysical objects such as inspiraling neutron-star-black-hole binaries using matched filtering. The computational resources required for online flat-search implementation of the matched filtering are large if searches are carried out for a small total mass. A flat search is implemented by constructing a single discrete grid of densely populated template waveforms spanning the dynamical parameters--masses, spins--which are correlated with the interferometer data. The correlations over the kinematical parameters can be maximized a priori without constructing a template bank over them. Mohanty and Dhurandhar showed that a significant reduction in computational resources can be accomplished by using a hierarchy of such template banks where candidate events triggered by a sparsely populated grid are followed up by the regular, dense flat-search grid. The estimated speedup in this method was a factor ∼25 over the flat search. In this paper we report an improved implementation of the hierarchical search, wherein we extend the domain of hierarchy to an extra dimension--namely, the time of arrival of the signal in the bandwidth of the interferometer. This is accomplished by lowering the Nyquist sampling rate of the signal in the trigger stage. We show that this leads to further improvement in the efficiency of data analysis and speeds up the online computation by a factor of ∼65-70 over the flat search. We also take into account and discuss issues related to template placement, trigger thresholds, and other peculiar problems that do not arise in earlier implementation schemes of the hierarchical search. We present simulation results for 2PN waveforms embedded in the noise expected for initial LIGO detectors

  13. COMPACT STELLAR BINARY ASSEMBLY IN THE FIRST NUCLEAR STAR CLUSTERS AND r-PROCESS SYNTHESIS IN THE EARLY UNIVERSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; MacLeod, Morgan; Trenti, Michele; Roberts, Luke F.; Lee, William H.; Saladino-Rosas, Martha I.

    2015-01-01

    Investigations of elemental abundances in the ancient and most metal deficient stars are extremely important because they serve as tests of variable nucleosynthesis pathways and can provide critical inferences of the type of stars that lived and died before them. The presence of r-process elements in a handful of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP-r) stars, which are assumed to be closely connected to the chemical yield from the first stars, is hard to reconcile with standard neutron star mergers. Here we show that the production rate of dynamically assembled compact binaries in high-z nuclear star clusters can attain a sufficient high value to be a potential viable source of heavy r-process material in CEMP-r stars. The predicted frequency of such events in the early Galaxy, much lower than the frequency of Type II supernovae but with significantly higher mass ejected per event, can naturally lead to a high level of scatter of Eu as observed in CEMP-r stars

  14. COMPACT STELLAR BINARY ASSEMBLY IN THE FIRST NUCLEAR STAR CLUSTERS AND r-PROCESS SYNTHESIS IN THE EARLY UNIVERSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; MacLeod, Morgan [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Trenti, Michele [Kavli Institute for Cosmology and Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Roberts, Luke F. [TAPIR, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Lee, William H.; Saladino-Rosas, Martha I. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México DF 04510, México (Mexico)

    2015-04-01

    Investigations of elemental abundances in the ancient and most metal deficient stars are extremely important because they serve as tests of variable nucleosynthesis pathways and can provide critical inferences of the type of stars that lived and died before them. The presence of r-process elements in a handful of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP-r) stars, which are assumed to be closely connected to the chemical yield from the first stars, is hard to reconcile with standard neutron star mergers. Here we show that the production rate of dynamically assembled compact binaries in high-z nuclear star clusters can attain a sufficient high value to be a potential viable source of heavy r-process material in CEMP-r stars. The predicted frequency of such events in the early Galaxy, much lower than the frequency of Type II supernovae but with significantly higher mass ejected per event, can naturally lead to a high level of scatter of Eu as observed in CEMP-r stars.

  15. Inferences About the Distribution, Merger Rate, and Evolutionary Processes of Compact Binaries From Gravitational Wave Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysocki, Daniel

    We are living through the dawn of the era of gravitational wave astronomy. Our first glances through this new window upon the sky has revealed a new population of objects. Since it first began observing in late 2015, the advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) has detected gravitational waves three times, along with an additional strong candidate - and there shall be orders of magnitude more in the years to come. In all four cases, the waveform's signature is consistent with general relativity's predictions for the merging of two black holes. Through parameter estimation studies, estimates on features such as the black holes' masses and spins have been determined. At least two of the black hole pairs lie above the mass range spanned by comparable black holes observed through traditional means. This suggests they constitute a separate population, either too elusive or rare to be found with traditional telescopes. The most natural questions to ask about these black holes - how did they form, how many of them are there, and how can they be categorized - remain open ended. We know black holes can form when massive stars die, so it's most natural to claim stars as their progenitors. Since we now know black holes merge into larger black holes, could it be the case that they formed from previous mergers? Were the two black holes part of a binary from their birth, or did they become coupled later on in life? The measurements provided by LIGO can help answer these questions and more. Throughout this thesis, I will describe and demonstrate results from a number of novel methods whose purpose is to better understand these black holes and their progenitors. At their heart, these methods give answers to a few, critical questions. a) What is the overall rate at which these objects merge? b) What is the range of values these objects' properties can take, and how are they distributed? c) Given a number of physical models, how can we evaluate the

  16. SECULAR EVOLUTION OF BINARIES NEAR MASSIVE BLACK HOLES: FORMATION OF COMPACT BINARIES, MERGER/COLLISION PRODUCTS AND G2-LIKE OBJECTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prodan, Snezana; Antonini, Fabio; Perets, Hagai B.

    2015-01-01

    Here we discuss the evolution of binaries around massive black holes (MBHs) in nuclear stellar clusters. We focus on their secular evolution due to the perturbation by the MBHs, while simplistically accounting for their collisional evolution. Binaries with highly inclined orbits with respect to their orbits around MBHs are strongly affected by secular processes, which periodically change their eccentricities and inclinations (e.g., Kozai-Lidov cycles). During periapsis approach, dissipative processes such as tidal friction may become highly efficient, and may lead to shrinkage of a binary orbit and even to its merger. Binaries in this environment can therefore significantly change their orbital evolution due to the MBH third-body perturbative effects. Such orbital evolution may impinge on their later stellar evolution. Here we follow the secular dynamics of such binaries and its coupling to tidal evolution, as well as the stellar evolution of such binaries on longer timescales. We find that stellar binaries in the central parts of nuclear stellar clusters (NSCs) are highly likely to evolve into eccentric and/or short-period binaries, and become strongly interacting binaries either on the main sequence (at which point they may even merge), or through their later binary stellar evolution. The central parts of NSCs therefore catalyze the formation and evolution of strongly interacting binaries, and lead to the enhanced formation of blue stragglers, X-ray binaries, gravitational wave sources, and possible supernova progenitors. Induced mergers/collisions may also lead to the formation of G2-like cloud-like objects such as the one recently observed in the Galactic center

  17. GeV gamma-rays and TeV neutrinos from very massive compact binary systems: The case of WR 20a

    OpenAIRE

    Bednarek, W.

    2005-01-01

    Massive Wolf-Rayet stars in a compact binary systems are characterised by very strong winds which collide creating a shock wave. If the wind nuclei accelerated at the shock can reach large enough energies, they suffer disintegration in collisions with soft thermal radiation from the massive stars injecting relativistic protons and neutrons. Protons collide with the matter of the wind and a fraction of neutrons colide with the massive stars producing gamma-rays and neutrinos. We calculate the ...

  18. Hidden Pair of Supermassive Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-08-01

    Could a pair of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) be lurking at the center of the galaxy Mrk 231? A recent study finds that this may be the case and the unique spectrum of this galaxy could be the key to discovering more hidden binary SMBH systems.Where Are the Binary Supermassive Black Holes?Its believed that most, if not all, galaxies have an SMBH at their centers. As two galaxies merge, the two SMBHs should evolve into a closely-bound binary system before they eventually merge. Given the abundance of galaxy mergers, we would expect to see the kinematic and visual signatures of these binary SMBHs among observed active galactic nuclei yet such evidence for sub-parsec binary SMBH systems remains scarce and ambiguous. This has led researchers to wonder: is there another way that we might detect these elusive systems?A collaboration led by Chang-Shuo Yan (National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences) thinks that there is. The group suggests that these systems might have distinct signatures in their optical-to-UV spectra, and they identify a system that might be just such a candidate: Mrk 231.A Binary CandidateProposed model of Mrk 231. Two supermassive black holes, each with their own mini-disk, orbit each other in the center of a circumbinary disk. The secondary black hole has cleared gap in the circumbinary disk as a result of its orbit around the primary black hole. [Yan et al. 2015]Mrk 231 is a galaxy with a disturbed morphology and tidal tails strong clues that it might be in the final stages of a galactic merger. In addition to these signs, Mrk 231 also has an unusual spectrum for a quasar: its continuum emission displays an unexpected drop in the near-UV band.Yan and her collaborators propose that the odd behavior of Mrk 231s spectrum can be explained if the center of the galaxy houses a pair of SMBHs each with its own mini accretion disk surrounded by a circumbinary accretion disk. As the secondary SMBH orbits the primary SMBH (with a

  19. When Supermassive Black Holes Wander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-05-01

    Are supermassive black holes found only at the centers of galaxies? Definitely not, according to a new study in fact, galaxies like the Milky Way may harbor several such monsters wandering through their midst.Collecting Black Holes Through MergersIts generally believed that galaxies are built up hierarchically, growing in size through repeated mergers over time. Each galaxy in a major merger likely hosts a supermassive black hole a black hole of millions to billions of times the mass of the Sun at its center. When a pair of galaxies merges, their supermassive black holes will often sink to the center of the merger via a process known as dynamical friction. There the supermassive black holes themselves will eventually merge in a burst of gravitational waves.Spatial distribution and velocities of wandering supermassive black holes in three of the authors simulated galaxies, shown in edge-on (left) and face-on (right) views of the galaxy disks. Click for a closer look. [Tremmel et al. 2018]But if a galaxy the size of the Milky Way was built through a history of many major galactic mergers, are we sure that all its accumulated supermassive black holes eventually merged at the galactic center? A new study suggests that some of these giants might have escaped such a fate and they now wander unseen on wide orbits through their galaxies.Black Holes in an Evolving UniverseLed by Michael Tremmel (Yale Center for Astronomy Astrophysics), a team of scientists has used data from a large-scale cosmological simulation, Romulus25, to explore the possibility of wandering supermassive black holes. The Romulus simulations are uniquely suited to track the formation and subsequent orbital motion of supermassive black holes as galactic halos are built up through mergers over the history of the universe.From these simulations, Tremmel and collaborators find an end total of 316 supermassive black holes residing within the bounds of 26 Milky-Way-mass halos. Of these, roughly a third are

  20. Hypercompact Stellar Systems Around Recoiling Supermassive Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, David; Schnittman, Jeremy D.; Komossa, S.

    2009-07-01

    A supermassive black hole ejected from the center of a galaxy by gravitational-wave recoil carries a retinue of bound stars—a "hypercompact stellar system" (HCSS). The numbers and properties of HCSSs contain information about the merger histories of galaxies, the late evolution of binary black holes, and the distribution of gravitational-wave kicks. We relate the structural properties (size, mass, density profile) of HCSSs to the properties of their host galaxies and to the size of the kick in two regimes: collisional (M BH lsim 107 M sun), i.e., short nuclear relaxation times, and collisionless (M BH gsim 107 M sun), i.e., long nuclear relaxation times. HCSSs are expected to be similar in size and luminosity to globular clusters, but in extreme cases (large galaxies, kicks just above escape velocity) their stellar mass can approach that of ultracompact dwarf galaxies. However, they differ from all other classes of compact stellar system in having very high internal velocities. We show that the kick velocity is encoded in the velocity dispersion of the bound stars. Given a large enough sample of HCSSs, the distribution of gravitational-wave kicks can therefore be empirically determined. We combine a hierarchical merger algorithm with stellar population models to compute the rate of production of HCSSs over time and the probability of observing HCSSs in the local universe as a function of their apparent magnitude, color, size, and velocity dispersion, under two different assumptions about the star formation history prior to the kick. We predict that ~102 HCSSs should be detectable within 2 Mpc of the center of the Virgo cluster, and that many of these should be bright enough that their kick velocities (i.e., velocity dispersions) could be measured with reasonable exposure times. We discuss other strategies for detecting HCSSs and speculate on some exotic manifestations.

  1. Understanding the fate of merging supermassive black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campanelli, Manuela

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the fate of merging supermassive black holes in galactic mergers, and the gravitational wave emission from this process, are important LISA science goals. To this end, we present results from numerical relativity simulations of binary black hole mergers using the so-called Lazarus approach to model gravitational radiation from these events. In particular, we focus here on some recent calculations of the final spin and recoil velocity of the remnant hole formed at the end of a binary black hole merger process, which may constrain the growth history of massive black holes at the core of galaxies and globular clusters

  2. Maximum mass ratio of am CVn-type binary systems and maximum white dwarf mass in ultra-compact x-ray binaries (addendum - Serb. Astron. J. No. 183 (2011, 63

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbutina B.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We recalculated the maximum white dwarf mass in ultra-compact X-ray binaries obtained in an earlier paper (Arbutina 2011, by taking the effects of super-Eddington accretion rate on the stability of mass transfer into account. It is found that, although the value formally remains the same (under the assumed approximations, for white dwarf masses M2 >~0.1MCh mass ratios are extremely low, implying that the result for Mmax is likely to have little if any practical relevance.

  3. Higher-order spin effects in the amplitude and phase of gravitational waveforms emitted by inspiraling compact binaries: Ready-to-use gravitational waveforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arun, K. G.; Buonanno, Alessandra; Ochsner, Evan; Faye, Guillaume

    2009-01-01

    We provide ready-to-use time-domain gravitational waveforms for spinning compact binaries with precession effects through 1.5 post-Newtonian (PN) order in amplitude, and compute their mode decomposition using spin-weighted -2 spherical harmonics. In the presence of precession, the gravitational-wave modes (l,m) contain harmonics originating from combinations of the orbital frequency and precession frequencies. We find that the gravitational radiation from binary systems with large mass asymmetry and large inclination angle can be distributed among several modes. For example, during the last stages of inspiral, for some maximally spinning configurations, the amplitude of the (2, 0) and (2, 1) modes can be comparable to the amplitude of the (2, 2) mode. If the mass ratio is not too extreme, the l=3 and l=4 modes are generally 1 or 2 orders of magnitude smaller than the l=2 modes. Restricting ourselves to spinning, nonprecessing compact binaries, we apply the stationary-phase approximation and derive the frequency-domain gravitational waveforms including spin-orbit and spin(1)-spin(2) effects through 1.5PN and 2PN order, respectively, in amplitude, and 2.5PN order in phase. Since spin effects in the amplitude through 2PN order affect only the first and second harmonics of the orbital phase, they do not extend the mass reach of gravitational-wave detectors. However, they can interfere with other harmonics and lower or raise the signal-to-noise ratio depending on the spin orientation. These ready-to-use waveforms could be employed in the data analysis of the spinning, inspiraling binaries as well as in comparison studies at the interface between analytical and numerical relativity.

  4. The third post-Newtonian gravitational wave polarizations and associated spherical harmonic modes for inspiralling compact binaries in quasi-circular orbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchet, Luc; Faye, Guillaume; Iyer, Bala R; Sinha, Siddhartha

    2008-01-01

    The gravitational waveform (GWF) generated by inspiralling compact binaries moving in quasi-circular orbits is computed at the third post-Newtonian (3PN) approximation to general relativity. Our motivation is two-fold: (i) to provide accurate templates for the data analysis of gravitational wave inspiral signals in laser interferometric detectors; (ii) to provide the associated spin-weighted spherical harmonic decomposition to facilitate comparison and match of the high post-Newtonian prediction for the inspiral waveform to the numerically-generated waveforms for the merger and ringdown. This extension of the GWF by half a PN order (with respect to previous work at 2.5PN order) is based on the algorithm of the multipolar post-Minkowskian formalism, and mandates the computation of the relations between the radiative, canonical and source multipole moments for general sources at 3PN order. We also obtain the 3PN extension of the source multipole moments in the case of compact binaries, and compute the contributions of hereditary terms (tails, tails-of-tails and memory integrals) up to 3PN order. The end results are given for both the complete plus and cross polarizations and the separate spin-weighted spherical harmonic modes

  5. Evolution of the accretion structure of the compact object in the symbiotic binary BF Cygni during outburst in 2009-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomov, N. A.; Tomova, M. T.; Bisikalo, D. V.

    2017-12-01

    The eclipsing symbiotic binary BF Cyg has had five orbital minima during its last optical outburst after 2006. The second minimum is much shallower than the first one and after that the minimum get deeper again. We determined the parameters of the accretion structure surrounding the compact object in two minima and traced its evolution until 2014. Moreover, we analysed the continuum of the system in the region of the UBVRCIC photometric bands to derive the parameters of its components at two times orbital maximum and calculated the mass-loss rate of the compact object. The results obtained allow us to conclude about the mechanism of fading of the optical light of the system until 2014. These results show that the optical flux of the outbursted compact object decreases because of "contraction" of its observed photosphere (pseudophotosphere) which, on its side, is due to increase of the velocity of its stellar wind, and the optical flux of the circumbinary nebula decreases mainly because of reduction of its mean density, which, on its side, is due to destruction of the accretion structure.

  6. Central supermassive black hole study of our galaxy and its environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trap, Guillaume

    2011-01-01

    This thesis gathers a series of observational and phenomenological studies pertaining to compact objects at the center of our Galaxy, i.e. the central supermassive black hole, SagittariusA"*, and neutron stars hosted by X-ray bursters. The first part deals with SgrA"*, which is subject to daily flares of unknown origins, both from the point of view of the triggers and the radiation mechanisms. This flaring activity has been probed by several extensive multiwavelength campaigns (in gamma-rays, X-rays, infrared and submillimeter) conducted between 2007 and 2009. Data recorded simultaneously by the XMM-Newton/EPIC, INTEGRAL/ISGRI+JEM-X, Fermi/LAT, VLT/NACO+VISIR, and APEX/LABOCA instruments, during new major flares, have helped characterize in detail the spectral and temporal behaviors of these eruptions, and constrain the non-thermal emission models of the radiative medium (synchrotron, inverse Compton, expanding plasmoid, etc). In a second section, a score of type I X-ray bursts from two low-mass X-ray binaries in the Galactic nucleus, GRS 1741.9-2853 and AXJ1745.6-2901, have been examined through the data of various low-energy X-ray satellites (2-30 keV). These observations have then been discussed in the relatively well established theoretical frame of thermonuclear explosions in a plasma of hydrogen and helium, built up at the surfaces of accreting neutron stars. (author) [fr

  7. Effects of data quality vetoes on a search for compact binary coalescences in Advanced LIGO's first observing run

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K.M.; Baker, P. T.; Bulten, H. J.; Cheng, C.; Del Pozzo, W.; Jonker, R. J.G.; Li, T. G.F.; Meidam, J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Van Bakel, N.; Van Den Brand, J. F.J.; Veitch, J.

    2018-01-01

    The first observing run of Advanced LIGO spanned 4 months, from 12 September 2015 to 19 January 2016, during which gravitational waves were directly detected from two binary black hole systems, namely GW150914 and GW151226. Confident detection of gravitational waves requires an understanding of

  8. Feeding supermassive black holes by collisional cascades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Christian; Dehnen, Walter

    2018-05-01

    The processes driving gas accretion on to supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are still poorly understood. Angular momentum conservation prevents gas within ˜10 pc of the black hole from reaching radii ˜10-3 pc where viscous accretion becomes efficient. Here we present simulations of the collapse of a clumpy shell of swept-up isothermal gas, which is assumed to have formed as a result of feedback from a previous episode of AGN activity. The gas falls towards the SMBH forming clumps and streams, which intersect, collide, and often form a disc. These collisions promote partial cancellations of angular momenta, resulting in further infall and more collisions. This continued collisional cascade generates a tail of gas with sufficiently small angular momenta and provides a viable route for gas inflow to sub-parsec scales. The efficiency of this process hardly depends on details, such as gas temperature, initial virial ratio and power spectrum of the gas distribution, as long as it is not strongly rotating. Adding star formation to this picture might explain the near-simultaneous formation of the S-stars (from tidally disrupted binaries formed in plunging gas streams) and the sub-parsec young stellar disc around Sgr A⋆.

  9. Modeling Supermassive Black Holes in Cosmological Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremmel, Michael

    My thesis work has focused on improving the implementation of supermassive black hole (SMBH) physics in cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. SMBHs are ubiquitous in mas- sive galaxies, as well as bulge-less galaxies and dwarfs, and are thought to be a critical component to massive galaxy evolution. Still, much is unknown about how SMBHs form, grow, and affect their host galaxies. Cosmological simulations are an invaluable tool for un- derstanding the formation of galaxies, self-consistently tracking their evolution with realistic merger and gas accretion histories. SMBHs are often modeled in these simulations (generally as a necessity to produce realistic massive galaxies), but their implementations are commonly simplified in ways that can limit what can be learned. Current and future observations are opening new windows into the lifecycle of SMBHs and their host galaxies, but require more detailed, physically motivated simulations. Within the novel framework I have developed, SMBHs 1) are seeded at early times without a priori assumptions of galaxy occupation, 2) grow in a way that accounts for the angular momentum of gas, and 3) experience realistic orbital evolution. I show how this model, properly tuned with a novel parameter optimiza- tion technique, results in realistic galaxies and SMBHs. Utilizing the unique ability of these simulations to capture the dynamical evolution of SMBHs, I present the first self-consistent prediction for the formation timescales of close SMBH pairs, precursors to SMBH binaries and merger events potentially detected by future gravitational wave experiments.

  10. Opacity Limit for Supermassive Protostars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Fernando; Marinacci, Federico; Inayoshi, Kohei; Bromm, Volker; Hernquist, Lars E.

    2018-04-01

    We present a model for the evolution of supermassive protostars from their formation at {M}\\star ≃ 0.1 {M}ȯ until their growth to {M}\\star ≃ {10}5 {M}ȯ . To calculate the initial properties of the object in the optically thick regime, we follow two approaches: one based on idealized thermodynamic considerations, and another based on a more detailed one-zone model. Both methods derive a similar value of {n}{{F}}≃ 2× {10}17 {cm}}-3 for the density of the object when opacity becomes important, i.e., the opacity limit. The subsequent evolution of the growing protostar is determined by the accretion of gas onto the object and can be described by a mass–radius relation of the form {R}\\star \\propto {M}\\star 1/3 during the early stages, and of the form {R}\\star \\propto {M}\\star 1/2 when internal luminosity becomes important. For the case of a supermassive protostar, this implies that the radius of the star grows from {R}\\star ≃ 0.65 {au} to {R}\\star ≃ 250 {au} during its evolution. Finally, we use this model to construct a subgrid recipe for accreting sink particles in numerical simulations. A prime ingredient thereof is a physically motivated prescription for the accretion radius and the effective temperature of the growing protostar embedded inside it. From the latter, we can conclude that photoionization feedback can be neglected until very late in the assembly process of the supermassive object.

  11. Black holes in binary stellar systems and galactic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherepashchuk, A M

    2014-01-01

    In the last 40 years, following pioneering papers by Ya B Zeldovich and E E Salpeter, in which a powerful energy release from nonspherical accretion of matter onto a black hole (BH) was predicted, many observational studies of black holes in the Universe have been carried out. To date, the masses of several dozen stellar-mass black holes (M BH =(4−20)M ⊙ ) in X-ray binary systems and of several hundred supermassive black holes (M BH =(10 6 −10 10 )M ⊙ ) in galactic nuclei have been measured. The estimated radii of these massive and compact objects do not exceed several gravitational radii. For about ten stellar-mass black holes and several dozen supermassive black holes, the values of the dimensionless angular momentum a ∗ have been estimated, which, in agreement with theoretical predictions, do not exceed the limiting value a ∗ =0.998. A new field of astrophysics, so-called black hole demography, which studies the birth and growth of black holes and their evolutionary connection to other objects in the Universe, namely stars, galaxies, etc., is rapidly developing. In addition to supermassive black holes, massive stellar clusters are observed in galactic nuclei, and their evolution is distinct from that of supermassive black holes. The evolutionary relations between supermassive black holes in galactic centers and spheroidal stellar components (bulges) of galaxies, as well as dark-matter galactic haloes are brought out. The launch into Earth's orbit of the space radio interferometer RadioAstron opened up the real possibility of finally proving that numerous discovered massive and highly compact objects with properties very similar to those of black holes make up real black holes in the sense of Albert Einstein's General Relativity. Similar proofs of the existence of black holes in the Universe can be obtained by intercontinental radio interferometry at short wavelengths λ≲1 mm (the international program, Event Horizon Telescope). (100

  12. Compact lidar system using laser diode, binary continuous wave power modulation, and an avalanche photodiode-based receiver controlled by a digital signal processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardanuy, Antoni; Comerón, Adolfo

    2018-04-01

    We analyze the practical limits of a lidar system based on the use of a laser diode, random binary continuous wave power modulation, and an avalanche photodiode (APD)-based photereceiver, combined with the control and computing power of the digital signal processors (DSP) currently available. The target is to design a compact portable lidar system made all in semiconductor technology, with a low-power demand and an easy configuration of the system, allowing change in some of its features through software. Unlike many prior works, we emphasize the use of APDs instead of photomultiplier tubes to detect the return signal and the application of the system to measure not only hard targets, but also medium-range aerosols and clouds. We have developed an experimental prototype to evaluate the behavior of the system under different environmental conditions. Experimental results provided by the prototype are presented and discussed.

  13. Approaching the Post-Newtonian Regime with Numerical Relativity: A Compact-Object Binary Simulation Spanning 350 Gravitational-Wave Cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilágyi, Béla; Blackman, Jonathan; Buonanno, Alessandra; Taracchini, Andrea; Pfeiffer, Harald P; Scheel, Mark A; Chu, Tony; Kidder, Lawrence E; Pan, Yi

    2015-07-17

    We present the first numerical-relativity simulation of a compact-object binary whose gravitational waveform is long enough to cover the entire frequency band of advanced gravitational-wave detectors, such as LIGO, Virgo, and KAGRA, for mass ratio 7 and total mass as low as 45.5M_{⊙}. We find that effective-one-body models, either uncalibrated or calibrated against substantially shorter numerical-relativity waveforms at smaller mass ratios, reproduce our new waveform remarkably well, with a negligible loss in detection rate due to modeling error. In contrast, post-Newtonian inspiral waveforms and existing calibrated phenomenological inspiral-merger-ringdown waveforms display greater disagreement with our new simulation. The disagreement varies substantially depending on the specific post-Newtonian approximant used.

  14. Characterization of enhanced interferometric gravitational-wave detectors and studies of numeric simulations for compact-binary coalescences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekowsky, Larne

    Gravitational waves are a consequence of the general theory of relativity. Direct detection of such waves will provide a wealth of information about physics, astronomy, and cosmology. A worldwide effort is currently underway to make the first direct detection of gravitational waves. The global network of detectors includes the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO), which recently completed its sixth science run. A particularly promising source of gravitational waves is a binary system consisting of two neutron stars and/or black holes. As the objects orbit each other they emit gravitational radiation, lose energy, and spiral inwards. This produces a characteristic "chirp" signal for which we can search in the LIGO data. Currently this is done using matched-filter techniques, which correlate the detector data against analytic models of the emitted gravitational waves. Several choices must be made in constructing a search for signals from such binary coalescences. Any discrepancy between the signals and the models used will reduce the effectiveness of the matched filter. However, the analytic models are based on approximations which are not valid through the entire evolution of the binary. In recent years numerical relativity has had impressive success in simulating the final phases of the coalescence of binary black holes. While numerical relativity is too computationally expensive to use directly in the search, this progress has made it possible to perform realistic tests of the LIGO searches. The results of such tests can be used to improve the efficiency of searches. Conversely, noise in the LIGO and Virgo detectors can reduce the efficiency. This must be addressed by characterizing the quality of the data from the detectors, and removing from the analysis times that will be detrimental to the search. In this thesis we utilize recent results from numerical relativity to study both the degree to which analytic models match realistic waveforms

  15. Testing general relativity using Bayesian model selection: Applications to observations of gravitational waves from compact binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Pozzo, Walter; Veitch, John; Vecchio, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Second-generation interferometric gravitational-wave detectors, such as Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo, are expected to begin operation by 2015. Such instruments plan to reach sensitivities that will offer the unique possibility to test general relativity in the dynamical, strong-field regime and investigate departures from its predictions, in particular, using the signal from coalescing binary systems. We introduce a statistical framework based on Bayesian model selection in which the Bayes factor between two competing hypotheses measures which theory is favored by the data. Probability density functions of the model parameters are then used to quantify the inference on individual parameters. We also develop a method to combine the information coming from multiple independent observations of gravitational waves, and show how much stronger inference could be. As an introduction and illustration of this framework-and a practical numerical implementation through the Monte Carlo integration technique of nested sampling-we apply it to gravitational waves from the inspiral phase of coalescing binary systems as predicted by general relativity and a very simple alternative theory in which the graviton has a nonzero mass. This method can (and should) be extended to more realistic and physically motivated theories.

  16. NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF LOW-MASS X-RAY BINARIES: ACCRETION DISK CONTAMINATION AND COMPACT OBJECT MASS DETERMINATION IN V404 Cyg AND Cen X-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khargharia, Juthika; Froning, Cynthia S.; Robinson, Edward L.

    2010-01-01

    We present near-infrared (NIR) broadband (0.80-2.42 μm) spectroscopy of two low-mass X-ray binaries: V404 Cyg and Cen X-4. One important parameter required in the determination of the mass of the compact objects in these systems is the binary inclination. We can determine the inclination by modeling the ellipsoidal modulations of the Roche-lobe filling donor star, but the contamination of the donor star light from other components of the binary, particularly the accretion disk, must be taken into account. To this end, we determined the donor star contribution to the infrared flux by comparing the spectra of V404 Cyg and Cen X-4 to those of various field K-stars of known spectral type. For V404 Cyg, we determined that the donor star has a spectral type of K3 III. We determined the fractional donor contribution to the NIR flux in the H and K bands as 0.98 ± 0.05 and 0.97 ± 0.09, respectively. We remodeled the H-band light curve from Sanwal et al. after correcting for the donor star contribution to obtain a new value for the binary inclination. From this, we determined the mass of the black hole in V404 Cyg to be M BH = 9.0 +0.2 -0.6 M sun . We performed the same spectral analysis for Cen X-4 and found the spectral type of the donor star to be in the range K5-M1 V. The donor star contribution in Cen X-4 is 0.94 ± 0.14 in the H band while in the K band, the accretion disk can contribute up to 10% of the infrared flux. We remodeled the H-band light curve from Shahbaz et al., again correcting for the fractional contribution of the donor star to obtain the inclination. From this, we determined the mass of the neutron star as M NS = 1.5 +0.1 -0.4 M sun . However, the masses obtained for both systems should be viewed with some caution since contemporaneous light curve and spectral data are required to obtain definitive masses.

  17. Searching for gravitational-wave signals emitted by eccentric compact binaries using a non-eccentric template bank: implications for ground-based detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cokelaer, T; Pathak, D, E-mail: Thomas.Cokelaer@astro.cf.ac.u, E-mail: Devanka.Pathak@astro.cf.ac.u [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-21

    Most of the inspiralling compact binaries are expected to be circularized by the time their gravitational-wave signals enter the frequency band of ground-based detectors such as LIGO or VIRGO. However, it is not excluded that some of these binaries might still possess a significant eccentricity at a few tens of hertz. Despite this possibility, current search pipelines-based on matched filtering techniques-consider only non-eccentric templates. The effect of such an approximation on the loss of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) has been investigated by Martel and Poisson (1999 Phys. Rev. D 60 124008) in the context of initial LIGO detector. They ascertained that non-eccentric templates will be successful at detecting eccentric signals. We revisit their work by incorporating current and future ground-based detectors and precisely quantify the exact loss of SNR. In order to be more faithful to an actual search, we maximized the SNR over a template bank, whose minimal match is set to 95%. For initial LIGO detector, we claim that the initial eccentricity does not need to be taken into account in our searches for any system with total mass M element of [2-45]M{sub o-dot} if e{sub 0} approx< 0.05 because the loss of SNR (about 5%) is consistent with the discreteness of the template bank. Similarly, this statement is also true for systems with M element of [6-35]M{sub o-dot} and e{sub 0} approx< 0.10. However, by neglecting the eccentricity in our searches, significant loss of detection (larger than 10%) may arise as soon as e{sub 0} >= 0.05 for neutron-star binaries. We also provide exhaustive results for VIRGO, Advanced LIGO and Einstein Telescope detectors. It is worth noting that for Einstein Telescope, neutron star binaries with e{sub 0} >= 0.02 lead to a 10% loss of detection.

  18. Localization accuracy of compact binary coalescences detected by the third-generation gravitational-wave detectors and implication for cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wen; Wen, Linqing

    2018-03-01

    We use the Fisher information matrix to investigate the angular resolution and luminosity distance uncertainty for coalescing binary neutron stars (BNSs) and neutron star-black hole binaries (NSBHs) detected by the third-generation (3G) gravitational-wave (GW) detectors. Our study focuses on an individual 3G detector and a network of up to four 3G detectors at different locations including the United States, Europe, China, and Australia for the proposed Einstein Telescope (ET) and Cosmic Explorer (CE) detectors. In particular, we examine the effect of the Earth's rotation, as GW signals from BNS and low-mass NSBH systems could be hours long for 3G detectors. In this case, an individual detector can be effectively treated as a detector network with long baselines formed by the trajectory of the detector as it rotates with the Earth. Therefore, a single detector or two-detector networks could also be used to localize the GW sources effectively. We find that a time-dependent antenna beam-pattern function can help better localize BNS and NSBH sources, especially edge-on ones. The medium angular resolution for one ET-D detector is around 150 deg2 for BNSs at a redshift of z =0.1 , which improves rapidly with a decreasing low-frequency cutoff flow in sensitivity. The medium angular resolution for a network of two CE detectors in the United States and Europe, respectively, is around 20 deg2 at z =0.2 for the simulated BNS and NSBH samples. While for a network of two ET-D detectors, the similar angular resolution can be achieved at a much higher redshift of z =0.5 . The angular resolution of a network of three detectors is mainly determined by the baselines between detectors regardless of the CE or ET detector type. The medium angular resolution of BNS for a network of three detectors of the ET-D or CE type in the United States, Europe, and Australia is around 10 deg2 at z =2 . We discuss the implications of our results for multimessenger astronomy and, in particular, for

  19. General Relativistic Simulations of Magnetized Plasmas Around Merging Supermassive Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomazzo, Bruno; Baker, John G.; Miller, M. Coleman; Reynolds, Christopher S.; van Meter, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Coalescing supermassive black hole binaries are produced by the mergers of galaxies and are the most powerful sources of gravitational waves accessible to space-based gravitational observatories. Some such mergers may occur in the presence of matter and magnetic fields and hence generate an electromagnetic counterpart. In this paper we present the first general relativistic simulations of magnetized plasma around merging supermassive black holes using the general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic code Whisky. By considering different magnetic field strengths, going from non-magnetically dominated to magnetically dominated regimes, we explore how magnetic fields affect the dynamics of the plasma and the possible emission of electromagnetic signals. In particular we observe, total amplification of the magnetic field of approx 2 orders of magnitude which is driven by the accretion onto the binary and that leads to stronger electromagnetic signals than in the force-free regime where such amplifications are not possible.

  20. An Evolving Compact Jet in the Black Hole X-Ray Binary Maxi J1836-194

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, D. M.; Russell, T. D.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; O'Brien, K.; Soria, R.; Sivakoff, G. R.; Slaven-Blair, T.; Lewis, F.; Markoff, S.; Homan, J.; hide

    2013-01-01

    We report striking changes in the broadband spectrum of the compact jet of the black hole transient MAXI J1836-194 over state transitions during its discovery outburst in 2011. A fading of the optical-infrared (IR) flux occurred as the source entered the hard-intermediate state, followed by a brightening as it returned to the hard state. The optical-IR spectrum was consistent with a power law from optically thin synchrotron emission, except when the X-ray spectrum was softest. By fitting the radio to optical spectra with a broken power law, we constrain the frequency and flux of the optically thick/thin break in the jet synchrotron spectrum. The break gradually shifted to higher frequencies as the source hardened at X-ray energies, from approx 10(exp 11) to approx 4 × 10(exp 13) Hz. The radiative jet luminosity integrated over the spectrum appeared to be greatest when the source entered the hard state during the outburst decay (although this is dependent on the high-energy cooling break, which is not seen directly), even though the radio flux was fading at the time. The physical process responsible for suppressing and reactivating the jet (neither of which are instantaneous but occur on timescales of weeks) is uncertain, but could arise from the varying inner accretion disk radius regulating the fraction of accreting matter that is channeled into the jet. This provides an unprecedented insight into the connection between inflow and outflow, and has implications for the conditions required for jets to be produced, and hence their launching process.

  1. A method for estimating time-frequency characteristics of compact binary mergers to improve searches for inspiral, merger and ring-down phases separately

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanna, Chad; Megevand, Miguel; Palenzuela, Carlos; Ochsner, Evan

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in the description of compact binary systems have produced gravitational waveforms that include inspiral, merger and ring-down phases. Comparing results from numerical simulations with those of post-Newtonian, and related, expansions has provided motivation for employing post-Newtonian waveforms in near merger epochs when searching for gravitational waves and has encouraged the development of analytic fits to full numerical waveforms. Until searches employ full waveforms as templates, data analysts can still conduct separate inspiral, merger and ring-down searches. Improved knowledge about the end of the inspiral phase, the beginning of the merger and the ring-down frequencies will increase the efficiency of searches over each phase separately without needing the exact waveform. We will show that knowledge of the final spin, of which there are many theoretical models and analytic fits to simulations, may give an insight into the time-frequency properties of the merger. We also present implications on the ability to probe the tidal disruption of neutron stars through gravitational waves.

  2. An Overabundance of Black Hole X-Ray Binaries in the Galactic Center from Tidal Captures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generozov, A.; Stone, N. C.; Metzger, B. D.; Ostriker, J. P.

    2018-05-01

    A large population of X-ray binaries (XRBs) was recently discovered within the central parsec of the Galaxy by Hailey et al. (2018). While the presence of compact objects on this scale due to radial mass segregation is, in itself, unsurprising, the fraction of binaries would naively be expected to be small because of how easily primordial binaries are dissociated in the dynamically hot environment of the nuclear star cluster (NSC). We propose that the formation of XRBs in the central parsec is dominated by the tidal capture of stars by black holes (BHs) and neutron stars (NSs). We model the time-dependent radial density profiles of stars and compact objects in the NSC with a Fokker-Planck approach, using the present-day stellar population and rate of in situ massive star (and thus compact object) formation as observational constraints. Of the ˜1 - 4 × 104 BHs that accumulate in the central parsec over the age of the Galaxy, we predict that ˜60 - 200 currently exist as BH-XRBs formed from tidal capture, consistent with the population seen by Hailey et al. (2018). A somewhat lower number of tidal capture NS-XRBs is also predicted. We also use our observationally calibrated models for the NSC to predict rates of other exotic dynamical processes, such as the tidal disruption of stars by the central supermassive black hole (˜10-4 per year at z=0).

  3. Tidal disruption of asteroids by supermassive black holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomboc A.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The compact radio source Sgr A* at the centre of our Galaxy harbours a super-massive black hole, and is therefore the nearest laboratory for testing the super-massive black hole astrophysics and environment. Since it is not an active galactic nucleus, it also offers the possibility of observing the capture of low-mass objects, such as comets or asteroids, that may orbit the central black hole. In this paper we discuss conditions for tidal disruption of low-mass objects and predictions of the appearance and light curve of such events, as well as their relevance for the X-ray and infra-red flares detected in Sgr A*. The modelled light curves of such tidal disruption events bear marks of the strong gravitational field: tidal squeezing and elongation of the object, gravitational lensing, aberration of light, and Doppler effects. Finally, we show that this model is able to reproduce and fit X-ray flares.

  4. Supermassive dark-matter Q-balls in galactic centers?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troitsky, Sergey [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences,60th October Anniversary Prospect 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute for Physics and Technology,Institutskii per. 9, 141700, Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-11

    Though widely accepted, it is not proven that supermassive compact objects (SMCOs) residing in galactic centers are black holes. In particular, the Milky Way’s SMCO can be a giant nontopological soliton, Q-ball, made of a scalar field: this fits perfectly all observational data. Similar but tiny Q-balls produced in the early Universe may constitute, partly or fully, the dark matter. This picture explains in a natural way, why our SMCO has very low accretion rate and why the observed angular size of the corresponding radio source is much smaller than expected. Interactions between dark-matter Q-balls may explain how SMCOs were seeded in galaxies and resolve well-known problems of standard (non-interacting) dark matter.

  5. EFFECTS OF ROTATIONALLY INDUCED MIXING IN COMPACT BINARY SYSTEMS WITH LOW-MASS SECONDARIES AND IN SINGLE SOLAR-TYPE STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatzopoulos, E.; Robinson, Edward L.; Wheeler, J. Craig

    2012-01-01

    Many population synthesis and stellar evolution studies have addressed the evolution of close binary systems in which the primary is a compact remnant and the secondary is filling its Roche lobe, thus triggering mass transfer. Although tidal locking is expected in such systems, most studies have neglected the rotationally induced mixing that may occur. Here we study the possible effects of mixing in mass-losing stars for a range of secondary star masses and metallicities. We find that tidal locking can induce rotational mixing prior to contact and thus affect the evolution of the secondary star if the effects of the Spruit-Tayler dynamo are included both for angular momentum and chemical transport. Once contact is made, the effect of mass transfer tends to be more rapid than the evolutionary timescale, so the effects of mixing are no longer directly important, but the mass-transfer strips matter to inner layers that may have been affected by the mixing. These effects are enhanced for secondaries of 1-1.2 M ☉ and for lower metallicities. We discuss the possible implications for the paucity of carbon in the secondaries of the cataclysmic variable SS Cyg and the black hole candidate XTE J1118+480 and for the progenitor evolution of Type Ia supernovae. We also address the issue of the origin of blue straggler stars in globular and open clusters. We find that for models that include rotation consistent with that observed for some blue straggler stars, evolution is chemically homogeneous. This leads to tracks in the H-R diagram that are brighter and bluer than the non-rotating main-sequence turn-off point. Rotational mixing could thus be one of the factors that contribute to the formation of blue stragglers.

  6. Jet precession in binary black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Zulema

    2018-06-01

    Supermassive binary black holes are thought to lie at the centres of merging galaxies. The blazar OJ 287 is the poster child of such systems, showing strong and periodic variability across the electromagnetic spectrum. A new study questions the physical origin of this variability.

  7. Merging a Pair of Supermassive Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-10-01

    When galaxies merge, the supermassive black holes (SMBHs) at the galaxies centers are thought to coalesce, forming a new, larger black hole. But can this merger process take place on timescales short enough that we could actually observe it? Results from a new simulation suggests that it can!When Galaxies CollideThese stills demonstrate the time evolution of the galaxy merger after the beginning of the authors simulation (starting from z=3.6). The red and blue dots mark the positions of the SMBHs. [Adapted from Khan et al. 2016]At present, its not well understood how the merger of two SMBHs proceeds from the merger of their host galaxies. Whats more, there are concerns about whether the SMBHs can coalesce on reasonable timescales; in many simulations and models, the inspiral of these behemoths stalls out when they are about a parsec apart, in whats known as the final parsec problem.Why are these mergers poorly understood? Modeling them from the initial interactions of the host galaxies all the way down to the final coalescence of their SMBHs in a burst of gravitational waves is notoriously complicated, due to the enormous range of scales and different processes that must be accounted for.But in a recent study, a team of scientists led by Fazeel Khan (Institute of Space Technology in Pakistan) has presented a simulation that successfully manages to track the entire merger making it the first multi-scale simulation to model the complete evolution of an SMBH binary that forms within a cosmological galaxy merger.Stages of aSimulationKhan and collaborators tackled the challenges of this simulation by using a multi-tiered approach.Beginning with the output of a cosmological hydrodynamical simulation, the authors select a merger of two typical massive galaxies at z=3.6 and use this as the starting point for their simulation. They increase the resolution and add in two supermassive black holes, one at the center of each galaxy.They then continue to evolve the galaxies

  8. Black holes in binary stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, R.A.M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction Distinguishing neutron stars and black holes Optical companions and dynamical masses X-ray signatures of the nature of a compact object Structure and evolution of black-hole binaries High-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black holes Formation of black holes

  9. Search for supermassive nuclei in nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polikanov, S.; Sastri, C.S.; Herrmann, G.; Luetzenkirchen, K.; Overbeck, M.; Trautmann, N.

    1990-11-01

    We report on a search for supermassive nuclei in nature with masses up to 10 7 amu. Such exotic nuclei might consist, for example, of stable strange matter, which comprises a mixture of up, down, and strange quarks, or of relic particles from the early Universe. The experiments are based on Rutherford backscattering of heavy ions, preferably 238 U, from various target samples. The measured parameters of a deteced particle are its time-of-flight, scattering angle, and specific ionization. From this information the mass of the target nucleus can be inferred. Upper limits for the abundance of strange supermassive nuclei with masses A ≅ 4x10 2 to 10 7 amu relative to the number of nucleons were found to be in the range 10 -11 to 10 -15 . For the narrower mass range A ≅ 10 3 to 10 4 amu the limit is 2x10 -17 . (orig.)

  10. Precocious Supermassive Black Holes Challenge Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-11-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has obtained definitive evidence that a distant quasar formed less than a billion years after the Big Bang contains a fully-grown supermassive black hole generating energy at the rate of twenty trillion Suns. The existence of such massive black holes at this early epoch of the Universe challenges theories of the formation of galaxies and supermassive black holes. Astronomers Daniel Schwartz and Shanil Virani of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, MA observed the quasar, known as SDSSp J1306, which is 12.7 billion light years away. Since the Universe is estimated to be 13.7 billion years old, we see the quasar as it was a billion years after the Big Bang. They found that the distribution of X-rays with energy, or X-ray spectrum, is indistinguishable from that of nearby, older quasars. Likewise, the relative brightness at optical and X-ray wavelengths of SDSSp J1306 was similar to that of the nearby group of quasars. Optical observations suggest that the mass of the black hole is about a billion solar masses. Illustration of Quasar SDSSp J1306 Illustration of Quasar SDSSp J1306 Evidence of another early-epoch supermassive black hole was published previously by a team of scientists from the California Institute of Technology and the United Kingdom using the XMM-Newton X-ray satellite. They observed the quasar SDSSp J1030 at a distance of 12.8 billion light years and found essentially the same result for the X-ray spectrum as the Smithsonian scientists found for SDSSp J1306. Chandra's precise location and spectrum for SDSSp J1306 with nearly the same properties eliminate any lingering uncertainty that precocious supermassive black holes exist. "These two results seem to indicate that the way supermassive black holes produce X-rays has remained essentially the same from a very early date in the Universe," said Schwartz. "This implies that the central black hole engine in a massive galaxy was formed very soon

  11. Massive Black Hole Binary Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merritt David

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Coalescence of binary supermassive black holes (SBHs would constitute the strongest sources of gravitational waves to be observed by LISA. While the formation of binary SBHs during galaxy mergers is almost inevitable, coalescence requires that the separation between binary components first drop by a few orders of magnitude, due presumably to interaction of the binary with stars and gas in a galactic nucleus. This article reviews the observational evidence for binary SBHs and discusses how they would evolve. No completely convincing case of a bound, binary SBH has yet been found, although a handful of systems (e.g. interacting galaxies; remnants of galaxy mergers are now believed to contain two SBHs at projected separations of <~ 1kpc. N-body studies of binary evolution in gas-free galaxies have reached large enough particle numbers to reproduce the slow, “diffusive” refilling of the binary’s loss cone that is believed to characterize binary evolution in real galactic nuclei. While some of the results of these simulations - e.g. the binary hardening rate and eccentricity evolution - are strongly N-dependent, others - e.g. the “damage” inflicted by the binary on the nucleus - are not. Luminous early-type galaxies often exhibit depleted cores with masses of ~ 1-2 times the mass of their nuclear SBHs, consistent with the predictions of the binary model. Studies of the interaction of massive binaries with gas are still in their infancy, although much progress is expected in the near future. Binary coalescence has a large influence on the spins of SBHs, even for mass ratios as extreme as 10:1, and evidence of spin-flips may have been observed.

  12. CONSOLIDATION AND COMPACTION OF POWDER MIXTURES .1. BINARY-MIXTURES OF SAME PARTICLE-SIZE FRACTIONS OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF CRYSTALLINE LACTOSE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    RIEPMA, KA; LERK, CF; DEBOER, AH; BOLHUIS, GK; KUSSENDRAGER, KD

    1990-01-01

    Binary powder mixtures of four different types of crystalline lactose: alpha-lactose monohydrate, anhydrous alpha-lactose, roller-dried beta-lactose and crystalline beta-lactose, were compressed into tablets. The results showed a proportional intercorrelation of the crushing strength and internal

  13. The evolution of supermassive Population III stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haemmerlé, Lionel; Woods, T. E.; Klessen, Ralf S.; Heger, Alexander; Whalen, Daniel J.

    2018-02-01

    Supermassive primordial stars forming in atomically cooled haloes at z ˜ 15-20 are currently thought to be the progenitors of the earliest quasars in the Universe. In this picture, the star evolves under accretion rates of 0.1-1 M⊙ yr-1 until the general relativistic instability triggers its collapse to a black hole at masses of ˜105 M⊙. However, the ability of the accretion flow to sustain such high rates depends crucially on the photospheric properties of the accreting star, because its ionizing radiation could reduce or even halt accretion. Here we present new models of supermassive Population III protostars accreting at rates 0.001-10 M⊙ yr-1, computed with the GENEVA stellar evolution code including general relativistic corrections to the internal structure. We compute for the first time evolutionary tracks in the mass range M > 105 M⊙. We use the polytropic stability criterion to estimate the mass at which the collapse occurs, which has been shown to give a lower limit of the actual mass at collapse in recent hydrodynamic simulations. We find that at accretion rates higher than 0.01 M⊙ yr-1, the stars evolve as red, cool supergiants with surface temperatures below 104 K towards masses >105 M⊙. Moreover, even with the lower rates 0.001 M_{⊙} yr{^{-1}}feedback remains weak, reinforcing the case for direct collapse as the origin of the first quasars. We provide numerical tables for the surface properties of our models.

  14. Surprise: Dwarf Galaxy Harbors Supermassive Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The surprising discovery of a supermassive black hole in a small nearby galaxy has given astronomers a tantalizing look at how black holes and galaxies may have grown in the early history of the Universe. Finding a black hole a million times more massive than the Sun in a star-forming dwarf galaxy is a strong indication that supermassive black holes formed before the buildup of galaxies, the astronomers said. The galaxy, called Henize 2-10, 30 million light-years from Earth, has been studied for years, and is forming stars very rapidly. Irregularly shaped and about 3,000 light-years across (compared to 100,000 for our own Milky Way), it resembles what scientists think were some of the first galaxies to form in the early Universe. "This galaxy gives us important clues about a very early phase of galaxy evolution that has not been observed before," said Amy Reines, a Ph.D. candidate at the University of Virginia. Supermassive black holes lie at the cores of all "full-sized" galaxies. In the nearby Universe, there is a direct relationship -- a constant ratio -- between the masses of the black holes and that of the central "bulges" of the galaxies, leading them to conclude that the black holes and bulges affected each others' growth. Two years ago, an international team of astronomers found that black holes in young galaxies in the early Universe were more massive than this ratio would indicate. This, they said, was strong evidence that black holes developed before their surrounding galaxies. "Now, we have found a dwarf galaxy with no bulge at all, yet it has a supermassive black hole. This greatly strengthens the case for the black holes developing first, before the galaxy's bulge is formed," Reines said. Reines, along with Gregory Sivakoff and Kelsey Johnson of the University of Virginia and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), and Crystal Brogan of the NRAO, observed Henize 2-10 with the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array radio telescope and

  15. Never Before Seen: Two Supermassive Black Holes in Same Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-11-01

    is a prime example of a massive galaxy in which stars are forming at an exceptionally rapid rate due to a recent collision and subsequent merger of two smaller galaxies. Because of the large amount of dust and gas in such galaxies, it is difficult to peer deep into their central regions with optical telescopes. However, X-rays emanating from the galactic core can penetrate the veil of gas and dust. NGC 6240 Optical & X-ray Comparison of NGC 6240 "The detection of a binary black hole supports the idea that black holes can grow to enormous masses in the centers of galaxies by merging with other black holes," said Komossa. "This is important for understanding how galaxies form and evolve," she said. Over the course of the next few hundred million years, the two black holes in NGC 6240, which are about 3000 light years apart, will drift toward one another and merge to form an even larger supermassive black hole. Toward the end of this process an enormous burst of gravitational waves will be produced several hundred million years from now. These gravitational waves will spread through the universe and produce ripples in the fabric of space, which would appear as minute changes in the distance between any two points. NASA's planned space-based detector, LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna), will search for gravitational waves from massive black-hole mergers. These events are estimated to occur several times each year in the observable universe. "This is the first time we see a binary black hole in action, the smoking gun for something that will become a major gravitational wave burst in the future," said Hasinger. Chandra observed NGC 6240 for 10.3 hours with the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS). Other members of the team are Vadim Burwitz and Peter Predehl of the Max Planck Institute, Jelle Kaastra of the Space Research Organization Netherlands and Yasushi Ikebe of the University of Maryland in Baltimore. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala

  16. How to Build a Supermassive Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanjek, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    NASA astronomer Kim Weaver has got that sinking feeling. You know, it's that unsettling notion you get when you sift through your X-ray data and, to your surprise, find mid-sized black holes sinking toward the center of a galaxy, where they merge with others to form a single supermassive black hole. Could such a thing be true? These would be the largest mergers since America On Line bought Time-Warner, and perhaps even more violent. The process would turn a starburst galaxy inside out, making it more like a quasar host galaxy. Using the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, Weaver saw a hint of this fantastic process in a relatively nearby starburst galaxy named NGC 253 in the constellation Sculptor. She noticed that starburst galaxies - those gems set aglow in a colorful life cycle of hyperactive star birth, death, and renewal - seem to have a higher concentration of mid-mass black holes compared to other galaxies.

  17. 7Li production in bouncing supermassive stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norgaard, H.; Fricke, K.J.

    1976-01-01

    Nucleosynthesis in detailed models for bouncing supermassive stars is investigated. We consider a non-rotating 5.2 x 10 5 M(sun) and a rotating 3 x 10 6 M (sun) star and follow the time evolution of the abundances throughout the quasistatic contraction phase as well as through the implosion-explosion. Our numerical network integrations show that explosions of such objects cause predominantly the enrichment of 7 Li. Typical enhancement factors for 7 Li with respect to the 'universal' value of Cameron (1973) are of the order of 1,000, whereas those of 13 C, 15 N and 17 O are of the order of 100 or less. (orig./WL) [de

  18. Exploring Jets from a Supermassive Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-06-01

    What are the feeding and burping habits of the supermassive black holes peppering the universe? In a new study, observations of one such monster reveal more about the behavior of its powerful jets.Beams from BehemothsAcross the universe, supermassive black holes of millions to billions of solar masses lie at the centers of galaxies, gobbling up surrounding material. But not all of the gas and dust that spirals in toward a black hole is ultimately swallowed! A large fraction of it can instead be flung out into space again, in the form of enormous, powerful jets that extend for thousands or even millions of light-years in opposite directions.M87, shown in this Hubble image, is a classic example of a nearby (55 million light-years distant) supermassive black hole with a visible, collimated jet. Its counter-jet isnt seen because relativistic effects make the receding jet appear less bright. [The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA) and NASA/ESA]What causes these outflows to be tightly beamed collimated in the form of jets, rather than sprayed out in all directions? Does the pressure of the ambient medium the surrounding gas and dust that the jet is injected into play an important role? In what regions do these jets accelerate and decelerate? There are many open questions that scientists hope to understand by studying some of the active black holes with jets that live closest to us.Eyes on a Nearby GiantIn a new study led by Satomi Nakahara (The Graduate University for Advanced Studies in Japan), a team of scientists has used multifrequency Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) and Very Long Array (VLA) images to explore jets emitted from a galaxy just 100 million light-years away: NGC 4261.This galaxys (relatively) close distance as well as the fact that were viewing it largely from the side, so we can clearly see both of its polar jets allows us to observe in detail the structure and intensity of its jets as a function of their distance from the black hole. Nakahara and

  19. RECOILING SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES IN SPIN-FLIP RADIO GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, F. K.; Wang Dong; Chen Xian

    2012-01-01

    Numerical relativity simulations predict that coalescence of supermassive black hole (SMBH) binaries leads not only to a spin flip but also to a recoiling of the merger remnant SMBHs. In the literature, X-shaped radio sources are popularly suggested to be candidates for SMBH mergers with spin flip of jet-ejecting SMBHs. Here we investigate the spectral and spatial observational signatures of the recoiling SMBHs in radio sources undergoing black hole spin flip. Our results show that SMBHs in most spin-flip radio sources have mass ratio q ∼> 0.3 with a minimum possible value q min ≅ 0.05. For major mergers, the remnant SMBHs can get a kick velocity as high as 2100 km s –1 in the direction within an angle ∼< 40° relative to the spin axes of remnant SMBHs, implying that recoiling quasars are biased to be with high Doppler-shifted broad emission lines while recoiling radio galaxies are biased to large apparent spatial off-center displacements. We also calculate the distribution functions of line-of-sight velocity and apparent spatial off-center displacements for spin-flip radio sources with different apparent jet reorientation angles. Our results show that the larger the apparent jet reorientation angle is, the larger the Doppler-shifting recoiling velocity and apparent spatial off-center displacement will be. We investigate the effects of recoiling velocity on the dust torus in spin-flip radio sources and suggest that recoiling of SMBHs would lead to 'dust-poor' active galactic nuclei. Finally, we collect a sample of 19 X-shaped radio objects and for each object give the probability of detecting the predicted signatures of recoiling SMBH.

  20. Tidal stripping of stars near supermassive black holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blandford R.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In a binary system composed of a supermassive black hole and a star orbiting the hole in an equatorial, circular orbit, the stellar orbit will shrink due to the action of gravitational radiation, until the star fills its Roche lobe outside the Innermost Stable Circular Orbit (ISCO of the hole or plunges into the hole. In the former case, gas will flow through the inner Lagrange point (L1 to the hole. If this tidal stripping process happens on a time scale faster than the thermal time scale but slower than the dynamical time scale, the entropy as a function of the interior mass is conserved. The star will evolve adiabatically, and, in most cases, will recede from the hole while filling its Roche lobe. We calculate how the stellar equilibrium properties change, which determines how the stellar orbital period and mass-transfer rate change through the “Roche evolution” for various types of stars in the relativistic regime. We envisage that the mass stream eventually hits the accretion disc, where it forms a hot spot orbiting the hole and may ultimately modulate the luminosity with the stellar orbital frequency. The ultimate goal is to probe the mass and spin of the hole and provide a test of general relativity in the strong-field regime from the resultant quasi-periodic signals. The observability of such a modulation is discussed along with a possible interpretation of an intermittent 1 hour period in the X-ray emission of RE J1034+ 396.

  1. Black holes, white dwarfs and neutron stars: The physics of compact objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, S.L.; Teukolsky, S.A.

    1983-01-01

    The contents include: Star deaths and the formation of compact objects; White dwarfs; Rotation and magnetic fields; Cold equation of state above neutron drip; Pulsars; Accretion onto black holes; Supermassive stars and black holes; Appendices; and Indexes. This book discusses one aspect, compact objects, of astronomy and provides information of astrophysics or general relativity

  2. Further candidates of supermassive stars in other galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt-Kaler, Th.; Feitzinger, J.V.

    1984-01-01

    To look for other supermassive stars in other galaxies means to answer the question: what is the spectroscopic and morphological signature of such objects. The interpretation of WR sources found in other supergiant HII complexes depends basically on our picture of 30 Dor and in particular of R136a. The authors have undertaken a search of possible sites of such supermassive stars on the basis of the morphology of 30 Dor and NGC 604. (Auth.)

  3. Post-Newtonian templates for binary black-hole inspirals: the effect of the horizon fluxes and the secular change in the black-hole masses and spins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isoyama, Soichiro; Nakano, Hiroyuki

    2018-01-01

    Black holes (BHs) in an inspiraling compact binary system absorb the gravitational-wave (GW) energy and angular-momentum fluxes across their event horizons and this leads to the secular change in their masses and spins during the inspiral phase. The goal of this paper is to present ready-to-use, 3.5 post-Newtonian (PN) template families for spinning, non-precessing, binary BH inspirals in quasicircular orbits, including the 2.5 PN and 3.5 PN horizon-flux contributions as well as the correction due to the secular change in the BH masses and spins through 3.5 PN order, respectively, in phase. We show that, for binary BHs observable by Advanced LIGO with high mass ratios (larger than  ∼10) and large aligned-spins (larger than  ∼ 0.7 ), the mismatch between the frequency-domain template with and without the horizon-flux contribution is typically above the 3% mark. For (supermassive) binary BHs observed by LISA, even a moderate mass-ratios and spins can produce a similar level of the mismatch. Meanwhile, the mismatch due to the secular time variations of the BH masses and spins is well below the 1% mark in both cases, hence this is truly negligible. We also point out that neglecting the cubic-in-spin, point-particle phase term at 3.5 PN order would deteriorate the effect of BH absorption in the template.

  4. BOOSTED TIDAL DISRUPTION BY MASSIVE BLACK HOLE BINARIES DURING GALAXY MERGERS FROM THE VIEW OF N -BODY SIMULATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Shuo; Berczik, Peter; Spurzem, Rainer [National Astronomical Observatories and Key Laboratory of Computational Astrophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20A Datun Rd., Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Liu, F. K., E-mail: lishuo@nao.cas.cn [Department of Astronomy, School of Physics, Peking University, Yiheyuan Lu 5, Haidian Qu, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2017-01-10

    Supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs) are productions of the hierarchical galaxy formation model. There are many close connections between a central SMBH and its host galaxy because the former plays very important roles on galaxy formation and evolution. For this reason, the evolution of SMBHBs in merging galaxies is a fundamental challenge. Since there are many discussions about SMBHB evolution in a gas-rich environment, we focus on the quiescent galaxy, using tidal disruption (TD) as a diagnostic tool. Our study is based on a series of numerical, large particle number, direct N -body simulations for dry major mergers. According to the simulation results, the evolution can be divided into three phases. In phase I, the TD rate for two well separated SMBHs in a merging system is similar to that for a single SMBH in an isolated galaxy. After two SMBHs approach close enough to form a bound binary in phase II, the disruption rate can be enhanced by ∼2 orders of magnitude within a short time. This “boosted” disruption stage finishes after the SMBHB evolves to a compact binary system in phase III, corresponding to a reduction in disruption rate back to a level of a few times higher than in phase I. We also discuss how to correctly extrapolate our N -body simulation results to reality, and the implications of our results to observations.

  5. Astrophysical phenomena related to supermassive black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pott, Jörg-Uwe

    2006-12-01

    The thesis contains the results of my recent projects in astrophysical research. All projects aim at pushing the limits of our knowledge about the interaction between a galaxy, the fundamental building block of today's universe, and a supermassive black hole (SMBH) at its center. Over the past years a lot of observational evidence has been gathered for the current understanding, that at least a major part of the galaxies with a stellar bulge contain central SMBHs. The typical extragalactic approach consists of searching for the spectroscopic pattern of Keplerian rotation, produced by stars and gas, when orbiting a central dark mass (Kormendy & Richstone 1995). It suggests that a significant fraction of large galaxies host in their very nucleus a SMBH of millions to billions of solar masses (Kormendy & Gebhardt 2001). In the closest case, the center of our Milky Way, the most central stars, which can be imaged, were shown to move on orbits with circulation times of a few decades only, evidencing a mass and compactness of the dark counter part of the Keplerian motion, which can only be explained by a SMBH (Eckart & Genzel 1996; Ghez et al. 2000; Schödel et al. 2002). Having acknowledged the widespread existence of SMBHs the obvious next step is investigating the interaction with their environment. Although the basic property of a SMBH, which is concentrating a huge amount of mass in a ludicrously small volume defined by the Schwarzschild radius, only creates a deep gravitational trough, its existence evokes much more phenomena than simply attracting the surrounding matter. It can trigger or exacerbate star formation via tidal forces (Morris 1993). It shapes the distribution of its surrounding matter to accretion discs, which themselves release gravitational potential energy as radiation, possibly due to magnetic friction (Blandford 1995). The radiation efficiency of such active galactic nuclei (AGN) can become roughly 100 times more efficient than atomic nuclear

  6. Investigating Dark Energy with Black Hole Binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mersini-Houghton, Laura; Kelleher, Adam

    2009-01-01

    The accelerated expansion of the universe is ascribed to the existence of dark energy. Black holes accrete dark energy. The accretion induces a mass change proportional to the energy density and pressure of the background dark energy fluid. The time scale during which the mass of black holes changes considerably is long relative to the age of the universe, thus beyond detection possibilities. We propose to take advantage of the modified black hole masses for exploring the equation of state w[z] of dark energy, by investigating the evolution of supermassive black hole binaries on a dark energy background. Deriving the signatures of dark energy accretion on the evolution of binaries, we find that dark energy imprints on the emitted gravitational radiation and on the changes in the orbital radius of the binary can be within detection limits for certain supermassive black hole binaries. This talk describes how binaries can provide a useful tool in obtaining complementary information on the nature of dark energy.

  7. Post-Newtonian Dynamical Modeling of Supermassive Black Holes in Galactic-scale Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rantala, Antti; Pihajoki, Pauli; Johansson, Peter H.; Lahén, Natalia; Sawala, Till [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Gustaf Hällströmin katu 2a (Finland); Naab, Thorsten, E-mail: antti.rantala@helsinki.fi [Max-Planck-Insitut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85748, Garching (Germany)

    2017-05-01

    We present KETJU, a new extension of the widely used smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulation code GADGET-3. The key feature of the code is the inclusion of algorithmically regularized regions around every supermassive black hole (SMBH). This allows for simultaneously following global galactic-scale dynamical and astrophysical processes, while solving the dynamics of SMBHs, SMBH binaries, and surrounding stellar systems at subparsec scales. The KETJU code includes post-Newtonian terms in the equations of motions of the SMBHs, which enables a new SMBH merger criterion based on the gravitational wave coalescence timescale, pushing the merger separation of SMBHs down to ∼0.005 pc. We test the performance of our code by comparison to NBODY7 and rVINE. We set up dynamically stable multicomponent merger progenitor galaxies to study the SMBH binary evolution during galaxy mergers. In our simulation sample the SMBH binaries do not suffer from the final-parsec problem, which we attribute to the nonspherical shape of the merger remnants. For bulge-only models, the hardening rate decreases with increasing resolution, whereas for models that in addition include massive dark matter halos, the SMBH binary hardening rate becomes practically independent of the mass resolution of the stellar bulge. The SMBHs coalesce on average 200 Myr after the formation of the SMBH binary. However, small differences in the initial SMBH binary eccentricities can result in large differences in the SMBH coalescence times. Finally, we discuss the future prospects of KETJU, which allows for a straightforward inclusion of gas physics in the simulations.

  8. Supermassive black holes in the distant universe

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    This book provides a unique overview of recent developments in studies of AGN and the evolution of supermassive black holes, with particular emphasis on the revolutionary results from the Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray Observatories Each chapter is a comprehensive analysis and review by an expert in the field that should provide easy access to the subject The chapters progressively follow a single theme---the mapping of the accretion history of the universe---from both theoretical and observational points of view The chapters are written at a level that should be accessible to graduate students and non-specialists, yet the depth and innovation of the analyses will also make it highly informative to the specialist The topical nature of the subject matter means that the material presented in this book is not well covered in the present literature Moreover, the depth and interconnectedness of the chapters ensures that the coverage is much more comprehensive and informative than a conference proceeding would be The...

  9. Detectability of Gravitational Waves from High-Redshift Binaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado, Pablo A; Lasky, Paul D; Thrane, Eric; Zhu, Xingjiang; Mandel, Ilya; Sesana, Alberto

    2016-03-11

    Recent nondetection of gravitational-wave backgrounds from pulsar timing arrays casts further uncertainty on the evolution of supermassive black hole binaries. We study the capabilities of current gravitational-wave observatories to detect individual binaries and demonstrate that, contrary to conventional wisdom, some are, in principle, detectable throughout the Universe. In particular, a binary with rest-frame mass ≳10^{10}M_{⊙} can be detected by current timing arrays at arbitrarily high redshifts. The same claim will apply for less massive binaries with more sensitive future arrays. As a consequence, future searches for nanohertz gravitational waves could be expanded to target evolving high-redshift binaries. We calculate the maximum distance at which binaries can be observed with pulsar timing arrays and other detectors, properly accounting for redshift and using realistic binary waveforms.

  10. Brightening of an accretion disk due to viscous dissipation of gravitational waves during the coalescence of supermassive black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocsis, Bence; Loeb, Abraham

    2008-07-25

    Mergers of supermassive black hole binaries release peak power of up to approximately 10(57) erg s(-1) in gravitational waves (GWs). As the GWs propagate through ambient gas, they induce shear and a small fraction of their power is dissipated through viscosity. The dissipated heat appears as electromagnetic (EM) radiation, providing a prompt EM counterpart to the GW signal. For thin accretion disks, the GW heating rate exceeds the accretion power at distances farther than approximately 10(3) Schwarzschild radii, independently of the accretion rate and viscosity coefficient.

  11. LISA observations of supermassive black holes: Parameter estimation using full post-Newtonian inspiral waveforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trias, Miquel; Sintes, Alicia M.

    2008-01-01

    We study parameter estimation of supermassive black hole binary systems in the final stage of inspiral using the full post-Newtonian gravitational waveforms. We restrict our analysis to systems in circular orbit with negligible spins, in the mass range 10 8 M · -10 5 M · , and compare the results with those arising from the commonly used restricted post-Newtonian approximation. The conclusions of this work are particularly important with regard to the astrophysical reach of future Laser Interferometer Space Antenna measurements. Our analysis clearly shows that modeling the inspiral with the full post-Newtonian waveform, not only extends the reach to higher mass systems, but also improves in general the parameter estimation. In particular, there are remarkable improvements in angular resolution and distance measurement for systems with a total mass higher than 5x10 6 M · , as well as a large improvement in the mass determination

  12. Interacting binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggleton, P.P.; Pringle, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    This volume contains 15 review articles in the field of binary stars. The subjects reviewed span considerably, from the shortest period of interacting binaries to the longest, symbiotic stars. Also included are articles on Algols, X-ray binaries and Wolf-Rayet stars (single and binary). Contents: Preface. List of Participants. Activity of Contact Binary Systems. Wolf-Rayet Stars and Binarity. Symbiotic Stars. Massive X-ray Binaries. Stars that go Hump in the Night: The SU UMa Stars. Interacting Binaries - Summing Up

  13. The Supermassive Black Hole—Galaxy Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Andrew

    2014-09-01

    The observed scaling relations imply that supermassive black holes (SMBH) and their host galaxies evolve together. Near-Eddington winds from the SMBH accretion discs explain many aspects of this connection. The wind Eddington factor should be in the range ˜1-30. A factor give black hole winds with velocities v˜0.1 c, observable in X-rays, just as seen in the most extreme ultrafast outflows (UFOs). Higher Eddington factors predict slower and less ionized winds, observable in the UV, as in BAL QSOs. In all cases the wind must shock against the host interstellar gas and it is plausible that these shocks should cool efficiently. There is detailed observational evidence for this in some UFOs. The wind sweeps up the interstellar gas into a thin shell and propels it outwards. For SMBH masses below a certain critical ( M- σ) value, all these outflows eventually stall and fall back, as the Eddington thrust of the wind is too weak to drive the gas to large radii. But once the SMBH mass reaches the critical M- σ value the global character of the outflow changes completely. The wind shock is no longer efficiently cooled, and the resulting thermal expansion drives the interstellar gas far from the black hole, which is unlikely to grow significantly further. Simple estimates of the maximum stellar bulge mass M b allowed by self-limited star formation show that the SMBH mass is typically about 10-3 M b at this point, in line with observation. The expansion-driven outflow reaches speeds v out≃1200 km s-1 and drives rates in cool (molecular) gas, giving a typical outflow mechanical energy L mech≃0.05 L Edd, where L Edd is the Eddington luminosity of the central SMBH. This is again in line with observation. These massive outflows may be what makes galaxies become red and dead, and can have several other potentially observable effects. In particular they have the right properties to enrich the intergalactic gas with metals. Our current picture of SMBH-galaxy coevolution is

  14. The Formation of Supermassive Black Holes in the First Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleicher, Dominik R. G.; Banerjee, Robi; Sur, Sharanya; Glover, Simon C. O.; Spaans, Marco; Klessen, Ralf S.

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the formation of supermassive black holes in the early universe, and how to probe their subsequent evolution with the upcoming mm/sub-mm telescope ALMA. We first focus on the chemical and radiative conditions for black hole formation, in particular considering radiation trapping and

  15. The Formation of Supermassive Black Holes in the First Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleicher, Dominik R. G.; Banerjee, Robi; Sur, Sharanya; Glover, Simon C. O.; Spaans, Marco; Klessen, Ralf S.

    We discuss the formation of supermassive black holes in the early universe, and how to probe their subsequent evolution with the upcoming mm/sub-mm telescope ALMA. We first focus on the chemical and radiative conditions for black hole formation, in particular considering radiation trapping and

  16. Binary compact object inspiral: Detection expectations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... events/yr. These predictions, for the first time, bring the expectations for DNS detections by initial LIGO .... our galactic event rate out to the local group. ..... VK thanks her collaborators in the work reviewed here: C Kim, P Grandclément,. C Ihm ...

  17. Tidal disruption of stars by supermassive black holes: The X-ray view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komossa S.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The tidal disruption of stars by supermassive black holes produces luminous soft X-ray accretion flares in otherwise inactive galaxies. First events have been discovered in X-rays with the ROSAT observatory, and have more recently been detected with XMM-Newton, Chandra and Swift, and at other wavelengths. In X-rays, they typically appear as very soft, exceptionally luminous outbursts of radiation, which decline consistent with L ∝ t−5/3 on the timescale of months to years. They reach total amplitudes of decline up to factors 1000–6000 more than a decade after their initial high-states, and in low-state, their host galaxies are essentially X-ray inactive, optically inactive, and radio inactive. X-ray luminous tidal disruption events (TDEs represent a powerful new probe of accretion physics near the event horizon, and of relativistic effects. TDEs offer a new way of estimating black hole spin, and they are signposts of supermassive binary black holes and recoiling black holes. Once discovered in the thousands in upcoming sky surveys, their rates will probe stellar dynamics in distant galaxies, and they will uncover the – so far elusive – population of intermediate mass black holes in the universe, if they do exist. Further, the reprocessing of the flare into IR, optical and UV emission lines provides us with multiple new diagnostics of the properties of any gaseous material in the vicinity of the black hole (including the disrupted star itself and in the host galaxy. First candidate events of this kind have been reported recently.

  18. The Milky Way's Supermassive Black Hole: How Good a Case Is It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckart, Andreas; Hüttemann, Andreas; Kiefer, Claus; Britzen, Silke; Zajaček, Michal; Lämmerzahl, Claus; Stöckler, Manfred; Valencia-S, Monica; Karas, Vladimir; García-Marín, Macarena

    2017-05-01

    The compact and, with {˜ }4.3± 0.3× 10^6 M_{\\odot }, very massive object located at the center of the Milky Way is currently the very best candidate for a supermassive black hole (SMBH) in our immediate vicinity. The strongest evidence for this is provided by measurements of stellar orbits, variable X-ray emission, and strongly variable polarized near-infrared emission from the location of the radio source Sagittarius A* (SgrA*) in the middle of the central stellar cluster. Simultaneous near-infrared and X-ray observations of SgrA* have revealed insights into the emission mechanisms responsible for the powerful near-infrared and X-ray flares from within a few tens to one hundred Schwarzschild radii of such a putative SMBH. If SgrA* is indeed a SMBH it will, in projection onto the sky, have the largest event horizon and will certainly be the first and most important target for very long baseline interferometry observations currently being prepared by the event horizon telescope (EHT). These observations in combination with the infrared interferometry experiment GRAVITY at the very large telescope interferometer and other experiments across the electromagnetic spectrum might yield proof for the presence of a black hole at the center of the Milky Way. The large body of evidence continues to discriminate the identification of SgrA* as a SMBH from alternative possibilities. It is, however, unclear when the ever mounting evidence for SgrA* being associated with a SMBH will suffice as a convincing proof. Additional compelling evidence may come from future gravitational wave observatories. This manuscript reviews the observational facts, theoretical grounds and conceptual aspects for the case of SgrA* being a black hole. We treat theory and observations in the framework of the philosophical discussions about "(anti)realism and underdetermination", as this line of arguments allows us to describe the situation in observational astrophysics with respect to supermassive

  19. Can superconducting cosmic strings piercing seed black holes generate supermassive black holes in the early universe?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lake, Matthew J. [The Institute for Fundamental Study, ' ' The Tah Poe Academia Institute' ' , Naresuan University, Phitsanulok (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Ministry of Education, Bangkok (Thailand); Harko, Tiberiu [Department of Physics, Babes-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Department of Mathematics, University College London (United Kingdom)

    2017-10-15

    The discovery of a large number of supermassive black holes (SMBH) at redshifts z > 6, when the Universe was only 900 million years old, raises the question of how such massive compact objects could form in a cosmologically short time interval. Each of the standard scenarios proposed, involving rapid accretion of seed black holes or black hole mergers, faces severe theoretical difficulties in explaining the short-time formation of supermassive objects. In this work we propose an alternative scenario for the formation of SMBH in the early Universe, in which energy transfer from superconducting cosmic strings piercing small seed black holes is the main physical process leading to rapid mass increase. As a toy model, the accretion rate of a seed black hole pierced by two antipodal strings carrying constant current is considered. Using an effective action approach, which phenomenologically incorporates a large class of superconducting string models, we estimate the minimum current required to form SMBH with masses of order M = 2 x 10{sup 9} M {sub CircleDot} by z = 7.085. This corresponds to the mass of the central black hole powering the quasar ULAS J112001.48+064124.3 and is taken as a test case scenario for early-epoch SMBH formation. For GUT scale strings, the required fractional increase in the string energy density, due to the presence of the current, is of order 10{sup -7}, so that their existence remains consistent with current observational bounds on the string tension. In addition, we consider an ''exotic'' scenario, in which an SMBH is generated when a small seed black hole is pierced by a higher-dimensional F-string, predicted by string theory. We find that both topological defect strings and fundamental strings are able to carry currents large enough to generate early-epoch SMBH via our proposed mechanism. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Variance in binary stellar population synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Katelyn; Larson, Shane L.

    2016-03-01

    In the years preceding LISA, Milky Way compact binary population simulations can be used to inform the science capabilities of the mission. Galactic population simulation efforts generally focus on high fidelity models that require extensive computational power to produce a single simulated population for each model. Each simulated population represents an incomplete sample of the functions governing compact binary evolution, thus introducing variance from one simulation to another. We present a rapid Monte Carlo population simulation technique that can simulate thousands of populations in less than a week, thus allowing a full exploration of the variance associated with a binary stellar evolution model.

  1. Relativistic Binaries in Globular Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Benacquista

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Galactic globular clusters are old, dense star systems typically containing 10^4 – 10^6 stars. As an old population of stars, globular clusters contain many collapsed and degenerate objects. As a dense population of stars, globular clusters are the scene of many interesting close dynamical interactions between stars. These dynamical interactions can alter the evolution of individual stars and can produce tight binary systems containing one or two compact objects. In this review, we discuss theoretical models of globular cluster evolution and binary evolution, techniques for simulating this evolution that leads to relativistic binaries, and current and possible future observational evidence for this population. Our discussion of globular cluster evolution will focus on the processes that boost the production of tight binary systems and the subsequent interaction of these binaries that can alter the properties of both bodies and can lead to exotic objects. Direct N-body integrations and Fokker–Planck simulations of the evolution of globular clusters that incorporate tidal interactions and lead to predictions of relativistic binary populations are also discussed. We discuss the current observational evidence for cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars, and low-mass X-ray binaries as well as possible future detection of relativistic binaries with gravitational radiation.

  2. On the Maximum Mass of Accreting Primordial Supermassive Stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, T. E.; Heger, Alexander [Monash Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia); Whalen, Daniel J. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Dennis Sciama Building, Portsmouth PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Haemmerlé, Lionel; Klessen, Ralf S. [Universität Heidelberg, Zentrum für Astronomie, Institut für Theoretische. Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-06-10

    Supermassive primordial stars are suspected to be the progenitors of the most massive quasars at z ∼ 6. Previous studies of such stars were either unable to resolve hydrodynamical timescales or considered stars in isolation, not in the extreme accretion flows in which they actually form. Therefore, they could not self-consistently predict their final masses at collapse, or those of the resulting supermassive black hole seeds, but rather invoked comparison to simple polytropic models. Here, we systematically examine the birth, evolution, and collapse of accreting, non-rotating supermassive stars under accretion rates of 0.01–10 M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} using the stellar evolution code Kepler . Our approach includes post-Newtonian corrections to the stellar structure and an adaptive nuclear network and can transition to following the hydrodynamic evolution of supermassive stars after they encounter the general relativistic instability. We find that this instability triggers the collapse of the star at masses of 150,000–330,000 M {sub ⊙} for accretion rates of 0.1–10 M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}, and that the final mass of the star scales roughly logarithmically with the rate. The structure of the star, and thus its stability against collapse, is sensitive to the treatment of convection and the heat content of the outer accreted envelope. Comparison with other codes suggests differences here may lead to small deviations in the evolutionary state of the star as a function of time, that worsen with accretion rate. Since the general relativistic instability leads to the immediate death of these stars, our models place an upper limit on the masses of the first quasars at birth.

  3. The Cosmogony of Super-Massive Black Holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duschl, Wolfgang J; Strittmatter, Peter A

    2012-01-01

    We summarize our recent results on the evolution of super-massive black holes in the cores of galaxies. Our models are based on the viscous, Eddington-limited evolution of self-gravitating accretion disks. We find that, within this framework, one can explain the growth time scales and the luminosities of individual objects as well as the variation of these quantities for AGN with different black hole masses.

  4. Interacting binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Shore, S N; van den Heuvel, EPJ

    1994-01-01

    This volume contains lecture notes presented at the 22nd Advanced Course of the Swiss Society for Astrophysics and Astronomy. The contributors deal with symbiotic stars, cataclysmic variables, massive binaries and X-ray binaries, in an attempt to provide a better understanding of stellar evolution.

  5. Massive binaries in the vicinity of Sgr A*

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfuhl, O.; Gillessen, S.; Genzel, R.; Eisenhauer, F.; Fritz, T. K.; Ott, T. [Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Alexander, T. [Faculty of Physics, Weizmann Institute of Science, P.O. Box 26, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Martins, F., E-mail: pfuhl@mpe.mpg.de [LUPM, Université Montpelier 2, CNRS, Place Eugéne Bataillon, F-34095, Montpellier (France)

    2014-02-20

    A long-term spectroscopic and photometric survey of the most luminous and massive stars in the vicinity of the supermassive black hole Sgr A* revealed two new binaries: a long-period Ofpe/WN9 binary, IRS 16NE, with a modest eccentricity of 0.3 and a period of 224 days, and an eclipsing Wolf-Rayet binary with a period of 2.3 days. Together with the already identified binary IRS 16SW, there are now three confirmed OB/WR binaries in the inner 0.2 pc of the Galactic center. Using radial velocity change upper limits, we were able to constrain the spectroscopic binary fraction in the Galactic center to F{sub SB}=0.30{sub −0.21}{sup +0.34} at a confidence level of 95%, a massive binary fraction close to that observed in dense clusters. The fraction of eclipsing binaries with photometric amplitudes Δm > 0.4 is F{sub EB}{sup GC}=3%±2%, which is consistent with local OB star clusters (F {sub EB} = 1%). Overall, the Galactic center binary fraction seems to be similar to the binary fraction in comparable young clusters.

  6. Relaxation near Supermassive Black Holes Driven by Nuclear Spiral Arms: Anisotropic Hypervelocity Stars, S-stars, and Tidal Disruption Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamers, Adrian S. [Institute for Advanced Study, School of Natural Sciences, Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Perets, Hagai B., E-mail: hamers@ias.edu [Technion—Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2017-09-10

    Nuclear spiral arms are small-scale transient spiral structures found in the centers of galaxies. Similarly to their galactic-scale counterparts, nuclear spiral arms can perturb the orbits of stars. In the case of the Galactic center (GC), these perturbations can affect the orbits of stars and binaries in a region extending to several hundred parsecs around the supermassive black hole (SMBH), causing diffusion in orbital energy and angular momentum. This diffusion process can drive stars and binaries to close approaches with the SMBH, disrupting single stars in tidal disruption events (TDEs), or disrupting binaries, leaving a star tightly bound to the SMBH and an unbound star escaping the galaxy, i.e., a hypervelocity star (HVS). Here, we consider diffusion by nuclear spiral arms in galactic nuclei, specifically the Milky Way GC. We determine nuclear-spiral-arm-driven diffusion rates using test-particle integrations and compute disruption rates. Our TDE rates are up to 20% higher compared to relaxation by single stars. For binaries, the enhancement is up to a factor of ∼100, and our rates are comparable to the observed numbers of HVSs and S-stars. Our scenario is complementary to relaxation driven by massive perturbers. In addition, our rates depend on the inclination of the binary with respect to the Galactic plane. Therefore, our scenario provides a novel potential source for the observed anisotropic distribution of HVSs. Nuclear spiral arms may also be important for accelerating the coalescence of binary SMBHs and for supplying nuclear star clusters with stars and gas.

  7. Social stars: Modeling the interactive lives of stars in dense clusters and binary systems in the era of time domain astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Morgan Elowe

    This thesis uses computational modeling to study of phases of dramatic interaction that intersperse stellar lifetimes. In galactic centers stars trace dangerously wandering orbits dictated by the combined gravitational force of a central, supermassive black hole and all of the surrounding stars. In binary systems, stars' evolution -- which causes their radii to increase substantially -- can bring initially non-interacting systems into contact. Moments of strong stellar interaction transform stars, their subsequent evolution, and the stellar environments they inhabit. In tidal disruption events, a star is partially or completely destroyed as tidal forces from a supermassive black hole overwhelm the star's self gravity. A portion of the stellar debris falls back to the black hole powering a luminous flare as it accretes. This thesis studies the relative event rates and properties of tidal disruption events for stars across the stellar evolutionary spectrum. Tidal disruptions of giant stars occur with high specific frequency; these objects' extended envelopes make them vulnerable to disruption. More-compact white dwarf stars are tidally disrupted relatively rarely. Their transients are also of very different duration and luminosity. Giant star disruptions power accretion flares with timescales of tens to hundreds of years; white dwarf disruption flares take hours to days. White dwarf tidal interactions can additionally trigger thermonuclear burning and lead to transients with signatures similar to type I supernovae. In binary star systems, a phase of hydrodynamic interaction called a common envelope episode occurs when one star evolves to swallow its companion. Dragged by the surrounding gas, the companion star spirals through the envelope to tighter orbits. This thesis studies accretion and flow morphologies during this phase. Density gradients across the gravitationally-focussed material lead to a strong angular momentum barrier to accretion during common envelope

  8. Trojan Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, K. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Jupiter Trojans, in the context of giant planet migration models, can be thought of as an extension of the small body populations found beyond Neptune in the Kuiper Belt. Binaries are a distinctive feature of small body populations in the Kuiper Belt with an especially high fraction apparent among the brightest Cold Classicals. The binary fraction, relative sizes, and separations in the dynamically excited populations (Scattered, Resonant) reflects processes that may have eroded a more abundant initial population. This trend continues in the Centaurs and Trojans where few binaries have been found. We review new evidence including a third resolved Trojan binary and lightcurve studies to understand how the Trojans are related to the small body populations that originated in the outer protoplanetary disk.

  9. Survival of planets around shrinking stellar binaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Diego J; Lai, Dong

    2015-07-28

    The discovery of transiting circumbinary planets by the Kepler mission suggests that planets can form efficiently around binary stars. None of the stellar binaries currently known to host planets has a period shorter than 7 d, despite the large number of eclipsing binaries found in the Kepler target list with periods shorter than a few days. These compact binaries are believed to have evolved from wider orbits into their current configurations via the so-called Lidov-Kozai migration mechanism, in which gravitational perturbations from a distant tertiary companion induce large-amplitude eccentricity oscillations in the binary, followed by orbital decay and circularization due to tidal dissipation in the stars. Here we explore the orbital evolution of planets around binaries undergoing orbital decay by this mechanism. We show that planets may survive and become misaligned from their host binary, or may develop erratic behavior in eccentricity, resulting in their consumption by the stars or ejection from the system as the binary decays. Our results suggest that circumbinary planets around compact binaries could still exist, and we offer predictions as to what their orbital configurations should be like.

  10. PAIRING OF SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES IN UNEQUAL-MASS GALAXY MERGERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callegari, Simone; Mayer, Lucio; Kazantzidis, Stelios; Colpi, Monica; Governato, Fabio; Quinn, Thomas; Wadsley, James

    2009-01-01

    We examine the pairing process of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) down to scales of 20-100 pc using a set of N-body/SPH simulations of binary mergers of disk galaxies with mass ratios of 1:4 and 1:10. Our numerical experiments are designed to represent merger events occurring at various cosmic epochs. The initial conditions of the encounters are consistent with the ΛCDM paradigm of structure formation, and the simulations include the effects of radiative cooling, star formation (SF), and supernovae feedback. We find that the pairing of SMBHs depends sensitively on the amount of baryonic mass preserved in the center of the companion galaxies during the last phases of the merger. In particular, due to the combination of gasdynamics and SF, we find that a pair of SMBHs can form efficiently in 1:10 minor mergers, provided that galaxies are relatively gas-rich (gas fractions of 30% of the disk mass) and that the mergers occur at relatively high redshift (z ∼ 3), when dynamical friction timescales are shorter. Since 1:10 mergers are most common events during the assembly of galaxies, and mergers are more frequent at high redshift when galaxies are also more gas-rich, our results have positive implications for future gravitational wave experiments such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna.

  11. Cold, clumpy accretion onto an active supermassive black hole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Grant R; Oonk, J B Raymond; Combes, Françoise; Salomé, Philippe; O'Dea, Christopher P; Baum, Stefi A; Voit, G Mark; Donahue, Megan; McNamara, Brian R; Davis, Timothy A; McDonald, Michael A; Edge, Alastair C; Clarke, Tracy E; Galván-Madrid, Roberto; Bremer, Malcolm N; Edwards, Louise O V; Fabian, Andrew C; Hamer, Stephen; Li, Yuan; Maury, Anaëlle; Russell, Helen R; Quillen, Alice C; Urry, C Megan; Sanders, Jeremy S; Wise, Michael W

    2016-06-09

    Supermassive black holes in galaxy centres can grow by the accretion of gas, liberating energy that might regulate star formation on galaxy-wide scales. The nature of the gaseous fuel reservoirs that power black hole growth is nevertheless largely unconstrained by observations, and is instead routinely simplified as a smooth, spherical inflow of very hot gas. Recent theory and simulations instead predict that accretion can be dominated by a stochastic, clumpy distribution of very cold molecular clouds--a departure from the 'hot mode' accretion model--although unambiguous observational support for this prediction remains elusive. Here we report observations that reveal a cold, clumpy accretion flow towards a supermassive black hole fuel reservoir in the nucleus of the Abell 2597 Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG), a nearby (redshift z = 0.0821) giant elliptical galaxy surrounded by a dense halo of hot plasma. Under the right conditions, thermal instabilities produce a rain of cold clouds that fall towards the galaxy's centre, sustaining star formation amid a kiloparsec-scale molecular nebula that is found at its core. The observations show that these cold clouds also fuel black hole accretion, revealing 'shadows' cast by the molecular clouds as they move inward at about 300 kilometres per second towards the active supermassive black hole, which serves as a bright backlight. Corroborating evidence from prior observations of warmer atomic gas at extremely high spatial resolution, along with simple arguments based on geometry and probability, indicate that these clouds are within the innermost hundred parsecs of the black hole, and falling closer towards it.

  12. Formation of primordial supermassive stars by rapid mass accretion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosokawa, Takashi; Yoshida, Naoki [Department of Physics and Research Center for the Early Universe, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Yorke, Harold W. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Inayoshi, Kohei; Omukai, Kazuyuki, E-mail: takashi.hosokawa@phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: hosokwtk@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2013-12-01

    Supermassive stars (SMSs) forming via very rapid mass accretion ( M-dot {sub ∗}≳0.1 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}) could be precursors of supermassive black holes observed beyond a redshift of about six. Extending our previous work, here we study the evolution of primordial stars growing under such rapid mass accretion until the stellar mass reaches 10{sup 4–5} M {sub ☉}. Our stellar evolution calculations show that a star becomes supermassive while passing through the 'supergiant protostar' stage, whereby the star has a very bloated envelope and a contracting inner core. The stellar radius increases monotonically with the stellar mass until ≅ 100 AU for M {sub *} ≳ 10{sup 4} M {sub ☉}, after which the star begins to slowly contract. Because of the large radius, the effective temperature is always less than 10{sup 4} K during rapid accretion. The accreting material is thus almost completely transparent to the stellar radiation. Only for M {sub *} ≳ 10{sup 5} M {sub ☉} can stellar UV feedback operate and disturb the mass accretion flow. We also examine the pulsation stability of accreting SMSs, showing that the pulsation-driven mass loss does not prevent stellar mass growth. Observational signatures of bloated SMSs should be detectable with future observational facilities such as the James Webb Space Telescope. Our results predict that an inner core of the accreting SMS should suffer from the general relativistic instability soon after the stellar mass exceeds 10{sup 5} M {sub ☉}. An extremely massive black hole should form after the collapse of the inner core.

  13. Event-horizon-scale structure in the supermassive black hole candidate at the Galactic Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doeleman, Sheperd S; Weintroub, Jonathan; Rogers, Alan E E; Plambeck, Richard; Freund, Robert; Tilanus, Remo P J; Friberg, Per; Ziurys, Lucy M; Moran, James M; Corey, Brian; Young, Ken H; Smythe, Daniel L; Titus, Michael; Marrone, Daniel P; Cappallo, Roger J; Bock, Douglas C-J; Bower, Geoffrey C; Chamberlin, Richard; Davis, Gary R; Krichbaum, Thomas P; Lamb, James; Maness, Holly; Niell, Arthur E; Roy, Alan; Strittmatter, Peter; Werthimer, Daniel; Whitney, Alan R; Woody, David

    2008-09-04

    The cores of most galaxies are thought to harbour supermassive black holes, which power galactic nuclei by converting the gravitational energy of accreting matter into radiation. Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*), the compact source of radio, infrared and X-ray emission at the centre of the Milky Way, is the closest example of this phenomenon, with an estimated black hole mass that is 4,000,000 times that of the Sun. A long-standing astronomical goal is to resolve structures in the innermost accretion flow surrounding Sgr A*, where strong gravitational fields will distort the appearance of radiation emitted near the black hole. Radio observations at wavelengths of 3.5 mm and 7 mm have detected intrinsic structure in Sgr A*, but the spatial resolution of observations at these wavelengths is limited by interstellar scattering. Here we report observations at a wavelength of 1.3 mm that set a size of 37(+16)(-10) microarcseconds on the intrinsic diameter of Sgr A*. This is less than the expected apparent size of the event horizon of the presumed black hole, suggesting that the bulk of Sgr A* emission may not be centred on the black hole, but arises in the surrounding accretion flow.

  14. Measuring the Innermost Stable Circular Orbits of Supermassive Black Holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chartas, G.; Zalesky, L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Charleston, Charleston, SC 29424 (United States); Krawczynski, H. [Physics Department and McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences, Washington University in St. Louis, 1 Brookings Drive, CB 1105, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Kochanek, C. S. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Dai, X. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Morgan, C. W.; Mosquera, A., E-mail: chartasg@cofc.edu [Physics Department, United States Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD 21403 (United States)

    2017-03-01

    We present a promising new technique, the g -distribution method, for measuring the inclination angle ( i ), the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO), and the spin of a supermassive black hole. The g -distribution method uses measurements of the energy shifts in the relativistic iron line emitted by the accretion disk of a supermassive black hole due to microlensing by stars in a foreground galaxy relative to the g -distribution shifts predicted from microlensing caustic calculations. We apply the method to the gravitationally lensed quasars RX J1131–1231 ( z {sub s} = 0.658, z {sub l} = 0.295), QJ 0158–4325 ( z {sub s} = 1.294, z {sub l} = 0.317), and SDSS 1004+4112 ( z {sub s} = 1.734, z {sub l} = 0.68). For RX J1131−1231, our initial results indicate that r {sub ISCO} ≲ 8.5 gravitational radii ( r {sub g}) and i ≳ 55° (99% confidence level). We detect two shifted Fe lines in several observations, as predicted in our numerical simulations of caustic crossings. The current Δ E distribution of RX J1131–1231 is sparsely sampled, but further X-ray monitoring of RX J1131–1231 and other lensed quasars will provide improved constraints on the inclination angles, ISCO radii, and spins of the black holes of distant quasars.

  15. Ram-pressure feeding of supermassive black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggianti, Bianca M; Jaffé, Yara L; Moretti, Alessia; Gullieuszik, Marco; Radovich, Mario; Tonnesen, Stephanie; Fritz, Jacopo; Bettoni, Daniela; Vulcani, Benedetta; Fasano, Giovanni; Bellhouse, Callum; Hau, George; Omizzolo, Alessandro

    2017-08-16

    When a supermassive black hole at the centre of a galaxy accretes matter, it gives rise to a highly energetic phenomenon: an active galactic nucleus. Numerous physical processes have been proposed to account for the funnelling of gas towards the galactic centre to feed the black hole. There are also several physical processes that can remove gas from a galaxy, one of which is ram-pressure stripping by the hot gas that fills the space between galaxies in galaxy clusters. Here we report that six out of a sample of seven 'jellyfish' galaxies-galaxies with long 'tentacles' of material that extend for dozens of kiloparsecs beyond the galactic disks-host an active nucleus, and two of them also have galactic-scale ionization cones. The high incidence of nuclear activity among heavily stripped jellyfish galaxies may be due to ram pressure causing gas to flow towards the centre and triggering the activity, or to an enhancement of the stripping caused by energy injection from the active nucleus, or both. Our analysis of the galactic position and velocity relative to the cluster strongly supports the first hypothesis, and puts forward ram pressure as another possible mechanism for feeding the central supermassive black hole with gas.

  16. Dynamical Formation and Merger of Binary Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    The advent of gravitational wave (GW) astronomy began with Advanced LIGO's 2015 discovery of GWs from coalescing black hole (BH) binaries. GW astronomy holds great promise for testing general relativity, but also for investigating open astrophysical questions not amenable to traditional electromagnetic observations. One such question concerns the origin of stellar mass BH binaries in the universe: do these form primarily from evolution of isolated binaries of massive stars, or do they form through more exotic dynamical channels? The best studied dynamical formation channel involves multibody interactions of BHs and stars in dense globular cluster environments, but many other dynamical scenarios have recently been proposed, ranging from the Kozai effect in hierarchical triple systems to BH binary formation in the outskirts of Toomre-unstable accretion disks surrounding supermassive black holes. The BH binaries formed through these processes will have different distributions of observable parameters (e.g. mass ratios, spins) than BH binaries formed through the evolution of isolated binary stars. In my talk I will overview these and other dynamical formation scenarios, and summarize the key observational tests that will enable Advanced LIGO or other future detectors to determine what formation pathway creates the majority of binary BHs in the universe. NCS thanks NASA, which has funded his work through Einstein postdoctoral grant PF5-160145.

  17. Tracing Supermassive Black Hole Growth with Offset and Dual AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comerford, Julia

    The growth of supermassive black holes is tied to the evolution of their host galaxies, but we are still missing a fundamental understanding of how and when supermassive black holes build up their mass. Black hole mass growth can be traced when the black holes are powered as active galactic nuclei (AGN), and AGN activity can be triggered by the stochastic accretion of gas or by gas inflows driven by galaxy mergers. Galaxy merger simulations make a series of predictions about the AGN that are triggered by mergers: (1) major mergers preferentially trigger higher-luminosity AGN, (2) minor mergers more often trigger AGN activity in one supermassive black hole while major mergers more often trigger AGN activity in both black holes in a merger, and (3) black hole mass growth peaks when the black holes approach the center (theory have been limited by the difficulty in defining a clean observational sample of AGN in galaxy mergers and the observational challenge of spatially resolving two AGN with small (dual AGN as a new observational tool that can be used to address how and when supermassive black hole mass growth occurs. A merger of two galaxies brings two supermassive black holes together, and the two black holes exist at kpc-scale separations for 100 Myr before ultimately merging. While the black holes are at kpc-scale separations, they are known as dual AGN when both of them are fueled as AGN and offset AGN when only one is fueled as an AGN. Since offset and dual AGN only occur in galaxy mergers, by their very definition, they provide a clean observational sample of black hole mass growth in galaxy mergers. The small, kpc-scale separations of offset and dual AGN also enable an observational test of black hole fueling near the centers of merger-remnant galaxies. The full potential of offset and dual AGN for such studies of black hole mass growth has not yet been realized, due to the small number of such systems known. To date, only 13 confirmed offset and dual AGN are

  18. Flip-flopping binary black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lousto, Carlos O; Healy, James

    2015-04-10

    We study binary spinning black holes to display the long term individual spin dynamics. We perform a full numerical simulation starting at an initial proper separation of d≈25M between equal mass holes and evolve them down to merger for nearly 48 orbits, 3 precession cycles, and half of a flip-flop cycle. The simulation lasts for t=20 000M and displays a total change in the orientation of the spin of one of the black holes from an initial alignment with the orbital angular momentum to a complete antialignment after half of a flip-flop cycle. We compare this evolution with an integration of the 3.5 post-Newtonian equations of motion and spin evolution to show that this process continuously flip flops the spin during the lifetime of the binary until merger. We also provide lower order analytic expressions for the maximum flip-flop angle and frequency. We discuss the effects this dynamics may have on spin growth in accreting binaries and on the observational consequences for galactic and supermassive binary black holes.

  19. Compact NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluemich, Bernhard; Haber-Pohlmeier, Sabina; Zia, Wasif [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische und Makromolekulare Chemie (ITMC)

    2014-06-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is the most popular method for chemists to analyze molecular structures, while Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic tool for medical doctors that provides high-contrast images of biological tissue. In both applications, the sample (or patient) is positioned inside a large, superconducting magnet to magnetize the atomic nuclei. Interrogating radio-frequency pulses result in frequency spectra that provide the chemist with molecular information, the medical doctor with anatomic images, and materials scientist with NMR relaxation parameters. Recent advances in magnet technology have led to a variety of small permanent magnets to allow compact and low-cost instruments. The goal of this book is to provide an introduction to the practical use of compact NMR at a level nearly as basic as the operation of a smart phone.

  20. Compact vortices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D.; Losano, L.; Marques, M.A.; Zafalan, I. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Menezes, R. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Ciencias Exatas, Rio Tinto, PB (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Departamento de Fisica, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil)

    2017-02-15

    We study a family of Maxwell-Higgs models, described by the inclusion of a function of the scalar field that represent generalized magnetic permeability. We search for vortex configurations which obey first-order differential equations that solve the equations of motion. We first deal with the asymptotic behavior of the field configurations, and then implement a numerical study of the solutions, the energy density and the magnetic field. We work with the generalized permeability having distinct profiles, giving rise to new models, and we investigate how the vortices behave, compared with the solutions of the corresponding standard models. In particular, we show how to build compact vortices, that is, vortex solutions with the energy density and magnetic field vanishing outside a compact region of the plane. (orig.)

  1. Compact stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estevez-Delgado, Gabino; Estevez-Delgado, Joaquin

    2018-05-01

    An analysis and construction is presented for a stellar model characterized by two parameters (w, n) associated with the compactness ratio and anisotropy, respectively. The reliability range for the parameter w ≤ 1.97981225149 corresponds with a compactness ratio u ≤ 0.2644959374, the density and pressures are positive, regular and monotonic decrescent functions, the radial and tangential speed of sound are lower than the light speed, moreover, than the plausible stability. The behavior of the speeds of sound are determinate for the anisotropy parameter n, admitting a subinterval where the speeds are monotonic crescent functions and other where we have monotonic decrescent functions for the same speeds, both cases describing a compact object that is also potentially stable. In the bigger value for the observational mass M = 2.05 M⊙ and radii R = 12.957 Km for the star PSR J0348+0432, the model indicates that the maximum central density ρc = 1.283820319 × 1018 Kg/m3 corresponds to the maximum value of the anisotropy parameter and the radial and tangential speed of the sound are monotonic decrescent functions.

  2. The Compton-thick Growth of Supermassive Black Holes constrained

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchner, J.; Georgakakis, A.; Nandra, K.

    2017-10-01

    A heavily obscured growth phase of supermassive black holes (SMBH) is thought to be important in the co-evolution with galaxies. X-rays provide a clean and efficient selection of unobscured and obscured AGN. Recent work with deeper observations and improved analysis methodology allowed us to extend constraints to Compton-thick number densities. We present the first luminosity function of Compton-thick AGN at z=0.5-4 and constrain the overall mass density locked into black holes over cosmic time, a fundamental constraint for cosmological simulations. Recent studies including ours find that the obscuration is redshift and luminosity-dependent in a complex way, which rules out entire sets of obscurer models. A new paradigm, the radiation-lifted torus model, is proposed, in which the obscurer is Eddington-rate dependent and accretion creates and displaces torus clouds. We place observational limits on the behaviour of this mechanism.

  3. Astrophysics of Super-Massive Black Hole Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnittman, Jeremy D.

    2013-01-01

    We present here an overview of recent work in the subject of astrophysical manifestations of super-massive black hole (SMBH) mergers. This is a field that has been traditionally driven by theoretical work, but in recent years has also generated a great deal of interest and excitement in the observational astronomy community. In particular, the electromagnetic (EM) counterparts to SMBH mergers provide the means to detect and characterize these highly energetic events at cosmological distances, even in the absence of a space-based gravitational-wave observatory. In addition to providing a mechanism for observing SMBH mergers, EM counterparts also give important information about the environments in which these remarkable events take place, thus teaching us about the mechanisms through which galaxies form and evolve symbiotically with their central black holes.

  4. Dynamically important magnetic fields near accreting supermassive black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamaninasab, M; Clausen-Brown, E; Savolainen, T; Tchekhovskoy, A

    2014-06-05

    Accreting supermassive black holes at the centres of active galaxies often produce 'jets'--collimated bipolar outflows of relativistic particles. Magnetic fields probably play a critical role in jet formation and in accretion disk physics. A dynamically important magnetic field was recently found near the Galactic Centre black hole. If this is common and if the field continues to near the black hole event horizon, disk structures will be affected, invalidating assumptions made in standard models. Here we report that jet magnetic field and accretion disk luminosity are tightly correlated over seven orders of magnitude for a sample of 76 radio-loud active galaxies. We conclude that the jet-launching regions of these radio-loud galaxies are threaded by dynamically important fields, which will affect the disk properties. These fields obstruct gas infall, compress the accretion disk vertically, slow down the disk rotation by carrying away its angular momentum in an outflow and determine the directionality of jets.

  5. Binary effectivity rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Peleg, Bezalel

    2006-01-01

    is binary if it is rationalized by an acyclic binary relation. The foregoing result motivates our definition of a binary effectivity rule as the effectivity rule of some binary SCR. A binary SCR is regular if it satisfies unanimity, monotonicity, and independence of infeasible alternatives. A binary...

  6. CIRCUMBINARY MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC ACCRETION INTO INSPIRALING BINARY BLACK HOLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noble, Scott C.; Mundim, Bruno C.; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Campanelli, Manuela; Zlochower, Yosef [Center for Computational Relativity and Gravitation, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Krolik, Julian H. [Physics and Astronomy Department, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Yunes, Nicolas, E-mail: scn@astro.rit.edu [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States)

    2012-08-10

    We have simulated the magnetohydrodynamic evolution of a circumbinary disk surrounding an equal-mass binary comprising two non-spinning black holes during the period in which the disk inflow time is comparable to the binary evolution time due to gravitational radiation. Both the changing spacetime and the binary orbital evolution are described by an innovative technique utilizing high-order post-Newtonian approximations. Prior to the beginning of the inspiral, the structure of the circumbinary disk is predicted well by extrapolation from Newtonian results: a gap of roughly two binary separation radii is cleared, and matter piles up at the outer edge of this gap as inflow is retarded by torques exerted by the binary; the accretion rate is roughly half its value at large radius. During inspiral, the inner edge of the disk initially moves inward in coordination with the shrinking binary, but-as the orbital evolution accelerates-the inward motion of the disk edge falls behind the rate of binary compression. In this stage, the binary torque falls substantially, but the accretion rate decreases by only 10%-20%. When the binary separation is tens of gravitational radii, the rest-mass efficiency of disk radiation is a few percent, suggesting that supermassive binary black holes could be very luminous at this stage of their evolution. Inner disk heating is modulated at a beat frequency comparable to the binary orbital frequency. However, a disk with sufficient surface density to be luminous may be optically thick, suppressing periodic modulation of the luminosity.

  7. ENHANCED OFF-CENTER STELLAR TIDAL DISRUPTIONS BY SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES IN MERGING GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, F. K.; Chen, Xian

    2013-01-01

    Off-center stellar tidal disruption flares have been suggested to be a powerful probe of recoiling supermassive black holes (SMBHs) out of galactic centers due to anisotropic gravitational wave radiations. However, off-center tidal flares can also be produced by SMBHs in merging galaxies. In this paper, we computed the tidal flare rates by dual SMBHs in two merging galaxies before the SMBHs become self-gravitationally bounded. We employ an analytical model to calculate the tidal loss-cone feeding rates for both SMBHs, taking into account two-body relaxation of stars, tidal perturbations by the companion galaxy, and chaotic stellar orbits in triaxial gravitational potential. We show that for typical SMBHs with masses 10 7 M ☉ , the loss-cone feeding rates are enhanced by mergers up to Γ ∼ 10 –2 yr –1 , about two orders of magnitude higher than those by single SMBHs in isolated galaxies and about four orders of magnitude higher than those by recoiling SMBHs. The enhancements are mainly due to tidal perturbations by the companion galaxy. We suggest that off-center tidal flares are overwhelmed by those from merging galaxies, making the identification of recoiling SMBHs challenging. Based on the calculated rates, we estimate the relative contributions of tidal flare events by single, binary, and dual SMBH systems during cosmic time. Our calculations show that the off-center tidal disruption flares by un-bound SMBHs in merging galaxies contribute a fraction comparable to that by single SMBHs in isolated galaxies. We conclude that off-center tidal disruptions are powerful tracers of the merging history of galaxies and SMBHs.

  8. Disruption of a red giant star by a supermassive black hole and the case of PS1-10jh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdanović, Tamara; Cheng, Roseanne M. [Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, School of Physics, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Amaro-Seoane, Pau, E-mail: tamarab@gatech.edu, E-mail: rcheng@gatech.edu, E-mail: Pau.Amaro-Seoane@aei.mpg.de [Max Planck Institut für Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut), D-14476 Potsdam (Germany)

    2014-06-20

    The development of a new generation of theoretical models for tidal disruptions is timely, as increasingly diverse events are being captured in surveys of the transient sky. Recently, Gezari et al. reported a discovery of a new class of tidal disruption events: the disruption of a helium-rich stellar core, thought to be a remnant of a red giant (RG) star. Motivated by this discovery and in anticipation of others, we consider tidal interaction of an RG star with a supermassive black hole (SMBH) which leads to the stripping of the stellar envelope and subsequent inspiral of the compact core toward the black hole. Once the stellar envelope is removed the inspiral of the core is driven by tidal heating as well as the emission of gravitational radiation until the core either falls into the SMBH or is tidally disrupted. In the case of the tidal disruption candidate PS1-10jh, we find that there is a set of orbital solutions at high eccentricities in which the tidally stripped hydrogen envelope is accreted by the SMBH before the helium core is disrupted. This places the RG core in a portion of parameter space where strong tidal heating can lift the degeneracy of the compact remnant and disrupt it before it reaches the tidal radius. We consider how this sequence of events explains the puzzling absence of the hydrogen emission lines from the spectrum of PS1-10jh and gives rise to its other observational features.

  9. Disruption of a red giant star by a supermassive black hole and the case of PS1-10jh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanović, Tamara; Cheng, Roseanne M.; Amaro-Seoane, Pau

    2014-01-01

    The development of a new generation of theoretical models for tidal disruptions is timely, as increasingly diverse events are being captured in surveys of the transient sky. Recently, Gezari et al. reported a discovery of a new class of tidal disruption events: the disruption of a helium-rich stellar core, thought to be a remnant of a red giant (RG) star. Motivated by this discovery and in anticipation of others, we consider tidal interaction of an RG star with a supermassive black hole (SMBH) which leads to the stripping of the stellar envelope and subsequent inspiral of the compact core toward the black hole. Once the stellar envelope is removed the inspiral of the core is driven by tidal heating as well as the emission of gravitational radiation until the core either falls into the SMBH or is tidally disrupted. In the case of the tidal disruption candidate PS1-10jh, we find that there is a set of orbital solutions at high eccentricities in which the tidally stripped hydrogen envelope is accreted by the SMBH before the helium core is disrupted. This places the RG core in a portion of parameter space where strong tidal heating can lift the degeneracy of the compact remnant and disrupt it before it reaches the tidal radius. We consider how this sequence of events explains the puzzling absence of the hydrogen emission lines from the spectrum of PS1-10jh and gives rise to its other observational features.

  10. Particle acceleration in binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinitsyna V.G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cygnus X-3 massive binary system is one of the powerful sources of radio and X-ray emission consisting of an accreting compact object, probably a black hole, with a Wolf-Rayet star companion. Based on the detections of ultra high energy gamma-rays by Kiel and Havera Park, Cygnus X-3 has been proposed to be one of the most powerful sources of charged cosmic ray particles in the Galaxy. The results of long-term observations of the Cyg X-3 binary at energies 800 GeV–85 TeV detected by SHALON in 1995 are presented with images, integral spectra and spectral energy distribution. The identification of source with Cygnus X-3 detected by SHALON was secured by the detection of its 4.8 hour orbital period in TeV gamma-rays. During the whole observation period of Cyg X-3 with SHALON significant flux increases were detected at energies above 0.8 TeV. These TeV flux increases are correlated with flaring activity at a lower energy range of X-ray and/or at observations of Fermi LAT as well as with radio emission from the relativistic jets of Cygnus X-3. The variability of very high-energy gamma-radiation and correlation of radiation activity in the wide energy range can provide essential information on particle mechanism production up to very high energies. Whereas, modulation of very high energy emission connected to the orbital motion of the binary system, provides an understanding of the emission processes, nature and location of particle acceleration.

  11. The Most Massive Star Clusters: Supermassive Globular Clusters or Dwarf Galaxy Nuclei?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, William

    2004-07-01

    Evidence is mounting that the most massive globular clusters, such as Omega Centauri and M31-G1, may be related to the recently discovered "Ultra-Compact Dwarfs" and the dense nuclei of dE, N galaxies. However, no systematic imaging investigation of these supermassive globular clusters - at the level of Omega Cen and beyond - has been done, and we do not know what fraction of them might bear the signatures {such as large effective radii or tidal tails} of having originated as dE nuclei. We propose to use the ACS/WFC to obtain deep images of 18 such clusters in NGC 5128 and M31, the two nearest rich globular cluster systems. These globulars are the richest star clusters that can be found in nature, the biggest of them reaching 10^7 Solar masses, and they are likely to represent the results of star formation under the densest and most extreme conditions known. Using the profiles of the clusters including their faint outer envelopes, we will carry out state-of-the-art dynamical modelling of their structures, and look for any clear evidence which would indicate that they are associated with stripped satellites. This study will build on our previous work with STIS and WFPC2 imaging designed to study the 'Fundamental Plane' of globular clusters. When our new work is combined with Archival WFPC2, STIS, and ACS material, we will also be able to construct the definitive mapping of the Fundamental Plane of globular clusters at its uppermost mass range, and confirm whether or not the UCD and dE, N objects occupy a different structural parameter space.

  12. Ultracompact X-ray binary stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haaften, L.M. van

    2013-01-01

    Ultracompact X-ray binary stars usually consist of a neutron star and a white dwarf, two stars bound together by their strong gravity and orbiting each other very rapidly, completing one orbit in less than one hour. Neutron stars are extremely compact remnants of the collapsed cores of massive stars

  13. Dual jets from binary black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palenzuela, Carlos; Lehner, Luis; Liebling, Steven L

    2010-08-20

    The coalescence of supermassive black holes--a natural outcome when galaxies merge--should produce gravitational waves and would likely be associated with energetic electromagnetic events. We have studied the coalescence of such binary black holes within an external magnetic field produced by the expected circumbinary disk surrounding them. Solving the Einstein equations to describe black holes interacting with surrounding plasma, we present numerical evidence for possible jets driven by these systems. Extending the process described by Blandford and Znajek for a single, spinning black hole, the picture that emerges suggests that the electromagnetic field extracts energy from the orbiting black holes, which ultimately merge and settle into the standard Blandford-Znajek scenario. Emissions along these jets could potentially be observable at large distances.

  14. Baryon-number generation in supersymmetric unified models: the effect of supermassive fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, E.W.; Raby, S.

    1983-01-01

    In supersymmetric unified models, baryon-number-violating reactions may be mediated by supermassive fermions in addition to the usual supermassive bosons. The effective low-energy baryon-number-violating cross section for fermion-mediated reactions is sigma/sub DeltaB/approx.g 4 /m 2 , where g is a coupling constant and m is the supermassive fermion mass, as opposed to sigma/sub DeltaB/approx.g 4 s/m 4 for scalar- or vector-mediated reactions (√s is the center-of-mass energy). Since the fermion-mediated cross section is larger at low energy, it is more effective at damping the baryon number produced in decay of the supermassive particles. In this paper we calculate baryon-number generation in models with fermion-mediated baryon-number-violating reactions, and discuss implications for supersymmetric model building

  15. Gravitational waves from double white dwarfs and AM CVn binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelemans, Gijs

    2003-01-01

    I give a brief overview of our model for the galactic population of compact binaries that is used to predict the low-frequency gravitational wave signal from the galaxy, and discuss recent observational developments that will enable us to test and improve this model. The SPY project will discover some 150 new close double white dwarfs and, recently, two ROSAT sources turned out to be new AM CVn candidates, one with an orbital period of only 5 min. I give an update on the expected binaries that will be resolved by LISA and discuss what we can learn about the galactic population of compact binaries once LISA gives her first results

  16. Short gamma-ray burst formation rate from BATSE data using E{sub p} -L{sub p} correlation and the minimum gravitational-wave event rate of a coalescing compact binary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonetoku, Daisuke; Sawano, Tatsuya; Toyanago, Asuka [College of Science and Engineering, School of Mathematics and Physics, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192 (Japan); Nakamura, Takashi [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Takahashi, Keitaro, E-mail: yonetoku@astro.s.kanazawa-u.ac.jp, E-mail: takashi@tap.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Science, Kumamoto University, Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Using 72 short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs) with well determined spectral data observed by BATSE, we determine their redshift and luminosity by applying the E{sub p} -L{sub p} correlation for SGRBs found by Tsutsui et al. For 53 SGRBs with an observed flux brighter than 4 × 10{sup –6} erg cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}, the cumulative redshift distribution up to z = 1 agrees well with that of 22 Swift SGRBs. This suggests that the redshift determination by the E{sub p} -L{sub p} correlation for SGRBs works well. The minimum event rate at z = 0 is estimated as R{sub on−axis}{sup min}=6.3{sub −3.9}{sup +3.1}× 10{sup −10} events Mpc{sup −3} yr{sup −1}, so that the minimum beaming angle is 0.°6-7.°8 assuming a merging rate of 10{sup –7}- 4 × 10{sup –6} events Mpc{sup –3} yr{sup –1} suggested from the binary pulsar data. Interestingly, this angle is consistent with that for SGRB 130603B of ∼4°-8°. On the other hand, if we assume a beaming angle of ∼6° suggested from four SGRBs with the observed beaming angle value, then the minimum event rate including off-axis SGRBs is estimated as R{sub all}{sup min}=1.15{sub −0.66}{sup +0.56} × 10{sup −7} events Mpc{sup −3} yr{sup −1}. If SGRBs are induced by the coalescence of binary neutron stars (NSs) and/or black holes (BHs), then this event rate leads to a minimum gravitational-wave detection rate of 3.8{sub −2.2}{sup +1.8} (146{sub −83}{sup +71}) events yr{sup −1} for an NS-NS (NS-BH) binary, respectively, by a worldwide network with KAGRA, advanced-LIGO, advanced-VIRGO, and GEO.

  17. Activity of the supermassive black hole at the Galactic center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clavel, Maica

    2014-01-01

    Sagittarius A* is the supermassive black hole at the Galactic center. Due to its proximity, this specimen is an excellent laboratory to study the accretion processes occurring around black holes and to constrain the duty cycle of these objects. Sgr A* is currently extremely faint and despite the detection of daily flares, its luminosity remains at least eight orders of magnitude below its Eddington luminosity, making this specimen one of the least luminous known supermassive black holes. The radiative processes responsible for the daily variations of its luminosity have not been clearly identified yet. We present the results of a multi-wavelength campaign observing Sgr A* simultaneously in X-rays and in the near-infrared, using the XMM-Newton observatory and the VLT/NACO instrument. We studied the spectral variability of Sgr A* using the infrared data we obtained through a spectro-imaging technique. Uncertainties linked to the systematic errors are still large but the first tests applied seem to show that the spectral index of Sgr A* could depend on the black hole luminosity. On longer timescales, we demonstrate that Sgr A* experienced a higher level of activity in the recent past. Indeed, echoes of its past activity can be detected in the molecular material surrounding the black hole. They are traced by a strong signal in the iron fluorescence line at 6.4 keV. We achieved a complete and systematic study of this variable emission detected from the central molecular zone, using Chandra and XMM-Newton observatories. Our results confirm that Sgr A* experienced intense flares in the past few centuries, with a luminosity at least six orders of magnitude higher than its current one. In particular, we highlight for the first time the existence of two distinct transient events of relatively short duration, which are probably due to catastrophic events. These results are the first step needed to include Sgr A*'s activity into a broader understanding of the galactic nuclei

  18. Investigating the Binarity of S0-2: Implications for Its Origins and Robustness as a Probe of the Laws of Gravity around a Supermassive Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Devin S.; Do, Tuan; Hees, Aurelien; Ghez, Andrea; Naoz, Smadar; Witzel, Gunther; Sakai, Shoko; Chappell, Samantha; Gautam, Abhimat K.; Lu, Jessica R.; Matthews, Keith

    2018-02-01

    The star S0-2, which orbits the supermassive black hole (SMBH) in our Galaxy with a period of 16 years, provides the strongest constraint on both the mass of the SMBH and the distance to the Galactic center. S0-2 will soon provide the first measurement of relativistic effects near a SMBH. We report the first limits on the binarity of S0-2 from radial velocity (RV) monitoring, which has implications for both understanding its origin and robustness as a probe of the central gravitational field. With 87 RV measurements, which include 12 new observations that we present, we have the requisite data set to look for RV variations from S0-2‧s orbital model. Using a Lomb–Scargle analysis and orbit-fitting for potential binaries, we detect no RV variation beyond S0-2‧s orbital motion and do not find any significant periodic signal. The lack of a binary companion does not currently distinguish different formation scenarios for S0-2. The upper limit on the mass of a companion star ({M}{comp}) still allowed by our results has a median upper limit of {M}{comp} sin i ≤ 1.6 M ⊙ for periods between 1 and 150 days, the longest period to avoid tidal break-up of the binary. We also investigate the impact of the remaining allowed binary system on the measurement of the relativistic redshift at S0-2‧s closest approach in 2018. While binary star systems are important to consider for this experiment, we find that plausible binaries for S0-2 will not alter a 5σ detection of the relativistic redshift.

  19. MIGRATION TRAPS IN DISKS AROUND SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellovary, Jillian M.; Low, Mordecai-Mark Mac; McKernan, Barry; Ford, K. E. Saavik

    2016-01-01

    Accretion disks around supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) contain stars, stellar mass black holes, and other stellar remnants, which perturb the disk gas gravitationally. The resulting density perturbations exert torques on the embedded masses causing them to migrate through the disk in a manner analogous to planets in protoplanetary disks. We determine the strength and direction of these torques using an empirical analytic description dependent on local disk gradients, applied to two different analytic, steady-state disk models of SMBH accretion disks. We find that there are radii in such disks where the gas torque changes sign, trapping migrating objects. Our analysis shows that major migration traps generally occur where the disk surface density gradient changes sign from positive to negative, around 20–300R g , where R g  = 2GM/c 2 is the Schwarzschild radius. At these traps, massive objects in the AGN disk can accumulate, collide, scatter, and accrete. Intermediate mass black hole formation is likely in these disk locations, which may lead to preferential gap and cavity creation at these radii. Our model thus has significant implications for SMBH growth as well as gravitational wave source populations

  20. Investigating Supermassive Black Hole Spin at Different Redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinanan-Singh, Jasmine

    2018-01-01

    Supermassive black hole (SMBH) spin encodes vital information about the history of SMBH growth. High spins indicate a history of growth through large mass accretion events, which spin-up the black hole; Intermediate spins indicate a history of galactic mergers, which don't tend to systemcatically spin-up or spin-down black holes; low spins are attributed to successive, small accretion events with random orientations. Examining spin over different redshifts will help us understand the relative growth of SMBHs by mergers or accretion over cosmic time, an important part of understanding how SMBHs and their host galaxies co-evolved over time. To study spin, we compute the Fe K alpha emission line from the X-ray spectra of AGN sources in the Chandra-COSMOS Legacy Survey. We stack rest frame AGN spectra to improve the signal-to-noise ratio since the photon counts are low for individual spectra, and then average the spectra using an unwieghted mean. Our method is derived from Corral et al. (2008). We test our method on the two brightest sources in the COSMOS Survey and compute the rest frame average Fe K alpha emission line for different redshift bins. The SAO REU program is funded by the National Science Foundation REU and Department of Defense ASSURE programs under NSF Grant AST-1659473, and by the Smithsonian Institution.

  1. Measuring the angular momentum of supermassive black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Brenneman, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Measuring the spins of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in active galactic nuclei (AGN) can inform us about the relative role of gas accretion vs. mergers in recent epochs of the life of the host galaxy and its AGN. Recent advances in theory and observation have enabled spin measurements for a handful of SMBHs thus far, but this science is still very much in its infancy. Herein, I discuss how and why we seek to measure black hole spin in AGN, using recent results from long X-ray observing campaigns on three radio-quiet AGN (MCG-6-30-15, NGC 3783 and Fairall 9) to illustrate this process and its caveats. I then present our current knowledge of the distribution of SMBH spins in the local universe. I also address prospects for improving the accuracy, precision and quantity of these spin constraints in the next decade and beyond with instruments such as NuSTAR, Astro-H and a future generation large-area X-ray telescope.

  2. MIGRATION TRAPS IN DISKS AROUND SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellovary, Jillian M.; Low, Mordecai-Mark Mac; McKernan, Barry; Ford, K. E. Saavik [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, NY 10024 (United States)

    2016-03-10

    Accretion disks around supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) contain stars, stellar mass black holes, and other stellar remnants, which perturb the disk gas gravitationally. The resulting density perturbations exert torques on the embedded masses causing them to migrate through the disk in a manner analogous to planets in protoplanetary disks. We determine the strength and direction of these torques using an empirical analytic description dependent on local disk gradients, applied to two different analytic, steady-state disk models of SMBH accretion disks. We find that there are radii in such disks where the gas torque changes sign, trapping migrating objects. Our analysis shows that major migration traps generally occur where the disk surface density gradient changes sign from positive to negative, around 20–300R{sub g}, where R{sub g} = 2GM/c{sup 2} is the Schwarzschild radius. At these traps, massive objects in the AGN disk can accumulate, collide, scatter, and accrete. Intermediate mass black hole formation is likely in these disk locations, which may lead to preferential gap and cavity creation at these radii. Our model thus has significant implications for SMBH growth as well as gravitational wave source populations.

  3. BINARY QUASARS AT HIGH REDSHIFT. I. 24 NEW QUASAR PAIRS AT z ∼ 3-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennawi, Joseph F.; Myers, Adam D.; Shen, Yue; Strauss, Michael A.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Glikman, Eilat; Mahabal, Ashish; Fan Xiaohui; Martin, Crystal L.; Richards, Gordon T.; Schneider, Donald P.; Shankar, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    The clustering of quasars on small scales yields fundamental constraints on models of quasar evolution and the buildup of supermassive black holes. This paper describes the first systematic survey to discover high-redshift binary quasars. Using color-selection and photometric redshift techniques, we searched 8142 deg 2 of Sloan Digital Sky Survey imaging data for binary quasar candidates, and confirmed them with follow-up spectroscopy. Our sample of 27 high-redshift binaries (24 of them new discoveries) at redshifts 2.9 perpendicular perpendicular 3.5. The completeness and efficiency of our well-defined selection algorithm are quantified using simulated photometry and we find that our sample is ∼50% complete. Our companion paper uses this knowledge to make the first measurement of the small-scale clustering (R -1 Mpc comoving) of high-redshift quasars. High-redshift binaries constitute exponentially rare coincidences of two extreme (M ∼> 10 9 M sun ) supermassive black holes. At z ∼ 4, there is about one close binary per 10 Gpc 3 , thus these could be the highest sigma peaks, the analogs of superclusters, in the early universe.

  4. Pharmaceutical powder compaction technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Çelik, Metin

    2011-01-01

    ... through the compaction formulation process and application. Compaction of powder constituents both active ingredient and excipients is examined to ensure consistent and reproducible disintegration and dispersion profiles...

  5. GRAVITATIONAL WAVE SIGNAL FROM ASSEMBLING THE LIGHTEST SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Micic, Miroslav; Sigurdsson, Steinn; Rubbo, Louis J.

    2010-01-01

    We calculate the gravitational wave signal from the growth of 10 7 M sun supermassive black holes (SMBHs) from the remnants of Population III stars. The assembly of these lower mass black holes (BHs) is particularly important because observing SMBHs in this mass range is one of the primary science goals for the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), a planned NASA/ESA mission to detect gravitational waves. We use high-resolution cosmological N-body simulations to track the merger history of the host dark matter halos, and model the growth of the SMBHs with a semianalytic approach that combines dynamical friction, gas accretion, and feedback. We find that the most common source in the LISA band from our volume consists of mergers between intermediate-mass BHs and SMBHs at redshifts less than 2. This type of high mass ratio merger has not been widely considered in the gravitational wave community; detection and characterization of this signal will likely require a different technique than is used for SMBH mergers or extreme mass ratio inspirals. We find that the event rate of this new LISA source depends on prescriptions for gas accretion onto the BH as well as an accurate model of the dynamics on a galaxy scale; our best estimate yields ∼40 sources with a signal-to-noise ratio greater than 30 occuring within a volume like the Local Group during SMBH assembly-extrapolated over the volume of the universe yields ∼500 observed events over 10 years, although the accuracy of this rate is affected by cosmic variance.

  6. INSPIRALLING SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES: A NEW SIGNPOST FOR GALAXY MERGERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comerford, Julia M.; Gerke, Brian F.; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Davis, Marc; Yan, Renbin; Cooper, Michael C.; Coil, Alison L.; Faber, S. M.; Koo, David C.; Rosario, D. J.; Dutton, Aaron A.

    2009-01-01

    We present a new technique for observationally identifying galaxy mergers spectroscopically rather than through host galaxy imaging. Our technique exploits the dynamics of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) powering active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in merger-remnant galaxies. Because structure in the universe is built up through galaxy mergers and nearly all galaxies host a central SMBH, some galaxies should possess two SMBHs near their centers as the result of a recent merger. These SMBHs spiral to the center of the resultant merger-remnant galaxy, and one or both of the SMBHs may power AGNs. Using the DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey, we have examined 1881 red galaxies, of which 91 exhibit [O III] and Hβ emission lines indicative of Seyfert 2 activity. Of these, 32 AGNs have [O III] emission-line redshifts significantly different from the redshifts of the host galaxies' stars, corresponding to velocity offsets of ∼50 km s -1 to ∼300 km s -1 . Two of these AGNs exhibit double-peaked [O III] emission lines, while the remaining 30 AGNs each exhibit a single set of velocity-offset [O III] emission lines. After exploring a variety of physical models for these velocity offsets, we argue that the most likely explanation is inspiralling SMBHs in merger-remnant galaxies. Based on this interpretation, we find that roughly half of the red galaxies hosting AGNs are also merger remnants, which implies that mergers may trigger AGN activity in red galaxies. The AGN velocity offsets we find imply a merger fraction of ∼30% and a merger rate of ∼3 mergers Gyr -1 for red galaxies at redshifts 0.34 < z < 0.82.

  7. Very high energy emission from passive supermassive black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedaletti, Giovanna

    2009-10-22

    The H.E.S.S. experiment, an array of four Imaging Cherenkov Telescopes, widened the horizon of Very High Energy (VHE) astronomy. Its unprecedented sensitivity is well suited for the study of new classes of expected VHE emitters, such as passive galactic nuclei that are the main focus of the work presented in this thesis. Acceleration of particles up to Ultra High Energies is expected in the magnetosphere of supermassive black holes (SMBH). The radiation losses of these accelerated particles are expected to reach the VHE regime in which H.E.S.S. operates. Predicted fluxes exceed the sensitivity of the array. However, strong photon fields in the surrounding of the acceleration region might absorb the produced radiation. Therefore observations focus on those galactic nuclei that are underluminous at lower photon energies. This work presents data collected by the H.E.S.S. telescopes on the test candidate NGC 1399 and their interpretation. While no detection has been achieved, important constraints can be derived from the obtained upper limits on the maximum energy attainable by the accelerated particles and on the magnetic field strength in the acceleration region. A limit on the magnetic field of B < 74 Gauss is given. The limit is model dependent and a scaling of the result with the assumptions is given. This is the tightest empirical constraint to date. Because of the lack of signal from the test candidate, a stacking analysis has been performed on similar sources in three cluster fields. A search for signal from classes of active galactic nuclei has also been made in the same three fields. None of the analyzed samples revealed a significant signal. Also presented are the expectations for the next generation of Cherenkov Telescopes and an outlook on the relativistic effects expected on the VHE emission close to SMBH. (orig.)

  8. Discovery of a Luminous Radio Transient 460 pc from the Central Supermassive Black Hole in Cygnus A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perley, D. A. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, IC2, Liverpool Science Park, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Perley, R. A.; Dhawan, V.; Carilli, C. L., E-mail: d.a.perley@ljmu.ac.uk [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States)

    2017-06-01

    We report the appearance of a new radio source at a projected offset of 460 pc from the nucleus of Cygnus A. The flux density of the source (which we designate Cygnus A-2) rose from an upper limit of <0.5 mJy in 1989 to 4 mJy in 2016 ( ν = 8.5 GHz), but is currently not varying by more than a few percent per year. The radio luminosity of the source is comparable to the most luminous known supernovae, it is compact in Very Long Baseline Array observations down to a scale of 4 pc, and it is coincident with a near-infrared point source seen in pre-existing adaptive optics and HST observations. The most likely interpretation of this source is that it represents a secondary supermassive black hole in a close orbit around the Cygnus A primary, though an exotic supernova model cannot be ruled out. The gravitational influence of a secondary SMBH at this location may have played an important role in triggering the rapid accretion that has powered the Cygnus A radio jet over the past 10{sup 7} years.

  9. Gas infall into atomic cooling haloes: on the formation of protogalactic disks and supermassive black holes at z > 10

    CERN Document Server

    Prieto, Joaquin; Haiman, Zoltan

    2013-01-01

    We have performed cosmo-hydro simulations using the RAMSES code to study atomic cooling (ACHs) haloes at z=10 with masses 5E7Msun10 to date. We examine the morphology, angular momentum (AM), thermodynamic, and turbulence of these haloes, in order to assess the prevalence of disks and supermassive black holes (SMBHs). We find no correlation between either the magnitude or the direction of the AM of the gas and its parent DM halo. Only 3 haloes form rotationally supported cores. Two of the most massive haloes form massive, compact overdense blobs. These blobs have an accretion rate ~0.5 Msun/yr (at a distance of 100 pc), and are possible sites of SMBH formation. Our results suggest that the degree of rotational support and the fate of the gas in a halo is determined by its large-scale environment and merger history. In particular, the two haloes forming blobs are located at knots of the cosmic web, cooled early on, and experienced many mergers. The gas in these haloes is lumpy and highly turbulent, with Mach N....

  10. Are X-ray emitting coronae around supermassive black holes outflowing?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Teng; Wang, Jun-Xian; Yang, Huan; Zhu, Fei-Fan; Zhou, You-Yuan, E-mail: liuteng@ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: jxw@ustc.edu.cn [CAS Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2014-03-10

    Hard X-ray emission in radio-quiet active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is believed to be produced via inverse Compton scattering by hot and compact coronae near the supermassive black hole. However, the origin and physical properties of the coronae, including geometry, kinematics, and dynamics, remain poorly known. In this work, taking [O IV] 25.89 μm emission line as an isotropic indicator of AGNs' intrinsic luminosity, we compare the intrinsic corona X-ray emission between Seyfert 1 and Compton-thin Seyfert 2 galaxies, which are viewed at different inclinations according to the unification scheme. We compile a sample of 130 Compton-thin Seyfert galaxies with both [O IV] 25.89 μm line luminosities measured with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrometer and X-ray spectra observed by XMM-Newton, Chandra, Suzaku, or Swift. Known radio-loud sources are excluded. We fit the X-ray spectra to obtain the absorption-corrected 2-10 keV continuum luminosities. We find that Seyfert 1 galaxies are intrinsically brighter in intrinsic 2-10 keV emission by a factor of 2.8{sub −0.4}{sup +0.5} (2.2{sub −0.3}{sup +0.9} in Swift Burst Alert Telescope 14-195 keV emission), compared with Compton-thin Seyfert 2 galaxies. The Seyfert 1 and Compton-thin Seyfert 2 galaxies follow a statistically identical correlation between the absorption-corrected 2-10 keV luminosity and the 14-195 keV luminosity, indicating that our absorption correction to the 2-10 keV flux is sufficient. The difference in X-ray emission between the two populations is thus unlikely to be due to X-ray absorption, and instead implies an intrinsic anisotropy in the corona X-ray emission. This striking anisotropy of X-ray emission can be explained by a bipolar outflowing corona with a bulk velocity of ∼0.3-0.5c. This would provide a natural link between the so-called coronae and weak jets in these systems. Other consequences of outflowing coronae are also discussed.

  11. Compact Bell inequalities for multipartite experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Yu-Chun; Żukowski, Marek; Chen, Jing-Ling; Guo, Guang-Can

    2013-01-01

    A method for construction of the multipartite Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) type Bell inequalities, for the case of local binary observables, is presented. The standard CHSH-type Bell inequalities can be obtained as special cases. A unified framework to establish all kinds of CHSH-type Bell inequalities by increasing step by step the number of observers is given. As an application, compact Bell inequalities, for eight observers, involving just four correlation functions are proposed. They...

  12. Spectroscopic observations of V443 Herculis - A symbiotic binary with a low mass white dwarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrzycka, Danuta; Kenyon, Scott J.; Mikolajewska, Joanna

    1993-01-01

    We present an analysis of new and existing photometric and spectroscopic observations of the symbiotic binary V443 Herculis. This binary system consists of a normal M5 giant and a hot compact star. These two objects have comparable luminosities: about 1500 solar for the M5 giant and about 1000 solar for the compact star. We identify three nebular regions in this binary: a small, highly ionized volume surrounding the hot component, a modestly ionized shell close to the red giant photosphere, and a less dense region of intermediate ionization encompassing both binary components. The system parameters for V443 Her suggest the hot component currently declines from a symbiotic nova eruption.

  13. Rotation invariant deep binary hashing for fast image retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lai; Liu, Jianming; Jiang, Aiwen

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we study how to compactly represent image's characteristics for fast image retrieval. We propose supervised rotation invariant compact discriminative binary descriptors through combining convolutional neural network with hashing. In the proposed network, binary codes are learned by employing a hidden layer for representing latent concepts that dominate on class labels. A loss function is proposed to minimize the difference between binary descriptors that describe reference image and the rotated one. Compared with some other supervised methods, the proposed network doesn't have to require pair-wised inputs for binary code learning. Experimental results show that our method is effective and achieves state-of-the-art results on the CIFAR-10 and MNIST datasets.

  14. A density cusp of quiescent X-ray binaries in the central parsec of the Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailey, Charles J.; Mori, Kaya; Bauer, Franz E.; Berkowitz, Michael E.; Hong, Jaesub; Hord, Benjamin J.

    2018-04-01

    The existence of a ‘density cusp’—a localized increase in number—of stellar-mass black holes near a supermassive black hole is a fundamental prediction of galactic stellar dynamics. The best place to detect such a cusp is in the Galactic Centre, where the nearest supermassive black hole, Sagittarius A*, resides. As many as 20,000 black holes are predicted to settle into the central parsec of the Galaxy as a result of dynamical friction; however, so far no density cusp of black holes has been detected. Low-mass X-ray binary systems that contain a stellar-mass black hole are natural tracers of isolated black holes. Here we report observations of a dozen quiescent X-ray binaries in a density cusp within one parsec of Sagittarius A*. The lower-energy emission spectra that we observed in these binaries is distinct from the higher-energy spectra associated with the population of accreting white dwarfs that dominates the central eight parsecs of the Galaxy. The properties of these X-ray binaries, in particular their spatial distribution and luminosity function, suggest the existence of hundreds of binary systems in the central parsec of the Galaxy and many more isolated black holes. We cannot rule out a contribution to the observed emission from a population (of up to about one-half the number of X-ray binaries) of rotationally powered, millisecond pulsars. The spatial distribution of the binary systems is a relic of their formation history, either in the stellar disk around Sagittarius A* (ref. 7) or through in-fall from globular clusters, and constrains the number density of sources in the modelling of gravitational waves from massive stellar remnants, such as neutron stars and black holes.

  15. A Dynamic Construction Algorithm for the Compact Patricia Trie Using the Hierarchical Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minsoo; Shishibori, Masami; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Aoe, Jun-ichi

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of information retrieval focuses on the use of binary trees and how to compact it to use less memory and take less time. Explains retrieval algorithms and describes data structure and hierarchical structure. (LRW)

  16. Properties of the Binary Black Hole Merger GW150914

    OpenAIRE

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abernathy, M. R.; Adhikari, R. X.; Anderson, S. B.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barish, B. C.; Berger, B. K.; Billingsley, G.; Blackburn, J. K.; Bork, R.; Brooks, A. F.; Cahillane, C.

    2016-01-01

    On September 14, 2015, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) detected a gravitational-wave transient (GW150914); we characterize the properties of the source and its parameters. The data around the time of the event were analyzed coherently across the LIGO network using a suite of accurate waveform models that describe gravitational waves from a compact binary system in general relativity. GW150914 was produced by a nearly equal mass binary black hole of masses 36^(+5...

  17. Properties of the Binary Black Hole Merger GW150914

    OpenAIRE

    Abbott, BP; Abbott, R; Abbott, TD; Abernathy, MR; Acernese, F; Ackley, K; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, RX; Adya, VB; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Agatsuma, K; Aggarwal, N

    2016-01-01

    On September 14, 2015, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) detected a gravitational-wave transient (GW150914); we characterize the properties of the source and its parameters. The data around the time of the event were analyzed coherently across the LIGO network using a suite of accurate waveform models that describe gravitational waves from a compact binary system in general relativity. GW150914 was produced by a nearly equal mass binary black hole of masses 36+5−4...

  18. Formation and Evolution of X-ray Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkos, Anastasios

    X-ray binaries - mass-transferring binary stellar systems with compact object accretors - are unique astrophysical laboratories. They carry information about many complex physical processes such as star formation, compact object formation, and evolution of interacting binaries. My thesis work involves the study of the formation and evolution of Galactic and extra-galacticX-ray binaries using both detailed and realistic simulation tools, and population synthesis techniques. I applied an innovative analysis method that allows the reconstruction of the full evolutionary history of known black hole X-ray binaries back to the time of compact object formation. This analysis takes into account all the available observationally determined properties of a system, and models in detail four of its evolutionary evolutionary phases: mass transfer through the ongoing X-ray phase, tidal evolution before the onset of Roche-lobe overflow, motion through the Galactic potential after the formation of the black hole, and binary orbital dynamics at the time of core collapse. Motivated by deep extra-galactic Chandra survey observations, I worked on population synthesis models of low-mass X-ray binaries in the two elliptical galaxies NGC3379 and NGC4278. These simulations were targeted at understanding the origin of the shape and normalization of the observed X-ray luminosity functions. In a follow up study, I proposed a physically motivated prescription for the modeling of transient neutron star low-mass X-ray binary properties, such as duty cycle, outburst duration and recurrence time. This prescription enabled the direct comparison of transient low-mass X-ray binary population synthesis models to the Chandra X-ray survey of the two ellipticals NGC3379 and NGC4278. Finally, I worked on population synthesismodels of black holeX-ray binaries in the MilkyWay. This work was motivated by recent developments in observational techniques for the measurement of black hole spin magnitudes in

  19. Optimized reversible binary-coded decimal adders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Michael Kirkedal; Glück, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Babu and Chowdhury [H.M.H. Babu, A.R. Chowdhury, Design of a compact reversible binary coded decimal adder circuit, Journal of Systems Architecture 52 (5) (2006) 272-282] recently proposed, in this journal, a reversible adder for binary-coded decimals. This paper corrects and optimizes...... their design. The optimized 1-decimal BCD full-adder, a 13 × 13 reversible logic circuit, is faster, and has lower circuit cost and less garbage bits. It can be used to build a fast reversible m-decimal BCD full-adder that has a delay of only m + 17 low-power reversible CMOS gates. For a 32-decimal (128-bit....... Keywords: Reversible logic circuit; Full-adder; Half-adder; Parallel adder; Binary-coded decimal; Application of reversible logic synthesis...

  20. Precessional Instability in Binary Black Holes with Aligned Spins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerosa, Davide; Kesden, Michael; O'Shaughnessy, Richard; Klein, Antoine; Berti, Emanuele; Sperhake, Ulrich; Trifirò, Daniele

    2015-10-02

    Binary black holes on quasicircular orbits with spins aligned with their orbital angular momentum have been test beds for analytic and numerical relativity for decades, not least because symmetry ensures that such configurations are equilibrium solutions to the spin-precession equations. In this work, we show that these solutions can be unstable when the spin of the higher-mass black hole is aligned with the orbital angular momentum and the spin of the lower-mass black hole is antialigned. Spins in these configurations are unstable to precession to large misalignment when the binary separation r is between the values r(ud±)=(√(χ(1))±√(qχ(2)))(4)(1-q)(-2)M, where M is the total mass, q≡m(2)/m(1) is the mass ratio, and χ(1) (χ(2)) is the dimensionless spin of the more (less) massive black hole. This instability exists for a wide range of spin magnitudes and mass ratios and can occur in the strong-field regime near the merger. We describe the origin and nature of the instability using recently developed analytical techniques to characterize fully generic spin precession. This instability provides a channel to circumvent astrophysical spin alignment at large binary separations, allowing significant spin precession prior to merger affecting both gravitational-wave and electromagnetic signatures of stellar-mass and supermassive binary black holes.

  1. Toward the event horizon—the supermassive black hole in the Galactic Center

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falcke, H.; Markoff, S.

    2013-01-01

    The center of our Galaxy hosts the best constrained supermassive black hole in the universe, Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*). Its mass and distance have been accurately determined from stellar orbits and proper motion studies, respectively, and its high-frequency radio, and highly variable near-infrared and

  2. Solving a binary puzzle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Utomo, P.H.; Makarim, R.H.

    2017-01-01

    A Binary puzzle is a Sudoku-like puzzle with values in each cell taken from the set {0,1} {0,1}. Let n≥4 be an even integer, a solved binary puzzle is an n×n binary array that satisfies the following conditions: (1) no three consecutive ones and no three consecutive zeros in each row and each

  3. Eclipsing binaries in open clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southworth, John; Clausen, J.V.

    2006-01-01

    Stars: fundamental parameters - Stars : binaries : eclipsing - Stars: Binaries: spectroscopic - Open clusters and ass. : general Udgivelsesdato: 5 August......Stars: fundamental parameters - Stars : binaries : eclipsing - Stars: Binaries: spectroscopic - Open clusters and ass. : general Udgivelsesdato: 5 August...

  4. Finding binaries from phase modulation of pulsating stars with Kepler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibahashi, Hiromoto; Murphy, Simon; Bedding, Tim

    2017-09-01

    Binary orbital motion causes a periodic variation in the path length travelled by light emitted from a star towards us. Hence, if the star is pulsating, the observed phase of the pulsation varies over the orbit. Conversely, once we have observed such phase variation, we can extract information about the binary orbit from photometry alone. Continuous and precise space-based photometry has made it possible to measure these light travel time effects on the pulsating stars in binary systems. This opens up a new way of finding unseen brown dwarfs, planets, or massive compact stellar remnants: neutron stars and black holes.

  5. The Possible Submillimeter Bump and Accretion-jet in the Central Supermassive Black Hole of NGC 4993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qingwen; Feng, Jianchao; Fan, Xuliang

    2018-03-01

    NGC 4993, as a host galaxy of the electromagnetic counterpart of the first gravitational-wave detection of a binary neutron-star merger, was observed by many powerful telescopes from radio to γ-ray wavebands. The weak nuclear activities of NGC 4993 suggest that it is a low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs). We build the multiwaveband spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of NGC 4993 from the literature. We find that the radio spectrum at ∼100–300 GHz is much steeper than that of the low-frequency waveband (e.g., 6–100 GHz), where this break was also found in the supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in our galaxy center (Sgr A*), and in some other nearby AGNs. The radio emission above and below this break may have different physical origins, which provide an opportunity to probe the accretion and jet properties. We model the multiwaveband SEDs of NGC 4993 with an advection-dominated accretion flow (ADAF) jet model. We find that the high-frequency steep radio emission at the millimeter waveband is consistent with the prediction of the ADAF, while the low-frequency flat radio spectrum is better fitted by the jet. Furthermore, the X-ray emission can also be simultaneously explained by the ADAF model. From the model fits, we estimate important parameters of the central engine (e.g., the accretion rate near the horizon of the black hole and the mass-loss rate in the jet) for NGC 4993. This result strengthens the theory that the millimeter, submillimeter, and deep X-ray observations are crucial to understanding the weak or quiescent activities in SMBH systems. Further simultaneous millimeter and X-ray monitoring of this kind of LLAGN will help us to better understand the physical origin of multiwaveband emission.

  6. Compact Objects in Astrophysics White Dwarfs, Neutron Stars and Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Camenzind, Max

    2007-01-01

    Compact objects are an important class of astronomical objects in current research. Supermassive black holes play an important role in the understanding of the formation of galaxies in the early Universe. Old white dwarfs are nowadays used to calibrate the age of the Universe. Mergers of neutron stars and black holes are the sources of intense gravitational waves which will be measured in the next ten years by gravitational wave detectors. Camenzind's Compact Objects in Astrophysics gives a comprehensive introduction and up-to-date overview about the physical processes behind these objects, covering the field from the beginning to most recent results, including all relevant observations. After a presentation of the taxonomy of compact objects, the basic principles of general relativity are given. The author then discusses in detail the physics and observations of white dwarfs and neutron stars (including the most recent equations of state for neutron star matter), the gravitational field of rapidly rotating c...

  7. GW150914: First results from the search for binary black hole coalescence with Advanced LIGO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Phythian-Adams, A.T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.T.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, R.D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C. J.; Berger, B. K.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, M.J.; Birney, R.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, A.L.S.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, J.G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bohemier, K.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, T.C; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, A.D.; Brown, D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Calderon Bustillo, J.; Callister, T. A.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Diaz, J. Casanueva; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglia, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Baiardi, L. Cerboni; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, D. S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Qian; Chua, S. E.; Chung, E.S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Clayton, J. H.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P. -F.; Cokelaer, T.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, A.C.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J. -P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, A.L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H. P.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; De, S.; Debra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De laurentis, M.; Deleglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dereli, H.; Dergachev, V.A.; DeRosa, R. T.; Rosa, R.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Diaz, M. C.; Dietz, A.; Di Fiore, L.; Giovanni, M.G.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H. -B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, T. M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.M.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M; Fotopoulos, N.; Fournier, J. -D.; Franco, S; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, M.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gatto, A.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Gendre, B.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, A.; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.P.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Goggin, L. M.; Gondan, L.; Gonzalez, Idelmis G.; Castro, J. M. Gonzalez; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Lee-Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.M.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Buffoni-Hall, R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.L.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, P.J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C. -J.; Haughian, K.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Hofman, D.; Hollitt, S. E.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Idrisy, A.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J. -M.; Isi, M.; Islas, G.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jang, D.H.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jimenez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W.; Jones, I.D.; Jones, G.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Haris, K.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.H.; Kanner, J. B.; Karki, S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kawazoe, F.; Kefelian, F.; Kehl, M. S.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Keppel, D. G.; Kennedy, R.E.; Key, J. S.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan., S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, C.; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Kim, Nam-Gyu; Kim, Namjun; Kim, Y.M.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Kokeyama, K.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Krolak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C.H.; Lee, K.H.; Lee, M.H.; Lee, K.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Levine, B. M.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Logue, J.; Lombardi, A. L.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lueck, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Luo, J.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; MacDonald, T.T.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magana-Sandoval, F.; Magee, R. M.; Mageswaran, M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Marka, S.; Marka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R.M.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McKechan, D. J. A.; McManus, D. J.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mendoza-Gandara, D.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messaritaki, E.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B.C.; Moore, J.C.; Moraru, D.; Gutierrez Moreno, M.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, S.D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P.G.; Mytidis, A.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Necula, V.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Gutierrez-Neri, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newton-Howes, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M. B.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pan, Y.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.S; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Patrick, Z.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Premachandra, S. S.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Puerrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Robinson, C.; Rocchi, A.; Rodriguez, A. C.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosinska, D.; Rowan, S.; Ruediger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.A.; Sachdev, P.S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Santamaria, L.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, J; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.B.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schoenbeck, A.; Sehreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, M.S.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Serna, G.; Setyawati, Y.; Sevigny, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shah, S.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shao, Z.M.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Silva, António Dias da; Simakov, D.; Singer, A; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith, N.D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stone, J.R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S. E.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepanczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.D.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tapai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, W.R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Toyra, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifiro, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbnich, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Bakel, N.; Van Beuzekom, Martin; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.F.F.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Henningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasuth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P.J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Vicere, A.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J. -Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D. V.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, MT; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L. -W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Welbom, T.; Wen, L.M.; Wessels, P.; West, M.E.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Wiesner, K.; Williams, D.R.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wiseman, A. G.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Worden, J.; Wright, J.L.; Wu, G.; Yablon, J.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yap, M. J.; Yu, H.; Yvert, M.; Zadrozny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J. -P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.

    2016-01-01

    On September 14, 2015, at 09∶50:45 UTC the two detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) simultaneously observed the binary black hole merger GW150914. We report the results of a matched-filter search using relativistic models of compact-object binaries that

  8. Theories of magnetospheres around accreting compact objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasyliunas, V.M.

    1979-01-01

    A wide class of galactic X-ray sources are believed to be binary systems where mass is flowing from a normal star to a companion that is a compact object, such as a neutron star. The strong magnetic fields of the compact object create a magnetosphere around it. We review the theoretical models developed to describe the properties of magnetospheres in such accreting binary systems. The size of the magnetosphere can be estimated from pressure balance arguments and is found to be small compared to the over-all size of the accretion region but large compared object if the latter is a neutron star. In the early models the magnetosphere was assumed to have open funnels in the polar regions, through which accreting plasma could pour in. Later, magnetically closed models were developed, with plasma entry made possible by instabilities at the magnetosphere boundary. The theory of plasma flow inside the magnetosphere has been formulated in analogy to a stellar wind with reversed flow; a complicating factor is the instability of the Alfven critical point for inflow. In the case of accretion via a well-defined disk, new problems if magnetospheric structure appear, in particular the question to what extent and by what process the magnetic fields from the compact object can penetrate into the acretion disk. Since the X-ray emission is powered by the gravitational energy released in the accretion process, mass transfer into the magnetosphere is of fundamental importance; the various proposed mechanisms are critically examined. (orig.)

  9. Evolution of close binaries and the formation of pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Den Heuvel, E.P.J.

    1981-01-01

    The various ways in which compact objects (neutron stars and black holes) may be formed in interacting binary systems are examined. Attention is given to the final evolution of the primary star in a close binary system as a function of the time of Roche-lobe overflow relative to the onset of helium burning, and conditions on primary mass and orbital period leading to the appearance of a compact remnant are noted. Consideration of the fate of the stellar envelope in stars that directly evolve to core collapse indicates that binaries that evolve with conservation of total mass and orbital angular momentum will eventually become systems of two runaway pulsars. In cases of nonconservative evolution, the final state is expected to be a young runaway pulsar with a low- or moderate mass runaway star companion, or a low-mass population I X-ray binary with high space velocity. Compact objects may also be formed when a white dwarf of suitable chemical composition is driven over the Chandrasehkar limit by accretion, resulting in a low-mass X-ray binary

  10. The shortest-known-period star orbiting our Galaxy's supermassive black hole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, L; Ghez, A M; Schödel, R; Yelda, S; Boehle, A; Lu, J R; Do, T; Morris, M R; Becklin, E E; Matthews, K

    2012-10-05

    Stars with short orbital periods at the center of our Galaxy offer a powerful probe of a supermassive black hole. Over the past 17 years, the W. M. Keck Observatory has been used to image the galactic center at the highest angular resolution possible today. By adding to this data set and advancing methodologies, we have detected S0-102, a star orbiting our Galaxy's supermassive black hole with a period of just 11.5 years. S0-102 doubles the number of known stars with full phase coverage and periods of less than 20 years. It thereby provides the opportunity, with future measurements, to resolve degeneracies in the parameters describing the central gravitational potential and to test Einstein's theory of general relativity in an unexplored regime.

  11. Observing the Birth of Supermassive Black Holes with the Planned ICECUBE Neutrino Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, X.; Fuller, G.M.; Halzen, F.

    1998-01-01

    It has been suggested that the supermassive black holes, at the centers of galaxies and quasars, may initially form in single collapses of relativistic star clusters or supermassive stars built up during the evolution of dense star clusters. We show that it may be possible for ICECUBE (a planned 1km 3 neutrino detector in Antarctica) to detect the neutrino bursts associated with those collapses at redshift z approx-lt 0.2 with a rate of ∼ 0.1 - 1 burst per year. Such detections could give new insights into the formation of structure in the Universe, especially when correlated with gravitational wave signatures or even gamma-ray bursts. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  12. Self-Compacting Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Okamura, Hajime; Ouchi, Masahiro

    2003-01-01

    Self-compacting concrete was first developed in 1988 to achieve durable concrete structures. Since then, various investigations have been carried out and this type of concrete has been used in practical structures in Japan, mainly by large construction companies. Investigations for establishing a rational mix-design method and self-compactability testing methods have been carried out from the viewpoint of making self-compacting concrete a standard concrete.

  13. Compact Polarimetry Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong-Loi, My-Linh; Dubois-Fernandez, Pascale; Pottier, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study is to show the potential of a compact-pol SAR system for vegetation applications. Compact-pol concept has been suggested to minimize the system design while maximize the information and is declined as the ?/4, ?/2 and hybrid modes. In this paper, the applications such as biomass and vegetation height estimates are first presented, then, the equivalence between compact-pol data simulated from full-pol data and compact-pol data processed from raw data as such is shown. Finally, a calibration procedure using external targets is proposed.

  14. Pharmaceutical powder compaction technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Çelik, Metin

    2011-01-01

    "Revised to reflect modern pharmaceutical compacting techniques, this Second Edition guides pharmaceutical engineers, formulation scientists, and product development and quality assurance personnel...

  15. Compact Antenna Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Facility consists of a folded compact antenna range including a computer controlled three axis position table, parabolic reflector and RF sources for the measurement...

  16. Binary Masking & Speech Intelligibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldt, Jesper

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine how binary masking can be used to increase intelligibility in situations where hearing impaired listeners have difficulties understanding what is being said. The major part of the experiments carried out in this thesis can be categorized as either experime......The purpose of this thesis is to examine how binary masking can be used to increase intelligibility in situations where hearing impaired listeners have difficulties understanding what is being said. The major part of the experiments carried out in this thesis can be categorized as either...... experiments under ideal conditions or as experiments under more realistic conditions useful for real-life applications such as hearing aids. In the experiments under ideal conditions, the previously defined ideal binary mask is evaluated using hearing impaired listeners, and a novel binary mask -- the target...... binary mask -- is introduced. The target binary mask shows the same substantial increase in intelligibility as the ideal binary mask and is proposed as a new reference for binary masking. In the category of real-life applications, two new methods are proposed: a method for estimation of the ideal binary...

  17. Interacting binary stars

    CERN Document Server

    Sahade, Jorge; Ter Haar, D

    1978-01-01

    Interacting Binary Stars deals with the development, ideas, and problems in the study of interacting binary stars. The book consolidates the information that is scattered over many publications and papers and gives an account of important discoveries with relevant historical background. Chapters are devoted to the presentation and discussion of the different facets of the field, such as historical account of the development in the field of study of binary stars; the Roche equipotential surfaces; methods and techniques in space astronomy; and enumeration of binary star systems that are studied

  18. Two separate outflows in the dual supermassive black hole system NGC 6240.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Sánchez, F; Nevin, R; Comerford, J M; Davies, R I; Privon, G C; Treister, E

    2018-04-01

    Theoretical models and numerical simulations have established a framework of galaxy evolution in which galaxies merge and create dual supermassive black holes (with separations of one to ten kiloparsecs), which eventually sink into the centre of the merger remnant, emit gravitational waves and coalesce. The merger also triggers star formation and supermassive black hole growth, and gas outflows regulate the stellar content 1-3 . Although this theoretical picture is supported by recent observations of starburst-driven and supermassive black hole-driven outflows 4-6 , it remains unclear how these outflows interact with the interstellar medium. Furthermore, the relative contributions of star formation and black hole activity to galactic feedback remain unknown 7-9 . Here we report observations of dual outflows in the central region of the prototypical merger NGC 6240. We find a black-hole-driven outflow of [O III] to the northeast and a starburst-driven outflow of Hα to the northwest. The orientations and positions of the outflows allow us to isolate them spatially and study their properties independently. We estimate mass outflow rates of 10 and 75 solar masses per year for the Hα bubble and the [O III] cone, respectively. Their combined mass outflow is comparable to the star formation rate 10 , suggesting that negative feedback on star formation is occurring.

  19. Direct formation of supermassive black holes via multi-scale gas inflows in galaxy mergers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, L; Kazantzidis, S; Escala, A; Callegari, S

    2010-08-26

    Observations of distant quasars indicate that supermassive black holes of billions of solar masses already existed less than a billion years after the Big Bang. Models in which the 'seeds' of such black holes form by the collapse of primordial metal-free stars cannot explain the rapid appearance of these supermassive black holes because gas accretion is not sufficiently efficient. Alternatively, these black holes may form by direct collapse of gas within isolated protogalaxies, but current models require idealized conditions, such as metal-free gas, to prevent cooling and star formation from consuming the gas reservoir. Here we report simulations showing that mergers between massive protogalaxies naturally produce the conditions for direct collapse into a supermassive black hole with no need to suppress cooling and star formation. Merger-driven gas inflows give rise to an unstable, massive nuclear gas disk of a few billion solar masses, which funnels more than 10(8) solar masses of gas to a sub-parsec-scale gas cloud in only 100,000 years. The cloud undergoes gravitational collapse, which eventually leads to the formation of a massive black hole. The black hole can subsequently grow to a billion solar masses on timescales of about 10(8) years by accreting gas from the surrounding disk.

  20. An Active Black Hole in a Compact Dwarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-05-01

    a supermassive black hole of ~2 million solar masses, according to the authors estimates. Paudel and collaboratorsshow that this mass is consistent with the low-mass extension of the known scaling relation between central black-hole mass and brightness of the host galaxy.Central black hole mass vs. bulge K-band magnitude. SDSS J085431.18+173730.5 (red dot) falls right on the low-mass extension of the observed scaling relation. It has similar properties to M32, another compact elliptical galaxy. [Adapted from Paudel et al. 2016]To add to the mystery, SDSS J085431.18+173730.5 has no nearby neighbors: like the few other isolated compact ellipticals recently discovered, there are no massive galaxies in the immediate vicinity that could have led to its tidal stripping. So how was this puzzling ancient galaxy formed?The authors of this study support a previously proposed flyby scenario: isolated compact ellipticals may simply be tidally stripped systems that ran away from their hosts. Paudel and collaborators suggest that SDSS J085431.18+173730.5 might have long ago interacted with NGC 2672 a galaxy group located a whopping 6.5 million light-years away before being flung out to its current location.Further studies of this unique galaxys emission profile, as well as efforts to learn about its underlying stellar population and central kinematics, will hopefully help us to better understand not only the origins of this galaxy, but how all compact ellipticals form and evolve.CitationSanjaya Paudel et al 2016 ApJ 820 L19. doi:10.3847/2041-8205/820/1/L19

  1. Uniaxial backfill block compaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koskinen, V.

    2012-05-01

    The main parts of the project were: to make a literature survey of the previous uniaxial compaction experiments; do uniaxial compaction tests in laboratory scale; and do industrial scale production tests. Object of the project was to sort out the different factors affecting the quality assurance chain of the backfill block uniaxial production and solve a material sticking to mould problem which appeared during manufacturing the blocks of bentonite and cruched rock mixture. The effect of mineralogical and chemical composition on the long term functionality of the backfill was excluded from the project. However, the used smectite-rich clays have been tested for mineralogical consistency. These tests were done in B and Tech OY according their SOPs. The objective of the Laboratory scale tests was to find right material- and compaction parameters for the industrial scale tests. Direct comparison between the laboratory scale tests and industrial scale tests is not possible because the mould geometry and compaction speed has a big influence for the compaction process. For this reason the selected material parameters were also affected by the previous compaction experiments. The industrial scale tests were done in summer of 2010 in southern Sweden. Blocks were done with uniaxial compaction. A 40 tons of the mixture of bentonite and crushed rock blocks and almost 50 tons of Friedland-clay blocks were compacted. (orig.)

  2. Compaction properties of isomalt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, Gerad K.; Engelhart, Jeffrey J. P.; Eissens, Anko C.

    Although other polyols have been described extensively as filler-binders in direct compaction of tablets, the polyol isomalt is rather unknown as pharmaceutical excipient, in spite of its description in all the main pharmacopoeias. In this paper the compaction properties of different types of

  3. Model Compaction Equation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The currently proposed model compaction equation was derived from data sourced from the. Niger Delta and it relates porosity to depth for sandstones under hydrostatic pressure condition. The equation is useful in predicting porosity and compaction trend in hydrostatic sands of the. Niger Delta. GEOLOGICAL SETTING OF ...

  4. Mining frequent binary expressions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calders, T.; Paredaens, J.; Kambayashi, Y.; Mohania, M.K.; Tjoa, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    In data mining, searching for frequent patterns is a common basic operation. It forms the basis of many interesting decision support processes. In this paper we present a new type of patterns, binary expressions. Based on the properties of a specified binary test, such as reflexivity, transitivity

  5. Stabilization of compactible waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, E.M.; Heiser, J.H. III; Colombo, P.

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of series of experiments performed to determine the feasibility of stabilizing compacted or compactible waste with polymers. The need for this work arose from problems encountered at disposal sites attributed to the instability of this waste in disposal. These studies are part of an experimental program conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) investigating methods for the improved solidification/stabilization of DOE low-level wastes. The approach taken in this study was to perform a series of survey type experiments using various polymerization systems to find the most economical and practical method for further in-depth studies. Compactible dry bulk waste was stabilized with two different monomer systems: styrene-trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) and polyester-styrene, in laboratory-scale experiments. Stabilization was accomplished by wetting or soaking compactible waste (before or after compaction) with monomers, which were subsequently polymerized. Three stabilization methods are described. One involves the in-situ treatment of compacted waste with monomers in which a vacuum technique is used to introduce the binder into the waste. The second method involves the alternate placement and compaction of waste and binder into a disposal container. In the third method, the waste is treated before compaction by wetting the waste with the binder using a spraying technique. A series of samples stabilized at various binder-to-waste ratios were evaluated through water immersion and compression testing. Full-scale studies were conducted by stabilizing two 55-gallon drums of real compacted waste. The results of this preliminary study indicate that the integrity of compacted waste forms can be readily improved to ensure their long-term durability in disposal environments. 9 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  6. General Relativity and Compact Stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glendenning, Norman K.

    2005-01-01

    Compact stars--broadly grouped as neutron stars and white dwarfs--are the ashes of luminous stars. One or the other is the fate that awaits the cores of most stars after a lifetime of tens to thousands of millions of years. Whichever of these objects is formed at the end of the life of a particular luminous star, the compact object will live in many respects unchanged from the state in which it was formed. Neutron stars themselves can take several forms--hyperon, hybrid, or strange quark star. Likewise white dwarfs take different forms though only in the dominant nuclear species. A black hole is probably the fate of the most massive stars, an inaccessible region of spacetime into which the entire star, ashes and all, falls at the end of the luminous phase. Neutron stars are the smallest, densest stars known. Like all stars, neutron stars rotate--some as many as a few hundred times a second. A star rotating at such a rate will experience an enormous centrifugal force that must be balanced by gravity or else it will be ripped apart. The balance of the two forces informs us of the lower limit on the stellar density. Neutron stars are 10 14 times denser than Earth. Some neutron stars are in binary orbit with a companion. Application of orbital mechanics allows an assessment of masses in some cases. The mass of a neutron star is typically 1.5 solar masses. They can therefore infer their radii: about ten kilometers. Into such a small object, the entire mass of our sun and more, is compressed

  7. Mouse Embryo Compaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, M D; Bissiere, S; Alvarez, Y D; Plachta, N

    2016-01-01

    Compaction is a critical first morphological event in the preimplantation development of the mammalian embryo. Characterized by the transformation of the embryo from a loose cluster of spherical cells into a tightly packed mass, compaction is a key step in the establishment of the first tissue-like structures of the embryo. Although early investigation of the mechanisms driving compaction implicated changes in cell-cell adhesion, recent work has identified essential roles for cortical tension and a compaction-specific class of filopodia. During the transition from 8 to 16 cells, as the embryo is compacting, it must also make fundamental decisions regarding cell position, polarity, and fate. Understanding how these and other processes are integrated with compaction requires further investigation. Emerging imaging-based techniques that enable quantitative analysis from the level of cell-cell interactions down to the level of individual regulatory molecules will provide a greater understanding of how compaction shapes the early mammalian embryo. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Small Valdivia compact spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Kubi's, W; Kubi\\'s, Wieslaw; Michalewski, Henryk

    2005-01-01

    We prove a preservation theorem for the class of Valdivia compact spaces, which involves inverse sequences of ``simple'' retractions. Consequently, a compact space of weight $\\loe\\aleph_1$ is Valdivia compact iff it is the limit of an inverse sequence of metric compacta whose bonding maps are retractions. As a corollary, we show that the class of Valdivia compacta of weight at most $\\aleph_1$ is preserved both under retractions and under open 0-dimensional images. Finally, we characterize the class of all Valdivia compacta in the language of category theory, which implies that this class is preserved under all continuous weight preserving functors.

  9. GridRun: A lightweight packaging and execution environment forcompact, multi-architecture binaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shalf, John; Goodale, Tom

    2004-02-01

    GridRun offers a very simple set of tools for creating and executing multi-platform binary executables. These ''fat-binaries'' archive native machine code into compact packages that are typically a fraction the size of the original binary images they store, enabling efficient staging of executables for heterogeneous parallel jobs. GridRun interoperates with existing distributed job launchers/managers like Condor and the Globus GRAM to greatly simplify the logic required launching native binary applications in distributed heterogeneous environments.

  10. Compact turbidity meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschberg, J. G.

    1979-01-01

    Proposed monitor that detects back-reflected infrared radiation makes in situ turbidity measurements of lakes, streams, and other bodies of water. Monitor is compact, works well in daylight as at night, and is easily operated in rough seas.

  11. Music from the heavens - gravitational waves from supermassive black hole mergers in the EAGLE simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcido, Jaime; Bower, Richard G.; Theuns, Tom; McAlpine, Stuart; Schaller, Matthieu; Crain, Robert A.; Schaye, Joop; Regan, John

    2016-11-01

    We estimate the expected event rate of gravitational wave signals from mergers of supermassive black holes that could be resolved by a space-based interferometer, such as the Evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (eLISA), utilizing the reference cosmological hydrodynamical simulation from the EAGLE suite. These simulations assume a Lambda cold dark matter cosmogony with state-of-the-art subgrid models for radiative cooling, star formation, stellar mass loss, and feedback from stars and accreting black holes. They have been shown to reproduce the observed galaxy population with unprecedented fidelity. We combine the merger rates of supermassive black holes in EAGLE with the latest phenomenological waveform models to calculate the gravitational waves signals from the intrinsic parameters of the merging black holes. The EAGLE models predict ˜2 detections per year by a gravitational wave detector such as eLISA. We find that these signals are largely dominated by mergers between seed mass black holes merging at redshifts between z ˜ 2 and z ˜ 1. In order to investigate the dependence on the assumed black hole seed mass, we introduce an additional model with a black hole seed mass an order of magnitude smaller than in our reference model. We also consider a variation of the reference model where a prescription for the expected delays in the black hole merger time-scale has been included after their host galaxies merge. We find that the merger rate is similar in all models, but that the initial black hole seed mass could be distinguished through their detected gravitational waveforms. Hence, the characteristic gravitational wave signals detected by eLISA will provide profound insight into the origin of supermassive black holes and the initial mass distribution of black hole seeds.

  12. Close binary stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson-Leander, G.

    1979-01-01

    Studies of close binary stars are being persued more vigorously than ever, with about 3000 research papers and notes pertaining to the field being published during the triennium 1976-1978. Many major advances and spectacular discoveries were made, mostly due to increased observational efficiency and precision, especially in the X-ray, radio, and ultraviolet domains. Progress reports are presented in the following areas: observational techniques, methods of analyzing light curves, observational data, physical data, structure and models of close binaries, statistical investigations, and origin and evolution of close binaries. Reports from the Coordinates Programs Committee, the Committee for Extra-Terrestrial Observations and the Working Group on RS CVn binaries are included. (Auth./C.F.)

  13. Binary and ternary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    Conditions for thermodynamical equilibrium in binary and ternary systems are considered. Main types of binary and ternary system phase diagrams are sequently constructed on the basis of general regularities on the character of transition from one equilibria to others. New statements on equilibrium line direction in the diagram triple points and their isothermal cross sections are developed. New represenations on equilibria in case of monovariant curve minimum and maximum on three-phase equilibrium formation in ternary system are introduced

  14. Planet formation in Binaries

    OpenAIRE

    Thebault, Ph.; Haghighipour, N.

    2014-01-01

    Spurred by the discovery of numerous exoplanets in multiple systems, binaries have become in recent years one of the main topics in planet formation research. Numerous studies have investigated to what extent the presence of a stellar companion can affect the planet formation process. Such studies have implications that can reach beyond the sole context of binaries, as they allow to test certain aspects of the planet formation scenario by submitting them to extreme environments. We review her...

  15. Testing the nature of the supermassive black hole candidate in SgrA* with light curves and images of hot spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zilong; Kong, Lingyao; Bambi, Cosimo

    2014-01-01

    General relativity makes clear predictions about the spacetime geometry around black holes. In the near future, new facilities will have the capability to explore the metric around SgrA*, the supermassive black hole candidate at the center of our Galaxy, and to open a new window to test the Kerr black hole hypothesis. In this paper, we compute light curves and images associated with compact emission regions (hot spots) orbiting around Kerr and non-Kerr black holes. We study how the analysis of the properties of the radiation emitted by a hot spot can be used to test the Kerr nature of SgrA*. We find that the sole observation of the hot spot light curve can at most constrain a combination of the black hole spin and of possible deviations from the Kerr solution. This happens because the same orbital frequency around a Kerr black hole can be found for a non-Kerr object with a different spin parameter. Second order corrections in the light curve due to the background geometry are typically too small to be identified. While the observation of the hot spot centroid track can potentially bound possible deviations from the Kerr solution, that is out of reach for the near future for the Very Large Telescope Interferometer instrument GRAVITY. The Kerr black hole hypothesis could really be tested in the case of the discovery of a radio pulsar in a compact orbit around SgrA*. Radio observations of such a pulsar would provide precise estimates of the mass and the spin of SgrA*, and the combination of these measurements (probing the weak field) with the hot spot light curve information (probing the strong field) may constrain/find possible deviations from the Kerr solution with quite good precision.

  16. Testing the nature of the supermassive black hole candidate in SgrA* with light curves and images of hot spots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zilong; Kong, Lingyao; Bambi, Cosimo [Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics and Department of Physics, Fudan University, 200433 Shanghai (China)

    2014-06-01

    General relativity makes clear predictions about the spacetime geometry around black holes. In the near future, new facilities will have the capability to explore the metric around SgrA*, the supermassive black hole candidate at the center of our Galaxy, and to open a new window to test the Kerr black hole hypothesis. In this paper, we compute light curves and images associated with compact emission regions (hot spots) orbiting around Kerr and non-Kerr black holes. We study how the analysis of the properties of the radiation emitted by a hot spot can be used to test the Kerr nature of SgrA*. We find that the sole observation of the hot spot light curve can at most constrain a combination of the black hole spin and of possible deviations from the Kerr solution. This happens because the same orbital frequency around a Kerr black hole can be found for a non-Kerr object with a different spin parameter. Second order corrections in the light curve due to the background geometry are typically too small to be identified. While the observation of the hot spot centroid track can potentially bound possible deviations from the Kerr solution, that is out of reach for the near future for the Very Large Telescope Interferometer instrument GRAVITY. The Kerr black hole hypothesis could really be tested in the case of the discovery of a radio pulsar in a compact orbit around SgrA*. Radio observations of such a pulsar would provide precise estimates of the mass and the spin of SgrA*, and the combination of these measurements (probing the weak field) with the hot spot light curve information (probing the strong field) may constrain/find possible deviations from the Kerr solution with quite good precision.

  17. Formation and Evolution of X-ray Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Y.

    2017-07-01

    X-ray binaries are a class of binary systems, in which the accretor is a compact star (i.e., black hole, neutron star, or white dwarf). They are one of the most important objects in the universe, which can be used to study not only binary evolution but also accretion disks and compact stars. Statistical investigations of these binaries help to understand the formation and evolution of galaxies, and sometimes provide useful constraints on the cosmological models. The goal of this thesis is to investigate the formation and evolution processes of X-ray binaries including Be/X-ray binaries, low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs), and cataclysmic variables. In Chapter 1 we give a brief review on the basic knowledge of the binary evolution. In Chapter 2 we discuss the formation of Be stars through binary interaction. In this chapter we investigate the formation of Be stars resulting from mass transfer in binaries in the Galaxy. Using binary evolution and population synthesis calculations, we find that in Be/neutron star binaries the Be stars have a lower limit of mass ˜ 8 M⊙ if they are formed by a stable (i.e., without the occurrence of common envelope evolution) and nonconservative mass transfer. We demonstrate that the isolated Be stars may originate from both mergers of two main-sequence stars and disrupted Be binaries during the supernova explosions of the primary stars, but mergers seem to play a much more important role. Finally the fraction of Be stars produced by binary interactions in all B type stars can be as high as ˜ 13%-30% , implying that most of Be stars may result from binary interaction. In Chapter 3 we show the evolution of intermediate- and low-mass X-ray binaries (I/LMXBs) and the formation of millisecond pulsars. Comparing the calculated results with the observations of binary radio pulsars, we report the following results: (1) The allowed parameter space for forming binary pulsars in the initial orbital period

  18. Compaction of FGD-gypsum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoop, B.T.J.; Larbi, J.A.; Heijnen, W.M.M.

    1996-01-01

    It is shown that it is possible to produce compacted gypsum with a low porosity and a high strength on a laboratory scale by uniaxial compaction of flue gas desulphurization (FGD-) gypsum powder. Compacted FGD-gypsum cylinders were produced at a compaction pres-sure between 50 and 500 MPa yielding

  19. The habitability of the Milky Way during the active phase of its central supermassive black hole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbi, Amedeo; Tombesi, Francesco

    2017-11-30

    During the peak of their accretion phase, supermassive black holes in galactic cores are known to emit very high levels of ionizing radiation, becoming visible over intergalactic distances as quasars or active galactic nuclei (AGN). Here, we quantify the extent to which the activity of the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way, known as Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*), may have affected the habitability of Earth-like planets in our Galaxy. We focus on the amount of atmospheric loss and on the possible biological damage suffered by planets exposed to X-ray and extreme ultraviolet (XUV) radiation produced during the peak of the active phase of Sgr A*. We find that terrestrial planets could lose a total atmospheric mass comparable to that of present day Earth even at large distances (~1 kiloparsec) from the galactic center. Furthermore, we find that the direct biological damage caused by Sgr A* to surface life on planets not properly screened by an atmosphere was probably significant during the AGN phase, possibly hindering the development of complex life within a few kiloparsecs from the galactic center.

  20. The effect of nuclear gas distribution on the mass determination of supermassive black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía-Restrepo, J. E.; Lira, P.; Netzer, H.; Trakhtenbrot, B.; Capellupo, D. M.

    2018-01-01

    Supermassive black holes reside in the nuclei of most galaxies. During their active episodes, black holes are powered by accretion discs where gravitational energy is converted into radiation1. Accurately determining black hole masses is key to understand how the population evolves over time and how the black holes relate to their host galaxies2-4. Beyond the local universe, z ≳ 0.2, the mass is commonly estimated assuming a virialized motion of gas in the close vicinity of the active black holes, traced through broad emission lines5,6. However, this procedure has uncertainties associated with the unknown distribution of the gas clouds. Here, we show that the black hole masses derived from the properties of the accretion disk and virial mass estimates differ by a factor that is inversely proportional to the width of the broad emission lines. This leads to virial mass misestimations up to a factor of six. Our results suggest that a planar gas distribution that is inclined with respect to the line of sight may account for this effect. However, radiation pressure effects on the distribution of gas can also reproduce our results. Regardless of the physical origin, our findings contribute to mitigating the uncertainties in current black hole mass estimations and, in turn, will help us to better understand the evolution of distant supermassive black holes and their host galaxies.

  1. Testing General Relativity with Stellar Orbits around the Supermassive Black Hole in Our Galactic Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hees, A; Do, T; Ghez, A M; Martinez, G D; Naoz, S; Becklin, E E; Boehle, A; Chappell, S; Chu, D; Dehghanfar, A; Kosmo, K; Lu, J R; Matthews, K; Morris, M R; Sakai, S; Schödel, R; Witzel, G

    2017-05-26

    We demonstrate that short-period stars orbiting around the supermassive black hole in our Galactic center can successfully be used to probe the gravitational theory in a strong regime. We use 19 years of observations of the two best measured short-period stars orbiting our Galactic center to constrain a hypothetical fifth force that arises in various scenarios motivated by the development of a unification theory or in some models of dark matter and dark energy. No deviation from general relativity is reported and the fifth force strength is restricted to an upper 95% confidence limit of |α|<0.016 at a length scale of λ=150 astronomical units. We also derive a 95% confidence upper limit on a linear drift of the argument of periastron of the short-period star S0-2 of |ω[over ˙]_{S0-2}|<1.6×10^{-3}  rad/yr, which can be used to constrain various gravitational and astrophysical theories. This analysis provides the first fully self-consistent test of the gravitational theory using orbital dynamic in a strong gravitational regime, that of a supermassive black hole. A sensitivity analysis for future measurements is also presented.

  2. Physically detached 'compact groups'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernquist, Lars; Katz, Neal; Weinberg, David H.

    1995-01-01

    A small fraction of galaxies appear to reside in dense compact groups, whose inferred crossing times are much shorter than a Hubble time. These short crossing times have led to considerable disagreement among researchers attempting to deduce the dynamical state of these systems. In this paper, we suggest that many of the observed groups are not physically bound but are chance projections of galaxies well separated along the line of sight. Unlike earlier similar proposals, ours does not require that the galaxies in the compact group be members of a more diffuse, but physically bound entity. The probability of physically separated galaxies projecting into an apparent compact group is nonnegligible if most galaxies are distributed in thin filaments. We illustrate this general point with a specific example: a simulation of a cold dark matter universe, in which hydrodynamic effects are included to identify galaxies. The simulated galaxy distribution is filamentary and end-on views of these filaments produce apparent galaxy associations that have sizes and velocity dispersions similar to those of observed compact groups. The frequency of such projections is sufficient, in principle, to explain the observed space density of groups in the Hickson catalog. We discuss the implications of our proposal for the formation and evolution of groups and elliptical galaxies. The proposal can be tested by using redshift-independent distance estimators to measure the line-of-sight spatial extent of nearby compact groups.

  3. Evolution of massive close binary stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masevich, A.G.; Tutukov, A.V.

    1982-01-01

    Some problems of the evolution of massive close binary stars are discussed. Most of them are nonevolutionized stars with close masses of components. After filling the Roche cavity and exchange of matter between the components the Wolf-Rayet star is formed. As a result of the supernovae explosion a neutron star or a black hole is formed in the system. The system does not disintegrate but obtains high space velocity owing to the loss of the supernovae envelope. The satellite of the neutron star or black hole - the star of the O or B spectral class loses about 10 -6 of the solar mass for a year. Around the neighbouring component a disc of this matter is formed the incidence of which on a compact star leads to X radiation appearance. The neutron star cannot absorb the whole matter of the widening component and the binary system submerges into the common envelope. As a result of the evolution of massive close binary systems single neutron stars can appear which after the lapse of some time become radiopulsars. Radiopulsars with such high space velocities have been found in our Galaxy [ru

  4. Skewed Binary Search Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Moruz, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    It is well-known that to minimize the number of comparisons a binary search tree should be perfectly balanced. Previous work has shown that a dominating factor over the running time for a search is the number of cache faults performed, and that an appropriate memory layout of a binary search tree...... can reduce the number of cache faults by several hundred percent. Motivated by the fact that during a search branching to the left or right at a node does not necessarily have the same cost, e.g. because of branch prediction schemes, we in this paper study the class of skewed binary search trees....... For all nodes in a skewed binary search tree the ratio between the size of the left subtree and the size of the tree is a fixed constant (a ratio of 1/2 gives perfect balanced trees). In this paper we present an experimental study of various memory layouts of static skewed binary search trees, where each...

  5. Inhomogeneous compact extra dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronnikov, K.A. [Center of Gravity and Fundamental Metrology, VNIIMS, 46 Ozyornaya st., Moscow 119361 (Russian Federation); Budaev, R.I.; Grobov, A.V.; Dmitriev, A.E.; Rubin, Sergey G., E-mail: kb20@yandex.ru, E-mail: buday48@mail.ru, E-mail: alexey.grobov@gmail.com, E-mail: alexdintras@mail.ru, E-mail: sergeirubin@list.ru [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-10-01

    We show that an inhomogeneous compact extra space possesses two necessary features— their existence does not contradict the observable value of the cosmological constant Λ{sub 4} in pure f ( R ) theory, and the extra dimensions are stable relative to the 'radion mode' of perturbations, the only mode considered. For a two-dimensional extra space, both analytical and numerical solutions for the metric are found, able to provide a zero or arbitrarily small Λ{sub 4}. A no-go theorem has also been proved, that maximally symmetric compact extra spaces are inconsistent with 4D Minkowski space in the framework of pure f ( R ) gravity.

  6. Modelling binary data

    CERN Document Server

    Collett, David

    2002-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Some Examples The Scope of this Book Use of Statistical Software STATISTICAL INFERENCE FOR BINARY DATA The Binomial Distribution Inference about the Success Probability Comparison of Two Proportions Comparison of Two or More Proportions MODELS FOR BINARY AND BINOMIAL DATA Statistical Modelling Linear Models Methods of Estimation Fitting Linear Models to Binomial Data Models for Binomial Response Data The Linear Logistic Model Fitting the Linear Logistic Model to Binomial Data Goodness of Fit of a Linear Logistic Model Comparing Linear Logistic Models Linear Trend in Proportions Comparing Stimulus-Response Relationships Non-Convergence and Overfitting Some other Goodness of Fit Statistics Strategy for Model Selection Predicting a Binary Response Probability BIOASSAY AND SOME OTHER APPLICATIONS The Tolerance Distribution Estimating an Effective Dose Relative Potency Natural Response Non-Linear Logistic Regression Models Applications of the Complementary Log-Log Model MODEL CHECKING Definition of Re...

  7. Evolution of dwarf binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tutukov, A.V.; Fedorova, A.V.; Yungel'son, L.R.

    1982-01-01

    The conditions of mass exchange in close binary systems with masses of components less or equal to one solar mass have been analysed for the case, when the system radiates gravitational waves. It has been shown that the mass exchange rate depends in a certain way on the mass ratio of components and on the mass of component that fills its inner critical lobe. The comparison of observed periods, masses of contact components, and mass exchange rates of observed cataclysmic binaries have led to the conclusion that the evolution of close binaries WZ Sge, OY Car, Z Cha, TT Ari, 2A 0311-227, and G 61-29 may be driven by the emission of gravitational waves [ru

  8. Binary catalogue of exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Richard; Bazso, Akos; Zechner, Renate; Funk, Barbara

    2016-02-01

    Since 1995 there is a database which list most of the known exoplanets (The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia at http://exoplanet.eu/). With the growing number of detected exoplanets in binary and multiple star systems it became more important to mark and to separate them into a new database, which is not available in the Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia. Therefore we established an online database (which can be found at: http://www.univie.ac.at/adg/schwarz/multiple.html) for all known exoplanets in binary star systems and in addition for multiple star systems, which will be updated regularly and linked to the Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia. The binary catalogue of exoplanets is available online as data file and can be used for statistical purposes. Our database is divided into two parts: the data of the stars and the planets, given in a separate list. We describe also the different parameters of the exoplanetary systems and present some applications.

  9. Binary and Millisecond Pulsars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorimer, Duncan R

    2008-01-01

    We review the main properties, demographics and applications of binary and millisecond radio pulsars. Our knowledge of these exciting objects has greatly increased in recent years, mainly due to successful surveys which have brought the known pulsar population to over 1800. There are now 83 binary and millisecond pulsars associated with the disk of our Galaxy, and a further 140 pulsars in 26 of the Galactic globular clusters. Recent highlights include the discovery of the young relativistic binary system PSR J1906+0746, a rejuvination in globular cluster pulsar research including growing numbers of pulsars with masses in excess of 1.5 M ⊙ , a precise measurement of relativistic spin precession in the double pulsar system and a Galactic millisecond pulsar in an eccentric ( e = 0.44) orbit around an unevolved companion. Supplementary material is available for this article at 10.12942/lrr-2008-8.

  10. Binary and Millisecond Pulsars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorimer Duncan R.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We review the main properties, demographics and applications of binary and millisecond radio pulsars. Our knowledge of these exciting objects has greatly increased in recent years, mainly due to successful surveys which have brought the known pulsar population to over 1800. There are now 83 binary and millisecond pulsars associated with the disk of our Galaxy, and a further 140 pulsars in 26 of the Galactic globular clusters. Recent highlights include the discovery of the young relativistic binary system PSR J1906+0746, a rejuvination in globular cluster pulsar research including growing numbers of pulsars with masses in excess of 1.5M_⊙, a precise measurement of relativistic spin precession in the double pulsar system and a Galactic millisecond pulsar in an eccentric (e = 0.44 orbit around an unevolved companion.

  11. Multi-Messenger Astronomy: White Dwarf Binaries, LISA and GAIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Michael; Breivik, Katelyn; Larson, Shane L.

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of gravitational waves has ushered in a new era in astronomy. The low-frequency band covered by the future LISA detector provides unprecedented opportunities for multi-messenger astronomy. With the Global Astrometric Interferometer for Astrophysics (GAIA) mission, we expect to discover about 1,000 eclipsing binary systems composed of a WD and a main sequence star - a sizeable increase from the approximately 34 currently known binaries of this type. In advance of the first GAIA data release and the launch of LISA within the next decade, we used the Binary Stellar Evolution (BSE) code simulate the evolution of White Dwarf Binaries (WDB) in a fixed galaxy population of about 196,000 sources. Our goal is to assess the detectability of a WDB by LISA and GAIA using the parameters from our population synthesis, we calculate GW strength h, and apparent GAIA magnitude G. We can then use a scale factor to make a prediction of how many multi- messenger sources we expect to be detectable by both LISA and GAIA in a galaxy the size of the Milky Way. We create binaries 10 times to ensure randomness in distance assignment and average our results. We then determined whether or not astronomical chirp is the difference between the total chirp and the GW chirp. With Astronomical chirp and simulations of mass transfer and tides, we can gather more information about the internal astrophysics of stars in ultra-compact binary systems.

  12. Asymmetric supernova explosions and the origin of binary pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutantyo, W.

    1978-01-01

    The author investigates the effect of asymmetric supernova explosions on the orbital parameters of binary systems with a compact component. Such explosions are related to the origin of binary pulsars. The degree of asymmetry of the explosion is represented by the kick velocity gained by the exploding star due to the asymmetric mass ejection. The required kick velocity to produce the observed parameters of the binary pulsar PSR 1913 + 16 should be larger than approximately 80 km s -1 if the mass of the exploding star is larger than approximately 4 solar masses. The mean survival probability of the binary system ( ) is examined for various degrees of asymmetry in the explosion. The rare occurrence of a binary pulsar does not neccessarily imply that such a probability is low since not all pulsars have originated in a binary system. Assuming the birth rate of pulsars by Taylor and Manchester (1977), it is derived that would be as high as 0.25. Such values of can be obtained if the mass of the exploding stars is, in general, not large (< approximately 10 solar masses). (Auth.)

  13. Dissipative binary collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboufirassi, M; Angelique, J.C.; Bizard, G.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Buta, A.; Colin, J.; Cussol, D.; Durand, D.; Genoux-Lubain, A.; Horn, D.; Kerambrun, A.; Laville, J.L.; Le Brun, C.; Lecolley, J.F.; Lefebvres, F.; Lopez, O.; Louvel, M.; Meslin, C.; Metivier, V.; Nakagawa, T.; Peter, J.; Popescu, R.; Regimbart, R.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E.; Wieloch, A.; Yuasa-Nakagawa, K.

    1998-01-01

    The binary character of the heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies in the exit channel has been observed under 30 MeV/n in medium and heavy systems. Measurements in light systems at energies approaching ∼ 100 MeV/nucleon as well as in very heavy systems have allowed to extend considerably the investigations of this binary process. Thus, the study of the Pb + Au system showed that the complete charge events indicated two distinct sources: the quasi-projectile and the quasi-target. The characteristics of these two sources are rather well reproduced by a trajectory computation which takes into account the Coulomb and nuclear forces and the friction appearing from the projectile-target interaction. The Wilczynski diagram is used to probe the correlation between the kinetic energy quenching and the deflecting angle. In case of the system Pb + Au at 29 MeV/nucleon the diagram indicate dissipative binary collisions typical for low energies. This binary aspect was also detected in the systems Xe + Ag at 44 MeV/nucleon, 36 Ar + 27 Al and 64 Zn + nat Ti. Thus, it was possible to reconstruct the quasi-projectile and to study its mass and excitation energy evolution as a function of the impact parameter. The dissipative binary collisions represent for the systems and energies under considerations the main contribution to the cross section. This does not implies that there are not other processes; particularly, the more or less complete fusion is also observed but with a low cross section which decreases with the increase of bombardment energy. More exclusive measurements with the INDRA detector on quasi-symmetric systems as Ar + KCl and Xe + Sn seem to confirm the importance of the binary collisions. The two source reconstruction of the Xe + Sn data at 50 MeV/nucleon reproduces the same behaviour as that observed in the system Pb + Au at 29 MeV/nucleon

  14. Binary and Millisecond Pulsars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorimer Duncan R.

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available We review the main properties, demographics and applications of binary and millisecond radio pulsars. Our knowledge of these exciting objects has greatly increased in recent years, mainly due to successful surveys which have brought the known pulsar population to over 1700. There are now 80 binary and millisecond pulsars associated with the disk of our Galaxy, and a further 103 pulsars in 24 of the Galactic globular clusters. Recent highlights have been the discovery of the first ever double pulsar system and a recent flurry of discoveries in globular clusters, in particular Terzan 5.

  15. Characterization of ceramic powder compacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanai, K.; Ishimoto, S.; Kubo, T.; Ito, K.; Ishikawa, T.; Hayashi, H.

    1995-01-01

    UO 2 and Al 2 O 3 powder packing structures in cylindrical powder compacts are observed by scanning electron microscopy using polished cross sections of compacts fixed by low viscosity epoxy resin. Hard aggregates which are not destroyed during powder compaction are observed in some of the UO 2 powder compacts. A technique to measure local density in powder compacts is developed based on counting characteristic X-ray intensity by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). The local density of the corner portion of the powder compact fabricated by double-acting dry press is higher than that of the inner portion. ((orig.))

  16. Some observational aspects of compact galactic X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heise, J.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis contains the following observations of compact galactic X-ray sources: i) the X-ray experiments onboard the Astronomical Netherlands Satellite ANS, ii) a rocket-borne ultra soft X-ray experiment and iii) the Objective Grating Spectrometer onboard the EINSTEIN observatory. In Chapter I the various types of compact galactic X-ray sources are reviewed and put into the perspective of earlier and following observations. In Chapter II the author presents some of the observations of high luminosity X-ray sources, made with ANS, including the detection of soft X-rays from the compact X-ray binary Hercules X-1 and the ''return to the high state'' of the black hole candidate Cygnus X-1. Chapter III deals with transient X-ray phenomena. Results on low luminosity galactic X-ray sources are collected in Chapter IV. (Auth.)

  17. A new non-thermal galactic radio source with a possible binary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuerst, E.; Reich, W.; Reich, P.; Sofue, Y.; Handa, T.

    1985-01-01

    A galactic object [G18.95-1.1], detected recently in a galactic plane survey, may belong to a new class of non-thermal radio sources that originate in accreting binary systems. The data on integrated flux density spectral index and the polarization, proves the non-thermal nature of the source. The morphology defies any classification as a supernova remnant. The authors suggest that the object is a binary system containing a compact component. (U.K.)

  18. A parallel algorithm for filtering gravitational waves from coalescing binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathyaprakash, B.S.; Dhurandhar, S.V.

    1992-10-01

    Coalescing binary stars are perhaps the most promising sources for the observation of gravitational waves with laser interferometric gravity wave detectors. The waveform from these sources can be predicted with sufficient accuracy for matched filtering techniques to be applied. In this paper we present a parallel algorithm for detecting signals from coalescing compact binaries by the method of matched filtering. We also report the details of its implementation on a 256-node connection machine consisting of a network of transputers. The results of our analysis indicate that parallel processing is a promising approach to on-line analysis of data from gravitational wave detectors to filter out coalescing binary signals. The algorithm described is quite general in that the kernel of the algorithm is applicable to any set of matched filters. (author). 15 refs, 4 figs

  19. Gravitational-wave memory revisited: Memory from the merger and recoil of binary black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favata, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Gravitational-wave memory refers to the permanent displacement of the test masses in an idealized (freely-falling) gravitational-wave interferometer. Inspiraling binaries produce a particularly interesting form of memory-the Christodoulou memory. Although it originates from nonlinear interactions at 2.5 post-Newtonian order, the Christodoulou memory affects the gravitational-wave amplitude at leading (Newtonian) order. Previous calculations have computed this non-oscillatory amplitude correction during the inspiral phase of binary coalescence. Using an 'effective-one-body' description calibrated with the results of numerical relativity simulations, the evolution of the memory during the inspiral, merger, and ringdown phases, as well as the memory's final saturation value, are calculated. Using this model for the memory, the prospects for its detection are examined, particularly for supermassive black hole binary coalescences that LISA will detect with high signal-to-noise ratios. Coalescing binary black holes also experience center-of-mass recoil due to the anisotropic emission of gravitational radiation. These recoils can manifest themselves in the gravitational-wave signal in the form of a 'linear' memory and a Doppler shift of the quasi-normal-mode frequencies. The prospects for observing these effects are also discussed.

  20. Equational binary decision diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. Groote (Jan Friso); J.C. van de Pol (Jaco)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWe incorporate equations in binary decision diagrams (BDD). The resulting objects are called EQ-BDDs. A straightforward notion of ordered EQ-BDDs (EQ-OBDD) is defined, and it is proved that each EQ-BDD is logically equivalent to an EQ-OBDD. Moreover, on EQ-OBDDs satisfiability and

  1. Binary tense and modality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuis, H.; Verkuyl, H.J

    2014-01-01

    The present paper adopts as its point of departure the claim by Te Winkel (1866) and Verkuyl (2008) that mental temporal representations are built on the basis of three binary oppositions: Present/Past, Synchronous/Posterior and Imperfect/Perfect. Te Winkel took the second opposition in terms of the

  2. N-Bit Binary Resistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tcheng, Ping

    1989-01-01

    Binary resistors in series tailored to precise value of resistance. Desired value of resistance obtained by cutting appropriate traces across resistors. Multibit, binary-based, adjustable resistor with high resolution used in many applications where precise resistance required.

  3. Binary neutron star merger simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruegmann, Bernd [Jena Univ. (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    Our research focuses on the numerical tools necessary to solve Einstein's equations. In recent years we have been particularly interested in spacetimes consisting of two neutron stars in the final stages of their evolution. Because of the emission of gravitational radiation, the objects are driven together to merge; the emitted gravitational wave signal is visualized. This emitted gravitational radiation carries energy and momentum away from the system and contains information about the system. Late last year the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) began searches for these gravitational wave signals at a sensitivity at which detections are expected. Although such systems can radiate a significant amount of their total mass-energy in gravitational waves, the gravitational wave signals one expects to receive on Earth are not strong, since sources of gravitational waves are often many millions of light years away. Therefore one needs accurate templates for the radiation one expects from such systems in order to be able to extract them out of the detector's noise. Although analytical models exist for compact binary systems when the constituents are well separated, we need numerical simulation to investigate the last orbits before merger to obtain accurate templates and validate analytical approximations. Due to the strong nonlinearity of the equations and the large separation of length scales, these simulations are computationally demanding and need to be run on large supercomputers. When matter is present the computational cost as compared to pure black hole (vacuum) simulations increases even more due to the additional matter fields. But also more interesting astrophysical phenomena can happen. In fact, there is the possibility for a strong electromagnetic signal from the merger (e.g., a short gamma-ray burst or lower-energy electromagnetic signatures from the ejecta) and significant neutrino emission. Additionally, we can expect that

  4. Signature of Plausible Accreting Supermassive Black Holes in Mrk 261/262 and Mrk 266

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagik Ter-Kazarian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We address the neutrino radiation of plausible accreting supermassive black holes closely linking to the 5 nuclear components of galaxy samples of Mrk 261/262 and Mrk 266. We predict a time delay before neutrino emission of the same scale as the age of the Universe. The ultrahigh energy neutrinos are produced in superdense protomatter medium via simple (quark or pionic reactions or modified URCA processes (G. Gamow was inspired to name the process URCA after the name of a casino in Rio de Janeiro. The resulting neutrino fluxes for quark reactions are ranging from to , where is the opening parameter. For pionic and modified URCA reactions, the fluxes are and , respectively. These fluxes are highly beamed along the plane of accretion disk, peaked at ultrahigh energies, and collimated in smaller opening angle .

  5. Major galaxy mergers and the growth of supermassive black holes in quasars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treister, Ezequiel; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Sanders, David B; Urry, C Megan; Schawinski, Kevin; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan

    2010-04-30

    Despite observed strong correlations between central supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and star formation in galactic nuclei, uncertainties exist in our understanding of their coupling. We present observations of the ratio of heavily obscured to unobscured quasars as a function of cosmic epoch up to z congruent with 3 and show that a simple physical model describing mergers of massive, gas-rich galaxies matches these observations. In the context of this model, every obscured and unobscured quasar represents two distinct phases that result from a massive galaxy merger event. Much of the mass growth of the SMBH occurs during the heavily obscured phase. These observations provide additional evidence for a causal link between gas-rich galaxy mergers, accretion onto the nuclear SMBH, and coeval star formation.

  6. Large-scale dynamo of accretion disks around supermassive nonrotating black holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poplavsky A.L.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper one presents an analytical model of accretion disk magnetosphere dynamics around supermassive nonrotating black holes in the centers of active galactic nuclei. Based on general relativistic equations of magneto hydrodynamics, the nonstationary solutions for time-dependent dynamo action in the accretion disks, spatial and temporal distribution of magnetic field are found. It is shown that there are two distinct stages of dynamo process: the transient and the steady-state regimes, the induction of magnetic field at t > 6:6665 x 1011GM/c3 s becomes stationary, magnetic field is located near the innermost stable circular orbit, and its value rises up to ~ 105 G. Applications of such systems with nonrotating black holes in real active galactic nuclei are discussed.

  7. EPISODIC ACTIVITIES OF SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES AT REDSHIFT z ≤ 2: DRIVEN BY MERGERS?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yanrong; Wang Jianmin; Hu Chen; Zhang Shu; Yuan Yefei

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested for quite a long time that galaxy mergers trigger activities of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) on the grounds of imaging observations of individual galaxies. To quantitatively examine this hypothesis, we calculate quasar luminosity functions (LFs) by manipulating the observed galaxy LFs (z ∼ maj ∼ 0.2 at z ∼ 2 to f maj → 0 at z ∼ 0. As a consequence, the newly formed SMBHs from major mergers at z ∼ 2 may acquire a maximal spin due to the orbital angular momentum of the merging holes. Subsequently, random accretion led by minor mergers rapidly drives the SMBHs to spin down. Such an evolutionary trend of the SMBH spins is consistent with the fact that radiative efficiency of accreting SMBHs strongly declines with cosmic time, reported by Wang et al. This suggests that minor mergers are important in triggering activities of SMBHs at low redshift, while major mergers may dominate at high redshift.

  8. The Galactic Tango: The Elegant Dance of Galaxies and their Supermassive Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Sydney; Li, Yuexing; Zhu, Qirong

    2015-01-01

    For well over a decade, it has been known that a supermassive black hole resides in the center of almost every galaxy, and that these black holes strongly correlate with the stellar velocity dispersion (the MBH-σ correlation) and stellar mass (the MBH-Mhost correlation) of their hosts. The origins of these correlations, however, have yet to be determined. To explore the interplay between black holes and galaxies, we have utilized a sample of nearby spiral and elliptical galaxies as well as a sample of AGN in the redshift range z = 0-3. By examining galaxy properties such as mass, kinematics, and growth history, we have determined that these two correlations have distinct origins: the MBH-σ relation may be the result of virial equilibrium, whereas the MBH-Mhost relation may be the result of self-regulated black hole growth and star formation in galaxies. These results confirm the predictions of our previous theoretical model.

  9. MILKY WAY SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE: DYNAMICAL FEEDING FROM THE CIRCUMNUCLEAR ENVIRONMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Hsieh, Pei-Ying; Ho, Paul T. P.; Su, Yu-Nung; Wright, Melvyn; Sun, Ai-Lei; Minh, Young Chol

    2012-01-01

    The supermassive black hole (SMBH), Sgr A*, at the Galactic center is surrounded by a molecular circumnuclear disk (CND) lying between 1.5 and 4 pc radii. The irregular and clumpy structures of the CND suggest dynamical evolution and episodic feeding of gas toward the central SMBH. New sensitive data from the Submillimeter Array and Green Bank Telescope reveal several >5-10 pc scale molecular arms, which either directly connect to the CND or may penetrate inside the CND. The CND appears to be the convergence of the innermost parts of large-scale gas streamers, which are responding to the central gravitational potential well. Rather than being a quasi-stationary structure, the CND may be dynamically evolving, incorporating inflow via streamers, and feeding gas toward the center.

  10. Substance accretion onto supermassive black holes and X radiation of active galaxy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zentsova, A.S.

    1980-01-01

    The X-ray radiation of quasars and Seyfert galaxies is explained on the ground of the two-temperature model of the disk accretion onto a supermassive black hole. The inner region of the disk is optically thin to absorption, gas-pressure dominated and the electron temperature is approximately 5x10 8 K and ion temperature is approximately 10 3 times higher. X radiation is produced by inverse Compton scatetring of soft radiation in the inner region of the disk. The source of soft radiation is the outer region of the disk. This model predicts a power spectrum of the radiation from 1 to 60 keV with the index γ=1, the latter approaches to a mean spectral index of X radiation of active galaxy nuclei [ru

  11. The M BH versus M Gσ2 relation and the accretion of supermassive black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feoli, A.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a possible scenario that can explain the physical processes underlying the relation log 10 (M BH ) = b + mlog 10 (M G σ 2 /c 2 ) between the mass M BH of supermassive black holes, growing in the center of many galaxies, and the kinetic energy of the corresponding bulges (M G being the bulge mass and σ the velocity dispersion). In a series of papers, this scaling law proved to be very useful to describe the evolution of galaxies thanks to its close similarity to the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. Studying the relation with different samples of galaxies, we have generally found a slope that can vary between two extremal theoretical possibilities, m = 3/4 and m = 1. We will try to describe a possible scenario compatible with the second one. Finally, we also examine a case of a relation that is linear, not in kinetic energy, but in momentum parameter.

  12. Cosmological evolution of supermassive black holes in galactic centers unveiled by hard X-ray observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    We review the current understanding of the cosmological evolution of supermassive black holes in galactic centers elucidated by X-ray surveys of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Hard X-ray observations at energies above 2 keV are the most efficient and complete tools to find "obscured" AGNs, which are dominant populations among all AGNs. Combinations of surveys with various flux limits and survey area have enabled us to determine the space number density and obscuration properties of AGNs as a function of luminosity and redshift. The results have essentially solved the origin of the X-ray background in the energy band below ∼10 keV. The downsizing (or anti-hierarchical) evolution that more luminous AGNs have the space-density peak at higher redshifts has been discovered, challenging theories of galaxy and black hole formation. Finally, we summarize unresolved issues on AGN evolution and prospects for future X-ray missions.

  13. Supermassive Black Holes as Revealed by LISA: How Gravitational Wave Astronomy Will be a Game Changer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly

    2018-04-01

    Astronomers now know that supermassive black holes are in nearly every galaxy.Though these black holes are an observational certainty, nearly every aspect of their evolution -- from their birth, to their fuel source, to their basic dynamics -- is a matter of lively debate. Fortunately, LISA, a space-based gravitational wave observatory set to launch in 2034, will revolutionize this field by providing data that is complementary to electromagnetic observations as well as data in regimes that are electromagnetically dark. This talk will touch on our current understanding of how SMBHs form, evolve, and alter their galaxy host, and will outline the theoretical, computational and observational work needed to make the most of LISA observations.

  14. The True Ultracool Binary Fraction Using Spectral Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardalez Gagliuffi, Daniella; Burgasser, Adam J.; Schmidt, Sarah J.; Gagné, Jonathan; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Cruz, Kelle; Gelino, Chris

    2018-01-01

    Brown dwarfs bridge the gap between stars and giant planets. While the essential mechanisms governing their formation are not well constrained, binary statistics are a direct outcome of the formation process, and thus provide a means to test formation theories. Observational constraints on the brown dwarf binary fraction place it at 10 ‑ 20%, dominated by imaging studies (85% of systems) with the most common separation at 4 AU. This coincides with the resolution limit of state-of-the-art imaging techniques, suggesting that the binary fraction is underestimated. We have developed a separation-independent method to identify and characterize tightly-separated (dwarfs as spectral binaries by identifying traces of methane in the spectra of late-M and early-L dwarfs. Imaging follow-up of 17 spectral binaries yielded 3 (18%) resolved systems, corroborating the observed binary fraction, but 5 (29%) known binaries were missed, reinforcing the hypothesis that the short-separation systems are undercounted. In order to find the true binary fraction of brown dwarfs, we have compiled a volume-limited, spectroscopic sample of M7-L5 dwarfs and searched for T dwarf companions. In the 25 pc volume, 4 candidates were found, three of which are already confirmed, leading to a spectral binary fraction of 0.95 ± 0.50%, albeit for a specific combination of spectral types. To extract the true binary fraction and determine the biases of the spectral binary method, we have produced a binary population simulation based on different assumptions of the mass function, age distribution, evolutionary models and mass ratio distribution. Applying the correction fraction resulting from this method to the observed spectral binary fraction yields a true binary fraction of 27 ± 4%, which is roughly within 1σ of the binary fraction obtained from high resolution imaging studies, radial velocity and astrometric monitoring. This method can be extended to identify giant planet companions to young brown

  15. Suppressing star formation in quiescent galaxies with supermassive black hole winds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Edmond; Bundy, Kevin; Cappellari, Michele; Peirani, Sébastien; Rujopakarn, Wiphu; Westfall, Kyle; Yan, Renbin; Bershady, Matthew; Greene, Jenny E; Heckman, Timothy M; Drory, Niv; Law, David R; Masters, Karen L; Thomas, Daniel; Wake, David A; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Rubin, Kate; Belfiore, Francesco; Vulcani, Benedetta; Chen, Yan-mei; Zhang, Kai; Gelfand, Joseph D; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Roman-Lopes, A; Schneider, Donald P

    2016-05-26

    Quiescent galaxies with little or no ongoing star formation dominate the population of galaxies with masses above 2 × 10(10) times that of the Sun; the number of quiescent galaxies has increased by a factor of about 25 over the past ten billion years (refs 1-4). Once star formation has been shut down, perhaps during the quasar phase of rapid accretion onto a supermassive black hole, an unknown mechanism must remove or heat the gas that is subsequently accreted from either stellar mass loss or mergers and that would otherwise cool to form stars. Energy output from a black hole accreting at a low rate has been proposed, but observational evidence for this in the form of expanding hot gas shells is indirect and limited to radio galaxies at the centres of clusters, which are too rare to explain the vast majority of the quiescent population. Here we report bisymmetric emission features co-aligned with strong ionized-gas velocity gradients from which we infer the presence of centrally driven winds in typical quiescent galaxies that host low-luminosity active nuclei. These galaxies are surprisingly common, accounting for as much as ten per cent of the quiescent population with masses around 2 × 10(10) times that of the Sun. In a prototypical example, we calculate that the energy input from the galaxy's low-level active supermassive black hole is capable of driving the observed wind, which contains sufficient mechanical energy to heat ambient, cooler gas (also detected) and thereby suppress star formation.

  16. Confined-exotic-matter wormholes with no gluing effects—Imaging supermassive wormholes and black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azreg-Aïnou, Mustapha, E-mail: azreg@baskent.edu.tr [Başkent University, Faculty of Engineering, Bağlıca Campus, 06810 Ankara (Turkey)

    2015-07-01

    We classify wormholes endowed with redshift effects and finite mass into three types. Type I wormholes have their radial pressure dying out faster, as one moves away from the throat, than any other component of the stress-energy and thus violate the least the local energy conditions. In type II (resp. III) wormholes the radial and transverse pressures are asymptotically proportional and die out faster (resp. slower) than the energy density. We introduce a novel and generalizable method for deriving, with no cutoff in the stress-energy or gluing, a class of each of the three wormhole types. We focus on type I wormholes and construct different asymptotically flat solutions with finite, upper- and lower-bounded, mass M. It is observed that the radial pressure is negative, and the null energy condition is violated, only inside a narrow layer, adjacent to the throat, of relative spacial extent ε. Reducing the relative size of the layer, without harming the condition of traversability, yields an inverse square law of ε versus M for supermassive wormholes. We show that the diameter of the shadow of this type I supermassive wormhole overlaps with that of the black hole candidate at the center of the Milky Way and that the recent derivation, using the up-to-date millimeter-wavelength very long baseline interferometry made in Astrophys. J. (795) (2014) 134 [\\arXivid(1409.4690)], remains inconclusive. We show that redshift-free wormholes, with positive energy density, have one of their barotropic equations of state in the phantom regime (at least in the region adjacent to the throat), have their stress energy tensor traceless, and are anisotropic. They are all type III wormholes having their variable equations of state approaching 1 and −1 at spatial infinity. We also introduce a new approach for deriving new redshift-free wormholes.

  17. Weakly compact operators and interpolation

    OpenAIRE

    Maligranda, Lech

    1992-01-01

    The class of weakly compact operators is, as well as the class of compact operators, a fundamental operator ideal. They were investigated strongly in the last twenty years. In this survey, we have collected and ordered some of this (partly very new) knowledge. We have also included some comments, remarks and examples. The class of weakly compact operators is, as well as the class of compact operators, a fundamental operator ideal. They were investigated strongly in the last twenty years. I...

  18. Learning to assign binary weights to binary descriptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhoudi; Wei, Zhenzhong; Zhang, Guangjun

    2016-10-01

    Constructing robust binary local feature descriptors are receiving increasing interest due to their binary nature, which can enable fast processing while requiring significantly less memory than their floating-point competitors. To bridge the performance gap between the binary and floating-point descriptors without increasing the computational cost of computing and matching, optimal binary weights are learning to assign to binary descriptor for considering each bit might contribute differently to the distinctiveness and robustness. Technically, a large-scale regularized optimization method is applied to learn float weights for each bit of the binary descriptor. Furthermore, binary approximation for the float weights is performed by utilizing an efficient alternatively greedy strategy, which can significantly improve the discriminative power while preserve fast matching advantage. Extensive experimental results on two challenging datasets (Brown dataset and Oxford dataset) demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method.

  19. Compact stellarators as reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, J.F.; Valanju, P.; Zarnstorff, M.C.; Hirshman, S.; Spong, D.A.; Strickler, D.; Williamson, D.E.; Ware, A.

    2001-01-01

    Two types of compact stellarators are examined as reactors: two- and three-field-period (M=2 and 3) quasi-axisymmetric devices with volume-average =4-5% and M=2 and 3 quasi-poloidal devices with =10-15%. These low-aspect-ratio stellarator-tokamak hybrids differ from conventional stellarators in their use of the plasma-generated bootstrap current to supplement the poloidal field from external coils. Using the ARIES-AT model with B max =12T on the coils gives Compact Stellarator reactors with R=7.3-8.2m, a factor of 2-3 smaller R than other stellarator reactors for the same assumptions, and neutron wall loadings up to 3.7MWm -2 . (author)

  20. Compact torsatron reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, J.F.; Carreras, B.A.; Lynch, V.E.; Tolliver, J.S.; Sviatoslavsky, I.N.

    1988-05-01

    Low-aspect-ratio torsatron configurations could lead to compact stellarator reactors with R 0 = 8--11m, roughly one-half to one-third the size of more conventional stellarator reactor designs. Minimum-size torsatron reactors are found using various assumptions. Their size is relatively insensitive to the choice of the conductor parameters and depends mostly on geometrical constraints. The smallest size is obtained by eliminating the tritium breeding blanket under the helical winding on the inboard side and by reducing the radial depth of the superconducting coil. Engineering design issues and reactor performance are examined for three examples to illustrate the feasibility of this approach for compact reactors and for a medium-size (R 0 ≅ 4 m,/bar a/ /approx lt/ 1 m) copper-coil ignition experiment. 26 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs

  1. Compact Spreader Schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placidi, M.; Jung, J. -Y.; Ratti, A.; Sun, C.

    2014-07-25

    This paper describes beam distribution schemes adopting a novel implementation based on low amplitude vertical deflections combined with horizontal ones generated by Lambertson-type septum magnets. This scheme offers substantial compactness in the longitudinal layouts of the beam lines and increased flexibility for beam delivery of multiple beam lines on a shot-to-shot basis. Fast kickers (FK) or transverse electric field RF Deflectors (RFD) provide the low amplitude deflections. Initially proposed at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) as tools for beam diagnostics and more recently adopted for multiline beam pattern schemes, RFDs offer repetition capabilities and a likely better amplitude reproducibility when compared to FKs, which, in turn, offer more modest financial involvements both in construction and operation. Both solutions represent an ideal approach for the design of compact beam distribution systems resulting in space and cost savings while preserving flexibility and beam quality.

  2. Compact fusion reactors

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Fusion research is currently to a large extent focused on tokamak (ITER) and inertial confinement (NIF) research. In addition to these large international or national efforts there are private companies performing fusion research using much smaller devices than ITER or NIF. The attempt to achieve fusion energy production through relatively small and compact devices compared to tokamaks decreases the costs and building time of the reactors and this has allowed some private companies to enter the field, like EMC2, General Fusion, Helion Energy, Lawrenceville Plasma Physics and Lockheed Martin. Some of these companies are trying to demonstrate net energy production within the next few years. If they are successful their next step is to attempt to commercialize their technology. In this presentation an overview of compact fusion reactor concepts is given.

  3. Compact nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, V.V.; Churakov, Yu.A.; Danchenko, Yu.V.; Bylkin, B.K.; Tsvetkov, S.V.

    1983-01-01

    Different constructions of racks for compact storage of spent fuel assemblies (FA) in ''coolin''g pools (CP) of NPPs with the BWR and PWR type reactors are described. Problems concerning nuclear and radiation safety and provision of necessary thermal conditions arising in such rack design are discussed. It is concluded that the problem of prolonged fuel storage at NPPs became Very actual for many countries because of retapdation of the rates of fuel reprocessing centers building. Application of compact storage racks is a promising solution of the problem of intermediate FA storage at NPPs. Such racks of stainless boron steel and with neutron absorbers in the from of boron carbide panels enable to increase the capacity of the present CP 2-2.6 times, and the period of FA storage in them up to 5-10 years

  4. Analysis of laboratory compaction methods of roller compacted concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trtík, Tomáš; Chylík, Roman; Bílý, Petr; Fládr, Josef

    2017-09-01

    Roller-Compacted Concrete (RCC) is an ordinary concrete poured and compacted with machines typically used for laying of asphalt road layers. One of the problems connected with this technology is preparation of representative samples in the laboratory. The aim of this work was to analyse two methods of preparation of RCC laboratory samples with bulk density as the comparative parameter. The first method used dynamic compaction by pneumatic hammer. The second method of compaction had a static character. The specimens were loaded by precisely defined force in laboratory loading machine to create the same conditions as during static rolling (in the Czech Republic, only static rolling is commonly used). Bulk densities obtained by the two compaction methods were compared with core drills extracted from real RCC structure. The results have shown that the samples produced by pneumatic hammer tend to overestimate the bulk density of the material. For both compaction methods, immediate bearing index test was performed to verify the quality of compaction. A fundamental difference between static and dynamic compaction was identified. In static compaction, initial resistance to penetration of the mandrel was higher, after exceeding certain limit the resistance was constant. This means that the samples were well compacted just on the surface. Specimens made by pneumatic hammer actively resisted throughout the test, the whole volume was uniformly compacted.

  5. Compaction of cereal grain

    OpenAIRE

    Wychowaniec, J.; Griffiths, I.; Gay, A.; Mughal, A.

    2013-01-01

    We report on simple shaking experiments to measure the compaction of a column of Firth oat grain. Such grains are elongated anisotropic particles with a bimodal polydispersity. In these experiments, the particle configurations start from an initially disordered, low-packing-fraction state and under vertical shaking evolve to a dense state with evidence of nematic-like structure at the surface of the confining tube. This is accompanied by an increase in the packing fraction of the grain.

  6. Compact nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juric, S.I.

    1975-01-01

    A compact nuclear reactor of the pressurized-water variety is described which has two separate parts separably engageable for ease of inspection, maintenance and repair. One of the parts is a pressure vessel having an active core and the other of the parts is a closure adapted on its lower surface with an integral steam generator. An integral pump, external pressurizer and control rods are provided which communicate with the active core when engaged to form a total unit. (U.S.)

  7. Compact power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetch, J.R.; Dieckamp, H.M.; Wilson, L.A.

    1978-01-01

    There is disclosed a small compact nuclear reactor operating in the epithermal neutron energy range for supplying power at remote locations, as for a satellite. The core contains fuel moderator elements of Zr hydride with 7 w/o of 93% enriched uranium alloy. The core has a radial beryllium reflector and is cooled by liquid metal coolant such as NaK. The reactor is controlled and shut down by moving portions of the reflector

  8. CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The milestone workshops on LHC experiments in Aachen in 1990 and at Evian in 1992 provided the first sketches of how LHC detectors might look. The concept of a compact general-purpose LHC experiment based on a solenoid to provide the magnetic field was first discussed at Aachen, and the formal Expression of Interest was aired at Evian. It was here that the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) name first became public. Optimizing first the muon detection system is a natural starting point for a high luminosity (interaction rate) proton-proton collider experiment. The compact CMS design called for a strong magnetic field, of some 4 Tesla, using a superconducting solenoid, originally about 14 metres long and 6 metres bore. (By LHC standards, this warrants the adjective 'compact'.) The main design goals of CMS are: 1 - a very good muon system providing many possibilities for momentum measurement (physicists call this a 'highly redundant' system); 2 - the best possible electromagnetic calorimeter consistent with the above; 3 - high quality central tracking to achieve both the above; and 4 - an affordable detector. Overall, CMS aims to detect cleanly the diverse signatures of new physics by identifying and precisely measuring muons, electrons and photons over a large energy range at very high collision rates, while also exploiting the lower luminosity initial running. As well as proton-proton collisions, CMS will also be able to look at the muons emerging from LHC heavy ion beam collisions. The Evian CMS conceptual design foresaw the full calorimetry inside the solenoid, with emphasis on precision electromagnetic calorimetry for picking up photons. (A light Higgs particle will probably be seen via its decay into photon pairs.) The muon system now foresaw four stations. Inner tracking would use silicon microstrips and microstrip gas chambers, with over 10 7 channels offering high track finding efficiency. In the central CMS barrel, the tracking elements are

  9. Compact Information Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-02

    Department of Defense, Executive Services, Directorate (0704-0188).   Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person...which lies in the mission of AFOSR. 15.  SUBJECT TERMS sparse sampling , principal components analysis 16.  SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...approved for public release Contents 1 Training for Ph.D. Students and Postdoc Researchers 2 2 Papers 2 3 Summary of Proposed Research: Compact

  10. Diffusion through statically compacted clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, C.L.; Shebl, M.A.A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents experimental work on the effect of compaction on contaminant flow through clay liners. The experimental program included evaluation of soil properties, compaction, permeability and solute diffusion. A permeameter was built of non reactive materials to test samples compacted at different water contents and compactive efforts. The flow of a permeating solute, LiCl, was monitored. Effluent samples were collected for solute concentration measurements. The concentrations were measured by performing atomic adsorption tests. The analyzed results showed different diffusion characteristics when compaction conditions changed. At each compactive effort, permeability decreased as molding water content increased. Consequently, transit time (measured at relative concentration 50%) increased and diffusivity decreased. As compactive effort increased for soils compacted dry of optimum, permeability and diffusion decreased. On the other hand, as compactive effort increased for soils compacted wet of optimum, permeability and diffusivity increased. Tortuosity factor was indirectly measured from the diffusion and retardation rate. Tortuosity factor also decreased as placement water content was increased from dry of optimum to wet of optimum. Then decreases were more pronounced for low compactive effort tests. 27 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs

  11. Processing Of Binary Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, H. S.

    1985-07-01

    An overview of the recent progress in the area of digital processing of binary images in the context of document processing is presented here. The topics covered include input scan, adaptive thresholding, halftoning, scaling and resolution conversion, data compression, character recognition, electronic mail, digital typography, and output scan. Emphasis has been placed on illustrating the basic principles rather than descriptions of a particular system. Recent technology advances and research in this field are also mentioned.

  12. The Post-periapsis Evolution of Galactic Center Source G1: The Second Case of a Resolved Tidal Interaction with a Supermassive Black Hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witzel, G.; Sitarski, B. N.; Ghez, A. M.; Morris, M. R.; Hees, A.; Do, T.; Naoz, S.; Boehle, A.; Martinez, G.; Chappell, S.; Meyer, L.; Yelda, S.; Becklin, E. E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, 430 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Lu, J. R. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Schödel, R. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomia S/N, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Matthews, K., E-mail: witzel@astro.ucla.edu [Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2017-09-20

    We present new adaptive optics (AO) imaging and spectroscopic measurements of Galactic center source G1 from W. M. Keck Observatory. Our goal is to understand its nature and relationship to G2, which is the first example of a spatially resolved object interacting with a supermassive black hole (SMBH). Both objects have been monitored with AO for the past decade (2003–2014) and are comparatively close to the black hole ( a {sub min} ∼ 200–300 au) on very eccentric orbits ( e {sub G1} ∼ 0.99; e {sub G2} ∼ 0.96). While G2 has been tracked before and during periapsis passage ( T {sub 0} ∼ 2014.2), G1 has been followed since soon after emerging from periapsis ( T {sub 0} ∼ 2001.3). Our observations of G1 double the previously reported observational time baseline, which improves its orbital parameter determinations. G1's orbital trajectory appears to be in the same plane as that of G2 but with a significantly different argument of periapsis (Δ ω = 21° ± 4°). This suggests that G1 is an independent object and not part of a gas stream containing G2, as has been proposed. Furthermore, we show for the first time that (1) G1 is extended in the epochs closest to periapsis along the direction of orbital motion, and (2) it becomes significantly smaller over time (450 au in 2004 to less than 170 au in 2009). Based on these observations, G1 appears to be the second example of an object tidally interacting with an SMBH. G1's existence 14 yr after periapsis, along with its compactness in epochs further from the time of periapsis, suggest that this source is stellar in nature.

  13. Planetary Formation and Dynamics in Binary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, J. W.

    2013-01-01

    explanation for the turnover point in the size distribution of the present-day asteroid belt. For the specific case of close binaries such as Alpha Centauri, the snowball growth mode provides a safe way for the bodies to grow through the problematic range with a size of 1˜50 km. In chapter 6, we investigate the intermediate stages of the planet formation in highly inclined cases. We find that the gas drag plays a crucial role in the evolution of the planetesimals' semi-major axis, and the results can be generally divided into two categories, i.e., the Kozai-on regime and the Kozai-off regime. For both regimes, a robust outcome over a wide range of parameters is that, the planetesimals migrate/jump inwards and pile up, leading to a severely truncated and dense planetesimal disk around the primary. In this compact and dense disk, the collision rates are high but the relative velocities are low, providing conditions which are favorable for the planetesimal growth, and potentially allow for the subsequent formation of planets. Finally, we summarize this thesis in chapter 7. Many open questions still remain in current research field of planet formation in binary systems, and the current Kepler project provides an unprecedented opportunity for such researches. A comprehensive understanding of planets in binaries requires placing them in a bigger context to include the formation and evolution of stars and/or clusters.

  14. EVOLUTION OF A RING AROUND THE PLUTO–CHARON BINARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bromley, Benjamin C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, 115 S 1400 E, Rm 201, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Kenyon, Scott J., E-mail: bromley@physics.utah.edu, E-mail: skenyon@cfa.harvard.edu [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2015-08-10

    We consider the formation of satellites around the Pluto–Charon binary. An early collision between the two partners likely produced the binary and a narrow ring of debris, out of which arose the moons Styx, Nix, Kerberos, and Hydra. How the satellites emerged from the compact ring is uncertain. Here we show that a particle ring spreads from physical collisions and collective gravitational scattering, similar to migration. Around a binary, these processes take place in the reference frames of “most circular” orbits, akin to circular ones in a Keplerian potential. Ring particles damp to these orbits and avoid destructive collisions. Damping and diffusion also help particles survive dynamical instabilities driven by resonances with the binary. In some situations, particles become trapped near resonances that sweep outward with the tidal evolution of the Pluto–Charon binary. With simple models and numerical experiments, we show how the Pluto–Charon impact ring may have expanded into a broad disk, out of which grew the circumbinary moons. In some scenarios, the ring can spread well beyond the orbit of Hydra, the most distant moon, to form a handful of smaller satellites. If these small moons exist, New Horizons will find them.

  15. FORMATION OF BLACK HOLE X-RAY BINARIES IN GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, N.; Heinke, C. O.; Woods, T. E.; Chaichenets, S.; Fregeau, J.; Lombardi, J. C.

    2010-01-01

    Inspired by the recent identification in extragalactic globular clusters of the first candidate black hole-white dwarf (BH-WD) X-ray binaries, where the compact accretors may be stellar-mass black holes (BHs), we explore how such binaries could be formed in a dynamical environment. We provide analyses of the formation rates via well-known formation channels like binary exchange and physical collisions and propose that the only possibility of forming BH-WD binaries is via coupling these usual formation channels with subsequent hardening and/or triple formation. In particular, we find that the most important mechanism for the creation of a BH-WD X-ray binary from an initially dynamically formed BH-WD binary is mass transfer induced in a triple system via the Kozai mechanism. Furthermore, we find that BH-WD binaries that evolve into X-ray sources can be formed by exchanges of a BH into a WD-WD binary or possibly by collisions of a BH and a giant star. If BHs undergo significant evaporation from the cluster or form a completely detached subcluster of BHs, then we cannot match the observationally inferred production rates even using the most optimistic estimates of formation rates. To explain the observations with stellar-mass BH-WD binaries, at least 1% of all formed BHs, or presumably 10% of the BHs present in the core now, must be involved in interactions with the rest of the core stellar population.

  16. CLASSIFYING X-RAY BINARIES: A PROBABILISTIC APPROACH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopalan, Giri; Bornn, Luke; Vrtilek, Saeqa Dil

    2015-01-01

    In X-ray binary star systems consisting of a compact object that accretes material from an orbiting secondary star, there is no straightforward means to decide whether the compact object is a black hole or a neutron star. To assist in this process, we develop a Bayesian statistical model that makes use of the fact that X-ray binary systems appear to cluster based on their compact object type when viewed from a three-dimensional coordinate system derived from X-ray spectral data where the first coordinate is the ratio of counts in the mid- to low-energy band (color 1), the second coordinate is the ratio of counts in the high- to low-energy band (color 2), and the third coordinate is the sum of counts in all three bands. We use this model to estimate the probabilities of an X-ray binary system containing a black hole, non-pulsing neutron star, or pulsing neutron star. In particular, we utilize a latent variable model in which the latent variables follow a Gaussian process prior distribution, and hence we are able to induce the spatial correlation which we believe exists between systems of the same type. The utility of this approach is demonstrated by the accurate prediction of system types using Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer All Sky Monitor data, but it is not flawless. In particular, non-pulsing neutron systems containing “bursters” that are close to the boundary demarcating systems containing black holes tend to be classified as black hole systems. As a byproduct of our analyses, we provide the astronomer with the public R code which can be used to predict the compact object type of XRBs given training data

  17. MECHANICS OF DYNAMIC POWDER COMPACTION PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Nurettin YAVUZ

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, interest in dynamic compaction methods of metal powders has increased due to the need to improve compaction properties and to increase production rates of compacts. In this paper, review of dynamic and explosive compaction of metal powders are given. An attempt is made to get a better understanding of the compaction process with the mechanicis of powder compaction.

  18. Compact neutron flux monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhavi, V.; Phatak, P.R.; Bahadur, C.; Bayala, A.K.; Jakati, R.K.; Sathian, V.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: A compact size neutron flux monitor has been developed incorporating standard boards developed for smart radiation monitors. The sensitivity of the monitors is 0.4cps/nV. It has been tested up to 2075 nV flux with standard neutron sources. It shows convincing results even in high flux areas like 6m away from the accelerator in RMC (Parel) for 106/107 nV. These monitors have a focal and remote display, alarm function with potential free contacts for centralized control and additional provision of connectivity via RS485/Ethernet. This paper describes the construction, working and results of the above flux monitor

  19. Compact ignition experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelini, A.; Coppi, B.; Nassi, M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on high magnetic field experiments which can be designed to investigate D-T ignition conditions based on present-day experimental results and theoretical understanding of plasma phenomena. The key machine elements are: large plasma currents, compact dimensions, tight aspect ratios, moderate elongations and significant triangularities of the plasma column. High plasma densities, strong ohmic heating, the needed degree of energy confinement, good plasma purity and robust stability against ideal and resistive instabilities can be achieved simultaneously. The Ignitor design incorporates all these characteristics and involves magnet technology developments, started with the Alcator experiment, that use cryogenically cooled normal conductors

  20. Compact LINAC for deuterons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurennoy, S.S.; O'Hara, J.F.; Rybarcyk, L.J.

    2008-01-01

    We are developing a compact deuteron-beam accelerator up to the deuteron energy of a few MeV based on room-temperature inter-digital H-mode (IH) accelerating structures with the transverse beam focusing using permanent-magnet quadrupoles (PMQ). Combining electromagnetic 3-D modeling with beam dynamics simulations and thermal-stress analysis, we show that IHPMQ structures provide very efficient and practical accelerators for light-ion beams of considerable currents at the beam velocities around a few percent of the speed of light. IH-structures with PMQ focusing following a short RFQ can also be beneficial in the front end of ion linacs.

  1. Compact electron storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, G.P.

    1987-01-01

    There have been many recent developments in the area of compact storage rings. Such rings would have critical wavelengths of typically 10 A, achieved with beam energies of several hundreds of MeV and superconducting dipole fields of around 5 Tesla. Although the primary motivation for progress in this area is that of commercial x-ray lithography, such sources might be an attractive source for college campuses to operate. They would be useful for many programs in materials science, solid state, x-ray microscopy and other biological areas. We discuss the properties of such sources and review developments around the world, primarily in the USA, japan and W. Germany

  2. Compact synchrotron radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, N.; Wang, T.; Tian, J.; Lin, Y.; Chen, S.; He, W.; Hu, Y.; Li, Q.

    1985-01-01

    A compact 800 MeV synchrotron radiation source is discussed. The storage ring has a circumference of 30.3 m, two 90 degree and four 45 degree bending magnet sections, two long straight sections and four short straight sections. The radius of the bending magnet is 2.224m. The critical wave length is 24A. The injector is a 15 Mev Microtron Electrons are accelerated from 15 Mev to 800 Mev by ramping the field of the ring. The expected stored current will be around 100 ma

  3. LASL Compact Torus Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linford, R.K.; Armstrong, W.T.; Bartsch, R.R.

    1981-01-01

    The Compact Torus (CT) concept includes any axisymmetric toroidal plasma configuration, which does not require the linking of any material through the hole in the torus. Thus, the magnet coils, vacuum vessel, etc., have a simple cylindrical or spherical geometry instead of the toroidal geometry required for Tokamaks and RFP's. This simplified geometry results in substantial engineering advantages in CT reactor embodiments while retaining the good confinement properties afforded by an axisymmetric toroidal plasma-field geometry. CT's can be classified into three major types by using the ion gyro radius rho/sub i/ and the magnitude of the maximum toroidal field B/sub tm/

  4. Compact Q-balls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D., E-mail: bazeia@fisica.ufpb.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, 58051-970 João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Losano, L.; Marques, M.A. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, 58051-970 João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Menezes, R. [Departamento de Ciências Exatas, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, 58297-000 Rio Tinto, PB (Brazil); Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, 58109-970 Campina Grande, PB (Brazil); Rocha, R. da [Centro de Matemática, Computação e Cognição, Universidade Federal do ABC, 09210-580 Santo André (Brazil)

    2016-07-10

    In this work we deal with non-topological solutions of the Q-ball type in two space–time dimensions, in models described by a single complex scalar field that engenders global symmetry. The main novelty is the presence of stable Q-balls solutions that live in a compact interval of the real line and appear from a family of models controlled by two distinct parameters. We find analytical solutions and study their charge and energy, and show how to control the parameters to make the Q-balls classically and quantum mechanically stable.

  5. Mass loss from OB supergiants in x-ray binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alme, M.L.; Wilson, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    A study of the atmospheres of OB supergiants in x-ray binary systems indicates that when the stellar surface is close enough to the saddle in the gravitational potential to provide a mass transfer rate adequate to power a compact x-ray source, large-amplitude variations in the rate of mass flow occur. 9 references

  6. The supermassive black hole coincident with the luminous transient ASASSN-15lh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krühler, T.; Fraser, M.; Leloudas, G.; Schulze, S.; Stone, N. C.; van Velzen, S.; Amorin, R.; Hjorth, J.; Jonker, P. G.; Kann, D. A.; Kim, S.; Kuncarayakti, H.; Mehner, A.; Nicuesa Guelbenzu, A.

    2018-02-01

    The progenitors of astronomical transients are linked to a specific stellar population and galactic environment, and observing their host galaxies hence constrains the physical nature of the transient itself. Here, we use imaging from the Hubble Space Telescope, and spatially resolved, medium-resolution spectroscopy from the Very Large Telescope obtained with X-shooter and MUSE to study the host of the very luminous transient ASASSN-15lh. The dominant stellar population at the transient site is old (around 1 to 2 Gyr) without signs of recent star formation. We also detect emission from ionized gas, originating from three different, time invariable, narrow components of collisionally excited metal and Balmer lines. The ratios of emission lines in the Baldwin-Phillips-Terlevich diagnostic diagram indicate that the ionization source is a weak active galactic nucleus with a black hole mass of M• = 5-3+8 × 108 M⊙, derived through the M•-σ relation. The narrow line components show spatial and velocity offsets on scales of 1 kpc and 500 km s-1, respectively; these offsets are best explained by gas kinematics in the narrow-line region. The location of the central component, which we argue is also the position of the supermassive black hole, aligns with that of the transient within an uncertainty of 170 pc. Using this positional coincidence as well as other similarities with the hosts of tidal disruption events, we strengthen the argument that the transient emission observed as ASASSN-15lh is related to the disruption of a star around a supermassive black hole, most probably spinning with a Kerr parameter a• ≳ 0.5. Based on observations at ESO, Program IDs: 097.D-1054, 297.B-5035, 099.D-0115.The data used in this manuscript are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/610/A14

  7. Optical Variability Signatures from Massive Black Hole Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasliwal, Vishal P.; Frank, Koby Alexander; Lidz, Adam

    2017-01-01

    The hierarchical merging of dark matter halos and their associated galaxies should lead to a population of supermassive black hole binaries (MBHBs). We consider plausible optical variability signatures from MBHBs at sub-parsec separations and search for these using data from the Catalina Real-Time Transient Survey (CRTS). Specifically, we model the impact of relativistic Doppler beaming on the accretion disk emission from the less massive, secondary black hole. We explore whether this Doppler modulation may be separated from other sources of stochastic variability in the accretion flow around the MBHBs, which we describe as a damped random walk (DRW). In the simple case of a circular orbit, relativistic beaming leads to a series of broad peaks — located at multiples of the orbital frequency — in the fluctuation power spectrum. We extend our analysis to the case of elliptical orbits and discuss the effect of beaming on the flux power spectrum and auto-correlation function using simulations. We present a code to model an observed light curve as a stochastic DRW-type time series modulated by relativistic beaming and apply the code to CRTS data.

  8. NONLINEAR GRAVITATIONAL-WAVE MEMORY FROM BINARY BLACK HOLE MERGERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favata, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Some astrophysical sources of gravitational waves can produce a 'memory effect', which causes a permanent displacement of the test masses in a freely falling gravitational-wave detector. The Christodoulou memory is a particularly interesting nonlinear form of memory that arises from the gravitational-wave stress-energy tensor's contribution to the distant gravitational-wave field. This nonlinear memory contributes a nonoscillatory component to the gravitational-wave signal at leading (Newtonian-quadrupole) order in the waveform amplitude. Previous computations of the memory and its detectability considered only the inspiral phase of binary black hole coalescence. Using an 'effective-one-body' (EOB) approach calibrated to numerical relativity simulations, as well as a simple fully analytic model, the Christodoulou memory is computed for the inspiral, merger, and ringdown. The memory will be very difficult to detect with ground-based interferometers, but is likely to be observable in supermassive black hole mergers with LISA out to redshifts z ∼< 2. Detection of the nonlinear memory could serve as an experimental test of the ability of gravity to 'gravitate'.

  9. Magneto-optical effects induced in a magnetic-fluid layer by thermally released supermassive magnetic monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofonea, V.; Vekas, L.; Hegedues, E.

    1993-01-01

    The number of photons in the optical pulse induced via magneto-optical effects by a thermally released (e.g., from old iron ores) supermassive magnetic monopole traversing a thin magnetic-fluid layer is evaluated on the basis of phenomenological models. In certain monopole search experiments, these effects could give a detectable signal of the order of tens of photons and thus it may serve as a basis for a new magnetic-monopole detection method. (orig.)

  10. Bose-Einstein condensed supermassive black holes: a case of renormalized quantum field theory in curved space-time

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nieuwenhuizen, T.M.; Špička, Václav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 3 (2010), s. 256-268 ISSN 1386-9477. [International Conference on Frontiers of Quantum and Mesoscopic Thermodynamics (FQMT '08). Praha, 28.07.2008-02.08.2008] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : supermassive black hole * quantum held theory * Bose-Einstein condensation * renormalization Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.304, year: 2010

  11. Scalable Nonlinear Compact Schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Debojyoti [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Constantinescu, Emil M. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Brown, Jed [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2014-04-01

    In this work, we focus on compact schemes resulting in tridiagonal systems of equations, specifically the fifth-order CRWENO scheme. We propose a scalable implementation of the nonlinear compact schemes by implementing a parallel tridiagonal solver based on the partitioning/substructuring approach. We use an iterative solver for the reduced system of equations; however, we solve this system to machine zero accuracy to ensure that no parallelization errors are introduced. It is possible to achieve machine-zero convergence with few iterations because of the diagonal dominance of the system. The number of iterations is specified a priori instead of a norm-based exit criterion, and collective communications are avoided. The overall algorithm thus involves only point-to-point communication between neighboring processors. Our implementation of the tridiagonal solver differs from and avoids the drawbacks of past efforts in the following ways: it introduces no parallelization-related approximations (multiprocessor solutions are exactly identical to uniprocessor ones), it involves minimal communication, the mathematical complexity is similar to that of the Thomas algorithm on a single processor, and it does not require any communication and computation scheduling.

  12. Compact magnetic fusion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linford, R.K.

    1983-12-01

    If the core (first wall, blanket, shield, and magnet coils) of fusion reactor systems could be made smaller in mass and volume for a given net electric power output than is usually predicted for the mainline tokamak/sup 1/ and mirror concepts, the cost of the technological development of the core and the construction of power plants might be significantly reduced. Although progress in plasma physics and engineering approaches should continue to yield improvements in reactor designs, certain physics features of the mainline concepts may prevent major reductions in the size of the core without straining the limits of technology. However, more than a factor of ten reduction in volume and mass of the core, at constant output power, may be possible for a class of toroidal confinement concepts in which the confining magnetic fields are supported more by currents flowing in the plasma than those in the external coils. In spite of this dramatic increase in power density (ratio of total thermal output power to the volume of the core), the design of compact systems need not rely on any materials requirements that are qualitatively more difficult than those proposed for the lower-power-density mainline fusion concepts. In some respects compact systems require less of an extension of existing technology, e.g. magnetics.

  13. Compact magnetic fusion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linford, R.K.

    1983-01-01

    If the core (first wall, blanket, shield, and magnet coils) of fusion reactor systems could be made smaller in mass and volume for a given net electric power output than is usually predicted for the mainline tokamak 1 and mirror concepts, the cost of the technological development of the core and the construction of power plants might be significantly reduced. Although progress in plasma physics and engineering approaches should continue to yield improvements in reactor designs, certain physics features of the mainline concepts may prevent major reductions in the size of the core without straining the limits of technology. However, more than a factor of ten reduction in volume and mass of the core, at constant output power, may be possible for a class of toroidal confinement concepts in which the confining magnetic fields are supported more by currents flowing in the plasma than those in the external coils. In spite of this dramatic increase in power density (ratio of total thermal output power to the volume of the core), the design of compact systems need not rely on any materials requirements that are qualitatively more difficult than those proposed for the lower-power-density mainline fusion concepts. In some respects compact systems require less of an extension of existing technology, e.g. magnetics

  14. Diffusion in compacted betonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muurinen, A.; Rantanen, J.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this report is to collect the literature bearing on the diffusion in compacted betonite, which has been suggested as possible buffer material for the disposal of spent fuel. Diffusion in a porous, water-saturated material is usually described as diffusion in the pore-water where sorption on the solid matter can delay the migration in the instationary state. There are also models which take into consideration that the sorbed molecules can also move while being sorbed. Diffusion experiments in compacted bentonite have been reported by many authors. Gases, anions, cations and actinides have been used as diffusing molecules. The report collects the results and the information on the measurement methods. On the basis of the results can be concluded that different particles possibly follow different diffusion mechanisms. The parameters which affect the diffusion seem to be for example the size, the electric charge and the sorption properties of the diffusing molecule. The report also suggest the parameters to be used in the diffusion calculation of the safety analyses of spent fuel disposal. (author)

  15. Compact Infrasonic Windscreen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerwar, Allan J.; Shams, Qamar A.; Sealey, Bradley S.; Comeaux, Toby

    2005-01-01

    A compact windscreen has been conceived for a microphone of a type used outdoors to detect atmospheric infrasound from a variety of natural and manmade sources. Wind at the microphone site contaminates received infrasonic signals (defined here as sounds having frequencies <20 Hz), because a microphone cannot distinguish between infrasonic pressures (which propagate at the speed of sound) and convective pressure fluctuations generated by wind turbulence. Hence, success in measurement of outdoor infrasound depends on effective screening of the microphone from the wind. The present compact windscreen is based on a principle: that infrasound at sufficiently large wavelength can penetrate any barrier of practical thickness. Thus, a windscreen having solid, non-porous walls can block convected pressure fluctuations from the wind while transmitting infrasonic acoustic waves. The transmission coefficient depends strongly upon the ratio between the acoustic impedance of the windscreen and that of air. Several materials have been found to have impedance ratios that render them suitable for use in constructing walls that have practical thicknesses and are capable of high transmission of infrasound. These materials (with their impedance ratios in parentheses) are polyurethane foam (222), space shuttle tile material (332), balsa (323), cedar (3,151), and pine (4,713).

  16. Compact electrostatic comb actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, M. Steven; Burg, Michael S.; Jensen, Brian D.; Miller, Samuel L.; Barnes, Stephen M.

    2000-01-01

    A compact electrostatic comb actuator is disclosed for microelectromechanical (MEM) applications. The actuator is based upon a plurality of meshed electrostatic combs, some of which are stationary and others of which are moveable. One or more restoring springs are fabricated within an outline of the electrostatic combs (i.e. superposed with the moveable electrostatic combs) to considerably reduce the space required for the actuator. Additionally, a truss structure is provided to support the moveable electrostatic combs and prevent bending or distortion of these combs due to unbalanced electrostatic forces or external loading. The truss structure formed about the moveable electrostatic combs allows the spacing between the interdigitated fingers of the combs to be reduced to about one micron or less, thereby substantially increasing the number of active fingers which can be provided in a given area. Finally, electrostatic shields can be used in the actuator to substantially reduce unwanted electrostatic fields to further improve performance of the device. As a result, the compact electrostatic comb actuator of the present invention occupies only a fraction of the space required for conventional electrostatic comb actuators, while providing a substantial increase in the available drive force (up to one-hundred times).

  17. Binary optics: Trends and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farn, Michael W.; Veldkamp, Wilfrid B.

    1993-01-01

    We describe the current state of binary optics, addressing both the technology and the industry (i.e., marketplace). With respect to the technology, the two dominant aspects are optical design methods and fabrication capabilities, with the optical design problem being limited by human innovation in the search for new applications and the fabrication issue being limited by the availability of resources required to improve fabrication capabilities. With respect to the industry, the current marketplace does not favor binary optics as a separate product line and so we expect that companies whose primary purpose is the production of binary optics will not represent the bulk of binary optics production. Rather, binary optics' more natural role is as an enabling technology - a technology which will directly result in a competitive advantage in a company's other business areas - and so we expect that the majority of binary optics will be produced for internal use.

  18. Development task of compact reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurushima, Morihiro

    1982-01-01

    In the Ministry of International Trade and Industry, studies proceed on the usage of compact medium and small LWRs. As such, the reactors from 100 to 200 MW may meet varieties of demands in scale and kind in view of the saving of petroleum and the economy of nuclear power. In this case, the technology of light water reactors with already established safety will be suitable for the development of compact reactors. The concept of ''nuclear power community'' using the compact reactors in local society and industrial zones was investigated. The following matters are described: need for the introduction of compact reactors, the survey on the compact reactor systems, and the present status and future problems for compact reactor usage. (J.P.N.)

  19. INTERFERENCE AS AN ORIGIN OF THE PEAKED NOISE IN ACCRETING X-RAY BINARIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veledina, Alexandra, E-mail: alexandra.veledina@gmail.com [Nordita, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University, Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2016-12-01

    We propose a physical model for the peaked noise in the X-ray power density spectra of accreting X-ray binaries. We interpret its appearance as an interference of two Comptonization continua: one coming from the upscattering of seed photons from the cold thin disk and the other fed by the synchrotron emission of the hot flow. Variations of both X-ray components are caused by fluctuations in mass accretion rate, but there is a delay between them corresponding to the propagation timescale from the disk Comptonization radius to the region of synchrotron Comptonization. If the disk and synchrotron Comptonization are correlated, the humps in the power spectra are harmonically related and the dips between them appear at frequencies related as odd numbers 1:3:5. If they are anti-correlated, the humps are related as 1:3:5, but the dips are harmonically related. Similar structures are expected to be observed in accreting neutron star binaries and supermassive black holes. The delay can be easily recovered from the frequency of peaked noise and further used to constrain the combination of the viscosity parameter and disk height-to-radius ratio α ( H / R ){sup 2} of the accretion flow. We model multi-peak power spectra of black hole X-ray binaries GX 339–4 and XTE J1748–288 to constrain these parameters.

  20. Precessing Black Hole Binaries and Their Gravitational Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    László Á. Gergely

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The first and second observational runs of Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO have marked the first direct detections of gravitational waves, either from black hole binaries or, in one case, from coalescing neutron stars. These observations opened up the era of gravitational wave astronomy, but also of gravitational wave cosmology, in the form of an independent derivation of the Hubble constant. They were equally important to prove false a plethora of modified gravity theories predicting gravitational wave propagation speed different from that of light. For a continued and improved testing of general relativity, the precise description of compact binary dynamics, not only in the final coalescence phase but also earlier, when precessional effects dominate, are required. We report on the derivation of the full secular dynamics for compact binaries, valid over the precessional time-scale, in the form of an autonomous closed system of differential equations for the set of spin angles and periastron. The system can be applied for mapping the parameter space for the occurrence of the spin flip-flop effect and for more accurately analyzing the spin-flip effect, which could explain the formation of X-shaped radio galaxies.

  1. Accuracy of Binary Black Hole waveforms for Advanced LIGO searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prayush; Barkett, Kevin; Bhagwat, Swetha; Chu, Tony; Fong, Heather; Brown, Duncan; Pfeiffer, Harald; Scheel, Mark; Szilagyi, Bela

    2015-04-01

    Coalescing binaries of compact objects are flagship sources for the first direct detection of gravitational waves with LIGO-Virgo observatories. Matched-filtering based detection searches aimed at binaries of black holes will use aligned spin waveforms as filters, and their efficiency hinges on the accuracy of the underlying waveform models. A number of gravitational waveform models are available in literature, e.g. the Effective-One-Body, Phenomenological, and traditional post-Newtonian ones. While Numerical Relativity (NR) simulations provide for the most accurate modeling of gravitational radiation from compact binaries, their computational cost limits their application in large scale searches. In this talk we assess the accuracy of waveform models in two regions of parameter space, which have only been explored cursorily in the past: the high mass-ratio regime as well as the comparable mass-ratio + high spin regime.s Using the SpEC code, six q = 7 simulations with aligned-spins and lasting 60 orbits, and tens of q ∈ [1,3] simulations with high black hole spins were performed. We use them to study the accuracy and intrinsic parameter biases of different waveform families, and assess their viability for Advanced LIGO searches.

  2. The United Nations Global Compact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasche, Andreas; Waddock, Sandra; McIntosh, Malcolm

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the interdisciplinary literature on the UN Global Compact. The review identifies three research perspectives, which scholars have used to study the UN Global Compact so far: a historical perspective discussing the Global Compact in the context of UN-business relations...... key empirical as well as conceptual scholarly contributions. The remainder of this article contains focused summaries of the articles selected for this Special Issue. All articles are introduced and evaluated against the background of the three research perspectives....

  3. The Role of Gravitational Instabilities in the Feeding of Supermassive Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Lodato

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available I review the recent progresses that have been obtained, especially through the use of high-resolution numerical simulations, on the dynamics of self-gravitating accretion discs. A coherent picture is emerging, where the disc dynamics is controlled by a small number of parameters that determine whether the disc is stable or unstable, whether the instability saturates in a self-regulated state or runs away into fragmentation, and whether the dynamics is local or global. I then apply these concepts to the case of AGN discs, discussing the implications of such evolution on the feeding of supermassive black holes. Nonfragmenting, self-gravitating discs appear to play a fundamental role in the process of formation of massive black hole seeds at high redshift (∼ 10–15 through direct gas collapse. On the other hand, the different cooling properties of the interstellar gas at low redshifts determine a radically different behaviour for the outskirts of the accretion discs feeding typical AGNs. Here the situation is much less clear from a theoretical point of view, and while several observational clues point to the important role of massive discs at a distance of roughly a parsec from their central black hole, their dynamics is still under debate.

  4. Active galaxies. A strong magnetic field in the jet base of a supermassive black hole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí-Vidal, Ivan; Muller, Sébastien; Vlemmings, Wouter; Horellou, Cathy; Aalto, Susanne

    2015-04-17

    Active galactic nuclei (AGN) host some of the most energetic phenomena in the universe. AGN are thought to be powered by accretion of matter onto a rotating disk that surrounds a supermassive black hole. Jet streams can be boosted in energy near the event horizon of the black hole and then flow outward along the rotation axis of the disk. The mechanism that forms such a jet and guides it over scales from a few light-days up to millions of light-years remains uncertain, but magnetic fields are thought to play a critical role. Using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), we have detected a polarization signal (Faraday rotation) related to the strong magnetic field at the jet base of a distant AGN, PKS 1830-211. The amount of Faraday rotation (rotation measure) is proportional to the integral of the magnetic field strength along the line of sight times the density of electrons. The high rotation measures derived suggest magnetic fields of at least tens of Gauss (and possibly considerably higher) on scales of the order of light-days (0.01 parsec) from the black hole. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  5. Supermassive black holes with higher Eddington ratios preferentially form in gas-rich galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Takuma

    2018-06-01

    The Eddington ratio (λEdd) of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) is a fundamental parameter that governs their cosmic growth. Although gas mass accretion onto SMBHs is sustained when they are surrounded by large amounts of gas, little is known about the molecular content of galaxies, particularly those hosting super-Eddington SMBHs (λEdd > 1: the key phase of SMBH growth). Here, we have compiled reported optical and 12CO(1-0) data of local quasars to characterize their hosts. We found that higher-λEdd SMBHs tend to reside in gas-rich (i.e., high gas mass to stellar mass fraction = fgas) galaxies. We used two methods to make this conclusion: one uses black hole mass as a surrogate for stellar mass by assuming a local co-evolutionary relationship, and the other directly uses stellar masses estimated from near-infrared observations. The fgas-λEdd correlation we found concurs with the cosmic decreasing trend in λEdd, as cold molecular gas is primarily consumed by star formation. This correlation qualitatively matches predictions of recent semi-analytic models of the cosmic downsizing of SMBHs as well. As the gas mass surface density would eventually be a key parameter controlling mass accretion, we need high-resolution observations to identify further differences in the molecular properties around super-Eddington and sub-Eddington SMBHs.

  6. A strong magnetic field around the supermassive black hole at the centre of the Galaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eatough, R P; Falcke, H; Karuppusamy, R; Lee, K J; Champion, D J; Keane, E F; Desvignes, G; Schnitzeler, D H F M; Spitler, L G; Kramer, M; Klein, B; Bassa, C; Bower, G C; Brunthaler, A; Cognard, I; Deller, A T; Demorest, P B; Freire, P C C; Kraus, A; Lyne, A G; Noutsos, A; Stappers, B; Wex, N

    2013-09-19

    Earth's nearest candidate supermassive black hole lies at the centre of the Milky Way. Its electromagnetic emission is thought to be powered by radiatively inefficient accretion of gas from its environment, which is a standard mode of energy supply for most galactic nuclei. X-ray measurements have already resolved a tenuous hot gas component from which the black hole can be fed. The magnetization of the gas, however, which is a crucial parameter determining the structure of the accretion flow, remains unknown. Strong magnetic fields can influence the dynamics of accretion, remove angular momentum from the infalling gas, expel matter through relativistic jets and lead to synchrotron emission such as that previously observed. Here we report multi-frequency radio measurements of a newly discovered pulsar close to the Galactic Centre and show that the pulsar's unusually large Faraday rotation (the rotation of the plane of polarization of the emission in the presence of an external magnetic field) indicates that there is a dynamically important magnetic field near the black hole. If this field is accreted down to the event horizon it provides enough magnetic flux to explain the observed emission--from radio to X-ray wavelengths--from the black hole.

  7. Supermassive black holes with higher Eddington ratios preferentially form in gas-rich galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Takuma

    2018-05-01

    The Eddington ratio (λEdd) of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) is a fundamental parameter that governs their cosmic growth. Although gas mass accretion onto SMBHs is sustained when they are surrounded by large amounts of gas, little is known about the molecular content of galaxies, particularly those hosting super-Eddington SMBHs (λEdd > 1: the key phase of SMBH growth). Here, we have compiled reported optical and 12CO(1-0) data of local quasars to characterize their hosts. We found that higher-λEdd SMBHs tend to reside in gas-rich (i.e., high gas mass to stellar mass fraction = fgas) galaxies. We used two methods to make this conclusion: one uses black hole mass as a surrogate for stellar mass by assuming a local co-evolutionary relationship, and the other directly uses stellar masses estimated from near-infrared observations. The fgas-λEdd correlation we found concurs with the cosmic decreasing trend in λEdd, as cold molecular gas is primarily consumed by star formation. This correlation qualitatively matches predictions of recent semi-analytic models of the cosmic downsizing of SMBHs as well. As the gas mass surface density would eventually be a key parameter controlling mass accretion, we need high-resolution observations to identify further differences in the molecular properties around super-Eddington and sub-Eddington SMBHs.

  8. Supermassive black holes do not correlate with galaxy disks or pseudobulges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormendy, John; Bender, R; Cornell, M E

    2011-01-20

    The masses of supermassive black holes are known to correlate with the properties of the bulge components of their host galaxies. In contrast, they seem not to correlate with galaxy disks. Disk-grown 'pseudobulges' are intermediate in properties between bulges and disks; it has been unclear whether they do or do not correlate with black holes in the same way that bulges do. At stake in this issue are conclusions about which parts of galaxies coevolve with black holes, possibly by being regulated by energy feedback from black holes. Here we report pseudobulge classifications for galaxies with dynamically detected black holes and combine them with recent measurements of velocity dispersions in the biggest bulgeless galaxies. These data confirm that black holes do not correlate with disks and show that they correlate little or not at all with pseudobulges. We suggest that there are two different modes of black-hole feeding. Black holes in bulges grow rapidly to high masses when mergers drive gas infall that feeds quasar-like events. In contrast, small black holes in bulgeless galaxies and in galaxies with pseudobulges grow as low-level Seyfert galaxies. Growth of the former is driven by global processes, so the biggest black holes coevolve with bulges, but growth of the latter is driven locally and stochastically, and they do not coevolve with disks and pseudobulges.

  9. Supermassive black holes do not correlate with dark matter haloes of galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormendy, John; Bender, Ralf

    2011-01-20

    Supermassive black holes have been detected in all galaxies that contain bulge components when the galaxies observed were close enough that the searches were feasible. Together with the observation that bigger black holes live in bigger bulges, this has led to the belief that black-hole growth and bulge formation regulate each other. That is, black holes and bulges coevolve. Therefore, reports of a similar correlation between black holes and the dark matter haloes in which visible galaxies are embedded have profound implications. Dark matter is likely to be non-baryonic, so these reports suggest that unknown, exotic physics controls black-hole growth. Here we show, in part on the basis of recent measurements of bulgeless galaxies, that there is almost no correlation between dark matter and parameters that measure black holes unless the galaxy also contains a bulge. We conclude that black holes do not correlate directly with dark matter. They do not correlate with galaxy disks, either. Therefore, black holes coevolve only with bulges. This simplifies the puzzle of their coevolution by focusing attention on purely baryonic processes in the galaxy mergers that make bulges.

  10. Do Nuclear Star Clusters and Supermassive Black Holes Follow the Same Host-Galaxy Correlations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Erwin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have suggested that there is a strong correlation between the masses of nuclear star clusters (NSCs and their host galaxies, a correlation which is said to be an extension of the well-known correlations between supermassive black holes (SMBHs and their host galaxies. But careful analysis of disk galaxies—including 2D bulge/disk/bar decompositions—shows that while SMBHs correlate with the stellar mass of the bulge component of galaxies, the masses of NSCs correlate much better with the total galaxy stellar mass. In addition, the mass ratio MNSC/M⋆, tot for NSCs in spirals (at least those with Hubble types Sc and later is typically an order of magnitude smaller than the mass ratio MBH/M⋆, bul of SMBHs. The absence of a universal “central massive object” correlation argues against common formation and growth mechanisms for both SMBHs and NSCs. We also discuss evidence for a break in the NSC-host galaxy correlation, galaxies with Hubble types earlier than Sbc appear to host systematically more massive NSCs than do types Sc and later.

  11. POWERFUL RADIO EMISSION FROM LOW-MASS SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES FAVORS DISK-LIKE BULGES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.; Xu, Y.; Xu, D. W.; Wei, J. Y., E-mail: wj@bao.ac.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Space Astronomy and Technology, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2016-12-10

    The origin of spin of low-mass supermassive black holes (SMBHs) is still a puzzle at present. We report here a study on the host galaxies of a sample of radio-selected nearby ( z < 0.05) Seyfert 2 galaxies with a BH mass of 10{sup 6–7} M{sub ⊙}. By modeling the SDSS r -band images of these galaxies through a two-dimensional bulge+disk decomposition, we identify a new dependence of SMBH's radio power on host bulge surface brightness profiles, in which more powerful radio emission comes from an SMBH associated with a more disk-like bulge. This result means low-mass and high-mass SMBHs are spun up by two entirely different modes that correspond to two different evolutionary paths. A low-mass SMBH is spun up by a gas accretion with significant disk-like rotational dynamics of the host galaxy in the secular evolution, while a high-mass one by a BH–BH merger in the merger evolution.

  12. UPDATED MASS SCALING RELATIONS FOR NUCLEAR STAR CLUSTERS AND A COMPARISON TO SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, Nicholas; Graham, Alister W.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate whether or not nuclear star clusters and supermassive black holes (SMBHs) follow a common set of mass scaling relations with their host galaxy's properties, and hence can be considered to form a single class of central massive object (CMO). We have compiled a large sample of galaxies with measured nuclear star cluster masses and host galaxy properties from the literature and fit log-linear scaling relations. We find that nuclear star cluster mass, M NC , correlates most tightly with the host galaxy's velocity dispersion: log M NC = (2.11 ± 0.31)log (σ/54) + (6.63 ± 0.09), but has a slope dramatically shallower than the relation defined by SMBHs. We find that the nuclear star cluster mass relations involving host galaxy (and spheroid) luminosity and stellar and dynamical mass, intercept with but are in general shallower than the corresponding black hole scaling relations. In particular, M NC ∝M 0.55±0.15 Gal,dyn ; the nuclear cluster mass is not a constant fraction of its host galaxy or spheroid mass. We conclude that nuclear stellar clusters and SMBHs do not form a single family of CMOs.

  13. New observational constraints on the growth of the first supermassive black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treister, E.; Schawinski, K.; Volonteri, M.; Natarajan, P.

    2013-01-01

    We constrain the total accreted mass density in supermassive black holes at z > 6, inferred via the upper limit derived from the integrated X-ray emission from a sample of photometrically selected galaxy candidates. Studying galaxies obtained from the deepest Hubble Space Telescope images combined with the Chandra 4 Ms observations of the Chandra Deep Field-South, we achieve the most restrictive constraints on total black hole growth in the early universe. We estimate an accreted mass density <1000 M ☉ Mpc –3 at z ∼ 6, significantly lower than the previous predictions from some existing models of early black hole growth and earlier prior observations. These results place interesting constraints on early black hole growth and mass assembly by accretion and imply one or more of the following: (1) only a fraction of the luminous galaxies at this epoch contain active black holes; (2) most black hole growth at early epochs happens in dusty and/or less massive—as yet undetected—host galaxies; (3) there is a significant fraction of low-z interlopers in the galaxy sample; (4) early black hole growth is radiatively inefficient, heavily obscured, and/or due to black hole mergers as opposed to accretion; or (5) the bulk of the black hole growth occurs at late times. All of these possibilities have important implications for our understanding of high-redshift seed formation models.

  14. DUAL SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE CANDIDATES IN THE AGN AND GALAXY EVOLUTION SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comerford, Julia M.; Schluns, Kyle; Greene, Jenny E.; Cool, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Dual supermassive black holes (SMBHs) with kiloparsec-scale separations in merger-remnant galaxies are informative tracers of galaxy evolution, but the avenue for identifying them in large numbers for such studies is not yet clear. One promising approach is to target spectroscopic signatures of systems where both SMBHs are fueled as dual active galactic nuclei (AGNs), or where one SMBH is fueled as an offset AGN. Dual AGNs may produce double-peaked narrow AGN emission lines, while offset AGNs may produce single-peaked narrow AGN emission lines with line-of-sight velocity offsets relative to the host galaxy. We search for such dual and offset systems among 173 Type 2 AGNs at z +3.6 -1.9 % to 18 +5 -5 %). This may be associated with the rise in the galaxy merger fraction over the same cosmic time. As further evidence for a link with galaxy mergers, the AGES offset and dual AGN candidates are tentatively ∼3 times more likely than the overall AGN population to reside in a host galaxy that has a companion galaxy (from 16/173 to 2/7, or 9 +3 -2 % to 29 -19 +26 %). Follow-up observations of the seven offset and dual AGN candidates in AGES will definitively distinguish velocity offsets produced by dual SMBHs from those produced by narrow-line region kinematics, and will help sharpen our observational approach to detecting dual SMBHs

  15. The light up and early evolution of high redshift Supermassive Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comastri, Andrea; Brusa, Marcella; Aird, James; Lanzuisi, Giorgio

    2016-07-01

    The known AGN population at z > 6 is made by luminous optical QSO hosting Supermassive Black Holes (M > 10 ^{9}solar masses), likely to represent the tip of the iceberg of the luminosity and mass function. According to theoretical models for structure formation, Massive Black Holes (M _{BH} 10^{4-7} solar masses) are predicted to be abundant in the early Universe (z > 6). The majority of these lower luminosity objects are expected to be obscured and severely underepresented in current optical near-infrared surveys. The detection of such a population would provide unique constraints on the Massive Black Holes formation mechanism and subsequent growth and is within the capabilities of deep and large area ATHENA surveys. After a summary of the state of the art of present deep XMM and Chandra surveys, at z >3-6 also mentioning the expectations for the forthcoming eROSITA all sky survey; I will present the observational strategy of future multi-cone ATHENA Wide Field Imager (WFI) surveys and the expected breakthroughs in the determination of the luminosity function and its evolution at high (> 4) and very high (>6) redshifts.

  16. Gravitational collapse of dark energy field configurations and supermassive black hole formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jhalani, V.; Kharkwal, H.; Singh, A.

    2016-01-01

    Dark energy is the dominant component of the total energy density of our Universe. The primary interaction of dark energy with the rest of the Universe is gravitational. It is therefore important to understand the gravitational dynamics of dark energy. Since dark energy is a low-energy phenomenon from the perspective of particle physics and field theory, a fundamental approach based on fields in curved space should be sufficient to understand the current dynamics of dark energy. Here, we take a field theory approach to dark energy. We discuss the evolution equations for a generic dark energy field in curved space-time and then discuss the gravitational collapse for dark energy field configurations. We describe the 3 + 1 BSSN formalism to study the gravitational collapse of fields for any general potential for the fields and apply this formalism to models of dark energy motivated by particle physics considerations. We solve the resulting equations for the time evolution of field configurations and the dynamics of space-time. Our results show that gravitational collapse of dark energy field configurations occurs and must be considered in any complete picture of our Universe. We also demonstrate the black hole formation as a result of the gravitational collapse of the dark energy field configurations. The black holes produced by the collapse of dark energy fields are in the supermassive black hole category with the masses of these black holes being comparable to the masses of black holes at the centers of galaxies.

  17. : Nuclear Spirals and Mass Accretion to Supermassive Black Holes in Weakly-Barred Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woong-Tae; Elmegreen, Bruce

    2018-01-01

    Disk galaxies, especially barred-spiral galaxies, abound with rings and spirals in their nuclear regions. Nuclear spirals existing even in weakly barred galaxies are thought to channel gas inflows to supermassive black holes residing at the centers. We use high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations to study the properties of nuclear gas spirals driven by weak bar-like or oval potentials. The amplitude of the spirals increases toward the center by a geometric effect, readily developing into shocks at small radii even for very weak potentials. The shape of the spirals and shocks depends rather sensitively on the background shear. When shear is low, the nuclear spirals are loosely wound and the shocks are almost straight, resulting in large mass inflows toward the center. When shear is high, on the other hand, the spirals are tightly wound and the shocks are oblique, forming a circumnuclear disk through which gas flows inward at a relatively lower rate. The induced mass inflow rates are enough to power black hole accretion in various types of Seyfert galaxies.

  18. Gravitational collapse of dark energy field configurations and supermassive black hole formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jhalani, V.; Kharkwal, H.; Singh, A., E-mail: anupamsingh.iitk@gmail.com [L. N. Mittal Institute of Information Technology, Physics Department (India)

    2016-11-15

    Dark energy is the dominant component of the total energy density of our Universe. The primary interaction of dark energy with the rest of the Universe is gravitational. It is therefore important to understand the gravitational dynamics of dark energy. Since dark energy is a low-energy phenomenon from the perspective of particle physics and field theory, a fundamental approach based on fields in curved space should be sufficient to understand the current dynamics of dark energy. Here, we take a field theory approach to dark energy. We discuss the evolution equations for a generic dark energy field in curved space-time and then discuss the gravitational collapse for dark energy field configurations. We describe the 3 + 1 BSSN formalism to study the gravitational collapse of fields for any general potential for the fields and apply this formalism to models of dark energy motivated by particle physics considerations. We solve the resulting equations for the time evolution of field configurations and the dynamics of space-time. Our results show that gravitational collapse of dark energy field configurations occurs and must be considered in any complete picture of our Universe. We also demonstrate the black hole formation as a result of the gravitational collapse of the dark energy field configurations. The black holes produced by the collapse of dark energy fields are in the supermassive black hole category with the masses of these black holes being comparable to the masses of black holes at the centers of galaxies.

  19. Further evidence for a supermassive black hole mass-pitch angle relation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berrier, Joel C.; Kennefick, Daniel; Kennefick, Julia D.; Hartley, Matthew; Lacy, Claud H. S. [Department of Physics, University of Arkansas, 825 West Dickson Street, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Davis, Benjamin L.; Barrows, Robert Scott; Shields, Doug [Arkansas Center for Space and Planetary Sciences, University of Arkansas, 202 Old Field House, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Seigar, Marc S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, 2801 South University Avenue, Little Rock, AR 72204 (United States); Bentz, Misty C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States)

    2013-06-01

    We present new and stronger evidence for a previously reported relationship between galactic spiral arm pitch angle P (a measure of the tightness of spiral structure) and the mass M {sub BH} of a disk galaxy's nuclear supermassive black hole (SMBH). We use an improved method to accurately measure the spiral arm pitch angle in disk galaxies to generate quantitative data on this morphological feature for 34 galaxies with directly measured black hole masses. We find a relation of log (M/M {sub ☉}) = (8.21 ± 0.16) – (0.062 ± 0.009)P. This method is compared with other means of estimating black hole mass to determine its effectiveness and usefulness relative to other existing relations. We argue that such a relationship is predicted by leading theories of spiral structure in disk galaxies, including the density wave theory. We propose this relationship as a tool for estimating SMBH masses in disk galaxies. This tool is potentially superior when compared to other methods for this class of galaxy and has the advantage of being unambiguously measurable from imaging data alone.

  20. Sensitive Spitzer Photometry of Supermassive Black Holes at the Final Stage of Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemmer, Ohad; Netzer, Hagai; Mor, Rivay; Trakhtenbrot, Benny

    2011-05-01

    We propose to obtain sensitive Spitzer snapshot observations of a unique sample of 35 Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasars at redshift 4.8 for which we obtained reliable, Mg II-based determinations of the supermassive black hole (SMBH) mass and normalized accretion rate (L/L_Edd). These quasars appear to mark the final stage of SMBH `adolescence' in the history of the Universe as their SMBHs are significantly less massive and their L/L_Edd values are significantly higher with respect to their counterparts at lower redshifts. Our observations will provide both 1) deep coverage of the fields around these quasars which will be utilized as crucial priors for our approved Herschel/SPIRE observations of these sources, and 2) coverage of the rest-frame optical SEDs of these fast accreting quasars. The results will maximize our ability to measure the star-formation rate in the host galaxies of these quasars using Herschel. We will thus be able to investigate correlations between SMBH growth and star-forming activity in the early Universe. The Spitzer photometry will also provide invaluable information about the shape of the rest-frame optical continuum in these quasars which will be used to search for extreme disk properties that may be signatures of the remarkably high accretion rates in these sources.

  1. Monitoring the Variability of the Supermassive Black Hole at the Galactic Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuo; Do, Tuan; Witzel, Gunther; Ghez, Andrea; Schödel, Rainer; Gallego, Laly; Sitarski, Breann; Lu, Jessica; Becklin, Eric Eric; Dehghanfar, Arezu; Gautam, Abhimat; Hees, Aurelien; Jia, Siyao; Matthews, Keith; Morris, Mark

    2018-01-01

    The variability of the supermassive black hole at the center of the Galaxy, Sgr A*, has been widely studied over the years in a variety of wavelengths. However, near-infrared studies of the variability of Sgr A* only began in 2003 with the then new technique Adaptive Optics (AO) as speckle shift-and-add data did not reach sufficient depth to detect Sgr A* (K baseline of 20 years. We find that the average magnitude of Sgr A* from 1995 to 2005 (K = 16.49 +/- 0.086) agrees very well with the average AO magnitude from 2005-2007 (Kp = 16.3). Our detections of Sgr A* are the first reported prior to 2002. In particular, a significant increase of power in the PSD between the main correlation timescale of ~300 min and 20 years can be excluded. This renders 300 min the dominant timescale and setting the variability state of Sgr A* in the time since 1995 apart from states discussed in the context of the X-ray echoes in the surrounding molecular clouds (for which extended bright periods of several years are required). Finally, we note that the 2001 periapse passage of the extended, dusty object G1, a source similar to G2, had no apparent effect on the emissivity of the accretion flow onto Sgr A*.

  2. EPISODIC RANDOM ACCRETION AND THE COSMOLOGICAL EVOLUTION OF SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE SPINS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jianmin; Hu Chen; Li Yanrong; Chen Yanmei; Yan Changshuo; Zhang Shu; King, Andrew R.; Marconi, Alessandro; Ho, Luis C.; Staubert, Ruediger

    2009-01-01

    The growth of supermassive black holes (BHs) located at the centers of their host galaxies comes mainly from the accretion of gas, but how to fuel them remains an outstanding unsolved problem in quasar evolution. This issue can be elucidated by quantifying the radiative efficiency parameter (η) as a function of redshift, which also provides constraints on the average spin of the BHs and its possible evolution with time. We derive a formalism to link η with the luminosity density, BH mass density, and duty cycle of quasars, quantities we can estimate from existing quasars, and galaxy survey data. We find that η has a strong cosmological evolution: at z ∼ 2, η ∼ 0.3, and by z ∼ 0 it has decreased by an order of magnitude, to η ∼ 0.03. We interpret this trend as evolution in BH spin, and we appeal to episodic, random accretion as the mechanism for reducing the spin. The observation that the fraction of radio-loud quasars decreases with increasing redshift is inconsistent with the popular notion that BH spin is a critical factor for generating strong radio jets. In agreement with previous studies, we show that the derived history of BH accretion closely follows the cosmic history of star formation, consistent with other evidence that BHs and their host galaxies co-evolve.

  3. Magnetic binary nanofillers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales Mendoza, N.; Goyanes, S.; Chiliotte, C.; Bekeris, V.; Rubiolo, G.; Candal, R.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic binary nanofillers containing multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and hercynite were synthesized by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) on Fe/AlOOH prepared by the sol-gel method. The catalyst precursor was fired at 450 °C, ground and sifted through different meshes. Two powders were obtained with different particle sizes: sample A (50-75 μm) and sample B (smaller than 50 μm). These powders are composed of iron oxide particles widely dispersed in the non-crystalline matrix of aluminum oxide and they are not ferromagnetic. After reduction process the powders are composed of α-Fe nanoparticles inside hercynite matrix. These nanofillers are composed of hercynite containing α-Fe nanoparticles and MWCNT. The binary magnetic nanofillers were slightly ferromagnetic. The saturation magnetization of the nanofillers depended on the powder particle size. The nanofiller obtained from powder particles in the range 50-75 μm showed a saturation magnetization 36% higher than the one formed from powder particles smaller than 50 μm. The phenomenon is explained in terms of changes in the magnetic environment of the particles as consequence of the presence of MWCNT.

  4. Magnetic binary nanofillers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales Mendoza, N. [INQUIMAE, CONICET-UBA, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab2, (C1428EHA) Bs As (Argentina); LPyMC, Dep. De Fisica, FCEN-UBA and IFIBA -CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Cap. Fed. (Argentina); Goyanes, S. [LPyMC, Dep. De Fisica, FCEN-UBA and IFIBA -CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Cap. Fed. (Argentina); Chiliotte, C.; Bekeris, V. [LBT, Dep. De Fisica, FCEN-UBA. Ciudad Universitaria, Pab1, C1428EGA CABA (Argentina); Rubiolo, G. [LPyMC, Dep. De Fisica, FCEN-UBA and IFIBA -CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Cap. Fed. (Argentina); Unidad de Actividad Materiales, CNEA, Av Gral. Paz 1499, San Martin (1650), Prov. de Bs As (Argentina); Candal, R., E-mail: candal@qi.fcen.uba.ar [INQUIMAE, CONICET-UBA, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab2, (C1428EHA) Bs As (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, 3iA, Universidad de Gral. San Martin, San Martin, Prov. Bs As (Argentina)

    2012-08-15

    Magnetic binary nanofillers containing multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and hercynite were synthesized by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) on Fe/AlOOH prepared by the sol-gel method. The catalyst precursor was fired at 450 Degree-Sign C, ground and sifted through different meshes. Two powders were obtained with different particle sizes: sample A (50-75 {mu}m) and sample B (smaller than 50 {mu}m). These powders are composed of iron oxide particles widely dispersed in the non-crystalline matrix of aluminum oxide and they are not ferromagnetic. After reduction process the powders are composed of {alpha}-Fe nanoparticles inside hercynite matrix. These nanofillers are composed of hercynite containing {alpha}-Fe nanoparticles and MWCNT. The binary magnetic nanofillers were slightly ferromagnetic. The saturation magnetization of the nanofillers depended on the powder particle size. The nanofiller obtained from powder particles in the range 50-75 {mu}m showed a saturation magnetization 36% higher than the one formed from powder particles smaller than 50 {mu}m. The phenomenon is explained in terms of changes in the magnetic environment of the particles as consequence of the presence of MWCNT.

  5. X-ray emission from hot subdwarfs with compact companions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esposito P.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We review the X-ray observations of hot subdwarf stars. While no X-ray emission has been detected yet from binaries containing B-type subdwarfs, interesting results have been obtained in the case of the two luminous O-type subdwarfs HD 49798 and BD + 37° 442. Both of them are members of binary systems in which the X-ray luminosity is powered by accretion onto a compact object: a rapidly spinning (13.2 s and massive (1.28  M⊙ white dwarf in the case of HD 49798 and most likely a neutron star, spinning at 19.2 s, in the case of BD + 37° 442. Their study can shed light on the poorly known processes taking place during common envelope evolutionary phases and on the properties of wind mass loss from hot subdwarfs.

  6. Compact and Hybrid Feature Description for Building Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z.; Liu, Y.; Hu, Y.; Li, P.; Ding, Y.

    2017-05-01

    Building extraction in aerial orthophotos is crucial for various applications. Currently, deep learning has been shown to be successful in addressing building extraction with high accuracy and high robustness. However, quite a large number of samples is required in training a classifier when using deep learning model. In order to realize accurate and semi-interactive labelling, the performance of feature description is crucial, as it has significant effect on the accuracy of classification. In this paper, we bring forward a compact and hybrid feature description method, in order to guarantees desirable classification accuracy of the corners on the building roof contours. The proposed descriptor is a hybrid description of an image patch constructed from 4 sets of binary intensity tests. Experiments show that benefiting from binary description and making full use of color channels, this descriptor is not only computationally frugal, but also accurate than SURF for building extraction.

  7. Live phylogeny with polytomies: Finding the most compact parsimonious trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papamichail, D; Huang, A; Kennedy, E; Ott, J-L; Miller, A; Papamichail, G

    2017-08-01

    Construction of phylogenetic trees has traditionally focused on binary trees where all species appear on leaves, a problem for which numerous efficient solutions have been developed. Certain application domains though, such as viral evolution and transmission, paleontology, linguistics, and phylogenetic stemmatics, often require phylogeny inference that involves placing input species on ancestral tree nodes (live phylogeny), and polytomies. These requirements, despite their prevalence, lead to computationally harder algorithmic solutions and have been sparsely examined in the literature to date. In this article we prove some unique properties of most parsimonious live phylogenetic trees with polytomies, and their mapping to traditional binary phylogenetic trees. We show that our problem reduces to finding the most compact parsimonious tree for n species, and describe a novel efficient algorithm to find such trees without resorting to exhaustive enumeration of all possible tree topologies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Compact particle accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elizondo-Decanini, Juan M.

    2017-08-29

    A compact particle accelerator having an input portion configured to receive power to produce particles for acceleration, where the input portion includes a switch, is provided. In a general embodiment, a vacuum tube receives particles produced from the input portion at a first end, and a plurality of wafer stacks are positioned serially along the vacuum tube. Each of the plurality of wafer stacks include a dielectric and metal-oxide pair, wherein each of the plurality of wafer stacks further accelerate the particles in the vacuum tube. A beam shaper coupled to a second end of the vacuum tube shapes the particles accelerated by the plurality of wafer stacks into a beam and an output portion outputs the beam.

  9. Compact vacuum insulation embodiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1992-04-28

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially point' or line' contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form line' contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively point' contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included. 26 figs.

  10. Compact vacuum insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1993-01-05

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially point'' or line'' contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form line'' contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively point'' contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included.

  11. The Compact Ignition Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, J.

    1987-01-01

    The author discusses his lab's plan for completing the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) conceptual design during calendar year 1987. Around July 1 they froze the subsystem envelopes on the device to continue with the conceptual design. They did this by formalizing a general requirements document. They have been developing the management plan and submitted a version to the DOE July 10. He describes a group of management activities. They released the vacuum vessel Request For Proposals (RFP) on August 5. An RFP to do a major part of the system engineering on the device is being developed. They intend to assemble the device outside of the test cell, then move it into the the test cell, install it there, and bring to the test cell many of the auxiliary facilities from TFTR, for example, power supplies

  12. Compact cryocooler heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna, J.; Frederking, T.H.K.

    1991-01-01

    Compact heat exchangers are subject to different constraints as a room temperature gas is cooled down by a cold stream returning from a JT valve (or a similar cryoprocess component). In particular, the optimization of exchangers for liquid helium systems has to cover a wide range in temperature and density of the fluid. In the present work we address the following thermodynamic questions: 1. The optimization of intermediate temperatures which optimize stage operation (a stage is assumed to have a constant cross section); 2. The optimum temperature difference available for best overall economic performance values. The results are viewed in the context of porous media concepts applied to rather low speeds of fluid flow in narrow passages. In this paper examples of fluid/solid constraints imposed in this non-classical low temperature area are presented

  13. Compact semiconductor lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Siyuan; Lourtioz, Jean-Michel

    2014-01-01

    This book brings together in a single volume a unique contribution by the top experts around the world in the field of compact semiconductor lasers to provide a comprehensive description and analysis of the current status as well as future directions in the field of micro- and nano-scale semiconductor lasers. It is organized according to the various forms of micro- or nano-laser cavity configurations with each chapter discussing key technical issues, including semiconductor carrier recombination processes and optical gain dynamics, photonic confinement behavior and output coupling mechanisms, carrier transport considerations relevant to the injection process, and emission mode control. Required reading for those working in and researching the area of semiconductors lasers and micro-electronics.

  14. NONLINEAR TIDES IN CLOSE BINARY SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, Nevin N.; Arras, Phil; Quataert, Eliot; Burkart, Josh

    2012-01-01

    We study the excitation and damping of tides in close binary systems, accounting for the leading-order nonlinear corrections to linear tidal theory. These nonlinear corrections include two distinct physical effects: three-mode nonlinear interactions, i.e., the redistribution of energy among stellar modes of oscillation, and nonlinear excitation of stellar normal modes by the time-varying gravitational potential of the companion. This paper, the first in a series, presents the formalism for studying nonlinear tides and studies the nonlinear stability of the linear tidal flow. Although the formalism we present is applicable to binaries containing stars, planets, and/or compact objects, we focus on non-rotating solar-type stars with stellar or planetary companions. Our primary results include the following: (1) The linear tidal solution almost universally used in studies of binary evolution is unstable over much of the parameter space in which it is employed. More specifically, resonantly excited internal gravity waves in solar-type stars are nonlinearly unstable to parametric resonance for companion masses M' ∼> 10-100 M ⊕ at orbital periods P ≈ 1-10 days. The nearly static 'equilibrium' tidal distortion is, however, stable to parametric resonance except for solar binaries with P ∼ 3 [P/10 days] for a solar-type star) and drives them as a single coherent unit with growth rates that are a factor of ≈N faster than the standard three-wave parametric instability. These are local instabilities viewed through the lens of global analysis; the coherent global growth rate follows local rates in the regions where the shear is strongest. In solar-type stars, the dynamical tide is unstable to this collective version of the parametric instability for even sub-Jupiter companion masses with P ∼< a month. (4) Independent of the parametric instability, the dynamical and equilibrium tides excite a wide range of stellar p-modes and g-modes by nonlinear inhomogeneous forcing

  15. Compact magnetic fusin reactor concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, K.M.

    1984-01-01

    Compact, high-power-density approaches to fusion power represent alternatives to main-line fusion concepts, Tokamaks and mirrors. If technological issues are resolved, theses approaches would yield small, low-cost fusion power plants. This survey reviews the principal physics and technology employed by leading compact magnetic fusion plants. (Author)

  16. Solid targetry for compact cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comor, J.

    2004-01-01

    In this presentation authors present experimental results of solid targetry for compact cyclotrons. It is concluded: Solid targetry is not restricted to large accelerator centers anymore; Small and medium scale radioisotope production is feasible with compact cyclotrons; The availability of versatile solid target systems is expected to boost the radiochemistry of 'exotic' positron emitters

  17. Roller-compacted concrete pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Roller-compacted concrete (RCC) gets its name from the heavy vibratory steel drum and rubber-tired rollers used to help compact it into its final form. RCC has similar strength properties and consists of the same basic ingredients as conventional con...

  18. Machine for compacting solid residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, J.

    1981-11-01

    Machine for compacting solid residues, particularly bulky radioactive residues, constituted of a horizontally actuated punch and a fixed compression anvil, in which the residues are first compacted horizontally and then vertically. Its salient characteristic is that the punch and the compression anvil have embossments on the compression side and interpenetrating plates in the compression position [fr

  19. A VERY CLOSE BINARY BLACK HOLE IN A GIANT ELLIPTICAL GALAXY 3C 66B AND ITS BLACK HOLE MERGER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iguchi, Satoru; Okuda, Takeshi; Sudou, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Recent observational results provide possible evidence that binary black holes (BBHs) exist in the center of giant galaxies and may merge to form a supermassive black hole in the process of their evolution. We first detected a periodic flux variation on a cycle of 93 ± 1 days from the 3 mm monitor observations of a giant elliptical galaxy 3C 66B for which an orbital motion with a period of 1.05 ± 0.03 yr had been already observed. The detected signal period being shorter than the orbital period can be explained by taking into consideration the Doppler-shifted modulation due to the orbital motion of a BBH. Assuming that the BBH has a circular orbit and that the jet axis is parallel to the binary angular momentum, our observational results demonstrate the presence of a very close BBH that has a binary orbit with an orbital period of 1.05 ± 0.03 yr, an orbital radius of (3.9 ± 1.0) x 10 -3 pc, an orbital separation of (6.1 +1.0 -0.9 ) x 10 -3 pc, a larger black hole mass of (1.2 +0.5 -0.2 ) x 10 9 M sun , and a smaller black hole mass of (7.0 +4.7 -6.4 ) x 10 8 M sun . The BBH decay time of (5.1 +60.5 -2.5 ) x 10 2 yr provides evidence for the occurrence of black hole mergers. This Letter will demonstrate the interesting possibility of black hole collisions to form a supermassive black hole in the process of evolution, one of the most spectacular natural phenomena in the universe.

  20. Wide- and contact-binary formation in substructured young stellar clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorval, J.; Boily, C. M.; Moraux, E.; Roos, O.

    2017-02-01

    We explore with collisional gravitational N-body models the evolution of binary stars in initially fragmented and globally subvirial clusters of stars. Binaries are inserted in the (initially) clumpy configurations so as to match the observed distributions of the field-binary-stars' semimajor axes a and binary fraction versus primary mass. The dissolution rate of wide binaries is very high at the start of the simulations, and is much reduced once the clumps are eroded by the global infall. The transition between the two regimes is sharper as the number of stars N is increased, from N = 1.5 k up to 80 k. The fraction of dissolved binary stars increases only mildly with N, from ≈15 per cent to ≈25 per cent for the same range in N. We repeated the calculation for two initial system mean number densities of 6 per pc3 (low) and 400 per pc3 (high). We found that the longer free-fall time of the low-density runs allows for prolonged binary-binary interactions inside clumps and the formation of very tight (a ≈ 0.01 au) binaries by exchange collisions. This is an indication that the statistics of such compact binaries bear a direct link to their environment at birth. We also explore the formation of wide (a ≳ 5 × 104 au) binaries and find a low (≈0.01 per cent) fraction mildly bound to the central star cluster. The high-precision astrometric mission Gaia could identify them as outflowing shells or streams.

  1. Accreting Double White Dwarf Binaries: Implications for LISA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kremer, Kyle; Breivik, Katelyn; Larson, Shane L.; Kalogera, Vassiliki, E-mail: kremer@u.northwestern.edu, E-mail: katelyn.breivik@northwestern.edu, E-mail: vicky@northwestern.edu, E-mail: s.larson@northwestern.edu [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60201 (United States)

    2017-09-10

    We explore the long-term evolution of mass-transferring white dwarf (WD) binaries undergoing both direct-impact and disk accretion and explore implications of such systems to gravitational-wave (GW) astronomy. We cover a broad range of initial component masses and show that these systems, the majority of which lie within the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna ( LISA ) sensitivity range, exhibit prominent negative orbital frequency evolution (chirp) for a significant fraction of their lifetimes. Using a galactic population synthesis, we predict ∼2700 of these systems will be observable with a negative chirp of 0.1 yr{sup −2} by a space-based GW detector like LISA . We also show that detections of mass-transferring double WD systems by LISA may provide astronomers with unique ways of probing the physics governing close compact object binaries.

  2. Accreting Double White Dwarf Binaries: Implications for LISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Kyle; Breivik, Katelyn; Larson, Shane L.; Kalogera, Vassiliki

    2017-09-01

    We explore the long-term evolution of mass-transferring white dwarf (WD) binaries undergoing both direct-impact and disk accretion and explore implications of such systems to gravitational-wave (GW) astronomy. We cover a broad range of initial component masses and show that these systems, the majority of which lie within the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) sensitivity range, exhibit prominent negative orbital frequency evolution (chirp) for a significant fraction of their lifetimes. Using a galactic population synthesis, we predict ˜2700 of these systems will be observable with a negative chirp of 0.1 yr-2 by a space-based GW detector like LISA. We also show that detections of mass-transferring double WD systems by LISA may provide astronomers with unique ways of probing the physics governing close compact object binaries.

  3. Accreting Double White Dwarf Binaries: Implications for LISA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kremer, Kyle; Breivik, Katelyn; Larson, Shane L.; Kalogera, Vassiliki

    2017-01-01

    We explore the long-term evolution of mass-transferring white dwarf (WD) binaries undergoing both direct-impact and disk accretion and explore implications of such systems to gravitational-wave (GW) astronomy. We cover a broad range of initial component masses and show that these systems, the majority of which lie within the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna ( LISA ) sensitivity range, exhibit prominent negative orbital frequency evolution (chirp) for a significant fraction of their lifetimes. Using a galactic population synthesis, we predict ∼2700 of these systems will be observable with a negative chirp of 0.1 yr −2 by a space-based GW detector like LISA . We also show that detections of mass-transferring double WD systems by LISA may provide astronomers with unique ways of probing the physics governing close compact object binaries.

  4. A classification system for tableting behaviors of binary powder mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changquan Calvin Sun

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The ability to predict tableting properties of a powder mixture from individual components is of both fundamental and practical importance to the efficient formulation development of tablet products. A common tableting classification system (TCS of binary powder mixtures facilitates the systematic development of new knowledge in this direction. Based on the dependence of tablet tensile strength on weight fraction in a binary mixture, three main types of tableting behavior are identified. Each type is further divided to arrive at a total of 15 sub-classes. The proposed classification system lays a framework for a better understanding of powder interactions during compaction. Potential applications and limitations of this classification system are discussed.

  5. Radiation-driven winds in x-ray binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friend, D.B.; Castor, J.I.

    1982-01-01

    We discuss the properties of a radiation-driven stellar wind in an X-ray binary system. The Castor, Abbott, Klein line-driven wind model is used, but the effects of the compact companion (gravity and continuum radiation pressure) and the centrifugal force due to orbital motion are included. These forces destroy the spherical symmetry of the wind and can make the mass loss and accretion strong functions of the size of the primary relative to its critical potential lobe. We in most systems the wind alone could power the X-ray emission. It also appears that, in the evolution of these systems, there would be a continuous transition from wind accretion to critical potential lobe overflow. The model is also used to make a prediction about the nature of a suspected binary system which is not known to be an X-ray emitter

  6. Spectral properties of binary asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajuelo, Myriam; Birlan, Mirel; Carry, Benoît; DeMeo, Francesca E.; Binzel, Richard P.; Berthier, Jérôme

    2018-04-01

    We present the first attempt to characterize the distribution of taxonomic class among the population of binary asteroids (15% of all small asteroids). For that, an analysis of 0.8-2.5{μ m} near-infrared spectra obtained with the SpeX instrument on the NASA/IRTF is presented. Taxonomic class and meteorite analog is determined for each target, increasing the sample of binary asteroids with known taxonomy by 21%. Most binary systems are bound in the S-, X-, and C- classes, followed by Q and V-types. The rate of binary systems in each taxonomic class agrees within uncertainty with the background population of small near-Earth objects and inner main belt asteroids, but for the C-types which are under-represented among binaries.

  7. Planets in Binary Star Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Haghighipour, Nader

    2010-01-01

    The discovery of extrasolar planets over the past decade has had major impacts on our understanding of the formation and dynamical evolution of planetary systems. There are features and characteristics unseen in our solar system and unexplainable by the current theories of planet formation and dynamics. Among these new surprises is the discovery of planets in binary and multiple-star systems. The discovery of such "binary-planetary" systems has confronted astrodynamicists with many new challenges, and has led them to re-examine the theories of planet formation and dynamics. Among these challenges are: How are planets formed in binary star systems? What would be the notion of habitability in such systems? Under what conditions can binary star systems have habitable planets? How will volatiles necessary for life appear on such planets? This volume seeks to gather the current research in the area of planets in binary and multistar systems and to familiarize readers with its associated theoretical and observation...

  8. RS CVn binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsky, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    The author attempts to place in context the vast amount of data obtained in the last few years as a result of X-ray, ultraviolet, optical, and microwave observations of RS CVn and similar spectroscopic binary systems. He concentrates on the RS CVn systems and their long-period analogs, and restricts the scope by attempting to answer on the basis of the recent data and theory following questions: (1) Are the original defining characteristics still valid and still adequate? (2) What is the evidence for discrete active regions? (3) Have we derived any meaningful physical properties for the atmospheres of RS CVn systems? (4) What are the flare observations telling us about magnetic fields in the RS CVn systems? (5) Is there evidence for systematic trends in RS CVn systems with spectral type?

  9. Accuracy of Binary Black Hole Waveform Models for Advanced LIGO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prayush; Fong, Heather; Barkett, Kevin; Bhagwat, Swetha; Afshari, Nousha; Chu, Tony; Brown, Duncan; Lovelace, Geoffrey; Pfeiffer, Harald; Scheel, Mark; Szilagyi, Bela; Simulating Extreme Spacetimes (SXS) Team

    2016-03-01

    Coalescing binaries of compact objects, such as black holes and neutron stars, are the primary targets for gravitational-wave (GW) detection with Advanced LIGO. Accurate modeling of the emitted GWs is required to extract information about the binary source. The most accurate solution to the general relativistic two-body problem is available in numerical relativity (NR), which is however limited in application due to computational cost. Current searches use semi-analytic models that are based in post-Newtonian (PN) theory and calibrated to NR. In this talk, I will present comparisons between contemporary models and high-accuracy numerical simulations performed using the Spectral Einstein Code (SpEC), focusing at the questions: (i) How well do models capture binary's late-inspiral where they lack a-priori accurate information from PN or NR, and (ii) How accurately do they model binaries with parameters outside their range of calibration. These results guide the choice of templates for future GW searches, and motivate future modeling efforts.

  10. Understanding the build-up of supermassive black holes and galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Francisco; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Georgakakis, Antonis

    2016-07-01

    One of the main open questions in modern Astrophysics is understanding the coupled growth of supermassive black holes by accretion and their host galaxies via star formation, from their peak at redshifts z~ 1-4 to the present time. The generic scenario proposed involves an early phase of intense black hole growth that takes place behind large obscuring columns of inflowing dust and gas clouds. It is postulated that this is followed by a blow-out stage during which some form of AGN feedback controls the fate of the interstellar medium and hence, the evolution of the galaxy. X-rays are essential for testing this scenario as they uniquely probe AGN at both the early heavily obscured stage and the later blow-out phase. X-ray spectral analysis can identify the smoking gun evidence of heavily obscured black hole growth (e.g. intense iron Kalpha line). It therefore provides the most robust method for compiling clean samples of deeply shrouded AGN with well-defined selection functions and unbiased determinations of their intrinsic properties (accretion luminosity, obscuring column). X-rays are also the best window for studying in detail AGN feedback. This process ultimately originates in the innermost regions close to the supermassive black hole and is dominated, in terms of energy and mass flux, by highly ionisedmaterial that remains invisible at other wavelengths. The most important epoch for investigating the relation between AGN and galaxies is the redshift range z~1-4, when most black holes and stars we see in the present-day Universe were put in place. Unfortunately, exhaustive efforts with current high-energy telescopes only scrape the tip of the iceberg of the most obscured AGN population. Moreover, Xray studies of the incidence, nature and energetics of AGN feedback are limited to the local Universe. The Athena observatory will provide the technological leap required for a breakthrough in our understanding of AGN and galaxy evolution at the heyday of the Universe

  11. DISCOVERY OF AN Hα EMITTING DISK AROUND THE SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE OF M31

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, R. B.; Steiner, J. E.; Ricci, T. V.

    2013-01-01

    Due to its proximity, the mass of the supermassive black hole in the nucleus of the Andromeda galaxy (M31), the most massive black hole in the Local Group of galaxies, has been measured by several methods involving the kinematics of a stellar disk which surrounds it. We report here the discovery of an eccentric Hα emitting disk around the black hole at the center of M31 and show how modeling this disk can provide an independent determination of the mass of the black hole. Our model implies a mass of 5.0 +0.8 –1.0 × 10 7 M ☉ for the central black hole, consistent with the average of determinations by methods involving stellar dynamics, and compatible (at 1σ level) with measurements obtained from the most detailed models of the stellar disk around the central black hole. This value is also consistent with the M-σ relation. In order to make a comparison, we applied our simulation on the stellar kinematics in the nucleus of M31 and concluded that the parameters obtained for the stellar disk are not formally compatible with the parameters obtained for the Hα emitting disk. This result suggests that the stellar and the Hα emitting disks are intrinsically different from each other. A plausible explanation is that the Hα emission is associated with a gaseous disk. This hypothesis is supported by the detection of traces of weaker nebular lines in the nuclear region of M31. However, we cannot exclude the possibility that the Hα emission is, at least partially, generated by stars.

  12. Constraints on the Nature of CID-42: Recoil Kick or Supermassive Black Hole Pair?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecha, Laura; Civano, Francesca; Elvis, Martin; Loeb, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    The galaxy CXOC J100043.1+020637, also known as CID-42, is a highly unusual object. An apparent galaxy merger remnant, it displays signatures of both an inspiraling, kiloparsecscale active galactic nucleus (AGN) pair and of a recoiling AGN with a kick velocity approximately greater than 1300 km s(exp -1). Among recoiling AGN candidates, CID-42 alone has both spatial offsets (in optical and X-ray bands) and spectroscopic offsets. In order to constrain the relative likelihood of both scenarios, we develop models using hydrodynamic galaxy merger simulations coupled with radiative transfer calculations. Our gas-rich, major merger models are generally well matched to the galactic morphology and to the inferred stellar mass and star formation rate. We show that a recoiling supermassive black hole (SMBH) in CID-42 should be observable as an AGN at the time of observation. However, in order for the recoiling AGN to produce narrow-line emission, it must be observed shortly after the kick while it still inhabits a dense gaseous region, implying a large total kick velocity (vk approximately greater than 2000 km s(exp -1)). For the dual AGN scenario, an unusually large broad-line offset is required, and the best match to the observed morphology requires a galaxy that is less luminous than CID-42. Further, the lack of X-ray emission from one of the two optical nuclei is not easily attributed to an intrinsically quiescent SMBH or to a Compton-thick galactic environment. While the current data do not allow either the recoiling or the dual AGN scenario for CID-42 to be excluded, our models highlight the most relevant parameters for distinguishing these possibilities with future observations. In particular, high-quality, spatially-resolved spectra that can pinpoint the origin of the broad and narrow line features will be critical for determining the nature of this unique source.

  13. Investigating the Relativistic Motion of the Stars Near the Supermassive Black Hole in the Galactic Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsa, M.; Eckart, A.; Shahzamanian, B.; Zajaček, M.; Straubmeier, C. [I. Physikalisches Institut, Universität zu Köln, Zülpicher Str. 77, D-50937 Köln (Germany); Karas, V. [Astronomical Institute, Academy of Science, Boční II 1401, CZ-14131 Prague (Czech Republic); Zensus, J. A., E-mail: parsa@ph1.uni-koeln.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2017-08-10

    The S-star cluster in the Galactic center allows us to study the physics close to a supermassive black hole, including distinctive dynamical tests of general relativity. Our best estimates for the mass of and the distance to Sgr A* using the three stars with the shortest period (S2, S38, and S55/S0-102) and Newtonian models are M {sub BH} = (4.15 ± 0.13 ± 0.57) × 10{sup 6} M {sub ⊙} and R {sub 0} = 8.19 ± 0.11 ± 0.34 kpc. Additionally, we aim at a new and practical method to investigate the relativistic orbits of stars in the gravitational field near Sgr A*. We use a first-order post-Newtonian approximation to calculate the stellar orbits with a broad range of periapse distance r {sub p} . We present a method that employs the changes in orbital elements derived from elliptical fits to different sections of the orbit. These changes are correlated with the relativistic parameter defined as ϒ ≡ r {sub s} / r {sub p} (with r {sub s} being the Schwarzschild radius) and can be used to derive ϒ from observational data. For S2 we find a value of ϒ = 0.00088 ± 0.00080, which is consistent, within the uncertainty, with the expected value of ϒ = 0.00065 derived from M {sub BH} and the orbit of S2. We argue that the derived quantity is unlikely to be dominated by perturbing influences such as noise on the derived stellar positions, field rotation, and drifts in black hole mass.

  14. Direct collapse to supermassive black hole seeds: comparing the AMR and SPH approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yang; Nagamine, Kentaro; Shlosman, Isaac

    2016-07-01

    We provide detailed comparison between the adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) code enzo-2.4 and the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH)/ N -body code gadget-3 in the context of isolated or cosmological direct baryonic collapse within dark matter (DM) haloes to form supermassive black holes. Gas flow is examined by following evolution of basic parameters of accretion flows. Both codes show an overall agreement in the general features of the collapse; however, many subtle differences exist. For isolated models, the codes increase their spatial and mass resolutions at different pace, which leads to substantially earlier collapse in SPH than in AMR cases due to higher gravitational resolution in gadget-3. In cosmological runs, the AMR develops a slightly higher baryonic resolution than SPH during halo growth via cold accretion permeated by mergers. Still, both codes agree in the build-up of DM and baryonic structures. However, with the onset of collapse, this difference in mass and spatial resolution is amplified, so evolution of SPH models begins to lag behind. Such a delay can have effect on formation/destruction rate of H 2 due to UV background, and on basic properties of host haloes. Finally, isolated non-cosmological models in spinning haloes, with spin parameter λ ∼ 0.01-0.07, show delayed collapse for greater λ, but pace of this increase is faster for AMR. Within our simulation set-up, gadget-3 requires significantly larger computational resources than enzo-2.4 during collapse, and needs similar resources, during the pre-collapse, cosmological structure formation phase. Yet it benefits from substantially higher gravitational force and hydrodynamic resolutions, except at the end of collapse.

  15. Direct Collapse to Supermassive Black Hole Seeds with Radiative Transfer: Isolated Halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yang; Ardaneh, Kazem; Shlosman, Isaac; Nagamine, Kentaro; Wise, John H.; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    2018-05-01

    Direct collapse within dark matter haloes is a promising path to form supermassive black hole seeds at high redshifts. The outer part of this collapse remains optically thin. However, the innermost region of the collapse is expected to become optically thick and requires to follow the radiation field in order to understand its evolution. So far, the adiabatic approximation has been used exclusively for this purpose. We apply radiative transfer in the flux-limited diffusion (FLD) approximation to solve the evolution of coupled gas and radiation for isolated haloes. We find that (1) the photosphere forms at 10-6 pc and rapidly expands outwards. (2) A central core forms, with a mass of 1 M⊙, supported by gas pressure gradients and rotation. (3) Growing gas and radiation pressure gradients dissolve it. (4) This process is associated with a strong anisotropic outflow; another core forms nearby and grows rapidly. (5) Typical radiation luminosity emerging from the photosphere is 5 × 1037-5 × 1038 erg s-1, of the order the Eddington luminosity. (6) Two variability time-scales are associated with this process: a long one, which is related to the accretion flow within the central 10-4-10-3 pc, and 0.1 yr, related to radiation diffusion. (7) Adiabatic models evolution differs profoundly from that of the FLD models, by forming a geometrically thick disc. Overall, an adiabatic equation of state is not a good approximation to the advanced stage of direct collapse, because the radiation is capable of escaping due to anisotropy in the optical depth and associated gradients.

  16. Driving the growth of the earliest supermassive black holes with major mergers of host galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Takamitsu L

    2014-01-01

    The formation mechanism of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in general, and of ∼10 9  m ⊙ SMBHs observed as luminous quasars at redshifts z>6 in particular, remains an open fundamental question. The presence of such massive BHs at such early times, when the Universe was less than a billion years old, implies that they grew via either super-Eddington accretion, or nearly uninterrupted gas accretion near the Eddington limit; the latter, at first glance, is at odds with empirical trends at lower redshifts, where quasar episodes associated with rapid BH growth are rare and brief. In this work, I examine whether and to what extent the growth of the z>6 quasar SMBHs can be explained within the standard quasar paradigm, in which major mergers of host galaxies trigger episodes of rapid gas accretion below or near the Eddington limit. Using a suite of Monte Carlo merger tree simulations of the assembly histories of 40 likely z>6 quasar host halos, I investigate (i) their growth and major merger rates out to z∼40, and (ii) how long the feeding episodes induced by host mergers must last in order to explain the observed z≳6 quasar population without super-Eddington accretion. The halo major merger rate scales roughly as ∝ (1+z) 5/2 , consistent with cosmological simulations at lower redshifts, with quasar hosts typically experiencing ≳10 major mergers between 15>z>6 (≈650 Myr), compared to ∼1 for typical massive galaxies at 3>z>0 (≈11 Gyr). The high rate of major mergers allows for nearly continuous SMBH growth if (for example) a merger triggers feeding for a duration comparable to the halo dynamical time. These findings suggest that the growth mechanisms of the earliest quasar SMBHs need not have been drastically different from their counterparts at lower redshifts. (paper)

  17. DISCOVERY OF AN H{alpha} EMITTING DISK AROUND THE SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE OF M31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menezes, R. B.; Steiner, J. E.; Ricci, T. V., E-mail: robertobm@astro.iag.usp.br [Instituto de Astronomia Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao 1226, Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo, SP CEP 05508-090 (Brazil)

    2013-01-10

    Due to its proximity, the mass of the supermassive black hole in the nucleus of the Andromeda galaxy (M31), the most massive black hole in the Local Group of galaxies, has been measured by several methods involving the kinematics of a stellar disk which surrounds it. We report here the discovery of an eccentric H{alpha} emitting disk around the black hole at the center of M31 and show how modeling this disk can provide an independent determination of the mass of the black hole. Our model implies a mass of 5.0{sup +0.8}{sub -1.0} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} M{sub Sun} for the central black hole, consistent with the average of determinations by methods involving stellar dynamics, and compatible (at 1{sigma} level) with measurements obtained from the most detailed models of the stellar disk around the central black hole. This value is also consistent with the M-{sigma} relation. In order to make a comparison, we applied our simulation on the stellar kinematics in the nucleus of M31 and concluded that the parameters obtained for the stellar disk are not formally compatible with the parameters obtained for the H{alpha} emitting disk. This result suggests that the stellar and the H{alpha} emitting disks are intrinsically different from each other. A plausible explanation is that the H{alpha} emission is associated with a gaseous disk. This hypothesis is supported by the detection of traces of weaker nebular lines in the nuclear region of M31. However, we cannot exclude the possibility that the H{alpha} emission is, at least partially, generated by stars.

  18. Observational Corollaries of Proto-AGN: Understanding Formation of Supermassive Black Hole Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlosman, Isaac

    2016-10-01

    Formation of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) is still an enigma. Recent detections of high-z quasars which harbor massive SMBHs provide a challenge to models of structure buildup in the universe. Main alternatives for the formation of SMBH seeds are (1) remnants of Population III stars, and (2) a direct baryonic collapse within dark matter (DM) halos of 10^8 Mo -- first halos whose virial temperature exceeds 10^4 K, and which can lead to the formation of proto-AGN -- luminous pre-SMBH objects. Potentially, this can involve both high-z objects as well as low-z dwarf galaxies in voids. We focus on the direct collapse in 10^8 Mo halos which circumvents the pitfalls of Pop III remnants. The collapse can proceed via a radiation pressure-supported quasistar -- with a modified blackbody continuum. Such a configuration requires a very efficient angular momentum transfer. Or, it can form a thick, differentially rotating, self-gravitating disk, which is associated with an X-ray-infrared continuum and Seyfert-level luminosity, anisotropic emission, massive bi-conical outflows, and will be a powerful source of the Ly-alpha emission. We propose to perform radiative transfer in the continuum and hydrogen lines (e.g., Lyman and Balmer), using our models of proto-AGN, and do it on-the-fly -- concurrently with the collapse. We shall test the path to quasistellar and disky proto-AGN, produce first synthetic spectra of proto-AGN, and address the issue of feasibility of their detection by the JWST. Finally, we shall develop the strategy of searching for these objects at high- and low-z, based on the specific features in the spectra and associated variability.

  19. The coevolution of supermassive black holes and massive galaxies at high redshift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapi, A.; Raimundo, S.; Aversa, R.; Cai, Z.-Y.; Celotti, A.; De Zotti, G.; Danese, L. [SISSA, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy); Negrello, M. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy)

    2014-02-20

    We exploit the recent, wide samples of far-infrared (FIR) selected galaxies followed up in X-rays and of X-ray/optically selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) followed up in the FIR band, along with the classic data on AGNs and stellar luminosity functions at high redshift z ≳ 1.5, to probe different stages in the coevolution of supermassive black holes (BHs) and host galaxies. The results of our analysis indicate the following scenario: (1) the star formation in the host galaxy proceeds within a heavily dust-enshrouded medium at an almost constant rate over a timescale ≲ 0.5-1 Gyr and then abruptly declines due to quasar feedback, over the same timescale; (2) part of the interstellar medium loses angular momentum, reaches the circum-nuclear regions at a rate proportional to the star formation, and is temporarily stored in a massive reservoir/proto-torus wherefrom it can be promptly accreted; (3) the BH grows by accretion in a self-regulated regime with radiative power that can slightly exceed the Eddington limit L/L {sub Edd} ≲ 4, particularly at the highest redshifts; (4) for massive BHs, the ensuing energy feedback at its maximum exceeds the stellar one and removes the interstellar gas, thus stopping the star formation and the fueling of the reservoir; (5) afterward, if the latter has retained enough gas, a phase of supply-limited accretion follows, exponentially declining with a timescale of about two e-folding times. We also discuss how the detailed properties and the specific evolution of the reservoir can be investigated via coordinated, high-resolution observations of star-forming, strongly lensed galaxies in the (sub-)mm band with ALMA and in the X-ray band with Chandra and the next-generation X-ray instruments.

  20. WISDOM Project - II. Molecular gas measurement of the supermassive black hole mass in NGC 4697

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Timothy A.; Bureau, Martin; Onishi, Kyoko; Cappellari, Michele; Iguchi, Satoru; Sarzi, Marc

    2017-07-01

    As part of the mm-Wave Interferometric Survey of Dark Object Masses (WISDOM) project, we present an estimate of the mass of the supermassive black hole (SMBH) in the nearby fast-rotating early-type galaxy NGC 4697. This estimate is based on Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) cycle-3 observations of the 12CO(2-1) emission line with a linear resolution of 29 pc (0.53 arcsec). We find that NGC 4697 hosts a small relaxed central molecular gas disc with a mass of 1.6 × 107 M⊙, co-spatial with the obscuring dust disc visible in optical Hubble Space Telescope imaging. We also resolve thermal 1 mm continuum emission from the dust in this disc. NGC 4697 is found to have a very low molecular gas velocity dispersion, σgas = 1.65^{+0.68}_{-0.65} km s-1. This seems to be partially because the giant molecular cloud mass function is not fully sampled, but other mechanisms such as chemical differentiation in a hard radiation field or morphological quenching also seem to be required. We detect a Keplerian increase of the rotation of the molecular gas in the very centre of NGC 4697, and use forward modelling of the ALMA data cube in a Bayesian framework with the KINematic Molecular Simulation (kinms) code to estimate an SMBH mass of (1.3_{-0.17}^{+0.18}) × 108 M⊙ and an I-band mass-to-light ratio of 2.14_{-0.05}^{+0.04} M⊙/L⊙ (at the 99 per cent confidence level). Our estimate of the SMBH mass is entirely consistent with previous measurements from stellar kinematics. This increases confidence in the growing number of SMBH mass estimates being obtained in the ALMA era.

  1. Concurrent formation of supermassive stars and globular clusters: implications for early self-enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieles, Mark; Charbonnel, Corinne; Krause, Martin G. H.; Hénault-Brunet, Vincent; Agertz, Oscar; Lamers, Henny J. G. L. M.; Bastian, Nathan; Gualandris, Alessia; Zocchi, Alice; Petts, James A.

    2018-04-01

    We present a model for the concurrent formation of globular clusters (GCs) and supermassive stars (SMSs, ≳ 103 M⊙) to address the origin of the HeCNONaMgAl abundance anomalies in GCs. GCs form in converging gas flows and accumulate low-angular momentum gas, which accretes onto protostars. This leads to an adiabatic contraction of the cluster and an increase of the stellar collision rate. A SMS can form via runaway collisions if the cluster reaches sufficiently high density before two-body relaxation halts the contraction. This condition is met if the number of stars ≳ 106 and the gas accretion rate ≳ 105 M⊙/Myr, reminiscent of GC formation in high gas-density environments, such as - but not restricted to - the early Universe. The strong SMS wind mixes with the inflowing pristine gas, such that the protostars accrete diluted hot-hydrogen burning yields of the SMS. Because of continuous rejuvenation, the amount of processed material liberated by the SMS can be an order of magnitude higher than its maximum mass. This `conveyor-belt' production of hot-hydrogen burning products provides a solution to the mass budget problem that plagues other scenarios. Additionally, the liberated material is mildly enriched in helium and relatively rich in other hot-hydrogen burning products, in agreement with abundances of GCs today. Finally, we find a super-linear scaling between the amount of processed material and cluster mass, providing an explanation for the observed increase of the fraction of processed material with GC mass. We discuss open questions of this new GC enrichment scenario and propose observational tests.

  2. THE TIDAL DISRUPTION OF GIANT STARS AND THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO THE FLARING SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE POPULATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLeod, Morgan; Guillochon, James; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico

    2012-01-01

    Sun-like stars are thought to be regularly disrupted by supermassive black holes (SMBHs) within galactic nuclei. Yet, as stars evolve off the main sequence their vulnerability to tidal disruption increases drastically as they develop a bifurcated structure consisting of a dense core and a tenuous envelope. Here we present the first hydrodynamic simulations of the tidal disruption of giant stars and show that the core has a substantial influence on the star's ability to survive the encounter. Stars with more massive cores retain large fractions of their envelope mass, even in deep encounters. Accretion flares resulting from the disruption of giant stars should last for tens to hundreds of years. Their characteristic signature in transient searches would not be the t –5/3 decay typically associated with tidal disruption events, but a correlated rise over many orders of magnitude in brightness on timescales of months to years. We calculate the relative disruption rates of stars of varying evolutionary stages in typical galactic centers, then use our results to produce Monte Carlo realizations of the expected flaring event populations. We find that the demographics of tidal disruption flares are strongly dependent on both stellar and black hole mass, especially near the limiting SMBH mass scale of ∼10 8 M ☉ . At this black hole mass, we predict a sharp transition in the SMBH flaring diet beyond which all observable disruptions arise from evolved stars, accompanied by a dramatic cutoff in the overall tidal disruption flaring rate. Black holes less massive than this limiting mass scale will show observable flares from both main-sequence and evolved stars, with giants contributing up to 10% of the event rate. The relative fractions of stars disrupted at different evolutionary states can constrain the properties and distributions of stars in galactic nuclei other than our own.

  3. Supermassive Black Holes and Their Host Galaxies. I. Bulge Luminosities from Dedicated Near-infrared Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Läsker, Ronald; Ferrarese, Laura; van de Ven, Glenn

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to secure, refine, and supplement the relation between central supermassive black hole masses, M •, and the bulge luminosities of their host galaxies, L bul, we obtained deep, high spatial resolution K-band images of 35 nearby galaxies with securely measured M •, using the wide-field WIRCam imager at the Canada-France-Hawaii-Telescope. A dedicated data reduction and sky subtraction strategy was adopted to estimate the brightness and structure of the sky, a critical step when tracing the light distribution of extended objects in the near-infrared. From the final image product, bulge and total magnitudes were extracted via two-dimensional profile fitting. As a first order approximation, all galaxies were modeled using a simple Sérsic-bulge+exponential-disk decomposition. However, we found that such models did not adequately describe the structure that we observed in a large fraction of our sample galaxies which often include cores, bars, nuclei, inner disks, spiral arms, rings, and envelopes. In such cases, we adopted profile modifications and/or more complex models with additional components. The derived bulge magnitudes are very sensitive to the details and number of components used in the models, although total magnitudes remain almost unaffected. Usually, but not always, the luminosities and sizes of the bulges are overestimated when a simple bulge+disk decomposition is adopted in lieu of a more complex model. Furthermore, we found that some spheroids are not well fit when the ellipticity of the Sérsic model is held fixed. This paper presents the details of the image processing and analysis, while we discuss how model-induced biases and systematics in bulge magnitudes impact the M •-L bul relation in a companion paper.

  4. Supermassive Black Holes and their Host Spheroids III. The Mbh-nsph Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savorgnan, Giulia A. D.

    2016-04-01

    The Sérsic {R}1/n model is the best approximation known to date for describing the light distribution of stellar spheroidal and disk components, with the Sérsic index n providing a direct measure of the central radial concentration of stars. The Sérsic index of a galaxy’s spheroidal component, nsph, has been shown to tightly correlate with the mass of the central supermassive black hole, MBH. The {M}{BH}{--}{n}{sph} correlation is also expected from other two well known scaling relations involving the spheroid luminosity, Lsph: the {L}{sph}{--}{n}{sph} and the {M}{BH}{--}{L}{sph}. Obtaining an accurate estimate of the spheroid Sérsic index requires a careful modeling of a galaxy’s light distribution and some studies have failed to recover a statistically significant {M}{BH}{--}{n}{sph} correlation. With the aim of re-investigating the {M}{BH}{--}{n}{sph} and other black hole mass scaling relations, we performed a detailed (I.e., bulge, disks, bars, spiral arms, rings, halo, nucleus, etc.) decomposition of 66 galaxies, with directly measured black hole masses, that had been imaged at 3.6 μm with Spitzer. In this paper, the third of this series, we present an analysis of the {L}{sph}{--}{n}{sph} and {M}{BH}{--}{n}{sph} diagrams. While early-type (elliptical+lenticular) and late-type (spiral) galaxies split into two separate relations in the {L}{sph}{--}{n}{sph} and {M}{BH}{--}{L}{sph} diagrams, they reunite into a single {M}{BH}\\propto {n}{sph}3.39+/- 0.15 sequence with relatively small intrinsic scatter (ɛ ≃ 0.25 {dex}). The black hole mass appears to be closely related to the spheroid central concentration of stars, which mirrors the inner gradient of the spheroid gravitational potential.

  5. A STRONGLY MAGNETIZED PULSAR WITHIN THE GRASP OF THE MILKY WAY'S SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rea, N.; Torres, D. F.; Papitto, A.; Camero-Arranz, A.; Esposito, P.; Mereghetti, S.; Tiengo, A.; Pons, J. A.; Viganò, D.; Turolla, R.; Israel, G. L.; Stella, L.; Possenti, A.; Burgay, M.; Perna, R.; Ponti, G.; Baganoff, F. K.; Haggard, D.; Zane, S.; Minter, A.

    2013-01-01

    The center of our Galaxy hosts a supermassive black hole, Sagittarius (Sgr) A*. Young, massive stars within 0.5 pc of Sgr A* are evidence of an episode of intense star formation near the black hole a few million years ago, which might have left behind a young neutron star traveling deep into Sgr A*'s gravitational potential. On 2013 April 25, a short X-ray burst was observed from the direction of the Galactic center. With a series of observations with the Chandra and the Swift satellites, we pinpoint the associated magnetar at an angular distance of 2.4 ± 0.3 arcsec from Sgr A*, and refine the source spin period and its derivative (P = 3.7635537(2) s and P-dot = 6.61(4)×10 -12 s s –1 ), confirmed by quasi simultaneous radio observations performed with the Green Bank Telescope and Parkes Radio Telescope, which also constrain a dispersion measure of DM = 1750 ± 50 pc cm –3 , the highest ever observed for a radio pulsar. We have found that this X-ray source is a young magnetar at ≈0.07-2 pc from Sgr A*. Simulations of its possible motion around Sgr A* show that it is likely (∼90% probability) in a bound orbit around the black hole. The radiation front produced by the past activity from the magnetar passing through the molecular clouds surrounding the Galactic center region might be responsible for a large fraction of the light echoes observed in the Fe fluorescence features

  6. SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES IN A STAR-FORMING GASEOUS CIRCUMNUCLEAR DISK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Valle, L.; Escala, A.; Molina, J. [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile (Chile); Maureira-Fredes, C.; Amaro-Seoane, P. [Max Planck Institut fur Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut), D-14476 Potsdam (Germany); Cuadra, J., E-mail: ldelvalleb@gmail.com [Instituto de Astrofísica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile (Chile)

    2015-09-20

    Using N-body/smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations we study the evolution of the separation of a pair of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) embedded in a star-forming circumnuclear disk (CND). This type of disk is expected to be formed in the central kiloparsec of the remnant of gas-rich galaxy mergers. Our simulations indicate that orbital decay of the SMBHs occurs more quickly when the mean density of the CND is higher, due to increased dynamical friction. However, in simulations where the CND is fragmented in high-density gaseous clumps (clumpy CND), the orbits of the SMBHs are erratically perturbed by the gravitational interaction with these clumps, delaying, in some cases, the orbital decay of the SMBHs. The densities of these gaseous clumps in our simulations and in recent studies of clumpy CNDs are two orders of magnitude higher than the observed density of molecular clouds in isolated galaxies or ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs), thus, we expect that SMBH orbits are perturbed less in real CNDs than in the simulated CNDs of this study and other recent studies. We also find that the migration timescale has a weak dependence on the star formation rate of the CND. Furthermore, the migration timescale of an SMBH pair in a star-forming clumpy CND is at most a factor of three longer than the migration timescale of a pair of SMBHs in a CND modeled with more simple gas physics. Therefore, we estimate that the migration timescale of the SMBHs in a clumpy CND is on the order of 10{sup 7} years.

  7. A Potential Recoiling Supermassive Black Hole, CXO J101527.2+625911

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D.-C.; Yoon, Ilsang; Evans, A. S.; Stierwalt, S. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Privon, G. C. [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Avda. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Santiago, Codigo Postal: 8970117 (Chile); Harvey, D. [Laboratoire dAstrophysique, EPFL, Observatoire de Sauverny, Chemin des Maillettes, 51, Versoix CH-1290, Suisse (Switzerland); Kim, Ji Hoon, E-mail: dkim@nrao.edu [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 North A’ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2017-05-10

    We have carried out a systematic search for recoiling supermassive black holes (rSMBH) using the Chandra Source and SDSS Cross-Match Catalog. From the survey, we have detected a potential rSMBH, CXO J101527.2+625911, at z = 0.3504. The source CXO J101527.2+625911 has a spatially offset (1.26 ± 0.05 kpc) active SMBH and kinematically offset broad emission lines (175 ± 25 km s{sup −1} relative to the systemic velocity). The observed spatial and velocity offsets suggest that this galaxy could be an rSMBH, but we have also considered the possibility of a dual SMBH scenario. The column density toward the galaxy center was found to be Compton thin, but no X-ray source was detected. The non-detection of the X-ray source in the nucleus suggests that either there is no obscured actively accreting SMBH or that there exists an SMBH, but it has a low accretion rate (i.e., a low-luminosity AGN (LLAGN)). The possibility of the LLAGN was investigated and found to be unlikely based on the H α luminosity, radio power, and kinematic arguments. This, along with the null detection of an X-ray source in the nucleus, supports our hypothesis that CXO J101527.2+625911 is an rSMBH. Our GALFIT analysis shows the host galaxy to be a bulge-dominated elliptical. The weak morphological disturbance and small spatial and velocity offsets suggest that CXO J101527.2+625911 could be in the final stage of a merging process and about to turn into a normal elliptical galaxy.

  8. Direct Collapse to Supermassive Black Hole Seeds with Radiation Transfer: Cosmological Halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardaneh, Kazem; Luo, Yang; Shlosman, Isaac; Nagamine, Kentaro; Wise, John H.; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    2018-06-01

    We have modeled direct collapse of a primordial gas within dark matter halos in the presence of radiative transfer, in high-resolution zoom-in simulations in a cosmological framework, down to the formation of the photosphere and the central object. Radiative transfer has been implemented in the flux-limited diffusion (FLD) approximation. Adiabatic models were run for comparison. We find that (a) the FLD flow forms an irregular central structure and does not exhibit fragmentation, contrary to adiabatic flow which forms a thick disk, driving a pair of spiral shocks, subject to Kelvin-Helmholtz shear instability forming fragments; (b) the growing central core in the FLD flow quickly reaches ˜10 M⊙ and a highly variable luminosity of 1038 - 1039 erg s-1, comparable to the Eddington luminosity. It experiences massive recurrent outflows driven by radiation force and thermal pressure gradients, which mix with the accretion flow and transfer the angular momentum outwards; and (c) the interplay between these processes and a massive accretion, results in photosphere at ˜10 AU. We conclude that in the FLD model (1) the central object exhibits dynamically insignificant rotation and slower than adiabatic temperature rise with density; (2) does not experience fragmentation leading to star formation, thus promoting the fast track formation of a supermassive black hole (SMBH) seed; (3) inclusion of radiation force leads to outflows, resulting in the mass accumulation within the central 10-3 pc, which is ˜100 times larger than characteristic scale of star formation. The inclusion of radiative transfer reveals complex early stages of formation and growth of the central structure in the direct collapse scenario of SMBH seed formation.

  9. PHYSICS OF THE GALACTIC CENTER CLOUD G2, ON ITS WAY TOWARD THE SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkert, A.; Schartmann, M.; Alig, C. [University Observatory Munich, Scheinerstrasse 1, D-81679 Munich (Germany); Gillessen, S.; Genzel, R.; Fritz, T. K.; Eisenhauer, F., E-mail: burkert@usm.lmu.de [Max-Planck-Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Giessenbachstrasse 1, 85758 Garching (Germany)

    2012-05-01

    We investigate the origin, structure, and evolution of the small gas cloud G2, which is on an orbit almost straight into the Galactic central supermassive black hole (SMBH). G2 is a sensitive probe of the hot accretion zone of Sgr A*, requiring gas temperatures and densities that agree well with models of captured shock-heated stellar winds. Its mass is equal to the critical mass below which cold clumps would be destroyed quickly by evaporation. Its mass is also constrained by the fact that at apocenter its sound crossing timescale was equal to its infall timescale. Our numerical simulations show that the observed structure and evolution of G2 can be well reproduced if it forms in pressure equilibrium with its surroundings in 1995 at a distance from the SMBH of 7.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} cm. If the cloud had formed at apocenter in the 'clockwise' stellar disk as expected from its orbit, it would be torn into a very elongated spaghetti-like filament by 2011, which is not observed. This problem can be solved if G2 is the head of a larger, shell-like structure that formed at apocenter. Our numerical simulations show that this scenario explains not only G2's observed kinematical and geometrical properties but also the Br{gamma} observations of a low surface brightness gas tail that trails the cloud. In 2013, while passing the SMBH, G2 will break up into a string of droplets that within the next 30 years will mix with the surrounding hot gas and trigger cycles of active galactic nucleus activity.

  10. Broadband and chiral binary dielectric meta-holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorasaninejad, Mohammadreza; Ambrosio, Antonio; Kanhaiya, Pritpal; Capasso, Federico

    2016-05-01

    Subwavelength structured surfaces, known as meta-surfaces, hold promise for future compact and optically thin devices with versatile functionalities. By revisiting the concept of detour phase, we demonstrate high-efficiency holograms with broadband and chiral imaging functionalities. In our devices, the apertures of binary holograms are replaced by subwavelength structured microgratings. We achieve broadband operation from the visible to the near infrared and efficiency as high as 75% in the 1.0 to 1.4 μm range by compensating for the inherent dispersion of the detour phase with that of the subwavelength structure. In addition, we demonstrate chiral holograms that project different images depending on the handedness of the reference beam by incorporating a geometric phase. Our devices' compactness, lightness, and ability to produce images even at large angles have significant potential for important emerging applications such as wearable optics.

  11. Binary scission configurations in fission of light actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtsuki, Tsutomu [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Lab. of Nuclear Science; Nagame, Y.; Nishinaka, I.; Tsukada, K.; Ikezoe, H.; Tanikawa, M.; Zhao, Y.L.; Sueki, K.; Nakahara, H.

    1997-07-01

    Mass and kinetic energy distributions of fission fragments have been accurately measured by a double velocity time-of-flight technique in the 13 MeV proton-induced fissions of {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U. A binary structure is observed in total kinetic energy distributions in the fragments with mass number around A=130 for both the fissions, indicating that there are at least two kinds of scission configurations. A correlation between the scission configurations and mass yield distributions reveals that elongated scission configurations are associated with the symmetric mass distribution and compact scission configurations with the asymmetric mass distribution. (author)

  12. Compact radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altschuler, D.R.

    1975-01-01

    Eighty-seven compact radio sources were monitored between 1971 and 1974 with the National Radio Astronomy Observatory interferometer. Both flux density and polarization were measured at intervals of about one month at wavelengths of 3.7 and 11.1 cms. Forty-four sources showed definite variability in their total and/or polarized flux density. The variations in polarization were of a shorter time scale than the corresponding flux density variations. Some of the qualitative features of an expanding source model were observed. The data suggest that some form of injection of relativistic electrons is taking place. The absence of significant depolarization in the variable sources indicates that only a small fraction of the mass of the radio outburst is in the form of non-relativistic plasma. Some of the objects observed belong to the BL-Lacertal class. It is shown that this class is very inhomogeneous in its radio properties. For the violently variable BL-Lacertal type objects the spectrum, flux variations and polarization data strongly suggest that these are very young objects

  13. Compact Dexterous Robotic Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovchik, Christopher Scott (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A compact robotic hand includes a palm housing, a wrist section, and a forearm section. The palm housing supports a plurality of fingers and one or more movable palm members that cooperate with the fingers to grasp and/or release an object. Each flexible finger comprises a plurality of hingedly connected segments, including a proximal segment pivotally connected to the palm housing. The proximal finger segment includes at least one groove defining first and second cam surfaces for engagement with a cable. A plurality of lead screw assemblies each carried by the palm housing are supplied with power from a flexible shaft rotated by an actuator and output linear motion to a cable move a finger. The cable is secured within a respective groove and enables each finger to move between an opened and closed position. A decoupling assembly pivotally connected to a proximal finger segment enables a cable connected thereto to control movement of an intermediate and distal finger segment independent of movement of the proximal finger segment. The dexterous robotic hand closely resembles the function of a human hand yet is light weight and capable of grasping both heavy and light objects with a high degree of precision.

  14. Compact stellarator coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomphrey, N.; Berry, L.A.; Boozer, A.H.

    2001-01-01

    Experimental devices to study the physics of high-beta (β>∼4%), low aspect ratio (A<∼4.5) stellarator plasmas require coils that will produce plasmas satisfying a set of physics goals, provide experimental flexibility, and be practical to construct. In the course of designing a flexible coil set for the National Compact Stellarator Experiment, we have made several innovations that may be useful in future stellarator design efforts. These include: the use of Singular Value Decomposition methods for obtaining families of smooth current potentials on distant coil winding surfaces from which low current density solutions may be identified; the use of a Control Matrix Method for identifying which few of the many detailed elements of the stellarator boundary must be targeted if a coil set is to provide fields to control the essential physics of the plasma; the use of Genetic Algorithms for choosing an optimal set of discrete coils from a continuum of potential contours; the evaluation of alternate coil topologies for balancing the tradeoff between physics objective and engineering constraints; the development of a new coil optimization code for designing modular coils, and the identification of a 'natural' basis for describing current sheet distributions. (author)

  15. Compact neutron generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Lou, Tak Pui

    2005-03-22

    A compact neutron generator has at its outer circumference a toroidal shaped plasma chamber in which a tritium (or other) plasma is generated. A RF antenna is wrapped around the plasma chamber. A plurality of tritium ion beamlets are extracted through spaced extraction apertures of a plasma electrode on the inner surface of the toroidal plasma chamber and directed inwardly toward the center of neutron generator. The beamlets pass through spaced acceleration and focusing electrodes to a neutron generating target at the center of neutron generator. The target is typically made of titanium tubing. Water is flowed through the tubing for cooling. The beam can be pulsed rapidly to achieve ultrashort neutron bursts. The target may be moved rapidly up and down so that the average power deposited on the surface of the target may be kept at a reasonable level. The neutron generator can produce fast neutrons from a T-T reaction which can be used for luggage and cargo interrogation applications. A luggage or cargo inspection system has a pulsed T-T neutron generator or source at the center, surrounded by associated gamma detectors and other components for identifying explosives or other contraband.

  16. Compact tokamak reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wootton, A.J.; Wiley, J.C.; Edmonds, P.H.; Ross, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    The possible use of tokamaks for thermonuclear power plants is discussed, in particular tokamaks with low aspect ratio and copper toroidal field coils. Three approaches are presented. First, the existing literature is reviewed and summarized. Second, using simple analytic estimates, the size of the smallest tokamak to produce an ignited plasma is derived. This steady state energy balance analysis is then extended to determine the smallest tokamaks power plant, by including the power required to drive the toroidal field and by considering two extremes of plasma current drive efficiency. Third, the analytic results are augmented by a numerical calculation that permits arbitrary plasma current drive efficiency and different confinement scaling relationships. Throughout, the importance of various restrictions is emphasized, in particular plasma current drive efficiency, plasma confinement, plasma safety factor, plasma elongation, plasma beta, neutron wall loading, blanket availability and recirculation of electric power. The latest published reactor studies show little advantage in using low aspect ratios to obtain a more compact device (and a low cost of electricity) unless either remarkably high efficiency plasma current drive and low safety factor are combined, or unless confinement (the H factor), the permissible elongation and the permissible neutron wall loading increase as the aspect ratio is reduced. These results are reproduced with the analytic model. (author). 22 refs, 3 figs

  17. Optimally cloned binary coherent states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, C. R.; Leuchs, G.; Marquardt, Ch.; Andersen, U. L.

    2017-10-01

    Binary coherent state alphabets can be represented in a two-dimensional Hilbert space. We capitalize this formal connection between the otherwise distinct domains of qubits and continuous variable states to map binary phase-shift keyed coherent states onto the Bloch sphere and to derive their quantum-optimal clones. We analyze the Wigner function and the cumulants of the clones, and we conclude that optimal cloning of binary coherent states requires a nonlinearity above second order. We propose several practical and near-optimal cloning schemes and compare their cloning fidelity to the optimal cloner.

  18. Testing General Relativity with the Reflection Spectrum of the Supermassive Black Hole in 1H0707-495.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zheng; Nampalliwar, Sourabh; Bambi, Cosimo; Dauser, Thomas; García, Javier A

    2018-02-02

    Recently, we have extended the x-ray reflection model relxill to test the spacetime metric in the strong gravitational field of astrophysical black holes. In the present Letter, we employ this extended model to analyze XMM-Newton, NuSTAR, and Swift data of the supermassive black hole in 1H0707-495 and test deviations from a Kerr metric parametrized by the Johannsen deformation parameter α_{13}. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that the spacetime metric around the black hole in 1H0707-495 is described by the Kerr solution.

  19. Compact Holographic Data Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, T. H.; Reyes, G. F.; Zhou, H.

    2001-01-01

    NASA's future missions would require massive high-speed onboard data storage capability to Space Science missions. For Space Science, such as the Europa Lander mission, the onboard data storage requirements would be focused on maximizing the spacecraft's ability to survive fault conditions (i.e., no loss in stored science data when spacecraft enters the 'safe mode') and autonomously recover from them during NASA's long-life and deep space missions. This would require the development of non-volatile memory. In order to survive in the stringent environment during space exploration missions, onboard memory requirements would also include: (1) survive a high radiation environment (1 Mrad), (2) operate effectively and efficiently for a very long time (10 years), and (3) sustain at least a billion write cycles. Therefore, memory technologies requirements of NASA's Earth Science and Space Science missions are large capacity, non-volatility, high-transfer rate, high radiation resistance, high storage density, and high power efficiency. JPL, under current sponsorship from NASA Space Science and Earth Science Programs, is developing a high-density, nonvolatile and rad-hard Compact Holographic Data Storage (CHDS) system to enable large-capacity, high-speed, low power consumption, and read/write of data in a space environment. The entire read/write operation will be controlled with electrooptic mechanism without any moving parts. This CHDS will consist of laser diodes, photorefractive crystal, spatial light modulator, photodetector array, and I/O electronic interface. In operation, pages of information would be recorded and retrieved with random access and high-speed. The nonvolatile, rad-hard characteristics of the holographic memory will provide a revolutionary memory technology meeting the high radiation challenge facing the Europa Lander mission. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  20. Compact instantaneous water heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Jorge G.W.; Machado, Antonio R.; Ferraz, Andre D.; Rocha, Ivan C.C. da; Konishi, Ricardo [Companhia de Gas de Santa Catarina (SCGAS), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Lehmkuhl, Willian A.; Francisco Jr, Roberto W.; Hatanaka, Ricardo L.; Pereira, Fernando M.; Oliveira, Amir A.M. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of combustion in an inert porous medium in a liquid heating device application. This project aims to increase efficiency in the application of natural gas in residential and commercial sectors with the use of advanced combustion and heat transfer. The goal is to facilitate the development of a high performance compact water heater allowing hot water supply for up to two simultaneous showers. The experiment consists in a cylindrical porous burner with an integrated annular water heat exchanger. The reactants were injected radially into the burner and the flame stabilizes within the porous matrix. The water circulates in a coiled pipe positioned at the center of the burner. This configuration allows for heat transfer by conduction and radiation from the solid matrix to the heat exchanger. This article presented preliminary experimental results of a new water heater based on an annular porous burner. The range of equivalence ratios tested varied from 0.65 to 0.8. The power range was varied from 3 to 5 kW. Increasing the equivalence ratio or decreasing the total power input of the burner resulted in increased thermal efficiencies of the water heater. Thermal efficiencies varying from 60 to 92% were obtained. The condition for the goal of a comfortable bath was 20 deg C for 8-12 L/min. This preliminary prototype has achieved water temperature of 11deg C for 5 L/min. Further optimizations will be necessary in order to achieve intense heating with high thermal efficiency. (author)

  1. Numerical Simulations of Wind Accretion in Symbiotic Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Val-Borro, M.; Karovska, M.; Sasselov, D.

    2009-08-01

    the mass loss from the AGB star. Our simulations of gravitationally focused wind accretion in symbiotic binaries show the formation of stream flows and enhanced accretion rates onto the compact component. We conclude that mass transfer through a focused wind is an important mechanism in wind accreting interacting binaries and can have a significant impact on the evolution of the binary itself and the individual components.

  2. NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF WIND ACCRETION IN SYMBIOTIC BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Val-Borro, M.; Karovska, M.; Sasselov, D.

    2009-01-01

    on the mass loss from the AGB star. Our simulations of gravitationally focused wind accretion in symbiotic binaries show the formation of stream flows and enhanced accretion rates onto the compact component. We conclude that mass transfer through a focused wind is an important mechanism in wind accreting interacting binaries and can have a significant impact on the evolution of the binary itself and the individual components.

  3. The INTEGRAL long monitoring of persistent ultra compact X-ray bursters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiocchi, M.; Bazzano, A.; Ubertini, P.; Bird, A. J.; Natalucci, L.; Sguera, V.

    2008-12-01

    Context: The combination of compact objects, short period variability and peculiar chemical composition of the ultra compact X-ray binaries make up a very interesting laboratory to study accretion processes and thermonuclear burning on the neutron star surface. Improved large optical telescopes and more sensitive X-ray satellites have increased the number of known ultra compact X-ray binaries allowing their study with unprecedented detail. Aims: We analyze the average properties common to all ultra compact bursters observed by INTEGRAL from 0.2 keV to 150 keV. Methods: We have performed a systematic analysis of the INTEGRAL public data and Key-Program proprietary observations of a sample of the ultra compact X-ray binaries. In order to study their average properties in a very broad energy band, we combined INTEGRAL with BeppoSAX and SWIFT data whenever possible. For sources not showing any significant flux variations along the INTEGRAL monitoring, we build the average spectrum by combining all available data; in the case of variable fluxes, we use simultaneous INTEGRAL and SWIFT observations when available. Otherwise we compared IBIS and PDS data to check the variability and combine BeppoSAX with INTEGRAL /IBIS data. Results: All spectra are well represented by a two component model consisting of a disk-blackbody and Comptonised emission. The majority of these compact sources spend most of the time in a canonical low/hard state, with a dominating Comptonised component and accretion rate dot {M} lower than 10-9 {M⊙}/yr, not depending on the model used to fit the data. INTEGRAL is an ESA project with instruments and Science Data Center funded by ESA member states (especially the PI countries: Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, Spain), Czech Republic and Poland, and with the participation of Russia and the USA.

  4. What Is Business's Social Compact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avishai, Bernard

    1994-01-01

    Under the "new" social compact, businesses must focus on continuous learning and thus have both an obligation to support teaching and an opportunity to profit from it. Learning organizations must also be teaching organizations. (SK)