WorldWideScience

Sample records for community-living older persons

  1. Personality, suicidal ideation, and reasons for living among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Daniel L; Marty, Meghan A; Meyer, William J; Coolidge, Frederick L

    2012-03-01

    This study examined associations between diverse types of personality disorder (PD) features, personality traits, suicidal ideation, and protective factors against suicide among community-dwelling older adults. Participants (N = 109, M age = 71.4 years, 61% female) completed the Coolidge Axis II Inventory, NEO Five-Factor Inventory, Geriatric Suicide Ideation Scale, and Reasons for Living Inventory. PD features had positive correlations with suicidal ideation and mixed relationships with aspects of reasons for living. Personality traits had negative correlations with suicidal ideation, with the exception of neuroticism, which had a positive relationship, and were mostly unrelated to reasons for living. In regression analyses, borderline and histrionic were the only PD features that contributed significant variance in suicidal ideation, whereas neuroticism was the only personality trait that contributed significant variance in suicidal ideation. No individual PD features or personality traits contributed significant variance in reasons for living. The findings highlight the complexity of risk and protective factors for suicide and suggest that a thorough assessment of suicidal potential among older adults should include attention to their underlying personality traits.

  2. A prehabilitation program for physically frail community-living older persons.

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    Gill, Thomas M; Baker, Dorothy I; Gottschalk, Margaret; Gahbauer, Evelyne A; Charpentier, Peter A; de Regt, Paul T; Wallace, Sarah J

    2003-03-01

    To describe the development and implementation of a preventive, home-based physical therapy program (PREHAB) and to provide evidence for the safety and interrater reliability of the PREHAB protocol. Demonstration study. General community. Ninety-four physically frail, community-living persons, aged 75 years or older, who were randomized to the PREHAB program in a clinical trial. The PREHAB program built on the physical therapy component of 2 previous home-based protocols. A total of 223 assessment items were linked to 28 possible interventions, including progressive balance and conditioning exercises, by using detailed algorithms and decisions rules that were automated on notebook computers. The percentages of participants who were eligible for and who completed each intervention, the extent of progress noted in the balance and conditioning exercises, adherence to the training program, and adverse events. Participants who completed the PREHAB program and those who ended it prematurely received an average of 9.7 and 7.2 interventions during an average of 14.9 and 9.5 home visits, respectively. With few exceptions, the completion rate and interrater reliability for the specific interventions were high. Despite high self-reported adherence to the training program, the majority of participants did not advance beyond the initial Thera-Band level for the upper- and lower-extremity conditioning exercises, and only about a third advanced to the highest 2 levels of the balance exercises. Adverse events were no more common in the PREHAB group than in the educational control group. Our results support the feasibility and safety of the PREHAB program, but also show the special challenges and pitfalls of such a strategy when it is implemented among persons of advanced age and physical frailty. Copyright 2003 by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine and the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

  3. Older persons' lived experiences of depression and self-management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Anne Lise; Lyberg, Anne; Lassenius, Erna; Severinsson, Elisabeth; Berggren, Ingela

    2013-10-01

    Mental ill-health, such as depression in the elderly, is a complex issue that is influenced by the life-world perspective of older persons. Their self-management ability should be strengthened based on an understanding of their situation, perspectives, and vulnerability. The aim of this study was to explore and increase understanding of old persons' lived experiences of depression and self-management using an interpretative explorative design. Understanding was developed by means of hermeneutic interpretation. One theme, Relationships and Togetherness, and four subthemes, A Sense of Carrying a Shoulder Bag, Walking on Eggshells, Holding the Reins, and Estrangement--a Loss of Togetherness, emerged. A collaborative approach can be important for empowering older persons through self-development and management. Although the findings of the present study cannot be considered conclusive or definitive, they nevertheless contribute new knowledge of older persons' lived experiences of depression in everyday life.

  4. Evidence-Based Approaches to Remedy and Also to Prevent Abuse of Community-Dwelling Older Persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna M. Wilson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Elder abuse is a global issue, with an estimated 4–10% of older persons in Canada abused each year. Although Canadian legislation has been created to prevent and punish the abuse of older persons living in nursing homes and other care facilities, community-dwelling older persons are at greater risk of abuse. This paper highlights the importance of evidence-based actions targeted at three determinants of health: (a personal health practices and coping skills, (b social support networks, and (c social environments. Two research studies are profiled as case studies that illustrate the ready possibility and value of two specific types of actions on community-based older-person abuse. This paper argues for the immediate and widespread adoption of these evidence-based measures and for additional empirical evidence to guide the correction of underreporting of abuse, raise awareness of its serious nature, and increase options to not only stop it but ultimately prevent it.

  5. Understanding views on everyday use of personal health information: Insights from community dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzler, A L; Osterhage, K; Demiris, G; Phelan, E A; Thielke, S M; Turner, A M

    2018-09-01

    Older adults apply various strategies to pursue healthy aging, but we know little about their views and use of personal health information to accomplish those ends. As a first step in formulating the role of personal health information management (PHIM) in healthy aging, we explored the perspectives of older adults on health and health information used in their everyday lives through four focus groups with 25 community-dwelling adults aged 60 and over. We found that the concept of wellness-the holistic and multidimensional nature of health and wellbeing-plays prominently in how older adults think about health and health information. Participants expressed wellness from a position of personal strength, rather than health-related deficits, by focusing on wellness activities for staying healthy through: (1) personal health practices, (2) social network support, and (3) residential community engagement. Although these themes involve personal health information, existing PHIM systems that focus on disease management are generally not designed to support wellness activities. Substantial opportunity exists to fill this wellness support gap with innovative health information technology designed for older adults. Findings carry implications for the design of PHIM tools that support healthy aging and methods for engaging older adults as co-producers of this critical support.

  6. Spirituality, depression, living alone, and perceived health among Korean older adults in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Kwang Soo; Lee, Hae-Ok; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J; Kim, Susie; Marui, Eiji; Lee, Jung Su; Cook, Paul

    2009-08-01

    Both theoretical and empirical studies have documented the protective effect of religiosity and spirituality on general health in older adults in community and hospital settings; however, no study has documented the relationship between spirituality and depression among older adults living alone in communities in Korea. We tested two hypotheses: Hypothesis 1: Korean older adults living alone would be more depressed and less healthy than older adults living with family, and Hypothesis 2: Individuals who are more religious and spiritual would report a lower level of depression and a higher level of general health even when other demographic and living status variables are controlled. A descriptive, comparative, and correlational design with a convenience sampling method was conducted among community-dwelling Korean older adults in Chounbook Providence, South Korea. This study included 152 men and women older than 65 years old. Hypothesis 1 was supported as Korean older adults living alone were significantly more depressed than were older adults living with family (Preligion with general health and depression.

  7. Meeting the home-care needs of disabled older persons living in the community: does integrated services delivery make a difference?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raîche Michel

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The PRISMA Model is an innovative coordination-type integrated-service-delivery (ISD network designed to manage and better match resources to the complex and evolving needs of elders. The goal of this study was to examine the impact of this ISD network on unmet needs among disabled older persons living in the community. Methods Using data from the PRISMA study, we compared unmet needs of elders living in the community in areas with or without an ISD network. Disabilities and unmet needs were assessed with the Functional Autonomy Measurement System (SMAF. We used growth-curve analysis to examine changes in unmet needs over time and the variables associated with initial status and change. Sociodemographic characteristics, level of disability, self-perceived health status, cognitive functioning, level of empowerment, and the hours of care received were investigated as covariates. Lastly, we report the prevalence of needs and unmet needs for 29 activities in both areas at the end of the study. Results On average, participants were 83 years old; 62% were women. They had a moderate level of disability and mild cognitive problems. On average, they received 2.07 hours/day (SD = 1.08 of disability-related care, mostly provided by family. The findings from growth-curve analysis suggest that elders living in the area where ISD was implemented and those with higher levels of disability experience better fulfillment of their needs over time. Besides the area, being a woman, living alone, having a higher level of disability, more cognitive impairments, and a lower level of empowerment were linked to initial unmet needs (r2 = 0.25; p Conclusions In spite of more than 30 years of home-care services in the province of Quebec, disabled older adults living in the community still have unmet needs. ISD networks such as the PRISMA Model, however, appear to offer an effective response to the long-term-care needs of the elderly.

  8. Living in an older adult community: a pharmacy student's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasia, Emily; Estus, Erica

    2013-12-01

    Interacting with older adults is a daily practice for pharmacists. It is important to understand how medications affect their wellbeing, but there are many other factors that affect quality of life. To truly understand some of the challenges facing older adults, Emily Anastasia, a sixth-year pharmacy student at the University of Rhode Island, moved into South Bay Retirement Living, a senior living community, for an eight-day immersion experience as a special project within one of her advanced pharmacy practice experience rotations. During her stay, she did not attend classes nor leave the facility unless on the South Bay bus with the other assisted living residents. She lived with a 92-year-old roommate, developed close friendships with many of the residents, and kept a detailed journal of her experience. The purpose of this reflection is to share her experience and recognize lifestyle as well as social and physical environment as factors in understanding the aging process. Immersing a pharmacy student within an assisted living community provides a unique opportunity to observe and appreciate characteristics of older adults that cannot be learned within a classroom setting.

  9. Life space and mental health: a study of older community-dwelling persons in Australia.

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    Byles, Julie E; Leigh, Lucy; Vo, Kha; Forder, Peta; Curryer, Cassie

    2015-01-01

    The ability of older people to mobilise within and outside their community is dependent on a number of factors. This study explored the relationship between spatial mobility and psychological health among older adults living in Australia. The survey sample consisted of 260 community-dwelling men and women aged 75-80 years, who returned a postal survey measuring spatial mobility (using the Life Space Questionnaire) and psychological health (using the SF36 Health Related Quality of Life Profile). From the Life Space Questionnaire, participants were given a life-space score and multinomial regression was used to explore the potential effect of mental health on life-space score. The study found a significant association between mental health and life space. However, gender, physical functioning, and ability to drive were most strongly associated with the extent of life space and spatial mobility. Compared to men, older women are more likely to experience less spatial mobility and restricted life space, and hence are more vulnerable to social isolation. Mental health and life space were associated for the older people in this study. These findings have important implications for health policy and highlight the need to support older persons to maintain independence and social networks, and to successfully age in place within their community. This study also highlights the utility of the Life Space Questionnaire in terms of identifying older persons at risk of poorer mental health.

  10. Risk Aversion is Associated with Decision Making among Community-Based Older Persons.

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    Boyle, Patricia A; Yu, Lei; Buchman, Aron S; Bennett, David A

    2012-01-01

    Risk aversion is associated with many important decisions among younger and middle aged persons, but the association of risk aversion with decision making has not been well studied among older persons who face some of the most significant decisions of their lives. Using data from 606 community-dwelling older persons without dementia from the Rush Memory and Aging Project, an ongoing longitudinal epidemiologic study of aging, we examined the association of risk aversion with decision making. Risk aversion was measured using standard behavioral economics questions in which participants were asked to choose between a certain monetary payment ($15) versus a gamble in which they could gain more than $15 or gain nothing; potential gamble gains ranged from $20 to $300 with the gain amounts varied randomly over questions. Decision making was measured using a 12 item version of the Decision Making Competence Assessment Tool. In a linear regression model adjusted for age, sex, education, and income, greater risk aversion was associated with poorer decision making [estimate = -1.03, standard error (SE) = 0.35, p = 0.003]. Subsequent analyses showed that the association of risk aversion with decision making persisted after adjustment for global cognitive function as well as executive and non-executive cognitive abilities. Similar to findings from studies of younger persons, risk aversion is associated with poorer decision making among older persons who face a myriad of complex and influential decisions.

  11. Evaluation design of Urban Health Centres Europe (UHCE): Preventive integrated health and social care for community-dwelling older persons in five European cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franse, C.B. (Carmen B.); A.J. Voorham; Van Staveren, R. (Rob); E. Koppelaar (Elin); Martijn, R. (Rens); Valía-Cotanda, E. (Elisa); Alhambra-Borrás, T. (Tamara); Rentoumis, T. (Tasos); Bilajac, L. (Lovorka); Marchesi, V.V. (Vanja Vasiljev); Rukavina, T. (Tomislav); Verma, A. (Arpana); Williams, G. (Greg); Clough, G. (Gary); Garcés-Ferrer, J. (Jorge); F.U.S. Mattace Raso (Francesco); H. Raat (Hein)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Older persons often have interacting physical and social problems and complex care needs. An integrated care approach in the local context with collaborations between community-, social-, and health-focused organisations can contribute to the promotion of independent living

  12. Sleep duration, nap habits, and mortality in older persons.

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    Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Perach, Rotem

    2012-07-01

    To examine the effect of nighttime sleep duration on mortality and the effect modification of daytime napping on the relationship between nighttime sleep duration and mortality in older persons. Prospective survey with 20-yr mortality follow-up. The Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Aging Study, a multidimensional assessment of a stratified random sample of the older Jewish population in Israel conducted between 1989-1992. There were 1,166 self-respondent, community-dwelling participants age 75-94 yr (mean, 83.40, standard deviation, 5.30). Nighttime sleep duration, napping, functioning (activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living, Orientation Memory Concentration Test), health, and mortality. Duration of nighttime sleep of more than 9 hr was significantly related to increased mortality in comparison with sleeping 7-9 hr (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.31, P habits, and mortality in older persons. SLEEP 2012;35(7):1003-1009.

  13. Evaluation design of Urban Health Centres Europe (UHCE): preventive integrated health and social care for community-dwelling older persons in five European cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J.J. Voorham; R. van Staveren; E. Koppelaar; L.F.J. Martijn; E. Valía-Cotanda; T. Alhambra-Borrás; T. Rentoumis; L. Bilajac; V. Vasiljev Marchesi; T. Rukavina; A. Verma; G. Williams; G. Clough; J. Garcés-Ferrer; F. Mattace Raso; H. Raat; C.B. Franse

    2017-01-01

    Older persons often have interacting physical and social problems and complex care needs. An integrated care approach in the local context with collaborations between community-, social-, and health-focused organisations can contribute to the promotion of independent living and quality of life. In

  14. Self-rated health and health-strengthening factors in community-living frail older people.

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    Ebrahimi, Zahra; Dahlin-Ivanoff, Synneve; Eklund, Kajsa; Jakobsson, Annika; Wilhelmson, Katarina

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the explanatory power of variables measuring health-strengthening factors for self-rated health among community-living frail older people. Frailty is commonly constructed as a multi-dimensional geriatric syndrome ascribed to the multi-system deterioration of the reserve capacity in older age. Frailty in older people is associated with decreased physical and psychological well-being. However, knowledge about the experiences of health in frail older people is still limited. The design of the study was cross-sectional. The data were collected between October 2008 and November 2010 through face-to-face structured interviews with older people aged 65-96 years (N = 161). Binary logistic regression was used to analyse whether a set of explanatory relevant variables is associated with self-rated health. The results from the final model showed that satisfaction with one's ability to take care of oneself, having 10 or fewer symptoms and not feeling lonely had the best explanatory power for community-living frail older peoples' experiences of good health. The results indicate that a multi-disciplinary approach is desirable, where the focus should not only be on medical problems but also on providing supportive services to older people to maintain their independence and experiences of health despite frailty. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Pain and Cognitive Function Among Older Adults Living in the Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Leeuw, Guusje; Eggermont, Laura H P; Shi, Ling; Milberg, William P; Gross, Alden L; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M; Bean, Jonathan F; Leveille, Suzanne G

    2016-03-01

    Pain related to many age-related chronic conditions is a burdensome problem in elderly adults and may also interfere with cognitive functioning. The purpose of this study was to examine the cross-sectional relationship between measures of pain severity and pain interference and cognitive performance in community-living older adults. We studied 765 participants in the Maintenance of Balance Independent Living Intellect and Zest (MOBILIZE) Boston Study, a population-based study of persons aged 70 and older. Global pain severity and interference were measured using the Brief Pain Inventory subscales. The neuropsychological battery included measures of attentional capacity (Trail Making Test A, WORLD Test), executive function (Trail Making Test B and Delta, Clock-in-a-Box, Letter Fluency), memory (Hopkins Verbal Learning Test), and a global composite measure of cognitive function. Multivariable linear regression models were used to analyze the relationship between pain and cognitive functioning. Elderly adults with more severe pain or more pain interference had poorer performance on memory tests and executive functioning compared to elders with none or less pain. Pain interference was also associated with impaired attentional capacity. Additional adjustment for chronic conditions, behaviors, and psychiatric medication resulted in attenuation of many of the observed associations. However, the association between pain interference and general cognitive function persisted. Our findings point to the need for further research to understand how chronic pain may contribute to decline in cognitive function and to determine strategies that may help in preventing or managing these potential consequences of pain on cognitive function in older adults. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. The Design of New Technology Supporting Wellbeing, Independence and Social Participation, for Older Adults Domiciled in Residential Homes and/or Assisted Living Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Cahill

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify and validate the requirements for new technology supporting wellness, independence and social participation for older people domiciled in residential homes and/or assisted-living communities. Method: This research adopts a stakeholder evaluation approach to requirements elicitation and user interface design. Specifically, the study design combines several qualitative human–machine interaction (HMI design frameworks/methods, including realist ethnography, scenario-based design, persona-based design, and participatory design. Findings: New technology should reflect positive values around ageing and link to psychosocial models of successful ageing, and biopsychosocial models of health and wellbeing. Resident autonomy, wellness and social participation cannot be conceptualized outside an understanding of the relationships older adults have with others. The design remit for this technology is to enable a resident experience that is similar to living at home. New technologies should facilitate wellness and communication/connection, and not simply risk assessment. New technology provides an opportunity to bridge existing information gaps between care planning, care assessments and daily care. Overall this technology needs to be intuitive and uphold the resident’s dignity and rights. Person-to-person interaction is central to care delivery. The introduction of new technology should enhance this interaction, and not threaten it. Conclusions: Future assisted-living (AL technology should be premised by biopsychosocial models of wellness and support relationships between older adults and members of the personal and professional community. New assisted-living technology affords the possibility for improved social relationships, enhanced wellbeing, better quality of care, and independence. Such technologies require careful consideration in relation to adapting to age/condition and managing issues

  17. Assessing control of postural stability in community-living older adults using performance-based limits of stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jbabdi, Myriam; Boissy, Patrice; Hamel, Mathieu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Balance disability measurements routinely used to identify fall risks in frail populations have limited value in the early detection of postural stability deficits in community-living older adults. The objectives of the study were to 1) measure performance-based limits of stability (LOS......-session performance variability during multiple trials using the performance-based LOS paradigm. METHODS: Twenty-four healthy community-living older adults (10 men, 14 women) aged between 62 to 85 (mean age +/- sd, 71.5 +/- 6 yrs) participated in the study. Subjects' performance-based LOS were established by asking...

  18. Associations and impact factors between living arrangements and functional disability among older Chinese adults.

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    Hui Wang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To examine the association of living arrangements with functional disability among older persons and explore the mediation of impact factors on the relationship. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis using data from Healthy Aging study in Zhejiang Province. PARTICIPANTS: Analyzed sample was drawn from a representative rural population of older persons in Wuyi County, Zhejiang Province, including 1542 participants aged 60 and over in the second wave of the study. MEASUREMENTS: Living arrangements, background, functional disability, self-rated health, number of diseases, along with contemporaneous circumstances including income, social support (physical assistance and emotional support. Instrument was Activities of Daily Living (ADL scale, including Basic Activities Daily Living (BADL and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL. RESULTS: Living arrangements were significantly associated with BADL, IADL and ADL disability. Married persons living with or without children were more advantaged on all three dimensions of functional disability. Unmarried older adults living with children only had the worst functional status, even after controlling for background, social support, income and health status variables (compared with the unmarried living alone, ß for BADL: -1.262, ß for IADL: -2.112, ß for ADL: -3.388; compared with the married living with children only, ß for BADL: -1.166, ß for IADL: -2.723, ß for ADL: -3.902. In addition, older adults without difficulty in receiving emotional support, in excellent health and with advanced age had significantly better BADL, IADL and ADL function. However, a statistically significant association between physical assistance and functional disability was not found. CONCLUSION: Functional disabilities vary by living arrangements with different patterns and other factors. Our results highlight the association of unmarried elders living with children only and functioning decline comparing with

  19. Effect of cold indoor environment on physical performance of older women living in the community.

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    Lindemann, Ulrich; Oksa, Juha; Skelton, Dawn A; Beyer, Nina; Klenk, Jochen; Zscheile, Julia; Becker, Clemens

    2014-07-01

    the effects of cold on older persons' body and mind are not well documented, but with an increased number of older people with decreasing physical performance, these possible effects need to be understood. to investigate the effect of cold indoor environment on physical performance of older women. cross-sectional experimental study with two test conditions. movement laboratory in a climate chamber. eighty-eight community-dwelling, cognitively unimpaired older women (mean age 78 years). participants were exposed to moderately cold (15°C) and warm/normal (25°C) temperature in a climate chamber in random order with an interval of 1 week. The assessment protocol included leg extensor power (Nottingham Power Rig), sit-to-stand performance velocity (linear encoder), gait speed, walk-ratio (i.e. step length/cadence on an instrumented walk way), maximal quadriceps and hand grip strength. physical performance was lower in 15°C room temperature compared with 25°C room temperature for leg extensor power (P environment decreased important physical performance measures necessary for independent living. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Healthy ageing in Isan-Thai culture--A phenomenographic study based on older persons' lived experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manasatchakun, Pornpun; Chotiga, Pleumjit; Roxberg, Åsa; Asp, Margareta

    2016-01-01

    Healthy ageing is a concept that concerns older persons' quality of life and is a key factor in promoting well-being. The older population in Thailand is growing. Isan (a region of north-eastern Thailand) has been reported as having one of the most rapidly increasing older populations in the country. In order to care for and promote the health of older people, healthcare providers should understand how healthy ageing is perceived by this target group. Although healthy ageing has been studied in different contexts as well as perspectives, no studies have previously focused on older persons' experiences of healthy ageing from a lifeworld perspective in Isan-Thai. Therefore, the aim of this study is to describe older persons' qualitatively different conceptions of healthy ageing in Isan-Thai culture. A phenomenographic approach with an epistemological base in lifeworld theory was used to disclose the various ways to conceptualize healthy ageing. Individual, qualitative interviews were conducted with 17 people aged 60 and above who live in Isan-Thai. The findings of this study revealed three categories of descriptions: "being independent in dependence," "being at peace," and "being a valuable person." This study also found family members, friends, healthcare providers, and religion important to healthy ageing in the Isan-Thai culture. Understanding how older people conceptualize healthy ageing is valuable for healthcare providers. They can apply these findings regarding healthy ageing in their fieldwork when caring for older people.

  1. Effect evaluation of a multifactor community intervention to reduce falls among older persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijlhuizen, G.J.; Bois, P. du; Dommelen, P. van; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a multifactor and multimethod community intervention programme to reduce falls among older persons by at least 20%. In a pre-test-post test design, self-reported falls were registered for 10 months in the intervention community and two

  2. Augmented Reality: Sustaining Autonomous Way-Finding in the Community for Older Persons with Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sejunaite, K; Lanza, C; Ganders, S; Iljaitsch, A; Riepe, M W

    2017-01-01

    Impairment of autonomous way-finding subsequent to a multitude of neurodegenerative and other diseases impedes independence of older persons and their everyday activities. It was the goal to use augmented reality to aid autonomous way-finding in a community setting. A spatial map and directional information were shown via head-up display to guide patients from the start zone on the hospital campus to a bakery in the nearby community. Hospital campus and nearby community. Patients with mild cognitive impairment (age 63 to 89). A head-up display was used to help patients find their way. Time needed to reach goal and number of assists needed. With use of augmented reality device, patients preceded along the correct path in 113 out of 120 intersections. Intermittent reassurance was needed for most patients. Patients affirmed willingness to use such an augmented reality device in everyday life if needed or even pay for it. Augmented reality guided navigation is a promising means to sustain autonomous way-finding as a prerequisite for autonomy of older persons in everyday activities. Thus, this study lays ground for a field trial in the community using assistive technology for older persons with cognitive impairment.

  3. The relationship between rural community type and attachment to place for older people living in North Wales, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burholt, Vanessa; Naylor, Dawn

    2005-06-01

    This paper explores the relationship between rural community type and attachment to place for 387 older people aged 70 and over. Six rural settlements in North Wales are characterised according to certain statistics (e.g. age structure, in-migration, strength of local culture, and multiple deprivation) to provide distinct community profiles. It is hypothesised that community type is characterised by particular types of attachment, which are dependent on life course trajectories and changes or stability in the environment. Using a sevenfold classification of attachment to place, the paper tests seven hypotheses. The results support four of the seven hypotheses. Older people living in a retirement destination are more likely to report aesthetic qualities and the appropriateness of the environment. People living in native areas with a strong culture and local language are more likely to note the importance of historical attachment and social integration into the community. Three hypotheses are rejected: older people living in a retirement destination are not less likely to report social support, or a historical perspective in attachment to place, and older people living in areas with high levels of multiple deprivation are not more likely to encounter relocation restraints than are others. Overall, the findings suggest that the taxonomy of attachment to place provides a flexible framework for differentiation by community. The paper concludes that communities are not merely settings-they play a significant role in self-identity and are a vital source of emotional and experiential meaning for the inhabitant.

  4. Self-perceived health status and sleep quality of older adults living in community after elastic band exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Shu-Ya; Chen, Kuei-Min

    2017-07-01

    To test the effectiveness of a six-month senior elastic band exercise programme on the self-perceived health status and sleep quality of older adults living in community settings. Health issues common among older adults living in community settings include poor physical and mental health conditions and sleep quality. Engagement in appropriate exercise programmes facilitates alleviating these health issues among older adults. A quasi-experimental design was applied. A convenience sample of older adults was drawn from six senior-citizen activity centres in southern Taiwan. Participants were assigned to either an experimental group (three centres, n = 97) or a control group (three centres, n = 102) based on the senior-citizen activity centres they attended. The participants in the experimental group carried out the Senior Elastic Band exercise programme for six months (three times per week and 40 minutes per session) in addition to their daily activities. The participants in the control group maintained their daily activities. The participants' self-perceived health status and sleep quality were examined at the baseline, three-month interval and six-month interval. In total, 169 participants completed the six-month study: 84 constituted the experimental group and 85 constituted the control group. At the three-month interval, the participants in the experimental group had greater improvements in self-perceived physical health, overall sleep quality, sleep latency and sleep duration compared with those in the control group; these significant changes continued throughout the six-month study. The Senior Elastic Band exercise programme showed promising effects in improving the self-perceived physical health and sleep quality of older adults living in community settings. Healthcare professionals can incorporate the Senior Elastic Band exercise programme as one of the health promotion activities for older adults living in community settings. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons

  5. Patterns of emergency ambulance use, 2009-13: a comparison of older people living in Residential Aged Care Facilities and the Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, R; Gabbe, B; Tran, T D; Smith, K; Lowthian, J A

    2018-04-24

    to examine demand for emergency ambulances by older people. retrospective cohort study using secondary analysis of routinely collected clinical and administrative data from Ambulance Victoria, and population data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics and the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Victoria, Australia. people aged 65 years and over, living in Residential Aged Care Facilities (RACF) and the community, attended by emergency ambulance paramedics, 2009-13. rates of emergency ambulance attendance. older people living in RACF experienced high rates of emergency ambulance attendance, up to four times those for age- and sex-matched people living in the community. Rates remained constant during the study period equating to a consistent, 1.45% average annual increase in absolute demand. Rates peak among the 80-84-year group where the number of attendances equates to greater than one for every RACF-dwelling person each year. Increased demand was associated with winter months, increasing age and being male. these data provide strong evidence of high rates of emergency ambulance use by people aged 65 years and over living in RACF. These results demonstrate a clear relationship between increased rate of ambulance use among this vulnerable group of older Australians and residence, sex, age and season. Overall, absolute demand continues to increase each year adding to strain on health resources. Additional research is needed to elucidate individual characteristics, illness and health system contributors to ambulance use to inform strategies to appropriately reduce demand.

  6. Association of cognition with temporal discounting in community based older persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyle Patricia A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that cognitive function is negatively associated with temporal discounting in old age. Methods Participants were 388 community-dwelling older persons without dementia from the Rush Memory and Aging Project, an ongoing longitudinal epidemiologic study of aging in the Chicago metropolitan area. Temporal discounting was measured using standard questions in which participants were asked to choose between an immediate, smaller payment and a delayed, larger one. Cognition was measured using a detailed battery including 19 tests. The association between cognition and temporal discounting was examined via mixed models adjusted for age, sex, education, income, and the number of chronic medical conditions. Results Descriptive data revealed a consistent pattern whereby older persons with lower cognitive function were more likely to discount greater but delayed rewards compared to those with higher cognitive function. Further, in a mixed effect model adjusted for age, sex, education, income, and chronic medical conditions, global cognitive function was negatively associated with temporal discounting (estimate = −0.45, SE = 0.18, p = 0.015, such that a person with lower cognition exhibited greater discounting. Finally, in subsequent models examining domain specific associations, perceptual speed and visuospatial abilities were associated with temporal discounting, but episodic memory, semantic memory and working memory were not. Conclusion Among older persons without dementia, a lower level of cognitive function is associated with greater temporal discounting. These findings have implications regarding the ability of older persons to make decisions that involve delayed rewards but maximize well-being.

  7. The Geriatric ICF Core Set reflecting health-related problems in community-living older adults aged 75 years and older without dementia: development and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoorenberg, Sophie L W; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Middel, Berrie; Uittenbroek, Ronald J; Kremer, Hubertus P H; Wynia, Klaske

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a valid Geriatric ICF Core Set reflecting relevant health-related problems of community-living older adults without dementia. A Delphi study was performed in order to reach consensus (≥70% agreement) on second-level categories from the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). The Delphi panel comprised 41 older adults, medical and non-medical experts. Content validity of the set was tested in a cross-sectional study including 267 older adults identified as frail or having complex care needs. Consensus was reached for 30 ICF categories in the Delphi study (fourteen Body functions, ten Activities and Participation and six Environmental Factors categories). Content validity of the set was high: the prevalence of all the problems was >10%, except for d530 Toileting. The most frequently reported problems were b710 Mobility of joint functions (70%), b152 Emotional functions (65%) and b455 Exercise tolerance functions (62%). No categories had missing values. The final Geriatric ICF Core Set is a comprehensive and valid set of 29 ICF categories, reflecting the most relevant health-related problems among community-living older adults without dementia. This Core Set may contribute to optimal care provision and support of the older population. Implications for Rehabilitation The Geriatric ICF Core Set may provide a practical tool for gaining an understanding of the relevant health-related problems of community-living older adults without dementia. The Geriatric ICF Core Set may be used in primary care practice as an assessment tool in order to tailor care and support to the needs of older adults. The Geriatric ICF Core Set may be suitable for use in multidisciplinary teams in integrated care settings, since it is based on a broad range of problems in functioning. Professionals should pay special attention to health problems related to mobility and emotional functioning since these are the most

  8. Falls prevention education between older adults and healthcare providers during transition from hospital to community-living

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Den-Ching Angel

    2017-01-01

    Background: Falls are a problem for older adults. In particular, older hospitalised adults and those recently discharged from hospital have been shown to be at an increased risk of falls compared to older adults living in the community. Falls impact negatively on the physical and psychosocial well-being of older adults. They increase the burden of care for their family, caregivers and the healthcare system. However, many falls in older adults are preventable. Cochrane reviews demonstrated man...

  9. Outcomes related to nutrition screening in community living older adults: A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamirudin, Aliza Haslinda; Charlton, Karen; Walton, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition screening is an initial procedure in which the risk of malnutrition is identified. The aims of this review were to identify malnutrition risk from nutrition screening studies that have used validated nutrition screening tools in community living older adults; and to identify types of nutrition interventions, pathways of care and patient outcomes following screening. A systematic literature search was performed for the period from January 1994 until December 2013 using SCOPUS, CINAHL Plus with Full Text, PubMed and COCHRANE databases as well as a manual search. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were determined for the literature searches and the methodology followed the PRISMA guidelines. Fifty-four articles were eligible to be included in the review and malnutrition risk varied from 0% to 83%. This large range was influenced by the different tools used and heterogeneity of study samples. Most of the studies were cross sectional and without a subsequent nutrition intervention component. Types of nutrition intervention that were identified included dietetics care, nutrition education, and referral to Meals on Wheels services and community services. These interventions helped to improve the' nutritional status of older adults. Timely nutrition screening of older adults living in the community, if followed up with appropriate intervention and monitoring improves the nutritional status of older adults. This indicates that nutrition intervention should be considered a priority following nutrition screening for malnourished and at risk older adults. Further evaluation of outcomes of nutrition screening and associated interventions, using structured pathways of care, is warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Perspectives on use of personal alarms by older fallers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kylie Johnston

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Kylie Johnston1, Karen Grimmer-Somers1, Michele Sutherland21International Centre for Allied Health Evidence, University of South Australia, Adelaide; 2Falls Prevention Unit, Department of Health, Government of South Australia, Adelaide, AustraliaBackground: Personal alarms are proposed as a reliable mechanism for older people to obtain assistance after falling. However, little is known about how older people feel about owning and using personal alarms.Aim: This paper reports on experiences of independently living older people, who have recently fallen, regarding alarm use and their independence.Method: Volunteers older than 65 years who had sustained a fall in the previous six months were sought via community invitations. Semistructured telephone interviews were conducted to gain information about their fall and their perspectives on personal alarm use. Interviews were content-analyzed to identify key concepts and themes.Results: Thirty-one interviews were conducted. Twenty callers owned personal alarms. Four subgroups of older fallers were identified; the first group used personal alarms effectively and were advocates for their benefits, the second group owned an alarm but did not use it effectively, the third group did not own alarms mostly because of cost, although were receptive to an alarm should one be provided, and the fourth group did not have an alarm and would not use it even if it was provided.Discussion: Personal alarms produce positive experiences when used effectively by the right people. The cost of personal alarms prohibits some older fallers from being effective alarm users. However, other elderly fallers remain unwilling to consider alarm use even if one was provided. In view of their cost, personal alarms should be targeted to people who will benefit most. ­Alternative strategies should be considered when alarms are unlikely to be used appropriately.Keywords: personal alarm devices, falls, older people, patient perspective

  11. What does living alone really mean for older persons? A comparative study of Myanmar, Vietnam, and Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bussarawan Teerawichitchainan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rapid development and social change in Asia have led many to assume that the proportion of elderly people living alone is rising and that they tend to live in destitute situations. These assumptions often lack empirical validation. Objective: We address the trends and correlates of solitary living among older persons in Myanmar, Vietnam, and Thailand. We examine the extent to which this form of living arrangement equates with their financial stress, physical and social isolation, psychological distress, and met need for personal care. Methods: We analyze 2011-12 national surveys of older persons from the three countries. We employ descriptive and multivariate analyses using either binary logistic regression or multiple classification analysis. Results: There has been a modest upward trend in solo living among the elderly in the three countries over the last few decades. The prevalence of solo living remains low, accounting for less than one-tenth of all elders in each setting. A substantial proportion of solo-dwelling elders live in quasi-coresidence. Solo living is not always associated with financial stress. Although solitary dwellers report more psychological distress than others, our evidence does not support the claim that they are socially alienated. Note, however, that solo-living elders who are childless are the most vulnerable group and will need attention from policymakers and social workers. While solitary living tends to be correlated with adverse wellbeing outcomes in Myanmar and Vietnam, this is less the case in Thailand. Conclusions: Our evidence provides a varied and nuanced view regarding the trends and situations of solitary-living elders in developing Southeast Asia.

  12. Does life satisfaction predict five-year mortality in community-living older adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    St John, Philip D; Mackenzie, Corey; Menec, Verena

    2015-01-01

    Depression and depressive symptoms predict death, but it is less clear if more general measures of life satisfaction (LS) predict death. Our objectives were to determine: (1) if LS predicts mortality over a five-year period in community-living older adults; and (2) which aspects of LS predict death. 1751 adults over the age of 65 who were living in the community were sampled from a representative population sampling frame in 1991/1992 and followed five years later. Age, gender, and education were self-reported. An index of multimorbidity and the Older American Resource Survey measured health and functional status, and the Terrible-Delightful Scale assessed overall LS as well as satisfaction with: health, finances, family, friends, housing, recreation, self-esteem, religion, and transportation. Cox proportional hazards models examined the influence of LS on time to death. 417 participants died during the five-year study period. Overall LS and all aspects of LS except finances, religion, and self-esteem predicted death in unadjusted analyses. In fully adjusted analyses, LS with health, housing, and recreation predicted death. Other aspects of LS did not predict death after accounting for functional status and multimorbidity. LS predicted death, but certain aspects of LS are more strongly associated with death. The effect of LS is complex and may be mediated or confounded by health and functional status. It is important to consider different domains of LS when considering the impact of this important emotional indicator on mortality among older adults.

  13. Ageing out of place: The meaning of home among hispanic older persons living in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Alicia; Martins, Diane C; Gillsjö, Catharina; Schwartz-Barcott, Donna

    2017-09-01

    To explore the meaning of home among older Hispanic immigrants who are "aging out of place." Emerging evidence supports the concept of older persons ageing in place. Nurse researchers have demonstrated that older person who age in place have better physical, psychological and cognitive outcomes. Less, however, is known about older persons who are "aging out of place," meaning out of their country of origin. With the growth of home health care, there is a need to understand the older immigrants' meaning of home when ageing out of their country of origin. An inductive, qualitative descriptive research design was used. Seventeen Hispanic participants, ranging in age from 65 to 83 years were interviewed using a semi-structured interview protocol. Two major finding of the study focused on participants' descriptions of home in their country of origin and in the USA. The majority of participants described their home in their native country as the community, countryside or town (pueblo) and in the U.S.A. as family. The level of social isolation and loneliness among participants was evident. Older Hispanic immigrants who are "aging out of place" integrate their past experiences of sense of place in their native country with their present experiences of home in the USA. The need to understand the role of the community and the family in the provision of nursing care in the home may be more important than the physical structure or setting in which it is delivered. Further intra- and cross-national studies are needed to provide a framework for understanding the issues of ageing and immigration globally. Gerontological nurses need to recognise the complexity of family relationships for older Hispanic persons who are ageing out of place of origin and their risk of depression, social isolation, and loneliness. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. A critical appraisal of nutritional intervention studies in malnourished, community dwelling older persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schueren, M.A.E.; Wijnhoven, H A H; Kruizenga, H M; Visser, M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: With the rapidly increasing number of malnourished older persons in the community, this review aims to summarize the effects of nutritional intervention studies for this target group. METHODS: Based on 2 previous reviews (2009, 2011) an update of the literature was performed.

  15. Understanding interprofessional collaboration in the context of chronic disease management for older adults living in communities: a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookey-Bassett, Sue; Markle-Reid, Maureen; Mckey, Colleen A; Akhtar-Danesh, Noori

    2017-01-01

    To report a concept analysis of interprofessional collaboration in the context of chronic disease management, for older adults living in communities. Increasing prevalence of chronic disease among older adults is creating significant burden for patients, families and healthcare systems. Managing chronic disease for older adults living in the community requires interprofessional collaboration across different health and other care providers, organizations and sectors. However, there is a lack of consensus about the definition and use of interprofessional collaboration for community-based chronic disease management. Concept analysis. Electronic databases CINAHL, Medline, HealthStar, EMBASE, PsychINFO, Ageline and Cochrane Database were searched from 2000 - 2013. Rodgers' evolutionary method for concept analysis. The most common surrogate term was interdisciplinary collaboration. Related terms were interprofessional team, multidisciplinary team and teamwork. Attributes included: an evolving interpersonal process; shared goals, decision-making and care planning; interdependence; effective and frequent communication; evaluation of team processes; involving older adults and family members in the team; and diverse and flexible team membership. Antecedents comprised: role awareness; interprofessional education; trust between team members; belief that interprofessional collaboration improves care; and organizational support. Consequences included impacts on team composition and function, care planning processes and providers' knowledge, confidence and job satisfaction. Interprofessional collaboration is a complex evolving concept. Key components of interprofessional collaboration in chronic disease management for community-living older adults are identified. Implications for nursing practice, education and research are proposed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Clinical and Community Strategies to Prevent Falls and Fall-Related Injuries Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Piliae, Ruth E; Peterson, Rachel; Mohler, Martha Jane

    2017-09-01

    Falls in older adults are the result of several risk factors across biological and behavioral aspects of the person, along with environmental factors. Falls can trigger a downward spiral in activities of daily living, independence, and overall health outcomes. Clinicians who care for older adults should screen them annually for falls. A multifactorial comprehensive clinical fall assessment coupled with tailored interventions can result in a dramatic public health impact, while improving older adult quality of life. For community-dwelling older adults, effective fall prevention has the potential to reduce serious fall-related injuries, emergency room visits, hospitalizations, institutionalization, and functional decline. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Physical activity, energy requirements, and adequacy of dietary intakes of older persons in a rural Filipino community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabalda Aegina B

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aging is a process associated with physiological changes such as in body composition, energy expenditure and physical activity. Data on energy and nutrient intake adequacy among elderly is important for disease prevention, health maintenance and program development. Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study was designed to determine the energy requirements and adequacy of energy and nutrient intakes of older persons living in private households in a rural Filipino community. Study participants were generally-healthy, ambulatory, and community living elderly aged 60–100 y (n = 98, 88 of whom provided dietary information in three nonconsecutive 24-hour food-recall interviews. Results There was a decrease in both physical activity and food intake with increasing years. Based on total energy expenditure and controlling for age, gender and socio-economic status, the average energy requirement for near-old (≥ 60 to 2 (p = 0.003 for every 1% decrease in total caloric intake as percentage of the total energy expenditure requirements. Conclusion These community living elderly suffer from lack of both macronutrient intake as compared with energy requirements, and micronutrient intake as compared with the standard dietary recommendations. Their energy intakes are ~65% of the amounts required based on their total energy expenditure. Though their intakes decrease with increasing age, so do their energy expenditure, making their relative insufficiency of food intake stable with age.

  18. Better housing and living conditions for older people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    housing stock and local neighbourhood facilites be made more responsive to the demands of older people? How can housing and planning measures contribute to the integration of older people in local communities? How can urban renewal be implemented in elderly-friendly forms? What forms of coordination......There is an increasing emphasis on strategies designed to combat the exclusion of older people from society. The development of social policies oriented towards community care and community living has important consequences for housing policies and urban planning policies. How can the general...

  19. Fear of falling and its predictors among community-living older adults in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Eunmi; Hong, Gwi-Ryung Son; Lee, Seonhye; Han, Soojeong

    2017-04-01

    To explore the prevalence and predicting factors of fear of falling (FOF) among community-living older adults in Korea. Secondary data analysis of the 2011 Korean National Elderly Living Conditions and Welfare Desire Survey was used. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the predictors of FOF. In total, 75.6% of older adults with normal cognition have FOF. Factors associated with an increased risk of FOF in older adults are previous experience with falling (OR = 3.734, 95% CI = 2.996-4.655), limitations in the performance of exercise involving lower extremities (OR = 2.428, 95% CI = 2.063-2.858), being female (OR = 2.335, 95% CI = 2.023-2.694), having more than three chronic diseases (OR = 1.994, 95% CI = 1.625-2.446), limitations in instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) (OR = 1.745, 95% CI = 1.230-2.477), limitations in the performance of exercise involving upper extremities (OR = 1.646, 95% CI = 1.357-1.997), living without a spouse (OR = 1.626, 95% CI = 1.357-1.948), having poor self-rated health (OR = 1.571, 95% CI = 1.356-1.821), limitations in muscle strength (OR = 1.455, 95% CI = 1.150-1.841), age (≥75 years) (OR = 1.320, 95% CI = 1.150-1.516), lower levels of education (0-6 years) (OR = 1.231, 95% CI = 1.075-1.409), and life satisfaction (OR = 1.104, 95% CI = 1.065-1.114). A multidimensional construct of general characteristics, physical, and psychosocial variables act as risk factors for FOF. Preventive intervention should be developed to decrease the FOF among Korean older adults.

  20. The family and community lives of older people after the Second World War: new evidence from York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Mark; Wannell, Louise

    2009-01-01

    This article uses the findings of a detailed and unpublished survey, carried out in York in 1947 and 1948, to examine the support networks, social lives and economic conditions of older people in a period when considerable sociological attention was being paid to this section of the population. It is argued that the sociology of old age in this period overstated the role of families, and downplayed the involvement of the wider community, in the social networks of older people. The article also shows that even many of those who were physically restricted in some way could participate fully in social activities. Friends, visiting and social clubs played an important role in many lives. However, the financial circumstances of many older people restricted many areas of social participation, and contemporaneous poverty surveys probably understated the real extent of poverty among the elderly. These high levels of poverty themselves underscore the importance of the family and community support networks that are uncovered using the York data.

  1. Diminished mental- and physical function and lack of social support are associated with shorter survival in community dwelling older persons of Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molebatsi Robert M

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mortality rates for older persons in Botswana have been unavailable and little is known of predictors of mortality in old age. This study may serve as a precursor for more detailed assessments. The objective was to assess diminished function and lack of social support as indicators of short term risk of death. Methods A national population based prospective survey was undertaken in Botswana; twelve rural areas and three urban centers were included. 372 community-dwelling persons aged sixty years and over, were included; 265 were followed-up. Sixteen subjects were deceased at follow-up. Subjects were interviewed and clinically assessed at home. Measures of cognitive function, depression and physical function and sociodemographic information were collected. Subjects were followed-up at average 6.8 months after baseline. Results Overall mortality rate was 10.9 per 100 person years. Age-adjusted odds ratios (OR for death during follow-up were; 4.2 (CI 1.4–12.5 and 3.6 (CI 1.0–12.7 for those with diminished physical- and cognitive function, respectively. Indicators of limited social support; household with only 1 or 2 persons and eating alone, yielded age adjusted ORs of 4.3 (CI 1.5–12.5 and 6.7 (CI 2.2–20, respectively, for death during follow-up. Conclusion Older community dwelling persons with diminished cognitive- or physical function, solitary daily meals and living in a small household have a significantly increased risk of rapid deterioration and death. Health policy should include measures to strengthen informal support and expand formal service provisions to older persons with poor function and limited social networks in order to prevent premature deaths.

  2. The personal communities of men experiencing later life widowhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Tracy

    2018-05-01

    Increasingly men are becoming widowed in later life due in part to a longer life expectancy. Social networks and social support are thought to help buffer the negative consequences of such later life transitions. This paper explores the personal communities of a group of older men experiencing widowhood. Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted, September 2013-February 2014, with seven older widowers, 71-89 years of age, in North Staffordshire, UK. Interviews included personal community diagrams to identify the structure of the older men's social relationships. Data analysis comprised thematic analysis of interview transcripts and content analysis of personal community diagrams. Three overarching themes were identified from the interview data: "Personal identity and resilience assist transition," "Continuity in personal communities provides stability" and "Changes in social relationships and practices facilitate adaptation." The study identified three types of personal community among the older widowers, comprising different combinations of family, friends and others. The findings illustrate that some older widowers have very restricted personal communities which puts them at greater risk of loneliness and social isolation. The social needs of long-term carers should be addressed as isolation and loneliness can begin long before the death of a spouse. It is important to consider gender differences and preferences when designing interventions for older people in order to promote engagement, social inclusion and well-being. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Loneliness in older adults living alone in Western Europe [in Czech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong Gierveld, J.

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, many older adults are living in one-person households. This is positive in guaranteeing autonomy, but negative for social isolation and loneliness. Central research question: which factors enable older adults living alone to alleviate loneliness? Data come from the Generations and Gender

  4. Predictors of older adults' personal and community mobility: using a comprehensive theoretical mobility framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umstattd Meyer, M Renée; Janke, Megan C; Beaujean, A Alexander

    2014-06-01

    Forty-six percent of older adults report limitations in their mobility, and maintaining mobility is considered an important factor in keeping adults independent and active in later life. This study tests a comprehensive theoretical framework of mobility (Webber, S. C., Porter, M. M., & Menec, V. H. [2010]. Mobility in older adults: A comprehensive framework. The Gerontologist, 50[4], 443-450. doi:10.1093/geront/gnq013) identifying multiple determinants that additively influence mobility (financial, psychosocial, environmental, physical, and cognitive), as well as cross-cutting influences of gender, culture, and biography. Structural equation modeling was used to examine several models of mobility using data from 6,112 respondents in the Health and Retirement Study (mean age: 74.74, 85% white, 41% male, 57% married). The original measurement model fit the data well. When both personal and community mobility were simultaneously predicted, only the physical, cognitive, psychosocial, and environmental determinants were retained in the independent models. Age and marital status also predicted personal and community mobility. Although most of these relationships were in the expected direction, interestingly when both forms of mobility were included in the model, poorer cognitive ability was associated with greater personal mobility in the final model. Results indicate the importance of accounting for and examining comprehensive models of mobility. The factors affecting older adults' mobility are complex, and these relationships need to be explored in more depth to ensure the maintenance of individuals' independence and quality of life.

  5. Dental caries, periodontal disease, and cardiac arrhythmias in community-dwelling older persons aged 80 and older: is there a link?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Pedersen, Poul; Avlund, Kirsten; Morse, Douglas E

    2005-01-01

    lesions had 2.8 times higher odds (95% confidence interval=1.1-7.0) of arrhythmia than persons without active coronal caries, but there was no greater risk for persons with three or more coronal caries lesions. There was no association between periodontal disease and arrhythmia. CONCLUSION: The findings......OBJECTIVES: To examine whether caries or periodontitis is associated with cardiac arrhythmias in community-dwelling people aged 80 and older. SETTING: Urban, community-based population in Stockholm, Sweden. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. PARTICIPANTS: Eligible persons were identified through...... by a physician or the Stockholm Inpatient Register. Active root caries, active coronal caries, and periodontitis were assessed using previously defined National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research diagnostic criteria. RESULTS: The primary finding of the multivariate logistic regression analysis...

  6. Living arrangements and suicidal ideation among the Korean older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jibum; Lee, Yun-Suk; Lee, Jinkook

    2016-12-01

    This study examines how living arrangements are associated with suicidal ideation for older adults in South Korea, which has the highest suicide rate among OECD countries, and a particularly high suicide rate for older persons. Analyzing a sample of 5795 women and 3758 men aged 65 and older from a nationwide representative cross-sectional data-set, we examined how many older adults think about suicide over a one-year period, why they think about suicide, and whether living arrangements are associated with suicidal ideation. About 1 out of 12 respondents in our sample reported suicidal ideation. While women and men did not differ in the prevalence of suicidal ideation, women attributed their suicidal feelings to health problems, while men attributed theirs to economic difficulties. Logistic regression results indicated that living arrangements are associated with suicidal ideation for men but not women. Older men living with a spouse were less likely to have suicidal ideation than older men with other living arrangements (i.e., living alone, living with children without spouse, living with spouse, and others). Our results highlight the importance of living arrangements to older men's suicidal ideation. We discuss gender differences in the implications of living arrangements to suicidal ideation within the context of Confucian culture.

  7. A model for partnering first-year student pharmacists with community-based older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Beth A; Porter, Andrea L; Shawl, Lauren; Motl Moroney, Susannah E

    2012-06-18

    To design, integrate, and assess the effectiveness of an introductory pharmacy practice experience intended to redefine first-year student pharmacists' views on aging and medication use through their work with a healthy, community-based older-adult population. All students (N = 273) completed live skills training in an 8-hour boot camp provided during orientation week. Teams were assigned an independently living senior partner, completed 10 visits and reflections, and documented health-related information using an electronic portfolio (e-portfolio). As determined by pre- and post-experience survey instruments, students gained significant confidence in 7 skill areas related to communication, medication interviews, involving the partner in health care, and applying patient-care skills. Student reflections, in-class presentations, and e-portfolios documented that personal attitudes toward seniors changed over time. Senior partners enjoyed mentoring and interacting with students and many experienced health improvements as a result of the interaction. The model for partnering first-year student pharmacists with community-based older adults improved students' skills and fostered their connections to pharmacist roles and growth as person-centered providers.

  8. Living alone and fall risk factors in community-dwelling middle age and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Sharon; Painter, Jane; Hudson, Suzanne

    2009-08-01

    As part of a larger study on fall-related risk factors, this study investigated the relationship between living alone status and fall-related variables among community-dwelling adults who lived in a rural county in eastern North Carolina. A convenience sample of 666 community-dwelling adults ages 50 and over participated in this 4-year study and completed a fall questionnaire. Significant findings were found in relation to living alone status and experiencing a fall, who they informed about their fall, injuries, safety equipment, ambulatory devices, and personal emergency response system usage. Three hundred thirty-eight participants stated they lived alone, compared to 300 who lived with others. The percentage reporting a fall was appreciably larger for those living alone (52%) than for those living with others (48%) in both genders in all age groups except for the 61-70 year old adults where the percentage was less. Findings from this research enhance knowledge about the prevalence and contributing fall-related factors in adults who live alone compared to those who live with others. Insights gained from this research will assist community and public health leaders and health care professionals in developing more efficacious intervention strategies to prevent or reduce falls, and associated psychological and physical consequences.

  9. Physical Activity among Older People Living Alone in Shanghai, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; While, Alison E; Hicks, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate physical activity among older people living alone in Shanghai, People's Republic of China, and key factors contributing to their physical activity. Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was administered in nine communities in Shanghai, using a stratified random cluster sample: 521 community-dwelling older people…

  10. Family and social aspects associated with depression among older persons in a Chinese context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wen; North, Nicola; Kent, Bridie

    2013-12-01

    This study aims to explore the factors associated with depression among older persons in Macau, in relation to family and social aspects. Depression among community-dwelling older persons in Macau has been shown to be present at high rates. In Chinese culture, depression leads to social stigmatisation, suggesting a need to better understand depression as a sociocultural phenomenon. A mixed methods study was undertaken to identify the key influences on depression among Chinese older persons in Macau. Quantitative (standardised tests) and qualitative (collection of narratives) data were collected from 31 purposively selected participants, all community-dwelling older persons with depression. Depression was common among the participants. The paper reports on the family and social aspects, one of the findings of the study. Informants readily described their thoughts and judgements of themselves in graphic language. As they explored their life stories, family and social aspects emerged as significant influences that associated with depression. In a society and culture that relies on and values filial support, experiences of being widowed, having poor family support and weak social networks appeared to compound and exacerbate depression. These findings highlight that filial support, valued in Chinese culture, is seriously strained by the realities of contemporary society. Yet current government policies rely on and confirm the role of family support. Findings from this study suggest a need for such policies to be reviewed to address the realities of family and social support. The findings have several implications for clinical practice. Firstly, the cultural context of Chinese older persons should be considered and emphasised in nursing practice. Secondly, the root of depression among Chinese older persons is seen to lie in their social, family, cultural and day-to-day living issues. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Association between stairs in the home and instrumental activities of daily living among community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioka, Kimiko; Kurumatani, Norio; Hosoi, Hiroshi

    2018-06-04

    There is insufficient evidence regarding the relationship of home environment with functional capacity among community-dwelling older people without disabilities. We conducted a population-based longitudinal cohort study and examined whether stairs in the home were associated with capability to perform instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) in community-dwelling high-functioning older adults. The target population was individuals aged 65 years or older living in two municipalities in Nara Prefecture in Japan. At the baseline survey, residents who were independent in IADL (n = 6722) were included as survey subjects. Subjects were divided into three groups according to their home type; one-storey residences, walk-up residences, or residences with an elevator. IADL was evaluated using the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence. Multiple logistic regression analyses stratified by gender were used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and a 95% confidence interval (CI) for a decline in IADL, with one-storey residences as a reference. Age, studied area, marital status, working status, self-perceived economic status, body mass index, chronic diseases, smoking, drinking, eating habits, basic activities of daily living, cognitive functioning, depression, self-rated health, and social participation were used as covariates. During the 3-year follow-up, 11.6% of the subjects showed a decline in IADL. After adjusting for covariates, women who lived in walk-up residences had a lower risk for IADL decline (adjusted OR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.52-0.99), while living in a home with an elevator was not associated with IADL decline (adjusted OR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.49-1.77). In contrast, there was no association between home type and IADL decline in men (walk-up residences, adjusted OR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.71-1.14; residences with an elevator, adjusted OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.39-1.72). The presence of stairs in the home was

  12. Enhancing Connectedness Through Peer Training for Community-Dwelling Older People: A Person Centred Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmeister, Oliver K; Bernoth, Maree; Dietsch, Elaine; Cleary, Michelle

    2016-06-01

    Social interaction and connectedness is important to the mental health and wellbeing of older people. The aim of this research study was to facilitate and increase opportunities for social connectedness for older people living in regional areas through the use of technology training. Weekly technology training sessions were conducted at a Seniors Citizen's Club with a peer trainer (an experienced, retired computer teacher) and sessions were attended not only by the six study participants, but also by other club members, with up to 15 club members participating in sessions. Data analysis involved all documents generated by the project, including the individual interviews, researcher observations of training sessions, reports from the peer trainer and weekly diaries maintained by participants. Findings demonstrated that computer training at the Senior Citizens Club helped participants build group cohesion and to form tiered connections with partners, family, and friends with whom they no longer live. When the trainer is seen as a peer, and training is person-centred, older people are more receptive to learning, exploring, and experimenting with technology. Although only six people were involved in the in-depth evaluation part of the study, voluntary training with the trainer in the absence of any funding continues even to this present time. The outcome of this research reinforces the potential for technology facilitated tiered connectivity to enhance the quality of life for older people living in regional and rural Australia.

  13. Coming out narratives of older gay men living in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Stephen; Kushner, Bernie; Adams, Jeffery

    2015-10-01

    Explore the coming out narratives in a group of older gay men. A narrative gerontological approach was employed to explore the coming out narratives of older gay men. Semi-structured digitally recorded individual interviews were undertaken with 12 gay men aged between 65 and 81 years who lived in the community. Data were analysed using a narrative data analytic process. Three collective narratives related to the coming out of older gay men were identified: 'early gay experiences', 'trying not to be gay' and 'acceptance'. Older gay men come from diverse socio-cultural backgrounds. However, they all grew up in an era where same-sex attraction was a criminal offence. The path to accepting being a gay man was individualised and stressful for these participants. Consequently health and social service providers need to support the ongoing development of resilience and provide a person-centred approach to care that promotes wellbeing. © 2015 AJA Inc.

  14. Effects of Nurse-Led Multifactorial Care to Prevent Disability in Community-Living Older People : Cluster Randomized Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijker, Jacqueline J.; van Rijn, Marjon; Buurman, Bianca M.; ter Riet, Gerben; van Charante, Eric P. Moll; de Rooij, Sophia E.

    2016-01-01

    Background To evaluate the effects of nurse-led multifactorial care to prevent disability in community-living older people. Methods In a cluster randomized trail, 11 practices (n = 1,209 participants) were randomized to the intervention group, and 13 practices (n = 1,074 participants) were

  15. International comparison of cost of falls in older adults living in the community: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J C; Robertson, M C; Ashe, M C; Liu-Ambrose, T; Khan, K M; Marra, C A

    2010-08-01

    Our objective was to determine international estimates of the economic burden of falls in older people living in the community. Our systematic review emphasized the need for a consensus on methodology for cost of falls studies to enable more accurate comparisons and subgroup-specific estimates among different countries. The purpose of this study was to determine international estimates of the economic burden of falls in older people living in the community. This is a systematic review of peer-reviewed journal articles reporting estimates for the cost of falls in people aged > or =60 years living in the community. We searched for papers published between 1945 and December 2008 in MEDLINE, PUBMED, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Collaboration, and NHS EED databases that identified cost of falls in older adults. We extracted the cost of falls in the reported currency and converted them to US dollars at 2008 prices, cost items measured, perspective, time horizon, and sensitivity analysis. We assessed the quality of the studies using a selection of questions from Drummond's checklist. Seventeen studies met our inclusion criteria. Studies varied with respect to viewpoint of the analysis, definition of falls, identification of important and relevant cost items, and time horizon. Only two studies reported a sensitivity analysis and only four studies identified the viewpoint of their economic analysis. In the USA, non-fatal and fatal falls cost US $23.3 billion (2008 prices) annually and US $1.6 billion in the UK. The economic cost of falls is likely greater than policy makers appreciate. The mean cost of falls was dependent on the denominator used and ranged from US $3,476 per faller to US $10,749 per injurious fall and US $26,483 per fall requiring hospitalization. A consensus on methodology for cost of falls studies would enable more accurate comparisons and subgroup-specific estimates among different countries.

  16. Risk Factors for Fall-Related Injuries Leading to Hospitalization Among Community-Dwelling Older Persons: A Hospital-Based Case-Control Study in Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, Rekha M; Kutty, V Raman

    2016-01-01

    This study intended to identify the risk factors for injurious falls that led to hospitalization of older persons living in the community. A hospital-based unmatched incident case-control study was done among 251 cases and 250 controls admitted at a tertiary care centre in Kerala. Mean age of cases was 71.6 ± 9.13 years and that of controls was 67.02 ± 6.17 years. Hip fractures were the predominant injury following falls. Falls were mostly a result of intrinsic causes. After adjusting for other variabes, the risk factors for all injuries were age above 70 years (odds ratio [OR] = 2.25; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.46-3.46), previous fall history (OR = 2.76; 95% CI = 1.08-7.08), impaired vision (OR = 4.49; 95% CI = 2.77-7.30), not living with spouse (OR = 1.97; 95% CI = 1.31-2.97), door thresholds (OR = 1.52; 95% CI = 1.01-2.29), and slippery floor (OR = 2.37; 95% CI = 1.31-4.32). The risk factors for hip fractures and other injuries were identified separately. Fall prevention strategies among older persons are warranted in Kerala. © 2015 APJPH.

  17. A review of instruments to measure interprofessional collaboration for chronic disease management for community-living older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookey-Bassett, Sue; Markle-Reid, Maureen; McKey, Colleen; Akhtar-Danesh, Noori

    2016-01-01

    It is acknowledged internationally that chronic disease management (CDM) for community-living older adults (CLOA) is an increasingly complex process. CDM for older adults, who are often living with multiple chronic conditions, requires coordination of various health and social services. Coordination is enabled through interprofessional collaboration (IPC) among individual providers, community organizations, and health sectors. Measuring IPC is complicated given there are multiple conceptualisations and measures of IPC. A literature review of several healthcare, psychological, and social science electronic databases was conducted to locate instruments that measure IPC at the team level and have published evidence of their reliability and validity. Five instruments met the criteria and were critically reviewed to determine their strengths and limitations as they relate to CDM for CLOA. A comparison of the characteristics, psychometric properties, and overall concordance of each instrument with salient attributes of IPC found the Collaborative Practice Assessment Tool to be the most appropriate instrument for measuring IPC for CDM in CLOA.

  18. Active Ageing Level of Older Persons: Regional Comparison in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Md Nuruzzaman

    2016-01-01

    Active ageing level and its discrepancy in different regions (Bangkok, Central, North, Northeast, and South) of Thailand have been examined for prioritizing the policy agenda to be implemented. Attempt has been made to test preliminary active ageing models for Thai older persons and hence active ageing index (AAI, ranges from 0 to 1) has been estimated. Using nationally representative data and confirmatory factor analysis approach, this study justified active ageing models for female and male older persons in Thailand. Results revealed that active ageing level of Thai older persons is not high (mean AAIs for female and male older persons are 0.64 and 0.61, resp., and those are significantly different (p active ageing level. Implementation of an Integrated Active Ageing Package (IAAP), containing policies for older persons to improve their health and economic security, to promote participation in social groups and longer working lives, and to arrange learning programs, would be helpful for increasing older persons' active ageing level in Thailand.

  19. Assessment of canes used by older adults in senior living communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao Howe; Eaves, Joshua; Wang, Wen; Womack, Jill; Bullock, Paige

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study is to provide basic but essential information about how older cane users obtain their canes and how they use these canes for their daily mobility, since there is still lack of information on these areas. Ninety-three older (≥65 years old) subjects who use canes for daily activities were recruited from four assisted living facilities and five retirement centers for this cross-sectional study. The assessment involved interviewing cane users with a questionnaire, examining their canes, and investigating how these canes were used by their owners during ambulation. The commonly used canes are (from most to least): adjustable single-tip, un-adjustable (wooden), small quad, and large quad. Five major problems from data analysis were identified: lack of medical consultation for device selection/use, incorrect cane height/maintenance, placement of cane in improper hand, inability to maintain the proper reciprocal gait pattern, and improper posture during ambulation. Only forward-leaning posture during ambulation might be associated with increased falls among the older cane users. Knowledge of these problems could assist health professionals to implement appropriate interventions in clinical settings and to provide community service to address all problems related to cane use. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  20. The Geriatric ICF Core Set reflecting health-related problems in community-living older adults aged 75 years and older without dementia : development and validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoorenberg, Sophie L. W.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Middel, Berrie; Uittenbroek, Ronald J.; Kremer, Hubertus P. H.; Wynia, Klaske

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to develop a valid Geriatric ICF Core Set reflecting relevant health-related problems of community-living older adults without dementia. Methods: A Delphi study was performed in order to reach consensus (70% agreement) on second-level categories from the

  1. Assessing control of postural stability in community-living older adults using performance-based limits of stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boissy Patrick

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Balance disability measurements routinely used to identify fall risks in frail populations have limited value in the early detection of postural stability deficits in community-living older adults. The objectives of the study were to 1 measure performance-based limits of stability (LOS in community-living older adults and compare them to theoretical LOS computed from data proposed by the Balance Master® system, 2 explore the feasibility of a new measurement approach based on the assessment of postural stability during weight-shifting tasks at performance-based LOS, 3 quantify intra-session performance variability during multiple trials using the performance-based LOS paradigm. Methods Twenty-four healthy community-living older adults (10 men, 14 women aged between 62 to 85 (mean age ± sd, 71.5 ± 6 yrs participated in the study. Subjects' performance-based LOS were established by asking them to transfer their body weight as far as possible in three directions (forward, right and left without changing their base of support. LOS were computed as the maximal excursion of the COP in each direction among three trials. Participants then performed two experimental tasks that consisted in controlling, with the assistance of visual feedback, their centre of pressure (COP within two predefined targets set at 100% of their performance-based LOS. For each tasks 8 trials were performed. Ground reaction forces and torques during performance-based LOS evaluation and experimental tasks were recorded with a force plate. Sway area and medio-lateral mean COP displacement speed variables were extracted from force plate recordings. Results Significant differences between theoretical LOS computed from maximum leaning angles derived from anthropometric characteristics and performance-based LOS were observed. Results showed that a motor learning effect was present as the participants optimized their weight-shifting strategy through the first three

  2. Experiences of Community-Living Older Adults Receiving Integrated Care Based on the Chronic Care Model: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoorenberg, Sophie L W; Wynia, Klaske; Fokkens, Andrea S; Slotman, Karin; Kremer, Hubertus P H; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2015-01-01

    Integrated care models aim to solve the problem of fragmented and poorly coordinated care in current healthcare systems. These models aim to be patient-centered by providing continuous and coordinated care and by considering the needs and preferences of patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the opinions and experiences of community-living older adults with regard to integrated care and support, along with the extent to which it meets their health and social needs. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 older adults receiving integrated care and support through "Embrace," an integrated care model for community-living older adults that is based on the Chronic Care Model and a population health management model. Embrace is currently fully operational in the northern region of the Netherlands. Data analysis was based on the grounded theory approach. Responses of participants concerned two focus areas: 1) Experiences with aging, with the themes "Struggling with health," "Increasing dependency," "Decreasing social interaction," "Loss of control," and "Fears;" and 2) Experiences with Embrace, with the themes "Relationship with the case manager," "Interactions," and "Feeling in control, safe, and secure". The prospect of becoming dependent and losing control was a key concept in the lives of the older adults interviewed. Embrace reinforced the participants' ability to stay in control, even if they were dependent on others. Furthermore, participants felt safe and secure, in contrast to the fears of increasing dependency within the standard care system. The results indicate that integrated care and support provided through Embrace met the health and social needs of older adults, who were coping with the consequences of aging.

  3. The voices of older women in a disadvantaged community: issues of health and social capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boneham, Margaret Anne; Sixsmith, Judith A

    2006-01-01

    The voices of older women are rarely heard in debates about the health of disadvantaged groups. Despite growing interest in health in old age, the health experiences of older women as gendered social beings have yet to be fully explored. Their potential to contribute positively to family and community health is seldom acknowledged. The aim of this article is to present findings from a qualitative British Health Development Agency funded project on the relationship between social capital, health and gender, focusing on the health and social networks of older women in a socially disadvantaged community in the north of England. Seventy-seven community members were interviewed, of these 19 were older women aged 55-78 years. Their accounts of ill health in the context of ageing were analysed to explore the intricate ways in which social capital was created, maintained and linked to health. Findings suggest that social constructions of motherhood and caring underpinned responsibility for their own and others' health. Their experiences of dealing with health matters, together with frequent health talk, gave the women confidence as lay health experts, enabling them to contest medical advice. Drawing on personal experiences of trust and reciprocity, they recognised the importance of social networking in alleviating the problems of loneliness and isolation. At stressful times in their lives they were able to draw on existing support networks and, in spite of occasional personal conflicts, some benefited from the empowering and health-enhancing role of formal and informal participation in community life. These findings indicate that older women can operate autonomously in health matters and can substantially influence the development of healthy communities, although this can sometimes be at a personal cost.

  4. Is the Australian 75+ Health Assessment person-centred? A qualitative descriptive study of older people's perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Kay; Grimmer, Karen; Foot, Jan

    2017-12-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to explore the perspectives of older people following their recent participation in a 75+ Health Assessment (75+HA) and interrogate these perspectives using a person-centred lens. Methods A qualitative descriptive study design was used within a larger study funded by the Australian Primary Health Care Research Institute. Nineteen participants from four different general practices in one Australian state described their perceptions of the 75+HA in a face-to-face interview. Data were then analysed using a qualitative content analysis approach. Results The purpose of the 75+HA was not well understood by participants. Participant responses reveal that where, when, who and how a primary health professional conducted the 75+HA affected what older people talked about, the guidance they sought to deal with issues and, in turn, the actioning of issues that were discussed during the 75+HA. Conclusion To enable older people to make informed decisions about and successfully manage their own health and well being, and to choose when to invite others to act on their behalf, primary health professionals need to ask questions in the 75+HA within a person-centred mindset. The 75+HA is an opportunity to ensure older people know why they need support, which ones, and agree to, supports and services they require. What is known about the topic? The Australian Medicare Benefits Schedule includes the 75+HA, developed as a proactive primary care opportunity for general practitioners and practice nurses to identify issues affecting community-dwelling older people's health and well being. The aim of the 75+HA is to consider a broad range of factors that could affect physical, psychological and social functioning, which, in turn, affects overall health, and the capacity of older people to live independently in the community. Underlying the 75+HA is the importance of detecting early functional decline to enable healthy aging. What does this paper add

  5. Personal Meaning Orientations and Psychosocial Adaptation in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary T. Reker

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined how different patterns of sources of meaning in life impact the psychosocial adaptation of older adults. A total of 120 (62 women and 58 men community-residing older adults completed self-report measures of sources of meaning in life, physical health, life satisfaction, depression, personality, existential regrets, attitudes toward aging, and attitudes toward life. Cluster analysis of sources of meaning revealed four distinct meaning orientations: self-transcendent (n = 32, collectivistic (n = 24, individualistic (n = 34, and self-preoccupied (n = 30. MANCOVA analysis of the four groups, controlling for age, marital status, education, and financial satisfaction, revealed a strong multivariate main effect for meaning orientation. No statistically significant gender and Gender × Meaning orientation interaction effects were found. Older adults, who derive meaning from self-transcendent sources, are more extraverted, open to experience, agreeable, and conscientious; perceive greater purpose and coherence in life; feel more in control in directing their lives; express a stronger desire to get more out of life; and are less depressed compared with those who derive meaning through pursuing self-serving interests without any real commitment to personal, interpersonal, or societal development. The implications of the findings for positive aging are discussed.

  6. Intensity and Types of Physical Exercise in Relation to Dementia Risk Reduction in Community-Living Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Allen T C; Richards, Marcus; Chan, Wai C; Chiu, Helen F K; Lee, Ruby S Y; Lam, Linda C W

    2015-10-01

    To systematically examine the amount and type of physical exercise that might reduce the future risk of dementia in community-living older people. Six-year observational study. All the Elderly Health Centers (EHCs) of the Department of Health in Hong Kong. A total of 15,589 community-living Chinese aged 65 years and older with no history of stroke, clinical dementia, or Parkinson disease when they completed health assessment at the EHCs in the first 6 months of 2005. Self-reported habitual physical exercise patterns, including the frequency, duration, and type of exercise, at baseline and Year 3 were analyzed. The study outcome was incident dementia in 6 years. Dementia was defined by presence of clinical dementia in accordance with the 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems or Clinical Dementia Rating of 1 to 3. Both the cognitively stable and incident groups reported exercising a median of 7 days per week and 45 minutes per day at baseline and Year 3. The former practiced aerobic and mind-body exercises more at baseline and Year 3, whereas the latter practiced stretching and toning exercises more. The odds ratio for dementia remained significant for aerobic (0.81; 95% confidence interval 0.68-0.95; P = .01) and mind-body exercises (0.76; 0.63-0.92; P = .004) after excluding participants who developed dementia within 3 years after baseline and adjusting for important potential confounders, such as age, gender, educational level, and physical and psychiatric comorbidities. Although physical exercise is widely promoted as a nonpharmacological intervention for dementia prevention, not all types of exercise appear to be useful in reducing risk of dementia in older people. Our findings suggest that daily participation in aerobic and mind-body but not stretching and toning exercises might protect community-living older adults from developing dementia. Copyright © 2015 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and

  7. Older adults’ home- and community-based care service use and residential transitions: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ya-Mei

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As Home-and Community-Based Services (HCBS, such as skilled nursing services or personal care services, have become increasingly available, it has become clear that older adults transit through different residential statuses over time. Older adults may transit through different residential statuses as the various services meet their needs. The purpose of this exploratory study was to better understand the interplay between community-dwelling older adults’ use of home- and community-based services and their residential transitions. Methods The study compared HCBS service-use patterns and residential transitions of 3,085 older adults from the Second Longitudinal Study of Aging. Based on older adults’ residential status at the three follow-up interviews, four residential transitions were tracked: (1 Community-Community-Community (CCC: Resided in community during the entire study period; (2 Community-Institution-Community (CIC: Resided in community at T1, had lived in an institution at some time between T1 and T2, then had returned to community by T3; (3 Community-Community-Institution (CCI: Resided in community between at T1, and betweenT1 and T2, including at T2, but had used institutional services between T2 and T3; (4 Community-Institution-Institution (CII: Resided in community at T1 but in an institution at some time between T1 and T2, and at some time between T2 and T3.. Results Older adults’ use of nondiscretionary and discretionary services differed significantly among the four groups, and the patterns of HCBS use among these groups were also different. Older adults’ use of nondiscretionary services, such as skilled nursing care, may help them to return to communities from institutions. Personal care services (PCS and senior center services may be the key to either support elders to stay in communities longer or help elders to return to their communities from institutions. Different combinations of PCS with other

  8. Minor positive effects of health-promoting senior meetings for older community-dwelling persons on loneliness, social network, and social support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustafsson S

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Susanne Gustafsson,1,2 Helene Berglund,1,3 Joel Faronbi,1,4 Emmelie Barenfeld,1,2,5 Isabelle Ottenvall Hammar1,2 1Frail Elderly Research Support Group (FRESH, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at Gothenburg University, 2Gothenburg University Centre for Ageing and Health (AgeCap, 3Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden; 4Department of Nursing Science, College of Health Science, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria; 5Department of Occupational Therapy and Physiotherapy, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the 1-year effect of the health-promoting intervention “senior meetings” for older community-dwelling persons regarding loneliness, social network, and social support.Methods: Secondary analysis of data was carried out from two randomized controlled studies: Elderly Persons in the Risk Zone and Promoting Aging Migrants’ Capabilities. Data from 416 participants who attended the senior meetings and the control group at baseline and the 1-year follow-up in the respective studies were included. Data were aggregated and analyzed with chi-square test and odds ratio (OR to determine the intervention effect.Results: The senior meetings had a positive effect on social support regarding someone to turn to when in need of advice and backing (OR 1.72, p=0.01. No positive intervention effect could be identified for loneliness, social network, or other aspects of social support.Conclusion: Health-promoting senior meetings for older community-dwelling persons have a minor positive effect on social support. The senior meetings might benefit from a revision to reinforce content focused on loneliness, social network, and social support. However, the modest effect could also depend on the lack of accessible social resources to meet participants’ identified needs, a possible hindrance for a

  9. Frail Institutionalized Older Persons A Comprehensive Review on Physical Exercise, Physical Fitness, Activities of Daily Living, and Quality-of-Life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weening-Dijksterhuis, Elizabeth; de Greef, Mathieu H. G.; Scherder, Erik J. A.; Slaets, Joris P. J.; van der Schans, Cees P.

    Weening-Dijksterhuis E, de Greef MHG, Scherder EJA, Slaets JPJ, van der Schans CP: Frail institutionalized older persons: A comprehensive review on physical exercise, physical fitness, activities of daily living, and quality-of-life. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2011;90:156Y168. The objective of this study

  10. Validation of an integral conceptual model of frailty in older residents of assisted living facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbens, Robbert J J; Krans, Anita; van Assen, Marcel A L M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the validity of an integral model of the associations between life-course determinants, disease(s), frailty, and adverse outcomes in older persons who are resident in assisted living facilities. Between June 2013 and May 2014 seven assisted living facilities were contacted. A total of 221 persons completed the questionnaire on life-course determinants, frailty (using the Tilburg Frailty Indicator), self-reported chronic diseases, and adverse outcomes disability, quality of life, health care utilization, and falls. Adverse outcomes were analyzed with sequential (logistic) regression analyses. The integral model is partially validated. Life-course determinants and disease(s) affected only physical frailty. All three frailty domains (physical, psychological, social) together affected disability, quality of life, visits to a general practitioner, and falls. Contrary to the model, disease(s) had no effect on adverse outcomes after controlling for frailty. Life-course determinants affected adverse outcomes, with unhealthy lifestyle having consistent negative effects, and women had more disability, scored lower on physical health, and received more personal and informal care after controlling for all other predictors. The integral model of frailty is less useful for predicting adverse outcomes of residents of assisted living facilities than for community-dwelling older persons, because these residents are much frailer and already have access to healthcare facilities. The present study showed that a multidimensional assessment of frailty, distinguishing three domains of frailty (physical, psychological, social), is beneficial with respect to predicting adverse outcomes in residents of assisted living facilities. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  11. Pain in cognitively impaired older persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmelee, P A

    1996-08-01

    To summarize, there has been shamefully little empirical research directly examining the prevalence and correlates of pain among cognitively impaired older people. Even less is known about techniques for assessing and managing pain in this group. Existing evidence suggests that cognitively impaired older persons may voice fewer complaints about pain, but there is no reason to believe that they are in fact at less risk of pain than their cognitively intact age-mates. Rather, for whatever reason, persons with cognitively deficits appear to be less inclined to report pain than are intact elders of similar health status. This reporting difference may account at least in part for the fact that pain is less likely to be treated aggressively among cognitively impaired individuals. Unfortunately, knowing the reason for this state of affairs does not mitigate its implication: cognitive deficits place frail older persons at risk of unnecessary pain simply because it is not properly identified. Data reviewed in this chapter suggest that accurate assessment of pain in cognitively impaired older persons, far from being impossible, may actually be only slightly more demanding than it is in intact individuals. Even among markedly impaired elders, self-reports should certainly be taken as valid indicators; early evidence suggests promising avenues for developing reliable, clear-cut guidelines for the nonverbal assessment of pain in very severely demented individuals. As the nation grows older and medical care advances, a growing proportion of individuals can expect to live well into their eighth and even ninth decades. Unfortunately, with this extended life span comes increased likelihood of both cognitive impairment and pain. Thus, expansion of our repertoire of techniques for assessing and managing pain among cognitively impaired older persons must be a central priority for research on pain in late life.

  12. Balance Training with Wii Fit Plus for Community-Dwelling Persons 60 Years and Older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopchand-Martin, Sharmella; McLean, Roshé; Gordon, Carron; Nelson, Gail

    2015-06-01

    This study sought to determine the effect of 6 weeks of training, using activities from the Nintendo(®) (Kyoto, Japan) "Wii™ Fit Plus" disc, on balance in community-dwelling Jamaicans 60 years and older. A single group pretest/posttest design was used. Thirty-three subjects enrolled and 28 completed the study. Participants completed 30-minute training sessions on the Nintendo "Wii Fit" twice per week for 6 weeks. Activities used included "Obstacle Course," "Penguin Slide," "Soccer Heading," "River Bubble," "Snow Board," "Tilt Table," "Skate Board," and "Yoga Single Tree Pose." Balance was assessed with the Berg Balance Scale, the Multi Directional Reach Test, the Star Excursion Balance Test and the Modified Clinical Test for Sensory Integration in Balance. There was significant improvement in the mean Berg Balance Scale score (P=0.004), Star Excursion Balance Test score (SEBT) (PBalance. Balance games on the Nintendo "Wii Fit Plus" disc can be used as a tool for balance training in community-dwelling persons 60 years of age and older.

  13. Cognitive decline impairs financial and health literacy among community-based older persons without dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Patricia A; Yu, Lei; Wilson, Robert S; Segawa, Eisuke; Buchman, Aron S; Bennett, David A

    2013-09-01

    Literacy is an important determinant of health and well-being across the life span but is critical in aging, when many influential health and financial decisions are made. Prior studies suggest that older persons exhibit lower literacy than younger persons, particularly in the domains of financial and health literacy, but the reasons why remain unknown. The objectives of this study were to: (a) examine pathways linking diverse resources (i.e., education, word knowledge, cognitive function, and decision making style) to health and financial literacy among older persons and determine the extent to which the relation of age with literacy represents a direct effect versus an indirect effect due to decrements in specific cognitive functions (i.e., executive functions and episodic memory); and (b) test the hypothesis that declines in executive function and episodic memory are associated with lower literacy among older persons without dementia. Six-hundred and forty-five community-based older persons without dementia underwent detailed assessments of diverse resources, including education, word knowledge, cognitive function (i.e., executive function, episodic memory) and decision making style (i.e., risk aversion), and completed a measure of literacy that included items similar to those used in the Health and Retirement Study, such as numeracy, financial concepts such as compound inflation and knowledge of stocks and bonds, and important health concepts such as understanding of drug risk and Medicare Part D. Path analysis revealed a strong effect of age on literacy, with about half of the effect of age on literacy due to decrements in executive functions and episodic memory. In addition, executive function had an indirect effect on literacy via decision making style (i.e., risk aversion), and education and word knowledge had independent effects on literacy. Finally, among (n = 447) persons with repeated cognitive assessments available for up to 14 years, regression

  14. Cognitive function is associated with risk aversion in community-based older persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buchman Aron S

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emerging data from younger and middle-aged persons suggest that cognitive ability is negatively associated with risk aversion, but this association has not been studied among older persons who are at high risk of experiencing loss of cognitive function. Methods Using data from 369 community-dwelling older persons without dementia from the Rush Memory and Aging Project, an ongoing longitudinal epidemiologic study of aging, we examined the correlates of risk aversion and tested the hypothesis that cognition is negatively associated with risk aversion. Global cognition and five specific cognitive abilities were measured via detailed cognitive testing, and risk aversion was measured using standard behavioral economics questions in which participants were asked to choose between a certain monetary payment ($15 versus a gamble in which they could gain more than $15 or gain nothing; potential gamble gains ranged from $21.79 to $151.19 with the gain amounts varied randomly over questions. We first examined the bivariate associations of age, education, sex, income and cognition with risk aversion. Next, we examined the associations between cognition and risk aversion via mixed models adjusted for age, sex, education, and income. Finally, we conducted sensitivity analyses to ensure that our results were not driven by persons with preclinical cognitive impairment. Results In bivariate analyses, sex, education, income and global cognition were associated with risk aversion. However, in a mixed effect model, only sex (estimate = -1.49, standard error (SE = 0.39, p i.e., semantic memory, episodic memory, working memory, and perceptual speed; performance on visuospatial abilities was not. Conclusion A lower level of cognitive ability and female sex are associated with greater risk aversion in advanced age.

  15. COLLAGE 360: A Model of Person-Centered Care To Promote Health Among Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Elizabeth P; Schreiber, Robert; Morris, John N; Russotto, Aline; Flashner-Fineman, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Health care leaders and providers have introduced the assumption the typical elder, even in the presence of complex, chronic disease and prevailing illness, is capable of assuming greater personal responsibility for their health care, with a shift from provider-centered to a person-centered model of care. For older adults who often and repeatedly face challenges managing and maintaining their health status, guidance and support is needed. In this study, COLLAGE 360 , a comprehensive assessment system and wellness coaching program that focuses on prevention and wellness, care coordination and self-management of health care was implemented in one continuing care retirement community. Following completion of two assessment tools via directed conversation with a wellness coach, older adults developed an individualized vitality plan that outlined life goals, supporting goals and action plans for goal achievement. Results from this program suggest engagement in the assessment and wellness coaching process via the COLLAGE 360 program translated into sample older adults sensing that they live in a more supportive environment when compared with elders not receiving any wellness coaching. In addition, the older adults had positive effects in the areas of mood, loneliness, social interaction, health status, and life satisfaction. Strategies to improve health and well being need an extended focus beyond the older adult's medical conditions and consider psychological, spiritual and social needs with personal preferences being paramount. These issues are foundational to a person-centered, health promotion approach needed among this population.

  16. Factors associated with happiness in the elderly persons living in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchesi, Bruna Moretti; de Oliveira, Nathalia Alves; de Morais, Daiene; de Paula Pessoa, Rebeca Mendes; Pavarini, Sofia Cristina I; Chagas, Marcos Hortes N

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate factors associated with happiness in a sample of Brazilian older adults. A study was conducted with 263 elderly people in the area of coverage of a family health unit located in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The Subjective Happiness Scale was used to measure happiness, the final score of which determined one of three outcomes: not happy, intermediate, and happy. Disability, sociodemographic characteristics, and psychological, cognitive, and physical factors were considered for the multinomial logistic regression analysis. Statistically significant differences were found among the three groups regarding satisfaction with life, disability, social phobia, anxiety, depression, and frailty (p≤0.05). In the multinomial regression analysis, being "not happy" was significantly associated with satisfaction with life (RRR: 0.53), depression (RRR: 1.46), social phobia (RRR: 1.24), and age (RRR: 1.06). The present findings indicate that psychological factors and age influence the levels of happiness in older adults living in the community. Furthermore, better screening, diagnosis, and treatment of mental health disorders could increase the feeling of happiness among older adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Seeking to understand lived experiences of personal recovery in personality disorder in community and forensic settings - a qualitative methods investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Andrew; Sanders, Caroline; Shaw, Jenny

    2017-08-01

    Understandings of personal recovery have emerged as an alternative framework to traditional ideas of clinical progression, or symptom remission, in clinical practice. Most research in this field has focussed on the experience of individuals suffering with psychotic disorders and little research has been conducted to explore the experience of individuals with a personality disorder diagnosis, despite the high prevalence of such difficulties. The nature of the personality disorder diagnosis, together with high prevalence rates in forensic settings, renders the understanding of recovery in these contexts particularly problematic. The current study seeks to map out pertinent themes relating to the recovery process in personality disorder as described by individuals accessing care in either community or forensic settings. Individual qualitative interviews were utilised to explore the lived experience of those receiving a personality disorder diagnosis and accessing mental health care in either community or forensic settings. A thematic analysis was conducted to identify shared concepts and understanding between participants. Fourty-one individual participant interviews were conducted across forensic and community settings. Recovery was presented by participants as a developing negotiated understanding of the self, together with looked for change and hope in the future. Four specific themes emerged in relation to this process: 1. Understanding early lived experience as informing sense of self 2. Developing emotional control 3. Diagnosis as linking understanding and hope for change 4. The role of mental health services. Through considering personal recovery in personality disorder as a negotiated understanding between the individual, their social networks and professionals this study illustrates the complexity of working through such a process. Clarity of understanding in this area is essential to avoid developing resistance in the recovery process. Understanding of

  18. Collaborative Evaluation of the Healthy Habits Program: An Effective Community Intervention to Improve Mobility and Cognition of Chinese Older Adults Living in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hau, C; Reid, K F; Wong, K F; Chin, R J; Botto, T J; Eliasziw, M; Bermudez, O I; Fielding, R A

    2016-04-01

    There is a growing demand to reduce ethnic health disparities. The Healthy Habits Program (HHP) was implemented to provide a community-based physical activity and education intervention for Chinese older adults living in Boston, Massachusetts. This study evaluated the HHP by assessing outcomes that are critical for maintaining independence of older persons. Quantitative evaluation was performed on 50 Chinese older adults enrolled in the HHP. The community members were trained in data collection and management. Cognition (Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), Trail Making Test and Complex Walking Task), mobility (Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) and maximal gait speed), depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9), perceived disability (World Health Organization Disability Assessment 2.0), nutritional status (Mini Nutrition Assessment®), and strength (grip and leg strength) were assessed at baseline and at 6 months. All tests were translated into Chinese. Of the 50 participants (mean age 68.4 years; 68% female), 78% achieved the goal of performing exercise ≥3 times/week. After 6 months, clinically meaningful improvements were observed in mobility (mean SPPB score changed from 10.3 to 11.1 points; p=0.01) and cognition (mean MMSE score changed from 26.0 to 27.8 points; p=0.001). There were also statistically significant improvements in executive function, depressive symptoms and perceived disability (p<0.05). Culturally sensitive community interventions, such as the HHP, are effective for improving mobility and cognition of Chinese older adults. This reveals the potential of promoting successful aging in minority populations through community settings, and should be advocated to reduce ethnic health disparities in the U.S.

  19. An evaluation of an integrated primary care approach to improve well-being among frail community-dwelling older people

    OpenAIRE

    Vestjens, Lotte; Murray Cramm, Jane; Nieboer, Anna Petra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: A major challenge in primary health care is the substantial increase of the proportion of frail older persons with long-term conditions and multiple complex needs. The traditional primary care system in the Netherlands is fragmented and reactive. Consequently, current primary health care is not able to cope effectively with the increasing demands for health and social care, and to improve well-being among frail community-living older people. This calls for a fundamental transfor...

  20. The impact of occupational therapy and lifestyle interventions on older persons' health, well-being, and occupational adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Ann; Björklund, Anita

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether a four-month occupational based health-promoting programme for older persons living in community dwellings could maintain/improve their general health and well-being. Further, the aim was to explore whether the programme facilitated the older persons' occupational adaptation. The study had a quasi-experimental design, with a non-equivalent control group combined with semi-structured interviews. The intervention group comprised 22 participants, and the control group 18. Outcomes were measured using the Short Form 36, Life Satisfaction Index-Z and Meaningful Activity Participation Assessment. Content analysis, based on concepts from the Model of Occupational Adaptation, was used to analyse the interviews. The intervention group showed statistically significant improvements in general health variables such as vitality and mental health, and positive trends for psychological well-being. There were no statistically significant differences between the intervention group and the control group, but the groups were not fully matched. The qualitative analysis based on Occupational Adaptation pointed out social aspects as a compliment to the overall results. Participating in meaningful, challenging activities in different environments stimulates the occupational adaptation process; this is something occupational therapists could use to empower older persons to find their optimal occupational lives.

  1. Quality of care for frail older persons in a homecare setting: what is it and how can it be measured?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Sela, Adi Hannah; Iecovich, Esther; Golander, Hava

    2017-11-02

    As more older persons opt to age in place, there is a growing trend to hire migrant workers as live-in caregivers to care for them. This raises the need to examine the quality of care they receive within this unique care setting. The objective of this pilot study was to establish the components of quality of care as provided by migrant live-in caregivers. We interviewed a convenience sample of older persons cared for by migrant live-in caregivers and their relatives. When relatives reported that older persons could not be interviewed due to advanced dementia, only relatives were interviewed. Overall, 72 older persons and 117 relatives were interviewed. We used the Quality of Care Questionnaire (QuCQ) developed for this study to examine the main components of quality of care in this population. Factor analysis using older persons' data revealed two factors. In the first factor, "caretaking," items concerning provision of prompt care exhibited the highest loadings. Items measuring interpersonal aspects of the care dynamic had the highest loadings in the second factor, thus labeled "relationship." The factor analysis based on relatives' data yielded similarities and differences with the one based on older persons' data. Yet, there were significant correlations between relative and older persons' responses when using the older persons' factor structure. According to older persons and relatives, quality of care depends on the extent to which older persons' care-related needs, as well as social ones, are addressed. Appropriate evaluation of quality of care in the live-in setting is important for its improvement.

  2. FEAR OF FALLING AMONG COMMUNITY DWELLING OLDER ADULTS

    OpenAIRE

    Michaela Dingová; Eva Králová

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to describe experience with falls, fear of falling, perceptions of the consequences of falls and how the fear of falling affects daily life in community-dwelling older adults. Design: The study used a qualitative design to describe the lived experiences of community-dwelling older adults with the fear of falling. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted individually with six participants who reported the fear of falling. Results: Five main areas emerged...

  3. Cognitive function is associated with risk aversion in community-based older persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Patricia A; Yu, Lei; Buchman, Aron S; Laibson, David I; Bennett, David A

    2011-09-11

    Emerging data from younger and middle-aged persons suggest that cognitive ability is negatively associated with risk aversion, but this association has not been studied among older persons who are at high risk of experiencing loss of cognitive function. Using data from 369 community-dwelling older persons without dementia from the Rush Memory and Aging Project, an ongoing longitudinal epidemiologic study of aging, we examined the correlates of risk aversion and tested the hypothesis that cognition is negatively associated with risk aversion. Global cognition and five specific cognitive abilities were measured via detailed cognitive testing, and risk aversion was measured using standard behavioral economics questions in which participants were asked to choose between a certain monetary payment ($15) versus a gamble in which they could gain more than $15 or gain nothing; potential gamble gains ranged from $21.79 to $151.19 with the gain amounts varied randomly over questions. We first examined the bivariate associations of age, education, sex, income and cognition with risk aversion. Next, we examined the associations between cognition and risk aversion via mixed models adjusted for age, sex, education, and income. Finally, we conducted sensitivity analyses to ensure that our results were not driven by persons with preclinical cognitive impairment. In bivariate analyses, sex, education, income and global cognition were associated with risk aversion. However, in a mixed effect model, only sex (estimate = -1.49, standard error (SE) = 0.39, p risk aversion. Thus, a lower level of global cognitive function and female sex were associated with greater risk aversion. Moreover, performance on four out of the five cognitive domains was negatively related to risk aversion (i.e., semantic memory, episodic memory, working memory, and perceptual speed); performance on visuospatial abilities was not. A lower level of cognitive ability and female sex are associated with greater

  4. On the Prototyping of an ICT-Enhanced Toilet System for Assisting Older Persons Living Independently and Safely at Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panek, Paul; Fazekas, Gabor; Lüftenegger, Theresa; Mayer, Peter; Pilissy, Tamas; Raffaelli, Matteo; Rist, Atilla; Rosenthal, Ramona; Savanovic, Arso; Sobjak, Anna; Sonntag, Franziska; Toth, Andras; Unger, Birgit

    2017-01-01

    Standard toilets often do not meet the needs of a significant number of older persons and persons with disabilities. The EU funded iToilet project aims at design and development of a new type of ICT enhanced modular toilet system which shall be able to support autonomy, dignity and safety of older persons living at home. Methodologically the project started with gathering user requirements by means of questionnaires, interviews and focus group discussion involving a total of 74 persons, thereof 41 subjects with movement disorders (primary users), 21 caregivers (secondary users) and 12 healthcare managers (tertiary users). Most important wishes were bilateral removable handrails, height and tilt adjustment, emergency detection, simplicity. In parallel to the ongoing technical development participatory design activities have been carried out at user test sites in order to continuously involve users into the design process and to allow quick feedback with regards to early prototype parts. The project currently is working on the finalization of the first prototype ready to enter the lab trial stage in spring 2017. The experiences will be used for redesigning a prototype 2 which is planned to be tested in real life settings early 2018.

  5. Active Ageing Level of Older Persons: Regional Comparison in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Nuruzzaman Haque

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Active ageing level and its discrepancy in different regions (Bangkok, Central, North, Northeast, and South of Thailand have been examined for prioritizing the policy agenda to be implemented. Attempt has been made to test preliminary active ageing models for Thai older persons and hence active ageing index (AAI, ranges from 0 to 1 has been estimated. Using nationally representative data and confirmatory factor analysis approach, this study justified active ageing models for female and male older persons in Thailand. Results revealed that active ageing level of Thai older persons is not high (mean AAIs for female and male older persons are 0.64 and 0.61, resp., and those are significantly different (p<0.001. Mean AAI in Central region is lower than North, Northeast, and South regions but there is no significant difference in the latter three regions of Thailand. Special emphasis should be given to Central region and policy should be undertaken for increasing active ageing level. Implementation of an Integrated Active Ageing Package (IAAP, containing policies for older persons to improve their health and economic security, to promote participation in social groups and longer working lives, and to arrange learning programs, would be helpful for increasing older persons’ active ageing level in Thailand.

  6. Religiosity and spirituality as resilience strategies among long-living older adults in their daily lives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Araújo dos Reis

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to investigate religiosity and spirituality as a resilience strategy for the long-living older adults in their daily lives. Method: Qualitative research of phenomenological approach based on Martin Heidegger thoughts. Interviews were conducted with 14 older adults registered at a family health unit in the city of Jequié, BA, Brazil. The data were analyzed in the light of Being and Time. Results: The results revealed that God occupies a central position in their lives, and the reading of the bible, praying the rosary and prayers are resilience strategies used for coping with unfavorable situations, recovery and/or maintenance of health, personal and family protection, and, above all, the experience of a satisfactory aging. Final considerations: Religiosity and spirituality were presented as an important resilience strategy in the existence of older adults, showing that through them it is possible to achieve well-being and cope with health and social problems.

  7. Postural changes versus balance control and falls in community-living older adults: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Lemos Silva Fernandes

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Since falls are considered to be a public health problem, it is important to identify whether postural changes over time contribute to the risk of falls in older adults. Objective: To investigate whether postural changes increase fall risk and/or postural imbalance in healthy, community-dwelling older adults. Methods: In April 2016, two reviewers independently searched the PubMed, Web of Science, SPORTDiscus, and CINAHL databases for studies in English published in the previous 10 years, using the following combined keywords: “posture” or (“kyphosis”,“lumbar lordosis”,“flexed posture”,“spinal curvature”,“spinal sagittal contour” AND “elderly” AND “fall”. Study quality was assessed according to the STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guidelines for observational studies. Results: The search retrieved 1,734 articles. Only observational studies that assessed posture, balance, and/or falls in older adults were considered eligible for review. The final sample included 17 articles: reliability and reproducibility of the instruments were not reported in five studies, while two studies offered a questionable description of the instruments used. Fourteen articles analyzed postural changes at the trunk level and three articles assessed them at the ankles and feet. Most studies found a positive association between postural changes and an increased risk for loss of balance and falls. Conclusion: Thoracic hyperkyphosis, loss of lumbar lordosis, and decreased plantar arch seem to contribute to greater postural instability, and thus to a higher risk of falls in community-living older adults.

  8. Narrative and resilience: A comparative analysis of how older adults story their lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, William; Baldwin, Clive; McKenzie-Mohr, Sue; McKim, Elizabeth; Furlong, Dolores

    2015-08-01

    Of increasing interest to gerontologists is resilience: the capacity for coping with the challenges of later life with openness and positivity. An overlooked factor in resilience, however, is the narrative complexity of older persons' self-accounts. The research on which this article is based is part of a larger project aimed at assessing the role of narrative interventions in strengthening the stories that older people tell about their lives. Presented here are preliminary findings from analyses conducted by our multidisciplinary team (representing gerontology, social work, nursing, dementia studies, and literary theory) on open-ended life story interviews done with 20 community-dwelling individuals (15 F, 5M; aged 65-89 years) who completed the Connor Davidson Resilience Scale. Specifically, we compared the self-accounts of the 6 from these 20 who scored highest on the CDRS with the 7 who scored lowest to determine any patterns in how each group "stories" their lives. We conclude with certain observations of relevance to narrative care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of a Behavioral Program on Exercise Adherence and Exercise Self-Efficacy in Community-Dwelling Older Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizan, Azliyana; Kuan, Chua Siew

    2013-01-01

    Background. This study determines the effects of a behavioral program on exercise adherence (step counts) and level of exercise self-efficacy (ESE) in community-dwelling older persons. Methods. Sixty-three participants (age = 63.8 ± 4.5 years) were enrolled in this controlled quasi-experimental study. They were divided into 3 groups: (1) EBG performed a 6-week exercise intervention followed by a 5-week behavioral program, (2) EG performed exercise intervention similar to EBG, and (3) control group (CG) did not receive any interventions. Step counts were measured based on the scores recorded by a pedometer while ESE was measured by a self-reported ESE scale. Results. Data analysis showed significant differences due to time effect (F(1,2) = 39.884, P exercising alone on increasing exercise adherence and level of self-efficacy in older persons. PMID:24489539

  10. Undernutrition and associated factors in a Portuguese older adult community

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    Ana Luísa Moreira dos Santos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of undernutrition in older adults aged >75 years living in communities and to identify the main factors independently associated with undernutrition. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a random sample of family physicians' medical records of 86 older adults aged >75 years living in the community studied. Their nutritional status was evaluated using the Mini Nutritional Assessment. RESULTS: A total of 10.5% of the elderly were undernourished and 41.9% were at undernutrition risk. According to the logistic regression multivariable model, the following characteristics: being widowed (OR=6.7; 95%CI=1.8-24.6; being institutionalized (OR=12.6; 95%CI=1.7-90.5; or having a negative self-perception of health (OR=15.0; 95%CI=3.3-69.1 were independently associated with a significant increase of undernutrition risk. CONCLUSION: The current study shows that undernutrition is highly prevalent in Portuguese older adults aged >75 years living in communities. The major factors independently associated with their undernutrition are being widowed and institutionalized and having negative self-perception of health. The results obtained show that undernutrition and its associated factors are very serious problems for older adults and a challenge in their health care.

  11. The Precarity of Older Adults Living Alone With Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portacolone, Elena; Rubinstein, Robert L; Covinsky, Kenneth E; Halpern, Jodi; Johnson, Julene K

    2018-01-24

    To examine the lived experience of older adults living alone with cognitive impairment to better understand their needs and concerns. Based on our previous work suggesting that older adults living alone often experience a sense of precarity, we were interested in exploring this construct in older adults living alone with a diagnosis of cognitive impairment. The notion of precarity points to the uncertainty deriving from coping with cumulative pressures while trying to preserve a sense of independence. This is a qualitative study of 12 adults aged 65 and older living alone with cognitive impairment. Six participants had a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease; 6 had a diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment. Participants' lived experiences were elicited through 40 ethnographic interviews and participant observation in their homes. Using a qualitative content analysis approach, interview transcripts and fieldnotes were analyzed to identify codes and themes. Qualitative analysis of transcripts revealed three themes. Theme 1 described the distress stemming from the uncertainty of having cognitive impairment that has an unpredictable course. Theme 2 drew attention to the tendency of participants to feel responsible for managing their cognitive impairment. Theme 3 described the pressures stemming from the lack of appropriate services to support independent living for persons with cognitive impairment. These 3 themes all pointed to facets of precarity. Findings also suggest the dearth of programs to support older adults living alone with cognitive impairment and the need to develop novel programs and interventions. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Community Living Skills Guide: Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobol, Sheila; Kreps, Alice Roelofs

    One of twenty course guides in the Community Living Skills Guide for the College for Living series, this document provides guidelines and workbook activities for the course, Art. The series of courses for developmentally disabled adults is intended to supplement residential programs and to aid in orienting institutionalized persons to eventual…

  13. Aromatherapy: Does It Help to Relieve Pain, Depression, Anxiety, and Stress in Community-Dwelling Older Persons?

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Shuk Kwan; Tse, M. Y. Mimi

    2014-01-01

    To examine the effectiveness of an aromatherapy programme for older persons with chronic pain. The community-dwelling elderly people who participated in this study underwent a four-week aromatherapy programme or were assigned to the control group, which did not receive any interventions. Their levels of pain, depression, anxiety, and stress were collected at the baseline and at the postintervention assessment after the conclusion of the four-week programme. Eighty-two participants took part i...

  14. Cross-sectional relationship between physical fitness components and functional performance in older persons living in long-term care facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Mechelen Willem

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The age-related deterioration of physiological capacities such as muscle strength and balance is associated with increased dependence. Understanding the contribution of physical fitness components to functional performance facilitates the development of adequate exercise interventions aiming at preservation of function and independence of older people. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between physical fitness components and functional performance in older people living in long-term care facilities. Methods Design cross-sectional study Subjects 226 persons living in long-term care facilities (mean age: 81.6 ± 5.6. Outcome measures Physical fitness and functional performance were measured by performance-based tests. Results Knee and elbow extension strength were significantly higher in men (difference = 44.5 and 50.0 N, respectively, whereas women were more flexible (difference sit & reach test = 7.2 cm. Functional performance was not significantly different between the genders. In men, motor coordination (eye-hand coordination and measures of strength were the main contributors to functional performance, whereas in women flexibility (sit and reach test and motor coordination (tandem stance and eye-hand coordination played a major role. Conclusion The results of this study show that besides muscle strength, fitness components such as coordination and flexibility are associated with functional performance of older people living in long-term care facilities. This suggests that men and women living in long-term care facilities, differ considerably concerning the fitness factors contributing to functional performance. Women and men may, therefore, need exercise programs emphasizing different fitness aspects in order to improve functional performance.

  15. What older people want: evidence from a study of remote Scottish communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Gerry; Farmer, Jane

    2009-01-01

    traditional model of care they had been receiving: these were local, personal emphasis and continuity. They were suspicious of new arrangements perceived to emphasise technical efficiency. Health and care services were described as inter-linked with other aspects of rural living, including transport and housing (which might have to be relinquished to pay for care). Proximity to family was desired for social and domestic support only; health and related support should be from generic service providers. Community members were involved in reciprocal help-giving of many types. The findings compare with results of other studies of older rural people internationally, and generic 'principles' of service derived could guide restructuring. There may be systemic challenges to empowering older people's 'voice' in designing sustainable rural services that stem from society's views of older people, attitudes of communities to collective roles and responsibilities, and the fragmented ways that services are sometimes provided.

  16. Urinary incontinence in older people living in the community: examining help-seeking behaviour.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, T.A.M.; Weel, C. van; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Only a small proportion of older people with urinary incontinence seek help, despite the availability of adequate treatment. AIM: To ascertain the patient- and disease-specific factors that determine whether medical care for urinary incontinence is sought by independently living older

  17. Needing smart home technologies: the perspectives of older adults in continuing care retirement communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Karen L; Demiris, George; Rantz, Marilyn; Skubic, Marjorie

    2008-01-01

    At present, the vast majority of older adults reside in the community. Though many older adults live in their own homes, increasing numbers are choosing continuing care retirement communities (CCRCs), which range from independent apartments to assisted living and skilled-nursing facilities. With predictions of a large increase in the segment of the population aged 65 and older, a subsequent increase in demand on CCRCs can be anticipated. With these expectations, researchers have begun exploring the use of smart home information-based technologies in these care facilities to enhance resident quality of life and safety, but little evaluation research exists on older adults' acceptance and use of these technologies. This study investigated the factors that influence the willingness of older adults living in independent and assisted living CCRCs to adopt smart home technology. Participants (n = 14) were recruited from community-dwelling older adults, aged 65 or older, living in one of two mid-western US CCRC facilities (independent living and assisted living type facilities). This study used a qualitative, descriptive approach, guided by principles of grounded theory research. Data saturation (or when no new themes or issues emerged from group sessions) occurred after four focus groups (n = 11 unique respondents) and was confirmed through additional individual interviews (n = 3). The findings from this study indicate that although privacy can be a barrier for older adults' adoption of smart home technology their own perception of their need for the technology can override their privacy concerns. Factors influencing self-perception of need for smart home technology, including the influence of primary care providers, are presented. Further exploration of the factors influencing older adults' perceptions of smart home technology need and the development of appropriate interventions is necessary.

  18. Is there a U-shaped association between physical activity and falling in older persons?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, G.M.E.E.; van Schoor, N.M.; Pluijm, S.M.; Deeg, D.J.H.; Lips, P.T.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: This study tests whether the relationship between physical activity and (recurrent) falling is U-shaped. Among 1,337 community-dwelling older persons, no evidence for a nonlinear association was found. If all older persons increase their physical activity level with 100 units, 4% may be

  19. The linear relationship between the Vulnerable Elders Survey-13 score and mortality in an Asian population of community-dwelling older persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jye; Lin, Wender; Chang, Ling-Hui

    2018-01-01

    The Vulnerable Elders Survey-13 (VES-13) has been used as a screening tool to identify vulnerable community-dwelling older persons for more in-depth assessment and targeted interventions. Although many studies supported its use in different populations, few have addressed Asian populations. The optimal scaling system for the VES-13 in predicting health outcomes also has not been adequately tested. This study (1) assesses the applicability of the VES-13 to predict the mortality of community-dwelling older persons in Taiwan, (2) identifies the best scaling system for the VES-13 in predicting mortality using generalized additive models (GAMs), and (3) determines whether including covariates, such as socio-demographic factors and common geriatric syndromes, improves model fitting. This retrospective longitudinal cohort study analyzed the data of 2184 community-dwelling persons 65 years old or older from the 2003 wave of the national-wide Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging. Cox proportional hazards models and Generalized Additive Models (GAMs) were used. The VES-13 significantly predicted the mortality of Taiwan's community-dwelling elders. A one-point increase in the VES-13 score raised the risk of death by 26% (hazard ratio, 1.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.21-1.32). The hazard ratio of death increased linearly with each additional VES-13 score point, suggesting that using a continuous scale is appropriate. Inclusion of socio-demographic factors and geriatric syndromes improved the model-fitting. The VES-13 is appropriate for an Asian population. VES-13 scores linearly predict the mortality of this population. Adjusting the weighting of the physical activity items may improve the performance of the VES-13. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Dependent or Productive? A New Approach to Understanding the Social Positioning of Older South Africans Through Living Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhavan, Sangeetha; Collinson, Mark; Gómez-Olivé, F. Xavier; Ralston, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    South Africa’s population is aging. Most of the older Black South Africans continue to live in extended household structures with children, grandchildren, and other kin. They also constitute a source of income through a means-tested noncontributory state-funded pension available at age 60. Using census data from the Agincourt Health and Demographic Surveillance System in 2000, 2005, and 2010, we develop a typology of living arrangements that is reflective of the social positioning of elderly persons as dependent or productive household members and analyze changes in the distribution over time. Older persons, in general, live in large, complex, and multigenerational households. Multigenerational households with “productive” older persons are increasing in proportion over the period, although there are few differences by gender or pension eligibility at any time point. PMID:25651584

  1. Which Types of Activities Are Associated With Risk of Recurrent Falling in Older Persons?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, G.M.E.E.; Verweij, L.M.; van Schoor, N.M.; Pijnappels, M.A.G.M.; Pluijm, S.M.F.; Visser, M.; Lips, P.

    2010-01-01

    Background.This study explored the associations between various types of activities, their underlying physical components, and recurrent falling in community-dwelling older persons.Methods.This study included 1,329 community-dwelling persons (≥65 years) of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam

  2. Sarcopenic obesity and complex interventions with nutrition and exercise in community-dwelling older persons--a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goisser, Sabine; Kemmler, Wolfgang; Porzel, Simone; Volkert, Dorothee; Sieber, Cornel Christian; Bollheimer, Leo Cornelius; Freiberger, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    One of the many threats to independent life is the age-related loss of muscle mass and muscle function commonly referred to as sarcopenia. Another important health risk in old age leading to functional decline is obesity. Obesity prevalence in older persons is increasing, and like sarcopenia, severe obesity has been consistently associated with several negative health outcomes, disabilities, falls, and mobility limitations. Both sarcopenia and obesity pose a health risk for older persons per se, but in combination, they synergistically increase the risk for negative health outcomes and an earlier onset of disability. This combination of sarcopenia and obesity is commonly referred to as sarcopenic obesity. The present narrative review reports the current knowledge on the effects of complex interventions containing nutrition and exercise interventions in community-dwelling older persons with sarcopenic obesity. To date, several complex interventions with different outcomes have been conducted and have shown promise in counteracting either sarcopenia or obesity, but only a few studies have addressed the complex syndrome of sarcopenic obesity. Strong evidence exists on exercise interventions in sarcopenia, especially on strength training, and for obese older persons, strength exercise in combination with a dietary weight loss intervention demonstrated positive effects on muscle function and body fat. The differences in study protocols and target populations make it impossible at the moment to extract data for a meta-analysis or give state-of-the-art recommendations based on reliable evidence. A conclusion that can be drawn from this narrative review is that more exercise programs containing strength and aerobic exercise in combination with dietary interventions including a supervised weight loss program and/or protein supplements should be conducted in order to investigate possible positive effects on sarcopenic obesity.

  3. The personal active aging strategies of older adults in Europe: a systematic review of qualitative evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klugar, Miloslav; Čáp, Juraj; Klugarová, Jitka; Marečková, Jana; Roberson, Donald N; Kelnarová, Zuzana

    2016-05-01

    There is a consensus that the aging population is beginning to impact on many facets of our life. They have more medical problems and the potential to "drain" the focus of the medical community, as well as national budgets with their accompanying medical bills. Personal strategies related to active aging will help us to better understand and identify how older adults in Europe prepare themselves for the natural process of aging and what are their personal approaches to active aging. The objective of this review was to synthesize the best available evidence regarding the older adult's perspective on the personal strategies related to active aging among older adults in Europe. This review considered studies that included older adults (age over 55 years) who live in Europe. This review considered studies that investigated older adults' perspectives on (any) personal strategies related to active aging. Europe (considering "some similarity" in health care systems and retirement policies). This review considered any qualitative designs. A three-step search strategy was used to identify published and unpublished studies. The extensive search process was conducted in October 2014 and considered published and unpublished studies from the inception of databases until October 2014. Studies published in any language which had an abstract in English, Czech and Slovak languages were considered for inclusion in this review. Studies were appraised for methodological quality by two independent reviewers using the Joanna Briggs Institute Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument (JBI-QARI). Data were extracted from the papers included in the review by two independent reviewers using the standardized JBI-QARI data extraction tool. Data synthesis was performed using the meta-aggregation approach of meta-synthesis recommended by the Joanna Briggs Institute. Fourteen studies were included in this systematic review. From these 14 studies, 42 findings were extracted; findings were

  4. Measurement and visualization of face-to-face interaction among community-dwelling older adults using wearable sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masumoto, Kouhei; Yaguchi, Takaharu; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Tani, Hideaki; Tozuka, Keisuke; Kondo, Narihiko; Okada, Shuichi

    2017-10-01

    A number of interventions have been undertaken to develop and promote social networks among community-dwelling older adults. However, it has been difficult to examine the effects of these interventions, because of problems in assessing interactions. The present study was designed to quantitatively measure and visualize face-to-face interactions among elderly participants in an exercise program. We also examined relationships among interactional variables, personality and interest in community involvement, including interactions with the local community. Older adults living in the same community were recruited to participate in an exercise program that consisted of four sessions. We collected data on face-to-face interactions of the participants by using a wearable sensor technology device. Network analysis identified the communication networks of participants in the exercise program, as well as changes in these networks. Additionally, there were significant correlations between the number of people involved in face-to-face interactions and changes in both interest in community involvement and interactions with local community residents, as well as personality traits, including agreeableness. Social networks in the community are essential for solving problems caused by the aging society. We showed the possible applications of face-to-face interactional data for identifying core participants having many interactions, and isolated participants having only a few interactions within the community. Such data would be useful for carrying out efficient interventions for increasing participants' involvement with their community. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 1752-1758. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  5. Health services needs of older persons: emerging findings from Tarakan City, East Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina K. Kusumaratna

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available As older persons are steadily increasing in number and there are no specialized comprehensive healthcare services for older persons in Indonesia, including East Kalimantan, the aim of the present study was to determine the extent of the problems facing healthcare staff and officials in Tarakan City, East Kalimantan, in providing comprehensive healthcare services attuned to the needs of older persons.This study was a qualitative interview-based survey with focus group discussions, involving heads and healthcare officials of seven puskesmas in Tarakan City, East Kalimantan district, with the addition of a number of district health planning officials. The results revealed a difference between daily hospital referral rate of older persons by puskesmas staff and actual daily hospital admission rate for the referrals. None of the consulted healthcare staff had any speciality education in geriatrics or older persons health. The older persons most frequently presented to the hospital with hypertension, diabetes, and myocardial insufficiency. On the other hand, at the health centers the presenting conditions were hypertension, gastroenteritis, rheumatism, sleep disorders, and upper respiratory tract infections. Improved access to healthcare for older persons should be achieved by improving knowledge and skills of human resources, including communication skills, and of supporting healthcare service infrastructure at puskesmas, specifically oriented towards the needs of and designed for use by older persons, such as ramps for wheelchairs, and handrails in corridors. Local governments should strengthen the appropriate service delivery to older persons, and provide support for the maintenance, sustainability and strengthening of community-based care for older persons.

  6. Health service needs of older persons: emerging findings from Tarakan City, East Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina K. Kusumaratna

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available As older persons are steadily increasing in number and there are no specialized comprehensive healthcare services for older persons in Indonesia, including East Kalimantan, the aim of the present study was to determine the extent of the problems facing healthcare staff and officials in Tarakan City, East Kalimantan, in providing comprehensive healthcare services attuned to the needs of older persons.This study was a qualitative interview-based survey with focus group discussions, involving heads and healthcare officials of seven puskesmas in Tarakan City, East Kalimantan district, with the addition of a number of district health planning officials. The results revealed a difference between daily hospital referral rate of older persons by puskesmas staff and actual daily hospital admission rate for the referrals. None of the consulted healthcare staff had any speciality education in geriatrics or older persons health. The older persons most frequently presented to the hospital with hypertension, diabetes, and myocardial insufficiency. On the other hand, at the health centers the presenting conditions were hypertension, gastroenteritis, rheumatism, sleep disorders, and upper respiratory tract infections. Improved access to healthcare for older persons should be achieved by improving knowledge and skills of human resources, including communication skills, and of supporting healthcare service infrastructure at puskesmas, specifically oriented towards the needs of and designed for use by older persons, such as ramps for wheelchairs, and handrails in corridors. Local governments should strengthen the appropriate service delivery to older persons, and provide support for the maintenance, sustainability and strengthening of community-based care for older persons.

  7. Social networks of older adults living with HIV in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Nuno Ribeiro; Kylmä, Jari; Kirsi, Tapio; Pereira, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the social networks of older adults living with HIV. Interviews were conducted with nine individuals aged 50 or older living with HIV in Helsinki, Finland. Analysis of transcripts was analysed by inductive qualitative content analysis. Results indicated that these participants' networks tended to be large, including those both aware and unaware of the participants' health status. Analysis identified three main themes: large multifaceted social networks, importance of a support group, and downsizing of social networks. Support received appeared to be of great importance in coping with their health condition, especially since the time of diagnosis. Friends and family were the primary source of informal support. The majority of participants relied mostly on friends, some of whom were HIV-positive. Formal support came primarily from the HIV organisation's support group. In this study group, non-disclosure did not impact participants' well-being. In years to come, social networks of older adults living with HIV may shrink due to personal reasons other than HIV-disclosure. What is of primary importance is that healthcare professionals become knowledgeable about psychosocial issues of older adults living with HIV, identifying latent problems and developing adequate interventions in the early stages of the disease; this would help prevent social isolation and foster successful ageing with HIV.

  8. Assessing the Prayer Lives of Older Whites, Older Blacks and Older Mexican Americans: A Descriptive Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Neal

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to see whether differences emerge between older whites, older blacks, and older Mexican Americans in 12 measures of prayer. These measures assess four dimensions of prayer: The social context of prayer, interpersonal aspects of prayer, beliefs about how prayer operates, and the content or focus of prayers. Data from two nationwide surveys of older adults suggest that with respect to all four dimensions, the prayer lives of older whites appear be less developed than the prayer lives of older blacks and older Mexican Americans. In contrast, relatively few differences were found in the prayer lives of older African Americans and older Mexican Americans. The theoretical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:22523464

  9. Interpersonal conflict strategies and their impact on positive symptom remission in persons aged 55 and older with schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Carl I; Solanki, Dishal; Sodhi, Dimple

    2013-01-01

    Although interpersonal interactions are thought to affect psychopathology in schizophrenia, there is a paucity of data about how older adults with schizophrenia manage interpersonal conflicts. This paper examines interpersonal conflict strategies and their impact on positive symptom remission in older adults with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The schizophrenia group consisted of 198 persons aged 55 years and over living in the community who developed schizophrenia before age 45. A community comparison group (n = 113) was recruited using randomly selected block-groups. Straus' Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS) was used to assess the ways that respondents handled interpersonal conflicts. Seven conflict management subscales were created based on a principal component analysis with equamax rotation of items from the CTS. The order of the frequency of the tactics that was used was similar for both the schizophrenia and community groups. Calm and Pray tactics were the most commonly used, and the Violent and Aggressive tactics were rarely utilized. In two separate logistic regression analysis, after controlling for confounding variables, positive symptom remission was found to be associated significantly with both the Calm and Pray subscales. The findings suggest that older persons with schizophrenia approximate normal distribution patterns of conflict management strategies and the most commonly used strategies are associated with positive symptom remission.

  10. Correlates of sleep disturbances in depressed older persons : the Netherlands study of depression in older persons (NESDO)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters van Neijenhof, Rian Johanna Gerdina; van Duijn, Erik; Comijs, Hannie C; van den Berg, Julia F; de Waal, Margot W M; Oude Voshaar, Richard C; van der Mast, Roos C

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Sleep disturbances are common among depressed older persons. To gain insight into sleep disturbances in late-life depression, their occurrence and correlates were assessed. METHODS: Baseline data of 294 depressed older persons of the Netherlands Study of Depression in Older persons study

  11. Effects of Evidence-Based Fall Reduction Programing on the Functional Wellness of Older Adults in a Senior Living Community: A Clinical Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnish, Andrew; Dieter, William; Crawford, Albert; Shubert, Tiffany E

    2016-01-01

    Older adults at a high risk of falls may be referred to a physical therapist. A physical therapy episode of care is designed for the transition of an older adult from a high fall risk to a moderate to low fall risk. However, these episodes of care are limited in time and duration. There is compelling evidence for the efficacy of group-based exercise classes to address risk, and transitioning an older adult from physical therapy to a group-based program may be an effective way to manage risk through the continuum of care. The purpose of this study was to translate research findings into a "real world" setting, and demonstrate the efficacy of integrating evidence-based fall prevention exercises into pre-existing exercise classes at a senior living facility as a "proof of concept" model for future programing. Twenty-four participants aged 65 years and older living in a senior living community and the community were stratified into group-based exercise classes. Cutoff scores from functional outcome measures were used to stratify participants. Exercises from The Otago Exercise Program were implemented into the classes. Functional outcome measures collected included the 10-Meter Walk Test, 30-Second Sit to Stand, and Timed Up and Go (TUG). Number of falls, hospitalizations, and physical therapy episodes of care were also tracked. Data were compared to a control group in a different senior living community that offered classes with similar exercises aimed at improving strength and mobility. The classes were taught by an exercise physiologist and were of equal duration and frequency. Participants demonstrated significant improvements in all functional outcome measures. TUG mean improved from 13.5 to 10.4 s ( p  = 0.034). The 30-Second Sit to Stand mean improved from 10.5 to 13.4 ( p  = 0.002). The 10-Meter Walk Test improved from 0.81 to 0.98 m/s ( p  falls or hospitalizations, and two participants required physical therapy episodes of care. Implementing an

  12. Decline in Literacy and Incident AD Dementia Among Community-Dwelling Older Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lei; Wilson, Robert S; Han, S Duke; Leurgans, Sue; Bennett, David A; Boyle, Patricia A

    2017-06-01

    To quantify longitudinal change in financial and health literacy and examine the associations of declining literacy with incident Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Data came from 799 participants of an ongoing cohort study. Literacy was measured using a battery of 32 questions. Clinical diagnoses were made annually following uniform structured procedures. The associations of declining literacy with incident AD dementia and MCI were tested using a joint model for longitudinal and time-to-event data. We observed an overall decline in total literacy score over up to 6 years of follow-up ( p literacy was associated with higher risks for incident AD dementia (hazard ratio = 4.526, 95% confidence interval = [2.993, 6.843], p literacy among community-dwelling older persons predicts adverse cognitive outcomes and serves as an early indicator of impending dementia.

  13. Internet use and decision making in community-based older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan David James

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Use of the internet may provide tools and resources for better decision making, yet little is known about the association of internet use with decision-making in older persons. We examined this relationship in 66190 community-dwelling older persons without dementia from the Rush Memory and Aging Project, an ongoing longitudinal study of aging. Participants were asked to report if they had access to the internet and how frequently they used the internet and email. A 12-item instrument was used to assess financial and healthcare decision making using materials designed to approximate those used in real world settings. Items were summed to yield a total decision-making score. Associations were tested via linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, race, education, and a measure of global cognitive function. Secondary models further adjusted for income, depression, loneliness, social networks, social support, chronic medical conditions, instrumental activities of daily living, life space size, and health and financial literacy. Interaction terms were used to test for effect modification. Almost 70% of participants had access to the internet, and of those with access, 55% used the internet at least several times a week. Higher frequency of internet use was associated with better financial and healthcare decision making (β=0.11, p=0.002. The association persisted in a fully adjusted model (β=0.08, p=0.024. Interaction models indicated that higher frequency of internet use attenuated the relationships of older age, poorer cognitive function, and lower levels of health and financial literacy with poorer healthcare and financial decision making. These findings indicate that internet use is associated with better health and financial decision making in older persons. Future research is required to understand whether promoting the use of the internet can produce improvements in healthcare and financial decision making.

  14. Physical fitness related to age and physical activity in older persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heuvelen, M.J.G.; Kempen, G.I.J.M.; Ormel, J.; Rispens, P

    Objective: This study investigated physical fitness as a function of age and leisure time physical activity (LTPA) in a community-based sample of 624 persons aged 57 yr and older. Methods: LTPA during the last 12 months was assessed through personal interviews. A wide range of physical fitness

  15. Predictors of Physical Activity Levels in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: A Multivariate Approach Based on a Socio-Ecological Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Koren L; Harrison, Elizabeth L; Bruner, Brenda G; Lawson, Joshua A; Reeder, Bruce A; Ashworth, Nigel L; Sheppard, M Suzanne; Chad, Karen E

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore cross-sectional relationships between self-reported physical activity (PA) and personal, social, and environmental factors in community-dwelling adults aged 50 years and older. Accounting for clustering by neighborhood, generalized estimating equations were used to examine associations between selected correlates and the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) score while adjusting for confounders. Data for 601 participants were analyzed: 79% female, 37% married, mean age 76.8 (± 8.7) years, mean PASE score 112.6 (± 64.8). Age, living in seniors' housing, using nursing/home care services, receiving encouragement to be active, and having benches available in the neighborhood were inversely associated with PASE. Self-efficacy, SF-12 score, PA barriers, social support, and the presence of trails showed positive associations. Several personal, social, and environmental factors associated with PA were identified. The inverse association between PA and living in seniors' housing units should be considered when developing PA programs for older adults.

  16. Transportation use in community-dwelling older adults: association with participation and leisure activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan-Oliel, Noémi; Mazer, Barbara; Gélinas, Isabelle; Dobbs, Bonnie; Lefebvre, Hélène

    2010-12-01

    This article presents a study that compared participation by elderly individuals living in the community according to primary transportation mode used, and estimated the association between transportation, personal factors, and environmental factors. Participants included 90 adults aged 65 and older (M=76.3 years; SD=7.7). They were classified according to their primary transportation mode: driver, passenger, public transport user, walk, or adapted transport/taxi user. Participation was measured with the Craig Handicap Assessment and Reporting Technique (CHART) and the Nottingham Leisure Questionnaire (NLQ). Overall, results indicated that drivers, public transport users, and walkers had higher participation levels compared to passengers and adapted transport/taxi users. This study suggests that clinicians should consider older adults' use of transportation in an attempt to encourage and maximize their participation.

  17. The psychometric properties of the Chinese version-reintegration to normal living index (C-RNLI) for identifying participation restriction among community-dwelling frail older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Justina Yat-Wa; Ma, Ka Wai

    2017-01-31

    The Reintegration to Normal Living Index (RNLI) was developed to measure reintegration to normal living after major traumas/illnesses. Its psychometric properties remain unknown when used to measure participation restriction under the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (WHO-ICF) framework. This study examines the psychometric properties of the Chinese version-RNLI to measure WHO-ICF participation restriction among community-dwelling pre-frail and frail older people. A cross-sectional study was conducted in community and day-care centres in Hong Kong between May 2015 and January 2016. Through face-to-face interviews, information was collected on the participants' demographic background, medical history, frailty status, depressive mood, functional performance in daily activities, and participation restriction. The internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct and convergent validity of the C-RNLI were assessed. Two hundred and ninety-nine pre-frail or frail community-dwelling older people with a mean age of 79.53 were recruited. A confirmatory factor analysis showed that the C-RNLI has a two-factor structure comprised of "participation in physical activities" and "participation in social events". The test-retest coefficient was 0.71. The Cronbach's alpha of the total C-RNLI score, and those of the factors "participation in physical activities" and "participation in social events" were 0.88, 0.82 and 0.84, respectively. Pre-frail older people had significantly higher scores for the factors "participation in physical activities" (z = -5.05, older people. Older people from community centres had significantly higher scores for the factors "participation in physical activities" (z = -4.48, older people from day-care centres. The factors "participation in physical activities" and "participation in social events" of the C-RNLI were significantly convergent with depressive mood (r s  = -0

  18. Psychosocial Well-Being Associated With Activity of Daily Living Stages Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Na PhD

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Activity of daily living (ADL stages demonstrated ordered associations with risk of chronic conditions, hospitalization, nursing home use, and mortality among community-living elderly. This article explores the association of stages with psychosocial well-being. We hypothesized that higher ADL stages (greater ADL limitation are associated with more restricted social networks, less perceived social support, greater social isolation, and poorer mental health. Methods: Cross-sectional data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project ( N = 3,002 were analyzed in regression models and latent factor models. Results: Although ADL stages had a nearly monotonic relationship with most mental health measures (e.g., Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale [CES-D], only the complete limitation stage (Stage IV showed significant disadvantage in the majority of social network measures. Discussion: The study may aid clinicians and policy makers to better understand the social and mental health needs of older adults at different ADL stages and provide well-planned social and mental health care.

  19. Social marketing strategies for reaching older people with disabilities: findings from a survey of centers for independent living participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moone, Rajean Paul; Lightfoot, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Centers for independent living (CILs) provide critical supports, services, and advocacy for assisting people with disabilities in living independently. As there is a rapidly increasing population of older people with disabilities, many CILs are now considering how to actively engage older adults in their organizations. This study utilized a survey of older people with disabilities to help identify social marketing techniques that community organizations like CILs can use to effectively reach older people with disabilities. Utilizing the components of the social marketing mix in designing outreach efforts, including a critical examination of product, place, price, participants, and partnering, CILs and other community agencies can better reach older adults with disabilities.

  20. Mild cognitive impairment is associated with poorer decision-making in community-based older persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, S Duke; Boyle, Patricia A; James, Bryan D; Yu, Lei; Bennett, David A

    2015-04-01

    To test the hypothesis that mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is associated with poorer financial and healthcare decision-making. Community-based epidemiological cohort study. Communities throughout northeastern Illinois. Older persons without dementia from the Rush Memory and Aging Project (N = 730). All participants underwent a detailed clinical evaluation and decision-making assessment using a measure that closely approximates materials used in real-world financial and healthcare settings. This allowed for measurement of total decision-making and financial and healthcare decision-making. Regression models were used to examine whether MCI was associated with a lower level of decision-making. In subsequent analyses, the relationship between specific cognitive systems (episodic memory, semantic memory, working memory, perceptual speed, visuospatial ability) and decision-making was explored in participants with MCI. MCI was associated with lower total, financial, and healthcare decision-making scores after accounting for the effects of age, education, and sex. The effect of MCI on total decision-making was equivalent to the effect of more than 10 additional years of age. Additional models showed that, when considering multiple cognitive systems, perceptual speed accounted for the most variance in decision-making in participants with MCI. Persons with MCI may have poorer financial and healthcare decision-making in real-world situations, and perceptual speed may be an important contributor to poorer decision-making in persons with MCI. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  1. Factors associated with health-related quality of life among Chinese caregivers of the older adults living in the community: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xiaoshi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Under the culture of filial piety and due to the Confucianism spirit in China, family caregivers usually undertake the responsibilities of caring for the older adults. They usually suffer from a heavy burden which is believed to impair their mental and physical health. Thus this study aims to describe the health-related quality of life (HRQOL among Chinese caregivers of the older adults living in the community and explore the predictors of caregivers’ HRQOL. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted through convenience sampling. The study population was composed of 1,144 caregivers of older adults who suffered from one or more types of chronic diseases in 15 communities in 3 eastern cities of China. Family caregivers were interviewed face-to-face using the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36 and the ZARIT Caregiver Burden interview (ZBI scales. The Antonovsky's Sense of coherence (SOC scale was also used to measure personal coping capability of the caregivers. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis (HMR was performed to explore the predictors of caregivers’ HRQOL. Results The majority of the caregivers were females (60.0% or adult children (66.5%. Mental QOL was significantly lower than physical QOL. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that Demographic Characteristics of Caregivers, Patients’ Characteristics, and Subjective Caregiver Burden explained most of the total variance of all aspects of HRQOL. While, Objective Caregiving Tasks was only associated with physical QOL. Subjective Caregiver Burden was the strongest predictor of both physical and mental QOL. SOC was also a strong predictor of physical and mental QOL. Conclusions The mental QOL of the caregivers of older adults was disrupted more seriously than physical QOL. Additionally, Subjective Caregiver Burden might decrease caregiver’ health. A decrease in caregiver burden could promote better management of caregiving tasks, and improve

  2. Sarcopenic obesity and complex interventions with nutrition and exercise in community-dwelling older persons – a narrative review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goisser, Sabine; Kemmler, Wolfgang; Porzel, Simone; Volkert, Dorothee; Sieber, Cornel Christian; Bollheimer, Leo Cornelius; Freiberger, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    One of the many threats to independent life is the age-related loss of muscle mass and muscle function commonly referred to as sarcopenia. Another important health risk in old age leading to functional decline is obesity. Obesity prevalence in older persons is increasing, and like sarcopenia, severe obesity has been consistently associated with several negative health outcomes, disabilities, falls, and mobility limitations. Both sarcopenia and obesity pose a health risk for older persons per se, but in combination, they synergistically increase the risk for negative health outcomes and an earlier onset of disability. This combination of sarcopenia and obesity is commonly referred to as sarcopenic obesity. The present narrative review reports the current knowledge on the effects of complex interventions containing nutrition and exercise interventions in community-dwelling older persons with sarcopenic obesity. To date, several complex interventions with different outcomes have been conducted and have shown promise in counteracting either sarcopenia or obesity, but only a few studies have addressed the complex syndrome of sarcopenic obesity. Strong evidence exists on exercise interventions in sarcopenia, especially on strength training, and for obese older persons, strength exercise in combination with a dietary weight loss intervention demonstrated positive effects on muscle function and body fat. The differences in study protocols and target populations make it impossible at the moment to extract data for a meta-analysis or give state-of-the-art recommendations based on reliable evidence. A conclusion that can be drawn from this narrative review is that more exercise programs containing strength and aerobic exercise in combination with dietary interventions including a supervised weight loss program and/or protein supplements should be conducted in order to investigate possible positive effects on sarcopenic obesity. PMID:26346071

  3. [Socio-demographics characteristics and health conditions of older homeless persons of Lima, Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moquillaza-Risco, Marlene; León, Elsa; Dongo, Mario; Munayco, César V

    2015-10-01

    Determine the socio-demographics characteristics and health conditions of older homeless persons at the time of enrollment into the National Program "Vida Digna" and the probability of functional dependency by age, and stratified by gender and cognitive impairment. MATERIALS ANDE METHODS: We performed a cross sectional study, reviewing all registration forms of the program in order to identify socio-demographic variables and health conditions of older homeless persons at the time of enrollment in the program. We did a descriptive analysis of the socio-demographic variables and we also determined the frequency of health conditions. Furthermore, we determined the probability of functional dependency by age, and stratified by gender and cognitive impairment through a logistic regression model. The older homeless persons at the time of enrollment in the program were mostly single men, with a primary education or no education. The study subjects had a high frequency of chronic and mental diseases. 50% of them had certain level of functional impairment and roughly 70% had a certain level of cognitive impairment. The probability of functional dependency increased by age, and it was higher in women than in men. This probability increased according to the level of cognitive impairment. This study shows that older homeless persons are a vulnerable population not only because they live outdoors but also because they a have also for the high prevalence of chronic and mental diseases. These diseases prevent the homeless persons from living by themselves special care to overcome their situations.

  4. Older Single Gay Men's Body Talk: Resisting and Rigidifying the Aging Discourse in the Gay Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suen, Yiu Tung

    2017-01-01

    Previous research saw older gay men as subject to structural marginalization of ageism but yet possessing agency to interpret aging in diverse ways. I move beyond this duality, drawing on the theory of defensive othering to understand how older gay men live with the aging discourse in the gay community. Informed by grounded theory, I analyzed interviews with 25 self-identified single gay men aged 50 or above in England inductively. It emerged that many older gay men found it difficult to escape the discourse that marginalizes the aging body. Even when they argued they were the exception and "looked good," they were discursively producing a two-tier system: they themselves as the "good older gay men," as opposed to the other "bad older gay men," who "had given up." Such a defensive othering tactic seemingly allowed them to resist age norms from applying to them personally, but unintentionally reinforced an ageist discourse.

  5. Robotics to enable older adults to remain living at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Alan J; Adair, Brooke; Miller, Kimberly; Ozanne, Elizabeth; Said, Catherine; Santamaria, Nick; Morris, Meg E

    2012-01-01

    Given the rapidly ageing population, interest is growing in robots to enable older people to remain living at home. We conducted a systematic review and critical evaluation of the scientific literature, from 1990 to the present, on the use of robots in aged care. The key research questions were as follows: (1) what is the range of robotic devices available to enable older people to remain mobile, independent, and safe? and, (2) what is the evidence demonstrating that robotic devices are effective in enabling independent living in community dwelling older people? Following database searches for relevant literature an initial yield of 161 articles was obtained. Titles and abstracts of articles were then reviewed by 2 independent people to determine suitability for inclusion. Forty-two articles met the criteria for question 1. Of these, 4 articles met the criteria for question 2. Results showed that robotics is currently available to assist older healthy people and people with disabilities to remain independent and to monitor their safety and social connectedness. Most studies were conducted in laboratories and hospital clinics. Currently limited evidence demonstrates that robots can be used to enable people to remain living at home, although this is an emerging smart technology that is rapidly evolving.

  6. Robotics to Enable Older Adults to Remain Living at Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan J. Pearce

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the rapidly ageing population, interest is growing in robots to enable older people to remain living at home. We conducted a systematic review and critical evaluation of the scientific literature, from 1990 to the present, on the use of robots in aged care. The key research questions were as follows: (1 what is the range of robotic devices available to enable older people to remain mobile, independent, and safe? and, (2 what is the evidence demonstrating that robotic devices are effective in enabling independent living in community dwelling older people? Following database searches for relevant literature an initial yield of 161 articles was obtained. Titles and abstracts of articles were then reviewed by 2 independent people to determine suitability for inclusion. Forty-two articles met the criteria for question 1. Of these, 4 articles met the criteria for question 2. Results showed that robotics is currently available to assist older healthy people and people with disabilities to remain independent and to monitor their safety and social connectedness. Most studies were conducted in laboratories and hospital clinics. Currently limited evidence demonstrates that robots can be used to enable people to remain living at home, although this is an emerging smart technology that is rapidly evolving.

  7. Disability and care-giving in old age in a Nigerian community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To describe the pattern of disability and care for older community residents in a selected Nigerian location. Method: Older persons living at home in Okporo Community were first identified through the traditional ruler and his assistant. The socio demographic profiles and any present diseases of these older subjects ...

  8. Living in single person households and the risk of isolation in later life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Banks

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Data from the International Social Survey Programme (2001 was used to analyse the social networks of older people and whether living in single person households increased the risk of isolation. When comparing respondents with one or more adult children, there was no significant difference in the likelihood of experiencing familial isolation between people living in single person households and those living in larger households. A majority of those living in single person households had at least regular contact with a sibling, adult child or close friend and participated in a social organisation. Friends compensate to some extent for a lack of support from the family, although in southern and eastern European countries, other relatives appeared to be more important in support networks. People living in single person households were more likely to experience isolation, but this was largely related to advanced age and childlessness. Whilst a very small minority in Japan were living in single person households, they were significantly more likely to be severely isolated than those living in single person households in other countries.

  9. Cost-effectiveness of nurse-led multifactorial care to prevent or postpone new disabilities in community-living older people : Results of a cluster randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijker, Jacqueline J.; MacNeil-Vroomen, Janet L.; van Rijn, Marjon; Buurman, Bianca M.; de Rooij, Sophia E.; van Charente, Eric P. Moll; Bosmans, Judith E.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of nurse-led multifactorial care to prevent or postpone new disabilities in community-living older people in comparison with usual care. Methods We conducted cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analyses alongside a cluster randomized trial with one-year

  10. Cost-effectiveness of nurse-led multifactorial care to prevent or postpone new disabilities in community-living older people: Results of a cluster randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijker, Jacqueline J.; MacNeil-Vroomen, Janet L.; van Rijn, Marjon; Buurman, Bianca M.; de Rooij, Sophia E.; Moll van Charante, Eric P.; Bosmans, Judith E.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of nurse-led multifactorial care to prevent or postpone new disabilities in community-living older people in comparison with usual care. Methods We conducted cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analyses alongside a cluster randomized trial with one-year

  11. Cost-effectiveness of nurse-led multifactorial care to prevent or postpone new disabilities in community-living older people : Results of a cluster randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijker, Jacqueline J; MacNeil-Vroomen, Janet L; van Rijn, Marjon; Buurman, Bianca M; de Rooij, Sophia E; Moll van Charante, Eric P; Bosmans, Judith E

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of nurse-led multifactorial care to prevent or postpone new disabilities in community-living older people in comparison with usual care. METHODS: We conducted cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analyses alongside a cluster randomized trial with one-year

  12. The Impact of Combined Music and Tai Chi on Depressive Symptoms Among Community-Dwelling Older Persons: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, S J; Tan, M P; Chong, M C; Chua, Y P

    2018-05-01

    The effectiveness of pharmacological treatment may be limited in older persons. Several studies using Tai Chi or music therapy separately confirmed positive effects in the reduction of depressive symptoms. We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial to evaluate the possible synergistic effect of combined music and Tai Chi on depressive symptoms. One hundred and seven older adults with mild to moderate depressive symptoms were recruited from Ya'an city. Fifty-five participants were cluster randomized to combined music and Tai Chi group for three months, while the other fifty-two individuals were randomized to the control group that entailed routine health education delivered monthly by community nurses. The primary outcome of depressive symptoms was measured with the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) at baseline and monthly for three months. At three-month follow-up, a statistically significant improvement in depressive symptoms was found in the intervention group compared with control group (F(3,315) = 69.661, P < 0.001). Following adjustments for socio-demographic data, the true effect of intervention on depressive symptoms was significant (F = 41.725, P < 0.01, η p 2 = 0.574). Combined music and Tai Chi reduced depressive symptoms among community-dwelling older persons. This represents an economically viable solution to the management of depression in highly populous developing nations.

  13. Perceptions of Elder Abuse From Community-Dwelling Older Persons and Professionals Working in Western Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roulet Schwab, Delphine; Wangmo, Tenzin

    2017-09-01

    Older persons' perspectives regarding elder abuse remain little studied. However, definitions of elder abuse and effective prevention strategies require adaptation to the needs and cultures of targeted populations. This study explored the views of older persons and professionals to evaluate their converging and diverging perspectives toward elder abuse and its prevention. The study employed a qualitative approach where six focus groups were held in Western Switzerland (the French-speaking part of the country). Four focus groups with 25 older persons from varying socioeconomic backgrounds, and the other two focus groups were carried out with 16 professionals working in the field of elder abuse prevention. For the focus groups, we used the technique of free associations to begin the discussions and vignette-like statements to explore participants' attitudes toward elder abuse. These were followed by open-ended questions. The transcripts from the focus groups were analyzed thematically and resulted in four main themes: (a) varied associations of the term "abuse," (b) judging elder abuse situations in terms of abuse and severity, (c) self-identification with elder abuse, and (d) prevention of elder abuse. Study findings demonstrated that older persons hold views that are partly different from the views of professionals. Furthermore, perceptions of older persons could be stratified based on the socioeconomic status of the participants. These diverging perspectives reflect the heterogeneity of the senior citizen population and highlight the need for research cognizant of these differences. The results of this study provide strategies for improved targeting of preventive measures, underline the importance of integrating the perspectives of older persons, and reveal the need to expand the commonly accepted definitions of elder abuse so that they better reflect the affected individuals.

  14. Locus of control and coping strategies in older persons with and without depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørkløf, Guro Hanevold; Engedal, Knut; Selbæk, Geir; Maia, Deborah Bezerra; Coutinho, Evandro Silvia Freire; Helvik, Anne-Sofie

    2016-08-01

    To compare locus of control and coping strategies in older persons with and without depression. This cross-sectional study included 144 depressed in-patients from seven psychogeriatric hospital units, and 106 community-dwelling older persons without depression. All participants were 60 years and older. Locus of control was assessed by a 17-items self-report questionnaire with six response categories. Coping strategies were assessed by a 26-items self-report questionnaire with five response categories. For analytical purposes, age (controlling for demographics, health, and social variables, the depressed in-patients showed a higher external locus of control orientation and a less frequent use of problem-focused coping strategies compared with the non-depressed group. No differences in use of emotion-focused strategies were found between the two groups. Compared with the non-depressed old persons, the depressed hospitalized older persons were characterized by perceptions of less personal control, and less use of problem-focused strategies, what also might have brought positive alterations into their situation.

  15. Older people's dependence on caregivers' help in their own homes and their lived experiences of their opportunity to make independent decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitholtz, Agneta; Snellman, Ingrid; Fagerberg, Ingegerd

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to illuminate the meaning of older people's dependence on caregivers' help, and of their opportunity to make independent decisions. Throughout the world, the older population is growing, and in Sweden, the system of care for older people is currently undergoing change. Older people in the need of care are expected to live at home for as long as possible. A qualitative and life world approach was used. Audio-taped interviews were conducted with twelve older persons living at home, dependent on daily municipal home help service. A phenomenological hermeneutic method was utilised to disclose the meanings of lived experiences. The findings revealed three themes: being facilitated to make one's own decisions, being hindered from making one's own decisions, struggling for vs. resigning oneself to losing the opportunity to make one's own decisions. The comprehensive understanding revealed that as older people become more dependent on caregivers' help, their opportunity to self-determine is challenged and this is stressful for them. The older persons assess their opportunity to self-determine differently, depending on who they are as a person. The caregivers need an awareness of this, and further research is needed to gain knowledge and understanding of how caregivers can improve the way they support and enhance older people's opportunity to decide for themselves. The findings revealed older persons need to exercise more self-determination and caregivers' need for knowledge to enable this. Further, it indicates a move towards a person-centred approach to focus on persons as individuals and see them as interdependent. The findings contribute to improvements in similar contexts worldwide. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Integrated and Person-Centered Care for Community-Living Older Adults: A Cost-Effectiveness Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uittenbroek, Ronald J; van Asselt, Antoinette D I; Spoorenberg, Sophie L W; Kremer, Hubertus P H; Wynia, Klaske; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2018-03-24

    To assess the cost-effectiveness of Embrace, an integrated primary care service for older adults. Care and support claims from health care insurers, long-term care administration, and municipalities for enrolled older adults between 2011 and 2013. A total of 1,456 older adults, listed with 15 general practitioners practices in the Netherlands, were stratified into risk profiles ("Robust," "Frail," and "Complex care needs") and randomized to Embrace or care-as-usual groups. Incremental costs were calculated per quality-adjusted life year, per day able to age in place, and per percentage point risk profile improvement. Total average costs were higher for Embrace compared to care-as-usual. Differences in health-associated outcomes were small and not statistically significant. Probabilities that Embrace is cost-effective were below 80 percent, except for "risk profile improvements" within risk profile "Complex care needs." Complete case analysis resulted in smaller differences in total average costs across conditions and differences in health-associated outcomes remained small. According to current standards, Embrace is not considered cost effective after 12 months. However, it could be considered worthwhile in terms of "risk profile improvements" for older adults with "Complex care needs," if society is willing to invest substantially. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  17. Student Nurse-Older Person Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuohy, Dympna

    2003-01-01

    Observations and interviews of eight student nurses in clinical placements with older patients yielded four themes: task- and nontask-related communication, need for verbal and nonverbal communication, communication hindrances and enhancers, and students' approach to communicating with older persons. A person-centered approach to elder care and…

  18. Impact of group-singing on older adult health in senior living communities: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Musetta C; Belza, Basia; Nguyen, Huong; Logsdon, Rebecca; Demorest, Steven

    Participating in a group-singing program may be beneficial to healthy aging through engaging in active music-making activities and breathing exercises. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility, acceptability, and impact of a 12-week group singing program on cognitive function, lung health and quality of life (QoL) of older adults. A pre and post-test quasi-experimental design evaluated the impact of a group-singing program on older adult health. The intervention consisted of pre-singing exercises, song-singing and learning, and socialization. Classes were 75 min/week for 12 weeks. Inclusion criteria were age ≥60, no self-reported diagnosis of dementia, and able to hear conversations within 2 feet. Participants were recruited from 3 senior living communities. Outcome measures included cognition, lung function, QoL, and program feasibility and acceptability. A paired t-test with 2-sided alpha level at 0.05 was used to test the null hypotheses. We enrolled 49 participants (mean age 83.6). Forty-two (86%) completed the posttests and exit survey. At the 12th week there was significant improvement in phonological (p memory, language, speech information processing, executive function, and respiratory muscle strength in older adults. The program was feasible and well-accepted. A clinical trial with a larger sample is indicated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Improving food and fluid intake for older adults living in long-term care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Heather; Beck, Anne Marie; Namasivayam, Ashwini

    2015-01-01

    intake for persons living in LTC. Top determinants to address with intervention research included social interactions of residents at mealtime; self-feeding ability; the dining environment; the attitudes, knowledge, and skills of staff; adequate time to eat/availability of staff to provide assistance...... for the development and testing of interventions to improve food and fluid intake of older adults living in LTC....

  20. Hospital costs associated with depression in a cohort of older men living in Western Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prina, A.M.; Huisman, M.; Yeap, B.B.; Hankey, G.J.; Flicker, L.; Brayne, C.; Almeida, O.P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is lack of information of the hospital costs related to depression. Here, we compare the costs associated with general hospital admissions over 2 years between older men with and without a documented past history of depression. Methods: A community-based cohort of older men living

  1. Fear of falling : measurement strategy, prevalence, risk factors and consequences among older persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffer, Alice C.; Schuurmans, Marieke J.; van Dijk, Nynke; van Der Hooft, Truus; De Rooij, Sophia E.

    Background fear of falling (FOF) is a major health problem among the elderly living in communities, present in older people who have fallen but also in older people who have never experienced a fall. The aims of this study were 4-fold: first, to study methods to measure FOF; second, to study the

  2. Physiological and psychosocial factors in spiritual needs attainment for community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Jennifer A; Howard, Elizabeth P; Bryan, Margaret; Mitchell, Susan L

    Spiritual well-being enhances older persons' health status. Factors that optimize their spiritual well-being are not well-established. To describe spiritual needs attainment and identify factors associated with such attainment among community-dwelling older persons. Cross-sectional. Sixty-five U.S. continuing care retirement communities or independent housing facilities. 4077 persons entering the facilities between January 1, 2007 and November 30, 2016. Standardized Community Health Assessment and Wellness Survey instruments were used to determine the proportion of subjects reporting their spiritual needs were met. Multivariate logistic regression identified characteristics independently associated with this outcome. Among the 4077 subjects (mean age 81.6 ± 7.5; male, 28.8%; and White race, 70.7%), 93.4% stated their spiritual needs were met. Factors independently associated with a greater likelihood of spiritual needs attainment were: satisfaction with life (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.00, 3.96; p dwelling older persons reported their spiritual needs were met. Adequate sleep, pain relief, and having a person with whom to discuss death are potentially modifiable factors that may promote spiritual needs attainment in this population, which in turn, may improve their health outcomes. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Study of the effects of multimodal exercise program on physical fitness and health perception in community-living Hungarian older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virág, Anikó; Harkányi, Izabella; Karóczi, Csilla K; Vass, Zsolt; Kovács, Éva

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects on fitness indicators and subjective health-perception of a multimodal exercise program provided by a district in Budapest among community-living seniors. Sixty community-living older adults aged over 60 years formed beginner group (who were at the beginning of the exercise program), advanced group (who had been in the programme for 3-6 months), active group (who had been participating in the exercise program for at least 6 months, in addition to Nordic walking program) and a physically inactive control group. Balance, functional mobility, lower and upper limb strength, lower and upper body flexibility, aerobic endurance and self-reported health perception were measured at baseline, and after a 12-week follow-up period. The beginner group and the advanced group improved in upper body flexibility (beginner Δ=1.2; d=0.83; advanced: Δ=1.7; d=1.39), lower body flexibility (beginner: Δ=1.7, d=0.484; advanced: Δ=1.9; d=1.55), lower limb strength (beginner: Δ=1.47; d=0.84; advanced: Δ=1.57; d=0.72), and functional mobility (beginner: Δ=-0.6; d=0.54; advanced: Δ=-0.4; d=0.90). There were also improvements in aerobic endurance (Δ=11.06; d=0.96) and balance (Δ=1.6; d=0.62) of beginner group. These indicators declined in the control group. Indicators of the active group did not change. The self-perceived health status declined (Δ=-13.9; d=0.73) in the control group but did not change in any exercising groups. This multimodal exercise program can be effective among community-living older adults, even in Hungary, a country where geriatric physical activity is not widespread. Therefore, it would be useful to extend this model program to other settlements as well.

  4. Multidisciplinary team, working with elderly persons living in the community: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Gudrun; Eklund, Kajsa; Gosman-Hedström, Gunilla

    2010-01-01

    As the number of elderly persons with complex health needs is increasing, teams for their care have been recommended as a means of meeting these needs, particularly in the case of elderly persons with multi-diseases. Occupational therapists, in their role as team members, exert significant influence in guiding team recommendations. However, it has been emphasized that there is a lack of sound research to show the impact of teamwork from the perspective of elderly persons. The aim of this paper was to explore literature concerning multidisciplinary teams that work with elderly persons living in the community. The research method was a systematic literature review and a total of 37 articles was analysed. The result describes team organisation, team intervention and outcome, and factors that influence teamwork. Working in a team is multifaceted and complex. It is important to enhance awareness about factors that influence teamwork. The team process itself is also of great importance. Clinical implications for developing effective and efficient teamwork are also presented and discussed.

  5. Person-Centered Care for Older Adults With Serious Mental Illness and Substance Misuse Within a Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacchione, Pamela Z; Eible, Lisa; Gill, Le'Roi L; Huege, Steven F

    2016-05-01

    Providing person-centered care (PCC) to older adults with dual diagnosis, co-occurring serious mental illness (SMI), and substance misuse is complex and requires an interprofessional team. Older adults, who qualify for both Medicaid and Medicare (i.e., dual-eligibles) are overrepresented in the population of older adults with SMI and substance misuse. Programs of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE) exist to support community living needs of nursing home-eligible older adults and are increasingly in a position to serve older adults with SMI and substance misuse issues. PACE programs provide integrated person-centered mental health care to address the serious medical, social, and emotional complications posed by having SMI and substance misuse disorders. The case study presented illustrates PCC provided to a dual-diagnosis PACE participant, illustrating the impact of recent and past trauma on current psychopathology and substance misuse. Finally, recommendations for addressing PCC of dual diagnosis within the PACE model are provided. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 42(5), 11-17.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. History of falls, gait, balance, and fall risks in older cancer survivors living in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Min H; Shilling, Tracy; Miller, Kara A; Smith, Kristin; LaVictoire, Kayle

    2015-01-01

    Older cancer survivors may be predisposed to falls because cancer-related sequelae affect virtually all body systems. The use of a history of falls, gait speed, and balance tests to assess fall risks remains to be investigated in this population. This study examined the relationship of previous falls, gait, and balance with falls in community-dwelling older cancer survivors. At the baseline, demographics, health information, and the history of falls in the past year were obtained through interviewing. Participants performed tests including gait speed, Balance Evaluation Systems Test, and short-version of Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale. Falls were tracked by mailing of monthly reports for 6 months. A "faller" was a person with ≥1 fall during follow-up. Univariate analyses, including independent sample t-tests and Fisher's exact tests, compared baseline demographics, gait speed, and balance between fallers and non-fallers. For univariate analyses, Bonferroni correction was applied for multiple comparisons. Baseline variables with Pfalls with age as covariate. Sensitivity and specificity of each predictor of falls in the model were calculated. Significance level for the regression analysis was Pfalls. Baseline demographics, health information, history of falls, gaits speed, and balance tests did not differ significantly between fallers and non-fallers. Forward logistic regression revealed that a history of falls was a significant predictor of falls in the final model (odds ratio =6.81; 95% confidence interval =1.594-29.074) (Pfalls were 74% and 69%, respectively. Current findings suggested that for community-dwelling older cancer survivors with mixed diagnoses, asking about the history of falls may help detect individuals at risk of falling.

  7. Relationship Between 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure and Cognitive Function in Community-Living Older Adults: The UCSD Ambulatory Blood Pressure Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Kyle S; Forbang, Nketi; Beben, Tomasz; Criqui, Michael H; Ix, Joachim H; Rifkin, Dena E

    2015-12-01

    Twenty-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure (BP) patterns have been associated with diminished cognitive function in hypertensive and very elderly populations. The relationship between ambulatory BP patterns and cognitive function in community-living older adults is unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional study in which 24-hour ambulatory BP, in-clinic BP, and cognitive function measures were obtained from 319 community-living older adults. The mean age was 72 years, 66% were female, and 13% were African-American. We performed linear regression with performance on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) as the primary outcome and 24-hour BP patterns as the independent variable, adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, and comorbidities. Greater nighttime systolic dipping (P = 0.046) and higher 24-hour diastolic BP (DBP; P = 0.015) were both significantly associated with better cognitive function, whereas 24-hour systolic BP (SBP), average real variability, and ambulatory arterial stiffness were not. Higher 24-hour DBP and greater nighttime systolic dipping were significantly associated with improved cognitive function. Future studies should examine whether low 24-hour DBP and lack of nighttime systolic dipping predict future cognitive impairment. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2015. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Mild Cognitive Impairment is Associated with PoorerDecision Making in Community-Based Older Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke Han, S.; Boyle, Patricia A.; James, Bryan D.; Yu, Lei; Bennett, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives Financial and healthcare decision making are important for maintaining wellbeing and independence in old age. We tested the hypothesis that Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is associated with poorer decision making in financial and healthcare matters. Design Community-based epidemiologic cohort study. Setting Communities throughout Northeastern Illinois. Participants Participants were 730 older nondemented persons from the Rush Memory and Aging Project. Measurements All participants underwent a detailed clinical evaluation and decision making assessment using a measure that closely approximates materials utilized in real world financial and healthcare settings. This allowed for measurement of total decision making, as well as financial and healthcare decision making. Regression models were used to examine whether the presence of MCI was associated with a lower level of decision making. In subsequent analyses, we explored the relation of specific cognitive systems (i.e., episodic memory, semantic memory, working memory, perceptual speed, and visuospatial ability) with decision making in those with MCI. Results Results showed that MCI was associated with lower decision making total scores as well as financial and healthcare scores, respectively, after accounting for the effects of age, education, and sex. The effect of MCI on total decision making was equivalent to the effect of more than 10 additional years of age. Additional models showed that when considering multiple cognitive systems, perceptual speed accounted for the most variance in decision making among participants with MCI. Conclusion Results suggest that persons with MCI may exhibit poorer financial and healthcare decision making in real world situations, and that perceptual speed may be an important contributor to poorer decision making among persons with MCI. PMID:25850350

  9. Occurrence of Malnutrition and Associated Factors in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: Those with a Recent Diagnosis of Cancer Are at Higher Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Broeke, C; De Burghgraeve, T; Ummels, M; Gescher, N; Deckx, L; Tjan-Heijnen, V; Buntinx, F; van den Akker, M

    2018-01-01

    In older adults, nutritional health is essential for good quality of life and living independently at home. Especially in cancer patients, malnutrition is common and known to complicate treatment. This study aims to evaluate the nutritional status and its associated factors in community-dwelling older adults with and without cancer. This is an observational study. This study focuses on older community-dwelling people. This study included older people with and without cancer (≥70 years). Cancer patients included patients with a new diagnosis of breast, lung, prostate, or colorectal cancer. Data collection included measures of nutritional status, quality of life, depression, fatigue, distress and functional status. We used multivariate logistic regression analysis to assess the association between personal characteristics and malnutrition. Data were available for 657 people; 383 people without cancer and 274 with a cancer diagnosis. Overall, malnutrition was detected in 245 (37.5%) people; in cancer patients this was 66.1%. Multivariate analysis showed that having cancer (OR 14.4, 95% CI: 8.01 - 23.3), being male (OR 2.38, 95% CI: 1.49 - 3.70), having depression (OR 13.5, 95% CI: 6.02-30.0), distress (OR 2.60, 95% CI: 1.55 - 4.37) and impaired instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) (OR 2.63, 95% CI: 1.63 - 4.24) were associated with a higher risk of malnutrition. The prevalence of malnutrition in community-dwelling older people is high, particularly in patients with cancer. Benchmarking and routine screening of older patients may be helpful strategies to increase awareness of (risk of) malnutrition among professionals.

  10. Shifting between self-governing and being governed: a qualitative study of older persons' self-determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottenvall Hammar, Isabelle; Dahlin-Ivanoff, Synneve; Wilhelmson, Katarina; Eklund, Kajsa

    2014-11-28

    Older persons' right to exercise self-determination in daily life is supported by several laws. Research shows that older persons' self-determination is not fully respected within the healthcare sector. In order to enable and enhance older persons' self-determination, extensive knowledge of older persons' self-determination is needed. The aim of this study was to explore experiences of self-determination when developing dependence in daily activities among community-dwelling persons 80 years and older. Qualitative interviews were performed in accordance with a grounded theory method, with 11 persons aged 84-95 years who were beginning to develop dependence in daily activities. The data analysis revealed the core category, "Self-determination - shifting between self-governing and being governed". The core category comprised three categories: "Struggling against the aging body", "Decision-making is relational", and "Guarding one's own independence". Self-determination in daily activities was related to a shifting, which was two-fold, and varied between self-governing and being governed by the aging body, or by others. The findings imply a need to adopt a person-centered approach where the older persons' own preferences and needs are in focus, in order to enhance their possibilities to exercise self-determination.

  11. The Effects of Quality of Life and Ability to Perform Activities of Daily Living on Mild Cognitive Impairment in Older People Living in Publicly Managed Congregate Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chun-Feng; Yang, Rea-Jeng; Chang, Shu-Fang; Chou, Yuan Hwa; Huang, Ean-Wen

    2017-06-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is characterized by a decrease in cognitive abilities that does not affect the ability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs). Therefore, this condition is easily overlooked. The prevalence and factors of influence for MCI in older people living in publicly managed congregate housing are currently unknown. This study investigated the prevalence and distribution of MCI in older people living in publicly managed congregate housing and assessed the correlations among quality of life (QoL), ADL, and MCI. This study applied a correlational study design. The participants were older people who met the study criteria and who lived in public housing in Wanhua District, Taipei City, Taiwan. One-on-one interviews were conducted to measure the cognitive abilities of the participants, and 299 valid samples were collected. The prevalence of MCI in older people living in publicly managed congregate housing was 16.1%. The χ test was employed to evaluate the distribution of MCI prevalence and indicated that the group with higher MCI prevalence exhibited the following characteristics: older than 81 years; married; lived in public housing for more than 20 years; cohabiting; had a history of drinking; and exhibited severe memory regression, physical disabilities, psychological distress, and low QoL. The difference between the groups achieved statistical significance (p < .05). After performing logistical regression analysis to control demographic variables, we found that QoL and ADL were critical for predicting MCI. This study confirmed that QoL and ADL correlate significantly with MCI in older people. Maintaining an open and supportive community enables older people to maintain sufficient mental activity, which has been shown to reduce MCI. These findings may provide an important reference for policy makers, educators, researchers, and community practitioners in their development of service strategies for older people.

  12. Tiredness in daily activities: a subjective measure for the identification of frailty among non-disabled community-living older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Larsen, Kirsten; Avlund, Kirsten

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the responses to questions about tiredness in daily activities is an early subjective sign of frailty indicating older community-living adults at increased risk for disability and mortality. Tiredness in daily activities as measured by the Mob......-T Scale, maximal power in sustained work, and comorbid diseases were assessed together with sociodemographic variables in a sample of 705 non-disabled, 70-year old men and women surveyed in 1984. Vital status of members was determined prospectively over the next 15 years. Onset of disability was measured...

  13. A self-reported screening tool for detecting community-dwelling older persons with frailty syndrome in the absence of mobility disability: the FiND questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesari, Matteo; Demougeot, Laurent; Boccalon, Henri; Guyonnet, Sophie; Abellan Van Kan, Gabor; Vellas, Bruno; Andrieu, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    The "frailty syndrome" (a geriatric multidimensional condition characterized by decreased reserve and diminished resistance to stressors) represents a promising target of preventive interventions against disability in elders. Available screening tools for the identification of frailty in the absence of disability present major limitations. In particular, they have to be administered by a trained assessor, require special equipment, and/or do not discriminate between frail and disabled individuals. Aim of this study is to verify the agreement of a novel self-reported questionnaire (the "Frail Non-Disabled" [FiND] instrument) designed for detecting non-mobility disabled frail older persons with results from reference tools. Data are from 45 community-dwelling individuals aged ≥60 years. Participants were asked to complete the FiND questionnaire separately exploring the frailty and disability domains. Then, a blinded assessor objectively measured the frailty status (using the phenotype proposed by Fried and colleagues) and mobility disability (using the 400-meter walk test). Cohen's kappa coefficients were calculated to determine the agreement between the FiND questionnaire with the reference instruments. Mean age of participants (women 62.2%) was 72.5 (standard deviation 8.2) years. Seven (15.6%) participants presented mobility disability as being unable to complete the 400-meter walk test. According to the frailty phenotype criteria, 25 (55.6%) participants were pre-frail or frail, and 13 (28.9%) were robust. Overall, a substantial agreement of the instrument with the reference tools (kappa = 0.748, quadratic weighted kappa = 0.836, both p valuesFiND disability domain and the 400-meter walk test was excellent (kappa = 0.920, pFiND questionnaire presents a very good capacity to correctly identify frail older persons without mobility disability living in the community. This screening tool may represent an opportunity for diffusing awareness about frailty

  14. Home- and Community-Based Occupational Therapy Improves Functioning in Frail Older People: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Coninck, Leen; Bekkering, Geertruida E; Bouckaert, Leen; Declercq, Anja; Graff, Maud J L; Aertgeerts, Bert

    2017-08-01

    The objective is to assess the effectiveness of occupational therapy to improve performance in daily living activities in community-dwelling physically frail older people. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis. We included randomized controlled trials reporting on occupational therapy as intervention, or as part of a multidisciplinary approach. This systematic review was carried out in accordance with the Cochrane methods of systematic reviews of interventions. Meta-analyses were performed to pool results across studies using the standardized mean difference. The primary outcome measures were mobility, functioning in daily living activities, and social participation. Secondary outcome measures were fear of falling, cognition, disability, and number of falling persons. Nine studies met the inclusion criteria. Overall, the studies were of reasonable quality with low risk of bias. There was a significant increase in all primary outcomes. The pooled result for functioning in daily living activities was a standardized mean difference of -0.30 (95% CI -0.50 to -0.11; P = .002), for social participation -0.44 (95% CI -0.69, -0.19; P = .0007) and for mobility -0.45 (95% CI -0.78 to -0.12; P = .007). All secondary outcomes showed positive trends, with fear of falling being significant. No adverse effects of occupational therapy were found. There is strong evidence that occupational therapy improves functioning in community-dwelling physically frail older people. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  15. Factors associated with cane use among community dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminzadeh, F; Edwards, N

    2000-01-01

    Guided by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), this study examined factors associated with cane use among community dwelling older adults. Data were collected in a cross-sectional survey of a convenience sample of 106 community residing older adults in Ottawa, Canada. Using a stepwise discriminant analysis, subjective norms, attitudes, and age surfaced as the key variables associated with cane use in this sample. The discriminant function accounted for 67% of the variance in cane use and correctly classified 91% of cases (Wilks's lambda = 0.33, lambda2 = 110.12, df = 3, p cane use behaviors of older persons and have important implications for the design of theory-based fall prevention interventions to enhance the acceptance and effective use of mobility aids.

  16. Association of impairments of older persons with caregiver burden among family caregivers: Findings from rural South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajay, Shweta; Kasthuri, Arvind; Kiran, Pretesh; Malhotra, Rahul

    In India, owing to cultural norms and a lack of formal long-term care facilities, responsibility for care of the older person falls primarily on the family. Based on the stress process model, we assessed the association of type and number of impairments of older persons (∼primary stressors) with caregiver burden among their family caregivers in rural South India. All impaired older persons (aged ≥60, with impairment in activities of daily living (ADL) or cognition or vision or hearing) residing in 8 villages in Bangalore district, Karnataka, India, and their primary informal caregivers were interviewed. Caregiver burden was measured using the Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI; higher score indicating greater perceived burden). Linear regression models, adjusting for background characteristics of older persons and caregivers, assessed the association of type of impairment (physical [Yes/No], cognitive [Yes/No], vision [Yes/No] and hearing [Yes/No]) and number (1 or 2 or 3 or 4) of older person impairments with caregiver burden. A total of 140 caregivers, caring for 149 older persons, were interviewed. The mean (standard deviation) ZBI score was 21.2 (12.9). Of the various older person impairments, ZBI score was associated only with physical impairment (β=6.6; 95% CI: 2.1-11.1). Relative to caregivers of older person with one impairment, those caring for an older person with all 4 impairments had significantly higher ZBI score (β=13.9; CI: 2.5-25.4). Caregivers of older persons with multiple impairments, especially physical impairment, are vulnerable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Rehabilitation strategies enhancing participation in shopping malls for persons living with a disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alary Gauvreau, Christine; Kairy, Dahlia; Mazer, Barbara; Guindon, Andréanne; Le Dorze, Guylaine

    2018-04-01

    After rehabilitation, it is not clear the extent to which persons living with a disability return to their former activities in the community, such as going to shopping malls. Rehabilitation professionals are faced with the challenge to adequately prepare their clients to resume community participation. The purpose of this study was to identify rehabilitation strategies aimed at preparing clients to engage in activities in shopping malls. Twenty-two participants including 16 rehabilitation clinicians and 6 persons living with a disability participated in four nominal group sessions. Participants were questioned on current or potential rehabilitation strategies carried out to enhance participation in shopping malls for persons living with a disability. Discussions were audio-recorded and qualitative content analysis was conducted. Participants mentioned strategies that were either carried out by the clinician, or in collaboration with other parties. The latter type of strategies was either carried out with the collaboration of the client, the interdisciplinary team, the relatives, or community organizations. Rehabilitation clinicians have a role to play in preparing persons living with a disability to resume activities in a shopping mall. Additionally, therapeutic interventions in community settings may enhance the participation of rehabilitation clients in their everyday activities. Implications for rehabilitation Many strategies are currently used in rehabilitation to prepare persons living with a disability to resume shopping activities. Clinicians could implement shopping-oriented rehabilitation strategies with the client and/or with other rehabilitation partners. Involving clients in activities related to shopping might enhance their participation in shopping malls after rehabilitation. Rehabilitation clinicians can be facilitators for people living with a disability to reach optimal participation.

  18. Perceived Stigma towards Leprosy among Community Members Living Close to Nonsomboon Leprosy Colony in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaehler, Nils; Adhikar, Bipin; Raut, Shristi; Marahatta, Sujan Babu; Chapman, Robert Sedgwick

    2015-01-01

    Background Interpretation of Leprosy as a sickness differs among society. The set of beliefs, knowledge and perceptions towards a disease play a vital role in the construction of stigma towards a disease. The main purpose of this study was to explore the extent and correlates of the perceived stigma towards leprosy in the community living close to the leprosy colony in Non Somboon region of Khon Kaen Province of Thailand. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 257 leprosy unaffected community participants, above the age of 18 who were living close to the Leprosy colony in Non Somboon region of Thailand. Each participant was asked a questionnaire containing characteristics of the participants in terms of socio-demographic background and knowledge regarding the disease. In addition perceived stigma towards leprosy was measured using EMIC (Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue) questionnaire. Results Among EMIC items, shame or embarrassment in the community due to leprosy was felt by 54.5%, dislike to buy food from leprosy affected persons were 49.8% and difficulty to find work for leprosy affected persons were perceived by 47.1%. Higher total EMIC score was found in participants age 61 years or older (p = 0.021), staying longer in the community (p = 0.005), attending fewer years of education (p = 0.024) and who were unemployed (p = 0.08). Similarly, perceptions about leprosy such as difficult to treat (p = 0.015), severe disease (p = 0.004) and punishment by God (p = 0.011) were significantly associated with higher perceived stigma. Conclusions Perceived stigma towards leprosy was found highest among participants with age 61 years or older, longer duration of stay in community close to the leprosy colony, lower duration of education and participants who were unemployed had higher perceived stigma. Similarly, participants with perceptions of leprosy such as difficult to treat, severe disease and punishment by God had higher perceived stigma towards

  19. Effect of cold indoor environment on physical performance of older women living in the community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindemann, Ulrich; Oksa, Juha; Skelton, Dawn A

    2014-01-01

    performance of older women. DESIGN: cross-sectional experimental study with two test conditions. SETTING: movement laboratory in a climate chamber. SUBJECTS: eighty-eight community-dwelling, cognitively unimpaired older women (mean age 78 years). METHODS: participants were exposed to moderately cold (15°C...

  20. Older persons' views and experience of elder abuse in South Western Nigeria: a community-based qualitative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadmus, Eniola Olubukola; Owoaje, Eme Theodora; Akinyemi, Oluwaseun Oladapo

    2015-06-01

    Conventionally, existing information on elder abuse has been institution based, professionally driven, and in high-income countries. This study addresses the prevailing gap in knowledge through direct consultation of older persons in the community about their perceptions of elder abuse. Eight focus group discussions were carried out among males and females aged 60 years and above in a rural and an urban community in south western Nigeria. Data were transcribed and analyzed based on emergent themes. Findings from the study show that the perception of abuse by the respondents included the standard typologies except sexual abuse as well as societal issues such as disrespect and lack of recognition. Our study revealed a high level of awareness and experience of elder abuse among the participants in both communities. Effective social welfare and health services aided by targeted government policies are needed to improve the quality of life of the elderly. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. The influence of olfactory impairment in vital, independently living older persons on their eating behaviour and foodliking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, S.; Holthuysen, N.T.E.; Boesveldt, S.

    2014-01-01

    These two studies investigated eating behaviour and food liking of independently living Dutch older people with and without olfactory impairment. In the first study, an internet survey was conducted in relation to their olfactory status (n = 512; age 55–91). Hyposmic older people reported eating the

  2. Comprehensive geriatric assessment, multifactorial interventions and nurse-led care coordination to prevent functional decline in community-dwelling older persons: protocol of a cluster randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suijker Jacqueline J

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional decline in community-dwelling older persons is associated with the loss of independence, the need for hospital and nursing-home care and premature death. The effectiveness of multifactorial interventions in preventing functional decline remains controversial. The aim of this study is to investigate whether functional decline in community-dwelling older persons can be delayed or prevented by a comprehensive geriatric assessment, multifactorial interventions and nurse-led care coordination. Methods/Design In a cluster randomized controlled trial, with the general practice as the unit of randomization, 1281 participants from 25 general practices will be enrolled in each condition to compare the intervention with usual care. The intervention will focus on older persons who are at increased risk for functional decline, identified by an Identification of Seniors at Risk Primary Care (ISAR-PC score (≥ 2. These older persons will receive a comprehensive geriatric assessment, an individually tailored care and treatment plan, consisting of multifactorial, evidence-based interventions and subsequent nurse-led care coordination. The control group will receive 'care as usual' by the general practitioner (GP. The main outcome after 12 months is the level of physical functioning on the modified Katz-15 index score. The secondary outcomes are health-related quality of life, psychological and social functioning, healthcare utilization and institutionalization. Furthermore, a process evaluation and cost-effectiveness analysis will be performed. Discussion This study will provide new knowledge regarding the effectiveness and feasibility of a comprehensive geriatric assessment, multifactorial interventions and nurse-led elderly care in general practice. Trial registration NTR2653 Grant Unrestricted grant 'The Netherlands Organisation for Health Research and development' no 313020201

  3. Falls in the community-dwelling older adult: A review for primary-care providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, Theresa A; DeCherrie, Linda V; Thomas, David C

    2007-01-01

    Falls in the elderly are an important independent marker of frailty. Up to half of elderly people over 65 experience a fall every year. They are associated with high morbidity and mortality and are responsible for greater than 20 billion dollars a year in healthcare costs in the United States. This article presents a review and guide for the primary care provider of the predisposing and situational risk factors for falls; comprehensive assessment for screening and tailored intervention; and discussion of single and multicomponent measures for fall prevention and management in the older person living in the community. Interventions for the cognitively impaired and demented elderly will also be addressed. PMID:18225454

  4. Influence of depression, anxiety and stress on cognitive performance in community-dwelling older adults living in rural Ecuador: results of the Atahualpa Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Brutto, Oscar H; Mera, Robertino M; Del Brutto, Victor J; Maestre, Gladys E; Gardener, Hannah; Zambrano, Mauricio; Wright, Clinton B

    2015-04-01

    To assess the relationship between cognitive status and self-reported symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress of older adults living in an underserved rural South American population. Community-dwelling Atahualpa residents aged ≥60 years were identified during a door-to-door census, and evaluated with the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). We explored whether positivity in each of the DASS-21 axes was related to total and domain-specific MoCA performance after adjustment for age, sex and education. A total of 280 persons (59% women; mean age, mean age 70 ± 8 years) were included. Based on established cut-offs for the DASS-21, 12% persons had depression, 15% had anxiety and 5% had stress. Mean total MoCA scores were significantly lower for depressed than for not depressed individuals (15.9 ± 5.5 vs 18.9 ± 4.4, P Depressed participants had significantly lower total and domain-specific MoCA scores for abstraction, short-term memory and orientation. Anxiety was related to significantly lower total MoCA scores (17 ± 4.7 vs 18.8 ± 4.5, P = 0.02), but not to differences in domain-specific MoCA scores. Stress was not associated with significant differences in MoCA scores. The present study suggests that depression and anxiety are associated with poorer cognitive performance in elderly residents living in rural areas of developing countries. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  5. Effectiveness of a community-based multifaceted fall-prevention intervention in active and independent older Chinese adults

    OpenAIRE

    Xia, Q H; Jiang, Y; Niu, C J; Tang, C X; Xia, Z L

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of an 18-month multifaceted intervention designed to reduce the incidence of falls in community-living older adults in China. Methods: A population-based community trial evaluated by before-and-after cross-sectional surveys. Four residential communities were randomised to either a multifaceted intervention or a control condition. Baseline information was collected from a sample of older adults in each community. A 1-year annual fall rate was calculated...

  6. Exploring opportunities for healthy aging among older persons with a history of homelessness in Toronto, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldbrook, Natalie

    2015-03-01

    Within the areas of literature on both population aging and health and homelessness, little attention has been given to the opportunities and barriers to healthy aging among older persons with a history of homelessness. Set in the context of inner-city Toronto, Canada, this article reports on the findings from qualitative interviews with 29 formerly homeless older persons. The findings illustrate participants' experiences of positive health change since moving into a stable housing environment and the aspects of housing they perceive to have improved their health and wellbeing. The qualitative findings also draw attention to the ongoing barriers to healthy aging that can be experienced among older persons with a history of homelessness. Overall, this study draws on the lived experiences of formerly homeless older persons to offer a better understanding of the long-term effects of homelessness on health, wellbeing, and aging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The role of music in the lives of older adults with dementia ageing in place: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Melanie; Gardner, Paula

    2018-02-01

    The number of people around the world living with dementia is predicted to rise from 44 million to 135 million by 2050. Traditional treatments for dementia have been largely unsuccessful and prompted the emergence of alternative strategies. Music is emerging as an effective therapeutic strategy for older adults with dementia however, most of the work to date has focused on institutions. The purpose of this scoping review was to summarize what is known about the role and impact that music plays in the lives of community-dwelling older adults with dementia. Using a five-stage framework for conducting a scoping review, analysis revealed three ways in which music influences the lives of community-dwelling older adults with dementia: (a) reduced agitation, (b) improved cognition, and (c) enhanced social well-being. The concept of personhood provided a lens with which to conceptualize the findings and highlights the need for continued research.

  8. Aromatherapy: does it help to relieve pain, depression, anxiety, and stress in community-dwelling older persons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shuk Kwan; Tse, M Y Mimi

    2014-01-01

    To examine the effectiveness of an aromatherapy programme for older persons with chronic pain. The community-dwelling elderly people who participated in this study underwent a four-week aromatherapy programme or were assigned to the control group, which did not receive any interventions. Their levels of pain, depression, anxiety, and stress were collected at the baseline and at the postintervention assessment after the conclusion of the four-week programme. Eighty-two participants took part in the study. Forty-four participants (37 females, 7 males) were in the intervention group and 38 participants (30 females, 8 males) were in the control group. The pain scores were 4.75 (SD 2.32) on a 10-point scale for the intervention group and 5.24 (SD 2.14) for the control group before the programme. There was a slight reduction in the pain score of the intervention group. No significant differences were found in the same-group and between-group comparisons for the baseline and postintervention assessments. The depression, anxiety, and stress scores for the intervention group before the programme were 11.18 (SD 6.18), 9.64 (SD 7.05), and 12.91 (SD 7.70), respectively. A significant reduction in negative emotions was found in the intervention group (Paromatherapy programme can be an effective tool to reduce pain, depression, anxiety, and stress levels among community-dwelling older adults.

  9. Sport for Older Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France).

    The following papers were prepared for a seminar on sport for older people: (1) "Gerontological Aspects of Physical Exercise" (Eino Heikkinen); (2) "Sporting Activities in the Individual Life from the View of Older Persons" (Henning Allmer); (3) "Reasons Why Decision-Makers Should Urge Old People to Practise Physical and Sporting Activities"…

  10. Effect of fall-related concerns on physical, mental, and social function in community-dwelling older adults: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meulen, Erik; Zijlstra, G A Rixt; Ambergen, Ton; Kempen, Gertrudis I J M

    2014-12-01

    To determine the effect of fall-related concerns on physical, mental, and social function. Community-based prospective cohort study (secondary analysis using control group data from a randomized controlled trial). Two municipalities in the south of the Netherlands. Community-dwelling older adults (N = 260). Two groups were created using Modified Falls Efficacy Scale scores (high and low levels of fall-related concerns). Five outcome measures representing physical, mental, and social function were included: activities of daily living (ADLs), symptoms of depression, feelings of anxiety, social participation, and social support interactions. Outcomes were measured at baseline and at 2, 8, and 14 months. Data were analyzed using analysis of covariance and mixed-effect regression models for longitudinal data, adjusting for age, sex, living status (alone or with another person), educational level, cognitive status, self-perceived health, and falls history at baseline. At baseline, significantly more limitations in ADLs and social participation were found for older persons with high levels of fall-related concerns than for those with low levels of concern. These differences persisted over 14 months of follow-up and were consistent over time. No significant differences were found for symptoms of depression, feelings of anxiety, or social support interactions, except for feelings of anxiety at 14 months. Older persons with higher levels of fall-related concerns reported up to 14 months poorer ADL and social participation for up to 14 months than those with lower levels of fall-related concerns. From a clinical point of view, the clear relationship between fall-related concerns and ADL dysfunction and social participation may help to target groups who are at risk of developing adverse consequences of concerns about falls. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.

  11. Urinary and fecal incontinence in a community-residing older population in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, N; Tatara, K; Naramura, H; Fujiwara, H; Takashima, Y; Fukuda, H

    1997-02-01

    To estimate the prevalence and risk factors of urinary and fecal incontinence among a community-residing older population in Japan. Population-based cross-sectional study. A randomly selected sample of 1473 people aged 65 years and older living in the City of Settsu, Osaka, in 1992. Data collected via in-home visits were used to estimate the prevalence of urinary and fecal incontinence and to provide information regarding potential risk factors of urinary and fecal incontinence. Data were obtained from 1405 older adults, a response rate of 95.4%. The prevalence of any degree of urinary incontinence was 98/1000 in both sexes, and 87/ 1000 men and 66/1000 women admitted to some degree of fecal incontinence. Daily, 34/1000 and 20/1000 of the population were incontinent of urine and feces, respectively. There was an increasing prevalence of urinary and fecal incontinence with age in both sexes, but the expected greater prevalence in women was not found. By univariate analyses, age older than 75 years, poor general health as measured by Activities of Daily Living, stroke, dementia, no participation in social activities, and lack of life worth living (Ikigai) were associated significantly with both urinary and fecal incontinence. In the multivariate analyses using logistic regression, age older than 75 years, poor general health, and stroke were independent risk factors for any type of incontinence. Diabetes was an independent risk factor for isolated fecal incontinence, and dementia and no participation in social activities were independent risk factors for double incontinence. Incontinence of urine and feces is a prevalent condition among very old people living in the community in Japan and is associated highly with health and psychosocial conditions.

  12. Older Adults: Community College Students of the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Ford M.

    1990-01-01

    Provides a literature review on community college services to older adults, focusing on studies of this population's needs (e.g., personal business and financial information, employment needs, physical fitness training, and maintaining self-esteem and a sense of the purpose and meaning in life) and courses and services that colleges offer. (DMM)

  13. Rehabilitation needs for older adults with stroke living at home: perceptions of four populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viscogliosi Chantal

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many people who have suffered a stroke require rehabilitation to help them resume their previous activities and roles in their own environment, but only some of them receive inpatient or even outpatient rehabilitation services. Partial and unmet rehabilitation needs may ultimately lead to a loss of functional autonomy, which increases utilization of health services, number of hospitalizations and early institutionalization, leading to a significant psychological and financial burden on the patients, their families and the health care system. The aim of this study was to explore partially met and unmet rehabilitation needs of older adults who had suffered a stroke and who live in the community. The emphasis was put on needs that act as obstacles to social participation in terms of personal factors, environmental factors and life habits, from the point of view of four target populations. Methods Using the focus group technique, we met four types of experts living in three geographic areas of the province of Québec (Canada: older people with stroke, caregivers, health professionals and health care managers, for a total of 12 groups and 72 participants. The audio recordings of the meetings were transcribed and NVivo software was used to manage the data. The process of reducing, categorizing and analyzing the data was conducted using themes from the Disability Creation Process model. Results Rehabilitation needs persist for nine capabilities (e.g. related to behaviour or motor activities, nine factors related to the environment (e.g. type of teaching, adaptation and rehabilitation and 11 life habits (e.g. nutrition, interpersonal relationships. The caregivers and health professionals identified more unmet needs and insisted on an individualized rehabilitation. Older people with stroke and the health care managers had a more global view of rehabilitation needs and emphasized the availability of resources. Conclusion Better

  14. Functional Goals and Predictors of Their Attainment in Low-Income Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldersen, Brian W; Wolff, Jennifer L; Roberts, Laken; Bridges, Allysin E; Gitlin, Laura N; Szanton, Sarah L

    2017-05-01

    To describe functional goals and factors associated with goal attainment among low-income older adults with disabilities living in the community. Secondary analysis. Participants' homes. Older adults (N=226) with disability who participated in the Community Aging in Place, Advancing Better Living for Elders trial. A 5-month, home-based, person-directed, structured program delivered by an interprofessional team: occupational therapist, registered nurse, and handyman. Process of occupational therapist goal setting and attainment at the final occupational therapist visit. Participants identified 728 functional goals (mean of 3.2 goals per participant), most commonly related to transferring (22.0%; n=160 goals), changing or maintaining body position (21.4%; n=156 goals), and stair climbing (13.0%; n=95 goals). Participants attained 73.5% (n=535) of goals. Goal attainment was highest for stair climbing (86.3%), transferring (85.6%), and self-care (84.6%); walking goals were less likely attained (54.0%). Goal attainment was not associated with age, sex, education, depressive symptoms, function, or health-related quality of life but was less likely among participants who had severe pain compared with those without pain (adjusted odds ratio, 0.38; 95% confidence interval, 0.17-0.86). When participant readiness to change score increases by 1 point on the 4-point scale, goal attainment was 62% more likely (adjusted odds ratio, 1.62; 95% confidence interval, 1.14-2.29). Home-based collaborative goal setting between older adults and occupational therapists is feasible and particularly effective when individuals are ready or willing to adopt new strategies to achieve identified goals. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. FEAR OF FALLING AMONG COMMUNITY DWELLING OLDER ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Dingová

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to describe experience with falls, fear of falling, perceptions of the consequences of falls and how the fear of falling affects daily life in community-dwelling older adults. Design: The study used a qualitative design to describe the lived experiences of community-dwelling older adults with the fear of falling. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted individually with six participants who reported the fear of falling. Results: Five main areas emerged from data analysis: development of the fear of falling, feared consequences of falling, activities curtailment, fall prevention behavior and meaning of social support in daily life. The fear of falling was described as a negative experience, directly linked to fall consequences such as physical injury, incapacitation, loss of autonomy, fear of dependence and experience of humiliating conditions. To maintain a certain level of independence in daily life, the participants chose to avoid falls by activity curtailment, organizing their lives more carefully and getting support from others. Conclusion: All participants identified that they had discovered their fear of falling after experiencing falls. The fear of falling was associated with feared consequences of a potential fall and had an impact on their daily life. The participant also mentioned other contributors to their fear of falling, including ill health and aging. Keywords: Fear of falling, older adults, perceived consequences of falls, daily life.

  16. Reasons for living, meaning in life, and suicide ideation: investigating the roles of key positive psychological factors in reducing suicide risk in community-residing older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisel, Marnin J; Neufeld, Eva; Flett, Gordon L

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the roles of reasons for living (RFL) and meaning in life (MIL) in potentially promoting mental health and well-being and protecting against suicide ideation among community-residing older adults and to investigate the psychometric properties of the Reasons for Living Scale-Older Adult version (RFL-OA). Of 173 older adults initially recruited into a longitudinal study on late-life suicide ideation, 109 completed the RFL-OA and measures of cognitive and physical functioning and positive and negative psychological factors at a two-year follow-up assessment. We tested a model in which RFL and MIL protect against suicide ideation, controlling for demographic and clinical factors. We also assessed the psychometric properties of the RFL-OA in community-residing older adults, investigating its internal consistency and its convergent (MIL, perceived social support, and life satisfaction), divergent (loneliness, depressive symptom severity, and suicide ideation), and discriminant validity (cognitive and physical functioning). RFL-OA scores explained significant variance in suicide ideation, controlling for age, sex, depressive symptom severity, and loneliness. MIL explained significant unique variance in suicide ideation, controlling for these factors and RFL, and MIL significantly mediated the association between RFL and suicide ideation. Psychometric analyses indicated strong internal consistency (α = .94), convergent, divergent, and discriminant validity for the RFL-OA relative to positive and negative psychological factors and cognitive and physical functioning. These findings add to a growing body of literature suggesting merit in investigating positive psychological factors together with negative factors when assessing suicide risk and planning psychological services for older adults.

  17. Interdisciplinary Team Collaboration during Discharge of Depressed Older Persons: A Norwegian Qualitative Implementation Study

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    Anne Lise Holm

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to deliver effective care, it is necessary to organise interdisciplinary activities for older persons who suffer from depressive disorders. This paper evaluated the interdisciplinary team members’ perceptions of cooperation in the discharge planning of depressed older persons based on the Chronic Care Model (CCM. A qualitative implementation design was used, data were collected by means of multistage focus groups, and a thematic analysis was performed. Three themes emerged: lack of effective team leadership in the community, the need to change the delivery system, and enhancing self-management support for depressed older persons as well as the participation of their families. It was concluded that nurse managers must find ways of supporting the depressed older persons by better structuring the care, increasing cooperation with organisational leadership, and creating an environment characterised by trust and mutual respect. Distrust can have serious implications for discharge planning collaboration. The development of a common vision of transparency in the organization is important as is a policy of change among leadership and in clinical practice.

  18. The Prevalence and Correlates of Gambling Participation among Community-Dwelling Chinese Older Adults in the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruijia Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the prevalence and correlates of gambling participation and problems among community-dwelling Chinese older adults in the U.S. Based on a community-based participatory research approach, the study enrolled 3,159 Chinese older adults aged 60 years and above in the greater Chicago area. Among the participants, 58.9% were women and the average age was 72.8 years. Overall, 467 older adults had engaged in gambling in the past twelve months and 65 older adults had experienced any risk of problem gambling. Visiting a casino was the most commonly reported type of gambling, whereas betting on Mahjong had the highest frequency. Being male, lower educational levels, higher income levels, having more children, living in the U.S. for a longer period of time, living in the community for a longer period of time, better health status, lower quality of life, and improved health over the past year were significantly correlated with any gambling in the past year. Younger age, being male, and living with more people were significantly correlated with experiencing any risk of problem gambling in the past year. Future studies should be conducted to better examine the health effects of gambling and problem gambling among Chinese older adults.

  19. Alcohol use, depression, and life satisfaction among older persons in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Roger C; Waldron, Norman K; Abel, Wendel D; Eldemire-Shearer, Denise; James, Kenneth; Mitchell-Fearon, Kathryn

    2017-04-01

    We aimed to determine the prevalence of alcohol use among older Jamaicans as well as to explore among this population the relationships between alcohol use and: age, sex, depressive symptoms, and life satisfaction. Although the nature of these relationships among the proposed study population were uncertain, in other settings alcohol use has tended to decline with increasing age, occur more commonly among men than women, and show non-linear relationships with depressive symptoms and life satisfaction. Data gathered by two-stage cluster sampling for a nationally representative health and lifestyle survey of 2,943 community-dwelling older Jamaicans, aged 60 to 103 years, were subjected to secondary analysis using the Student's t-test and χ 2 test as appropriate. Current alcohol use was reported by 21.4% of the participants. It steadily declined with age and was six times more prevalent among men (37.6%) than women (6.2%). These findings were statistically significant as were associations of current alcohol use with comparatively lower levels of depressive symptoms. Current alcohol use was also more prevalent among persons who were either highly satisfied or highly dissatisfied with their lives, compared to others who had levels of life satisfaction between these two extremes. Current alcohol use among older Jamaicans occurs primarily among men, declines with increasing age, and is associated with a relatively low likelihood of depression. It is also associated with very high and very low levels of life satisfaction.

  20. Nutritional status according to the mini nutritional assessment (MNA®) and frailty in community dwelling older persons: a close relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollwein, J; Volkert, D; Diekmann, R; Kaiser, M J; Uter, W; Vidal, K; Sieber, C C; Bauer, J M

    2013-04-01

    This study investigates the association between MNA results and frailty status in community-dwelling older adults. In addition the relevance of singular MNA items and subscores in this regard was tested. Cross-sectional study. Community-dwelling older adults were recruited in the region of Nürnberg, Germany. 206 volunteers aged 75 years or older without cognitive impairment (Mini Mental State Examination >24 points), 66.0% female. Frailty was defined according to Fried et al. as presence of three, pre-frailty as presence of one or two of the following criteria: weight loss, exhaustion, low physical activity, low handgrip strength and slow walking speed. Malnutrition (malnutrition (17-23.5 points) were determined by MNA®. 15.1% of the participants were at risk of malnutrition, no participant was malnourished. 15.5 % were frail, 39.8% pre-frail and 44.7% non-frail. 46.9% of the frail, 12.2% of the pre-frail and 2.2% of the non-frail participants were at risk of malnutrition (pmalnutrition were either pre-frail or frail. For the anthropometric, dietary, subjective and functional, but not for the general MNA subscore, frail participants scored significantly lower than pre-frail (p<0.01), and non-frail participants (p<0.01). Twelve of the 18 MNA items were also significantly associated with frailty (p<0.05). These results underline the close association between frailty syndrome and nutritional status in older persons. A profound understanding of the interdependency of these two geriatric concepts will represent the basis for successful treatment strategies.

  1. Disability in instrumental activities of daily living among older adults: gender differences

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    Tiago da Silva Alexandre

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze gender differences in the incidence and determinants of disability regarding instrumental activities of daily living among older adults. METHODS The data were extracted from the Saúde, Bem-Estar e Envelhecimento (SABE – Health, Wellbeing and Ageing study. In 2000, 1,034 older adults without difficulty in regarding instrumental activities of daily living were selected. The following characteristics were evaluated at the baseline: sociodemographic and behavioral variables, health status, falls, fractures, hospitalizations, depressive symptoms, cognition, strength, mobility, balance and perception of vision and hearing. Instrumental activities of daily living such as shopping and managing own money and medication, using transportation and using the telephone were reassessed in 2006, with incident cases of disability considered as the outcome. RESULTS The incidence density of disability in instrumental activities of daily living was 44.7/1,000 person/years for women and 25.2/1,000 person/years for men. The incidence rate ratio between women and men was 1.77 (95%CI 1.75;1.80. After controlling for socioeconomic status and clinical conditions, the incidence rate ratio was 1.81 (95%CI 1.77;1.84, demonstrating that women with chronic disease and greater social vulnerability have a greater incidence density of disability in instrumental activities of daily living. The following were determinants of the incidence of disability: age ≥ 80 and worse perception of hearing in both genders; stroke in men; and being aged 70 to 79 in women. Better cognitive performance was a protective factor in both genders and better balance was a protective factor in women. CONCLUSIONS The higher incidence density of disability in older women remained even after controlling for adverse social and clinical conditions. In addition to age, poorer cognitive performance and conditions that adversely affect communication disable both genders. Acute events

  2. Overcoming Recruitment Barriers in Urban Older Adults Residing in Congregate Living Facilities

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    Adam Simning

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Participation of minority older adults in mental health research has been limited by mistrust, transportation difficulties, lack of knowledge, and insufficient community partnership. We describe strategies utilized to overcome these recruitment barriers. Methods. Our target population included 553 public housing residents of older adult high-rise buildings in Rochester, NY. We had a two-stage cross-sectional study: Stage 1 was a health survey for all residents and Stage 2 was a psychiatric interview of English-speaking residents aged 60 years and older. Recruitment occurred through mailings, onsite activities, and resident referrals. Results. Stage 1 had 358 participants (64.7% response and Stage 2 had 190 (61.6% target population response, with higher participation among African Americans. We found some strategies effective for overcoming recruitment barriers. First, we partnered with a community agency and organized onsite educational activities to improve residents’ trust. Second, the study occurred entirely onsite, which facilitated participation of functionally impaired residents. Third, onsite activities allowed the residents to learn about the study and complete surveys in person. Fourth, we provided immediate incentives that resulted in many study referrals. Conclusions. Although recruitment of minority older adults presents unique challenges, a multifaceted community-tailored approach mitigated several recruitment barriers in this mental health study.

  3. A comparison of the factors influencing life satisfaction between Korean older people living with family and living alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, S H; Sok, S R

    2012-06-01

    As the global population of older people continuously increases, many countries are beginning to experience health problems associated with older age. These countries may be interested in knowing and understanding the health problems experienced by the older Korean population, which is projected to age the most rapidly. This study aimed to compare and examine the factors that influence the life satisfaction between older people living with their family and those living alone. A cross-sectional survey was conducted. The participants comprised a total 300 older Koreans (150 living with their family, 150 living alone) aged 65 years or over who met the eligibility criteria. All measures were self-administered. Data were analysed using the SAS statistical software program version 6.12 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). The older people living with their family were better than the older people living alone in perceived health status, self-esteem, depression and life satisfaction. Perceived health status, self-esteem, depression, age and monthly allowance were found to be the factors related to the life satisfaction of older people living with their family and those living alone. The factors that were found to have the greatest influence on the life satisfaction of older people living with their family and those living alone were depression and perceived health, respectively. This study may help healthcare providers to understand the factors that can influence the life satisfaction among older people living with their family and living alone in Korea. © 2011 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2011 International Council of Nurses.

  4. Commentary: the forgotten older adult with serious mental illness: the final challenge in achieving the promise of Olmstead?

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    Bartels, Stephen J

    2011-01-01

    Older adults with serious mental illness disproportionately reside in nursing homes despite the U.S. Supreme Court Olmstead decision supporting the rights of persons with disabilities to benefit from integrated services in the community. This commentary addresses the neglected policy debate on implementing Olmstead for this rapidly growing, older population with special needs. First, the author describes research findings on older adults with serious mental illness living in nursing homes who might more appropriately reside and receive services in the community. Second, the author summarizes the evidence base for effective psychosocial rehabilitation interventions and services facilitating independent living in community settings for this subgroup. Finally, he concludes with seven policy recommendations aimed at advancing the promise of the Olmstead decision with respect to older adults with serious mental illness.

  5. Older persons' definitions and explanations of elder abuse in the Netherlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mysyuk, Yuliya; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Lindenberg, Jolanda

    2016-01-01

    persons in society, which result in disrespect toward older persons and a lack of social control and responsibility. The older persons' explanations for the occurrence of abuse mainly focus on societal changes; older persons seem to regard elder abuse primarily as a societal problem. This understanding of......In this article we explore older persons' definitions of and explanations for elder abuse in the Netherlands by means of interviews with older persons. A qualitative study was conducted based on semi-structured interviews with 35 older persons who had no experience with abuse. Our findings show...... that older persons participating in our study define elder abuse foremost as physical violence that is performed intentionally. The study participants explain elder abuse as a result of the dependency and vulnerability of older persons, of changing norms and values, and of changes in the position of older...

  6. Falls in the community-dwelling older adult: A review for primary-care providers

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    Theresa A Soriano

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Theresa A Soriano1, Linda V DeCherrie2, David C Thomas11The Samuel Bronfman Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA; 2Brookdale Department of Geriatrics and Adult Development, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York, USAAbstract: Falls in the elderly are an important independent marker of frailty. Up to half of elderly people over 65 experience a fall every year. They are associated with high morbidity and mortality and are responsible for greater than 20 billion dollars a year in healthcare costs in the United States. This article presents a review and guide for the primary care provider of the predisposing and situational risk factors for falls; comprehensive assessment for screening and tailored intervention; and discussion of single and multicomponent measures for fall prevention and management in the older person living in the community. Interventions for the cognitively impaired and demented elderly will also be addressed.Keywords: falls, elderly, community-dwelling, review

  7. Expectations of filial obligation and their impact on preferences for future living arrangements of middle-aged and older Asian Indian immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwan, Sadhna; Lee, Sang E; Sen, Soma

    2011-03-01

    Filial obligation, described as culturally-defined rights and duties that prescribe how family members are expected to care for and provide support to each other, is an important variable that influences older immigrants' preferences for living and care arrangements. This exploratory study examined variables associated with expectations of filial obligation among middle-aged and older, Asian Indian, first generation immigrants and explored the relationship between variations in expectations of filial obligation and expressed preferences for future living arrangements. Data were collected through telephone surveys of 226 English-speaking immigrants in Atlanta, GA. Although no significant relationships were observed between filial obligation expectations and length of residence in the U.S., respondents indicated a variety of preferred future living arrangements. Contrary to current living arrangement patterns found among older immigrants, very few respondents preferred to move in with their children. The most popular preference was to "move closer to children," followed by "moving to a retirement community" with the majority preferring a retirement community geared to Asian Indians. Other preferences included "not moving" and "returning to India." Variations in expectations of filial obligation, length of residence in the U.S., and self-rated health were significantly associated with these preferences. Implications are discussed for building capacity within ethnic communities to address living arrangement preferences and their repercussions for caregiving in ethnic families and in communities.

  8. Personality disorders in older adults : Emerging research issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Alphen, S.P.J.; van Dijk, S.D.M.; Videler, A.C.; Rossi, G.; Dierckx, E.; Bouckaert, F.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.

    2015-01-01

    Empirical research focusing on personality disorders (PDs) among older adults is mainly limited to studies on psychometric properties of age-specific personality tests, the age neutrality of specific items/scales, and validation of personality inventories for older adults. We identified only two

  9. Personality disorders in older adults : emerging research issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Alphen, S. P. J.; van Dijk, S. D. M.; Videler, A. C.; Rossi, G.; Dierckx, E.; Bouckaert, F.; Oude Voshaar, R. C.

    Empirical research focusing on personality disorders (PDs) among older adults is mainly limited to studies on psychometric properties of age-specific personality tests, the age neutrality of specific items/scales, and validation of personality inventories for older adults. We identified only two

  10. Association Between Social Participation and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioka, Kimiko; Kurumatani, Norio; Hosoi, Hiroshi

    2016-10-05

    Population-based data examining the relationship between social participation (SP) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) are scarce. This study examined the cross-sectional relationship between SP and IADL in community-dwelling elderly persons. Self-administered questionnaires were mailed to 23 710 residents aged ≥65 years in Nara, Japan (response rate: 74.2%). Data from 14 956 respondents (6935 males and 8021 females) without dependency in basic activities of daily living (ADL) were analyzed. The number, type, and frequency of participation in social groups (SGs) were used to measure SP. SGs included volunteer groups, sports groups, hobby groups, senior citizens' clubs, neighborhood community associations, and cultural groups. IADL was evaluated using the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence. Logistic regression models stratified by gender were used. After adjustment for putative confounding factors, including demographics, health status, life-style habits, ADL, depression, cognitive function, social networks, social support, and social roles, participation in various SGs among both genders was inversely associated with poor IADL, showing a significant dose-response relationship between an increasing number of SGs and a lower proportion of those with poor IADL (P for trend <0.001). A significant inverse association between frequent participation and poor IADL was observed for all types of SGs among females, whereas the association was limited to sports groups and senior citizens' clubs among males. Our results show that participation in a variety of SGs is associated with independent IADL among the community-dwelling elderly, regardless of gender. However, the beneficial effects of frequent participation on IADL may be stronger for females than for males.

  11. Association Between Social Participation and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimiko Tomioka

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Population-based data examining the relationship between social participation (SP and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL are scarce. This study examined the cross-sectional relationship between SP and IADL in community-dwelling elderly persons. Methods: Self-administered questionnaires were mailed to 23 710 residents aged ≥65 years in Nara, Japan (response rate: 74.2%. Data from 14 956 respondents (6935 males and 8021 females without dependency in basic activities of daily living (ADL were analyzed. The number, type, and frequency of participation in social groups (SGs were used to measure SP. SGs included volunteer groups, sports groups, hobby groups, senior citizens’ clubs, neighborhood community associations, and cultural groups. IADL was evaluated using the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence. Logistic regression models stratified by gender were used. Results: After adjustment for putative confounding factors, including demographics, health status, life-style habits, ADL, depression, cognitive function, social networks, social support, and social roles, participation in various SGs among both genders was inversely associated with poor IADL, showing a significant dose-response relationship between an increasing number of SGs and a lower proportion of those with poor IADL (P for trend <0.001. A significant inverse association between frequent participation and poor IADL was observed for all types of SGs among females, whereas the association was limited to sports groups and senior citizens’ clubs among males. Conclusions: Our results show that participation in a variety of SGs is associated with independent IADL among the community-dwelling elderly, regardless of gender. However, the beneficial effects of frequent participation on IADL may be stronger for females than for males.

  12. Storm Impact and Depression Among Older Adults Living in Hurricane Sandy-Affected Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirey, Jo Anne; Berman, Jacquelin; Halkett, Ashley; Giunta, Nancy; Kerrigan, Janice; Raeifar, Elmira; Artis, Amanda; Banerjee, Samprit; Raue, Patrick J

    2017-02-01

    Research on the impact of natural disasters on the mental health of older adults finds both vulnerabilities and resilience. We report on the rates of clinically significant depression among older adults (aged ≥60 years) living in areas affected by Hurricane Sandy in 2012 and the factors associated with mental health need. The Sandy Mobilization, Assessment, Referral and Treatment for Mental Health (SMART-MH) program integrates community outreach and needs assessments to identify older adults with mental health and aging service needs. Older adults with significant anxiety or depressive symptoms were offered short-term psychotherapy. Social service referrals were made directly to community agencies. All SMART-MH activities were offered in Spanish, Russian, Mandarin/Cantonese, and English. Across the full sample, 14% of participants screened positive for depression. Hurricane Sandy stressors predicted increased odds of depression, including storm injury, post-storm crime, and the total count of stressors. Outcomes varied significantly by age group, such that all Sandy-related variables remained significant for younger-old adults (aged 60-74 years), whereas only the loss of access to medical care was significant for older-old adults (aged ≥75 years). Storm-affected communities show higher rates of depressive symptoms than seen in the general population, with storm stressors affecting mental health needs differentially by age group. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:97-109).

  13. A systematic review of the unit costs of allied health and community services used by older people in Australia

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    Farag Inez

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An economic evaluation of interventions for older people requires accurate assessment of costing and consideration of both acute and long-term services. Accurate information on the unit cost of allied health and community services is not readily available in Australia however. This systematic review therefore aims to synthesise information available in the literature on the unit costs of allied health and community services that may be utilised by an older person living in Australia. Method A comprehensive search of Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Google Scholar and Google was undertaken. Specialised economic databases were also reviewed. In addition Australian Government Department websites were inspected. The search identified the cost of specified allied health services including: physiotherapy, occupational therapy, dietetics, podiatry, counselling and home nursing. The range of community services included: personal care, meals on wheels, transport costs and domestic services. Where the information was not available, direct contact with service providers was made. Results The number of eligible studies included in the qualitative synthesis was fourty-nine. Calculated hourly rates for Australian allied health services were adjusted to be in equivalent currency and were as follows as follows: physiotherapy $157.75, occupational therapy $150.77, dietetics $163.11, psychological services $165.77, community nursing $105.76 and podiatry $129.72. Conclusions Utilisation of the Medicare Benefits Scheduled fee as a broad indicator of the costs of services, may lead to underestimation of the real costs of services and therefore to inaccuracies in economic evaluation.

  14. Validation of an integral conceptual model of frailty in older residents of assisted living facilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gobbens, R.J.J.; Krans, A.; van Assen, M.A.L.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the validity of an integral model of the associations between life-course determinants, disease(s), frailty, and adverse outcomes in older persons who are resident in assisted living facilities. Methods Between June 2013 and May 2014

  15. Validation of an integral conceptual model of frailty in older residents of assisted living facilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gobbens, Robbert J J; Krans, Anita; van Assen, Marcel A L M

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the validity of an integral model of the associations between life-course determinants, disease(s), frailty, and adverse outcomes in older persons who are resident in assisted living facilities. Methods: Between June 2013 and May 2014

  16. Sarcopenic obesity and complex interventions with nutrition and exercise in community-dwelling older persons – a narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goisser S

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Sabine Goisser,1 Wolfgang Kemmler,2 Simone Porzel,3 Dorothee Volkert,1 Cornel Christian Sieber,1,4 Leo Cornelius Bollheimer,1,4 Ellen Freiberger1 1Institute for Biomedicine of Aging (IBA, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität (FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg, Nuremberg, 2Institute of Medical Physics (IMP, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität (FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg, 3Nutricia GmbH, Danone Medical Nutrition, Erlangen, 4Department of Internal Medicine and Geriatrics, St John of God Hospital (Barmherzige Brüder, Regensburg, Germany Abstract: One of the many threats to independent life is the age-related loss of muscle mass and muscle function commonly referred to as sarcopenia. Another important health risk in old age leading to functional decline is obesity. Obesity prevalence in older persons is increasing, and like sarcopenia, severe obesity has been consistently associated with several negative health outcomes, disabilities, falls, and mobility limitations. Both sarcopenia and obesity pose a health risk for older persons per se, but in combination, they synergistically increase the risk for negative health outcomes and an earlier onset of disability. This combination of sarcopenia and obesity is commonly referred to as sarcopenic obesity. The present narrative review reports the current knowledge on the effects of complex interventions containing nutrition and exercise interventions in community-dwelling older persons with sarcopenic obesity. To date, several complex interventions with different outcomes have been conducted and have shown promise in counteracting either sarcopenia or obesity, but only a few studies have addressed the complex syndrome of sarcopenic obesity. Strong evidence exists on exercise interventions in sarcopenia, especially on strength training, and for obese older persons, strength exercise in combination with a dietary weight loss intervention demonstrated positive effects on muscle function and body fat. The differences in study

  17. Review of the Literature: A Rural-Urban Comparison of Social Networks of Older Adults Living With HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Brittany N; Stacciarini, Jeanne-Marie R

    2016-01-01

    Globally, aging populations and older persons living with HIV (OPLWH) are emerging socioeconomic and health care concerns. Aging adults living in rural communities have less access to and lower utilization of health care services; they rely heavily on available peer and family networks. Although social networks have been linked to positive mental and physical health outcomes, there is a lack of understanding about social networks in rural-dwelling OPLWH. The purpose of this integrative literature review was to compare emerging themes in the social network components of rural versus urban-dwelling OPLWH and network benefits and barriers. Overarching themes include: limited and/or fragile networks, social inclusion versus social isolation, social capital, and health outcomes. Results demonstrate an overall lack of rural-focused research on OPLWH and a universal lack of informal and formal networks due to isolation, lack of health care services, and omnipresent HIV stigma. Copyright © 2016 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Factors associated with psychotropic drug use among community-dwelling older persons: A review of empirical studies

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    Lauzon Sylvie

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the many descriptive studies on prescribed psychotropic drug use by community-dwelling older persons, several sociodemographic and other factors associated with drug use receive inconsistent support. Method Empirical reports with data on at least benzodiazepine or antidepressant drug use in samples of older persons published between 1990 and 2001 (n = 32 were identified from major databases and analyzed to determine which factors are most frequently associated with psychotropic drug use in multivariate analyses. Methodological aspects were also examined. Results Most reports used probability samples of users and non-users and employed cross-sectional designs. Among variables considered in 5 or more reports, race, proximity to health centers, medical consultations, sleep complaints, and health perception were virtually always associated to drug use. Gender, mental health, and physical health status were associated in about two-thirds of reports. Associations with age, marital status, medication coverage, socioeconomic status, and social support were usually not observed. Conclusions The large variety of methods to operationalize drug use, mental health status, and social support probably affected the magnitude of observed relationships. Employing longitudinal designs and distinguishing short-term from long-term use, focusing on samples of drug users exclusively, defining drug use and drug classes more uniformly, and utilizing measures of psychological well-being rather than only of distress, might clarify the nature of observed associations and the direction of causality. Few studies tested specific hypotheses. Most studies focused on individual characteristics of respondents, neglecting the potential contribution of health care professionals to the phenomenon of psychotropic drug use among seniors.

  19. Effectiveness of exercise programs to reduce falls in older people with dementia living in the community: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burton E

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Elissa Burton,1,2 Vinicius Cavalheri,1 Richard Adams,3 Colleen Oakley Browne,4 Petra Bovery-Spencer,4 Audra M Fenton,3 Bruce W Campbell,5 Keith D Hill1,6 1School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia; 2Research Department, Silver Chain, Perth, WA, Australia; 3Community Services, West Gippsland Healthcare Group, Warragul, VIC, Australia; 4Falls Prevention for People Living with Dementia Project, Central West Gippsland Primary Care Partnership, Moe, VIC, Australia; 5Allied Health, Latrobe Regional Hospital, Traralgon, VIC, Australia; 6Preventive and Public Health Division, National Ageing Research Institute, Melbourne, VIC, Australia Objective: The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to evaluate the effectiveness of exercise programs to reduce falls in older people with dementia who are living in the community.Method: Peer-reviewed articles (randomized controlled trials [RCTs] and quasi-experimental trials published in English between January 2000 and February 2014, retrieved from six electronic databases – Medline (ProQuest, CINAHL, PubMed, PsycInfo, EMBASE and Scopus – according to predefined inclusion criteria were included. Where possible, results were pooled and meta-analysis was conducted.Results: Four articles (three RCT and one single-group pre- and post-test pilot study were included. The study quality of the three RCTs was high; however, measurement outcomes, interventions, and follow-up time periods differed across studies. On completion of the intervention period, the mean number of falls was lower in the exercise group compared to the control group (mean difference [MD] [95% confidence interval {CI}] =-1.06 [-1.67 to -0.46] falls. Importantly, the exercise intervention reduced the risk of being a faller by 32% (risk ratio [95% CI] =0.68 [0.55–0.85]. Only two other outcomes were reported in two or more of the studies (step test and physiological profile assessment. No

  20. Older persons' definitions and explanations of elder abuse in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysyuk, Yuliya; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Lindenberg, Jolanda

    2016-01-01

    In this article we explore older persons' definitions of and explanations for elder abuse in the Netherlands by means of interviews with older persons. A qualitative study was conducted based on semistructured interviews with 35 older persons who had no experience with abuse. Our findings show that older persons participating in our study define elder abuse foremost as physical violence that is performed intentionally. The study participants explain elder abuse as a result of the dependency and vulnerability of older persons, of changing norms and values, and of changes in the position of older persons in society, which result in disrespect toward older persons and a lack of social control and responsibility. The older persons' explanations for the occurrence of abuse mainly focus on societal changes; older persons seem to regard elder abuse primarily as a societal problem. This understanding of, and explanation for, elder abuse may influence their detection and reporting behavior, as they may tend to acknowledge only severe cases of intentional physical violence that leave clear and therefore physically detectable evidence.

  1. Pain and symptoms of depression in older adults living in community and in nursing homes: the role of activity restriction as a potential mediator and moderator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Lopez, Almudena; González, José L; Alonso-Fernández, Miriam; Cuidad, Noelia; Matías, Borja

    2014-10-01

    Chronic pain is likely to lead to depressive symptoms, but the nature of this relationship is not completely clear. The aim of the present study is to analyze the role of activity restriction in the pain-depression relationship in older people, and to test the hypothesis that this role is more relevant in community-dwelling older people than in nursing home residents. Depressive symptoms, pain intensity, and activity restriction were measured in a sample of 208 older adults with osteoarthritis, 102 living in nursing homes (NH), and 106 in the community. Analyses were carried out using moderation and moderated mediation analyses approach, treating activity restriction as a confounder. RESULTS showed a significant confounding effect of activity restriction, interaction effect between pain intensity and activity restriction on depression, and modifying effect of pain intensity on depression by adding activity restriction into the model. These results suggest a potential mediating and moderating effects of activity restriction. Moreover, analyses suggest that, surprisingly, the strength of the mediation could be higher in nursing homes. Overall, it may be that what is really important to emotional well-being is not so much pain itself, but rather the way in which the pain alters older people's lives. The greater strength of the mediation in NH might be understood within the scope of self-determination theory. Generally speaking, the NH context has been considered as a coercive setting, promoting non-autonomous orientation. In this context, when events are objectively coercive, people may lack perceived autonomy and hence be at greater risk of depression.

  2. Under-reporting of food intake is frequent among Brazilian free-living older persons: a doubly labelled water study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferriolli, Eduardo; Pfrimer, Karina; Moriguti, Julio C; Lima, Nereida K C; Moriguti, Eny K U; Formighieri, Paulo F; Scagliusi, Fernanda B; Marchini, Julio S

    2010-03-15

    The assessment of food intake is essential for the development of dietetic interventions. Accuracy is low when intake is assessed by questionnaires, the under-reporting of food intake being frequent. Most such studies, however, were performed in developed countries and there is little data about the older population of developing nations. This study aimed to verify the total energy expenditure (TEE) of independent older Brazilians living in an urban area, through the doubly labelled water (DLW) method and to compare it with the reported energy intake obtained through the application of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Initially, 100 volunteers aged from 60 to 75 years had their body composition determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Five volunteers of each quartile of body fat percentage had their energy expenditure determined by DLW. The mean age of the subjects included in this phase of the study was 66.4 +/- 3.5 years, and ten of the subjects were men. The mean TEE was 2565 +/- 614 and 2154 +/- 339 kcal.day(-1) for men and women, respectively. The Physical Activity Level (PAL) was 1.58 +/- 0.31 and 1.52 +/- 0.22, respectively. Under-reporting of food intake was highly prevalent, with a mean percentage of reported intake in relation to measured TEE of -17.7%. Thus, under-reporting of food intake is highly prevalent among Brazilian independent older persons. The DLW method is an important tool in nutritional studies and its use is to be recommended in developing countries. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Older Persons at Risk of Hospital Readmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mona Kyndi

    Hospital readmission is common and considered an adverse health outcome in older persons. Acute readmission of recently discharged patients puts additional pressure on clinical resources within health care services and support. Despite the frequency of readmissions, affecting health and wellbeing...... of older persons, there is still a relatively incomplete understanding of the broader array of factors pertaining to hospital readmission. The current evidence on risk factors for hospital readmission is not adequate to identify person at risk of readmission in a heterogeneous population of older persons....... Few studies have explored patients’ experiences of circumstances and incidents leading to readmission. This thesis uses a mixed methods approach and combines quantitative as well as qualitative data to explore and identify risk factors and predictors of hospital readmission. Use of health care...

  4. Responding to rural social care needs: older people empowering themselves, others and their community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kieran; O'Shea, Eamon

    2008-12-01

    Older adult active retirement groups encompass health promotion, social and community psychological potential. However, little is known about the internal dynamics of these groups or their contribution to individual well-being and the community. This paper examines the Third Age Foundation as an example of one such group operating in a rural area in Ireland and explores the various relationships at work internally and externally. Methodology included: structured and semi-structured interviews, focus groups and a postal survey. A substantial contribution to members' well-being and community competence and cohesion was found. Findings are discussed in reference to the importance of individual and community empowerment, sustainability, social entrepreneurship/leadership and the potential of such models to support community-based living in older age.

  5. Coping and personality in older patients with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouws, Sigfried N T M; Paans, Nadine P G; Comijs, Hannie C; Dols, Annemiek; Stek, Max L

    2015-09-15

    Little is known about coping styles and personality traits in older bipolar patients. Adult bipolar patients show a passive coping style and higher neuroticism scores compared to the general population. Our aim is to investigate personality traits and coping in older bipolar patients and the relationship between coping and personality. 75 Older patients (age > 60) with bipolar I or II disorder in a euthymic mood completed the Utrecht Coping List and the NEO Personality Inventory FFI and were compared to normative data. Older bipolar patients show more passive coping styles compared to healthy elderly. Their personality traits are predominated by openness, in contrast conscientiousness and altruism are relatively sparse. Neuroticism was related to passive coping styles, whereas conscientiousness was related to an active coping style. Older bipolar patients have more passive coping styles. Their personality is characterized by openness and relatively low conscientiousness and altruism. Our sample represents a survival cohort; this may explain the differences in personality traits between older patients in this study and in adult bipolar patients in other studies. The association between coping styles and personality traits is comparable to reports of younger adult patients with bipolar disorder. Longitudinal studies are warranted to explore if coping and personality change with ageing in bipolar patients and to determine which coping style is most effective in preventing mood episodes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Relevance of community structures and neighbourhood characteristics for participation of older adults: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobl, Ralf; Maier, Werner; Ludyga, Alicja; Mielck, Andreas; Grill, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Community and neighbourhood structures contribute not only to the health and well-being, but also to the participation of older adults. The degree of participation depends on both the living environment and the individual's personal characteristics, preferences and perception. However, there is still limited empirical evidence on how community and neighbourhood structures are linked to participation and health in the aged population. A qualitative exploratory approach was chosen with a series of problem-centred, semi-structured focus group discussions. Study participants were selected from within the city of Augsburg, Southern Germany, and from two municipalities in surrounding rural districts. The interviews took place in 2013. Structuring content analysis was used to identify key concepts. We conducted 11 focus group discussions with a total of 78 different study participants. The study participants (33 men and 45 women) had a mean age of 74 years (range 65-92 years). Only two study participants lived in an assisted living facility. Of all study participants, 77% lived in urban and 23% in rural areas. We extracted four metacodes ('Usual activities', 'Requirements for participation', 'Barriers to participation' and 'Facilitators for participation') and 15 subcodes. Health and poorly designed infrastructure were mentioned as important barriers to participation, and friendship and neighbourhood cohesion as important facilitators. This qualitative study revealed that poor design and accessibility of municipal infrastructure are major barriers to participation in old age in Germany. Community and neighbourhood structures can be part of the problem but also part of the solution when accessibility and social networks are taken into account.

  7. Receipt of Caregiving and Fall Risk in US Community-dwelling Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Geoffrey J; Hays, Ron D; Wallace, Steven P; Shapiro, Martin F; Yakusheva, Olga; Ettner, Susan L

    2017-04-01

    Falls and fall-related injuries (FRI) are common and costly occurrences among older adults living in the community, with increased risk for those with physical and cognitive limitations. Caregivers provide support for older adults with physical functioning limitations, which are associated with fall risk. Using the 2004-2012 waves of the Health and Retirement Study, we examined whether receipt of low (0-13 weekly hours) and high levels (≥14 weekly hours) of informal care or any formal care is associated with lower risk of falls and FRIs among community-dwelling older adults. We additionally tested whether serious physical functioning (≥3 activities of daily living) or cognitive limitations moderated this relationship. Caregiving receipt categories were jointly significant in predicting noninjurious falls (P=0.03) but not FRIs (P=0.30). High levels of informal care category (P=0.001) and formal care (Pfall risk relative to low levels of informal care. Among individuals with ≥3 activities of daily living, fall risks were reduced by 21% for those receiving high levels of informal care; additionally, FRIs were reduced by 42% and 58% for those receiving high levels of informal care and any formal care. High levels of informal care receipt were also associated with a 54% FRI risk reduction among the cognitively impaired. Fall risk reductions among older adults occurred predominantly among those with significant physical and cognitive limitations. Accordingly, policy efforts involving fall prevention should target populations with increased physical functioning and cognitive limitations. They should also reduce financial barriers to informal and formal caregiving.

  8. Community patterns of stigma towards persons living with HIV: A population-based latent class analysis from rural Vietnam

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Pharris, Anastasia

    2011-09-18

    Abstract Background The negative effects of stigma on persons living with HIV (PLHIV) have been documented in many settings and it is thought that stigma against PLHIV leads to more difficulties for those who need to access HIV testing, treatment and care, as well as to limited community uptake of HIV prevention and testing messages. In order to understand and prevent stigma towards PLHIV, it is important to be able to measure stigma within communities and to understand which factors are associated with higher stigma. Methods To analyze patterns of community stigma and determinants to stigma toward PLHIV, we performed an exploratory population-based survey with 1874 randomly sampled adults within a demographic surveillance site (DSS) in rural Vietnam. Participants were interviewed regarding knowledge of HIV and attitudes towards persons living with HIV. Data were linked to socioeconomic and migration data from the DSS and latent class analysis and multinomial logistic regression were conducted to examine stigma group sub-types and factors associated with stigma group membership. Results We found unexpectedly high and complex patterns of stigma against PLHIV in this rural setting. Women had the greatest odds of belong to the highest stigma group (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.42-2.37), while those with more education had lower odds of highest stigma group membership (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.32-0.62 for secondary education; OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.10-0.35 for tertiary education). Long-term migration out of the district (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.4-0.91), feeling at-risk for HIV (OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.27-0.66), having heard of HIV from more sources (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.3-0.66), and knowing someone with HIV (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.58-0.99) were all associated with lower odds of highest stigma group membership. Nearly 20% of the population was highly unsure of their attitudes towards PLHIV and persons in this group had significantly lower odds of feeling at-risk for HIV (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.33-0.90) or of knowing

  9. Religiousness/Spirituality and anger management in community-dwelling older persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mefford, Linda; Thomas, Sandra P; Callen, Bonnie; Groer, Maureen

    2014-04-01

    Mismanaged anger is associated with adverse health outcomes. This study examined whether dimensions of religiousness/spirituality could predict healthy anger management in a sample of 82 community-dwelling older Americans. A correlational research design was employed using the Deffenbacher Anger Scale and the Brief Multidimensional Measure of Religiousness/Spirituality. Higher scores on Forgiveness, Daily Spiritual Experiences, Religiousness/Spirituality as Coping, and Self-Ranking of Religiousness/Spirituality were correlated with healthier anger management; however forgiveness was the only significant predictor in the regression analysis. Interventions to facilitate forgiveness may promote healthy anger management and minimize the adverse health effects of mismanaged anger.

  10. The Association Between Social Capital and Depression Among Chinese Older Adults Living in Public Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tat Leong; Hall, Brian J; Canham, Sarah L; Lam, Agnes Iok Fong

    2016-10-01

    Social capital is a critical resource for physical and mental health among older adults, but few studies have investigated this relationship in Chinese populations, and specifically among those with low socioeconomic status. This study examined the association between depression and cognitive social capital (reciprocity and trust) and structural social capital (social participation) in a community sample of older adults living in public housing in Macau (SAR), China (N = 366). Multivariable linear regressions estimated the associations between dimensions of social capital and depression, while adjusting for potential confounders. Significant inverse associations were found between reciprocity and trust and depression. No association was found between social participation and depression. Poor self-reported health was a robust correlate of depression in all models tested. Future studies are needed to evaluate whether enhancing social capital may reduce depression among Chinese older adults living in poverty.

  11. Giving voice to older adults living with frailty and their family caregivers: engagement of older adults living with frailty in research, health care decision making, and in health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holroyd-Leduc, Jayna; Resin, Joyce; Ashley, Lisa; Barwich, Doris; Elliott, Jacobi; Huras, Paul; Légaré, France; Mahoney, Megan; Maybee, Alies; McNeil, Heather; Pullman, Daryl; Sawatzky, Richard; Stolee, Paul; Muscedere, John

    2016-01-01

    The paper discusses engaging older adults living with frailty and their family caregivers. Frailty is a state that puts an individual at a higher risk for poor health outcomes and death. Understanding whether a person is frail is important because treatment and health care choices for someone living with frailty may be different from someone who is not (i.e., who is fit). In this review, we discuss strategies and hurdles for engaging older adults living with frailty across three settings: research, health and social care, and policy. We developed this review using published literature, expert opinion, and stakeholder input (including citizens). Engaging frail older individuals will be challenging because of their vulnerable health state - but it can be done. Points of consideration specific to engaging this vulnerable population include:In any setting, family caregivers (defined to include family, friends, and other social support systems) play an important role in engaging and empowering older adults living with frailtyEngagement opportunities need to be flexible (e.g., location, time, type)Incentivizing engagement for researchers and citizens (financial and otherwise) may be necessaryThe education and training of citizens, health and social care providers, and researchers on engagement practicesPatient-centered care approaches should consider the specific needs of individuals living with frailty including end-of-life care and advanced care planningInfluencing policy can occur in many ways including participating at institutional, regional, provincial or national committees that relate to health and social care. Older adults are the fastest growing segment of Canada's population resulting in an increased number of individuals living with frailty. Although aging and frailty are not synonymous the proportion of those who are frail increases with age. Frailty is not defined by a single condition, but rather a health state characterized by an increased risk of

  12. Perceived work stress, imbalance between work and family/personal lives, and mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian Li

    2006-07-01

    Occupational mental health research has been focusing on the relationship between work stress and depression. However, the impacts of work stress on anxiety disorders and of imbalance between work and family life on workers' mental health have not been well studied. This analysis investigated the association between levels of perceived work stress and of imbalance between work and family/personal lives and current mood/anxiety disorders. This was a cross-sectional study using data from the Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health and Well-being (CCHS-1.2) (n=36,984). Mood and anxiety disorders were measured using the World Mental Health-Composite International Diagnostic Interview. The 1-month prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders among those with a work stress score at the 75th percentile value and above was 3.6% and 4.0%. Among those who reported that their work and family/personal lives "never" balanced in the past month, the 1-month prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders was 21.2% and 17.9%. In multivariate analyses, work stress and imbalance between work and family/personal lives were independently associated with mood and anxiety disorders. There was no evidence that perceived work stress interacted with imbalance between work and family/personal lives to increase the likelihood of having mental disorders. Gender was associated with anxiety disorders, but not with major depressive disorder and mood disorders. Work stress and imbalance between work and family/personal lives may be part of the etiology of mood and anxiety disorders in the working population. Community based longitudinal studies are needed to delineate the causal relationships among work stress, imbalance between work and family/personal lives and mental disorders.

  13. Living with companion animals after stroke: experiences of older people in community and primary care nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Maria; Ahlström, Gerd; Jönsson, Ann-Cathrin

    2014-12-01

    Older people often have companion animals, and the significance of animals in human lives should be considered by nurses-particularly in relation to older people's health, which can be affected by diseases. The incidence of stroke increases with age and disabilities as a result of stroke are common. This study aimed to explore older people's experiences of living with companion animals after stroke, and their life situation with the animals in relation to the physical, psychological and social aspects of recovery after stroke. The study was performed using individual interviews approximately 2 years after stroke with 17 participants (10 women and 7 men) aged 62-88 years. An overarching theme arising from the content analysis was contribution to a meaningful life. This theme was generated from four categories: motivation for physical and psychosocial recovery after stroke; someone to care for who cares for you; animals as family members; and providers of safety and protection. The main conclusion was that companion animals are experienced as physical and psychosocial contributors to recovery and a meaningful life after stroke.

  14. The impact of an unfavorable depression course on network size and loneliness in older people: a longitudinal study in the community.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theo van Tilburg; Peter van de Ven; Aartjan Beekman; Wim Houtjes; Dorly Deeg; prof Berno van Meijel

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This work aims to gain insight into the long-term impact of depression course on social network size and perceived loneliness in older people living in the community. METHODS: Within a large representative sample of older people in the community (Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam

  15. The right to live in the community as the right to have rights

    OpenAIRE

    Gradwohl, Csilla

    2017-01-01

    The present thesis explores Article 19 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, which recognizes the right of all persons with disabilities to live in the community, with choices equal to others. The relationship between Article 19 and the other articles of the Convention are explored, in order to discuss the role of Article 19 in the Convention. The thesis examines whether the right to live in the community, set out in Article 19, can be considered as the ...

  16. Walking can be more effective than balance training in fall prevention among community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Yoshiro; Osuka, Yosuke; Jung, Songee; Rafael, Figueroa; Tsujimoto, Takehiko; Aiba, Tatsuya; Kim, Teaho; Tanaka, Kiyoji

    2016-01-01

    To examine the effects of walking on falls among community-dwelling older adults while accounting for exposures. A total of 90 older adults, ranging in age from 65 to 79 years, were allocated into either the walking (brisk walking, n = 50) or the balance (balance and strength training, n = 40) group to participate in a 3-month supervised and 13-month unsupervised fall-prevention program held from 2012 to 2014 in Japan. Falls and trips that occurred during the 16-month period were monitored with a monthly fall calendar. The risk of falls and trips was evaluated by person-year, physically active person-day and person-step. The walking group showed a significant reduction in the fall risk when evaluated by the falls per physically active person-day (rate ratio 0.38, 95% confidence interval 0.19-0.77) and falls per person-step (rate ratio 0.47, 95% confidence interval 0.26-0.85) compared with the balance group. In contrast, the number of trips significantly increased with walking, even when evaluated as trips per physically active person-day (rate ratio 1.50, 95% confidence interval 1.12-2.00). The present findings suggest that walking among community-dwelling older adults can be more effective for fall prevention than balance training. However, because walking can induce more trips, walking should not be recommended for older adults who are susceptible to falling or frailty. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  17. Nutritional self-care among a group of older home-living people in rural Southern Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale B

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bjørg Dale, Ulrika SöderhamnCentre for Caring Research – Southern Norway, Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Agder, Grimstad, NorwayBackground: Older home-living people are an at-risk group for undernutrition, particularly those who are living alone. Lack of knowledge about healthy dietary habits, altered taste sensation, and declined health status are shown to be some of the factors related to undernutrition. The aims of this study were to explore how a small group of older people in Southern Norway perceived their nutritional self-care.Methods: An exploratory qualitative approach, combined with a simple self-report questionnaire, was used. Five persons living in rural areas in Southern Norway, who in a former study were screened and found to be at risk for undernutrition, participated. Qualitative data assessed by means of individual self-care talks in the persons' own homes were analyzed using directed content analysis. A simple self-report questionnaire containing demographic variables, two health-related questions, and the Nutritional Form For the Elderly (NUFFE-NO instrument was filled out at baseline and 6 months after the self-care talks.Results: The qualitative data showed that the participants had adequate knowledge about healthy and nutritious diets. They were aware of and motivated to adapt their diet to their current state of health and to perform the necessary actions to maintain an optimal nutritional status and nutritional self-care.Conclusion: Older people living at home are a diverse group. However, this study showed that they may have sufficient knowledge, willingness, and ability to perform nutritional self-care, even if they live alone and have several chronic illnesses and impaired health.Keywords: adapting, decision-making, knowledge, self-care talks

  18. [Should subclinical hypothyroidism in older persons be treated?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzen, W.P. den; Smit, J.W.A.; Mooijaart, S.P.; Gussekloo, J.

    2012-01-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism is a common finding in older persons. Clinical guidelines are inconsistent in providing recommendations for the treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism, especially in older persons. To date, there is no high-quality evidence from randomized controlled trials about the

  19. How older people with incurable cancer experience daily living: A qualitative study from Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Sigrid Helene Kjørven; Danbolt, Lars J; Kvigne, Kari; Demarinis, Valerie

    2015-08-01

    An increasing number of older people are living with incurable cancer as a chronic disease, requiring palliative care from specialized healthcare for shorter or longer periods of time. The aim of our study was to describe how they experience daily living while receiving palliative care in specialized healthcare contexts. We conducted a qualitative research study with a phenomenological approach called "systematic text condensation." A total of 21 participants, 12 men and 9 women, aged 70-88, took part in semistructured interviews. They were recruited from two somatic hospitals in southeastern Norway. The participants experienced a strong link to life in terms of four subthemes: to acknowledge the need for close relationships; to maintain activities of normal daily life; to provide space for existential meaning-making and to name and handle decline and loss. In addition, they reported that specialized healthcare contexts strengthened the link to life by prioritizing and providing person-centered palliative care. Older people with incurable cancer are still strongly connected to life in their daily living. The knowledge that the potential for resilience remains despite aging and serious decline in health is considered a source of comfort for older people living with this disease. Insights into the processes of existential meaning-making and resilience are seen as useful in order to increase our understanding of how older people adapt to adversity, and how their responses may help to protect them from some of the difficulties inherent to aging. Healthcare professionals can make use of this information in treatment planning and for identification of psychosocial and sociocultural resources to support older people and to strengthen patients' life resources.

  20. Identification of Important Community Living Skills for Adults with Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovett, David L.; Harris, Mary B.

    1987-01-01

    Attempted to identify skills important for successful community living of adults with mental retardation. Individuals (N=73) who had significant contact with adults with mental retardation completed questionnaire on academic, leisure, personal, social, and vocational skills frequently taught to persons with mental handicaps. Subjects considered…

  1. Challenges faced by young persons living with HIV: The case of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Challenges faced by young persons living with HIV: The case of children on the ... Journal of Social Development in Africa ... to 34 randomly selected children who were beneficiaries of an initiative called the Community Outreach Programme.

  2. Effects of an 1-day education program on physical functioning, activity and quality of life in community living persons with multiple sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    FEYS, Peter; Tytgat, Katrien; GIJBELS, Domien; De Groote, Luc; BAERT, Ilse; Van Asch, Paul

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Persons with MS (pwMS) in the community show reduced physical activity while studies demonstrated beneficial effects of exercise therapy in supervised settings. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated, in pwMS living in the community, the effects of a 1-day education program about exercises and sports, on physical activity behavior and related outcome measures as self-efficacy, perceived walking ability, fatigue, perceived impact of MS and quality of life. METHODS: PwMS attended an edu...

  3. [Vitamins and nutritional supplements in older persons: How to diagnose and when to substitute?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polivka, D; von Arnim, C A F

    2015-11-01

    Despite an excellent food supply in Germany, a large percentage of older persons living at home or institutionalized older persons suffer from or are at risk for malnutrition. The purpose of this article is to highlight the association between nutrient deficiencies and age-related diseases and give rational recommendations for substitution. Both malnutrition and low levels of specific nutrients are associated with cognitive and functional impairment, dementia, and depression in older persons. Most prevalent are deficiencies in vitamin B1, vitamin B12, and vitamin D. Serum levels are often misleading and show false negative results in vitamin B1 and B12 deficiencies; therefore, determination of erythrocyte transketolase activity (ETKA) and the thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) effect for vitamin B1 and of methylmalonic acid and holotranscobalamine for vitamin B12 is recommended. Prophylactic supplementation with vitamins is not supported by prospective trials; however, positive data from observational studies support a Mediterranean diet combined with intake of vitamins, antioxidants, and unsaturated fatty acids. Older persons should be regularly screened for malnutrition and the threshold for determination of vitamin B1, B12, and vitamin D should be low. Vitamin substitution should be reserved for proven deficits. There is now data regarding cognition from prospective trials on effects of a healthy diet combined with other life-style factors like physical and cognitive activity.

  4. Variation in Older Adult Characteristics by Residence Type and Use of Home- and Community-Based Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi H. Ewen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The majority of older adults prefer to remain in their homes, or to “age-in-place.” To accomplish this goal, many older adults will rely upon home- and community-based services (HCBS for support. However, the availability and accessibility of HCBS may differ based on whether the older adult lives in the community or in a senior housing apartment facility. Methods: This paper reports findings from the Pathways to Life Quality study of residential change and stability among seniors in upstate New York. Data were analyzed from 663 older adults living in one of three housing types: service-rich facilities, service-poor facilities, and community-dwelling in single-family homes. A multinomial logistic regression model was used to examine factors associated with residence type. A linear regression model was fitted to examine factors associated with HCBS utilization. Results: When compared to community-dwelling older adults, those residing in service-rich and service-poor facilities were more likely to be older, report more activity limitations, and provide less instrumental assistance to others. Those in service-poor facilities were more likely to have poorer mental health and lower perceived purpose in life. The three leading HCBS utilized were senior centers (20%, homemaker services (19%, and transportation services (18%. More HCBS utilization was associated with participants who resided in service-poor housing, were older, were female, and had more activity limitations. More HCBS utilization was also associated with those who received instrumental support, had higher perceived purpose in life, and poorer mental health. Conclusions: Findings suggest that older adults’ residential environment is associated with their health status and HCBS utilization. Building upon the Person–Environment Fit theories, dedicated efforts are needed to introduce and expand upon existing HCBS available to facility residents to address physical and

  5. Variation in Older Adult Characteristics by Residence Type and Use of Home- and Community-Based Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewen, Heidi H.; Washington, Tiffany R.; Emerson, Kerstin G.; Carswell, Andrew T.; Smith, Matthew Lee

    2017-01-01

    Background: The majority of older adults prefer to remain in their homes, or to “age-in-place.” To accomplish this goal, many older adults will rely upon home- and community-based services (HCBS) for support. However, the availability and accessibility of HCBS may differ based on whether the older adult lives in the community or in a senior housing apartment facility. Methods: This paper reports findings from the Pathways to Life Quality study of residential change and stability among seniors in upstate New York. Data were analyzed from 663 older adults living in one of three housing types: service-rich facilities, service-poor facilities, and community-dwelling in single-family homes. A multinomial logistic regression model was used to examine factors associated with residence type. A linear regression model was fitted to examine factors associated with HCBS utilization. Results: When compared to community-dwelling older adults, those residing in service-rich and service-poor facilities were more likely to be older, report more activity limitations, and provide less instrumental assistance to others. Those in service-poor facilities were more likely to have poorer mental health and lower perceived purpose in life. The three leading HCBS utilized were senior centers (20%), homemaker services (19%), and transportation services (18%). More HCBS utilization was associated with participants who resided in service-poor housing, were older, were female, and had more activity limitations. More HCBS utilization was also associated with those who received instrumental support, had higher perceived purpose in life, and poorer mental health. Conclusions: Findings suggest that older adults’ residential environment is associated with their health status and HCBS utilization. Building upon the Person–Environment Fit theories, dedicated efforts are needed to introduce and expand upon existing HCBS available to facility residents to address physical and mental health needs

  6. A comparison of correlates of self-rated health and functional disability of older persons in the Far East: Japan and Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yunhwan; Shinkai, Shoji

    2003-01-01

    Self-rated health and physical functioning are recognized as important indicators of health in older persons. Rarely, however, there have been studies done which examine cross-cultural differences in the health of older people using these measures, especially among non-Western countries. The objective of this study was to examine patterns of association of self-rated health and functional disability of Japanese and Korean elderly people living in the community, using nationwide surveys of persons aged 60 years or over. There were striking similarities in the general pattern of associations with covariates. In the multivariate analysis, age, work status, comorbidity, depressive symptoms, life satisfaction, hospitalization, and functional disability were strongly associated with self-rated health in both populations. For functional disability, older age, female, low social contact, depressive symptoms, poor life satisfaction, and poor self-rated health were found to be significantly associated. Some differences in the structure of associations with self-rated health, however, were noted. Women tended to assess their health more favorably than men in Korea, but in the Japanese elderly gender differences disappeared when other variables were taken into account. Health-related variables tended to be more closely associated with functional disability in the Japanese sample. An overall similarity, however, in the pattern of associations of these measures supports their utility in assessing and comparing the health of older populations in this region.

  7. Maintaining the balance: older adults with chronic health problems manage life in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacelon, Cynthia S

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to identify themes in the daily lives of community-dwelling older adults with chronic health problems. Qualitative descriptive methods based on symbolic interaction were used. Data were generated through unstructured interviews, participant diaries, and researcher logs. Participants were interviewed twice and kept diaries in between. Measures to enhance trustworthiness included bracketing, multiple data sources, repeated interviews, prolonged engagement, an audit trail, participant checking, and consultation with an expert qualitative researcher. Ten older adults 75-98 years of age living in their own homes with at least one self-reported chronic health problem participated in the research. Participants' health problems varied, and they developed strategies to maintain balance in activity, attitude, autonomy, health, and relationships. This research provides a new perspective on living with chronic illness, and the model may provide a framework for rehabilitation nurses who work with older adults.

  8. Modernization, Aging and Coresidence of Older Persons: the Sri Lankan Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarasiri de Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effects of the modernization on the living arrangements of elderly people in six selected communities representing urban, semi-urban, estate, rural, colonized settlement and fishing villages in Sri Lanka. The paper concludes that the modernization of the economy and society has exacerbated an intergenerational rift leading to an intensification of tensions between elderly people and other family members, despite the fact that the percentage of older people living with their children remains high. Such coresidence or intergenerational living comprises many types of living arrangements, and leads to mixed results for care of the elderly. Many elderly people have developed mechanisms to counteract the negative effects of coresidence: seeking independence during old age, by earning their own income and living alone or living with the spouse, indulging in behaviors such as drinking, spending time outside the home with friends of similar age, or creating their own living space within coresidence.

  9. Feelings of uselessness and 3-year mortality in an Italian community older people: the role of the functional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curzio, Olivia; Bernacca, Emilia; Bianchi, Bruno; Rossi, Giuseppe

    2017-09-01

    Sense of self-worth influences the health status of the elderly and may be associated with mortality. The aim of the study was to investigate whether the association between subjective feelings of uselessness and mortality was confounded or modified by functional limitation in non-institutionalized older people. Participants were community-dwelling older people, aged 70 years and older, who lived in neighbourhoods of Massa and Carrara municipalities in northern Tuscany, Italy. At baseline, 2335 non-institutionalized older people were assessed with a short self-administered questionnaire; the analysis included 2132 older persons for whom vital statistical data were available after a 3-year follow-up. The feeling of uselessness was associated with an increased mortality at the 3-year follow-up, but only in older people who reported disability problems (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.97, 95% confidence interval = 1.48-2.63, P feeling of uselessness may be vulnerable to an increased risk for poor health outcomes in later life. This study outlined the importance of enquiring about feelings of uselessness, which is a relational variable that is linked to both psychological and physical health status, especially in older people who need help in daily activities. © 2017 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  10. [Factors associated with activities of daily living (ADL) in independently living elderly persons in a community: a baseline examination of a large scale cohort study, Fujiwara-kyo study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Masayo; Nezu, Satoko; Tomioka, Kimiko; Hazaki, Kan; Harano, Akihiro; Morikawa, Masayuki; Takagi, Masahiro; Yamada, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Yoshitaka; Iwamoto, Junko; Ishizuka, Rika; Saeki, Keigo; Okamoto, Nozomi; Kurumatani, Norio

    2013-01-01

    To investigate factors associated with activities of daily living in independently living elderly persons in a community. The potential subjects were 4,472 individuals aged 65 years and older who voluntarily participated in a large cohort study, the Fujiwara-kyo study. We used self-administered questionnaires consisting of an activities of daily living (ADL) questionnaire with the Physical Fitness Test established by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (12 ADL items) to determine the index of higher-level physical independence, demographics, Geriatric Depression Scale, and so on. Mini-mental state examination, measurement of physical fitness, and blood tests were also carried out. A lower ADL level was defined as having a total score of the 12 ADL items (range, 12-36 points) that was below the first quartile of a total score for all the subjects. Factors associated with a low ADL level were examined by multiple logistic regression. A total of 4,198 remained as subjects for analysis. The male, female and 5-year-old groups showed significant differences in the median score of 12 ADL items between any two groups. The highest odds ratio among factors associated with lower ADL level by multiple logistic regression with mutually adjusted independent variables was 4.49 (95%CI: 2.82-7.17) in the groups of "very sharp pain" or "strong pain" during the last month. Low physical ability, self-awareness of limb weakness, a BMI of over 25, low physical activity, cerebrovascular disorder, depression, low cognitive function, unable "to see normally", unable "to hear someone", "muscle, bone and joint pain" were independently associated with lower ADL level. Multiple factors are associated with lower ADL level assessed on the basis of the 12 ADL items.

  11. Objective community integration of mental health consumers living in supported housing and of others in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanos, Philip T; Stefancic, Ana; Tsemberis, Sam

    2012-01-01

    Housing programs for people with severe mental illnesses aim to maximize community integration. However, little is known about how the community integration of mental health consumers living in supported housing compares with that of other community residents in the socially disadvantaged communities where supported housing is often located. The purpose of this study was to examine predictors of objective community integration of mental health consumers living in supported housing and of other persons living in the same communities. Participants were 124 adults (60 mental health consumers and 64 other community residents) residing in designated zip codes in the Bronx, New York. Participants were administered measures of psychiatric symptoms, substance use, physical community integration (participation in local activities), social integration (interactions with community members), and citizenship (political activism or volunteering). Mental health consumers living in supported independent housing had significantly lower scores on indicators of objective community integration than other community members. However, differences were relatively small. Among mental health consumers, African-American race, education, and length of time in current residence were associated with better community integration. Findings suggest that mental health consumers living in supported housing may not achieve levels of objective community integration that are comparable with other community members; however, psychiatric factors did not account for this difference. Length of time in neighborhoods appears to be an important factor in facilitating social integration.

  12. The effectiveness of physical exercise training in pain, mobility, and psychological well-being of older persons living in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Mimi M Y; Tang, Shuk Kwan; Wan, Vanessa T C; Vong, Sinfia K S

    2014-12-01

    Pain is common in the aging population, particularly among older residents of nursing homes. It has been found that 50% of older people living in the community have been experiencing chronic pain, and the number increased to 80% for older residents of nursing homes. Exercise is an effective non-pharmacological intervention that can reduce pain and improve physical and psychological functions. A quasi-experimental study with a pretest-posttest control group designed was conducted to evaluate the effects of a physical exercise program (PEP) on older residents of nursing homes who have chronic pain. Three-hundred-ninety-six older residents with chronic pain were recruited from 10 nursing homes run by non-governmental organizations in Hong Kong. The average age of the older residents was 85.44 ± 6.29. Five nursing homes were randomized to the experimental group with PEP (n = 225, age = 85.45 ± 6.25); the other five nursing homes were randomized to the control group without the PEP (n = 171, age = 85.44 ± 6.35). PEP was an eight-week training program given by a physiotherapist and nurses once a week. It consisted of warm-up exercises, muscle strengthening, stretching, balancing, and self-administered massage to acupressure points. At the end of each PEP session, pamphlets with pictures illustrating the "exercise of the day" were given to the older residents of nursing homes as a tool to enhance their self-management skills. The control group received no training during the eight weeks. Upon completion of the PEP, the experimental group experienced a significantly greater reduction in pain intensity from 4.19 ± 2.25 (on an 11 point scale) to 2.67 ± 2.08, as compared to the control group (p Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. What determines the preference for future living arrangements of middle-aged and older people in urban China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Dijuan; Xu, Guihua; He, Ling; Zhang, Min; Lin, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Living arrangements are important to the elderly. However, it is common for elderly parents in urban China to not have a living situation that they consider ideal. An understanding of their preferences assists us in responding to the needs of the elderly as well as in anticipating future long-term care demands. The aim of this study is to provide a clear understanding of preferences for future living arrangements and their associated factors among middle-aged and older people in urban China. Data were extracted from the CHARLS 2011-2012 national baseline survey of middle-aged and elderly people. In the 2011 wave of the CHARLS, a total of 17,708 individual participants (10,069 main respondents and 7,638 spouses) were interviewed; 2509 of the main respondents lived in urban areas. In this group, 41 people who were younger than 45 years old and 162 who had missing data in the variable "living arrangement preference" were excluded. Additionally, 42 people were excluded because they chose "other" for the variable "living arrangement preference" (which was a choice with no specific answer). Finally, a total of 2264 participants were included in our study. The most popular preference for future living arrangements was living close to their children in the same community/neighborhoods, followed by living with adult children. The degree of community handicapped access, number of surviving children, age, marital status, access to community-based elderly care centers and number of years lived in the same community were significantly associated with the preferences for future living arrangements among the respondents. There is a trend towards preference for living near adult children in urban China. Additionally, age has a positive effect on preference for living close to their children. Considerations should be made in housing design and urban community development plans to fulfill older adults' expectations. In addition, increasing the accessibility of public facilities in

  14. [DSM-5 classification of personality disorders in older persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alphen, S.P. van; Rossi, G.; Dierckx, E.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although it is generally agreed that personality disorders are an important topic in old-age psychiatry, DSM-5 has paid relatively little attention to older persons affected with this severe mental disorder. AIM: To look closely and carefully at several aspects of the way in which DSM-5

  15. Instruments to assess sarcopenia and physical frailty in older people living in a community (care) setting: similarities and discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijnarends, Donja M; Schols, Jos M G A; Meijers, Judith M M; Tan, Frans E S; Verlaan, Sjors; Luiking, Yvette C; Morley, John E; Halfens, Ruud J G

    2015-04-01

    Both sarcopenia and physical frailty are geriatric syndromes causing loss of functionality and independence. This study explored the association between sarcopenia and physical frailty and the overlap of their criteria in older people living in different community (care) settings. Moreover, it investigated the concurrent validity of the FRAIL scale to assess physical frailty, by comparison with the widely used Fried criteria. Data were retrieved from the cross-sectional Maastricht Sarcopenia Study (MaSS). The study was undertaken in different community care settings in an urban area (Maastricht) in the south of the Netherlands. Participants were 65 years or older, gave written informed consent, were able to understand Dutch language, and were not wheelchair bound or bedridden. Not applicable. Sarcopenia was identified using the algorithm of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People. Physical frailty was assessed by the Fried criteria and by the FRAIL scale. Logistic regression was performed to assess the association between sarcopenia and physical frailty measured by the Fried criteria. Spearman correlation was performed to assess the concurrent validity of the FRAIL scale compared with the Fried criteria. Data from 227 participants, mean age 74.9 years, were analyzed. Sarcopenia was identified in 23.3% of the participants, when using the cutoff levels for moderate sarcopenia. Physical frailty was identified in 8.4% (≥3 Fried criteria) and 9.3% (≥3 FRAIL scale criteria) of the study population. Sarcopenia and physical frailty were significantly associated (P = .022). Frail older people were more likely to be sarcopenic than those who were not frail. In older people who were not frail, the risk of having sarcopenia increased with age. Next to poor grip strength (78.9%) and slow gait speed (89.5%), poor performance in other functional tests was common in frail older people. The 2 physical frailty scales were significantly correlated (r = 0.617, P

  16. Conceptions of Healthy Aging Held by Relatives of Older Persons in Isan-Thai Culture: A Phenomenographic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manasatchakun, Pornpun; Roxberg, Åsa; Asp, Margareta

    2018-01-01

    In Thailand, family nurses are expected to provide support for older persons and their family members to promote healthy aging. Family bonds are strong, and relatives are expected to take care of their older family members. However, there is limited research on how older persons' family members perceive healthy aging. This study aimed to describe the conceptions of healthy aging held by the children and grandchildren of older persons in northeast Thailand. In a phenomenographic study, 14 interviews were performed to qualitatively analyze different conceptions of healthy aging. Four descriptive categories emerged: being independent, not being afflicted by diseases or illnesses, being a giver and a receiver, and being wise. The conceptions of healthy aging entail both autonomy and interdependence. The relative's perspective needs to be considered when policies relating to healthy aging are implemented in the community and when family nurses provide support to families to promote healthy aging.

  17. Factors impacting the household and recreation participation of older adults living in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Elizabeth; Barker, Anna; Day, Lesley; Clemson, Lindy; Brown, Ted; Haines, Terry

    2015-01-01

    To identify demographic, physical and psychosocial determinants associated with participation in daily activities of community-dwelling older adults. A cross-sectional design of older adults (≥70 years) from Victoria, Australia, residing in their homes was drawn from a convenience sample. The outcomes were recent participation in household and recreational activities as measured by the Phone-FITT. Explanatory variables included demographics, physical and mental health functioning (Short Form-12 version 2, Geriatric Depression Scale 15). Associations were analyzed through linear regression. There were 244 participants (60% female), with a mean age of 77.5 years (SD 5.7). Higher levels of depression and fewer falls (during the previous year) were independently associated with restrictions in household participation (p falls and restricted household participation were associated, but no association was observed between falls and recreational participation. Further studies are required to explore this association in more detail. Implications for Rehabilitation Depression is significantly correlated with the level of participation in daily activities for older adults. Health professionals need to screen for depression when working with older adults.

  18. Preventing sight loss in older people. A qualitative study exploring barriers to the uptake of regular sight tests of older people living in socially deprived communities in South Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddyr, S; Jones, A

    2015-02-01

    This paper describes research findings that try to understand some of the reasons that prevent older people in deprived communities in South Wales from accessing NHS funded sight tests and leads to a discussion of suitable interventions that seek to improve access to primary eye care services and prevent avoidable sight loss. Data were collected from eight focus groups (n = 63) of mixed gender and ages (60-80+ years), of white origin living in deprived communities in South Wales. Individuals were recruited for the focus groups by extensively publicizing the project, with a range of health and older people's community services and groups such as sheltered housing complexes, stroke support groups and coffee morning groups. The study included people who attended optometry services and people not engaged with services. A purposive sampling technique summarizes the sampling approach taken, an approach which the team utilized to recruit 'information rich' cases, namely individuals, groups and organizations that provided the greatest insight into the research question. Focus groups were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data underwent thematic content analysis and subsequent interpretations were corroborated by expert advisors and a project steering group. Cost was perceived as a significant barrier to accessing sight tests, particularly in relation to purchasing glasses. Other barriers included the perceived pressure to buy glasses associated with visits to the optometrists; poor understanding of the purpose of a sight test in a health prevention context and acceptance of deteriorating sight loss due to the ageing process. Areas of improvement for the delivery of preventative eye health services to older people are identified, as are areas for reflection on the part of those who work within the eye health industry. Copyright © 2014 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 'Living within your limits': activity restriction in older people experiencing chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackichan, Fiona; Adamson, Joy; Gooberman-Hill, Rachael

    2013-11-01

    although maintaining activity is key to successful pain management, and important to health and wellbeing, it is known that older people in pain frequently alter or reduce activity levels. A 'fear-avoidance' model is often used to explain avoidance of activity in the face of pain. However, this model is not intended to take account of the wider context in which activity changes take place, nor older people's own explanations for their behaviour. to investigate the reasons why older people in the community adjust their activity levels when living with chronic pain. thirty-one people aged between 67 and 92 were purposively sampled from respondents to a community-based cross-sectional survey. All participants had reported long-term pain and were interviewed about this. Data were collected and analysed using a qualitative constructivist grounded theory approach. explanations for deliberative reduction or ceasing of activities reflected a desire to prevent pain exacerbation, thereby avoiding medical intervention. It also reflected a desire to safeguard autonomy in the face of pain in older age. Restrictions were often rationalised as normal in older age, although co-existing accounts of perseverance and frustration with limitation were also evident. a rational desire to avoid pain exacerbation and medical intervention motivated restrictions to activity. However, deliberative limitation of activity has the potential to compromise autonomy by increasing social isolation and de-conditioning. Supporting older people with pain to be active requires sensitivity to the function of activity restriction, especially as a means of preventing deterioration.

  20. [The contribution of living arrangements in the provision of care for elderly persons with functional impairments in São Paulo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Yeda Aparecida de Oliveira; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia; Lima, Fernão Dias de

    2005-01-01

    To describe the functional performance, need for assistance, and living arrangements of elderly persons in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, as part of a project called Health, Well-being, and Aging in Latin America and the Caribbean (the "SABE project"). In 2000, 2 143 individuals 60 years of age or older were interviewed, using the standardized SABE questionnaire. The sample was obtained in two stages, using census sectors with replacement and probability proportional to population. To have the desired number of respondents 75 or older, additional homes close to the selected census sectors were found, with weighting of the final results. The functional performance of the elderly persons was measured in terms of their ability to perform basic activities of daily living (walking across a room, eating, lying down on a bed and getting up from it, using the bathroom, dressing and undressing, and bathing) and to carry out instrumental activities of daily living (buying and preparing food, performing light and heavy household chores, using the telephone, taking medications, and handling money). Functional impairment was defined as the need for assistance in performing at least one of the basic or instrumental activities. There were 66 types of living arrangements (household composition) identified and grouped into seven categories, according to with whom an elderly person lived and whether the other residents of the household were relatives or not. Of the individuals interviewed, 19.2% presented a functional impairment in basic activities and 26.5% in instrumental activities. The impairments were more common among women and among persons 75 or older. The proportion of elderly persons with an impairment who received help with basic activities ranged from 25.6% (lying down on the bed and getting up) to 70.5% (eating). With instrumental activities, the proportion receiving assistance ranged from 79.7% (light domestic chores) to 97.8% (buying food). With respect to living

  1. Towards enhanced emotional interactions with older persons: findings from a nursing intervention in home health care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenvliet, C.; Eide, H.; Lange, M.A. de; Dulmen, S. van

    2016-01-01

    Background. Living at home with a physical condition that requires assistance places high emotional burden on older persons that needs to be attended to by nurses. However, nurses in home health care have previously been found to communicate primarily in an instrumental way. This increases the risk

  2. Nutritional status and falls in community-dwelling older people: a longitudinal study of a population-based random sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hung Chien

    Full Text Available Falls are common in older people and may lead to functional decline, disability, and death. Many risk factors have been identified, but studies evaluating effects of nutritional status are limited. To determine whether nutritional status is a predictor of falls in older people living in the community, we analyzed data collected through the Survey of Health and Living Status of the Elderly in Taiwan (SHLSET.SHLSET include a series of interview surveys conducted by the government on a random sample of people living in community dwellings in the nation. We included participants who received nutritional status assessment using the Mini Nutritional Assessment Taiwan Version 2 (MNA-T2 in the 1999 survey when they were 53 years or older and followed up on the cumulative incidence of falls in the one-year period before the interview in the 2003 survey.At the beginning of follow-up, the 4440 participants had a mean age of 69.5 (standard deviation= 9.1 years, and 467 participants were "not well-nourished," which was defined as having an MNA-T2 score of 23 or less. In the one-year study period, 659 participants reported having at least one fall. After adjusting for other risk factors, we found the associated odds ratio for falls was 1.73 (95% confidence interval, 1.23, 2.42 for "not well-nourished," 1.57 (1.30, 1.90 for female gender, 1.03 (1.02, 1.04 for one-year older, 1.55 (1.22, 1.98 for history of falls, 1.34 (1.05, 1.72 for hospital stay during the past 12 months, 1.66 (1.07, 2.58 for difficulties in activities of daily living, and 1.53 (1.23, 1.91 for difficulties in instrumental activities of daily living.Nutritional status is an independent predictor of falls in older people living in the community. Further studies are warranted to identify nutritional interventions that can help prevent falls in the elderly.

  3. Guidelines to facilitate self-care among older persons in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinda Rabie

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The number of older persons is growing at an alarming rate, yet the South African healthcare sector is not giving this issue the required attention. Moreover, the healthcare sector serves four-fifths of the country's population and primary healthcare (PHC facilities are overcrowded, and thus professional nurses are prevented from providing sufficient self-care health education to older persons. Aim: To develop guidelines for the three role players — the public health sector, professional nurse and older person — to facilitate self-care among older persons in South Africa. Design: Quantitative, descriptive, explorative and contextual research design. Methods: A literature review followed by a self-care assessment of a sample of older persons using the Appraisal of Self-care Agency (ASA-A and Exercise of Self-care Agency (ESCA questionnaires which led to the identification of conclusions and self-care deficits. Results: Based on Menon's psychological health empowerment model, and from the conclusions and self-care deficits, nine self-care guidelines were developed for the public health sector, professional nurses and older persons. Conclusion: This is the first systematic development of guidelines to facilitate self-care among older persons in South Africa. Implications for practice: The implementation of the self-care guidelines by the public health sector, professional nurses and older persons will improve the healthcare of older persons at home which will in turn improve their quality of life, reduce unintentional self-neglect, as well as assist in alleviating overcrowding in clinics because unnecessary visits to the clinic will drop.

  4. Destinations matter: The association between where older adults live and their travel behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudyk, Anna M; Winters, Meghan; Moniruzzaman, Md; Ashe, Maureen C; Gould, Joanie Sims; McKay, Heather

    2015-03-01

    The positive effect of physical activity in the prevention and treatment of many chronic diseases and age-related disabilities, such as mobility-disability, are widely accepted. Mobility is broadly defined as the ability of individuals to move themselves within community environments. These two concepts -physical activity and mobility - are closely linked and together contribute to older adults living healthy, independent lives. Neighborhood destinations may encourage mobility, as older adults typically leave their homes to travel to specific destinations. Thus, neighborhoods with a high prevalence of destinations may provide older adults an attractive opportunity to walk, instead of drive, and thereby obtain incidental physical activity. We know surprisingly little about the specific types of destinations older adults deem relevant and even less about destinations that support the mobility of older adults with low income. Accessible neighborhood destinations may be especially important to older adults with low income as they are more likely to walk as a primary travel mode. Conversely, this population may also be at increased risk of functional impairments that negatively affect their ability to walk. As a means to fill this information gap we aimed to better understand the mobility habits of older adults with low income. Thus, our specific objectives were to: (1) describe the types of destinations older adults with low income most commonly travel to in one week; and (2) determine the association between the prevalence of neighborhood destinations and the number of transportation walking trips these individuals make (average per day). We conducted a cross-sectional study of community-dwelling older adults with low income residing within Metro Vancouver, Canada. We assessed participant travel behavior (frequency, purpose, mode, destination) using seven-day travel diaries and measured the prevalence of neighborhood destinations using the Street Smart Walk Score. We

  5. Nursing Living-Learning Communities and Student Retention: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Renee N; Kiger, Susan

    Living-learning communities have been known to promote student performance and a sense of collegiality. Most studies on this topic have utilized quantitative methods. This qualitative comparison case study examined personal experiences associated with residing in a living-learning community. The study was conducted to explore findings associated with promoting student retention. A secondary goal was to explore student experiences with mentoring. Data were collected using taped recordings of live interviews at two universities that have nursing-themed housing. The targeted sample size was 14. Themes that emerged from the data were mutual support, importance of the resident assistant, and self-determination. Nursing students enjoy themed housing and especially desire the resident assistant to be a nursing student.

  6. Rethinking Worklife Options for Older Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Jack, Ed.; Nusberg, Charlotte, Ed.

    This volume contains 19 papers that were presented at a conference addressing critical issues related to employment options for older persons. They are arranged in four sections that cover early retirement policies and their implications; older workers of Asia and the Pacific; the impact of technological change on the employment prospects of older…

  7. Impact of Living Alone on Depressive Symptoms in Older Korean Widows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyeong-Suk Jeon

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We examined the relationship between living alone and the prevalence of depressive symptoms in older Korean widows and assessed the individual contributions of health, social ties, and socioeconomic factors to the development of depressive symptoms. The study was a secondary analysis using data from widows, 65 years of age and older, who participated in the Living Profiles of Older People Survey (LPOPS. A logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the contributions of health, social ties, and socioeconomic factors to the development of depressive symptoms. Working status and equivalent household income were significantly associated with depressive symptoms in both those living with others and those living alone. Adjustment for health status and social ties did not change the impact of living alone on the prevalence of depressive symptoms. However, adjustment for equivalent household income eliminated the negative association between living alone and depressive symptoms. Our findings indicate that economic resources are more important than health and social ties for alleviating the negative impact of living alone on the development of depressive symptoms in older widows.

  8. Assisted Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it, too. Back to top What is the Cost for Assisted Living? Although assisted living costs less than nursing home ... Primarily, older persons or their families pay the cost of assisted living. Some health and long-term care insurance policies ...

  9. The Digital Competences and Agency of Older People Living in Rural Villages in Finnish Lapland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Päivi Rasi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Older people’s digital competencies are a means to minimise their possible risks for being excluded from society. Therefore, the research in this field needs to be strengthened. This paper examines the digital competences and agency of older people who live in remote rural villages in Finnish Lapland. We argue that older people’s agency is the key factor that keeps them included in contemporary society. Hence, our theoretical viewpoint rests on the theory of the modalities of agency. Our data consist of three focus group interviews that were conducted in small, remote villages during the spring of 2015. We analysed our data deductively, and the results showed that elderly villagers interpret their digital competencies through their personal needs and desires. History, the present and the future are intertwined in the villagers’ conceptions. Our respondents’ digital competencies are diverse; older people living in villages are not a homogenous group. Based on our results, we argue that digital competence is very much a distributed competence of elderly dyads, families with three generations and informal networks of villagers and that it should not, therefore, be assessed solely as an individual characteristic.

  10. Failure to Thrive in Older Persons: A Concept Derived.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Judith Venglarik; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Discusses how the concept of failure to thrive can be borrowed from pediatrics and redefined for use in caring for older persons, especially institutionalized older persons. Examines issues of undernutrition, declining physical and cognitive functioning, and depression. (Author/ABL)

  11. Neighborhood attributes security and solidarity promote the well-being of community-dwelling older people in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramm, Jane M; Nieboer, Anna P

    2014-07-01

    To determine whether the neighborhood attributes solidarity and security positively affect the well-being of community-dwelling older people in the Netherlands after accounting for individual characteristics, and to test if a higher level of security in combination with a stronger sense of neighborhood solidarity results in a higher level of well-being. The study sample for the cross-sectional study consisted of 869 out of 2212 (39% response rate) independently-living older adults (aged >70 years) in 92 neighborhoods of Rotterdam. We fitted a hierarchical random-effects model to account for the structure of the study design: 869 older people (level 1) nested in 92 neighborhoods (level 2) in 10 districts (level 3). Neighborhood security and solidarity among neighbors varied significantly among the 10 districts. Univariate analyses showed that education, income, neighborhood security and solidarity within neighborhoods (all P ≤ 0.001) were significantly related to the well-being of community-dwelling older people. Multilevel analyses showed neighborhood security and solidarity within neighborhoods predicted the well-being of community-dwelling older people. Furthermore, a positive interaction effect was found between neighborhood security and solidarity within neighborhoods, and well-being of community-dwelling older people. Neighborhood security and solidarity among neighbors are important for the well-being of community-dwelling older people. Furthermore, neighborhoods with high levels of perceived security in combination with stronger solidarity among neighbors are especially beneficial to the well-being of community-dwelling older people. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  12. Administration for Community Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 15, 2017 Grants from the National Institute on Disability, Independent Living, and Rehabilitation Research ... integration, and inclusion throughout life Other ACL Sites Eldercare Locator OlderIndians. ...

  13. Bus use and older people: a literature review applying the Person-Environment-Occupation model in macro practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broome, Kieran; McKenna, Kryss; Fleming, Jennifer; Worrall, Linda

    2009-03-01

    The same reasons that prompt older people to give up driving can also result in difficulties with accessing public transport. Difficulties using public transport can limit older people's participation in society, thereby impacting negatively on their health. Focusing on public buses, this review explicates the link between bus usability and the health of older people and frames existing evidence on bus usability issues. The Person-Environment-Occupation (PEO) model offers a framework by which bus usability can be assessed. A combination of person-centred, environmental, and occupation-related factors, including bus design, service provision and performance, information, and the attitudes of staff and the community, impact on older people's ability to catch buses. More systematic research needs to take place in order to develop a comprehensive understanding of bus usability. Occupational therapy has a key role to play in conceptualizing, implementing, and evaluating improvements in bus usability for older people.

  14. Optimizing social participation in community-dwelling older adults through the use of behavioral coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provencher, Véronique; Desrosiers, Johanne; Demers, Louise; Carmichael, Pierre-Hugues

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to (1) determine the categories of behavioral coping strategies most strongly correlated with optimal seniors' social participation in different activity and role domains and (2) identify the demographic, health and environmental factors associated with the use of these coping strategies optimizing social participation. The sample consisted of 350 randomly recruited community-dwelling older adults (≥65 years). Coping strategies and social participation were measured, respectively, using the Inventory of Coping Strategies Used by the Elderly and Assessment of Life Habits questionnaires. Information about demographic, health and environmental factors was also collected during the interview. Regression analyses showed a strong relationship between the use of cooking- and transportation-related coping strategies and optimal participation in the domains of nutrition and community life, respectively. Older age and living alone were associated with increased use of cooking-related strategies, while good self-rated health and not living in a seniors' residence were correlated with greater use of transportation-related strategies. Our study helped to identify useful behavioral coping strategies that should be incorporated in disability prevention programs designed to promote community-dwelling seniors' social participation. However, the appropriateness of these strategies depends on whether they are used in relevant contexts and tailored to specific needs. Our results support the relevance of including behavioral coping strategies related to cooking and transportation in disability prevention programs designed to promote community-dwelling seniors' social participation in the domains of nutrition and community life, respectively. Older age and living alone were associated with increased use of cooking-related strategies, while good self-rated health and not living in a seniors' residence were correlated with greater use of transportation

  15. Community intervention to increase neighborhood social network among Japanese older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kazuhiro; Masumoto, Kouhei; Katagiri, Keiko; Fukuzawa, Ai; Chogahara, Makoto; Kondo, Narihiko; Okada, Shuichi

    2018-03-01

    Strengthening neighborhood social networks is important for promoting health among older adults. However, effective intervention strategies aimed at increasing older adults' social networks have not yet been established. The present study examined whether a university-led community intervention that provided communication opportunities could increase older Japanese adults' neighborhood social networks. The present study used a quasi-experimental design. Before the intervention, using postal mail, we carried out a baseline questionnaire survey that was sent to all people living in the Tsurukabuto community aged ≥60 years (n = 1769), of whom 1068 responded. For the community intervention, 18 event-based programs were provided over the course of 1 year at Kobe University. Academic staff at Kobe University organized all the programs. During the program, social interactions among participants were promoted. A follow-up survey was distributed to those who responded to the baseline survey, and 710 individuals answered the question about their participation in the intervention programs (138 respondents were participants, 572 were non-participants). The neighborhood social network was measured in both the baseline and follow-up surveys. Analysis of covariance showed that the changes in neighborhood social network among participants in the program was significantly higher than the changes among non-participants (P = 0.046) after adjusting for the baseline score of social network. The present study found that participants of the intervention expanded their neighborhood social network, but non-participants did not. This finding shows that community interventions using university resources could increase older adults' neighborhood social networks. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; 18: 462-469. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  16. Effects of a Behavioral Program on Exercise Adherence and Exercise Self-Efficacy in Community-Dwelling Older Persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azliyana Azizan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study determines the effects of a behavioral program on exercise adherence (step counts and level of exercise self-efficacy (ESE in community-dwelling older persons. Methods. Sixty-three participants (age = 63.8±4.5 years were enrolled in this controlled quasi-experimental study. They were divided into 3 groups: (1 EBG performed a 6-week exercise intervention followed by a 5-week behavioral program, (2 EG performed exercise intervention similar to EBG, and (3 control group (CG did not receive any interventions. Step counts were measured based on the scores recorded by a pedometer while ESE was measured by a self-reported ESE scale. Results. Data analysis showed significant differences due to time effect (F(1,2=39.884, P<0.01, and η=.399; time and group interactions (F(2,60=112.683, P<0.01, and η=.790; and between-group effect (F(2,60=12.524, P<0.01, and η=.295 for step counts. As for ESE, significant differences were also found for time effect (F(2,4=66.628, P<0.05, and η=.526; time and group interactions (F(2,60=4.562, P=0.014, and η=.132; and between-group effect (F(2,60=13.632, P<0.05, and η=.312. EBG presented with significantly higher mean changes for both step counts and ESE compared to other groups (all P<0.05. Conclusion. This study suggests that the addition of a behavioral program is superior as compared to exercising alone on increasing exercise adherence and level of self-efficacy in older persons.

  17. Preventing Falls in Older Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncada, Lainie Van Voast; Mire, L Glen

    2017-08-15

    The American Geriatrics Society and British Geriatrics Society recommend that all adults older than 65 years be screened annually for a history of falls or balance impairment. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force and American Academy of Family Physicians recommend exercise or physical therapy and vitamin D supplementation to prevent falls in community-dwelling older adults who are at increased risk of falls. Although the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force and American Academy of Family Physicians do not recommend routine multifactorial intervention to prevent falls in all community-dwelling older adults, they state that it may be appropriate in individual cases. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed an algorithm to aid in the implementation of the American Geriatrics Society/British Geriatrics Society guideline. The algorithm suggests assessment and multifactorial intervention for those who have had two or more falls or one fall-related injury. Multifactorial interventions should include exercise, particularly balance, strength, and gait training; vitamin D supplementation with or without calcium; management of medications, especially psychoactive medications; home environment modification; and management of postural hypotension, vision problems, foot problems, and footwear. These interventions effectively decrease falls in the community, hospital, and nursing home settings. Fall prevention is reimbursed as part of the Medicare Annual Wellness Visit.

  18. Personality Predicts Cognitive Function Over Seven Years in Older Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Benjamin; Duberstein, Paul; Tindle, Hilary A; Sink, Kaycee M; Robbins, John; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Franks, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether Neuroticism, as well as the less-studied dimensions the Five Factor Model of personality (Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness) were associated with 7-year trajectories of cognitive functioning in older persons. Design Primary analysis of existing clinical trial data. Participants 602 persons of average age 79 at baseline. Measurements The NEO-Five Factor Inventory of personality, completed at baseline, and the modified Mini Mental Status Exam (3MSE) measured every 6 months for 7 years. Results Controlling for demographics, baseline morbidities including depression, health behaviors, Apolipoprotein E4 genotype, and self-rated health, higher Neuroticism was associated with worse average cognitive functioning and a steeper rate of decline over follow-up. Higher Extraversion and lower Openness were both associated with worse average cognitive functioning prospectively, while persons higher in Conscientiousness showed a slower rate of cognitive decline. Conclusions In addition to Neuroticism, other dispositional tendencies appear prognostically relevant for cognitive functioning in older persons. More work is needed to understand the mechanisms by which traits operate, as well as whether mitigation of certain dispositional tendencies can facilitate a better course of cognitive function. PMID:22735597

  19. Osteoporosis in older persons: current pharmacotherapy and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Gustavo

    2013-10-01

    Osteopororic fractures are highly prevalent in older persons having catastrophic consequences in their quality of life and increasing disability and mortality in this population. The mechanisms of osteoporosis in older persons are unique in terms of cellular changes and response to osteoporosis treatment. Therefore, specifically targeted treatments are required in this particular population. This paper provides an overview on the particular mechanisms of osteoporosis in older persons and the current and future therapeutic strategies to improve bone mass and prevent fractures in this population. Osteoporosis in older persons (especially in the old-old) has a unique pathophysiology that predisposes them to fractures thus having catastrophic consequences. Identification of patients at risk followed by therapies targeted to their cellular changes is pivotal to close the care gap observed in osteoporosis, predominantly in the older population. The treatment of osteoporosis has evolved from daily to yearly dosing thus facilitating compliance and effectiveness. It is expected that future biologically targeted treatments will have a similar separate dosing regime with better anti-fracture efficacy and lower incidence of side effects.

  20. Activities of daily living in children with developmental coordination disorder: dressing, personal hygiene, and eating skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Janet; Larkin, Dawne; Dewey, Deborah

    2008-04-01

    In order to understand how age, culture, and problems in motor coordination impact the performance of activities of daily living, we used focus groups and in-depth interviews with Australian and Canadian parents to examine activities of daily living of younger (5-7 years of age) and older (8-9 years of age) children with and without DCD. By comparison with their typically developing age group, children with DCD had more difficulty with dressing, personal hygiene, and eating skills. Difficulties with postural control and fine-motor skills were reported to contribute to poorer performance of activities of daily living. As expected, competence in the performance of activities of daily living improved in the older children with and without DCD and there were few differences in the performance of daily living tasks between typical children in Australia and Canada. Overall, the motor difficulties of children with DCD had a significant impact on performance of a wide range of daily activities.

  1. Factors influencing the life satisfaction in the older Korean women living alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sook-Young; Sok, Sohyune R

    2013-04-01

    The population of Korea is aging rapidly. The older population varies in characteristics in accordance with a wide-range of circumstances; therefore, categorizing the overall older population as a homogeneous group, could misrepresent their issues. For that reason, the study of older people should be focused on the diversity of characteristics among the older population. The aims of this study were to examine and identify the factors related to life satisfaction in older Korean women living alone. This study was a cross-sectional survey design. The participants comprised of 243 older women over the age of 65, who met eligibility criteria. Measures were a demographic characteristics form, the Health Self-Rating Scale, the Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), the Korean Geriatric Depression Scale Short Form, and the Life Satisfaction Instrument. Degrees of the perceived health status, self-esteem, and depression were higher than the median. Life satisfaction was lower than the median. Predictors that determine life satisfaction in older Korean women living alone were depression, perceived health status, self-esteem, and monthly allowance. All these predictors, or factors, had an explanatory power of 48.2% for life satisfaction among older Korean women living alone. Of all these predictor factors, depression had the largest impact. The major factor influencing the life satisfaction in older Korean women living alone was depression. These findings suggest that there is a need to develop nursing strategies aimed at decreasing depression in order to increase life satisfaction in older women living alone.

  2. Drugs and the older person

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-09-14

    Sep 14, 2007 ... Sebastiana Kalula is Head of Geriatric Medicine and Acting Director of The Albertina and Walter .... performance of cognitive and physical .... Older persons may need multiple drug therapy for an increased number of chronic.

  3. The experience of lived space in persons with dementia: a systematic meta-synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Førsund, Linn Hege; Grov, Ellen Karine; Helvik, Anne-Sofie; Juvet, Lene Kristine; Skovdahl, Kirsti; Eriksen, Siren

    2018-02-01

    Identifying how persons with dementia experience lived space is important for enabling supportive living environments and creating communities that compensate for the fading capabilities of these persons. Several single studies have explored this topic; however, few studies have attempted to explicitly review and synthesize this research literature. The aim of this systematic meta-synthesis was therefore to interpret and synthesize knowledge regarding persons with dementia's experience of space. A systematic, computerized search of AgeLine, CINAHL Complete, Embase, Medline and PsycINFO was conducted using a search strategy that combined MeSH terms and text words for different types of dementia with different descriptions of experience. Studies with 1) a sample of persons with dementia, 2) qualitative interviews as a research method and 3) a description of experiences of lived space were included. The search resulted in 1386 articles, of which 136 were identified as eligible and were read and assessed using the CASP criteria. The analysis was inspired by qualitative content analyses. This interpretative qualitative meta-synthesis included 45 articles encompassing interviews with 672 persons with dementia. The analysis showed that living in one's own home and living in long-term care established different settings and posed diverse challenges for the experience of lived space in persons with dementia. The material revealed four main categories that described the experience of lived space: (1) belonging; (2) meaningfulness; (3) safety and security; and (4) autonomy. It showed how persons with dementia experienced a reduction in their lived space due to the progression of dementia. A comprehensive understanding of the categories led to the latent theme: "Living with dementia is like living in a space where the walls keep closing in". This meta-synthesis reveals a process whereby lived space gradually becomes smaller for persons with dementia. This underscores the

  4. Getting help quickly: older people and community worker perspectives of contingency planning for falls management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Kimberly; Murray, Carolyn M; Kumar, Saravana

    2018-01-01

    Older people living in the community need to plan for getting help quickly if they have a fall. In this paper planning for falls is referred to as contingency planning and is not a falls prevention strategy but rather a falls management strategy. This research explored the perspectives of older people and community workers (CWs) about contingency planning for a fall. Using a qualitative descriptive approach, participants were recruited through a community agency that supports older people. In-depth interviews were conducted with seven older people (67-89 years of age) and a focus group was held with seven workers of mixed disciplines from the same agency. Older people who hadn't fallen were included but were assumed to be at risk of falls because they were in receipt of services. Thematic analysis and concept mapping combined the data from the two participant groups. Four themes including preconceptions about planning ahead for falling, a fall changes perception, giving, and receiving advice about contingency plans and what to do about falling. Both CWs and older people agree contingency planning requires understanding of individual identity and circumstances. CWs have limited knowledge about contingency planning and may be directive, informative, or conservative. Implications for Rehabilitation Falls can result in serious consequences for older people. There is an evidence-practice gap as availability of and access to contingency planning does not necessarily mean older people will use it in a falls emergency. Older people prefer community workers to be directive or informative about contingency planning options but they do want choice and control. Increased community workers knowledge of, and collaborative decision-making about, contingency planning may promote patient-centered services and assist in closing the evidence-practice gap.

  5. Associated factors for falls among the community-dwelling older people assessed by annual geriatric health examinations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Hao Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Falls are very common among the older people. Nearly one-third older people living in a community fall each year. However, few studies have examined factors associated with falls in a community-dwelling population of older Taiwanese adults. OBJECTIVES: To identify the associated factors for falls during the previous 12 months among the community-dwelling Taiwanese older people receiving annual geriatric health examinations. PARTICIPANTS: People aged sixty-five years or older, living in the community, assessed by annual geriatric health examinations METHODS: 1377 community-dwellers aged ≥65 years who received annual geriatric health examinations at one hospital in northern Taiwan between March and November of 2008. They were asked about their history of falls during the year prior to their most recent health examination. RESULTS: The average age of the 1377 participants was 74.9±6.8 years, 48.9% of which were women. Three-hundred and thirteen of the participants (22.7% had at least one fall during the previous year. Multivariate analysis showed that odds ratio for the risk of falling was 1.94 (95% CI 1.36-2.76 when the female gender group is compared with the male gender group. The adjusted odds ratios of age and waist circumference were 1.03 (95% CI 1.00-1.06 and 1.03 (95% CI 1.01-1.05 respectively. The adjusted odds ratios of visual acuity, Karnofsky scale, and serum albumin level were 0.34 (95% CI 0.15-0.76, 0.94 (95% CI 0.89-0.98, and 0.37 (95% CI 0.18-0.76 respectively. Larger waist circumference, older age, female gender, poorer visual acuity, lower score on the Karnofsky Performance Scale, and lower serum albumin level were the independent associated factors for falls. CONCLUSION: In addition to other associated factors, waist circumference should be included as a novel risk factor for falls.

  6. Perspectives on Adolescent Sexual Relations With Older Persons: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tener, Dafna

    2018-01-01

    Relations between minors under the age of consent and older persons are legally prohibited in many countries. However, the nature of these relationships, their impact on the lives of minors involved, and how they should be dealt by law enforcement and welfare systems are highly controversial. The differences between the way these relations are perceived by the minors involved and the public are also unclear. This literature review examines them as perceived by youths or young adults who had experienced sexual relations with a person at least 2 years older during their adolescence as well as by students and other adult members of the public. A systematic search of 977 studies initially identified as relevant yielded 16 studies that fit the inclusion criteria. Most (13) research samples were located in the United States, and the remainder were in the United Kingdom (2) and Australia (1). All were published in English. Four main themes emerged from the analysis of these studies: adolescent motives for sexual relations with older persons (two studies); characteristics of sexual relations between adolescents and older persons (6); contextual factors affecting the way such relations are perceived, including the partners' ages and genders (11); and perspectives on the legal framing of such relations (6). The studies' findings are discussed and implications for future research, policy, and practice are suggested, highlighting the complexity and ambiguity of the phenomenon and calling on intervention programs to focus on strengthening the family unit and social network of these youth and for policies to address teen sexuality as defined both normatively and legally.

  7. Understanding the Experiences of Rural Community-Dwelling Older Adults in Using a New DVD-Delivered Otago Exercise Program: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Arun; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa Y L; Backman, Catherine L; Leese, Jennifer; Li, Linda C

    2015-08-13

    The home-based Otago Exercise Program (OEP) has been shown to reduce the occurrence of falls in community-dwelling seniors. A new OEP DVD was recently developed for people living in rural communities to be used with minimal coaching by a physical therapist. This study aimed to understand older adults' experiences using the DVD-delivered OEP and explore barriers and facilitators to implementing the DVD-delivered OEP from the participants' perspectives. Rural community-dwelling older adults (75 years and older) who participated in a six-month DVD-delivered OEP study were invited to participate in this qualitative study. Two small group interviews were initially conducted to explore the breadth of participants' experiences with the program. These were followed by semi-structured individual interviews to gain an in-depth understanding of these experiences. An inductive constant comparison analysis of the transcripts was performed. To ensure methodological rigor, field notes, journaling, and an audit trail were maintained, supplemented by peer-review. Of 32 eligible participants, five participated in group interviews and 16 in individual interviews. Three themes emerged. Theme 1, The OEP DVD-useful training tool but in need of more pep, represented participants' experiences that the DVD provided important guidance at program onset, but was too slow and low-energy for longer-term use. Theme 2, Gaining control over one's exercise regimen, but sometimes life gets in the way of staying active, described participants' appreciation of the program's flexibility, but personal health concerns and everyday lives posed challenges to adhering to the program. Theme 3, Social creatures-wanting greater human connection during exercise, described how some participants desired further social interactions for enhancing motivation and receiving guidance. Individuals should be encouraged to refer to the OEP user manual or DVD as needed and engage friends and family in exercises. The

  8. Daily Physical Activity and Cognitive Function Variability in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Christine B; Edwards, Jerri D; Andel, Ross; Kilpatrick, Marcus

    2016-04-01

    Physical activity (PA) is believed to preserve cognitive function in older adulthood, though little is known about these relationships within the context of daily life. The present microlongitudinal pilot study explored within- and between-person relationships between daily PA and cognitive function and also examined within-person effect sizes in a sample of community-dwelling older adults. Fifty-one healthy participants (mean age = 70.1 years) wore an accelerometer and completed a cognitive assessment battery for five days. There were no significant associations between cognitive task performance and participants' daily or average PA over the study period. Effect size estimates indicated that PA explained 0-24% of within-person variability in cognitive function, depending on cognitive task and PA dose. Results indicate that PA may have near-term cognitive effects and should be explored as a possible strategy to enhance older adults' ability to perform cognitively complex activities within the context of daily living.

  9. Daily Living Functioning, Social Engagement and Wellness of Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Zainab

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available AimThe present study aim to investigate the contributing role of daily living functioning and social engagement in enhancing wellness and various dimensions of wellness in older adults.MethodA correlational research was designed. Socio-demographic data was collected. Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living, Lubben Social Network Scale, and Perceived Wellness Survey were administered on a sample of 112 participants, including 56 men and 56 women.ResultsA correlation analysis found positive correlations between daily living functioning, social engagement and wellness of older adults. The results of regression analysis concluded that both the daily living functioning and social engagement predicted wellness and domains of wellness as well.ConclusionThe obtained results indicate that older adults who are self-reliant lead a more satisfied life in old age and demonstrate to be more adjusted to the effects of aging.

  10. Variables explaining health-related quality of life in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartor-Glittenberg, Cecelia; Lehmann, Sara; Okada, Mari; Rosen, Danielle; Brewer, Kathryn; Bay, R Curtis

    2014-01-01

    Although health-related quality of life (HRQL) has been linked to numerous factors in older adults, limited or conflicting studies have investigated variables explaining HRQL in healthy, community-dwelling older adults. The purpose of this study was to determine whether physical activity, gait speed, balance, strength, endurance, and flexibility were associated with HRQL in healthy, community-dwelling older adults. Participants of this cross-sectional, correlational research design study included residents of a senior living community, aged 60 years and older who were independent in at least unlimited household ambulation. These residents participated in tests of physical activity, gait speed, balance, strength, endurance, flexibility, and HRQL (Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form Health Survey, SF-36). The physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) component summary scores of the SF-36 were calculated. Data were collected on 84 participants (mean [SD] age = 78.6 (5.9) years, 54.8% women). Significant correlations were found between the PCS and fast gait speed (FGS) (r = 0.43; p Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale (r = 0.44; p balance, and lower body strength were associated with the PCS of the SF-36; however, FGS was the only variable that uniquely contributed to the variance in the PCS. Body mass index was associated with the MCS; however, only balance uniquely contributed to the variance in the MCS. Physical activity was not associated with the PCS or MCS. The results of this study support the assessment of FGS in community-dwelling older adults to gain insight into physical health status. Interventions directed toward FGS, balance, and BMI may contribute to optimum HRQL in this population.

  11. Purchasing and Using Personal Emergency Response Systems (PERS): how decisions are made by community-dwelling seniors in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Alexandra C; Kloseck, Marita; Crilly, Richard; Polgar, Jan

    2015-07-11

    As the demographic of older people continues to grow, health services that support independence among community-dwelling seniors have become increasingly important. Personal Emergency Response Systems (PERS) are medical alert systems, designed to serve as a safety net for seniors living alone. Health care professionals often recommend that seniors in danger of falls or other medical emergencies obtain a PERS. The purpose of the study was to investigate the experience of seniors living with and using a PERS in their daily lives, using a qualitative grounded theory approach. Five focus groups and 10 semi-structured interviews, with a total of 30 participants, were completed using a grounded theory approach. All participants were PERS subscribers over the age of 80, living alone in a naturally occurring retirement community (NORC) with high health service utilization in a major urban centre in Ontario. Constant comparative analysis was used to develop themes and ultimately a model of why and how seniors obtain and use the PERS. Two core themes, unpredictability and decision-making around PERS activation, emerged as major features of the theoretical model. Being able to get help and the psychological value of PERS informed the context of living with a PERS. A number of theoretical conclusions related to unpredictability and the decision-making process around activating PERS were generated.

  12. Is bilingualism associated with a lower risk of dementia in community-living older adults? Cross-sectional and prospective analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Caleb M; St John, Philip D; Menec, Verena; Tyas, Suzanne L

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether bilingualism is associated with dementia in cross-sectional or prospective analyses of older adults. In 1991, 1616 community-living older adults were assessed and were followed 5 years later. Measures included age, sex, education, subjective memory loss (SML), and the modified Mini-mental State Examination (3MS). Dementia was determined by clinical examination in those who scored below the cut point on the 3MS. Language status was categorized based upon self-report into 3 groups: English as a first language (monolingual English, bilingual English) and English as a Second Language (ESL). The ESL category had lower education, lower 3MS scores, more SML, and were more likely to be diagnosed with cognitive impairment, no dementia at both time 1 and time 2 compared with those speaking English as a first language. There was no association between being bilingual (ESL and bilingual English vs. monolingual) and having dementia at time 1 in bivariate or multivariate analyses. In those who were cognitively intact at time 1, there was no association between being bilingual and having dementia at time 2 in bivariate or multivariate analyses. We did not find any association between speaking >1 language and dementia.

  13. [Medication use among community-dwelling older Icelanders. Population-based study in urban and rural areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdardottir, Arun K; Arnadottir, Solveig Asa; Gunnarsdottir, Elín Díanna

    2011-12-01

    To describe medication use among older community-dwelling Icelanders by collecting information on number of medicine, polypharmacy (>5 medications), and medications by ATC categories. Moreover, to explore the relationship between medication use and various influential factors emphasizing residency in urban and rural areas. Population-based, cross-sectional study. Participants were randomly selected from the National registry in one urban (n=118) and two rural (n=68) areas. 1) ≥ 65 years old, 2) community-dwelling, 3) able to communicate verbally. Information on medication use was obtained from each person's medication list and interviews. A questionnaire and five standardized instruments were used to assess the potential influencing factors. On average, participants used 3.9 medications and prevalence of polypharmacy was 41%. Men used 3.5 medications on average and women 4.4 (p=0.018). Compared to rural residents, urban residents had fewer medical diagnoses, better mobility, less pain, and fewer depressive symptoms. By controlling for the effects of these variables, more medications were associated with urban living (pbetter scores on health assessments.

  14. The impact of health and financial literacy on decision making in community-based older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Bryan D; Boyle, Patricia A; Bennett, Jarred S; Bennett, David A

    2012-01-01

    Health and financial literacy have been linked to the health and well-being of older adults, yet there are few data on how health and financial literacy actually impact decision making regarding healthcare and economic choices in advanced age. To examine the association of health and financial literacy with decision making in older adults. Data came from 525 community-dwelling older persons without dementia from the Rush Memory and Aging Project, an ongoing longitudinal study of aging. Health and financial literacy were assessed via a series of questions designed to measure comprehension of health and financial information and concepts. The two scores were averaged to yield a total literacy score. A modified, 12-item version of the Decision-Making Competence Assessment Tool was used to measure financial and healthcare decision making (6 items each), using materials designed to approximate those used in real world settings. All 12 items were summed to yield a total decision-making score. Associations were tested via linear regression models adjusted for age, sex and education. Secondary models adjusted for global cognitive function, income, depression and chronic medical conditions. On average, participants correctly answered 67% of the literacy questions (health literacy = 61.6%, SD = 18.8% and financial literacy = 72.5%, SD = 16.0%). After adjustment for cognitive function, the total literacy score was positively associated with the decision-making total score (estimate = 0.64, SE = 0.08, p financial decision making (estimate = 0.28, SE = 0.05, p literacy, health and financial literacy all were independently associated with decision making in models adjusted for covariates including income, depression, and chronic medical conditions (all p values literacy and healthcare decision making was stronger among older persons, poorer persons and persons at the lower ranges of cognitive ability. Among community based older persons without dementia, higher levels of health

  15. Older peoples' lived experiences after hip fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth

    add to the load of wellbeing-challenges after HF. Evidence-based knowledge in order to address the wellbeing of older people and the challenges they meet in changing times after HF is needed for professionals. Aim To explore the support older people with HF may need to optimize their wellbeing during...... striving for wellbeing in an active daily life after HF; steering-group meetings clarify clinical questions regarding functional ability after HF. This knowledge is the basis for developing the interview guide used when interviewing 13 at-home-living older people with limited functional ability prior...

  16. Mental Health Experiences of Older Adults Living with HIV: Uncertainty, Stigma, and Approaches to Resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlotte, Charles; Schwartz, Karen

    2017-06-01

    This study describes the mental health experiences of older adults living with HIV in Ottawa. Eleven participants aged 52 to 67 completed in-depth personal interviews. Mental health concerns pervaded the lives of these older adults. We identified three central themes common to the participants' stories: uncertainty, stigma, and resilience. For some of these participants, uncertainty impacting mental health centred on unexpected survival; interpretation of one's symptoms; and medical uncertainty. Participants' experiences of stigma included discrimination in health care interactions; misinformation; feeling stigmatized due to aspects of their physical appearance; compounded stigma; and anticipated stigma. Participants reported using several coping strategies, which we frame as individual approaches to resilience. These strategies include reducing the space that HIV takes up in one's life; making lifestyle changes to accommodate one's illness; and engaging with social support. These findings inform understandings of services for people aging with HIV who may experience mental health concerns.

  17. The role of social engagement and identity in community mobility among older adults aging in place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Paula

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand how neighbourhoods - as physical and social environments - influence community mobility. Seeking an insider's perspective, the study employed an ethnographic research design. Immersed within the daily lives of 6 older adults over an 8-month period, auditory, textual, and visual data was collected using the "go-along" interview method. During these interviews, the researcher accompanied participants on their natural outings while actively exploring their physical and social practices by asking questions, listening, and observing. Findings highlight a process of community mobility that is complex, dynamic and often difficult as participant's ability and willingness to journey into their neighborhoods were challenged by a myriad of individual and environmental factors that changed from one day to the next. Concerned in particular with the social environment, final analysis reveals how key social factors - social engagement and identity - play a critical role in the community mobility of older adults aging in place. Identity and social engagement are important social factors that play a role in community mobility. The need for social engagement and the preservation of identity are such strong motivators for community mobility that they can "trump" poor health, pain, functional ability and hazardous conditions. To effectively promote community mobility, the social lives and needs of individuals must be addressed.

  18. Comparison of Happiness and Spiritual Well-Being among the Community Dwelling Elderly and those who Lived in Sanitariums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen; Faraji, Mona

    2015-07-01

    Several studies are available on the lifestyle, psychological and mental health of the elderly adults. This study aimed to compare the spiritual well-being and happiness in the elderly who lived in sanitariums with those lived in the community. A comparative study was conducted on 384 elderly adults. A census sampling was used in sanitariums and a convenience sampling was performed to select the community dwelling (CD) older adults. A demographic questionnaire, the Pauloutzian and Ellison's spiritual well-being scale and the Oxford happiness questionnaire were used in this study. Descriptive statistics and Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Chi-square and Mann-Whitney U tests and Spearman correlation coefficient were employed for data analysis, using the SPSS software, version 13.0. From the total participants, 56% were CD elderly and 44% were in sanitariums. Among the CD older adults, no one was at a high level of spiritual well-being while in sanitariums 24.4% were at a high level of spiritual well-being. Also, 71.2% of the community dwelling older adults were at a high level of happiness while only 3.6% of those living in sanitariums expressed a high level of happiness. A significant association was found between the level of spiritual well-being and happiness in those who lived in sanitariums (r=0.177, Pspiritual well-being and low happiness. Therefore, nurses and health authorities are responsible not only to inform the community about the importance of spiritual well-being and happiness, but also to establish some strategies in this regard.

  19. Using commercial video games for falls prevention in older adults: the way for the future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzak, Eva; Cotea, Cristina; Pullman, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Falls in older adults are an increasingly costly public health issue. There are many fall prevention strategies that are effective. However, with an increasing population of older people and ever-decreasing availability of health practitioners and health funding, novel modes of intervention are being developed, including those relying on computer technologies.The aim of this article was to review the literature on the use of exergaming to prevent falls in older adult persons living in the community. The Cochrane, Medline, and Embase databases were searched using prespecified search terms. To be included, studies had to investigate the effect of using commercially available consoles and video games on outcome measures such as a decrease in falls, improvements in balance control or gait parameters, decreased fear of falling, and attitude to exercise in older adult persons living in the community. All study designs with the exception of single-person case studies were included. Articles had to be published in peer-reviewed journals in the English language. Nineteen studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The following outcomes were observed: (1) using computer-based virtual reality gaming for balance training in older adults was feasible; (2) the majority of studies showed a positive effect of exergaming on balance control; (3) some studies showed a positive effect on balance confidence and gait parameters; (4) the effect was seen across the age and sex spectrum of older adults, including those with and without balance impairment. There is as yet no evidence that using virtual reality games will prevent falls, but there is an indication that their use in balance training may improve balance control, which in turn may lead to falls prevention.

  20. Knee pain and future self-reliance in older adults: evidence from a community-based 3-year cohort study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiwaki, Yuji; Michikawa, Takehiro; Yamada, Mutsuko; Eto, Norihito; Takebayashi, Toru

    2011-01-01

    Although knee pain is common in older persons and can cause ambulatory limitation, its impact on self-reliance has rarely been examined in Japan, particularly in a community setting. The aim of this 3-year cohort study was to investigate the association of knee pain with dependence in activities of daily living (ADL) and mortality in community-dwelling older Japanese adults. In 2005, presence of knee pain was assessed by a home visit survey of 1391 older adults aged 65 years or older (participation proportion = 97.3%). A total of 1265 participants who were ADL-independent at baseline were followed for 3 years, and information on outcomes, namely death and dependence in ADL, was collected. Participants who always had knee pain were more likely to become dependent in ADL than those who reported no knee pain (multivariate-adjusted OR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.03-3.83); however, always having knee pain was not associated with mortality or a composite outcome of ADL dependence and death. Further analyses of each component of ADL dependence revealed that knee pain was associated with a need for assistance at home (long-term care eligibility, bathing, dressing, and transferring), but not with institutionalization. The participants were highly representative of the target population and the rate of follow-up was almost perfect (99.4%). The results suggest that knee pain is associated with future dependence in ADL, particularly a need for assistance at home.

  1. Caregiving to persons living with HIV/AIDS: experiences of Vietnamese family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Pranee C; Doan, Thoa Thi Kim; Dinh, Thu Thi Xuan; Oach, Nhung Kim; Le, Phong Hoang

    2016-03-01

    To examine the experiences of caregiving among Vietnamese family members of persons living with HIV/AIDS. As the number of persons living with HIV/AIDS increases, the need of family caregivers who can take responsibility for the home care of these persons increases. Vietnam has one of the fastest growing HIV epidemics in Asia. A descriptive cross-sectional study with quantitative and qualitative methods was used. A purposive sample of 104 family caregivers, both male and female, participated voluntarily by answering a questionnaire of caregiver burden, and 20 of them participated in in-depth interview. Female caregivers were mainly mothers and wives while male caregivers were mainly husbands, fathers and siblings. The largest group of family caregivers reported moderate to severe burden. There was no difference between genders in total caregiver burden, but there were several differences between older and younger caregivers in some items of caregiver burden. Five categories of experiences emerged: Different types of caregiving to persons living with HIV/AIDS, cultural and religious issues associated with caregiving, keeping secret to avoid stigma and discrimination, lack of knowledge about disease and provision of care, and fear, anxiety and frustration. Stigma and discrimination should be decreased by providing knowledge to the general public about HIV/AIDS, in particular about ways of transmission and protection. Special knowledge should be given to family caregivers to enable them to give care to persons living with HIV/AIDS at home. This could be done through culturally appropriate training/intervention programmes in which coping methods should be included. Support group interventions should also be carried through. The results obtained can be used as baseline information. Health care providers should consider gender, age and culture of family members of persons living with HIV/AIDS. Knowledge about HIV/AIDS, provision of care at home and in hospital, and

  2. "Move or Suffer": Is Age-Segregation the New Norm for Older Americans Living Alone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portacolone, Elena; Halpern, Jodi

    2016-08-01

    Despite ethical claims that civic societies should foster intergenerational integration, age-segregation is a widespread yet understudied phenomenon. The purpose of this study was to understand the reasons that led community-dwelling older Americans to relocate into senior housing. Qualitative data were collected through participant observation and ethnographic interviews with 47 older adults living alone in San Francisco, California. Half of study participants lived in housing for seniors, the other half in conventional housing. Data were analyzed with standard qualitative methods. Findings illuminate the dynamics that favor age-segregation. Senior housing might be cheaper, safer, and offer more socializing opportunities than conventional housing. Yet, tenants of senior housing may also experience isolation, crime, and distress. Findings suggest that rather than individual preference, cultural, political, and economic factors inform the individual decision to relocate into age-segregated settings. Findings also call for an increased awareness on the ethical implications of societies increasingly segregated by age. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Aging in Community: Developing a More Holistic Approach to Enhance Older Adults' Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davitt, Joan K; Madigan, Elizabeth A; Rantz, Marilyn; Skemp, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Public health advances have contributed to increased longevity; however, individuals are more likely to live longer with multiple chronic conditions. The existing health care system primarily focuses on treating disease rather than addressing well-being as a holistic construct that includes physical, social, and environmental components. The current commentary emphasizes the importance of supporting healthy active aging and aging in community. The barriers to aging in community and the state of the intervention science in response to this problem are discussed, and recommendations for future research are provided. Active aging is more than managing illness or care transitions-it promotes engagement, participation, dignity, self-fulfillment, self-determination, and support for older adults. To support aging in community and healthy active aging, a paradigm shift is needed in how the well-being of older adults is thought about and supported. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Concern about HIV and AIDS among older people in the slums of Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chepngeno-Langat, Gloria; Falkingham, Jane C; Madise, Nyovani J; Evandrou, Maria

    2012-09-01

    The article explores the way that social networks and personal experiences affect perceived HIV-related concerns among people aged 50 years or older living in a low resource neighborhood with high HIV prevalence in Nairobi, Kenya. Multiple logistic regression is used to model the association between the reporting of an HIV-related concern and individual-level characteristics, personal experiences, and social interaction. The main concerns regarding HIV reported by older people in the study included caring for orphaned children (65%), caring for people with AIDS (48%), and losing material and social support from adult children (36%). Interestingly, 38% of respondents voiced concerns about HIV infection among older people. Respondents who had been individually affected by HIV and AIDS, who were part of a wide social network, or who participated in community activities were frequently more likely to report a concern. The findings highlight the significance of the role of social interaction and social networks in the diffusion of information and knowledge. These findings have implications for HIV and AIDS policy and programs, highlighting the potential for social networks and community-level interventions to educate and increase awareness about HIV and AIDS among older people. Community leaders can make good peer educators and communication agents for HIV/AIDS campaigns. Additionally, the recognized high level of personal vulnerability to HIV infection among older people suggests the need for targeted sexual behavior change programs among this often neglected group. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  5. Sexual Behavior of Older Adults Living with HIV in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negin, Joel; Geddes, Louise; Brennan-Ing, Mark; Kuteesa, Monica; Karpiak, Stephen; Seeley, Janet

    2016-02-01

    Sexual behavior among older adults with HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa has been understudied despite the burgeoning of this population. We examined sexual behavior among older adults living with HIV in Uganda. Participants were eligible for the study if they were 50 years of age or older and living with HIV. Quantitative data were collected through face-to-face interviews, including demographic characteristics, health, sexual behavior and function, and mental health. Of respondents, 42 were men and 59 women. More than one-quarter of these HIV-positive older adults were sexually active. A greater proportion of older HIV-positive men reported being sexually active compared to women (54 vs. 15%). Among those who are sexually active, a majority never use condoms. Sixty-one percent of men regarded sex as at least somewhat important (42%), while few women shared this opinion (20%). Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that odds of sexual activity in the past year were significantly increased by the availability of a partner (married/cohabitating), better physical functioning, and male gender. As more adults live longer with HIV, it is critical to understand their sexual behavior and related psychosocial variables in order to improve prevention efforts.

  6. [A study of persons living in neglect, filth and squalor or who have a tendency to hoard].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wustmann, T; Brieger, P

    2005-05-01

    Who develops neglect, lives in filth and squalor or tends to hoard? What happens to people with such tendencies, after heaving been discovered by community mental health services? During a two-year observation period it was attempted to study all such persons in the city of Halle/Saale. Life history as well as medical, social and psychiatric variables were assessed. After a mean period of 11 months these persons were re-assessed. 35 persons who lived in squalor and filth or in a neglected condition or who were known to hoard were assessed (60 % male, mean age: 63 years). 17 persons (49 %) suffered from an organic brain disease, 14 (40 %) fulfilled criteria of psychotic illness (mainly schizophrenia). In 9 cases a comorbid physical disorder contributed to the prevailing living conditions. After 11 months, for 21 persons (60 %) no amelioration of neglect, squalor or hoarding was observed, which was especially true for persons suffering from a psychotic illness. The results yielded some evidence that interventions, which aimed at living conditions (such as moving to sheltered accommodation), had positive effects, while this was not true for standard mental health care within community services and hospital treatment. Neglect, living in squalor and hoarding are frequently symptoms of an underlying psychiatric or somatic illness. In this respect the results suggest that "standard care" proved to be of limited effect -- especially for subjects with a psychotic illness.

  7. Factors influencing life satisfaction of Korean older adults living with family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sok, Sohyune R

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the factors influencing life satisfaction of Korean older adults living with family. Participants included 267 adults age 65 and older who met eligibility criteria. Analyses showed that the prediction model of the life satisfaction of older adults who are living with their family was significant (F=24.429, ppocket money (beta=0.060), and age (beta=0.040). It is possible that older adults' life satisfaction increases when they are provided with nursing interventions and are able to effectively manage their health. Nursing interventions must strive to improve their self-esteem and address their depression.

  8. Prevalence of the geriatric syndromes and frailty in older men living in the community: The Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Naomi; Blyth, Fiona M; Waite, Louise M; Naganathan, Vasi; Cumming, Robert G; Handelsman, David J; Seibel, Markus J; Le Couteur, David G

    2016-12-01

    To describe the age at which the geriatric syndromes and frailty become common in community-dwelling men. The Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project involves a population-based sample of 1705 community-dwelling men aged 70 and over from a defined geographic region in Sydney. Data were obtained by physical performance tests, clinical examinations, and questionnaire to determine the prevalence of the following conditions by five-year age group. Poor mobility, recurrent falls, urinary incontinence, dementia and frailty phenotype were all uncommon (less than 10%) in men in their 70s, but the prevalence of each of these conditions exceeded 10% in men aged 85-89. The prevalence of Frailty Index-defined frailty, multimorbidity, polypharmacy and instrumental activities of daily living dependence was constantly high in all age groups. The different health-care needs of the 'old old' aged 85 years and older should be accounted for in health service planning. © 2016 AJA Inc.

  9. Health throughout the lifespan: The phenomenon of the inner child reflected in events during childhood experienced by older persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöblom, Margareta; Öhrling, Kerstin; Prellwitz, Maria; Kostenius, Catrine

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe and gain more knowledge of the phenomenon of the inner child, reflected in events during childhood experienced by older persons. Thirteen older persons aged 70 to 91 years old were interviewed. A hermeneutical phenomenological analysis of the data revealed two main themes: the inner child becomes visible and the inner child's presence through life. The participants' narratives showed that their understanding of the experiences included both positive and negative feelings, as well as ways to be creative, in which the inner child became visible. The participants' experiences indicated that the inner child was present throughout the lifespan, was found in challenges that occurred in life, and could turn something bad into something good. However, the presence of the inner child could also be a source for development throughout life and could interfere with the person. The findings from this study point to older persons' need to be recognized, acknowledged, and understood as a unique person living his or her own life. In addition, dimensions of well-being such as feeling safe, loved, supported, and creating space for fantasy and possibilities can be compared to the physical, mental, social, and existential dimensions of well-being found in WHO surveys and definitions of health. This calls for a holistic approach when caring for older persons.

  10. Determinants of thoughts of death or suicide in depressed older persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogers, Ista C. H. M.; Zuidersma, Marij; Boshuisen, Marjolein L.; Comijs, Hannie C.; Voshaar, Richard C. Oude

    Background: In depressed persons, thoughts of death and suicide are assumed to represent different degrees of a construct: suicidality. However, this can be questioned in older persons facing physical and social losses. Thoughts of death in depressed older persons are hardly examined in the absence

  11. Effects of a dietary self-management programme for community-dwelling older adults: a quasi-experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Su-Hui; Huang, Yu-Ping; Shao, Jung-Hua

    2017-09-01

    Nutritional health plays a crucial role in determining successful ageing and differs by different living area. Although nutritional interventions have long been advocated, little research has directly assessed the effectiveness of nutritional interventions on community-dwelling older adults in urban and rural areas and compared intervention effects on these two populations. To examine the effectiveness of a 12-week dietary self-management programme for salt-, fluid-, fat- and cholesterol-intake behaviours of community-dwelling older adults and to compare these effects in rural- and urban-dwelling older adults. For this quasi-experimental two-group study, older adults (≥65 years old) were recruited from two randomly selected public health centres in a rural north-eastern county and a northern city of Taiwan from January through December 2011. Outcomes included nutritional status, nutritional self-efficacy and health locus of control. Data were collected at baseline and 12 weeks later. To compare changes in outcome variables over time between the control (usual care) and intervention (nutritional programme) groups and between the urban- and rural-dwelling participants in the experimental group, we used generalised estimating equation analysis. Of the 129 participants, 120 completed this study (58 in the intervention group and 62 in the control group). After 12 weeks, the intervention group had significantly better nutritional status and higher internal health locus of control than the control group. Moreover, older rural participants who received the intervention tended towards higher nutritional self-efficacy and internal health locus of control than their urban counterparts. Our research findings support the positive effect of our nutritional self-management programme for community-dwelling older adults. The knowledge gained from this study can help stakeholders recognise the need for healthcare policy to establish effective strategies and sustainable

  12. Testimony on Physical Fitness for Older Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, Washington, DC.

    Collected here are fourteen statements on the beneficial effects of physical fitness programs for older persons presented at hearings before the Subcommittee on Aging of the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare, U.S. Senate. Areas discussed include: What research tells us regarding the contribution of exercise to the health of older people;…

  13. Exploring the health status of older persons in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audain, Keiron; Carr, Michelle; Dikmen, Derya; Zotor, Francis; Ellahi, Basma

    2017-11-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has traditionally had a low life expectancy due to the onslaught of the HIV epidemic, high levels of chronic diseases, injuries, conflict and undernutrition. Therefore, research into public health concerns of older persons has largely been overlooked. With a growing population, the roll-out of antiretroviral treatment, and the effects of globalisation, SSA is experiencing an increase in the number of people over 50 years of age as well as an increase in the prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCD). The aim of this review is to highlight available research on the health status of older persons in SSA, and to identify the current gaps that warrant further investigation. A literature search was conducted across multiple databases to identify studies in SSA on older persons (aged 50 years and older) related to health indicators including nutritional status, NCD and HIV burden. While it was concluded that older persons are at an increased risk of poor health, it was also determined that significant gaps exist in this particular area of research; namely nutrient deficiency prevalence. Resources should be directed towards identifying the health concerns of older persons and developing appropriate interventions.

  14. Health care for older persons in Argentina: a country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Odasso, Manuel; Przygoda, Pablo; Redondo, Nélida; Adamson, Juan; Kaplan, Roberto

    2004-10-01

    Argentina is a large country situated at the southern end of the Americas. It is highly urbanized, and almost one-third of the population lives in the capital city and its surrounding area (Buenos Aires). The population is composed of heterogeneous groups, formed primarily by descendants of European immigration who constitute 85% of the inhabitants. In the last 30 years, Argentina has witnessed a growth in the elderly population from less than 7% to nearly 10% of the total population. Additionally, in Buenos Aires City, more than 17% are aged 65 or older. The healthcare systems for the elderly lack nationwide coverage. The Programa de Atención Médica Integral (PAMI) is the largest program for elderly care. It is a state-run program for disabled and senior citizens. PAMI serves 65% of the approximately 3.6 million older people in Argentina. The quality of PAMI healthcare delivery has decreased in the last 2 decades and has largely declined since the Argentinean economic crisis of late 2001. The rehabilitation and long-term care services are relatively underdeveloped, and fewer than 2% of senior citizens live in residential or nursing homes. Recently, the government has proposed a system of care built up from the primary care resources of the community.

  15. Conceptions of Healthy Aging Held by Relatives of Older Persons in Isan-Thai Culture: A Phenomenographic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornpun Manasatchakun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In Thailand, family nurses are expected to provide support for older persons and their family members to promote healthy aging. Family bonds are strong, and relatives are expected to take care of their older family members. However, there is limited research on how older persons’ family members perceive healthy aging. This study aimed to describe the conceptions of healthy aging held by the children and grandchildren of older persons in northeast Thailand. In a phenomenographic study, 14 interviews were performed to qualitatively analyze different conceptions of healthy aging. Four descriptive categories emerged: being independent, not being afflicted by diseases or illnesses, being a giver and a receiver, and being wise. The conceptions of healthy aging entail both autonomy and interdependence. The relative’s perspective needs to be considered when policies relating to healthy aging are implemented in the community and when family nurses provide support to families to promote healthy aging.

  16. Older persons’ and their families’ experience with live-in foreign home care workers. A grounded theory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Heidi; Naef, Rahel; Rüesch, Peter; Mahrer-Imhof, Romy; Dreizler, Jutta

    2016-11-01

    Background: Live-in arrangements with migrant care workers have considerably increased over the last years since they allow older frail persons to age-in-place despite functional limitations. However, little is known about the ramifications live-in care arrangements for families. Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate families’ experience with live-in migrant care workers and indicators of quality from their perspective. Method: Constructivist grounded theory study with 22 families who were recruited via care agencies in the German-speaking part of Switzerland and participated in 29 individual or dyadic interviews. Results: Live-in care by migrant care workers has potentially positive ramifications for older persons and their families, but only so if families, first, reach a consensus about the need for the employment of migrant care workers; second, experience them as competent; and third, mutually forge relationships and negotiate daily life. A successful care arrangement occurs when there is a relational fit among those involved, which leaves families feeling cared for, safe and relieved. They experience a renewed stability in their family system, enriching relationships, and assuredness about the quality present in the care situation. Conclusions: A successful care arrangement is the result of relationships that have been actively created and a negotiated shared existence in a family-like network. It has a positive effect on the well-being of those receiving care and their family members. The family-like network needs competent support.

  17. Who Lives Where and Does It Matter? Changes in the Health Profiles of Older People Living in Long Term Care and the Community over Two Decades in a High Income Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Fiona E; Bennett, Holly; Wittenberg, Raphael; Jagger, Carol; Dening, Tom; Brayne, Carol

    2016-01-01

    There have been fundamental shifts in the attitude towards, access to and nature of long term care in high income countries. The proportion and profile of the older population living in such settings varies according to social, cultural, and economic characteristics as well as governmental policies. Changes in the profiles of people in different settings are important for policy makers and care providers. Although details will differ, how change occurs across time is important to all, including lower and middle income countries developing policies themselves. Here change is examined across two decades in England. Using the two Cognitive Function and Ageing Studies (CFAS I: 77% response, CFAS II: 56% response), two population based studies of older people carried out in the same areas conducted two decades apart, the study diagnosis of dementia using the Automated Geriatric Examination for Computer Assisted Taxonomy, health and wellbeing were examined, focusing on long term care. The proportion of individuals with three or more health conditions increased for everyone living in long term care between CFAS I (47.6%, 95% CI: 42.3-53.1) and CFAS II (62.7%, 95% CI: 54.8-70.0) and was consistently higher in those without dementia compared to those with dementia in both studies. Functional impairment measured by activities of daily living increased in assisted living facilities from 48% (95% CI: 44%-52%) to 67% (95% CI: 62%-71%). Health profiles of residents in long term care have changed dramatically over time. Dementia prevalence and reporting multiple health conditions have increased. Receiving care in the community puts pressure on unpaid carers and formal services; these results have implications for policies about supporting people at home as well as for service provision within long term care including quality of care, health management, cost, and the development of a skilled, caring, and informed workforce.

  18. Who Lives Where and Does It Matter? Changes in the Health Profiles of Older People Living in Long Term Care and the Community over Two Decades in a High Income Country.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona E Matthews

    Full Text Available There have been fundamental shifts in the attitude towards, access to and nature of long term care in high income countries. The proportion and profile of the older population living in such settings varies according to social, cultural, and economic characteristics as well as governmental policies. Changes in the profiles of people in different settings are important for policy makers and care providers. Although details will differ, how change occurs across time is important to all, including lower and middle income countries developing policies themselves. Here change is examined across two decades in England.Using the two Cognitive Function and Ageing Studies (CFAS I: 77% response, CFAS II: 56% response, two population based studies of older people carried out in the same areas conducted two decades apart, the study diagnosis of dementia using the Automated Geriatric Examination for Computer Assisted Taxonomy, health and wellbeing were examined, focusing on long term care. The proportion of individuals with three or more health conditions increased for everyone living in long term care between CFAS I (47.6%, 95% CI: 42.3-53.1 and CFAS II (62.7%, 95% CI: 54.8-70.0 and was consistently higher in those without dementia compared to those with dementia in both studies. Functional impairment measured by activities of daily living increased in assisted living facilities from 48% (95% CI: 44%-52% to 67% (95% CI: 62%-71%.Health profiles of residents in long term care have changed dramatically over time. Dementia prevalence and reporting multiple health conditions have increased. Receiving care in the community puts pressure on unpaid carers and formal services; these results have implications for policies about supporting people at home as well as for service provision within long term care including quality of care, health management, cost, and the development of a skilled, caring, and informed workforce.

  19. Pain management for older persons living in nursing homes: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Mimi M Y; Ho, Suki S K

    2013-06-01

    Because the prevalence of chronic pain among the elderly in nursing homes is high and decreases their quality of life, effective nonpharmacologic pain management should be promoted. The purpose of this quasiexperimental pretest and posttest control design was to enhance pain management in nursing homes via an integrated pain management program (IPMP) for staff and residents. Nursing staff and residents from the experimental nursing home were invited to join the 8-week IPMP, whereas staff and residents from the control nursing home did not receive the IPMP. Baseline data were collected from nursing staff and residents in both groups before and after the IPMP. The IPMP consisted of eight lectures on pain assessment, drug knowledge,and nondrug strategies for the nursing staff, and 8 weeks of activities, including gardening therapy and physiotherapy exercise, for the residents. There were 48 and 42 older people in the experimental and control groups, respectively. No significant differences were found in their educational level, sleep quality, bowel habits, past and present health conditions, pain conditions and psychologic well-being parameters (p > .05) at baseline. After the IPMP, the experimental nursing staff showed a significant improvement in their knowledge of and attitudes to pain management (p pain scores and used more nondrug strategies for pain relief compared with the control group (p nursing staff, as well as reducing pain conditions and enhancing psychologic well-being for older persons in nursing homes. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of a Home-Based and Volunteer-Administered Physical Training, Nutritional, and Social Support Program on Malnutrition and Frailty in Older Persons: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luger, Eva; Dorner, Thomas Ernst; Haider, Sandra; Kapan, Ali; Lackinger, Christian; Schindler, Karin

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a home-based and volunteer-administered physical training and nutritional intervention program compared with social support intervention on nutritional and frailty status in prefrail and frail community-dwelling older persons. This was a randomized controlled trial in which community-dwelling persons (mean age = 83 years) were recruited and randomly assigned to the physical training and nutritional intervention group (PTN, n = 39) and the social support group (SoSu, n = 41). The study was conducted by trained lay nonprofessionals. The community-dwelling older persons in both groups were visited twice a week by trained nonprofessional volunteers (buddies) in Vienna, Austria. Eighty prefrail and frail adults aged 65 years or older. In the PTN group, both the buddies and older persons performed 6 strength exercises within a circuit training session and discussed nutrition-related aspects. The active control group (SoSu) had the opportunity to perform cognitive training in addition to the social contact. Outcome measures as nutritional (Mini Nutritional Assessment long form [MNA-LF]) and frailty status (Frailty Instrument for Primary Care of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe [SHARE-FI]) were obtained at baseline and after 12 weeks. Significant improvements in the MNA-LF score (1.54 points, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.51-2.56; P = .004) and the SHARE-FI score (-0.71 discrete factor score values, 95% CI -1.07, -0.35; P group after 12 weeks. In both groups, the prevalence of impaired nutritional status and frailty decreased significantly over time. The prevalence of impaired nutritional status decreased by 25% in the PTN group and by 23% in the SoSu group. Moreover, the prevalence of frailty decreased by 17% in the PTN group and by 16% in the SoSu group. The presence of impaired nutritional status at baseline was independently associated with greater changes in the nutritional

  1. Nutritional status and cognitive function in community-living rural Bangladeshi older adults: data from the poverty and health in ageing project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdous, Tamanna; Cederholm, Tommy; Kabir, Zarina Nahar; Hamadani, Jena Derakhshani; Wahlin, Ake

    2010-05-01

    To investigate the association between nutritional status and general and specific (fluid and crystallized) cognitive functioning in a group of older people living in a rural area in Bangladesh. Cross-sectional study. Matlab, Bangladesh. Four hundred fifty-seven randomly selected persons aged 60 and older (mean age 69.5 +/- 6.8), 55% female. Nutritional status was evaluated using a modified form of the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). General cognitive function was assessed using the Bangla Adaptation of the Mini-Mental State Examination, and a word synonym test was used to test semantic memory function (a crystallized ability). To assess cognitive processing speed (a fluid ability), "cross balls" and "complete boxes" tests (scores/time unit) were used. Clinical diagnoses were registered. Structured questionnaires were used to assess demographic and socioeconomic status of the participants. Twenty-six percent of the participants were undernourished, and 62% were at risk of malnutrition according to the MNA. The MNA scores were significantly lower in women than in men (P=.01). Women performed worse than men in all three cognitive tasks (Pperformance was independently associated with older age, female sex, illiteracy, visual impairment, severity of disease, and depressive symptoms. There were significant associations between better nutritional status and better cognitive performance tests of general ability and processing speed, whereas semantic memory appeared to be less affected. The association between nutritional status and cognitive function involves general and specific cognitive abilities, with fluid ability seeming to be affected but crystalized functions being relatively spared.

  2. Neighborhood walkability, physical activity, and walking for transportation: A cross-sectional study of older adults living on low income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudyk, Anna M; McKay, Heather A; Winters, Meghan; Sims-Gould, Joanie; Ashe, Maureen C

    2017-04-10

    Walking, and in particular, outdoor walking, is the most common form of physical activity for older adults. To date, no study investigated the association between the neighborhood built environment and physical activity habits of older adults of low SES. Thus, our overarching aim was to examine the association between the neighborhood built environment and the spectrum of physical activity and walking for transportation in older adults of low socioeconomic status. Cross-sectional data were from the Walk the Talk Study, collected in 2012. Participants (n = 161, mean age = 74 years) were in receipt of a rental subsidy for low income individuals and resided in neighbourhoods across Metro Vancouver, Canada. We used the Street Smart Walk Score to objectively characterize the built environment main effect (walkability), accelerometry for objective physical activity, and the Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS) questionnaire to measure walking for transportation. We used regression analyses to examine associations of objectively measured physical activity [total volume, light intensity and moderate intensity physical activity (MVPA)] and self-reported walking for transportation (any, frequency, duration) with walkability. We adjusted analyses for person- and environment-level factors associated with older adult physical activity. Neighbourhood walkability was not associated with physical activity volume or intensity and self-reported walking for transportation, with one exception. Each 10-point increase in Street Smart Walk Score was associated with a 45% greater odds of any walking for transportation (compared with none; OR = 1.45, 95% confidence interval = 1.18, 1.78). Sociodemographic, physical function and attitudinal factors were significant predictors of physical activity across our models. The lack of associations between most of the explored outcomes may be due to the complexity of the relation between the person and

  3. Living with a depressed person in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jeppe Oute; Buus, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Strategies for coping with the burdens of living with a depressed person affect a family's psychosocial environment.......Strategies for coping with the burdens of living with a depressed person affect a family's psychosocial environment....

  4. Development and psychometric properties of ECPICID-AVC to measure informal caregivers' skills when caring for older stroke survivors at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Odete; Lage, Isabel; Cabrita, José; Teixeira, Laetitia

    2016-12-01

    Informal caregivers provide a significant part of the total care needed by dependent older people poststroke. Although informal care is often the preferred option of those who provide and those who receive informal care, informal caregivers often report lack of preparation to take care of older dependent people. This article outlines the development and psychometric testing of informal caregivers' skills when providing care to older people after a stroke - ECPICID-AVC. Prospective psychometric instrument validation study. Eleven experts participated in a focus group in order to delineate, develop and validate the instrument. Data were gathered among adult informal caregivers (n = 186) living in the community in Northern Portugal from August 2013 to January 2014. The 32-item scale describes several aspects of informal caregiver's skills. The scale has eight factors: skill to feed/hydrate by nasogastric feeding, skill to assist the person in personal hygiene, skill to assist the person for transferring, skill to assist the person for positioning, skill to provide technical aids, skill to assist the person to use the toilet, skill to feed/hydrate and skill to provide technical aids for dressing/undressing. Analysis demonstrated adequate internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.83) and good temporal stability 0.988 (0.984-0.991). The psychometric properties of the measurement tool showed acceptable results allowing its implementation in clinical practice by the nursing community staff for evaluating practical skills in informal caregivers when providing care to older stroke survivors living at home. © 2016 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  5. Personalized citizen assistance for social participation (APIC): A promising intervention for increasing mobility, accomplishment of social activities and frequency of leisure activities in older adults having disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levasseur, Mélanie; Lefebvre, Hélène; Levert, Marie-Josée; Lacasse-Bédard, Joanie; Desrosiers, Johanne; Therriault, Pierre-Yves; Tourigny, André; Couturier, Yves; Carbonneau, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    Social participation, a determinant of health in older adults, requires innovative interventions. The personalised citizen assistance for social participation (APIC) involves weekly three-hour personalised stimulation sessions targeting significant social and leisure activities difficult to accomplish. Recently adapted for older adults, the APIC's impact on this population is unknown. This study explored the impact of APIC on older adults with disabilities. A mixed-method design including a pre-experimental component was used with 16 participants (11 women) aged 66-91 (79.4±8.7) with disabilities, living at home. They completed functional autonomy, social participation, leisure and quality of life questionnaires, and semi-structured interviews. APIC increased older adults' functional autonomy (p=0.02), accomplishment (pleisure practice (pleisure activities, and difficulties in their social environment diminished (p=0.03). Their attitude toward leisure (p=0.04) as well as their health (p<0.01) and psychological (p=0.03) quality of life improved. Older adults thought APIC helped them resume, maintain, explore and experiment with significant social activities. It also increased their psychological and physical well-being, feeling of control, connectedness, self-esteem and motivation to accomplish activities. Finally, APIC can compensate for an unavailable and crumbling social network. APIC is a promising intervention that leads to new opportunities for older adults to increase community integration and enhance the social component of their lives. It can also optimise how the needs of older adults are met, including utilisation of personal and environmental resources. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Study of the Impacts of Navigational Links, Task Complexity, and Experience with the Older User on Website Usability in a Community College Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Robin Eileen

    2014-01-01

    Community colleges serve a diverse population of learners including many older students counting on the community college for enhanced skills or personal enrichment. Many of these colleges target this population with programs designed specifically to meet the needs and goals of the older adult but may not consider this population when designing a…

  7. Effects of an individualised nutritional education and support programme on dietary habits, nutritional knowledge and nutritional status of older adults living alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jeong-Ah; Park, JeeWon; Kim, Chun-Ja

    2017-09-07

    The effects of an individualised nutritional education and support programme on dietary habits, nutritional knowledge and nutritional status of 71 older adults living alone were examined. Although a regular dietary meal plan is recommended for improving nutritional status of older adults living alone, little research is done in this field in Korea. A pre- and post-test controlled quasi-experimental design was used at public health centres. The intervention group participated in an intensive nutritional education and support programme once a week for 8 weeks with dietary menus provided by home visiting nurses/dieticians; control group received usual care. Dietary habits and nutritional knowledge were assessed using structured questionnaires; nutritional intake status was analysed using Computer Aided Nutritional Analysis Program 5.0. The mean age of participants was 77.6 years, and 81.7% of the participants were women. At 8 weeks, there were significant interactions of group by time for dietary habits, nutritional knowledge and selected nutritional status of protein, iron and vitamins of B 2 and C. Changes over time in the mean score of dietary habits and nutritional knowledge were significantly improved in the intervention group compared to the control group. The percentages of normal nutrition intake of protein, iron and vitamins A and C in the intervention group were significantly higher than the control group at 8 weeks. Nutritional education and support programme positively impacted dietary habits, nutritional knowledge and selected nutritional status in older adults living alone, and we highlight the need for community-based nutritional education and counselling programmes. Older adults living alone in a community have relatively poor nutritional status and thus require tailored nutritional intervention according to objective nutritional analysis. It is necessary to link visiting nurses with dieticians in the community to manage effective nutritional

  8. Physical and mental health-related correlates of physical function in community dwelling older adults: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burbank Patricia A

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical function is the ability to perform both basic and instrumental activities of daily living, and the ability of older adults to reside in the community depends to a large extent on their level of physical function. Multiple physical and health-related variables may differentially affect physical function, but they have not been well characterized. The purpose of this investigation was to identify and examine physical and mental health-related correlates of physical function in a sample of community-dwelling older adults. Methods Nine hundred and four community dwelling older men (n = 263 and women (n = 641 with a mean (95% Confidence Interval age of 76.6 (76.1, 77.1 years underwent tests of physical function (Timed Up and Go; TUG, Body Mass Index (BMI was calculated from measured height and weight, and data were collected on self-reported health quality of life (SF-36, falls during the past 6 months, number of medications per day, depression (Geriatric Depression Scale; GDS, social support, and sociodemographic variables. Results Subjects completed the TUG in 8.7 (8.2, 9.2 seconds and expended 6,976 (6,669, 7,284 Kcal.wk-1 in physical activity. The older persons had a mean BMI of 27. 6 (27.2, 28.0, 62% took 3 or more medications per day, and14.4% had fallen one or more times over the last 6 months. Mean scores on the Mental Component Summary (MCS was 50.6 (50.2, 51,0 and the Physical Component Summary (PCS was 41.3 (40.8, 41.8. Multiple sequential regression analysis showed that, after adjustment for TUG floor surface correlates of physical function included age, sex, education, physical activity (weekly energy expenditure, general health, bodily pain, number of medications taken per day, depression and Body Mass Index. Further, there is a dose response relationship such that greater degree of physical function impairment is associated with poorer scores on physical health-related variables. Conclusions Physical

  9. Life satisfaction of older Turks living in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztop, Hülya; Kınacı, Bahar

    2017-03-01

    This study examined the influence of socio-economic and demographic variables, the frequency of travel to Turkey and years of living in Sydney on the life satisfaction of older Turkish people. This study was conducted with 110 participants of 60 years of age or older, at the New South Wales Turkish Welfare Association in Sydney, Australia. The surveys were administered face-to-face at a date and time these participants went to the Association. The dependent variable of the study was the Life Satisfaction Scale. The study data were analysed using hierarchical regression analysis, and the three sets of regression models were run for each sex. The research found that in addition to sociodemographic factors, frequency of travel to Turkey, particularly for older women, and their years of living in Sydney had negative effects on life satisfaction. The study results indicate that the frequency of both the male and female participants' visits to Turkey had a strong negative influence on their life satisfaction. Life satisfaction decreased as the frequency of the participants' visits to Turkey and years of living in Sydney increased. These findings support the current literature that shows the effects of the frequency of travel to Turkey and years of living in Sydney, which were considered to influence relationships with social networks, on life satisfaction, and indicates the necessity for a more detailed examination of social network relationships. © 2017 AJA Inc.

  10. Does Frailty Predict Health Care Utilization in Community-Living Older Romanians?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinela Olaroiu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The predictive value of frailty assessment is still debated. We analyzed the predictive value of frailty of independent living elderly. The outcomes variables were visits to the general practitioner, hospital admission, and occurrence of new health problems. Methods. A one-year follow-up study was executed among 215 community-living old Romanians. General practitioners reported the outcome variables of patients, whose frailty was assessed one year before, using the Groningen Frailty Indicator. The predictive validity is analyzed by descriptive and regression analysis. Results. Three-quarters of all participants visited their general practitioner three times more last year and one-third were at least once admitted to a hospital. Patients who scored frail one year before were more often admitted to a hospital. Visits to the general practitioner and occurrence of new health problems were not statistically significant related to frailty scores. The frailty items polypharmacy, social support, and activities in daily living were associated with adverse outcomes. Conclusions. The predictive value of frailty instruments as the Groningen Frailty Indicator is still limited. More research is needed to predict health outcomes, health care utilization, and quality of life of frailty self-assessment instruments. Validation research on frailty in different “environments” is recommended to answer the question to what extent contextual characteristics influence the predictive value.

  11. Exercise for reducing fear of falling in older people living in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Denise; Kumar, Arun; Carpenter, Hannah; Zijlstra, G A Rixt; Skelton, Dawn A; Cook, Juliette R; Stevens, Zoe; Belcher, Carolyn M; Haworth, Deborah; Gawler, Sheena J; Gage, Heather; Masud, Tahir; Bowling, Ann; Pearl, Mirilee; Morris, Richard W; Iliffe, Steve; Delbaere, Kim

    2014-11-28

    Fear of falling is common in older people and associated with serious physical and psychosocial consequences. Exercise (planned, structured, repetitive and purposive physical activity aimed at improving physical fitness) may reduce fear of falling by improving strength, gait, balance and mood, and reducing the occurrence of falls. To assess the effects (benefits, harms and costs) of exercise interventions for reducing fear of falling in older people living in the community. We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register (July 2013), the Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2013, Issue 7), MEDLINE (1946 to July Week 3 2013), EMBASE (1980 to 2013 Week 30), CINAHL (1982 to July 2013), PsycINFO (1967 to August 2013), AMED (1985 to August 2013), the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (accessed 7 August 2013) and Current Controlled Trials (accessed 7 August 2013). We applied no language restrictions. We handsearched reference lists and consulted experts. We included randomised and quasi-randomised trials that recruited community-dwelling people (where the majority were aged 65 and over) and were not restricted to specific medical conditions (e.g. stroke, hip fracture). We included trials that evaluated exercise interventions compared with no intervention or a non-exercise intervention (e.g. social visits), and that measured fear of falling. Exercise interventions were varied; for example, they could be 'prescriptions' or recommendations, group-based or individual, supervised or unsupervised. Pairs of review authors independently assessed studies for inclusion, assessed the risk of bias in the studies and extracted data. We combined effect sizes across studies using the fixed-effect model, with the random-effect model used where significant statistical heterogeneity was present. We estimated risk ratios (RR) for dichotomous outcomes and incidence rate ratios (IRR) for rate outcomes. We

  12. Identifying the Potential for Robotics to Assist Older Adults in Different Living Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitzner, Tracy L.; Chen, Tiffany L.; Kemp, Charles C.; Rogers, Wendy A.

    2014-01-01

    As the older adult population grows and becomes more diverse, so will their needs and preferences for living environments. Many adults over 65 years of age require some assistance [1, 2]; yet it is important for their feelings of well-being that the assistance not restrict their autonomy [3]. Not only is autonomy correlated with quality of life [4], autonomy enhancement may improve functionality [2, 5]. The goal of this paper is to provide guidance for the development of technology to enhance autonomy and quality of life for older adults. We explore the potential for robotics to meet these needs. We evaluated older adults' diverse living situations and the predictors of residential moves to higher levels of care in the United States. We also examined older adults' needs for assistance with activities of daily living (ADLs), instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), and medical conditions when living independently or in a long-term care residence. By providing support for older adults, mobile manipulator robots may reduce need-driven, undesired moves from residences with lower levels of care (i.e., private homes, assisted living) to those with higher levels of care (i.e., skilled nursing). PMID:24729800

  13. Factors associated with self-rated health in older people living in institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pastor-Barriuso Roberto

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although self-rated health has been extensively studied in community older people, its determinants have seldom been investigated in institutional settings. We carried out a cross-sectional study to describe the physical, mental, and social factors associated with self-rated health in nursing homes and other geriatric facilities. Methods A representative sample of 800 subjects 65 years of age and older living in 19 public and 30 private institutions of Madrid was randomly selected through stratified cluster sampling. Residents, caregivers, physicians, and nurses were interviewed by trained geriatricians using standardized instruments to assess self-rated health, chronic illnesses, functional capacity, cognitive status, depressive symptoms, vision and hearing problems, and social support. Results Of the 669 interviewed residents (response rate 84%, 55% rated their health as good or very good. There was no association with sex or age. Residents in private facilities and those who completed primary education had significantly better health perception. The adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval for worse health perception was 1.18 (1.07–1.28 for each additional chronic condition, 2.37 (1.38–4.06 when comparing residents with moderate dependency to those functionally independent, and 10.45 (5.84–18.68 when comparing residents with moderate/severe depressive symptoms to those without symptoms. Visual problems were also associated with worse health perception. Similar results were obtained in subgroup analyses, except for inconsistencies in cognitively impaired individuals. Conclusion Chronic conditions, functional status, depressive symptoms and socioeconomic factors were the main determinants of perceived health among Spanish institutionalized elderly persons. Doubts remain about the proper assessment of subjective health in residents with altered cognition.

  14. Health throughout the lifespan: The phenomenon of the inner child reflected in events during childhood experienced by older persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareta Sjöblom

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe and gain more knowledge of the phenomenon of the inner child, reflected in events during childhood experienced by older persons. Thirteen older persons aged 70 to 91 years old were interviewed. A hermeneutical phenomenological analysis of the data revealed two main themes: the inner child becomes visible and the inner child's presence through life. The participants’ narratives showed that their understanding of the experiences included both positive and negative feelings, as well as ways to be creative, in which the inner child became visible. The participants’ experiences indicated that the inner child was present throughout the lifespan, was found in challenges that occurred in life, and could turn something bad into something good. However, the presence of the inner child could also be a source for development throughout life and could interfere with the person. The findings from this study point to older persons’ need to be recognized, acknowledged, and understood as a unique person living his or her own life. In addition, dimensions of well-being such as feeling safe, loved, supported, and creating space for fantasy and possibilities can be compared to the physical, mental, social, and existential dimensions of well-being found in WHO surveys and definitions of health. This calls for a holistic approach when caring for older persons.

  15. Older people living with HIV in Uganda: understanding their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV-prevention, treatment and care programmes should seek to meet the special needs of older people through focused and innovative approaches. Further research with larger samples is needed to explore the impact of these healthcare needs on the quality of life of older people living with HIV. Keywords: ageing ...

  16. Observational Learning among Older Adults Living in Nursing Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, Colleen D.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate learning by older adults living in nursing homes through observational learning based on Bandura's (1977) social learning theory. This quantitative study investigated if older adults could learn through observation. The nursing homes in the study were located in the midwestern United States. The…

  17. Health status transitions in community-living elderly with complex care needs: a latent class approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafortune, Louise; Béland, François; Bergman, Howard; Ankri, Joël

    2009-02-03

    For older persons with complex care needs, accounting for the variability and interdependency in how health dimensions manifest themselves is necessary to understand the dynamic of health status. Our objective is to test the hypothesis that a latent classification can capture this heterogeneity in a population of frail elderly persons living in the community. Based on a person-centered approach, the classification corresponds to substantively meaningful groups of individuals who present with a comparable constellation of health problems. Using data collected for the SIPA project, a system of integrated care for frail older people (n = 1164), we performed latent class analyses to identify homogenous categories of health status (i.e. health profiles) based on 17 indicators of prevalent health problems (chronic conditions; depression; cognition; functional and sensory limitations; instrumental, mobility and personal care disability) Then, we conducted latent transition analyses to study change in profile membership over 2 consecutive periods of 12 and 10 months, respectively. We modeled competing risks for mortality and lost to follow-up as absorbing states to avoid attrition biases. We identified four health profiles that distinguish the physical and cognitive dimensions of health and capture severity along the disability dimension. The profiles are stable over time and robust to mortality and lost to follow-up attrition. The differentiated and gender-specific patterns of transition probabilities demonstrate the profiles' sensitivity to change in health status and unmasked the differential relationship of physical and cognitive domains with progression in disability. Our approach may prove useful at organization and policy levels where many issues call for classification of individuals into pragmatically meaningful groups. In dealing with attrition biases, our analytical strategy could provide critical information for the planning of longitudinal studies of aging

  18. Lived experiences of self-care among older physically active urban-living individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundsli K

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Kari Sundsli,1,2 Geir Arild Espnes,3 Olle Söderhamn21Department of Social Work and Health Science, Faculty of Social Sciences and Technology Management, NTNU, Trondheim, Norway, 2Centre for Caring Research, Southern Norway, Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Agder, Grimstad, Norway, 3Research Centre for Health Promotion and Resources HiST-NTNU, Department of Social Work and Health Science, Faculty of Social Sciences and Technology Management, NTNU, Trondheim, NorwayBackground: Promoting physical activity is a public health priority in most industrial countries, and physical function is an important factor when taking into consideration older people’s self-care and health. Despite the increasing challenges associated with urbanization and the aging population, urban life appears to be positive in many ways for urban dwellers. However, the manner in which older people live in urban settings and how this influences their ability to take care of themselves should be considered important knowledge for health professionals and politicians to acquire. The aim of this study was to describe the lived experiences of self-care and features that may influence health and self-care among older urban home-dwelling individuals who are physically active.Methods: Ten subjects, three women and seven men, who were aged 65–82 years and identified to be physically active, were interviewed. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed according to the descriptive phenomenological method devised by Giorgi.Results: Our findings showed beneficial self-care. The participants lived active everyday lives and were frequently physically active. They were part of a supportive, inclusive, and promoting fellowship, and they had the opportunity to travel. They utilized their competence and experienced making themselves useful. It was a privilege to be part of a family life as a husband, wife, parent, and/or a grandparent. They

  19. Factors associated with poor balance ability in older adults of nine high-altitude communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrunaga-Pastor, Diego; Moncada-Mapelli, Enrique; Runzer-Colmenares, Fernando M; Bailon-Valdez, Zaira; Samper-Ternent, Rafael; Rodriguez-Mañas, Leocadio; Parodi, Jose F

    2018-05-01

    Poor balance ability in older adults result in multiple complications. Poor balance ability has not been studied among older adults living at high altitudes. In this study, we analysed factors associated with poor balance ability by using the Functional Reach (FR) among older adults living in nine high-altitude communities. Analytical cross-sectional study, carried out in inhabitants aged 60 or over from nine high-altitude Andean communities of Peru during 2013-2016. FR was divided according to the cut-off point of 8 inches (20.32 cm) and two groups were generated: poor balance ability (FR less or equal than 20.32 cm) and good balance ability (greater than 20.32 cm). Additionally, we collected socio-demographic, medical, functional and cognitive assessment information. Poisson regression models were constructed to identify factors associated with poor balance ability. Prevalence ratio (PR) with 95% confidence intervals (95CI%) are presented. A total of 365 older adults were studied. The average age was 73.0 ± 6.9 years (range: 60-91 years), and 180 (49.3%) participants had poor balance ability. In the adjusted Poisson regression analysis, the factors associated with poor balance ability were: alcohol consumption (PR = 1.35; 95%CI: 1.05-1.73), exhaustion (PR = 2.22; 95%CI: 1.49-3.31), gait speed (PR = 0.67; 95%CI: 0.50-0.90), having had at least one fall in the last year (PR = 2.03; 95%CI: 1.19-3.46), having at least one comorbidity (PR = 1.60; 95%CI: 1.10-2.35) and having two or more comorbidities (PR = 1.61; 95%CI: 1.07-2.42) compared to none. Approximately a half of the older adults from these high-altitude communities had poor balance ability. Interventions need to be designed to target these balance issues and prevent adverse events from concurring to these individuals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Labour Force Participation Rates of Older Persons: An International Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Robert L.; Anker, Richard

    1990-01-01

    Using data from 151 countries, labor force participation of older men and women was analyzed and related to economic, demographic, and policy variables. Reduced participation rates are related to increased income levels, structural changes, social security programs, and, for men, the ratio of older persons to persons of standard working age. (SK)

  1. Objective measurements of daily physical activity patterns and sedentary behaviour in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnardottir, Nanna Yr; Koster, Annemarie; Van Domelen, Dane R

    2013-01-01

    objectively measured population physical activity (PA) data from older persons is lacking. The aim of this study was to describe free-living PA patterns and sedentary behaviours in Icelandic older men and women using accelerometer.......objectively measured population physical activity (PA) data from older persons is lacking. The aim of this study was to describe free-living PA patterns and sedentary behaviours in Icelandic older men and women using accelerometer....

  2. 2012 American Geriatrics Society Beers criteria: enhanced applicability for detecting potentially inappropriate medications in European older adults? A comparison with the Screening Tool of Older Person's Potentially Inappropriate Prescriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Reina, Encarnación; Ariza-Zafra, Gabriel; Ocaña-Riola, Ricardo; León-Ortiz, Matilde

    2014-07-01

    To determine the prevalence of potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) and related factors through a comparative analysis of the Screening Tool of Older Person's Potentially Inappropriate Prescriptions (STOPP), the 2003 Beers criteria, and the 2012 AGS update of the Beers criteria. Cross-sectional. Primary care. Community-dwelling persons aged 65 and older who live on the island of Lanzarote, Spain (N = 407). Sociodemographic characteristics; independence in activities of daily living; cognitive function; Geriatric Depression Scale; clinical diagnoses; and complete data on indication, dosage, and length of drug treatments. One thousand eight hundred seventh-two prescriptions were examined, and the rate of PIMs was assessed with the three criteria. The primary endpoint was the percentage of participants receiving at least one PIM. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the factors related to PIMs. Potentially inappropriate medications were present in 24.3%, 35.4%, and 44% of participants, according to the 2003 Beers criteria, STOPP, and 2012 Beers criteria, respectively. The profile of PIMs was also different (the most frequent being benzodiazepines in both Beers criteria lists and aspirin in the STOPP). The number of drugs was associated with risk of prescribing PIMs in all three models, as was the presence of a psychological disorder in the 2003 Beers criteria (odds ratio (OR) = 2.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.26-3.40) and the 2012 Beers criteria (OR = 2.91, 95% CI = 1.83-4.66). The kappa for degree of agreement between STOPP and the 2012 Beers criteria was 0.35 (95% CI = 0.25-0.44). The 2012 Beers criteria detected the highest number of PIMs, and given the scant overlapping with the STOPP criteria, the use of both tools may be seen as complementary. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.

  3. Neighbourhood social and built environment factors and falls in community-dwelling canadian older adults: A validation study and exploration of structural confounding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Vafaei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Older persons are vulnerable to the ill effects of their social and built environment due to age-related limitations in mobility and bio-psychological vulnerability. Falls are common in older adults and result from complex interactions between individual, social, and contextual determinants. We addressed two methodological issues of neighbourhood-health and social epidemiological studies in this analysis: (1 validity of measures of neighbourhood contexts, and (2 structural confounding resulting from social sorting mechanisms. Baseline data from International Mobility in Aging Study were used. Samples included community-dwelling Canadians older than 65 living in Kingston (Ontario and St-Hyacinthe (Quebec. We performed factor analysis and ecometric analysis to assess the validity of measures of neighbourhood social capital, socioeconomic status, and the built environment and stratified tabular analyses to explore structural confounding. The scales all demonstrated good psychometric and ecometric properties. There was an evidence of the existence of structural confounding in this sample of Canadian older adults as some combinations of strata for the three neighbourhood measures had no population. This limits causal inference in studying relationships between neighbourhood factors and falls and should be taken into account in aetiological aging research. Keywords: Ecometric analysis, Falls, Social and built environment, Neighbourhoods, Older adults, Social Capital, Structural confounding, Validity

  4. Development and psychometric properties of the Maastricht Personal Autonomy Questionnaire (MPAQ) in older adults with a chronic physical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, Godelief M J; van Eijk, Jacques Th M; Post, Marcel W M; Proot, Ireen M; Mesters, Ilse; Kempen, Gertrudis I J M

    2014-08-01

    To develop and test the Maastricht Personal Autonomy Questionnaire (MPAQ), an instrument measuring personal autonomy of older adults with a chronic physical illness in accordance with their experience of autonomy. Achievement of personal autonomy is conceptualized as correspondence between the way people's lives are actually arranged and the way people want to arrange their lives. A field test was conducted in three waves (n = 412, n = 125 and n = 244) among a random sample of people older than 59 years with either chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or diabetes mellitus. Construct validity, reproducibility and responsiveness were evaluated. The MPAQ entailing 16 items consists of three scales: degree of (personal) autonomy, working on autonomy and dilemmas. Construct validity was largely supported by confirmatory factor analysis and correlations between the MPAQ and other instruments. Intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.61 to 0.80 and SRDsgroup from 0.10 to 0.13. Mean change was larger (0.54) than was SRDgroup (0.11) in patients who had deteriorated, but smaller in patients who had improved (0.07). The MPAQ has good content and construct validity and moderate reproducibility. Responsiveness is weak, although better for deterioration than for improvement.

  5. Smart homes and ambient assisted living applications: from data to knowledge-empowering or overwhelming older adults? Contribution of the IMIA Smart Homes and Ambiant Assisted Living Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiris, G; Thompson, H

    2011-01-01

    As health care systems face limited resources and workforce shortages to address the complex needs of older adult populations, innovative approaches utilizing information technology can support aging. Smart Home and Ambient Assisted Living (SHAAL) systems utilize advanced and ubiquitous technologies including sensors and other devices that are integrated in the residential infrastructure or wearable, to capture data describing activities of daily living and health related events. This paper highlights how data from SHAAL systems can lead to information and knowledge that ultimately improves clinical outcomes and quality of life for older adults as well as quality of health care services. We conducted a review of personal health record applications specifically for older adults and approaches to using information to improve elder care. We present a framework that showcases how data captured from SHAAL systems can be processed to provide meaningful information that becomes part of a personal health record. Synthesis and visualization of information resulting from SHAAL systems can lead to knowledge and support education, delivery of tailored interventions and if needed, transitions in care. Such actions can involve multiple stakeholders as part of shared decision making. SHAAL systems have the potential to support aging and improve quality of life and decision making for older adults and their families. The framework presented in this paper demonstrates how emphasis needs to be placed into extracting meaningful information from new innovative systems that will support decision making. The challenge for informatics designers and researchers is to facilitate an evolution of SHAAL systems expanding beyond demonstration projects to actual interventions that will improve health care for older adults.

  6. Perturbation Training Can Reduce Community-Dwelling Older Adults’ Annual Fall Risk: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Tanvi; Yang, Feng; Wang, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Background. Previous studies indicated that a single session of repeated-slip exposure can reduce over 40% of laboratory-induced falls among older adults. The purpose of this study was to determine to what degree such perturbation training translated to the reduction of older adults’ annual falls risk in their everyday living. Methods. Two hundred and twelve community-dwelling older adults (≥65 years old) were randomly assigned to either the training group (N = 109), who then were exposed to 24 unannounced repeated slips, or the control group (N = 103), who merely experienced one slip during the same walking in the same protective laboratory environment. We recorded their falls in the preceding year (through self-reported history) and during the next 12 months (through falls diary and monitored with phone calls). Results. With this single session of repeated-slip exposure, training cut older adults’ annual risk of falls by 50% (from 34% to 15%, p fall during the same 12-month follow-up period (p falls. Conclusion. A single session of repeated-slip exposure could improve community-dwelling older adults’ resilience to postural disturbances and, hence, significantly reduce their annual risk of falls. PMID:24966227

  7. The health benefits following regular ongoing exercise lifestyle in independent community-dwelling older Taiwanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ching-Yi; Yeh, Chih-Jung; Wang, Chia-Wei; Wang, Chun-Feng; Lin, Yen-Ling

    2011-03-01

    To examine the effect of regular ongoing exercise lifestyle on mental and physical health in a group of independent community-dwelling Taiwanese older adults over a 2-year period. 197 older adults (mean age 72.5 years; 106 men and 91 women) who were independent in walking, instrumental and basic activities of daily living completed the baseline and a 2-year follow-up assessment. Older adults regularly performing exercises during the 2-year study period were grouped into regular exercise group; otherwise in the irregular exercise group. Baseline and follow-up assessments included a face-to-face interview and a battery of performance tests. The regular exercise group showed significantly less depression (P = 0.03) and tended to regress less on the performance tests (P = 0.025-0.410) across 2 years compared to the irregular exercise group. Regular exercise is important for maintaining or even improving mental and functional health, even for independent community-dwelling older adults. © 2010 The Authors. Australasian Journal on Ageing © 2010 ACOTA.

  8. Psychotherapeutic treatment levels of personality disorders in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Videler, Arjan; Cornelis, Christina; Rossi, G.; van Royen, R.J.J.; Rosowsky, E.; van Alphen, S.P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of personality disorders (PDs) in older adults is a highly underexplored topic. In this article clinical applicability of the findings from a recent Delphi study regarding treatment aspects of PDs in older adults is explored. This concerns the relevance of three psychotherapeutic treatment levels for PDs in later life: (a) personality-changing treatment, (b) adaptation-enhancing treatment, and (c) supportive-structuring treatment. By means of three cases concerning the three levels,...

  9. Personality traits and perceived social support among depressed older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukrowicz, Kelly C; Franzese, Alexis T; Thorp, Steven R; Cheavens, Jennifer S; Lynch, Thomas R

    2008-09-01

    The contribution of personality traits and social support to mental health is well established, but to our knowledge there have been no longitudinal investigations of the relation between personality and social support in depressed older adults. In the current study, we examined a repeated measures multi-level mixed model of change in perceived social support to determine whether personality traits and depressive symptoms were associated with changes in perceived social support over the 3 year study interval in a sample of depressed older adults. Results suggest that Conscientiousness and Extraversion were personality traits that were significantly predictive of changes in perceived social support over this time interval. Based on these results it appears that, among depressed older adults, those with conscientious or extraverted personality traits are more likely to resist impulses to withdraw from relationships. In addition, these traits may lead to more satisfying interactions and greater perceived social support over time. The implications of these results are discussed.

  10. Statin Use and Self-Reported Hindering Muscle Complaints in Older Persons: A Population Based Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milly A van der Ploeg

    Full Text Available Statins are widely used by older persons in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Although serious adverse events are rare, many statin users report mild muscle pain and/or muscle weakness. It's unclear what impact statins exert on a patient's daily life. Research on statin related side effects in older persons is relatively scarce. We therefore investigated the relation between statin use and self-reported hindering muscle complaints in older persons in the general population.The present research was performed within the Integrated Systematic Care for Older Persons (ISCOPE study in the Netherlands (Netherlands trial register, NTR1946. All registered adults aged ≥ 75 years from 59 participating practices (n = 12,066 were targeted. Information about the medical history and statin use at baseline and after 9 months was available for 4355 participants from the Electronic Patient Records of the general practitioners. In the screening questionnaire at baseline we asked participants: 'At the moment, which health complaints limit you the most in your day-to-day life?' Answers indicating muscle or musculoskeletal complaints were coded as such. No specific questions about muscle complaints were asked.The participants had a median age of 80.3 (IQR 77.6-84.4 years, 60.8% were female and 28.5% had a history of CVD. At baseline 29% used a statin. At follow-up, no difference was found in the prevalence of self-reported hindering muscle complaints in statin users compared to non-statin users (3.3% vs. 2.5%, OR 1.39, 95% CI 0.94-2.05; P = 0.98. Discontinuation of statin use during follow-up was independent of self-reported hindering muscle complaints.Based on the present findings, prevalent statin use in this community-dwelling older population is not associated with self-reported hindering muscle complaints; however, the results might be different for incident users.

  11. Statin Use and Self-Reported Hindering Muscle Complaints in Older Persons: A Population Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ploeg, Milly A; Poortvliet, Rosalinde K E; van Blijswijk, Sophie C E; den Elzen, Wendy P J; van Peet, Petra G; de Ruijter, Wouter; Blom, Jeanet W; Gussekloo, Jacobijn

    2016-01-01

    Statins are widely used by older persons in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Although serious adverse events are rare, many statin users report mild muscle pain and/or muscle weakness. It's unclear what impact statins exert on a patient's daily life. Research on statin related side effects in older persons is relatively scarce. We therefore investigated the relation between statin use and self-reported hindering muscle complaints in older persons in the general population. The present research was performed within the Integrated Systematic Care for Older Persons (ISCOPE) study in the Netherlands (Netherlands trial register, NTR1946). All registered adults aged ≥ 75 years from 59 participating practices (n = 12,066) were targeted. Information about the medical history and statin use at baseline and after 9 months was available for 4355 participants from the Electronic Patient Records of the general practitioners. In the screening questionnaire at baseline we asked participants: 'At the moment, which health complaints limit you the most in your day-to-day life?' Answers indicating muscle or musculoskeletal complaints were coded as such. No specific questions about muscle complaints were asked. The participants had a median age of 80.3 (IQR 77.6-84.4) years, 60.8% were female and 28.5% had a history of CVD. At baseline 29% used a statin. At follow-up, no difference was found in the prevalence of self-reported hindering muscle complaints in statin users compared to non-statin users (3.3% vs. 2.5%, OR 1.39, 95% CI 0.94-2.05; P = 0.98). Discontinuation of statin use during follow-up was independent of self-reported hindering muscle complaints. Based on the present findings, prevalent statin use in this community-dwelling older population is not associated with self-reported hindering muscle complaints; however, the results might be different for incident users.

  12. Resilience in Rural Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Context: Identifying ways to meet the health care needs of older adults is important because their numbers are increasing and they often have more health care issues. High resilience level may be one factor that helps older adults adjust to the hardships associated with aging. Rural community-dwelling older adults often face unique challenges such…

  13. A literature-based intervention for older people living with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billington, Josie; Carroll, Janine; Davis, Philip; Healey, Christine; Kinderman, Peter

    2013-05-01

    While several studies have explored the impact of literature and reading on mental health, there has been relatively little work done on how a literature-based intervention might impact on the behaviours of those living with dementia. The present report addresses the effect that a specific literature-based intervention - Get into Reading, designed and practised by national charity The Reader Organisation - might have on the health and well-being of people living with dementia. This present study arises out of a service evaluation that specifically assessed to what extent the shared-reading intervention impacted upon behaviours symptomatic of dementia. Its aims were: (1) to understand the influence that reading has on older adults with dementia in different health-care environments; (2) to identify staff perceptions of the influence that engagement in a reading group has on older adults living with dementia; and (3) to investigate any changes in dementia symptoms of older adults participating in a reading group. The study employed a mixed-method design conducted within three health-care environments: three care homes, two hospital wards and one day centre. The Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire (NPI-Q) assessed staff views of any changes in dementia symptom severity for participants in reading groups conducted in the care homes. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were then conducted with staff who attended the reading groups and/or had extensive knowledge of service users involved in all of the health-care settings. Responses to questions were recorded verbatim and then subject to thematic analysis. 61 service users and 20 staff members took part in the overall project. The NPI-Q results indicate that symptom scores were lower during the reading group period than at baseline. These findings were supported by the qualitative interviews, which suggested that three themes were perceived to be important to effective engagement with the reading groups: (1) the

  14. Depression And Loneliness Levels Among the Older People, a Comparison Between Living Alone, Living with Family or Living at Nursing Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ege Agirman

    2017-09-01

    CONCLUSION: In the study, we found out that, rate of depression in older people is higher than the level in entire society, the same is true for the sense of loneliness, loneliness becomes more fierce, as depression becomes stronger, The older people living alone are more exposed to depression compared to the ones living with family or being nursed, and loneliness becomes a more important problem for these people, [J Contemp Med 2017; 7(3.000: 234-240

  15. Home as a health promotion setting for older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahler, Marianne; Sarvimäki, Anneli; Clancy, Anne

    2014-01-01

    promotion care. As official guidelines in the Nordic countries state that home is the best place to grow old, it is essential that older persons keep their health and functional capacity in order to be able to live at home for as long as possible. As current policy emphasises living at home, home care......The number and the proportion of older persons is growing in the Nordic Countries. The growth in the older population has a clear impact on the care system for older persons. One trend is to prioritise home care instead of care in institutions. Another trend is to emphasise preventive and health......, preventive work and health promotion it becomes essential to study the home as a health promotion setting. Objective: The aim of this study was to reach a new understanding of home as a health promotion setting for older persons. Study design: The method used was a literature reflection and analysis...

  16. Interventions to delay institutionalization of frail older persons: design of a longitudinal study in the home care setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Almeida Mello Johanna

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Older people usually prefer staying at home rather than going into residential care. The Belgian National Institute for Health and Disability Insurance wishes to invest in home care by financing innovative projects that effectively help older people to stay at home longer. In this study protocol we describe the evaluation of 34 home care projects. These projects are clustered according to the type of their main intervention such as case management, night care, occupational therapy at home and psychological/psychosocial support. The main goal of this study is to identify which types of projects have the most effect in delaying institutionalization of frail older persons. Methods/design This is a longitudinal intervention study based on a quasi-experimental design. Researchers use three comparison strategies to evaluate intervention - comparison among different types of projects, comparisons between older persons in the projects and older persons not benefiting from a project but who are still at home and between older persons in the projects and older persons who are already institutionalized. Projects are asked to include clients who are frail and at risk of institutionalization. In the study we use internationally validated instruments such as the interRAI Home Care instrument, the WHO-QOL-8 and the Zarit Burden Interview-12. These instruments are filled out at baseline, at exit from the project and 6 months after baseline. Additionally, caregivers have to do a follow-up every 6 months until exit from the project. Criteria to exit the cohort will be institutionalization longer than 3 months and death. The main analysis in the study consists of the calculation of incidence rates, cumulative incidence rates and hazard rates of definitive institutionalization through survival analyses for each type of project. Discussion This research will provide knowledge on the functional status of frail older persons who are still living at

  17. Interventions to delay institutionalization of frail older persons: design of a longitudinal study in the home care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Almeida Mello, Johanna; Van Durme, Therese; Macq, Jean; Declercq, Anja

    2012-08-06

    Older people usually prefer staying at home rather than going into residential care. The Belgian National Institute for Health and Disability Insurance wishes to invest in home care by financing innovative projects that effectively help older people to stay at home longer. In this study protocol we describe the evaluation of 34 home care projects. These projects are clustered according to the type of their main intervention such as case management, night care, occupational therapy at home and psychological/psychosocial support. The main goal of this study is to identify which types of projects have the most effect in delaying institutionalization of frail older persons. This is a longitudinal intervention study based on a quasi-experimental design. Researchers use three comparison strategies to evaluate intervention--comparison among different types of projects, comparisons between older persons in the projects and older persons not benefiting from a project but who are still at home and between older persons in the projects and older persons who are already institutionalized. Projects are asked to include clients who are frail and at risk of institutionalization. In the study we use internationally validated instruments such as the interRAI Home Care instrument, the WHO-QOL-8 and the Zarit Burden Interview-12. These instruments are filled out at baseline, at exit from the project and 6 months after baseline. Additionally, caregivers have to do a follow-up every 6 months until exit from the project. Criteria to exit the cohort will be institutionalization longer than 3 months and death. The main analysis in the study consists of the calculation of incidence rates, cumulative incidence rates and hazard rates of definitive institutionalization through survival analyses for each type of project. This research will provide knowledge on the functional status of frail older persons who are still living at home. This is important information to identify determinants of

  18. General life satisfaction predicts dementia in community living older adults: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peitsch, Lorraine; Tyas, Suzanne L; Menec, Verena H; St John, Philip D

    2016-07-01

    Low life satisfaction predicts adverse outcomes, and may predict dementia. The objectives were: (1) to determine if life satisfaction predicts dementia over a five year period in those with normal cognition at baseline; and (2) to determine if different aspects of life satisfaction differentially predict dementia. Secondary analysis of an existing population-based cohort study with initial assessment in 1991 and follow-up five years later. Initially, 1,751 adults age 65+ living in the community were sampled from a representative sampling frame. Of these, 1,024 were alive and had complete data at time 2, of whom 96 were diagnosed with dementia. Life satisfaction was measured using the Terrible-Delightful scale, which measures overall life satisfaction on a 7-point scale, as well as various aspects of life satisfaction (e.g. friendships, finances, etc.) Dementia was diagnosed by clinical examination using DSM-IIIR criteria. Logistic regression models were constructed for the outcome of dementia at time 2, and adjusted for age, gender, education, and comorbidities. Overall life satisfaction predicted dementia five years later, at time 2. The unadjusted Odds Ratio (OR; 95% confidence interval) for dementia at time 2 was 0.72 (0.55, 0.95) per point. The adjusted OR for dementia was 0.70 (0.51, 0.96). No individual item on the life satisfaction scale predicted dementia. However, the competing risk of mortality was very high for some items. A global single-item measure of life satisfaction predicts dementia over a five year period in older adults without cognitive impairment.

  19. Personality disorder traits, risk factors, and suicide ideation among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, Danielle R; Poindexter, Erin K; Cukrowicz, Kelly C

    2015-11-01

    Personality disorder traits are relatively prevalent among older adults, and can be associated with complex and chronic difficulties, including suicide risk. However, there is a lack of research regarding personality disorders and suicide ideation in older adults. Depressive symptoms and hopelessness may be important to the relation between personality disorders and suicide risk. Additionally, variables from the interpersonal theory of suicide, perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness, may be critical risk factors for suicide in this population. We hypothesized that perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness, theory-based variables, would act as parallel mediators of the relation between personality disorder traits and suicide ideation, whereas depressive symptoms and hopelessness would not. The hypothesis was tested in a sample of 143 older adults recruited from a primary care setting. Participants completed self-report questionnaires of personality traits, suicide ideation, depressive symptoms, hopelessness, perceived burdensomeness, and thwarted belongingness. Findings from a non-parametric bootstrapping procedure indicated that perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and depressive symptoms mediated the relation between total personality disorder traits and suicide ideation. Hopelessness did not act as a mediator. These findings indicate that perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and depressive symptoms are likely important risk factors for suicide ideation among older adults. Clinicians should be aware of these issues when assessing and treating suicide risk among older adults.

  20. Living Well with Living Wills: Application of Protection Motivation Theory to Living Wills Among Older Caucasian and African American Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Rebecca S; Phillips, Laura L; Pekmezi, Dorothy; Crowther, Martha R; Prentice-Dunn, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Using protection motivation theory, we examined racial differences in intent to complete a living will, rational problem solving (e.g., information seeking), and maladaptive coping responses (i.e., wishful thinking) to a health crisis. Sixty healthy, older adults without living wills responded to written vignettes, including information about living wills as an effective coping mechanism to avoid a health crisis. Use of adaptive coping responses predicted intent to execute a living will. A significant race-by-threat interaction predicted use of rational problem solving, with Caucasians more likely to seek information in response to perceived threat in comparison with African Americans. A significant race-by-adaptive-coping interaction predicted maladaptive coping, indicating that Caucasians were more variable in their maladaptive responses. The effectiveness of health care messages regarding living wills for older adults may be enhanced by focusing on racial differences in response to perceived health threat and perceived adaptive coping information.

  1. Self-reported skin concerns: An epidemiological study of community-dwelling older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowdell, Fiona; Dyson, Judith; Long, Judith; Macleod, Una

    2018-03-25

    To identify the frequency and impact of self-reported skin concerns in community-dwelling older people. Globally, the population is getting older and it is essential to develop effective interventions to promote healthy ageing. Skin change with age is inevitable and renders this often neglected organ more vulnerable to damage and breakdown; this can be costly to individuals and society. Maintenance of skin health in older people presents a health challenge that has yet to be fully understood or addressed. Cross-sectional, self-reported questionnaire survey in England. Patients registered with participating general practices (n = 3), aged ≥70 years, living in their own homes and able to give informed consent (n = 3,359) were sent a letter of invitation to a free health and care assessment, and 1116 responded. When asked "do you have any concerns about your skin?", 16.5% (n = 183) said yes. Of this group, the most common concerns were dry skin 80.7% (n = 146), itching 56.9% (n = 103) and aged appearance 61% (n = 113). Itch, dry skin and inflammation were rated as most bothersome. There was a significant association between the dry skin and itch χ 2 (1) = 6.9, p < .05. Many community-dwelling older people suffer from skin concerns predominantly dry skin and itching that is often bothersome. Skin health assessment is often absent in routine consultations with community-dwelling older people. Dry, itchy skin is prevalent and can be simply managed with low-cost interventions. This has the potential to reduce suffering and maintain or improve skin barrier function. Nurses and other health professionals should therefore routinely assess and advise on skin health care for this population. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The Meaning of Everyday Meals in Living Units for Older People

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Karen Marie

    2005-01-01

    Even when frail older people become unable to live on their own and manage everyday activities, they can still experience a variety of meanings within meal-related activities that contribute to quality of life. This article reports research findings that focused on the meal, from preparation......, adjacent to which is a shared dining room and kitchen. If the residents choose to, and are capable, they are involved in everyday activities of the unit and eat together with staff. This way of organising meals seems to influence most of the everyday life in the unit by shaping a homely place. It also...... enables a living community that acts in and enlivens everyday existence. Meals themselves also make it possible to be somebody and be yourself in ordinary life and to make a place for valued occupations, things that give substance to everyday life. In sum, the study found that as an occupation, meals give...

  3. Gender-specific hip fracture risk in community-dwelling and institutionalized seniors age 65 years and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finsterwald, M; Sidelnikov, E; Orav, E J; Dawson-Hughes, B; Theiler, R; Egli, A; Platz, A; Simmen, H P; Meier, C; Grob, D; Beck, S; Stähelin, H B; Bischoff-Ferrari, H A

    2014-01-01

    In this study of acute hip fracture patients, we show that hip fracture rates differ by gender between community-dwelling seniors and seniors residing in nursing homes. While women have a significantly higher rate of hip fracture among the community-dwelling seniors, men have a significantly higher rate among nursing home residents. Differences in gender-specific hip fracture risk between community-dwelling and institutionalized seniors have not been well established, and seasonality of hip fracture risk has been controversial. We analyzed detailed data from 1,084 hip fracture patients age 65 years and older admitted to one large hospital center in Zurich, Switzerland. In a sensitivity analysis, we extend to de-personalized data from 1,265 hip fracture patients from the other two large hospital centers in Zurich within the same time frame (total n = 2,349). The denominators were person-times accumulated by the Zurich population in the corresponding age/gender/type of dwelling stratum in each calendar season for the period of the study. In the primary analysis of 1,084 hip fracture patients (mean age 85.1 years; 78% women): Among community-dwelling seniors, the risk of hip fracture was twofold higher among women compared with men (RR = 2.16; 95% CI, 1.74-2.69) independent of age, season, number of comorbidities, and cognitive function; among institutionalized seniors, the risk of hip fracture was 26% lower among women compared with men (RR = 0.77; 95% CI: 0.63-0.95) adjusting for the same confounders. In the sensitivity analysis of 2,349 hip fracture patients (mean age 85.0 years, 76% women), this pattern remained largely unchanged. There is no seasonal swing in hip fracture incidence. We confirm for seniors living in the community that women have a higher risk of hip fracture than men. However, among institutionalized seniors, men are at higher risk for hip fracture.

  4. Experiences of women living with borderline personality disorder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is limited understanding of the experiences of women living with borderline personality disorder. It was therefore decided to discover how women living with this disorder would tell their life story. For the researcher, who worked in a psychotherapy ward where most women were living with borderline personality ...

  5. The association between physical activity and social isolation in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Lauren M; Hill, Keith D; Finch, Caroline F; Clemson, Lindy; Haines, Terry

    2018-02-01

    Social isolation is an increasing concern in older community-dwelling adults. There is growing need to determine effective interventions addressing social isolation. This study aimed to determine whether a relationship exists between physical activity (recreational and/or household-based) and social isolation. An examination was conducted for whether group- or home-based falls prevention exercise was associated with social isolation. Cross-sectional analysis of telephone survey data was used to investigate relationships between physical activity, health, age, gender, living arrangements, ethnicity and participation in group- or home-based falls prevention exercise on social isolation. Univariable and multivariable ordered logistic regression analyses were conducted. Factors found to be significantly associated with reduced social isolation in multivariable analysis included living with a partner/spouse, reporting better general health, higher levels of household-based physical activity (OR = 1.03, CI = 1.01-1.05) and feeling less downhearted/depressed. Being more socially isolated was associated with symptoms of depression and a diagnosis of congestive heart failure (pseudo R 2 = 0.104). Findings suggest that household-based physical activity is related to social isolation in community-dwelling older adults. Further research is required to determine the nature of this relationship and to investigate the impact of group physical activity interventions on social isolation.

  6. Effects of progressive resistance training on physical disability among older community-dwelling people with history of hip fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgren, Johanna; Rantanen, Taina; Heinonen, Ari; Portegijs, Erja; Alén, Markku; Kiviranta, Ilkka; Kallinen, Mauri; Sipilä, Sarianna

    2012-04-01

    Hip fracture is a common trauma in older people, and often leads to decreased muscle strength and increased physical disability. This randomized controlled trial examined whether three months of progressive resistance training (PRT) can reduce physical disability among older people with a history of hip fracture. A population-based sample of 60-85-year-old community- dwelling persons, with hip fractures sustained on average three years earlier, were enrolled in the study. Of 78 people participating in laboratory assessments, those without contraindications for participation in resistance training were randomly assigned to a training group (TG, n=22) or a control group (CG, n=21). TG took part in resistance training for three months twice a week. Training focused on lower limb muscles. Disability was assessed by a validated questionnaire containing six questions on activities of daily living (ADL) and nine on instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). A sum score was calculated separately for both items. High scores indicated more difficulties. Group differences were analysed with the Mann-Whitney and Chi-square tests. The effects of PRT on disability were tested with the McNemar test and by covariance analysis (ANCOVA). TG and CG were comparable with respect to gender, age, chronic diseases, BMI, time since fracture, self-reported health, and level of physical activity at baseline. The ADL sum score in TG was 1.8 (2.0) at baseline and 1.1 (1.3) after follow-up; in CG values were 1.7 (1.8) and 1.5 (1.8) (ANCOVA p=0.034). IADL sum scores in TG were 3.9 (4.6) at baseline and 2.2 (3.8) after follow-up, and in CG 3.4 (3.6) and 2.4 (2.3) (ANCOVA p=0.529). Progressive resistance training reduced self-reported difficulties in ADL, even several years after fracture. More research is still needed on how to prevent physical disability among community-dwelling older people, especially after hip fracture.

  7. Living Arrangement and Life Satisfaction in Older Malaysians: The Mediating Role of Social Support Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooshiar, Hadi; Yahaya, Nurizan; Hamid, Tengku Aizan; Abu Samah, Asnarulkhadi; Sedaghat Jou, Vajiheh

    2012-01-01

    Background This cross-sectional and correlational survey examines the association between different types of living arrangements and life satisfaction in older Malaysians, while taking into account the mediating effects of social support function. Methodology and Findings A total of 1880 of older adults were selected by multistage stratified sampling. Life satisfaction and social support were measured with the Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale and Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey. The result shows living with children as the commonest type of living arrangement for older adults in peninsular Malaysia. Compared to living alone, living only with a spouse especially and then co-residency with children were both associated with better life satisfaction (psocial support function (psocial support function enhanced the relation between living arrangements and life satisfaction. Conclusion This study revealed that types of living arrangement directly, and indirectly through social support function, play an important role in predicting life satisfaction for older adults in Malaysia. This study makes remarkable contributions to the Convoy model in older Malaysians. PMID:22912806

  8. Estimating peer density effects on oral health for community-based older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Bibhas; Widener, Michael J; Mirzaei Salehabadi, Sedigheh; Northridge, Mary E; Kum, Susan S; Jin, Zhu; Kunzel, Carol; Palmer, Harvey D; Metcalf, Sara S

    2017-12-29

    As part of a long-standing line of research regarding how peer density affects health, researchers have sought to understand the multifaceted ways that the density of contemporaries living and interacting in proximity to one another influence social networks and knowledge diffusion, and subsequently health and well-being. This study examined peer density effects on oral health for racial/ethnic minority older adults living in northern Manhattan and the Bronx, New York, NY. Peer age-group density was estimated by smoothing US Census data with 4 kernel bandwidths ranging from 0.25 to 1.50 mile. Logistic regression models were developed using these spatial measures and data from the ElderSmile oral and general health screening program that serves predominantly racial/ethnic minority older adults at community centers in northern Manhattan and the Bronx. The oral health outcomes modeled as dependent variables were ordinal dentition status and binary self-rated oral health. After construction of kernel density surfaces and multiple imputation of missing data, logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the effects of peer density and other sociodemographic characteristics on the oral health outcomes of dentition status and self-rated oral health. Overall, higher peer density was associated with better oral health for older adults when estimated using smaller bandwidths (0.25 and 0.50 mile). That is, statistically significant relationships (p density and improved dentition status were found when peer density was measured assuming a more local social network. As with dentition status, a positive significant association was found between peer density and fair or better self-rated oral health when peer density was measured assuming a more local social network. This study provides novel evidence that the oral health of community-based older adults is affected by peer density in an urban environment. To the extent that peer density signifies the potential for

  9. A Shortened Version of the Reasons for Living-Older Adults Scale for Clinical and Research Utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Julie; Edelstein, Barry; Katz, Emma; Gallegos, Jarred V

    2018-02-26

    Older adults have elevated suicide rates, and identification of protective factors, such as reasons for living, is important in preventing suicide. The Reasons for Living-Older Adults scale (RFL-OA) is a 69-item measure of these protective factors in late life, which yields good psychometric properties. However, its length limits its utility in some clinical and research contexts where a shorter measure is ideal. The objective of this study was to create a shortened version of the RFL-OA. First, data collected previously during validation of the original RFL-OA (n = 199, age 65 and older, 65% female) were used to select 30 items, spanning all content areas, that were highly endorsed. Second, new data were collected (n = 219, age 60 and older, 52% female) with the 30-item RFL-OA and measures of depression, hopelessness, suicidal ideation, religiosity, health, and social desirability to examine the measure's internal consistency and convergent and discriminant validity. Scores on the 30-item RFL-OA exhibited strong internal consistency. The short RFL-OA demonstrated good convergent validity via significant, moderate correlations with suicidal ideation, hopelessness, depression, and religiosity. It demonstrated adequate discriminant validity via only small correlations with disability, subjective health, and social desirability. The shorter RFL-OA has good psychometric properties among community-dwelling older adults. It may have greater utility, compared to the original 69-item measure, for clinicians and researchers with limited time but who want to assess protective factors against suicidal behavior in late life.

  10. Impact on participation and autonomy: test of validity and reliability for older persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Ottenvall Hammar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In research and healthcare it is important to measure older persons’ self-determination in order to improve their possibilities to decide for themselves in daily life. The questionnaire Impact on Participation and Autonomy (IPA assesses self-determination, but is not constructed for older persons. The aim of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of the IPA-S questionnaire for persons aged 70 years and older. The study was performed in two steps; first a validity test of the Swedish version of the questionnaire, IPA-S, followed by a reliability test-retest of an adjusted version. The validity was tested with focus groups and individual interviews on persons aged 77-88 years, and the reliability on persons aged 70-99 years. The validity test result showed that IPA-S is valid for older persons but it was too extensive and the phrasing of the items needed adjustments. The reliability test-retest on the adjusted questionnaire, IPA-Older persons (IPA-O, showed that 15 of 22 items had high agreement. IPA-O can be used to measure older persons’ self-determination in their care and rehabilitation.

  11. Is a change in functional capacity or dependency in activities of daily living associated with a change in mental health among older people living in residential care facilities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conradsson M

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Mia Conradsson,1 Håkan Littbrand,1,2 Gustaf Boström,1 Nina Lindelöf,1 Yngve Gustafson,1 Erik Rosendahl1,2 1Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; 2Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden Aim: Functional capacity and dependency in activities of daily living (ADL could be important mediators for an association between physical exercise and mental health. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a change in functional capacity or dependency in ADL is associated with a change in depressive symptoms and psychological well-being among older people living in residential care facilities, and whether dementia can be a moderating factor for this association. Methods: A prospective cohort study was undertaken. Participants were 206 older people, dependent in ADL, living in residential care facilities, 115 (56% of whom had diagnosed dementia. Multivariate linear regression, with comprehensive adjustment for potential confounders, was used to investigate associations between differences over 3 months in Berg Balance Scale (BBS and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15 scores, and in BBS and Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale (PGCMS scores. Associations were also investigated between differences in Barthel ADL Index and GDS-15 scores, and in Barthel ADL Index and PGCMS scores. Results: There were no significant associations between changes in scores over 3 months; the unstandardized β for associations between BBS and GDS-15 was 0.026 (P=0.31, BBS and PGCMS 0.045 (P=0.14, Barthel ADL Index and GDS-15 0.123 (P=0.06, and Barthel ADL Index and PGCMS -0.013 (P=0.86. There were no interaction effects for dementia. Conclusion: A change in functional capacity or dependency in ADL does not appear to be associated with a change in depressive symptoms or psychological well-being among older people living in residential care

  12. Multimicronutrient supplementation in older persons decreased zinc deficiency but not serum TNF-á

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elly Herwana

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the population of older persons needs to be accompanied by increased quality of healthcare in older persons, particularly a decrease in the incidence of infections. Impaired immune responses are common in older adults, and immune senescence likely contributes to the increased incidence of infectious diseases in the older persons. The aging process decreases the immune response and many studies have been conducted to explain the role of supplementation with various micronutrients, such as vitamin C, vitamin E, â-carotene and zinc, on the immune response. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of 6 months of multi-micronutrient (MMN supplementation on zinc and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-á levels in older persons. A randomized controlled trial was conducted on 78 older persons, who were divided into two groups. The treatment group received MMN supplementation containing 40 mg elemental zinc, 120 mg ascorbic acid, 6 mg â-carotene, 15 mg á-tocopherol and 400 ìg folic acid and the control group 400 mg calcium carbonate. The study did not demonstrate that 6 months of MMN supplementation resulted in significant differences between both groups, with respect to total protein, albumin, globulin, and TNF-á levels. In contrast, MMN supplementation significantly decreased the proportion of older persons with zinc deficiency in the treatment group, in comparison with the control group. The present data suggest that in older persons with relatively good immune and protein status, improvement of the immune status by MMN supplementation may be difficult and at best limited.

  13. Ageing and mental health resources for older persons in the African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To better understand the organisation of care for older persons, data are being collected to reduce the imbalance between 'disease information\\' and 'resource information\\' – information that addresses older persons\\' needs in terms of mental health care. This review presents some results from the continent. Mental health ...

  14. Daily Bicycling in Older Adults May Be Effective to Reduce Fall Risks - A Case Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batcir, Shani; Melzer, Itshak

    2018-01-18

    Older adults gain many health benefits from riding bicycles regularly. We aimed to explore whether older persons who ride bicycles regularly have better balance than controls. Balance control and voluntary stepping were assessed in 20 older adults aged 65 to 85 who live in an agricultural community village who regularly ride bicycles (BR), and 30 age- and gender-matched non-bicycle riders (NBR). Self-reported function and fear of fall were also assessed. Bicycle riders showed significantly better balance, faster voluntary stepping, and better self-reported advanced lower extremity function compared with NBR. The results might suggest that bicycling regularly preserves balance control and speed of voluntary stepping in older adults because bicycling might maintain specific balance coordination patterns. The results should be treated with caution since BR were older adults who selected an active life style (i.e., bicycling as well as living in an agricultural village) that may bias the results.

  15. Suicide Risk Factors Among Older Adults: Exploring Thwarted Belongingness and Perceived Burdensomeness in Relation to Personality and Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eades, Allison; Segal, Daniel L; Coolidge, Frederick L

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the role of personality and self-esteem in later life within two established risk factors for suicidal ideation (SI)-Thwarted Belongingness (TB) and Perceived Burdensomeness (PB). The data about personality (i.e., Five Factor Model [FFM] and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition Personality Disorders [PD]), self-esteem, TB, PB, and SI were collected from 102 community-dwelling older adults and analyzed using bivariate and multivariate techniques. All FFM domains and most PD traits were significantly correlated with SI, TB, and PB. Furthermore, FFM and PD traits explained a significant and meaningful amount of variance of SI, TB, and PB. Self-esteem demonstrated strong negative relationships with SI, TB, and PB. Personality features and self-esteem are important associated features for SI, TB, and PB. Clinicians should consider this information when assessing and evaluating for suicidal risk among older adults. The findings also highlight the need to consider personality traits in developing prevention strategies.

  16. The role of gender in the association between personality and task priority in older adults' dual-tasking while walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agmon, Maayan; Armon, Galit; Denesh, Shani; Doumas, Mihalis

    2018-01-02

    Falls are a major problem for older adults. Many falls occur when a person's attention is divided between two tasks, such as a dual task (DT) involving walking. Most recently, the role of personality in walking performance was addressed; however, its association with DT performance remains to be determined. This cross-sectional study of 73 older, community-dwelling adults explores the association between personality and DT walking and the role of gender in this relationship. Personality was evaluated using the five-factor model. Single-task (ST) and DT assessment of walking-cognitive DT performance comprised a 1-min walking task and an arithmetic task performed separately (ST) and concurrently (DT). Dual-task costs (DTCs), reflecting the proportional difference between ST and DT performance, were also calculated. Gender plays a role in the relationship between personality and DT. Extraversion was negatively associated with DTC-motor for men (ΔR 2  = 0.06, p fall prevention.

  17. Measuring personality functioning in older adults: construct validity of the Severity Indices of Personality Functioning - Short Form (SIPP-SF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Gina; Debast, Inge; van Alphen, S P J

    2017-07-01

    The dimensional personality disorders model in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)-5 section III conceptually differentiates impaired personality functioning (criterion A) from the presence of pathological traits (criterion B). This study is the first to specifically address the measurement of criterion A in older adults. Moreover, the convergent/divergent validity of criterion A and criterion B will be compared in younger and older age groups. The Severity Indices of Personality Functioning - Short Form (SIPP-SF) was administered in older (N = 171) and younger adults (N = 210). The factorial structure was analyzed with exploratory structural equation modeling. Differences in convergent/divergent validity between personality functioning (SIPP-SF) and pathological traits (Personality Inventory for DSM-5; Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire) were examined across age groups. Identity Integration, Relational Capacities, Responsibility, Self-Control, and Social Concordance were corroborated as higher order domains. Although the SIPP-SF domains measured unique variation, some high correlations with pathological traits referred to overlapping constructs. Moreover, in older adults, personality functioning was more strongly related to Psychoticism, Disinhibition, Antagonism and Dissocial Behavior compared to younger adults. The SIPP-SF construct validity was demonstrated in terms of a structure of five higher order domains of personality functioning. The instrument is promising as a possible measure of impaired personality functioning in older adults. As such, it is a useful clinical tool to follow up effects of therapy on levels of personality functioning. Moreover, traits were associated with different degrees of personality functioning across age groups.

  18. The Moderating Effect of Personality Type on the Relationship between Leisure Activity and Executive Control in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Nikki L.; Lin, Feng Vankee; Parisi, Jeanine M.; Kolanowski, Ann

    2016-01-01

    We examined the moderating effect of personality on the association between leisure activities and executive control in healthy community-dwelling older adults. We found two distinct personality typologies: individuals with a Resilient personality were characterized by emotional stability and self-confidence; whereas, those who resembled an Overcontrolled personality tended to be introverted, but also low on neuroticism. Resilient individuals were more likely than Overcontrolled individuals to demonstrate higher executive function and attention as a result of participation in mental activities. These results suggest that personality might be important to include in studies that test the efficacy of activity interventions for improving cognition. PMID:27087715

  19. Personal hygiene among primary school children living in a slum of Kolkata, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, M

    2013-09-01

    For children, maintenance of personal hygiene helps to improve the quality of life and longevity. This is of particular importance in a slum community with compromised living situation. This study was undertaken to find out the knowledge and practice of personal hygiene among the primary school children living in a slum area, to identify any misconception among them regarding the maintenance of personal hygiene, to find out their morbidity pattern, and also to elicit the relationship between practice of personal hygiene among the children and the literacy status of their mother. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted among 104 primary school children of a primary school situated in the slum area of Chetla, Kolkata, India with the help of a predesigned, pre-tested and structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed statistically by simple proportions and tests of significance. It was found that the female students were more knowledgeable than the male students regarding the maintenance of personal hygiene. There was a wide gap between practice and knowledge of personal hygiene among the primary school children living in the slum area. Even, misconceptions do exist on certain indicators of personal hygiene among the students. Statistically significant association was observed between practices of personal hygiene among the primary school children and the literacy status of their mother. Future of a society depends considerably on the health of its children. The parents and the school teachers, as constructive shapers of children's health behaviors, should play a responsible role in early education of children on personal hygiene.

  20. From whom do older persons prefer support? The case of rural Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittirong, Jongjit; Prasartkul, Pramote; Rindfuss, Ronald R

    2014-12-01

    This study explores rural elderly preferences for support across a multi-dimensional measure of elderly care needs. Applying a framework developed in the U.S. to Thailand for the first time, five diverse types of support are considered: meal preparation, personal care, transportation, financial support, and emotional support. The emphasis is on preferences for care and not actual care received. The data are from focus group discussions conducted in seven villages in Nang Rong district, northeastern Thailand. Thailand and the study site represent the social and economic conditions faced by many rapidly industrializing places-where there has been a dramatic demographic transition (lowered fertility and substantial out-migration), growing numbers of older persons remaining in rural settings, and limited publically-financed elderly care or market-based elder care available for purchase. For this study, in each village, male and female older persons aged 60 and over participated in the focus group discussions. As part of the discussion, focus group participants were asked to rank their first four preferences by type of support. Male and female older persons' preferences were slightly different for genderized tasks. In addition, social closeness and geographical proximity mattered. Traditional matrilocal residence patterns contributed to the perceptions of the older persons. Neighbors were preferred when kin were not available. Preferences inform strategic choices by older persons given the context of available resources. Understanding preferences and strategic choices among the older persons can help policy makers tailor programs more effectively and efficiently, without jeopardizing elderly well-being. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Attitudes toward older adults: A matter of cultural values or personal values?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Xing, Cai; Guan, Yanjun; Song, Xuan; Melloy, Robert; Wang, Fei; Jin, Xiaoyu

    2016-02-01

    The current research aimed to address the inconsistent findings regarding cultural differences in attitudes toward older adults by differentiating the effects of personal and cultural values. In Study 1, we used data from the sixth wave of the World Values Survey to examine attitudes toward older adults across cultures, and how different personal values (i.e., communal vs. agentic) and cultural values (i.e., individualism) predicted these attitudes. The results of hierarchical linear modeling analyses showed that after controlling for potential covariates, personal communal values positively correlated with positive attitudes toward older adults; however, cultural individualistic values did not. To further examine the causal effects of personal values (vs. cultural values), we conducted an experimental study and confirmed that priming personal values rather than cultural values had significant effects on ageism attitudes. The present studies help to reconcile conflicting results on cultural differences in attitudes toward older adults. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Striking a balance between in-person care and the use of eHealth to support the older rural population with chronic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Roberts

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available New and existing information communication technologies (ICT are playing an increasingly important role in the delivery of health and social care services. eHealth1 has the potential to supplement in-person home visits for older, rural adults with chronic pain. The Technology to support Older Adults' Personal and Social Interaction project—TOPS—examines interactions between older people and their health/social care providers and considers how eHealth could play a part in enhancing the life experiences of older people with chronic pain, who live in remote/rural areas. This paper reports findings from the TOPS study, drawing upon observations of health/social care home visits to chronic pain patients and interviews with patients and health/social care providers in rural Scotland. Patients and care professionals believe in-person care promotes the general well-being of older people with pain. However, our findings show that the potential recipients of eHealth are open to the use of such technologies and that although they cannot be expected to replace existing models of care, eHealth may provide opportunities to sustain and enhance these interactions.

  3. How Older Persons Perceive the Loss of Independence: The Need of a Holistic Approach to Frailty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escourrou, E; Cesari, M; Chicoulaa, B; Fougère, B; Vellas, B; Andrieu, S; Oustric, S

    2017-01-01

    Since 2004, the definition of the frailty syndrome has shifted from purely physical criteria to a more comprehensive consideration of the individual, including their psychosocial criteria. In this study, qualitative research methods were used as a complementary approach in order to enrich the existing quantitative results in this area. To understand the views of older persons on the risk of loss of independence. The study population comprised people over 75 years of age who were living at home in the south-west of France and were considered to be at risk of losing their independence. Data were collected using individual semi-structured in-depth interviews, accompanied by observations. Inductive analysis was carried out according to grounded theory methods. Fifteen individual interviews were conducted to achieve theoretical data saturation. Analysis of the content of the interviews revealed seven risk factors for the loss of independence: poor mental health, poor physical health, social isolation, no longer leaving the home, an unsuitable environment, unsuitable living conditions, and few resources. These results complement the purely physical approach to screening for the frailty syndrome and lead us to reconsider our screening approach to include a more holistic view of the older person and their circumstances.

  4. Perceptions of exercise for older people living with dementia in Bangkok, Thailand: an exploratory qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuncharernpanit, Sirikul; Hendricks, Joyce; Toye, Christine

    2016-09-01

    sufficiently understood by family caregivers to overcome any culturally based reluctance to promote exercise in older people. Nurses have a key role in supporting care givers of older persons with dementia supervise home based exercise. Nurses need to develop knowledge of aerobic exercise to teach caregivers and the older person with dementia. Muscle strength and aerobic exercise assists in the older person's ability to undertake ADL. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Psychotherapeutic treatment levels of personality disorders in older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Videler, Arjan; Cornelis, Christina; Rossi, G.; van Royen, R.J.J.; Rosowsky, E.; van Alphen, S.P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of personality disorders (PDs) in older adults is a highly underexplored topic. In this article clinical applicability of the findings from a recent Delphi study regarding treatment aspects of PDs in older adults is explored. This concerns the relevance of three psychotherapeutic treatment

  6. Social relations and the self-esteem of older persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, G R; Shehan, C L

    1989-12-01

    This study employs survey data from a sample of persons 55 years of age and older to examine the antecedents of self-esteem. Hypotheses are derived from a theoretical orientation that hinges on the ability of the individual to terminate relations that might be productive of negative reflected appraisals. Consistent with hypotheses, friendship interaction is positively related to self-esteem, whereas kinship interaction is not. Marital satisfaction also affects self-esteem positively; among men, this effect is stronger for the retired than for the employed. Finally, never-married and nonemployed older women have lower self-esteem than other women have. Implications are drawn regarding the importance and role of self-esteem in theories of psychological well-being among older persons.

  7. Coffee, Cake & Culture: Evaluation of an art for health programme for older people in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Brenda; McCormick, Sheila; Lucas, Terri; Gallagher, Wendy; Winn, Andrea; Elkin, Sophie

    2016-07-01

    Arts for health initiatives and networks are being developed in a number of countries and an international literature is emerging on the evidence of their benefits to people's health, wellbeing and quality of life. Engagement in cultural and creative arts by older people can increase their morale and self-confidence and provides opportunities for social connection. Museums and galleries are increasingly required to justify their expenditure, reach and impact and some are working in partnership with local councils, hospitals, schools and communities to improve access to their collections. There is a body of literature emerging that describes such initiatives but empirical evidence of their benefits is less developed. This article reports an evaluation of an art for health initiative - Coffee, Cake & Culture organised and delivered by Whitworth Art Gallery and Manchester Museum in 2012 for older people living in a care home and a supported living facility. The study has identified the benefits and impacts of the arts for health programme and its feasibility for older people, with or without diagnosed memory loss - dementia, living in a care home or supported living facility and their care staff. The findings demonstrate there were benefits to the older people and their care staff in terms of wellbeing, social engagement, learning, social inclusion and creativity. These benefits were immediate and continued in the short term on their return home. The majority of older people and care staff had not previously been to the art gallery or museum and the programme encouraged creative arts and cultural appreciation which promoted social inclusion, wellbeing and quality of life. The programme is feasible and important lessons were identified for future planning. Further research involving partnerships of researchers, arts for health curators, artists, care staff, older people and their families is warranted. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Increased Difficulties in Managing Stairs in Visually Impaired Older Adults: A Community-Based Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Wei Pan

    Full Text Available Managing stairs is a challenging aspect of daily activities of living for older people. We assessed whether older adults with visual impairment (VI have greater difficulties of managing stairs in daily lives.The study was designed as a community-based cross-sectional study based on a Chinese cohort aged 60 years and older in rural China. Visual acuity (VA was measured in both eyes using a retro-illuminated Snellen chart with tumbling-E optotypes. VI (including blindness was defined as presenting VA of worse than 20/60 in either eye. Having any difficulties in managing stairs was self-reported based on a question drawn from the Barthel Index. Information on participants' socioeconomic status, lifestyle-related factors, diseases histories and medication intake was collected using a questionnaire.The Barthel Index, Activities of Daily Living questionnaire was completed by 4597 (99.7% participants including 2218 men and 2379 women. The age of the participants ranged from 60 to 93 years with a mean of 67.6 ± 6.3 years. In age and gender adjusted models, adults with VI had a higher likelihood of having difficulties in managing stairs (odds ratio [OR] = 2.7; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.0, 3.7 compared with those without. The association of VI with the likelihood of having difficulties in managing stairs was stronger in older adults who lived alone (OR = 3.2; 95%CI 1.8, 4.5 compared with those who lived with other family members (OR = 2.0; 95%CI 1.3, 4.3. Compared with hypertension, diabetes, obesity and cognitive dysfunction, VI had the greatest impact on people's abilities of managing stairs.VI was associated with an increased likelihood of having difficulties in managing stairs, especially in those who lived alone. However, whether the finding could be extrapolated to other populations warrants further studies as different environmental exposures such as illumination and types of stairs may alter the association observed in this study.

  9. Race-related differences in depression onset and recovery in older persons over time: the Health, Aging, and Body Composition study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barry, L.C.; Thorpe, R.J.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Yaffe, K.; Wakefield, D.; Ayonayon, H.N.; Satterfield, S.; Newman, A.B.; Simonsick, E.M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate race-related differences in depression onset and recovery in older persons, overall and by sex, and examine race-related differences in mortality according to depression. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: General community in pre-designated zip code areas in Memphis,

  10. The impact of frailty on depressive disorder in later life : Findings from the Netherlands Study of depression in older persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collard, R. M.; Arts, M. H. L.; Schene, A. H.; Naarding, P.; Voshaar, R. C. Oude; Comijs, H. C.

    Background: Physical frailty and depressive symptoms are reciprocally related in community-based studies, but its prognostic impact on depressive disorder remains unknown. Methods: A cohort of 378 older persons (>= 60 years) suffering from a depressive disorder (DSM-IV criteria) was reassessed at

  11. Disability Among Middle-Aged and Older Persons With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johs, Nikolas A; Wu, Kunling; Tassiopoulos, Katherine; Koletar, Susan L; Kalayjian, Robert C; Ellis, Ronald J; Taiwo, Babafemi; Palella, Frank J; Erlandson, Kristine M

    2017-07-01

    Older human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults may experience higher rates of frailty and disability than the general population. Improved understanding of the prevalence, risk factors, and types of impairment can better inform providers and the healthcare system. HIV-infected participants within the AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5322 HAILO study self-reported disability by the Lawton-Brody Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) Questionnaire. Frailty was measured by 4-m walk time, grip strength, self-reported weight loss, exhaustion, and low activity. Logistic regression models identified characteristics associated with any IADL impairment. Agreement between IADL impairment and frailty was assessed using the weighted kappa statistic. Of 1015 participants, the median age was 51 years, 15% were aged ≥60 years, 19% were female, 29% black, and 20% Hispanic. At least 1 IADL impairment was reported in 18% of participants, most commonly with housekeeping (48%) and transportation (36%) and least commonly with medication management (5%). In multivariable models, greater disability was significantly associated with neurocognitive impairment, lower education, Medicare/Medicaid insurance (vs private/other coverage), smoking, and low physical activity. Although a greater proportion of frail participants had IADL impairment (52%) compared to non-frail (11%) persons, agreement was poor (weighted kappa disability occurs frequently among middle-aged and older HIV-infected adults on effective antiretroviral therapy. Potentially modifiable risk factors (smoking, physical activity) provide targets for interventions to maintain independent living. Systematic recognition of persons at greater risk for disability can facilitate connection to resources that may help preserve independence. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Development, Implementation, and Evaluation of a Curriculum to Prepare Volunteer Navigators to Support Older Persons Living With Serious Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggleby, Wendy; Pesut, Barbara; Cottrell, Laura; Friesen, Lynnelle; Sullivan, Kelli; Warner, Grace

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this article is to report the development, implementation, and evaluation of a curriculum designed to prepare volunteer navigators to support community-dwelling older persons with serious chronic illness. The role of the volunteer navigator was to facilitate independence and quality of life through building social connections, improving access to resources, and fostering engagement. A curriculum was constructed from evidence-based competencies, piloted and revised, and then implemented in 7 subsequent workshops. Workshop participants were 51 volunteers and health-care providers recruited through local hospice societies and health regions. Curriculum was evaluated through satisfaction and self-efficacy questionnaires completed at workshop conclusion. Postworkshop evaluation indicated a high degree of satisfaction with the training. One workshop cohort of 7 participants was followed for 1 year to provide longitudinal evaluation data. Participants followed longitudinally reported improved self-efficacy over 12 months and some challenges with role transition. Future improvements will include further structured learning opportunities offered by telephone postworkshop, focusing on advocacy, communication, and conflict management. Overall, volunteers were satisfied with the curriculum and reported good self-perceived efficacy in their new role as navigators.

  13. Dietary management of older people with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClinchy, Jane

    2018-05-02

    Diabetes UK's revised nutrition guidelines for the prevention and management of diabetes, published recently, encourage education in self-management and include additional guidance for older people with diabetes. The incidence of diabetes in older people is increasing. Many older people with diabetes are healthy and mobile, and live in the community, but a number are frail and living in care homes. Those who are frail are at increased risk of malnutrition from a range of causes. Older people with diabetes should be assessed for malnutrition risk and referred to a dietitian if required. Management of these patients focuses on foods that are high in protein and energy foods. A case study gives an example of how a community nurse may be involved.

  14. Impact of Social Integration and Living Arrangements on Korean Older Adults' Depression: A Moderation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youjung; Jang, Kyeonghee; Lockhart, Naorah C

    2018-04-01

    Depression among older adults is a challenging public health concern in Korea. Using panel data from the Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs on Korean older adults and their family caregivers, this study explores significant predictors of depression among Korean older adults as well as the moderating effect of living arrangements on the association between social integration and depression. A multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that preexisting depression was the most significant predictor of Korean older adults' current depression, followed by health status and family support. In addition, social integration significantly decreased Korean older adults' depression. Importantly, a significant moderation effect of living arrangements between Korean older adults' social integration and depression was observed. This study implies the development of individually tailored and culturally responsive programs to engage marginalized Korean older adults living alone, helping foster their well-being and optimal aging.

  15. The effect of adult children living in the United States on the likelihood of cognitive impairment for older parents living in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downer, Brian; González-González, Cesar; Goldman, Noreen; Pebley, Anne R; Wong, Rebeca

    2018-01-01

    The increased risk for poor physical and mental health outcomes for older parents in Mexico who have an adult child living in the United States may contribute to an increased risk for cognitive impairment in this population. The objective of this study was to examine if older adults in Mexico who have one or more adult children living in the United States are more or less likely to develop cognitive impairment over an 11-year period compared to older adults who do not have any adult children living in the United States. Data for this study came from Wave I (2001) and Wave III (2012) of the Mexican Health and Aging Study. The final sample included 2609 participants aged 60 and over who were not cognitively impaired in 2001 and had one or more adult children (age ≥15). Participants were matched using a propensity score that was estimated with a multivariable logistic regression model that included sociodemographic characteristics and migration history of the older parents. Having one or more adult children living in the United States is associated with lower socioeconomic status and higher number of depressive symptoms, but greater social engagement for older parents living in Mexico. No significant differences in the odds for developing cognitive impairment according to having one or more adult children living in the United States were detected. In summary, having one or more adult children living in the United States was associated with characteristics that may increase and decrease the risk for cognitive impairment. This may contribute to the non-significant relationship between migration status of adult children and likelihood for cognitive impairment for older parents living in Mexico.

  16. Risk factors for mobility limitation in community-dwelling older adults: a social ecological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Hye A; Fleury, Julie; Keller, Colleen

    2008-01-01

    Although a variety of risk factors for mobility limitation in older adults have been examined, a collective review of relevant literature has not been reported. The purposes of this review are to report the intrapersonal, interpersonal, environmental, and organizational risk factors related to mobility limitation using a social ecological perspective and to discuss the direction of future clinical practice consistent with current literature on mobility limitation of community-dwelling older adults. Intrapersonal risk factors related to mobility limitation include advanced age, female gender, low socioeconomic status, comorbidity, lack of motivation (i.e., dependent personality, decreased self-efficacy), lifestyle factors (i.e., sedentary lifestyle, smoking, obesity), and physiological factors (i.e., vitamin D deficiency, inflammation, poor nutritional status). Interpersonal risk factors related to mobility limitation include weak social networks and limited social activities. Geriatric clients may also experience a decline in mobility when they encounter environmental challenges such as an inconvenient home environment and lack of availability of services in their community, as well as lack of organizational resources stemming from social policy. Potential intervention strategies focused on modifiable risk factors may include lifestyle modifications, social networking programs, and enhancing awareness of environmental and organizational resources in the community for older adults at risk for mobility limitation.

  17. Older Chinese-Australian and Chinese community music engagement

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Sicong

    2017-01-01

    This research study will investigate community music engagement by both Chinese-Australians and Chinese older people at two different older people’s organizations with the aim of exploring the affects of music engagement on older people. The study seeks to explore cultural differences between Chinese-Australian older people and Chinese older people as they relate to their music engagement. The research contentions were that (1) active music engagement can enhance the quality of the life of ol...

  18. Strategies for improving mental health and wellbeing used by older people living with HIV: a qualitative investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Dana; Catalan, Jose; Ridge, Damien

    2018-05-30

    Recent research into "successful ageing" and "resilience" in the context of ageing with HIV highlights older people living with HIV's (OPLWH) adaptations and coping strategies hitherto neglected by early research's emphasis on difficulties and challenges. Yet "resilience" and "successful ageing" are limited by their inconsistent definition, conflation of personal traits and coping strategies, normative dimension, and inattention to cultural variation and the distinctive nature of older age. This article thus adopts an interpretivist approach to how OPLWH manage the challenges to their mental health and wellbeing of ageing with HIV. Drawing on interviews with 76 OPLWH (aged 50+) living in the United Kingdom, we document both the strategies these participants use (for example, "accentuating the positive" and accessing external support) and the challenges to these strategies' success posed by the need to manage their HIV's social and clinical dimensions and prevent their HIV from dominating their lives. This points to (a) the complex overlaps between challenges to and strategies for improving or maintaining mental health and wellbeing in the context of ageing with HIV, and (b) the limitations of the "resilience" and "successful ageing" approaches to ageing with HIV.

  19. Depressive Symptoms and Orthostatic Hypotension Are Risk Factors for Unexplained Falls in Community-Living Older People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menant, Jasmine C; Wong, Alfred K W; Trollor, Julian N; Close, Jacqueline C T; Lord, Stephen R

    2016-05-01

    To investigate risk factors for unexplained falls in older community-dwelling individuals. Prospective cohort study. Community population, Sydney, Australia. Older adults (N = 529; mean age 79.8 ± 4.4, 52.2% female). Participants provided information demographic, medical, and medication characteristics and completed cardiovascular (tilt table test, pulse wave velocity), cognitive, and sensorimotor assessments at baseline. Falls were then recorded in monthly fall diaries for 12 months. Unexplained fallers (UFs) were those who reported falls due to a blackout, dizziness, feeling faint, or "found themselves suddenly on the ground." Of the 523 participants available at follow-up, 238 (45.5%) reported one or more falls; 35 participants fulfilled the definition of UFs. UFs were more likely than balance-related fallers (BFs) (n = 203) and nonfallers (n = 291) to have orthostatic hypotension (39.4%, 20.5% and 22.4%, respectively) and depressive symptoms (24.2%, 10.1%, and 7.9% respectively). More UFs (88.6%) than BFs (70.9%) had injurious falls. A multivariate logistic regression model revealed that depressive symptoms and orthostatic hypotension were significant and independent determinants of UF status. Approximately 15% of fallers had unexplained falls, which were more likely to result in injuries. Depressive symptoms and orthostatic hypotension increased the risk of unexplained falls, whereas cognitive deficits and sensorimotor and balance impairments did not. Future research should investigate whether psychotherapy and physical exercise to improve mood and medication reviews and nonpharmacological therapies for the treatment of orthostatic hypotension and depression are effective at reducing the risk of unexplained falls in older people. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  20. Guidelines to facilitate self-care among older persons in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinda Rabie

    2015-06-01

    Implications for practice: The implementation of the self-care guidelines by the public health sector, professional nurses and older persons will improve the healthcare of older persons at home which will in turn improve their quality of life, reduce unintentional self-neglect, as well as assist in alleviating overcrowding in clinics because unnecessary visits to the clinic will drop.

  1. An Age-Friendly Living Environment as Seen by Chinese Older Adults: A “Photovoice” Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aileen W.K. Chan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available “Ageing in place” is a policy initiative strongly advocated by the World Health Organization to face the challenge of an ageing population. This pilot study used a “photovoice” approach, aiming to explore aspects of the housing environment considered by older people as important in facilitating ageing in place. It enabled participants to express their ideas through photographs. Each participant was asked to take photos that illustrated age-friendly features they considered crucial for supporting their lives in the community. A total of 44 older people participated in the pilot study, and 300 photos were collected. Participants were invited to describe the reasons for taking these photos by filling in a journal sheet. A semi-structured interview was then conducted with individual participants, who were asked to elaborate on the meaning of their photos. The analysis revealed three themes: (1 age-friendly housing design; (2 supportive neighborhood; and (3 connection to family and the community. These three themes are pillars of an age-friendly city, which are important to seniors to facilitate ageing in place.

  2. Leisure-time physical activities for community older people with chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Chun; Huang, Lian-Hua; Yeh, Mei Chang; Tai, John Jen

    2011-04-01

    (1) To explore the types and three components (frequency, duration and caloric expenditure) of leisure-time physical activity in community older people with chronic diseases. (2) To identify leisure-time physical activity-related factors in these community older people. Previous research has focused primarily on measuring the actual physiological or psychological benefits of exercise or leisure-time physical activity, little is known about the factors that determine the frequency, intensity and duration of exercise or leisure-time physical activity. The identification of reliable predictors of the various components of leisure-time physical activity will enable healthcare providers to intervene and change the patterns of leisure-time physical activity in the sedentary older people more effectively. A cross-sectional design was used for this study. Participants were recruited from the Xinyi District in Taipei, Taiwan. A total of 206 older people were recruited and were asked to complete three questionnaires during a face-to-face interview with a researcher at the activity setting. The results showed that walking leisurely was the most frequent leisure-time physical activity for participants. The age, gender, living arrangement, affective feeling and environmental control were significant variables of leisure-time physical activity. The study constructs accounted for moderate amounts of variance (22% for leisure-time physical activity frequency, 27% for leisure-time physical activity duration and 24% for leisure-time physical activity caloric expenditure). This study also showed that different variables play different influential roles in the different components of LTPA. An effective intervention strategy for improving leisure-time physical activity of older people may involve tailoring the type, format, intensity, frequency and duration of a physical activity according to an individual's needs. This study described some environmental barriers to LTPA and

  3. Older persons' existential loneliness, as interpreted by their significant others - an interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Helena; Rämgård, Margareta; Bolmsjö, Ingrid

    2017-07-10

    In order to better understand people in demanding medical situations, an awareness of existential concerns is important. Studies performed over the last twenty years conclude that when dying and death come closer, as in the case with older people who are stricken by infirmity and diseases, existential concerns will come to the fore. However, studies concerning experiences of existential loneliness (EL) are sparse and, in addition, there is no clear definition of EL. EL is described as a complex phenomenon and referred to as a condition of life, an experience, and a process of inner growth. Listening to someone who knows the older person well, as significant others often do, may be one way of learning more about EL. This study is part of a larger research project on EL, the LONE study, where EL is explored through interviews with frail older people, their significant others and health care professionals. The aim of this study was to explore frail older (>75) persons' EL, as interpreted by their significant others. The study is qualitative and based on eighteen narrative interviews with nineteen significant others of older persons. The data was analysed using Hsieh and Shannon's conventional content analysis. According to the interpretation of significant others, the older persons experience EL (1) when they are increasingly limited in body and space, (2) when they are in a process of disconnecting, and (3) when they are disconnected from the outside world. The result can be understood as if the frail older person is in a process of letting go of life. This process involves the body, in that the older person is increasingly limited in his/her physical abilities. The older person's long-term relationships are gradually lost, and finally the process entails the older person's increasingly withdrawing into him- or herself and turning off the outside world. The result of this study is consistent with previous research that has shown that EL is a complex phenomenon, but

  4. The burden of hospitalised fall-related injury in community-dwelling older people in Victoria: a database study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Trang; Day, Lesley; Finch, Caroline F

    2014-04-01

    To estimate the burden of hospitalised fall-related injury in community-dwelling older people in Victoria. We analysed fall-related, person-identifying hospital discharge data and patient-level hospital treatment costs for community-dwelling older people aged 65+ years from Victoria between 1 July 2005 and 30 June 2008, inclusive. Key outcomes of interest were length of stay (LOS)/episode, cumulative LOS (CLOS)/patient and inpatient costs. The burden of hospitalised fall-related injury in community-dwelling older people aged 65+ years in Victoria was 284,781 hospital bed days in 2005-06, rising to 310,031 hospital bed days in 2007-08. Seventy-one per cent of episodes were multiday. One in 15 acute care episodes was a high LOS outlier and 14% of patients had ≥1 episode classified as high LOS outlier. The median CLOS/patient was nine days (interquartile range 2-27). The annual costs of inpatient care, in June 2009 prices, for fall-related injury in community-dwelling people aged 65+ years in Victoria rose from $213 million in 2005-06 to $237 million in 2007-08. The burden of hospitalised fall-related injury in community-dwelling older women, people aged 85+ years and those with comorbidity was considerable. The burden of hospitalised fall-related injury in community-dwelling older people aged 65+ years in Victoria is significantly more than previously projected. Importantly, this study identifies that women, patients with comorbidity and those aged 85+ years account for a considerable proportion of this burden. A corresponding increase in falls prevention effort is required to ensure that the burden is properly addressed. © 2014 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.

  5. Correlates of lifetime alcohol misuse among older community residents in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blay, Sergio Luis; Fillenbaum, Gerda G.; Andreoli, Sergio Baxter; Gastal, Fabio Leite

    2009-01-01

    Background Little is known about the sociodemographic correlates and health effects associated with lifetime alcohol misuse in community resident elderly in Brazil. Method Data came from a representative sample of 6961 residents aged 60+ in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The structured interview included a five-item lifetime alcohol use questionnaire addressing abuse and dependence, and enquiry regarding sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle and social support, and health conditions. Results Of the sample, 10.6% (25.3% men, 2.9% women) endorsed at least one lifetime alcohol misuse question. Controlled analyses comparing a gradient of alcohol misuse (none, one, more than one item endorsed), found that men, people age 60–69 (compared to older persons), and tobacco users were more likely to endorse alcohol misuse items. Persons reporting lower income, and of nonWhite race/ethnicity did not differ from their comparison groups with respect to endorsing one item, but they were more likely to endorse two or more items. Endorsing more than one item was associated with impaired activities of daily living, the presence of respiratory problems and psychiatric disorder, but was protective against vascular conditions. Conclusions Major lifetime alcohol misuse (defined as endorsing more than one of five items reflecting alcohol abuse or dependence) is more common in certain sociodemographic groups (men, younger elderly, lower income, nonWhites). With the exception of vascular conditions, it is associated with smoking, poorer functional status, respiratory problems, and psychiatric disorder. Endorsing only one item has a reduced association, significant only for male gender, smoking, and psychiatric disorder. PMID:19141169

  6. Understanding the experiences of racialized older people through an intersectional life course perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Ilyan; Grenier, Amanda; Brotman, Shari; Koehn, Sharon

    2017-04-01

    This article proposes the development of an intersectional life course perspective that is capable of exploring the links between structural inequalities and the lived experience of aging among racialized older people. Merging key concepts from intersectionality and life course perspectives, the authors suggest an analytic approach to better account for the connections between individual narratives and systems of domination that impinge upon the everyday lives of racialized older people. Our proposed intersectional life course perspective includes four dimensions: 1) identifying key events and their timing, 2) examining locally and globally linked lives, 3) exploring categories of difference and how they shape identities, 4) and assessing how processes of differentiation, and systems of domination shape the lives, agency and resistance among older people. Although applicable to various forms of marginalization, we examine the interplay of racialization, immigration, labour and care in later life to highlight relationships between systems, events, trajectories, and linked lives. The illustrative case example used in this paper emerged from a larger critical ethnographic study of aging in the Filipino community in Montreal, Canada. We suggest that an intersectional life course perspective has the potential to facilitate a deeper understanding of the nexus of structural, personal and relational processes that are experienced by diverse groups of older people across the life course and into late life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Hypoactive sexual desire dysfunction in community-dwelling older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeleke, Berihun M; Bell, Robin J; Billah, Baki; Davis, Susan R

    2017-04-01

    To determine the prevalence of hypoactive sexual desire dysfunction (HSDD) and its associated factors in women aged 65 to 79 years. A questionnaire-based, cross-sectional study was conducted amongst community-dwelling older women. Participants were recruited between April and August 2014 from a national database based on electoral rolls. Sexual function and sexual distress were assessed by the Female Sexual Function Index and the Female Sexual Distress Scale-Revised, respectively. HSDD was defined as the presence of both low sexual desire and sexually related personal distress. The mean ± SD age of the 1,548 women was 71 ± 3.4 years and 52.6% were partnered. Among the participants, 88.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 86.3%-89.6%) had low sexual desire, 15.5% (95% CI, 13.8%-17.4%) had sexually related personal distress, and 13.6% (95% CI, 11.9%-15.4%) had HSDD. The HSDD was more common among partnered than among unpartnered women (23.7% vs 5.9%; P dysfunction (AOR = 1.92; 95% CI, 1.29-2.92), and having moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms (AOR = 4.15; 95% CI, 2.16-7.96) were independently associated with having HSDD. In a subanalysis, HSDD was more common among sexually active than sexually inactive women (31.5% vs 17.3%; P sexually active women had HSDD, as did 22% (95% CI, 11.5%-37.8%) of unpartnered sexually active women. HSDD is common and associated with potentially modifiable risk factors in older women. It should not be assumed that unpartnered older women are sexually inactive or are not distressed by low sexual desire.

  8. Cross-cultural validation of the Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I) in Portuguese community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Daniela; Santos, Sónia

    The Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I) is a highly reliable instrument to assess fear of falling among older population. This study aimed to develop a European Portuguese version of the FES-I (FES-I (P) ) and analyse its psychometric properties in terms of internal consistency, test-retest reliability, concurrent and convergent validity. A cross-sectional study was conducted. Data collection integrated a socio-demographic questionnaire which included falls history and presence/absence of fear of falling, the Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale (ABC), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Timed Up and Go (TUG) and the Five Times Sit to Stand Test (FTSST). Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were performed. A total of 100 Portuguese community-dwelling older people (74.27±8.7years old) have participated in the study. From these, 82 have participated in the reliability study. The FES-I (P) had excellent internal consistency (α=0,978) and test-retest reliability (ICC 2,1 =0,999). A significant negative correlation was found between the FES-I (P) and the ABC (r s =-0.85; pPortuguese community-living older people. Future studies should explore the FES-I (P) responsiveness to change over time and analyse its psychometric properties in samples of both non-community-dwelling and community-dwelling older adults with different health conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. User Acceptance of Wrist-Worn Activity Trackers Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults: Mixed Method Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Arjun; Kim, Ben; Nguyen, Olivier; Stolee, Paul; Tung, James; Lee, Joon

    2017-11-15

    Wearable activity trackers are newly emerging technologies with the anticipation for successfully supporting aging-in-place. Consumer-grade wearable activity trackers are increasingly ubiquitous in the market, but the attitudes toward, as well as acceptance and voluntary use of, these trackers in older population are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to assess acceptance and usage of wearable activity trackers in Canadian community-dwelling older adults, using the potentially influential factors as identified in literature and technology acceptance model. A mixed methods design was used. A total of 20 older adults aged 55 years and older were recruited from Southwestern Ontario. Participants used 2 different wearable activity trackers (Xiaomi Mi Band and Microsoft Band) separately for each segment in the crossover design study for 21 days (ie, 42 days total). A questionnaire was developed to capture acceptance and experience at the end of each segment, representing 2 different devices. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 4 participants, and a content analysis was performed. Participants ranged in age from 55 years to 84 years (mean age: 64 years). The Mi Band gained higher levels of acceptance (16/20, 80%) compared with the Microsoft Band (10/20, 50%). The equipment characteristics dimension scored significantly higher for the Mi Band (Ptechnology acceptance (Paccepting of wearable activity trackers, and they had a clear understanding of its value for their lives. Wearable activity trackers were uniquely considered more personal than other types of technologies, thereby the equipment characteristics including comfort, aesthetics, and price had a significant impact on the acceptance. Results indicated that privacy was less of concern for older adults, but it may have stemmed from a lack of understanding of the privacy risks and implications. These findings add to emerging research that investigates acceptance and factors that may influence

  10. Correlates of health and financial literacy in older adults without dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennett Jarred S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent research has begun to recognize the important influence of literacy levels and how they affect health and wellbeing, especially in older adults. Our study focuses on health and financial literacy, two domains of literacy which previous research has suggested may be significantly related to health and wellbeing. Our study examines the relation of health and financial literacy with health promoting behaviors and health status among community-based older persons. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study using data from the Rush Memory and Aging Project, a community-based cohort study of aging in northeastern Illinois. The study consisted of 556 older persons without dementia, each determined by a clinical evaluation. Health and financial literacy were measured using a series of questions designed to assess the ability to understand and process health and financial information, concepts, and numeracy; the two scores were averaged to yield a total literacy score. Health promoting behaviors, including engagement in cognitive, physical, and social activities, were assessed using self report measures. Indicators of heath status, including cognition (global cognition and five specific cognitive abilities, functional status (basic and instrumental activities of daily living, mobility disability, and mental health (depressive symptoms, loneliness were assessed. Results In a series of regression models adjusted for age, sex, and education, higher total literacy scores were associated with more frequent participation in health promoting behaviors, including cognitive, physical and social activities (all p values Conclusions Health and financial literacy are associated with more frequent engagement in health promoting behaviors and better health status in older persons without dementia.

  11. Salivary function and glycemic control in older persons with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, E M; Taylor, G W; Borrell, L N; Ship, J A

    2000-03-01

    There is no consensus on the possible association between diabetes and salivary dysfunction in older persons with diabetes. This study's purpose was to investigate the effect of diabetes and glycemic control on salivary function in an older population. Twenty nine persons with type 2 diabetes and 23 nondiabetic control subjects participated (age range, 54-90 years). Diabetic status was determined by a glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) test and a 2-hour glucose tolerance test. Poor glycemic control was defined as HbA(1c) >9%. Unstimulated whole saliva, unstimulated parotid, and stimulated parotid flow rates were measured, and subjects completed a standardized xerostomia questionnaire. Persons with poorly controlled diabetes had lower (P =.01) stimulated parotid flow rates than persons with well-controlled diabetes and nondiabetic control subjects. There were no significant differences in xerostomic complaints based on diabetic or glycemic control status or salivary flow rates. These results provide some evidence that poorly controlled diabetes may be associated with salivary dysfunction in older adults who have no concomitant complaints of xerostomia.

  12. A cross-sectional study of the association between dynapenia and higher-level functional capacity in daily living in community-dwelling older adults in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamura, Masaki; Kanauchi, Masao

    2017-01-03

    There are many reports that dynapenia, sarcopenia and frailty each have associations with bodily function or with Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL). However, studies that compare all three conditions and their effects on IADL are lacking. The purpose of this study is to examine associations of sarcopenia, frailty, and dynapenia with IADL. Participants included 123 community-dwelling older adults (31 men, 92 women,) aged 65 years or older (75.0 ± 5.3 years) who were independent in IADL. In terms of physical function, measurements were performed for muscle mass, grip strength, walking speed, isometric knee extension strength, and unipedal standing. A questionnaire survey was carried out, the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence (TMIG-IC) was administered, and participants were asked about sense of fatigue and amount of activity. Dynapenia was associated with classifications of both frailty and sarcopenia. In addition, sarcopenia had a sensitivity and specificity for dynapenia of 33 and 89%, respectively. Frailty had a sensitivity and specificity for dynapenia of 17 and 98%, respectively. Dynapenia was a significant independent related factor for the TMIG-IC (β = -0.21, P < 0.05). Dynapenia, more than sarcopenia or frailty, was related to difficulties with IADL; therefore, assessment of dynapenia should be given greater emphasis in evaluating the physical functioning of older adults.

  13. Mental healthcare need and service utilization in older adults living in public housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simning, Adam; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Fisher, Susan G; Richardson, Thomas M; Conwell, Yeates

    2012-05-01

    Anxiety and depression in socioeconomically disadvantaged older adults frequently go unrecognized and untreated. This study aims to characterize mental illness and its treatment in older adult public housing residents who have many risk factors for anxiety and depression. Cross-sectional study. Public housing high-rises in Rochester, New York. One hundred ninety residents aged 60 years and older. Anxiety and depression were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, GAD-7, and Patient Health Questionnaire. We obtained information on mental healthcare from medication review and self-report. Participants had a median age of 66 years, 58% were women, 80% were black, and 92% lived alone. Many participants (31%) were in need of mental healthcare: 21% had syndromal and 11% had subsyndromal anxiety or depression. Mental healthcare need was associated with younger age; intact cognitive functioning; impairments in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL); more medical illness; decreased mobility; smaller social network size; more severe life events; and increased utilization of medical, human, and informal services. Of those with mental healthcare need, most were not receiving it. Compared with residents receiving mental healthcare, residents with untreated need were more likely to be men and have less IADL impairment, medical illness, severe life events, onsite social worker use, and human services utilization. Mental illness was common and largely untreated in public housing residents. Increasing collaboration between medical, mental, and human services is needed to improve identification, treatment, and ultimately prevention of late-life mental illness in this community setting.

  14. The effectiveness of e-Interventions on reducing social isolation in older persons: A systematic review of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipps, Jennifer; Jarvis, Mary Ann; Ramlall, Suvira

    2017-12-01

    As the older adult population group has been increasing in size, there has been evidence of growing social isolation and loneliness in their lives. The increased use of information communication technology and Internet-supported interventions has stimulated an interest in the benefits of e-Interventions for older people and specifically in having a role in increasing social networks and decreasing loneliness. A systematic review of e-Interventions to reduce loneliness in older people was conducted with the aim to synthesize high quality evidence on the effectiveness of e-Interventions to decrease social isolation/loneliness for older people living in community/residential care. A systematic search of 12 databases for reviews published between 2000-2017 was conducted using search term synonyms for older people, social isolation and interventions. Three independent researchers screened articles and two reviewers extracted data. The Revised-Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews was used to assess the quality of reviews. The final search identified 12 reviews, which included 22 unique primary research studies evaluating e-Interventions for social isolation or loneliness. The reviews were of moderate quality and the primary studies showed a lack of rigor. Loneliness was most frequently measured using the University California Los Angeles Loneliness Scale. Despite the limitations of the reviewed studies, there is inconsistent and weak evidence on using e-Interventions for loneliness in older people.

  15. Older people, personal hygiene, and skin care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowdell, Fiona

    2011-01-01

    Skin health is essential for well being in older people. Personal hygiene is fundamental to skin health, but a lack of evidence exists about effective practices. An evidence base, disseminated through nursing education and patient health promotion, must be developed.

  16. Experiences of women living with borderline personality disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ntshingila

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available There is limited understanding of the experiences of women living with borderline personality disorder. It was therefore decided to discover how women living with this disorder would tell their life story. For the researcher, who worked in a psychotherapy ward where most women were living with borderline personality disorder, the care of these women was of vital importance, as they were less understood by mental health care providers.The research aimed to explore and describe the experiences of women living with borderline personality disorder. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual study design was used. Data was collected through in-depth phenomenological interviews that focused on the central question, “Tell me your life story”. Eight participants living with borderline personality disorder were interviewed. Tesch's method for data analysis was used (Creswell, 2009:186, along with an independent coder. Measures to ensure trustworthiness and ethical principles were applied throughout the research. From the findings obtained by means of the interviews of women living with borderline personality disorder, it was evident that there were childhood experiences of living in an unsafe space, related to unhealthy family dynamics, boundary violations and educational challenges. They experienced chronic feelings of emptiness in their relationships with theself. They also presented with a pattern of unstable interpersonal relationships and compromised mental health, which was apparent through the early on set of mental problems, emotional upheaval, looking for emotional escape and having different triggerfactors. Lastly, all these women yearned for facilitated mental health.

  17. Health status transitions in community-living elderly with complex care needs: a latent class approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béland François

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For older persons with complex care needs, accounting for the variability and interdependency in how health dimensions manifest themselves is necessary to understand the dynamic of health status. Our objective is to test the hypothesis that a latent classification can capture this heterogeneity in a population of frail elderly persons living in the community. Based on a person-centered approach, the classification corresponds to substantively meaningful groups of individuals who present with a comparable constellation of health problems. Methods Using data collected for the SIPA project, a system of integrated care for frail older people (n = 1164, we performed latent class analyses to identify homogenous categories of health status (i.e. health profiles based on 17 indicators of prevalent health problems (chronic conditions; depression; cognition; functional and sensory limitations; instrumental, mobility and personal care disability Then, we conducted latent transition analyses to study change in profile membership over 2 consecutive periods of 12 and 10 months, respectively. We modeled competing risks for mortality and lost to follow-up as absorbing states to avoid attrition biases. Results We identified four health profiles that distinguish the physical and cognitive dimensions of health and capture severity along the disability dimension. The profiles are stable over time and robust to mortality and lost to follow-up attrition. The differentiated and gender-specific patterns of transition probabilities demonstrate the profiles' sensitivity to change in health status and unmasked the differential relationship of physical and cognitive domains with progression in disability. Conclusion Our approach may prove useful at organization and policy levels where many issues call for classification of individuals into pragmatically meaningful groups. In dealing with attrition biases, our analytical strategy could provide critical

  18. Cognitive Impairment, Alzheimer's Disease, and Other Dementias in the Lives of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) Older Adults and Their Caregivers: Needs and Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I; Jen, Sarah; Bryan, Amanda E B; Goldsen, Jayn

    2018-05-01

    Cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease, and other dementias are important health concerns for older adults. As a marginalized and growing segment of the older adult population, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) older adults face distinct risk factors related to cognitive impairment and dementias, including social isolation, discrimination, barriers to health care access, limited availability of and support for caregivers, and higher rates of certain chronic illnesses. We examine cognitive impairment and dementias among LGBT older adults, describe their unique risk factors, and outline key competencies for health care and human service providers to ensure culturally relevant care for LGBT older adults experiencing cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease, or other dementias, as well as their caregivers, families, and communities. Implications include developing an awareness of the context of LGBT older adults' lives and relationships, the importance of early detection and support, and the development of policies and practices that promote community-level advocacy and education.

  19. Activities of daily living and oral hygiene status of older Korean patients in a long-term care facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, H-Y; Jeon, J-E; Chung, W-G; Kim, N-H

    2017-05-01

    This study investigated the relationship between oral hygiene conditions, activities of daily living (ADL) and cognitive ability in older Korean patients in long-term care facilities. Ninety older persons (65+) were randomly sampled from a possible 112 residents in a single facility. They participated in a 2-month-long survey. The Korean Modified Barthel Index was used to measure the ADL, and cognitive ability was measured using the Mini-Mental State Examination, Korean version. Oral hygiene status was measured using the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index and the Tongue Coating Index (TCI). Older participants with complete dependence manifested significantly poorer oral hygiene (P oral hygiene (P oral hygiene on tooth surfaces, while participants with partial dependence had poor tongue hygiene. In addition, dentulous older participants had poorer tongue hygiene than edentulous ones. This indicates the need to assess tooth status and provide oral care services via ADL in long-term care facilities. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Personality and attitudes as predictors of risky driving among older drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucidi, Fabio; Mallia, Luca; Lazuras, Lambros; Violani, Cristiano

    2014-11-01

    Although there are several studies on the effects of personality and attitudes on risky driving among young drivers, related research in older drivers is scarce. The present study assessed a model of personality-attitudes-risky driving in a large sample of active older drivers. A cross-sectional design was used, and structured and anonymous questionnaires were completed by 485 older Italian drivers (Mean age=68.1, SD=6.2, 61.2% males). The measures included personality traits, attitudes toward traffic safety, risky driving (errors, lapses, and traffic violations), and self-reported crash involvement and number of issued traffic tickets in the last 12 months. Structural equation modeling showed that personality traits predicted both directly and indirectly traffic violations, errors, and lapses. More positive attitudes toward traffic safety negatively predicted risky driving. In turn, risky driving was positively related to self-reported crash involvement and higher number of issued traffic tickets. Our findings suggest that theoretical models developed to account for risky driving of younger drivers may also apply in the older drivers, and accordingly be used to inform safe driving interventions for this age group. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Factors associated with maximal walking speed among older community-living adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sallinen, Janne; Mänty, Minna; Leinonen, Raija

    2011-01-01

    explained to 38%. Further adjusting for physical activity, smoking status and use of alcohol increased the variation explained by additional 7%. A minor further increase in variability explained was gained by adding chronic diseases and depressive symptoms in the model. In the final model, the single most...... 07330512) involving 605 community-living ambulatory adults aged 75-81 years. Maximal walking speed, leg extensor power, standing balance and body mass index were measured at the research center. Physical activity, smoking, use of alcohol, chronic diseases and depressive symptoms were self-reported using...... standard questionnaires. Results: The mean maximal walking speed was 1.4 m/s (range 0.3-2.9). In linear regression analysis, age, gender and body mass index explained 11% of the variation in maximal walking speed. Adding leg extensor power and standing balance into the model increased the variation...

  2. Perturbation training can reduce community-dwelling older adults' annual fall risk: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Yi-Chung; Bhatt, Tanvi; Yang, Feng; Wang, Edward

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies indicated that a single session of repeated-slip exposure can reduce over 40% of laboratory-induced falls among older adults. The purpose of this study was to determine to what degree such perturbation training translated to the reduction of older adults' annual falls risk in their everyday living. Two hundred and twelve community-dwelling older adults (≥65 years old) were randomly assigned to either the training group (N = 109), who then were exposed to 24 unannounced repeated slips, or the control group (N = 103), who merely experienced one slip during the same walking in the same protective laboratory environment. We recorded their falls in the preceding year (through self-reported history) and during the next 12 months (through falls diary and monitored with phone calls). With this single session of repeated-slip exposure, training cut older adults' annual risk of falls by 50% (from 34% to 15%, p fall during the same 12-month follow-up period (p falls. A single session of repeated-slip exposure could improve community-dwelling older adults' resilience to postural disturbances and, hence, significantly reduce their annual risk of falls. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Antisocial Personality Disorder in Older Adults: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, Katherine J; Vaughn, Michael G

    2017-11-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) has enormous negative impacts on the affected individuals, their loved ones, and society. This burden is intensified by the social and functional changes related to age. The lower prevalence of ASPD in older adults compared to younger adults is well-documented. This discrepancy, often attributed solely to antisocial "burnout," contributes to the lack of attention given to this disorder in older adults and may signify difficulty measuring ASPD in this population. These measurement issues likely stem from problems with the validity of the diagnostic criteria for older adults which may not effectively capture changes that occur with age. This review focuses on the current literature surrounding the validity of ASPD criteria with older adults and relevant concepts, including the connection between criminality and ASPD. Issues with screening tools and the measurement of ASPD caused by problems with the criteria are also discussed. Finally, recommendations for improvement, including use of dimensional models of personality disorders, a potential geriatric subclassification of criteria, and modification of the existing criteria are presented with clinical implications and suggestions for future research.

  4. Anxiety and Depression during Transition from Hospital to Community in Older Adults: Concepts of a Study to Explain Late Age Onset Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aislinn F. Lalor

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The transition between extended hospitalization and discharge home to community-living contexts for older adults is a critical time period. This transition can have an impact on the health outcomes of older adults such as increasing the risk for health outcomes like falls, functional decline and depression and anxiety. The aim of this work is to identify and understand why older adults experience symptoms of depression and anxiety post-discharge and what factors are associated with this. This is a mixed methods study of adults aged 65 years and over who experienced a period of hospitalization longer than two weeks and return to community-living post-discharge. Participants will complete a questionnaire at baseline and additional monthly follow-up questionnaires for six months. Anxiety and depression and their resulting behaviors are major public health concerns and are significant determinants of health and wellbeing among the ageing population. There is a critical need for research into the impact of an extended period of hospitalization on the health status of older adults post-discharge from hospital. This research will provide evidence that will inform interventions and services provided for older adults after they have been discharged home from hospital care.

  5. Social support differentially moderates the impact of neuroticism and extraversion on mental wellbeing among community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, J E; Lawlor, B A

    2012-10-01

    Personality affects psychological wellbeing, and social support networks may mediate this effect. This may be particularly pertinent in later life, when social structures change significantly, and can lead to a decline in psychological wellbeing. To examine, in an older population, whether the relationships between neuroticism and extraversion and mental wellbeing are moderated by available social support networks. We gathered information from 536 community-dwelling older adults, regarding personality, social support networks, depressive symptomatology, anxiety and perceived stress, as well as controlling for age and gender. Neuroticism and extraversion interacted with social support networks to determine psychological wellbeing (depression, stress and anxiety). High scores on the social support networks measure appear to be protective against the deleterious effects of high scores on the neuroticism scale on psychological wellbeing. Meanwhile, individuals high in extraversion appear to require large social support networks in order to maintain psychological wellbeing. Large familial and friendship social support networks are associated with good psychological wellbeing. To optimise psychological wellbeing in older adults, improving social support networks may be differentially effective for different personality types.

  6. People with an intellectual disability living in an intentional community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randell, M; Cumella, S

    2009-08-01

    Hospital closure programmes in England have generally sought to attain a fulfilling life for people with an intellectual disability by locating them in domestic-style housing in urban settings. Few have been placed in intentional or 'village' communities. Yet comparative studies of different housing types have found that intentional communities have better or similar outcomes for their residents than dispersed housing or residential clusters on former hospital sites. A possible explanation is the distinctive pattern of social relationships that exist in many intentional communities and the impact this has on the lives of their residents. This paper reports the results of research that explores the perceptions of people with an ID living in an intentional community and the meaning of their community to them. The research used an ethnographic approach to interview a sample of 15 residents in a large intentional community (Botton Village), which is part of the Camphill Movement. Interviews used Makaton, pictures and symbols where required. Respondents included 10 men and 5 women aged between 38 and 78 years. Length of residence in Botton Village ranged from 5 to 50 years. All lived with the families of co-workers and valued these relationships. All but one (who had retired) worked in a diverse range of employment in the village. Almost all were positive about their work. Respondents reported that they took part in both individual and communal leisure activities and all but two had a network of friends. Opportunities for friendship were enhanced by proximity to other people with an ID and a sense of personal security in the village. As in many villages and communities in society in general, these advantages were balanced by some loss of privacy. Results confirm those from earlier studies of intentional communities and suggest that positive outcomes derive from the absence of the overt subordination of residents to staff, the facilitation of friendship with other people

  7. Cross-boundary working: a generic worker for older people in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hek, Gill; Singer, Lorna; Taylor, Pat

    2004-06-01

    The care of older people often crosses the boundaries of health and social care. The new role of a health and social care trained generic worker was developed to provide comprehensive care for older people living at home. The role is a cross between a nursing auxiliary, health care assistant and a community support worker. The evaluation of the one-year pilot project demonstrated that clients were very satisfied with the care they received, particularly the emotional aspects of care. A high proportion of the generic workers time was spent listening and responding to their clients' mental health needs, and providing comfort and emotional support. Having been trained by local health professionals, the generic workers felt valued and respected, better able to communicate with their health colleagues, and therefore able to provide holistic care to their clients.

  8. Targeting the underlying causes of undernutrition. Cost-effectiveness of a multifactorial personalized intervention in community-dwelling older adults: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Pols-Vijlbrief, Rachel; Wijnhoven, Hanneke A H; Bosmans, Judith E; Twisk, Jos W R; Visser, Marjolein

    2017-12-01

    Undernutrition in old age is associated with increased morbidity, mortality and health care costs. Treatment by caloric supplementation results in weight gain, but compliance is poor in the long run. Few studies targeted underlying causes of undernutrition in community-dwelling older adults. This study aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a multifactorial personalized intervention focused on eliminating or managing the underlying causes of undernutrition to prevent and reduce undernutrition in comparison with usual care. A randomized controlled trial was performed among 155 community-dwelling older adults receiving home care with or at risk of undernutrition. The intervention included a personalized action plan and 6 months support. The control group received usual care. Body weight, and secondary outcomes were measured in both groups at baseline and 6 months follow-up. Multiple imputation, linear regression and generalized estimating equation analyses were used to analyze intervention effects. In the cost-effectiveness analyses regression models were bootstrapped to estimate statistical uncertainty. This intervention showed no statistically significant effects on body weight, mid-upper arm circumference, grip strength, gait speed and 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey physical component scale as compared to usual care, but there was an effect on the 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey mental component scale (0-100) (β = 8.940, p=0.001). Borderline significant intervention effects were found for both objective and subjective physical function measures, Short Physical Performance Battery (0-12) (β = 0.56, p=0.08) and ADL-Barthel score (0-20) (β = 0.69, p=0.09). Societal costs in the intervention group were statistically non-significantly lower than in the control group (mean difference -274; 95% CI -1111; 782). Cost-effectiveness acceptability curves showed that the probability of cost-effectiveness was 0.72 at a willingness-to-pay of 1000

  9. Potential of Exoskeleton Technology to Assist Older Adults with Daily Living

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jung, Merel Madeleine; Ludden, Geke D.S.

    Mobility impairments can prevent older adults from performing their daily activities which highly impacts a person's quality of life. Exoskeleton technology can assist older adults by providing additional support to compensate for age-related decline in muscle strength. To date little is known about

  10. Risk prediction in the community: A systematic review of case-finding instruments that predict adverse healthcare outcomes in community-dwelling older adults.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Caoimh, Rónán

    2015-09-01

    Few case-finding instruments are available to community healthcare professionals. This review aims to identify short, valid instruments that detect older community-dwellers risk of four adverse outcomes: hospitalisation, functional-decline, institutionalisation and death. Data sources included PubMed and the Cochrane library. Data on outcome measures, patient and instrument characteristics, and trial quality (using the Quality In Prognosis Studies [QUIPS] tool), were double-extracted for derivation-validation studies in community-dwelling older adults (>50 years). Forty-six publications, representing 23 unique instruments, were included. Only five were externally validated. Mean patient age range was 64.2-84.6 years. Most instruments n=18, (78%) were derived in North America from secondary analysis of survey data. The majority n=12, (52%), measured more than one outcome with hospitalisation and the Probability of Repeated Admission score the most studied outcome and instrument respectively. All instruments incorporated multiple predictors. Activities of daily living n=16, (70%), was included most often. Accuracy varied according to instruments and outcomes; area under the curve of 0.60-0.73 for hospitalisation, 0.63-0.78 for functional decline, 0.70-0.74 for institutionalisation and 0.56-0.82 for death. The QUIPS tool showed that 5\\/23 instruments had low potential for bias across all domains. This review highlights the present need to develop short, reliable, valid instruments to case-find older adults at risk in the community.

  11. Risk factors for hip fracture among institutionalised older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian Sheng; Sambrook, Philip N; Simpson, Judy M; Cameron, Ian D; Cumming, Robert G; Seibel, Markus J; Lord, Stephen R; March, Lyn M

    2009-07-01

    risk factors for hip fracture in community-dwelling individuals have been extensively studied, but there have been fewer studies of institutionalised older people. a total of 1,894 older people (1,433 females, 461 males; mean age 86 years, SD 7.1 years) were recruited from 52 nursing homes and 30 intermediate-care nursing care facilities in Australia during March 1999 and February 2003. We assessed clinical risk factors for hip fracture and skeletal fragility by calcaneus broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) at baseline and then followed up for fracture for 4 years. Hip fractures were validated by x-ray reports. Survival analysis with age as a time-dependent covariate was used to analyse the data. during a mean follow-up period of 2.65 years (SD 1.38), 201 hip fractures in 191 residents were recorded, giving an overall hip fracture incidence rate of 4.0% per person year (males 3.6% and females 4.1%). Residents living in intermediate-care hostels had a higher crude hip fracture rate (4.6% vs. 3.0%) than those living in high-care nursing homes. In multivariate analysis, an increased risk of hip fracture was significantly associated with older age, cognitive impairment, a history of fracture since age 50, lower body weight, longer lower leg length and poorer balance in intermediate-care hostel residents, but not with lower BUA. institutionalised older people, who are at a higher risk of hip fracture than community-dwelling individuals, have differences in some risk factors for hip fracture that should be considered in targeting intervention programs.

  12. Development and evaluation of "Aging Well and Healthily": A health-education and exercise program for community-living older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopman-Rock, M.; Westhoff, M.H.

    2002-01-01

    The Aging Well and Healthily (AWH) program consists of health education by peers and low-intensity exercise. It was evaluated via a small randomized controlled trial and a community intervention trial involving older adults in the Netherlands. Reasons stated for participation were to exercise (35%),

  13. The built environment and older adults: A literature review and an applied approach to engaging older adults in built environment improvements for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuckett, Anthony G; Banchoff, Ann W; Winter, Sandra J; King, Abby C

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents a review of the literature about the built environment as it impacts the health of older people. It then introduces the gerontological nurse and researcher to the Our Voice framework for engaging older people as citizen scientists in order to empower them as agents of change in improving their local built environment and ultimately advancing community health. Community-level strategies to promote successful ageing in place are critical both to optimising health outcomes and containing healthcare costs. Such strategies must take into account the influence of the built environment both on individual health behaviours and on overall community health. At the same time, the perspectives and experiences of older people themselves ought to inform policies and practices in a systematic way. Integrative literature review. A wide scan of English language articles published in the EMBASE, PubMed and CINAHL bibliographic databases was conducted. Additional articles were sourced by mining relevant reference lists (i.e., snowball sampling). Papers included were published between 2005 and 2016. Three distinct components emerged from the review: the impact of the built environment on health-in particular the health of older persons; citizen science and its applicability for older people research; and the promise of the Our Voice citizen science framework to activate changes in the built environment that improve older peoples' health. The ageing of the world's population brings with it an increased population-level risk of chronic disease and disability. We present the Our Voice framework, developed by researchers at Stanford University, as a promising strategy for engaging and empowering older people as citizen scientists, as a framework to apply to gerontological nursing and improving community health. Gerontology nurses are encouraged to: (i) Recognise the impact of the built environment and other community-level factors on the health of their patients. (ii

  14. Life-space mobility and dimensions of depressive symptoms among community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polku, Hannele; Mikkola, Tuija M; Portegijs, Erja; Rantakokko, Merja; Kokko, Katja; Kauppinen, Markku; Rantanen, Taina; Viljanen, Anne

    2015-01-01

    To examine the association between life-space mobility and different dimensions of depressive symptoms among older community-dwelling people. Cross-sectional analyses of baseline data of the 'Life-Space Mobility in Old Age' cohort study were carried out. The participants were community-dwelling women and men aged 75-90 years (N = 848). Data were gathered via structured interviews in participants' home. Life-space mobility (the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) Life-Space Assessment - questionnaire) and depressive symptoms (Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, CES-D) were assessed. Other factors examined included sociodemographic factors, difficulties walking 500 m, number of chronic diseases and the sense of autonomy in participation outdoors (subscale of Impact on Participation and Autonomy questionnaire). Poorer life-space mobility was associated with higher prevalence of different dimensions of depressive symptoms. The associations were partially mediated through walking difficulties, health and the sense of autonomy in participation outdoor activities. Poorer life-space mobility interrelates with higher probability for depressive symptoms, thus compromising older adults' mental wellbeing. A focus on older adults' life-space mobility may assist early identification of persons, who have elevated risk for depressive symptoms. The association between life-space mobility and depressive symptoms should be studied further utilizing longitudinal study designs to examine temporality and potential causality.

  15. Cognitive Impairment, Alzheimer’s Disease, and Other Dementias in the Lives of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) Older Adults and Their Caregivers: Needs and Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I.; Jen, Sarah; Bryan, Amanda E. B.; Goldsen, Jayn

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive impairment, Alzheimer’s disease, and other dementias are important health concerns for older adults. As a marginalized and growing segment of the older adult population, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) older adults face distinct risk factors related to cognitive impairment and dementias, including social isolation, discrimination, barriers to health care access, limited availability of and support for caregivers, and higher rates of certain chronic illnesses. We examine cognitive impairment and dementias among LGBT older adults, describe their unique risk factors, and outline key competencies for health care and human service providers to ensure culturally relevant care for LGBT older adults experiencing cognitive impairment, Alzheimer’s disease, or other dementias, as well as their caregivers, families, and communities. Implications include developing an awareness of the context of LGBT older adults’ lives and relationships, the importance of early detection and support, and the development of policies and practices that promote community-level advocacy and education. PMID:27729400

  16. Food insecurity is associated with social capital, perceived personal disparity, and partnership status among older and senior adults in a largely rural area of central Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Wesley R; Sharkey, Joseph R; Johnson, Cassandra M

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the association of compositional measures of collective social functioning, composed of community and familial social capital and perceived personal disparity, with food security among older (aged 50-59 y) and senior (aged ≥ 60 y) adult residents of the largely rural Brazos Valley in Central Texas using data from the 2006 Brazos Valley Community Health Assessment (analytic N = 1059, 74% response rate). Among older adults and seniors, 18.6% reported food insecurity (5.5% often and 13.1% sometimes), defined as running out of food and not having money to buy more. Low community social capital was reported by 22.4% of participants, and 30.8% indicated they were single, widowed, or divorced, an indicator of limited familial social capital. A robust multinomial regression model found the odds of reporting greater food insecurity increased for individuals who were women, African American, residents of a household with a low or poverty-level income, individuals who perceived themselves to be worse off than others within their community, and those who had low social capital. The odds of being food insecure decreased for older respondents, partnered respondents and persons with more education (pseudo r(2) = 0.27, p < 0.0000). Compositional level measures of collective social functioning are important associates of food insecurity among older adults and seniors, regardless of severity.

  17. Resilience from the point of view of older people: 'There's still life beyond a funny knee'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, Janine L; Wild, Kirsty; Kerse, Ngaire; Allen, Ruth E S

    2012-02-01

    Resilience is a concept of growing interest in relation to older people and within the context of population ageing. In this paper we explore older people's understandings and experiences of resilience, drawing on interviews and participant-led focus groups with 121 older people living in two case-study communities in Aotearoa, New Zealand. Close reading of extended conversations about what characterises resilience, such as positive attitude, counting blessings or keeping busy, reveal how all of these apparently internal or personal characteristics are deeply embedded in social and physical contexts. We argue that resilience should be seen as a contextualised process which can be both individual and environmental. Older people's experiences highlight the need to consider the effectiveness of environmental community resources and social-political structures such as state-funded service availability, as well as the personal characteristics that are usually focused on when considering resilience in old age. We also argue that it is important to consider different aspects of resilience, so that a person or group might face constraints in one area, such as physical or economic wellbeing, but be strong in other areas such as social relationships or mobility. Resilience can mean acknowledging and incorporating 'vulnerability' and balancing wellbeing across a range of areas. Thus even those living with significant illness or hardship can be understood to be ageing well and indeed to be resilient. Far from using resilience as a narrow measure against which to succeed or fail, resilience is a useful concept framing how ageing well can incorporate multidimensional pathways including both vulnerability and flourishing. We must pay adequate attention to the broader physical and social contexts and scales that underpin--or undermine--individual resilience. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Risk factors for falls of older citizens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelens, C.; Hekman, Edsko E.G.; Verkerke, Gijsbertus Jacob

    2013-01-01

    METHOD: A literature search was conducted to retrieve studies of the past 25 years. All participants from the studies lived in the community or institutions and were aged 60 or older. The following key word combinations were used, limited to the title: elderly or older people or older adults and

  19. [Physical performance of older adults living in rural areas at sea level and at high altitude in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estela-Ayamamani, David; Espinoza-Figueroa, Jossué; Columbus-Morales, Mauricio; Runzer-Colmenares, Fernando; Parodi, José F; Mayta-Tristán, Percy

    2015-01-01

    Living at high altitudes requires the inhabitants to adapt biologically and socially to the environment. The objective of this study was to determine the difference in physical performance (PP) in rural populations at sea level and at high altitude. A cross-sectional study was conducted in rural communities in Ancash, Peru, located at 3.345 meters above sea level (m.a.s.l.) and also in communities located in coastal areas at 6m.a.s.l. PP was measured by the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) and other associated factors. Adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) were calculated. A total of 130 older adults were assessed in the high altitude communities and 129 on the coast. The median age was 71.4 years, and 55.6% were female. Low physical performance (SPPB ≤ 6) was 10.0% at high altitude and 19.4% on the coast (p<0.05). Factors associated with low physical performance were residing at the coast (aPR: 2.10, 95% CI 1.02 to 4.33), self-reported poor health (aPR: 2.48, 95% CI 1.21 -5.08), hypertension (aPR: 1.73, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.98), and age (aPR: 1.04, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.07), while being a farmer (aPR: 0.49, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.97), and being independent (aPR: 0.37, 95% CI 0,20-, 072) were found to be protective factors. It was also found that the inhabitants of the coast have a mean of 0.86 points lower total SPPB than the high altitude ones (p=0.004). There is an association between altitude of residence and PP in older adults. The prevalence of a low PP in older adults in rural areas at sea level is twice as high compared to those living in high altitude rural communities. Copyright © 2014 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Food security for community-living elderly people in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yang; Rosenberg, Mark; Yu, Jie; Zhang, Hua

    2016-11-01

    Food security has been identified as an important issue for elderly people's quality of life and ageing in place. A food security index composed of three indicators (food intake, food quality and food affordability) was developed to measure the food security status of community-living elderly people. Food security was then examined among community-living elderly in the central urban districts of Beijing, China. Data were collected by a questionnaire survey in the summer of 2013 and the response rate was 78.5%. Descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression were applied to analyse food security and the associations between food security and demographic and socioeconomic factors. The results showed that 54.2% of the surveyed elderly experienced food security. Participants with better education (OR = 1.68) and better health (OR = 1.47) were more likely to experience food security. The young-old were less likely to experience food security than the older old (OR = 0.94). Elderly people who lived with their children were less likely to experience food security than those who lived alone (OR = 0.43). The results of impact factors on food security highlight both similarities with studies from more developed countries and the unique challenges faced in a rapidly changing China with its unique social, cultural and political systems. The food security index we developed in this study is a simple and effective measure of food security status, which can be used in surveys for evaluating the food security status of elderly people in the future. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. High Prevalence of Physical Frailty Among Community-Dwelling Malnourished Older Adults-A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlaan, Sjors; Ligthart-Melis, Gerdien C; Wijers, Sander L J; Cederholm, Tommy; Maier, Andrea B; de van der Schueren, Marian A E

    2017-05-01

    Malnutrition and frailty are two geriatric syndromes that significantly affect independent living and health in community-dwelling older adults. Although the pathophysiology of malnutrition and physical frailty share common pathways, it is unknown to what extent these syndromes overlap and how they relate to each other. A systematic review was performed resulting in a selection of 28 studies that assessed both malnutrition and frailty in community-dwelling older adults. Furthermore, a meta-analysis was performed on 10 studies that used Mini- Nutritional Assessment and the Fried frailty phenotype to estimate the prevalence of malnutrition within physical frailty and vice versa. In the systematic review, 25 of the 28 studies used the Mini-Nutritional Assessment (long or short form) for malnutrition screening. For frailty assessment, 23 of the 28 studies focused on the physical frailty phenotype, of which 19 followed the original Fried phenotype. Fifteen studies analyzed the association between malnutrition and frailty, which was significant in 12 of these. The meta-analysis included 10 studies with a total of 5447 older adults. In this pooled population of community-dwelling older adults [mean (standard deviation) age: 77.2 (6.7) years], 2.3% was characterized as malnourished and 19.1% as physically frail. The prevalence of malnutrition was significantly associated with the prevalence of physical frailty (P dwelling older adults are related, but not interchangeable geriatric syndromes. Two out of 3 malnourished older adults were physically frail, whereas close to 10% of the physically frail older adults was identified as malnourished. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Predicting use of case management support services for adolescents and adults living in community following brain injury: A longitudinal Canadian database study with implications for life care planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptiste, B; Dawson, D R; Streiner, D

    2015-01-01

    To determine factors associated with case management (CM) service use in people with traumatic brain injury (TBI), using a published model for service use. A retrospective cohort, with nested case-control design. Correlational and logistic regression analyses of questionnaires from a longitudinal community data base. Questionnaires of 203 users of CM services and 273 non-users, complete for all outcome and predictor variables. Individuals with TBI, 15 years of age and older. Out of a dataset of 1,960 questionnaires, 476 met the inclusion criteria. Eight predictor variables and one outcome variable (use or non-use of the service). Predictor variables considered the framework of the Behaviour Model of Health Service Use (BMHSU); specifically, pre-disposing, need and enabling factor groups as these relate to health service use and access. Analyses revealed significant differences between users and non-users of CM services. In particular, users were significantly younger than non-users as the older the person the less likely to use the service. Also, users had less education and more severe activity limitations and lower community integration. Persons living alone are less likely to use case management. Funding groups also significantly impact users. This study advances an empirical understanding of equity of access to health services usage in the practice of CM for persons living with TBI as a fairly new area of research, and considers direct relevance to Life Care Planning (LCP). Many life care planers are CM and the genesis of LCP is CM. The findings relate to health service use and access, rather than health outcomes. These findings may assist with development of a modified model for prediction of use to advance future cost of care predictions.

  3. Health-social partnership intervention programme for community-dwelling older adults: a research protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kwan Ching; Wong, Frances Kam Yuet; Chang, Katherine Ka Pik

    2015-11-01

    This paper aims to describe the research protocol that will be used to determine the effectiveness of a health-social partnership intervention programme among community-dwelling older adults. Ageing in place is a preferred option for overcoming challenges of the increasing prevalence of chronic diseases and the risk for hospitalization associated with the ageing population. Nevertheless, our knowledge of how to implement this concept is limited. The integrated efforts of health and social services may help to enable older adults to live with a sense of control over their daily life and to be independent to the fullest extent possible in the community. This is a randomized, controlled trial. Participants are community-dwelling older adults referred from a community centre. Sample size calculation was based on power analysis. The intervention group will receive the programme with the standard protocols guided by a comprehensive assessment-intervention-evaluation framework. Home visits and telephones follow-up will be employed as means of conducting the interventions and monitoring their progress. The customary care group will receive placebo social calls. The duration of the interventions will be 3 months. The study was funded by the School of Nursing in Hong Kong. Research Ethics Committee approval was obtained in September 2014. The results of this research are expected to enable older adults to stay in the community with optimal health and well-being. Health and social sciences are integrated into the practice in this research protocol. The scarce literature on this topic means that this study can also provide an opportunity to bridge the caring gap among older adults. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Arabic version of the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly among community-dwelling older adults in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqarni, Ayidh M; Vennu, Vishal; Alshammari, Sulaiman A; Bindawas, Saad M

    2018-01-01

    Older adults are the fastest growing population group worldwide. Regular physical activity (PA) is reported to reduce the risk of health conditions and improve personal well-being. Few validated instruments can be used to measure the PA levels among older adults in Saudi Arabia. The Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) is used worldwide for evaluating the PA levels of the elderly in epidemiological studies. However, this scale has not been translated into Arabic. This study aimed to cross-culturally adapt the PASE into Arabic language and evaluate its reliability and validity among community-dwelling older adults in Saudi Arabia. This study was a cross-sectional one following Beaton guidelines to translate and perform cultural adaptation, as well as test the reliability and validity of the PASE Arabic version (PASE-A). Elderly (N=74) people from both genders, who lived in a community dwelling in Riyadh city, were selected from several primary health care centers. The study used Cronbach's alpha coefficient to assess the internal consistency reliability, while intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC 2,1 ) was used for test-retest reliability and the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient ( r ) was used to evaluate the correlation among PASE-A and grip strength, Timed Up and Go test, body mass index, and fat percentage. Out of 74 older adults, 59 (79.7%) completed the PASE-A questionnaire twice. The internal consistency of the PASE-A components was good (Cronbach's alpha 0.70-0.75), and the reliability of the components was excellent (ICC 2,1 0.90-0.98). A higher PASE-A score was associated with higher grip strength ( r =0.28, p =0.05) and with shorter Timed Up and Go test times ( r =-0.45, p =0.01). The PASE-A version was easy, understandable, and relevant for Saudi older adults' culture. This scale was a reliable and valid tool for evaluating and assessing the PA level among community-dwelling older adults in Saudi Arabia.

  5. Older Workers in the European Community, Japan, and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Elizabeth; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Includes "Older Workers in the European Community: Pervasive Discrimination, Little Awareness" (Drury); "Aging Workers in Japan: From Reverence to Redundance" (Takada); and "Canada's Labor Market: Older Workers Need Not Apply" (David). (JOW)

  6. Comparative characteristics of the home care nursing services used by community-dwelling older people from urban and rural environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowiak, Ewa; Kostka, Tomasz

    2013-06-01

    To compare home care nursing services use by community-dwelling older people from urban and rural environments in Poland. In the current literature, there is a lack of data based on multidimensional geriatric assessment concerning the provision of care delivered by nurses for older people from urban and rural environments. Cross-sectional random survey. Between 2006-2010, a random sample of 935 older people (over 65 years of age) from an urban environment and 812 from a neighbouring rural environment were interviewed in a cross-sectional survey. The rural dwellers (82·8%) nominated their family members as care providers more often than the city inhabitants (51·2%). Home nursing care was provided to 4·1% of people in the city and 6·5% in the county. Poststroke condition, poor nutritional status, and low physical activity level, as well as low scores for activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living, and Mini-Mental State Examination values, were all determinants of nursing care, both in urban and rural areas. In the urban environment, additional predictors of nursing care use were age, presence of ischaemic heart disease, diabetes and respiratory disorders, number of medications taken, and a high depression score. Poor functional status is the most important determinant of nursing care use in both environments. In the urban environment, a considerable proportion of community-dwelling elders live alone. In the rural environment, older people usually have someone available for potential care services. The main problem seems to be seeking nursing care only in advanced deterioration of functional status. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Factors associated with occasional and recurrent falls in Mexican community-dwelling older people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mino-León, Dolores; Cruz-Arenas, Esteban

    2018-01-01

    Falls are a frequent event among older adults that can cause wounds, disability, psychological disorders, and premature death. Although the large number of existing studies on the issue, few have been conducted in middle- and low-income countries. The objective of the present study is to identify the sociodemographic, medical, and functional performance factors associated with occasional and recurrent falls in Mexican older adults dwelling in community. Cross-sectional analysis of 9 598 adults ≥60 years old who participated in the fourth round (2015) of the Mexican Health and Aging Study. Bivariate tests were performed to evaluate the differences between covariates by distinct fall groups (no falls, occasional falls, and recurrent falls). Multiple logistic regressions with unadjusted and adjusted models were estimated. Approximately 46% of older adults had had at least one fall during the previous two years (one fall 16% and recurrent falls 30%). Occasional falls were only associated with being a woman; in addition to the sex, recurrent falls were strongly associated with advanced age, rural residence, bad and very bad self-perception of health status, activity-limiting pain, urinary incontinence, depression, arthritis, limitations in basic activities of daily living, and limitations in advanced activities of daily living. Falls, primarily recurrent falls, deserve to be addressed through multifactorial strategies that include different areas of intervention. PMID:29462159

  8. Factors associated with occasional and recurrent falls in Mexican community-dwelling older people.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Agudelo-Botero

    Full Text Available Falls are a frequent event among older adults that can cause wounds, disability, psychological disorders, and premature death. Although the large number of existing studies on the issue, few have been conducted in middle- and low-income countries. The objective of the present study is to identify the sociodemographic, medical, and functional performance factors associated with occasional and recurrent falls in Mexican older adults dwelling in community. Cross-sectional analysis of 9 598 adults ≥60 years old who participated in the fourth round (2015 of the Mexican Health and Aging Study. Bivariate tests were performed to evaluate the differences between covariates by distinct fall groups (no falls, occasional falls, and recurrent falls. Multiple logistic regressions with unadjusted and adjusted models were estimated. Approximately 46% of older adults had had at least one fall during the previous two years (one fall 16% and recurrent falls 30%. Occasional falls were only associated with being a woman; in addition to the sex, recurrent falls were strongly associated with advanced age, rural residence, bad and very bad self-perception of health status, activity-limiting pain, urinary incontinence, depression, arthritis, limitations in basic activities of daily living, and limitations in advanced activities of daily living. Falls, primarily recurrent falls, deserve to be addressed through multifactorial strategies that include different areas of intervention.

  9. Therapeutic effects of an indoor gardening programme for older people living in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Mimi Mun Yee

    2010-04-01

    To explore the activities of daily living and psychological well-being of older people living in nursing homes and also to examine the effectiveness of a gardening programme in enhancing socilaisation and life satisfaction, reducing loneliness and promoting activities of daily living for older people living in nursing homes. Life in nursing homes can mean very limited physical and social activity, leading to further decline in function for many older people. This was a quasi-experimental pre and posttest control group design. Older people from nursing homes were invited to join the eight week indoor gardening programme (experimental group), while older people in other nursing homes were treated as the control group; they received regular care without the eight week indoor gardening programme. There were 26 older people (25 female and one male; mean age 85 years) in the experimental group and 27 (20 female and seven male; mean age 82 years) in the control group. Demographic data including age, gender, educational level and financial situation were collected, in addition to information regarding life satisfaction, loneliness, physical activity and social network situation, before and after the eight week indoor gardening programme for both the experimental and control groups. Also, details of experimental group subjects' experience of the indoor gardening programme were elicited using open-ended questions. There were significant improvements in life satisfaction and social network and a significant decrease in perception of loneliness for older people in the experimental group after the eight week indoor gardening programme, while the activities of daily living were unchanged for both groups after the programme. Given the positive effects of gardening activities, it is suggested that they be promoted more widely among nursing home residents.

  10. Classification trees for identifying non-use of community-based long-term care services among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penkunas, Michael James; Eom, Kirsten Yuna; Chan, Angelique Wei-Ming

    2017-10-01

    Home- and center-based long-term care (LTC) services allow older adults to remain in the community while simultaneously helping caregivers cope with the stresses associated with providing care. Despite these benefits, the uptake of community-based LTC services among older adults remains low. We analyzed data from a longitudinal study in Singapore to identify the characteristics of individuals with referrals to home-based LTC services or day rehabilitation services at the time of hospital discharge. Classification and regression tree analysis was employed to identify combinations of clinical and sociodemographic characteristics of patients and their caregivers for individuals who did not take up their referred services. Patients' level of limitation in activities of daily living (ADL) and caregivers' ethnicity and educational level were the most distinguishing characteristics for identifying older adults who failed to take up their referred home-based services. For day rehabilitation services, patients' level of ADL limitation, home size, age, and possession of a national medical savings account, as well as caregivers' education level, and gender were significant factors influencing service uptake. Identifying subgroups of patients with high rates of non-use can help clinicians target individuals who are need of community-based LTC services but unlikely to engage in formal treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Response to culturally competent drug treatment among homeless persons with different living arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Erick G; Song, Ahyoung; Henwood, Benjamin; Kong, Yinfei; Kim, Tina

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated the association between program cultural competence and homeless individuals' drug use after treatment in Los Angeles County, California. Los Angeles County has the largest and most diverse population of homeless individuals in the nation. We randomly selected for analysis 52 drug-treatment programs and 2158 participants who identified as homeless in the Los Angeles County Participant Reporting System in 2011. We included their living arrangements (indoors and stable, indoors and unstable, and outdoors) and individual and program characteristics (particularly whether their programs used six culturally competent practices) in multilevel regression analyses. The outcome was days of primary drug use at discharge.Results showed that higher levels of staff personal involvement in minority communities (IRR=0.437; 95% CI=0.222, 0.861) and outreach to minority communities (IRR = 0.406; 95% CI=0.213, 0.771) were associated with fewer days of drug use at discharge. Homeless individuals living outdoors used their primary drug more often than any other group. Yet, compared to individuals with other living arrangements, when outdoor homeless individuals were treated by programs with the highest community resources and linkages (IRR=0.364; 95% CI=0.157, 0.844), they reported the fewest days of drug use. We discuss implications for program evaluation and community engagement policies and practices. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. FACTORS RELATING TO DEPRESSION AMONG OLDER PEOPLE LIVING IN CIMAHI, WEST JAVA PROVINCE, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiki Gustryanti

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Depression is commonly found in older people. The prevalence of depression among older people, particularly in Indonesia is increasing worldwide. Objective: This study was aimed to identify the factors relating to depression among older people living in Cimahi, West Java Province, Indonesia. Method: A cross sectional design was used with a total of 267 older people aged from 60 to 79 years old. A multi-stage random sampling has been used in five Public Health Centers in Cimahi. The instruments comprised socio-demographic questionnaires, General Health Perceptions questionnaire, Chula Activities of Daily Living Index (CADLI, and Geriatric Depression Scale-15 (GDS-15. Data analysis was conducted using descriptive statistic, chi-square, and point-biserial. Results: The result revealed that 56.2% respondents was no depression and 43.8% respondents was depression. The results also showed that age, marital status, family history of depression, perceived health status, and activities of daily living was significant relationship with depression a mong older people (p<.01; p<.05. Conclusion: This finding can be used as a reference to implement new strategies to decrease depression among older people.

  13. Trunk lean mass and its association with 4 different measures of thoracic kyphosis in older community dwelling persons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Yamamoto

    Full Text Available The causes of age-related hyperkyphosis (HK include osteoporosis, but only 1/3 of those most severely affected have vertebral fractures, suggesting that there are other important, and potentially modifiable causes. We hypothesized that muscle mass and quality may be important determinants of kyphosis in older persons.We recruited 72 persons >65 years to participate in a prospective study designed to evaluate kyphosis and fall risk. At the baseline visit, participants had their body composition measures completed using Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA. They had kyphosis measured in either the standing [S] or lying [L] position: 1 Cobb angle from DXA [L]; 2 Debrunner kyphometer [S]; 3 architect's flexicurve ruler [S]; and 4 blocks method [L]. Multivariable linear/logistic regression analyses were done to assess the association between each body composition and 4 kyphosis measures.Women (n = 52 were an average age of 76.8 (SD 6.7 and men 80.5 (SD 7.8 years. They reported overall good/excellent health (93%, the average body mass index was 25.3 (SD 4.6 and 35% reported a fall in the past year. Using published cut-offs, about 20-30% were determined to have HK. For the standing assessments of kyphosis only, after adjusting for age, sex, weight and hip BMD, persons with lower TLM were more likely to be hyperkyphotic.Lower TLM is associated with HK in older persons. The results were stronger when standing measures of kyphosis were used, suggesting that the effects of muscle on thoracic kyphosis are best appreciated under spinal loading conditions.

  14. The role of neurocognition and social context in predicting community functioning among formerly homeless seriously mentally ill persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutt, Russell K; Seidman, Larry J; Caplan, Brina; Martsinkiv, Anna; Goldfinger, Stephen M

    2007-11-01

    To test the influence of neurocognitive functioning on community functioning among formerly homeless persons with serious mental illness and to determine whether that influence varies with social context, independent of individual characteristics. In metropolitan Boston, 112 persons in Department of Mental Health shelters were administered a neuropsychological test battery and other measures and then randomly assigned to empowerment-oriented group homes or independent apartments, as part of a longitudinal study of the effects of housing on multiple outcomes. Subjects' case managers completed Rosen's 5-dimensional Life Skills Inventory at 3, 6, 12, and 18 months and subjects reported on their social contacts at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 months. Subject characteristics are controlled in the analysis. Three dimensions of neurocognitive functioning--executive function, verbal declarative memory, and vigilance--each predicted community functioning. Better executive function predicted improved self-care and less turbulent behavior among persons living alone, better memory predicted more positive social contacts for those living in a group home, and higher levels of vigilance predicted improved communication in both housing types. Neurocognition predicts community functioning among homeless persons with severe mental illness, but in a way that varies with the social context in which community functioning occurs.

  15. Subjective cognitive decline and fall risk in community-dwelling older adults with or without objective cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirooka, Hidehiko; Nishiguchi, Shu; Fukutani, Naoto; Tashiro, Yuto; Nozaki, Yuma; Aoyama, Tomoki

    2018-05-01

    The association between subjective cognitive decline and falls has not been clearly determined. Our aim was to explore the effect of subjective cognitive decline on falls in community-dwelling older adults with or without objective cognitive decline. We included 470 older adults (mean age 73.6 ± 5.2; 329 women) living in the community and obtained data on fall history directly from the participants. Subjective cognitive decline was assessed using a self-administered question. Objective cognitive function was measured using the Mini-Mental State Examination. Statistical analyses were carried out separately for participants with objective cognitive decline and those without. A multiple logistic regression analysis showed that, among participants without objective cognitive decline, subjective cognitive decline was positively associated with falls [OR 1.91; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.17-3.12; p = 0.01). Conversely, among participants with objective cognitive decline, subjective cognitive decline was negatively associated with falls (OR 0.07; 95% CI 0.01-0.85, p = 0.04). The result suggests that the objective-subjective disparity may affect falls in community-dwelling older adults. The presence of subjective cognitive decline was significantly positively associated with falls among cognitively intact older adults. However, among their cognitively impaired peers, the absence of subjective cognitive decline was positively associated with falls.

  16. Factors associated with the 6-minute walk test in nursing home residents and community-dwelling older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballer, Vicent-Benavent; Lisón, Juan Francisco; Rosado-Calatayud, Pedro; Amer-Cuenca, Juan José; Segura-Orti, Eva

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The main objective of this study was to determine the contributions and extent to which certain physical measurements explain performance in the 6-minute walk test in healthy older adults living in a geriatric nursing home and for older adults dwelling in the community. [Subjects] The subjects were 122 adults aged 65 and older with no cognitive impairment who were independent in their daily activities. [Methods] The 6-minute walk test, age, body mass index, walking speed, chair stand test, Berg Balance Scale, Timed Up-and-Go test, rectus femoris cross-sectional area, Short Physical Performance Battery, and hand-grip strength were examined. [Results] Strong significant associations were found between mobility, lower-limb function, balance, and the 6-minute walk test. A stepwise multiple regression on the entire sample showed that lower-limb function was a significant and independent predictor for the 6-minute walk test. Additionally, lower-limb function was a strong predictor for the 6-minute walk test in our nursing home group, whereas mobility was found to be the best predictor in our community-dwelling group. [Conclusion] Better lower-limb function, balance, and mobility result in a higher distance covered by healthy older adults. Lower-limb function and mobility appeared to best determine walking performance in the nursing home and community-dwelling groups, respectively. PMID:26696740

  17. Communicative challenges in the home care of older persons: a qualitative exploration.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sundler, A.J.; Eide, H.; Dulmen, S. van; Holmström, I.K.

    2016-01-01

    Aim To explore communicative challenges in encounters between nurse assistants and older persons during home care visits. Background The older population is increasing worldwide. Currently, there is a shift in care for older people from institutional care to home

  18. Who Lives Alone During Old Age? Trends in the Social and Functional Disadvantages of Sweden's Solitary Living Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Benjamin A; Fors, Stefan; Fritzell, Johan; Lennartsoon, Carin; Agahi, Neda

    2017-01-01

    This study identifies specific social and functional disadvantages associated with living alone during old age in Sweden and assesses whether these associations have changed during recent decades. Data came from repeated cross-sectional surveys of Swedish adults aged 77+ during 1992-2014. Findings indicate that several types of disadvantage are consistently associated with the probability of living alone including financial insecurity and having never married for women and having never married and mobility impairment for men. Also for older men, low education has become an increasing strong determinant of living alone. These findings suggest that older adults who live alone are a subgroup that is particularly, and in some cases increasingly, vulnerable with respect to social and functional status. This has important policy implications related to addressing the needs of this growing subgroup as well as methodological implications for studies on the health effects of living alone.

  19. Coping with pain in the hip or knee in relation to physical disability in community-living elderly people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopman-Rock, M.; Kraaimaat, F. W.; Odding, E.; Bijlsma, J. W.

    1998-01-01

    To investigate the use of pain coping strategies by community-living older people with pain in the hip or knee and the mediating role of coping with pain in the relationship between the chronicity of pain and physical disability. A group of 157 people with pain "in the last month" was identified.

  20. Older persons' experiences of a home-based exercise program with behavioral change support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkkukangas, Marina; Sundler, Annelie J; Söderlund, Anne; Eriksson, Staffan; Johansson, Ann-Christin

    2017-12-01

    It is a challenge to promote exercise among older persons. Knowledge is needed regarding the maintenance of exercise aiming at preventing falls and promoting health and well-being in older persons. This descriptive study used a qualitative inductive approach to describe older persons' experiences of a fall-preventive, home-based exercise program with support for behavioral change. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 elderly persons aged 75 years or older, and a qualitative content analysis was performed. Four categories emerged: facilitators of performing exercise in everyday life, the importance of support, perceived gains from exercise, and the existential aspects of exercise. With support from physiotherapists (PTs), home-based exercise can be adapted to individual circumstances in a meaningful way. Including exercises in everyday life and daily routines could support the experience of being stronger, result in better physical functioning, and give hope for an extended active life in old age.

  1. Stakeholders' Perceptions Sought to Inform the Development of a Low-Cost Mobile Robot for Older Adults: A Qualitative Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefcik, Justine S; Johnson, Michelle J; Yim, Mark; Lau, Tessa; Vivio, Nicholas; Mucchiani, Caio; Cacchione, Pamela Z

    2018-02-01

    Creative solutions are needed to support community-dwelling older adults residing in a variety of settings including their house, apartment, or Supportive Apartment Living (SAL) to promote independence and reduce the risk of nursing home replacement. The objective of this study was to gain an understanding of older adults' needs for physical, mental, and social activities to support the design and functionality of a low-cost mobile assistive robot. A qualitative descriptive study was designed which included three stakeholder focus groups (caregivers, clinicians, and older adults). We held three focus groups with a total of 19 participants: one with paid caregivers ( n = 6), one with interdisciplinary clinicians ( n = 8), and one with older adults residing in SAL ( n = 5). Conventional content analysis was the analytical technique. Four themes emerged: (a) Accomplishing Everyday Tasks: activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) were important from the perspectives of all three groups for the older adults to accomplish daily, as well as the "use it or lose it" attitude of the older adults; (b) Personal Connections and Meaningful Activities: for the older adults, it was important for them to engage in socialization and leisure activities, and for the caregivers and clinicians, they work to build personal relationships with the older adults; (c) Cognitive Interventions: the clinicians provided cognitive tools (including reminders, routine and designing interventions) to older adults so they can remain as safe and independent as possible in the SAL; and (d) Safety Measures: encompassed clinicians addressing safety and injury prevention and the caregivers checking in on the older adults in their SAL apartments. This work contributed to the design and functionality specifications for an autonomous low-cost mobile robot for deployment to increase the independence of older adults.

  2. Assessing basic needs in frail older persons calls for aesthetic nursing skills – an ethnographic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kollerup, Mette Geil; Angel, Sanne

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite research on caring for older persons' basic needs, a number of hospital admissions occur which had been preventable, given the proper attention to caring for the basic needs. Literature show that caring for the basic needs of frail older persons can be complicated if they are ......Ba