WorldWideScience

Sample records for community water demand

  1. ­­Drought, water conservation, and water demand rebound in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, P.; Ajami, N.

    2017-12-01

    There is growing recognition that dynamic community values, preferences, and water use behaviors are important drivers of water demand in addition to external factors such as temperature and precipitation. Water demand drivers have been extensively studied, yet they have traditionally been applied to models that assume static conditions and usually do not account for potential societal changes in response to increased scarcity awareness. For example, following a period of sustained low demand such as during a drought, communities often increase water use during a hydrologically wet period, a phenomenon known as "rebounding" water use. Yet previous experiences show the extent of this rebound is not a straightforward function of policy and efficiency improvements, but may also reflect short-term or long-lasting change in community behavior, which are not easily captured by models that assume stationarity. In this study we explore cycles of decreased water demand during drought and subsequent water use rebound observed in California in recent decades. We have developed a novel dynamic system model for water demand in three diverse but interconnected service areas in the San Francisco Bay Area, exposing local trends of changing water use behaviors and long-term impacts on water demand since 1980 to the present. In this model, we apply the concept of social memory, defined as a community's inherited knowledge about hazardous events or degraded environmental conditions from past experiences. While this concept has been applied to further conceptual understanding of socio-hydrologic systems in response to hydrological extremes, to the best of our knowledge this the first study to incorporate social memory to model the water demand rebound phenomenon and to use such a model in the examination of changing dynamics validated by historical data. In addition, we take a closer look at water demand during the recent historic drought in California from 2012-16, and relate our

  2. Assessing the significance of climate and community factors on urban water demand

    OpenAIRE

    Md Mahmudul Haque; Prasanna Egodawatta; Ataur Rahman; Ashantha Goonetilleke

    2015-01-01

    Ensuring adequate water supply to urban areas is a challenging task due to factors such as rapid urban growth, increasing water demand and climate change. In developing a sustainable water supply system, it is important to identify the dominant water demand factors for any given water supply scheme. This paper applies principal components analysis to identify the factors that dominate residential water demand using the Blue Mountains Water Supply System in Australia as a case study. The resul...

  3. The Community Water Model (CWATM) / Development of a community driven global water model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burek, Peter; Satoh, Yusuke; Greve, Peter; Kahil, Taher; Wada, Yoshihide

    2017-04-01

    With a growing population and economic development, it is expected that water demands will increase significantly in the future, especially in developing regions. At the same time, climate change is expected to alter spatial patterns of hydrological cycle and will have global, regional and local impacts on water availability. Thus, it is important to assess water supply, water demand and environmental needs over time to identify the populations and locations that will be most affected by these changes linked to water scarcity, droughts and floods. The Community Water Model (CWATM) will be designed for this purpose in that it includes an accounting of how future water demands will evolve in response to socioeconomic change and how water availability will change in response to climate. CWATM represents one of the new key elements of IIASA's Water program. It has been developed to work flexibly at both global and regional level at different spatial resolutions. The model is open source and community-driven to promote our work amongst the wider water community worldwide and is flexible enough linking to further planned developments such as water quality and hydro-economic modules. CWATM will be a basis to develop a next-generation global hydro-economic modeling framework that represents the economic trade-offs among different water management options over a basin looking at water supply infrastructure and demand managements. The integrated modeling framework will consider water demand from agriculture, domestic, energy, industry and environment, investment needs to alleviate future water scarcity, and will provide a portfolio of economically optimal solutions for achieving future water management options under the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) for example. In addition, it will be able to track the energy requirements associated with the water supply system e.g., pumping, desalination and interbasin transfer to realize the linkage with the water-energy economy. In

  4. Planning for community resilience to future United States domestic water demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costs of repairing and expanding aging infrastructure and competing demands for water from other sectors such as industry and agriculture are stretching water managers’ abilities to meet essential domestic drinking water needs for future generations. Using Bayesian statistical mo...

  5. Integrated Water Resources Simulation Model for Rural Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.-H.; Liao, W.-T.; Tung, C.-P.

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop several water resources simulation models for residence houses, constructed wetlands and farms and then integrate these models for a rural community. Domestic and irrigation water uses are the major water demand in rural community. To build up a model estimating domestic water demand for residence houses, the average water use per person per day should be accounted first, including water uses of kitchen, bathroom, toilet and laundry. On the other hand, rice is the major crop in the study region, and its productive efficiency sometimes depends on the quantity of irrigation water. The water demand can be estimated by crop water use, field leakage and water distribution loss. Irrigation water comes from rainfall, water supply system and reclaimed water which treated by constructed wetland. In recent years, constructed wetlands play an important role in water resources recycle. They can purify domestic wastewater for water recycling and reuse. After treating from constructed wetlands, the reclaimed water can be reused in washing toilets, watering gardens and irrigating farms. Constructed wetland is one of highly economic benefits for treating wastewater through imitating the processing mechanism of natural wetlands. In general, the treatment efficiency of constructed wetlands is determined by evapotranspiration, inflow, and water temperature. This study uses system dynamics modeling to develop models for different water resource components in a rural community. Furthermore, these models are integrated into a whole system. The model not only is utilized to simulate how water moves through different components, including residence houses, constructed wetlands and farms, but also evaluates the efficiency of water use. By analyzing the flow of water, the water resource simulation model can optimizes water resource distribution under different scenarios, and the result can provide suggestions for designing water resource system of a

  6. Household demand for water in Sweden with implications of a potential tax on water use

    Science.gov (United States)

    HöGlund, Lena

    1999-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to estimate empirically the effects of a water tax on water use and on the size and stability of the tax revenues. A tax exceeding value-added tax can be motivated on efficiency grounds when there are environmental external costs of water use and when water is a scarce resource. A household demand function for water is estimated using community level data for 282 (out of 286) Swedish communities studied annually over the period 1980-1992. Static and dynamic demand functions are estimated using panel data methods. The results show a long-run price elasticity of -0.10 in marginal price models and -0.20 in average price models. The findings imply that a tax of 1 Swedish Kronor (SEK) m-3 of water used (corresponding to a 5% increase in the mean average price) would generate ˜600 million SEK in tax revenues per year when levied on all households in Sweden. The water consumption would, however, only be reduced by ˜1%.

  7. Mining residential water and electricity demand data in Southern California to inform demand management strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cominola, A.; Spang, E. S.; Giuliani, M.; Castelletti, A.; Loge, F. J.; Lund, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    characterizing them with respect to consumption profiles features and socio- demographic information. Results show how such better understanding of the considered users' community allows spotting potentially interesting areas for water and energy demand management interventions.

  8. Water demand management in Mediterranean regions

    OpenAIRE

    Giulio Querini; Salvo Creaco

    2005-01-01

    Water sustainability needs a balance between demand and availability: 1) Water demand management: demand may be managed by suppliers and regulations responsible persons, using measures like invoicing, consumptions measurement and users education in water conservation measures; 2) Augmentation of water supply: availibility may be augmented by infrastructural measures, waste water reuse, non-conventional resources and losses reduction. Water Demand Management is about achieving a reduction in t...

  9. Hydraulic Network Modelling of Small Community Water Distribution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof Anyata

    community (Sakwa) water distribution network in North Eastern geopolitical region of Nigeria using. WaterCAD ..... Table 1: Criteria Relating Population to Water Demand (NWSP, 2000) ..... timely manner ... Department, Middle East Technical.

  10. Water Distribution Network Modelling of a Small Community using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of a small community (Sakwa) water distribution network in North Eastern geopolitical region of Nigeria using WaterCAD simulator. The analysis included a review of pressures, velocities and head loss gradients under steady state average day demand, maximum day demand conditions, and fire flow under maximum day ...

  11. EnviroAtlas - Fresno, CA - Domestic Water Demand per Day by U.S. Census Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — As included in this EnviroAtlas dataset, community level domestic water demand is calculated using locally available water use data per capita in gallons of water...

  12. EnviroAtlas - Phoenix, AZ - Domestic Water Demand per Day by U.S. Census Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — As included in this EnviroAtlas dataset, community level domestic water demand is calculated using locally available water use data per capita in gallons of water...

  13. Accounting for Water Insecurity in Modeling Domestic Water Demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaitsis, S. E.; Huber-lee, A. T.; Vogel, R. M.; Naumova, E.

    2013-12-01

    Water demand management uses price elasticity estimates to predict consumer demand in relation to water pricing changes, but studies have shown that many additional factors effect water consumption. Development scholars document the need for water security, however, much of the water security literature focuses on broad policies which can influence water demand. Previous domestic water demand studies have not considered how water security can affect a population's consumption behavior. This study is the first to model the influence of water insecurity on water demand. A subjective indicator scale measuring water insecurity among consumers in the Palestinian West Bank is developed and included as a variable to explore how perceptions of control, or lack thereof, impact consumption behavior and resulting estimates of price elasticity. A multivariate regression model demonstrates the significance of a water insecurity variable for data sets encompassing disparate water access. When accounting for insecurity, the R-squaed value improves and the marginal price a household is willing to pay becomes a significant predictor for the household quantity consumption. The model denotes that, with all other variables held equal, a household will buy more water when the users are more water insecure. Though the reasons behind this trend require further study, the findings suggest broad policy implications by demonstrating that water distribution practices in scarcity conditions can promote consumer welfare and efficient water use.

  14. Modeling water demand when households have multiple sources of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulibaly, Lassina; Jakus, Paul M.; Keith, John E.

    2014-07-01

    A significant portion of the world's population lives in areas where public water delivery systems are unreliable and/or deliver poor quality water. In response, people have developed important alternatives to publicly supplied water. To date, most water demand research has been based on single-equation models for a single source of water, with very few studies that have examined water demand from two sources of water (where all nonpublic system water sources have been aggregated into a single demand). This modeling approach leads to two outcomes. First, the demand models do not capture the full range of alternatives, so the true economic relationship among the alternatives is obscured. Second, and more seriously, economic theory predicts that demand for a good becomes more price-elastic as the number of close substitutes increases. If researchers artificially limit the number of alternatives studied to something less than the true number, the price elasticity estimate may be biased downward. This paper examines water demand in a region with near universal access to piped water, but where system reliability and quality is such that many alternative sources of water exist. In extending the demand analysis to four sources of water, we are able to (i) demonstrate why households choose the water sources they do, (ii) provide a richer description of the demand relationships among sources, and (iii) calculate own-price elasticity estimates that are more elastic than those generally found in the literature.

  15. WATER DEMAND PREDICTION USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents Hourly water demand prediction at the demand nodes of a water distribution network using NeuNet Pro 2.3 neural network software and the monitoring and control of water distribution using supervisory control. The case study is the Laminga Water Treatment Plant and its water distribution network, Jos.

  16. Water demand management: A policy response to climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivers, R.; Tate, D.

    1990-01-01

    The impacts of climate change on the water resources of the Great Lakes region are discussed. It is predicted that there will be a relative water scarcity in the Great Lakes basin of Ontario as climate changes occur over the next two decades. Declines in water supply will be accompanied by deterioration in the quality of fresh water as higher temperatures and higher relative quantities of discharged wastewater to water bodies reduce both assimilative and dilutive capacity. The most cost effective policy is to encourage water conservation through programs of water demand management. Water should be priced at the point at which its marginal cost is equal to its marginal product, ie. if priced any higher, less efficient substitutes would be used. Not only would water usage, and subsequent degradation of used water, be reduced, but energy and other cost savings would be achieved. The additional costs that apply to water users could be returned to the communities as additional revenue to be applied against sewage treatment upgrades and other environmental enhancements. Communities involved in water study should consider the development of water use analysis models to assist with decision making about allocation, pricing and availability of water supplies. 10 refs

  17. Incorporating community and multiple perspectives in the development of acceptable drinking water source protection policy in catchments facing recreation demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syme, Geoffrey J; Nancarrow, Blair E

    2013-11-15

    The protection of catchment areas for drinking water quality has become an increasingly disputed issue in Australia and internationally. This is particularly the case in regard to the growing demand for nature based and rural recreation. Currently the policy for the protection of drinking water in Western Australia is to enforce a 2 km exclusion zone with a much larger surrounding area with limited and prescribed access to recreators. The debate between recreators and water management agencies has been lively, culminating in a recent state government enquiry. This paper describes the second phase of a three phase study to develop a methodology for defensible policy formulation which accounts for the points of view of all stakeholders. We examine general community, active recreators and professionals' views on the current policy of catchment protection and five proposed alternatives using a social judgement theory approach. Key attitudinal determinants of the preferences for policies were identified. Overall the recreators did not support the current policy despite strong support from both the general community and the professional group. Nevertheless, it was evident that there was some support by the community for policies that would enable a slight relaxation of current recreational exclusion. It was also evident that there was a significant proportion of the general community who were dissatisfied with current recreational opportunities and that, in future, it may be less easy to police exclusion zones even if current policy is maintained. The potential for future integration of recreational and water source protection is discussed as well as the benefits of community research in understanding policy preferences in this regard. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Detecting pipe bursts by monitoring water demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.; Vreeburg, J.H.G.; Van der Roer, M.; Sperber, V.

    2012-01-01

    An algorithm which compares measured and predicted water demands to detect pipe bursts was developed and tested on three data sets of water demand and reported pipe bursts of three years. The algorithm proved to be able to detect bursts where the water loss exceeds 30% of the average water demand in

  19. Improving Water Demand Management Addressing Socioeconomic ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-01-20

    Jan 20, 2012 ... Efforts to conserve water by improving water demand management policies in the Middle East and North Africa are often slowed or even thwarted by a lack of political consensus and support for water demand management from key powerful stakeholders with vested interest in the status quo. This policy ...

  20. Improving Water Demand Management Addressing Socioeconomic ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Efforts to conserve water by improving water demand management policies in the Middle East and North Africa are often slowed or even thwarted by a lack of political consensus and support for water demand management from key powerful stakeholders with vested interest in the status quo. This policy brief based on ...

  1. Climate policy implications for agricultural water demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaturvedi, Vaibhav [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States); Hejazi, Mohamad I. [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States); Edmonds, James A. [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States); Clarke, Leon E. [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States); Kyle, G. Page [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States); Davies, Evan [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Wise, Marshall A. [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States); Calvin, Katherine V. [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Energy, water and land are scarce resources, critical to humans. Developments in each affect the availability and cost of the others, and consequently human prosperity. Measures to limit greenhouse gas concentrations will inevitably exact dramatic changes on energy and land systems and in turn alter the character, magnitude and geographic distribution of human claims on water resources. We employ the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), an integrated assessment model to explore the interactions of energy, land and water systems in the context of alternative policies to limit climate change to three alternative levels: 2.5 Wm-2 (445 ppm CO2-e), 3.5 Wm-2 (535 ppm CO2-e) and 4.5 Wm-2 (645 ppm CO2-e). We explore the effects of two alternative land-use emissions mitigation policy options—one which taxes terrestrial carbon emissions equally with fossil fuel and industrial emissions, and an alternative which only taxes fossil fuel and industrial emissions but places no penalty on land-use change emissions. We find that increasing populations and economic growth could be anticipated to almost triple demand for water for agricultural systems across the century even in the absence of climate policy. In general policies to mitigate climate change increase agricultural demands for water still further, though the largest changes occur in the second half of the century, under both policy regimes. The two policies examined profoundly affected both the sources and magnitudes of the increase in irrigation water demands. The largest increases in agricultural irrigation water demand occurred in scenarios where only fossil fuel emissions were priced (but not land-use change emission) and were primarily driven by rapid expansion in bioenergy production. In these scenarios water demands were large relative to present-day total available water, calling into question whether it would be physically possible to produce the associated biomass energy. We explored the potential of improved

  2. Working Paper 4: Institutions for Effective Water Demand ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-01-23

    Jan 23, 2012 ... Working Paper 4: Institutions for Effective Water Demand ... This working paper is part of WaDImena 's four Research Series on Water Demand Management ... Improving Water Demand Management Addressing Socioeconomic Inequalities and ... Women's rights and access to water and sanitation in Delhi.

  3. Water Demand Management Policy Brief No

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Bob Stanley

    Water demand management ― WDM ― can be hard to define. More an issue of policy than of technology, it is about managing and moderating our demands for good quality fresh water. It is less a matter of piping and pumps and more a tool ...

  4. Identifying water price and population criteria for meeting future urban water demand targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashoori, Negin; Dzombak, David A.; Small, Mitchell J.

    2017-12-01

    Predictive models for urban water demand can help identify the set of factors that must be satisfied in order to meet future targets for water demand. Some of the explanatory variables used in such models, such as service area population and changing temperature and rainfall rates, are outside the immediate control of water planners and managers. Others, such as water pricing and the intensity of voluntary water conservation efforts, are subject to decisions and programs implemented by the water utility. In order to understand this relationship, a multiple regression model fit to 44 years of monthly demand data (1970-2014) for Los Angeles, California was applied to predict possible future demand through 2050 under alternative scenarios for the explanatory variables: population, price, voluntary conservation efforts, and temperature and precipitation outcomes predicted by four global climate models with two CO2 emission scenarios. Future residential water demand in Los Angeles is projected to be largely driven by price and population rather than climate change and conservation. A median projection for the year 2050 indicates that residential water demand in Los Angeles will increase by approximately 36 percent, to a level of 620 million m3 per year. The Monte Carlo simulations of the fitted model for water demand were then used to find the set of conditions in the future for which water demand is predicted to be above or below the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power 2035 goal to reduce residential water demand by 25%. Results indicate that increases in price can not ensure that the 2035 water demand target can be met when population increases. Los Angeles must rely on furthering their conservation initiatives and increasing their use of stormwater capture, recycled water, and expanding their groundwater storage. The forecasting approach developed in this study can be utilized by other cities to understand the future of water demand in water-stressed areas

  5. Long-term water demand for electricity, industry and households

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijl, David L.; Bogaart, Patrick W.; Kram, Tom; de Vries, Bert J M; van Vuuren, Detlef P.

    2016-01-01

    Better water demand projections are needed in order to better assess water scarcity. The focus in this paper is on non-agricultural water demand, as this is the fastest-growing and least well-modelled demand component. We describe an end use-oriented model for future water demand in the electricity,

  6. Evaluating Outdoor Water Use Demand under Changing Climatic and Demographic Conditions: An Agent-based Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanta, L.; Berglund, E. Z.; Soh, M. H.

    2017-12-01

    Outdoor water-use for landscape and irrigation constitutes a significant end-use in total residential water demand. In periods of water shortages, utilities may reduce garden demands by implementing irrigation system audits, rebate programs, local ordinances, and voluntary or mandatory water-use restrictions. Because utilities do not typically record outdoor and indoor water-uses separately, the effects of policies for reducing garden demands cannot be readily calculated. The volume of water required to meet garden demands depends on the housing density, lawn size, type of vegetation, climatic conditions, efficiency of garden irrigation systems, and consumer water-use behaviors. Many existing outdoor demand estimation methods are deterministic and do not include consumer responses to conservation campaigns. In addition, mandatory restrictions may have a substantial impact on reducing outdoor demands, but the effectiveness of mandatory restrictions depends on the timing and the frequency of restrictions, in addition to the distribution of housing density and consumer types within a community. This research investigates a garden end-use model by coupling an agent-based modeling approach and a mechanistic-stochastic water demand model to create a methodology for estimating garden demand and evaluating demand reduction policies. The garden demand model is developed for two water utilities, using a diverse data sets, including residential customer billing records, outdoor conservation programs, frequency and type of mandatory water-use restrictions, lot size distribution, population growth, and climatic data. A set of garden irrigation parameter values, which are based on the efficiency of irrigation systems and irrigation habits of consumers, are determined for a set of conservation ordinances and restrictions. The model parameters are then validated using customer water usage data from the participating water utilities. A sensitivity analysis is conducted for garden

  7. Improving Water Demand Management by Addressing ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    Efforts to conserve water by improving water demand management policies .... First, ensure fair access to sustainable water supply, as well as, responsible water use. ... Water policy can also mandate reducing the loss of quantity or quality of ...

  8. Conceptual Framework and Computational Research of Hierarchical Residential Household Water Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baodeng Hou

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the quantity of household water consumption does not account for a huge proportion of the total water consumption amidst socioeconomic development, there has been a steadily increasing trend due to population growth and improved urbanization standards. As such, mastering the mechanisms of household water demand, scientifically predicting trends of household water demand, and implementing reasonable control measures are key focuses of current urban water management. Based on the categorization and characteristic analysis of household water, this paper used Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs to establish a level and grade theory of household water demand, whereby household water is classified into three levels (rigid water demand, flexible water demand, and luxury water demand and three grades (basic water demand, reasonable water demand, and representational water demand. An in-depth analysis was then carried out on the factors that influence the computation of household water demand, whereby equations for different household water categories were established, and computations for different levels of household water were proposed. Finally, observational experiments on household water consumption were designed, and observation and simulation computations were performed on three typical households in order to verify the scientific outcome and rationality of the computation of household water demand. The research findings contribute to the enhancement and development of prediction theories on water demand, and they are of high theoretical and realistic significance in terms of scientifically predicting future household water demand and fine-tuning the management of urban water resources.

  9. Estimation of water demand in water distribution systems using particle swarm optimization

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Letting, LK

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available and an evolutionary algorithm is a potential solution to the demand estimation problem. This paper presents a detailed process simulation model for water demand estimation using the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. Nodal water demands and pipe flows...

  10. Water demand forecasting: review of soft computing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghalehkhondabi, Iman; Ardjmand, Ehsan; Young, William A; Weckman, Gary R

    2017-07-01

    Demand forecasting plays a vital role in resource management for governments and private companies. Considering the scarcity of water and its inherent constraints, demand management and forecasting in this domain are critically important. Several soft computing techniques have been developed over the last few decades for water demand forecasting. This study focuses on soft computing methods of water consumption forecasting published between 2005 and 2015. These methods include artificial neural networks (ANNs), fuzzy and neuro-fuzzy models, support vector machines, metaheuristics, and system dynamics. Furthermore, it was discussed that while in short-term forecasting, ANNs have been superior in many cases, but it is still very difficult to pick a single method as the overall best. According to the literature, various methods and their hybrids are applied to water demand forecasting. However, it seems soft computing has a lot more to contribute to water demand forecasting. These contribution areas include, but are not limited, to various ANN architectures, unsupervised methods, deep learning, various metaheuristics, and ensemble methods. Moreover, it is found that soft computing methods are mainly used for short-term demand forecasting.

  11. Piped water consumption in Ghana: A case study of temporal and spatial patterns of clean water demand relative to alternative water sources in rural small towns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulinkina, Alexandra V; Kosinski, Karen C; Liss, Alexander; Adjei, Michael N; Ayamgah, Gilbert A; Webb, Patrick; Gute, David M; Plummer, Jeanine D; Naumova, Elena N

    2016-07-15

    Continuous access to adequate quantities of safe water is essential for human health and socioeconomic development. Piped water systems (PWSs) are an increasingly common type of water supply in rural African small towns. We assessed temporal and spatial patterns in water consumption from public standpipes of four PWSs in Ghana in order to assess clean water demand relative to other available water sources. Low water consumption was evident in all study towns, which manifested temporally and spatially. Temporal variability in water consumption that is negatively correlated with rainfall is an indicator of rainwater preference when it is available. Furthermore, our findings show that standpipes in close proximity to alternative water sources such as streams and hand-dug wells suffer further reductions in water consumption. Qualitative data suggest that consumer demand in the study towns appears to be driven more by water quantity, accessibility, and perceived aesthetic water quality, as compared to microbiological water quality or price. In settings with chronic under-utilization of improved water sources, increasing water demand through household connections, improving water quality with respect to taste and appropriateness for laundry, and educating residents about health benefits of using piped water should be prioritized. Continued consumer demand and sufficient revenue generation are important attributes of a water service that ensure its function over time. Our findings suggest that analyzing water consumption of existing metered PWSs in combination with qualitative approaches may enable more efficient planning of community-based water supplies and support sustainable development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Water brief — Wastewater Reuse for Water Demand Management ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-04

    Jan 4, 2011 ... Water Demand Management (WDM) is a water management approach that aims to ... WDM is simply defined as 'getting the most of the water that we have', while taking into ... Villages in Nepal prepare for weather extremes.

  13. Water Demand Management ― Making the most of the water we ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-22

    Dec 22, 2010 ... Water demand management ― WDM ― can be hard to define. More an issue of policy than of technology, it is about managing and moderating our demands for good quality fresh water. It is less a matter of piping and pumps and more a tool for changing the ways we use water and the rates at which we ...

  14. Water advisory demand evaluation and resource toolkit

    OpenAIRE

    Paluszczyszyn, D.; Illya, S.; Goodyer, E.; Kubrycht, T.; Ambler, M.

    2016-01-01

    Cities are living organisms, 24h / 7day, with demands on resources and outputs. Water is a key resource whose management has not kept pace with modern urban life. Demand for clean water and loads on waste water no longer fit diurnal patterns; and they are impacted by events that are outside the normal range of parameters that are taken account of in water management. This feasibility study will determine how the application of computational intelligence can be used to analyse a mix of dat...

  15. A model to assess water tariffs as part of water demand management

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: water demand management, price elasticity, change in water tariff, block tariff, WC/WDM model. INTRODUCTION ... ever developed for a 6-block pricing structure and allows for limited available input data from ..... Payment Strategies and Price Elasticity of Demand for Water for. Different revenue Groups in Three ...

  16. Water Demand Management Policy Brief No

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Bob Stanley

    Fair share: Water Demand Management can help provide fair access to water for the poor. Water Policy. Brief no.2 ... management (WDM) can help spread water more equitably, providing a measure of opportunity, security and ... improving health and quality of life for families. WDM measures can improve the efficiency of.

  17. Future land-use related water demand in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Tamara; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Cameron, D. Richard

    2016-01-01

    Water shortages in California are a growing concern amidst ongoing drought, earlier spring snowmelt, projected future climate warming, and currently mandated water use restrictions. Increases in population and land use in coming decades will place additional pressure on already limited available water supplies. We used a state-and-transition simulation model to project future changes in developed (municipal and industrial) and agricultural land use to estimate associated water use demand from 2012 to 2062. Under current efficiency rates, total water use was projected to increase 1.8 billion cubic meters(+4.1%) driven primarily by urbanization and shifts to more water intensive crops. Only if currently mandated 25% reductions in municipal water use are continuously implemented would water demand in 2062 balance to water use levels in 2012. This is the first modeling effort of its kind to examine regional land-use related water demand incorporating historical trends of both developed and agricultural land uses.

  18. Forecasting urban water demand: A meta-regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebri, Maamar

    2016-12-01

    Water managers and planners require accurate water demand forecasts over the short-, medium- and long-term for many purposes. These range from assessing water supply needs over spatial and temporal patterns to optimizing future investments and planning future allocations across competing sectors. This study surveys the empirical literature on the urban water demand forecasting using the meta-analytical approach. Specifically, using more than 600 estimates, a meta-regression analysis is conducted to identify explanations of cross-studies variation in accuracy of urban water demand forecasting. Our study finds that accuracy depends significantly on study characteristics, including demand periodicity, modeling method, forecasting horizon, model specification and sample size. The meta-regression results remain robust to different estimators employed as well as to a series of sensitivity checks performed. The importance of these findings lies in the conclusions and implications drawn out for regulators and policymakers and for academics alike. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Optimised control and pipe burst detection by water demand forecasting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.

    2014-01-01

    Water demand forecasting The total water demand in an area is the sum of the water demands of all individual domestic and industrial consumers in that area. These consumers behave in repetitive daily, weekly and annual patterns, and the same repetitive patterns can be observed in the drinking water

  20. Tapping Alternatives: The Benefits of Managing Urban Water Demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziegielewski, Benedykt; Baumann, Duane D.

    1992-01-01

    Presents the California plan for water demand management. Water conservation techniques are used to balance demand with supply. Discusses the implementation process: (1) water-use and service area analysis; (2) water-use forecasts; (3) benefit-cost analysis; (4) and development of a long-term water management plan. (17 references) (MCO)

  1. Modelling Per Capita Water Demand Change to Support System Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, M. E.; Islam, S.

    2016-12-01

    Water utilities have a number of levers to influence customer water usage. These include levers to proactively slow demand growth over time such as building and landscape codes as well as levers to decrease demands quickly in response to water stress including price increases, education campaigns, water restrictions, and incentive programs. Even actions aimed at short term reductions can result in long term water usage declines when substantial changes are made in water efficiency, as in incentives for fixture replacement or turf removal, or usage patterns such as permanent lawn watering restrictions. Demand change is therefore linked to hydrological conditions and to the effects of past management decisions - both typically included in water supply planning models. Yet, demand is typically incorporated exogenously using scenarios or endogenously using only price, though utilities also use rules and incentives issued in response to water stress and codes specifying standards for new construction to influence water usage. Explicitly including these policy levers in planning models enables concurrent testing of infrastructure and policy strategies and illuminates interactions between the two. The City of Las Vegas is used as a case study to develop and demonstrate this modeling approach. First, a statistical analysis of system data was employed to rule out alternate hypotheses of per capita demand decrease such as changes in population density and economic structure. Next, four demand sub-models were developed including one baseline model in which demand is a function of only price. The sub-models were then calibrated and tested using monthly data from 1997 to 2012. Finally, the best performing sub-model was integrated with a full supply and demand model. The results highlight the importance of both modeling water demand dynamics endogenously and taking a broader view of the variables influencing demand change.

  2. Look Who's Talking. Explaining Water-Related Information Sharing and Demand for Action Among Ugandan Villagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holvoet, Nathalie; Dewachter, Sara; Molenaers, Nadia

    2016-11-01

    Many national water policies propagate community-based participatory approaches to overcome weaknesses in supply-driven rural water provision, operation, and maintenance. Citizen involvement is thought to stimulate bottom-up accountability and broaden the information base, which may enrich design and implementation processes and foster improved water accessibility and sustainability. Practices on the ground, however, are embedded in socio-political realities which mediate possible beneficial effects of participatory approaches. This paper builds on full social network data collected in a Ugandan village to study the social and political reality of two distinct levels of participation, i.e. local information sharing among citizens and a more active appeal to fellow citizens to improve water services. We use Logistic Regression Quadratic Assignment Procedure to explore what type of actor and network traits influence information sharing and whether the same factors are in play in the demand for action to remedy water-related problems. Whereas social aspects (social support relations) and homophily (using the same water source, the same gender) play an important role in information sharing, it is the educational level, in particular, of the villager who is called upon that is important when villagers demand action. Our findings also demonstrate that those most in need of safe water do not mobilize their information sharing ties to demand for action. This indicates that building local water policies and practice exclusively on locally existing demand for action may fail to capture the needs of the most deprived citizens.

  3. Trading the Economic Value of Unsatisfied Municipal Water Demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telfah, Dua'a. B.; Minciardi, Riccardo; Roth, Giorgio

    2018-06-01

    Modelling and optimization techniques for water resources allocation are proposed to identify the economic value of the unsatisfied municipal water demand against demands emerging from other sectors. While this is always an important step in integrated water resource management perspective, it became crucial for water scarce Countries. In fact, since the competition for the resource is high, they are in crucial need to trade values which will help them in satisfying their policies and needs. In this framework, hydro-economic, social equity and environmental constraints need to be satisfied. In the present study, a hydro-economic decision model based on optimization schemes has been developed for water resources allocation, that enable the evaluation of the economic cost of a deficiency in fulfilling the municipal demand. Moreover, the model enables efficient water resources management, satisfying the demand and proposing additional water resources options. The formulated model is designed to maximize the demand satisfaction and minimize water production cost subject to system priorities, preferences and constraints. The demand priorities are defined based on the effect of demand dissatisfaction, while hydrogeological and physical characteristics of the resources are embedded as constraints in the optimization problem. The application to the City of Amman is presented. Amman is the Capital City of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, a Country located in the south-eastern area of the Mediterranean, on the East Bank of the Jordan River. The main challenge for Jordan, that threat the development and prosperity of all sectors, is the extreme water scarcity. In fact, Jordan is classified as semi-arid to arid region with limited financial resources and unprecedented population growth. While the easy solution directly goes to the simple but expensive approach to cover the demand, case study results show that the proposed model plays a major role in providing directions to

  4. Trading the Economic Value of Unsatisfied Municipal Water Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. B. Telfah

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Modelling and optimization techniques for water resources allocation are proposed to identify the economic value of the unsatisfied municipal water demand against demands emerging from other sectors. While this is always an important step in integrated water resource management perspective, it became crucial for water scarce Countries. In fact, since the competition for the resource is high, they are in crucial need to trade values which will help them in satisfying their policies and needs. In this framework, hydro-economic, social equity and environmental constraints need to be satisfied. In the present study, a hydro-economic decision model based on optimization schemes has been developed for water resources allocation, that enable the evaluation of the economic cost of a deficiency in fulfilling the municipal demand. Moreover, the model enables efficient water resources management, satisfying the demand and proposing additional water resources options. The formulated model is designed to maximize the demand satisfaction and minimize water production cost subject to system priorities, preferences and constraints. The demand priorities are defined based on the effect of demand dissatisfaction, while hydrogeological and physical characteristics of the resources are embedded as constraints in the optimization problem. The application to the City of Amman is presented. Amman is the Capital City of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, a Country located in the south-eastern area of the Mediterranean, on the East Bank of the Jordan River. The main challenge for Jordan, that threat the development and prosperity of all sectors, is the extreme water scarcity. In fact, Jordan is classified as semi-arid to arid region with limited financial resources and unprecedented population growth. While the easy solution directly goes to the simple but expensive approach to cover the demand, case study results show that the proposed model plays a major role in

  5. Community based adaptation options for climate change impacts on water resources: The case of Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Hammouri Nezar; Al-Qinna Mohammad; Salahat Mohammad; Adamowski Jan; Prasher Shiv O.

    2015-01-01

    A strategic vision to ensure an adequate, safe and secure drinking water supply presents a challenge, particularly for such a small country as Jordan, faced with a critical supply-demand imbalance and a high risk of water quality deterioration. In order to provide sustainable and equitable long-term water management plans for the future, current and future demands, along with available adaptation options should be assessed through community engagement. An analysis of available water resources...

  6. Remote sensing inputs to water demand modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, J. E.; Jensen, J. R.; Tinney, L. R.; Rector, M.

    1975-01-01

    In an attempt to determine the ability of remote sensing techniques to economically generate data required by water demand models, the Geography Remote Sensing Unit, in conjunction with the Kern County Water Agency of California, developed an analysis model. As a result it was determined that agricultural cropland inventories utilizing both high altitude photography and LANDSAT imagery can be conducted cost effectively. In addition, by using average irrigation application rates in conjunction with cropland data, estimates of agricultural water demand can be generated. However, more accurate estimates are possible if crop type, acreage, and crop specific application rates are employed. An analysis of the effect of saline-alkali soils on water demand in the study area is also examined. Finally, reference is made to the detection and delineation of water tables that are perched near the surface by semi-permeable clay layers. Soil salinity prediction, automated crop identification on a by-field basis, and a potential input to the determination of zones of equal benefit taxation are briefly touched upon.

  7. Ground water security and drought in Africa: linking availability, access, and demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calow, Roger C; Macdonald, Alan M; Nicol, Alan L; Robins, Nick S

    2010-01-01

    Drought in Africa has been extensively researched, particularly from meteorological, agricultural, and food security perspectives. However, the impact of drought on water security, particularly ground water dependent rural water supplies, has received much less attention. Policy responses have concentrated on food needs, and it has often been difficult to mobilize resources for water interventions, despite evidence that access to safe water is a serious and interrelated concern. Studies carried out in Ghana, Malawi, South Africa, and Ethiopia highlight how rural livelihoods are affected by seasonal stress and longer-term drought. Declining access to food and water is a common and interrelated problem. Although ground water plays a vital role in buffering the effects of rainfall variability, water shortages and difficulties in accessing water that is available can affect domestic and productive water uses, with knock-on effects on food consumption and production. Total depletion of available ground water resources is rarely the main concern. A more common scenario is a spiral of water insecurity as shallow water sources fail, additional demands are put on remaining sources, and mechanical failures increase. These problems can be planned for within normal development programs. Water security mapping can help identify vulnerable areas, and changes to monitoring systems can ensure early detection of problems. Above all, increasing the coverage of ground water-based rural water supplies, and ensuring that the design and siting of water points is informed by an understanding of hydrogeological conditions and user demand, can significantly increase the resilience of rural communities to climate variability.

  8. Pollution source localization in an urban water supply network based on dynamic water demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xuesong; Zhu, Zhixin; Li, Tian

    2017-10-27

    Urban water supply networks are susceptible to intentional, accidental chemical, and biological pollution, which pose a threat to the health of consumers. In recent years, drinking-water pollution incidents have occurred frequently, seriously endangering social stability and security. The real-time monitoring for water quality can be effectively implemented by placing sensors in the water supply network. However, locating the source of pollution through the data detection obtained by water quality sensors is a challenging problem. The difficulty lies in the limited number of sensors, large number of water supply network nodes, and dynamic user demand for water, which leads the pollution source localization problem to an uncertainty, large-scale, and dynamic optimization problem. In this paper, we mainly study the dynamics of the pollution source localization problem. Previous studies of pollution source localization assume that hydraulic inputs (e.g., water demand of consumers) are known. However, because of the inherent variability of urban water demand, the problem is essentially a fluctuating dynamic problem of consumer's water demand. In this paper, the water demand is considered to be stochastic in nature and can be described using Gaussian model or autoregressive model. On this basis, an optimization algorithm is proposed based on these two dynamic water demand change models to locate the pollution source. The objective of the proposed algorithm is to find the locations and concentrations of pollution sources that meet the minimum between the analogue and detection values of the sensor. Simulation experiments were conducted using two different sizes of urban water supply network data, and the experimental results were compared with those of the standard genetic algorithm.

  9. Non-residential water demand model validated with extensive measurements and surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterse-Quirijns, I.; Blokker, E.J.M.; van der Blom, E.C.; Vreeburg, J.H.G.

    2013-01-01

    Existing Dutch guidelines for the design of the drinking water and hot water system of nonresidential buildings are based on outdated assumptions on peak water demand or on unfounded assumptions on hot water demand. They generally overestimate peak demand values required for the design of an

  10. Industrial water demand management and cleaner production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Processes and systems using water today are being subjected to increasingly stringent environmental regulations on effluents and there is growing demand for fresh water. In Morocco, consumption of water by industries is estimated in 1994 at 1 billion m3, the drinking water constitutes 4%. Water used in the food and drink ...

  11. Greywater reuse: A strategy for water demand management in Harare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madungwe, Emaculate; Sakuringwa, Saniso

    Greywater is wastewater from baths, sinks and washing machines, accounting for about 60% of the outflow from homes. It contains little pathogens and 90% less nitrogen than toilet water, so does not require the same treatment process. With the increasing demand for freshwater, its use may reduce irrigation water needs, increasing its availability of freshwater for other primary uses. Agriculture is the main water consumer in Africa, which cannot be compromised due to its role in domestic food security and export supplies. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate findings of the research done on benefits of greywater reuse in some countries, applicable to African countries. In Australia, greywater reuse has reduced freshwater demand, strain on wastewater treatment plants and energy consumption. Aquifer recharge has improved due to increased infiltration flows from greywater uses. In Lebanon, greywater is a valuable resource for encouraging plant growth from nutrients that may otherwise have been wasted. Palestine shares similar climate and water scarcity conditions with most arid sub-Saharan African countries, yet utilizes grey water in production of crops and citrus fruits. Thus use of grey water should be possible in African cities such as Harare, where nearly two thirds of the population rely on agriculture for livelihoods. The problem of blue green algae in sewerage ponds and water reservoirs is significantly reduced by household reuse of grey water in Mexico. Water savings are increased and expenses reduced, as illustrated by the reduction in consumption of municipality freshwater supplies in South African urban areas. Rural communities and schools in Namibia and Egypt have raised funds from grey water reuse in banana plantations. A possible constraint to this strategy could be the unavailability of appropriate technology for primary treatment of grey water before reuse. This strategy may pose health risks where water quality tests are unknown or unavailable

  12. Water demand and supply co-adaptation to mitigate climate change impacts in agricultural water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Matteo; Mainardi, Matteo; Castelletti, Andrea; Gandolfi, Claudio

    2013-04-01

    Agriculture is the main land use in the world and represents also the sector characterised by the highest water demand. To meet projected growth in human population and per-capita food demand, agricultural production will have to significantly increase in the next decades. Moreover, water availability is nowadays a limiting factor for agricultural production, and is expected to decrease over the next century due to climate change impacts. To effectively face a changing climate, agricultural systems have therefore to adapt their strategies (e.g., changing crops, shifting sowing and harvesting dates, adopting high efficiency irrigation techniques). Yet, farmer adaptation is only one part of the equation because changes in water supply management strategies, as a response to climate change, might impact on farmers' decisions as well. Despite the strong connections between water demand and supply, being the former dependent on agricultural practices, which are affected by the water available that depends on the water supply strategies designed according to a forecasted demand, an analysis of their reciprocal feedbacks is still missing. Most of the recent studies has indeed considered the two problems separately, either analysing the impact of climate change on farmers' decisions for a given water supply scenario or optimising water supply for different water demand scenarios. In this work, we explicitly connect the two systems (demand and supply) by activating an information loop between farmers and water managers, to integrate the two problems and study the co-evolution and co-adaptation of water demand and water supply systems under climate change. The proposed approach is tested on a real-world case study, namely the Lake Como serving the Muzza-Bassa Lodigiana irrigation district (Italy). In particular, given an expectation of water availability, the farmers are able to solve a yearly planning problem to decide the most profitable crop to plant. Knowing the farmers

  13. Community based adaptation options for climate change impacts on water resources: The case of Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammouri Nezar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A strategic vision to ensure an adequate, safe and secure drinking water supply presents a challenge, particularly for such a small country as Jordan, faced with a critical supply-demand imbalance and a high risk of water quality deterioration. In order to provide sustainable and equitable long-term water management plans for the future, current and future demands, along with available adaptation options should be assessed through community engagement. An analysis of available water resources, existing demands and use per sector served to assess the nation’s historic water status. Taking into account the effect of both population growth and rainfall reduction, future per sector demands were predicted by linear temporal trend analysis. Water sector vulnerability and adaptation options were assessed by engaging thirty five stakeholders. A set of weighed-criterions were selected, adopted, modified, and then framed into comprehensive guidelines. A quantitative ratio-level approach was used to quantify the magnitude and likelihood of risks and opportunities associated with each proposed adaptation measure using the level of effectiveness and severity status. Prioritization indicated that public awareness and training programs were the most feasible and effective adaptation measures, while building new infrastructure was of low priority. Associated barriers were related to a lack of financial resources, institutional arrangements, and data collection, sharing, availability, consistency and transparency, as well as willingness to adapt. Independent community-based watershed-vulnerability analyses to address water integrity at watershed scale are recommended.

  14. Future United States Domestic Water Demand

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Population projections, estimated per capita consumption rate, and estimated total annual water demand to 2100 for four future projections based off the IPCC SRES...

  15. Mitigating the impact of swimming pools on domestic water demand

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    need to implement desalination schemes by ensuring water is used in in a 'fit for purpose' manner. This study therefore aims to better understand the impact that pools have on residential water demand through the analysis of metered water demand records and end-use modelling. The study site was the Liesbeek.

  16. China's rising hydropower demand challenges water sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junguo; Zhao, Dandan; Gerbens-Leenes, P W; Guan, Dabo

    2015-07-09

    Demand for hydropower is increasing, yet the water footprints (WFs) of reservoirs and hydropower, and their contributions to water scarcity, are poorly understood. Here, we calculate reservoir WFs (freshwater that evaporates from reservoirs) and hydropower WFs (the WF of hydroelectricity) in China based on data from 875 representative reservoirs (209 with power plants). In 2010, the reservoir WF totaled 27.9 × 10(9) m(3) (Gm(3)), or 22% of China's total water consumption. Ignoring the reservoir WF seriously underestimates human water appropriation. The reservoir WF associated with industrial, domestic and agricultural WFs caused water scarcity in 6 of the 10 major Chinese river basins from 2 to 12 months annually. The hydropower WF was 6.6 Gm(3) yr(-1) or 3.6 m(3) of water to produce a GJ (10(9) J) of electricity. Hydropower is a water intensive energy carrier. As a response to global climate change, the Chinese government has promoted a further increase in hydropower energy by 70% by 2020 compared to 2012. This energy policy imposes pressure on available freshwater resources and increases water scarcity. The water-energy nexus requires strategic and coordinated implementations of hydropower development among geographical regions, as well as trade-off analysis between rising energy demand and water use sustainability.

  17. China's rising hydropower demand challenges water sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Junguo; Zhao, Dandan; Gerbens-Leenes, Winnie; Guan, Dabo

    2015-01-01

    Demand for hydropower is increasing, yet the water footprints (WFs) of reservoirs and hydropower, and their contributions to water scarcity, are poorly understood. Here, we calculate reservoir WFs (freshwater that evaporates from reservoirs) and hydropower WFs (the WF of hydroelectricity) in China

  18. Institutions for Effective Water Demand Management

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-14

    Dec 14, 2010 ... The paper also describes the state of South African WDM to highlight ... Download the PDF: Working Paper 4: Institutions for Effective Water Demand Management ​ ... Managing flood risk through collaborative governance.

  19. Optimum community energy storage system for demand load shifting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, David; Norman, Stuart A.; Walker, Gavin S.; Gillott, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • PbA-acid and lithium-ion batteries are optimised up to a 100-home community. • A 4-period real-time pricing and Economy 7 (2-period time-of-use) are compared. • Li-ion batteries perform worse with Economy 7 for small communities and vice versa. • The community approach reduced the levelised cost by 56% compared to a single home. • Heat pumps reduced the levelised cost and increased the profitability of batteries. - Abstract: Community energy storage (CES) is becoming an attractive technological option to facilitate the use of distributed renewable energy generation, manage demand loads and decarbonise the residential sector. There is strong interest in understanding the techno-economic benefits of using CES systems, which energy storage technology is more suitable and the optimum CES size. In this study, the performance including equivalent full cycles and round trip efficiency of lead-acid (PbA) and lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries performing demand load shifting are quantified as a function of the size of the community using simulation-based optimisation. Two different retail tariffs are compared: a time-of-use tariff (Economy 7) and a real-time-pricing tariff including four periods based on the electricity prices on the wholesale market. Additionally, the economic benefits are quantified when projected to two different years: 2020 and a hypothetical zero carbon year. The findings indicate that the optimum PbA capacity was approximately twice the optimum Li-ion capacity in the case of the real-time-pricing tariff and around 1.6 times for Economy 7 for any community size except a single home. The levelised cost followed a negative logarithmic trend while the internal rate of return followed a positive logarithmic trend as a function of the size of the community. PbA technology reduced the levelised cost down to 0.14 £/kW h when projected to the year 2020 for the retail tariff Economy 7. CES systems were sized according to the demand load and

  20. Spatial organization and drivers of the virtual water trade: a community-structure analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D’Odorico, Paolo; Carr, Joel; Laio, Francesco; Ridolfi, Luca

    2012-01-01

    The trade of agricultural commodities can be associated with a virtual transfer of the local freshwater resources used for the production of these goods. Thus, trade of food products virtually transfers large amounts of water from areas of food production to far consumption regions, a process termed the ‘globalization of water’. We consider the (time-varying) community structure of the virtual water network for the years 1986–2008. The communities are groups of countries with dense internal connections, while the connections are sparser among different communities. Between 1986 and 2008, the ratio between virtual water flows within communities and the total global trade of virtual water has continuously increased, indicating the existence of well defined clusters of virtual water transfers. In some cases (e.g. Central and North America and Europe in recent years) the virtual water communities correspond to geographically coherent regions, suggesting the occurrence of an ongoing process of regionalization of water resources. However, most communities also include countries located on different ‘sides’ of the world. As such, geographic proximity only partly explains the community structure of virtual water trade. Similarly, the global distribution of people and wealth, whose effect on the virtual water trade is expressed through simple ‘gravity models’, is unable to explain the strength of virtual water communities observed in the past few decades. A gravity model based on the availability of and demand for virtual water in different countries has higher explanatory power, but the drivers of the virtual water fluxes are yet to be adequately identified. (letter)

  1. Forecasting domestic water demand in the Haihe river basin under changing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Jian-Yun; Shahid, Shamsuddin; Xie, Yu-Xuan; Zhang, Xu

    2018-02-01

    A statistical model has been developed for forecasting domestic water demand in Haihe river basin of China due to population growth, technological advances and climate change. Historical records of domestic water use, climate, population and urbanization are used for the development of model. An ensemble of seven general circulation models (GCMs) namely, BCC-CSM1-1, BNU-ESM, CNRM-CM5, GISS-E2-R, MIROC-ESM, PI-ESM-LR, MRI-CGCM3 were used for the projection of climate and the changes in water demand in the Haihe River basin under Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 4.5. The results showed that domestic water demand in different sub-basins of the Haihe river basin will gradually increase due to continuous increase of population and rise in temperature. It is projected to increase maximum 136.22 × 108 m3 by GCM BNU-ESM and the minimum 107.25 × 108 m3 by CNRM-CM5 in 2030. In spite of uncertainty in projection, it can be remarked that climate change and population growth would cause increase in water demand and consequently, reduce the gap between water supply and demand, which eventually aggravate the condition of existing water stress in the basin. Water demand management should be emphasized for adaptation to ever increasing water demand and mitigation of the impacts of environmental changes.

  2. Chemical oxygen demand (cod) attenuation of methyl red in water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical oxygen demand (cod) attenuation of methyl red in water using biocarbons obtained from Nipa palm leaves. ... eco-friendly and locally accessible biocarbon for mitigation of organic contaminants in water. Keywords: Chemical oxygen demand, biocarbon, methyl red, biodegradation, bioremediation, Nipa palm ...

  3. Getting into hot water Problematizing hot water service demand: The case of Old Cairo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culhane, Thomas Henry

    This dissertation analyzes hot water demand and service infrastructure in two neighboring but culturally distinct communities of the urban poor in the inner-city area of central Cairo. The communities are the Historic Islamic Cairo neighborhood of Darb Al Ahmar at the foot of Al-Azhar park, and the Zurayib neighborhood of Manshiyat Nasser where the Coptic Zabaleen Recyclers live. The study focuses on the demand side of the hot water issue and involves consideration of built-environment infrastructures providing piped water, electricity, bottled gas, sewage, and the support structures (wiring and plumbing) for consumer durables (appliances such as hot water heaters, stoves, refrigerators, air conditioners) as well as water pumps and water storage tanks. The study asks the questions "How do poor communities in Cairo value hot water" and "How do cost, infrastructure and cultural preferences affect which attributes of hot water service are most highly preferred?". To answer these questions household surveys based primarily on the World Bank LSMS modules were administered by professional survey teams from Darb Al Ahmar's Aga Khan Trust for Culture and the Zabaleen's local NGO "Spirit of Youth" in their adjacent conununities in and surrounding historic Cairo. In total 463 valid surveys were collected, (231 from Darb Al Ahmar, 232 from the Zabaleen). The surveys included a contingent valuation question to explore Willingness to Pay for improved hot water service; the surveys queried household assets as proxies for income. The dissertation's findings reveal that one quarter of the residents of Darb Al Ahmar and two-thirds of the residents of Manshiyet Nasser's Zabaleen lack conventional water heating service. Instead they employ various types of stoves and self-built contraptions to heat water, usually incurring considerable risk and opportunity costs. However the thesis explores the notion that this is rational "satisficing" behavior; despite the shortcomings of such self

  4. Water use demand in the Crans-Montana-Sierre region (Switzerland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonriposi, M.; Reynard, E.

    2012-04-01

    Crans-Montana-Sierre is an Alpine touristic region located in the driest area of Switzerland (Rhone River Valley, Canton of Valais), with both winter (ski) and summer (e.g. golf) tourist activities. Climate change as well as societal and economic development will in future significantly modify the supply and consumption of water and, consequently, may fuel conflicts of interest. Within the framework of the MontanAqua project (www.montanaqua.ch), we are researching more sustainable water management options based on the co-ordination and adaptation of water demand to water availability under changing biophysical and socioeconomic conditions. This work intends to quantify current water uses in the area and consider future scenarios (around 2050). We have focused upon the temporal and spatial characteristics of resource demand, in order to estimate the spatial footprint of water use (drinking water, hydropower production, irrigation and artificial snowmaking), in terms of system, infrastructure, and organisation of supply. We have then quantified these as precisely as possible (at the monthly temporal scale and at the municipality spatial scale). When the quantity of water was not measurable for practical reasons or for lack of data, as for the case for irrigation or snowmaking, an alternative approach was applied. Instead of quantifying how much water was used, the stress was put on the water needs for irrigating agricultural land or on the optimal meteorological conditions necessary to produce artificial snow. A huge summer peak and a smaller winter peak characterize the current regional water consumption estimation. The summer peak is mainly caused by irrigation and secondly by drinking water demand. The winter peak is essentially due to drinking water and snowmaking. Other consumption peaks exist at the municipality scale but they cannot be observed at the regional scale. The results show a major variation in water demand between the 11 concerned municipalities and

  5. Chicago's water market: Dynamics of demand, prices and scarcity rents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipe, V.C.; Bhagwat, S.B.

    2002-01-01

    Chicago and its suburbs are experiencing an increasing demand for water from a growing population and economy and may experience water scarcity in the near future. The Chicago metropolitan area has nearly depleted its groundwater resources to a point where interstate conflicts with Wisconsin could accompany an increased reliance on those sources. Further, the withdrawals from Lake Michigan is limited by the Supreme Court decree. The growing demand and indications of possible scarcity suggest a need to reexamine the pricing policies and the dynamics of demand. The study analyses the demand for water and develops estimates of scarcity rents for water in Chicago. The price and income elasticities computed at the means are -0.002 and 0.0002 respectively. The estimated scarcity rents ranges from $0.98 to $1.17 per thousand gallons. The results indicate that the current prices do not fully account for the scarcity rents and suggest a current rate with in the range $1.53 to $1.72 per thousand gallons.

  6. Forecasting domestic water demand in the Haihe river basin under changing environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X.-J. Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A statistical model has been developed for forecasting domestic water demand in Haihe river basin of China due to population growth, technological advances and climate change. Historical records of domestic water use, climate, population and urbanization are used for the development of model. An ensemble of seven general circulation models (GCMs namely, BCC-CSM1-1, BNU-ESM, CNRM-CM5, GISS-E2-R, MIROC-ESM, PI-ESM-LR, MRI-CGCM3 were used for the projection of climate and the changes in water demand in the Haihe River basin under Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs 4.5. The results showed that domestic water demand in different sub-basins of the Haihe river basin will gradually increase due to continuous increase of population and rise in temperature. It is projected to increase maximum 136.22  ×  108 m3 by GCM BNU-ESM and the minimum 107.25  ×  108 m3 by CNRM-CM5 in 2030. In spite of uncertainty in projection, it can be remarked that climate change and population growth would cause increase in water demand and consequently, reduce the gap between water supply and demand, which eventually aggravate the condition of existing water stress in the basin. Water demand management should be emphasized for adaptation to ever increasing water demand and mitigation of the impacts of environmental changes.

  7. Responding to increased needs and demands for water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hans M. Gregersen; William K. Easter; J. Edward de Steiguer

    2000-01-01

    The nature of the increased needs and demands for water relate to water quantity and quality, bringing in the dimensions of timing and location of water flows. Some key past international activities related to water and watershed policy are reviewed. The common threads that are shaping likely future responses relate to technical vs. institutional means of addressing...

  8. Integrating the simulation of domestic water demand behaviour to an urban water model using agent based modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutiva, Ifigeneia; Makropoulos, Christos

    2015-04-01

    The urban water system's sustainable evolution requires tools that can analyse and simulate the complete cycle including both physical and cultural environments. One of the main challenges, in this regard, is the design and development of tools that are able to simulate the society's water demand behaviour and the way policy measures affect it. The effects of these policy measures are a function of personal opinions that subsequently lead to the formation of people's attitudes. These attitudes will eventually form behaviours. This work presents the design of an ABM tool for addressing the social dimension of the urban water system. The created tool, called Urban Water Agents' Behaviour (UWAB) model, was implemented, using the NetLogo agent programming language. The main aim of the UWAB model is to capture the effects of policies and environmental pressures to water conservation behaviour of urban households. The model consists of agents representing urban households that are linked to each other creating a social network that influences the water conservation behaviour of its members. Household agents are influenced as well by policies and environmental pressures, such as drought. The UWAB model simulates behaviour resulting in the evolution of water conservation within an urban population. The final outcome of the model is the evolution of the distribution of different conservation levels (no, low, high) to the selected urban population. In addition, UWAB is implemented in combination with an existing urban water management simulation tool, the Urban Water Optioneering Tool (UWOT) in order to create a modelling platform aiming to facilitate an adaptive approach of water resources management. For the purposes of this proposed modelling platform, UWOT is used in a twofold manner: (1) to simulate domestic water demand evolution and (2) to simulate the response of the water system to the domestic water demand evolution. The main advantage of the UWAB - UWOT model

  9. Water Demand Management Policy Brief No

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Bob Stanley

    Water demand management (WDM) programs have been widely implemented across the MENA region and elsewhere, with varying degrees of success. The criteria below are intended to help policymakers determine how best to develop institutions with the capacity and capability to design, implement and monitor WDM ...

  10. Estimating the Determinants of Residential Water Demand in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Romano

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the determinants of residential water demand for chief towns of every Italian province, in the period 2007–2009, using the linear mixed-effects model estimated with the restricted-maximum-likelihood method. Results confirmed that the applied tariff had a negative effect on residential water consumption and that it was a relevant driver of domestic water consumption. Moreover, income per capita had a positive effect on water consumption. Among measured climatic and geographical features, precipitation and altitude exerted a strongly significant negative effect on water consumption, while temperature did not influence water demand. Further, data show that small towns in terms of population served were characterized by lower levels of consumption. Water utilities ownership itself did not have a significant effect on water consumption but tariffs were significantly lower and residential water consumption was higher in towns where the water service was managed by publicly owned water utilities. However, further research is needed to gain a better understanding of the connection between ownership of water utilities and water prices and water consumption.

  11. Management of Water Demand in Africa and the Middle East ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Management of Water Demand in Africa and the Middle East : Current Practices and Future Needs. Couverture du livre Management of Water Demand in Africa and the Middle East : Current Practices. Directeur(s) : David B. Brooks, Eglal Rached et Maurice Saade. Maison(s) d'édition : CRDI. 1 janvier 1997. ISBN : Épuisé.

  12. Management of Water Demand in Africa and the Middle East ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1997-01-01

    Management of Water Demand in Africa and the Middle East : Current Practices and Future Needs. Couverture du livre Management of Water Demand in Africa and the Middle East : Current Practices. Editor(s):. David B. Brooks, Eglal Rached et Maurice Saade. Publisher(s):. CRDI. January 1, 1997. ISBN: Épuisé. 78 pages.

  13. Assessing the adequacy of water storage infrastructure capacity under hydroclimatic variability and water demands in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, M. W.; Devineni, N.; Cook, E. R.; Lall, U.

    2017-12-01

    As populations and associated economic activity in the US evolve, regional demands for water likewise change. For regions dependent on surface water, dams and reservoirs are critical to storing and managing releases of water and regulating the temporal and spatial availability of water in order to meet these demands. Storage capacities typically range from seasonal storage in the east to multi-annual and decadal-scale storage in the drier west. However, most dams in the US were designed with limited knowledge regarding the range, frequency, and persistence of hydroclimatic extremes. Demands for water supplied by these dams have likewise changed. Furthermore, many dams in the US are now reaching or have already exceeded their economic design life. The converging issues of aging dams, improved knowledge of hydroclimatic variability, and evolving demands for dam services result in a pressing need to evaluate existing reservoir capacities with respect to contemporary water demands, long term hydroclimatic variability, and service reliability into the future. Such an effort is possible given the recent development of two datasets that respectively address hydroclimatic variability in the conterminous United States over the past 555 years and human water demand related water stress over the same region. The first data set is a paleoclimate reconstruction of streamflow variability across the CONUS region based on a tree-ring informed reconstruction of the Palmer Drought Severity Index. This streamflow reconstruction suggested that wet spells with shorter drier spells were a key feature of 20th century streamflow compared with the preceding 450 years. The second data set in an annual cumulative drought index that is a measure of water balance based on water supplied through precipitation and water demands based on evaporative demands, agricultural, urban, and industrial demands. This index identified urban and regional hotspots that were particularly dependent on water

  14. A model to assess water tariffs as part of water demand management

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to calculate the predicted change in water use and the associated income. The model takes into account variation in price elasticity per tariff block. The effectiveness of the model as a planning tool is illustrated through an appropriate example. Keywords: water demand management, price elasticity, change in water tariff, ...

  15. Estimating Natural Recharge in a Desert Environment Facing Increasing Ground-Water Demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, T.; Izbicki, J. A.; Hevesi, J. A.; Martin, P.

    2004-12-01

    Ground water historically has been the sole source of water supply for the community of Joshua Tree in the Joshua Tree ground-water subbasin of the Morongo ground-water basin in the southern Mojave Desert. Joshua Basin Water District (JBWD) supplies water to the community from the underlying Joshua Tree ground-water subbasin, and ground-water withdrawals averaging about 960 acre-ft/yr have resulted in as much as 35 ft of drawdown. As growth continues in the desert, ground-water resources may need to be supplemented using imported water. To help meet future demands, JBWD plans to construct production wells in the adjacent Copper Mountain ground-water subbasin. To manage the ground-water resources and to identify future mitigating measures, a thorough understanding of the ground-water system is needed. To this end, field and numerical techniques were applied to determine the distribution and quantity of natural recharge. Field techniques included the installation of instrumented boreholes in selected washes and at a nearby control site. Numerical techniques included the use of a distributed-parameter watershed model and a ground-water flow model. The results from the field techniques indicated that as much as 70 acre-ft/yr of water infiltrated downward through the two principal washes during the study period (2001-3). The results from the watershed model indicated that the average annual recharge in the ground-water subbasins is about 160 acre-ft/yr. The results from the calibrated ground-water flow model indicated that the average annual recharge for the same area is about 125 acre-ft/yr. Although the field and numerical techniques were applied to different scales (local vs. large), all indicate that natural recharge in the Joshua Tree area is very limited; therefore, careful management of the limited ground-water resources is needed. Moreover, the calibrated model can now be used to estimate the effects of different water-management strategies on the ground-water

  16. Using Demand Side Management to Adapt to Water Scarcity and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Saiss is a sub-basin of the Sebou basin in Northern Morocco. Due to decreased precipitation and increased water demand, the surface waters of the Saiss basin have been greatly reduced. At the current rate of exploitation, the aquifer will be depleted within 25 years. This project will examine whether demand-side ...

  17. Efficiency of temporary storage of geothermal waters in a lake system: Monitoring the changes of water quality and bacterial community structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szirányi, Barbara; Krett, Gergely; Kosáros, Tünde; Janurik, Endre; Pekár, Ferenc; Márialigeti, Károly; Borsodi, Andrea K

    2017-12-01

    Disposal of used geothermal waters in Hungary often means temporary storage in reservoir lakes to reduce temperature and improve water quality. In this study, the physical and chemical properties and changes in the bacterial community structure of a reservoir lake system in southeast region of Hungary were monitored and compared through 2 years, respectively. The values of biological oxygen demand, concentrations of ammonium ion, total inorganic nitrogen, total phosphorous, and total phenol decreased, whereas oxygen saturation, total organic nitrogen, pH, and conductivity increased during the storage period. Bacterial community structure of water and sediment samples was compared by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) following the amplification of the 16S rRNA gene. According to the DGGE patterns, greater seasonal than spatial differences of bacterial communities were revealed in both water and sediment of the lakes. Representatives of the genera Arthrospira and Anabaenopsis (cyanobacteria) were identified as permanent and dominant members of the bacterial communities.

  18. Dynamic modelling of water demand, water availability and adaptation strategies for power plants to global change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, Hagen; Voegele, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    According to the latest IPCC reports, the frequency of hot and dry periods will increase in many regions of the world in the future. For power plant operators, the increasing possibility of water shortages is an important challenge that they have to face. Shortages of electricity due to water shortages could have an influence on industries as well as on private households. Climate change impact analyses must analyse the climate effects on power plants and possible adaptation strategies for the power generation sector. Power plants have lifetimes of several decades. Their water demand changes with climate parameters in the short- and medium-term. In the long-term, the water demand will change as old units are phased out and new generating units appear in their place. In this paper, we describe the integration of functions for the calculation of the water demand of power plants into a water resources management model. Also included are both short-term reactive and long-term planned adaptation. This integration allows us to simulate the interconnection between the water demand of power plants and water resources management, i.e. water availability. Economic evaluation functions for water shortages are also integrated into the water resources management model. This coupled model enables us to analyse scenarios of socio-economic and climate change, as well as the effects of water management actions. (author)

  19. Demand driven decision support for efficient water resources allocation in irrigated agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetze, Niels; Grießbach, Ulrike Ulrike; Röhm, Patric; Stange, Peter; Wagner, Michael; Seidel, Sabine; Werisch, Stefan; Barfus, Klemens

    2014-05-01

    Due to climate change, extreme weather conditions, such as longer dry spells in the summer months, may have an increasing impact on the agriculture in Saxony (Eastern Germany). For this reason, and, additionally, declining amounts of rainfall during the growing season the use of irrigation will be more important in future in Eastern Germany. To cope with this higher demand of water, a new decision support framework is developed which focuses on an integrated management of both irrigation water supply and demand. For modeling the regional water demand, local (and site-specific) water demand functions are used which are derived from the optimized agronomic response at farms scale. To account for climate variability the agronomic response is represented by stochastic crop water production functions (SCWPF) which provide the estimated yield subject to the minimum amount of irrigation water. These functions take into account the different soil types, crops and stochastically generated climate scenarios. By applying mathematical interpolation and optimization techniques, the SCWPF's are used to compute the water demand considering different constraints, for instance variable and fix costs or the producer price. This generic approach enables the computation for both multiple crops at farm scale as well as of the aggregated response to water pricing at a regional scale for full and deficit irrigation systems. Within the SAPHIR (SAxonian Platform for High Performance Irrigation) project a prototype of a decision support system is developed which helps to evaluate combined water supply and demand management policies for an effective and efficient utilization of water in order to meet future demands. The prototype is implemented as a web-based decision support system and it is based on a service-oriented geo-database architecture.

  20. Seasonal variations of microbial community in a full scale oil field produced water treatment plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Xie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the microbial community in a full scale anaerobic baffled reactor and sequencing batch reactor system for oil-produced water treatment in summer and winter. The community structures of fungi and bacteria were analyzed through polymerase chain reaction–denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and Illumina high-throughput sequencing, respectively. Chemical oxygen demand effluent concentration achieved lower than 50 mg/L level after the system in both summer and winter, however, chemical oxygen demand removal rates after anaerobic baffled reactor treatment system were significant higher in summer than that in winter, which conformed to the microbial community diversity. Saccharomycotina, Fusarium, and Aspergillus were detected in both anaerobic baffled reactor and sequencing batch reactor during summer and winter. The fungal communities in anaerobic baffled reactor and sequencing batch reactor were shaped by seasons and treatment units, while there was no correlation between abundance of fungi and chemical oxygen demand removal rates. Compared to summer, the total amount of the dominant hydrocarbon degrading bacteria decreased by 10.2% in anaerobic baffled reactor, resulting in only around 23% of chemical oxygen demand was removed in winter. Although microbial community significantly varied in the three parallel sulfide reducing bacteria, the performance of these bioreactors had no significant difference between summer and winter.

  1. Seasonal variations of microbial community in a full scale oil field produced water treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Q.; Bai, S.; Li, Y.; Liu, L.; Wang, S.; Xi, J.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the microbial community in a full scale anaerobic baffled reactor and sequencing batch reactor system for oil-produced water treatment in summer and winter. The community structures of fungi and bacteria were analyzed through polymerase chain reaction–denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and Illumina high throughput sequencing, respectively. Chemical oxygen demand effluent concentration achieved lower than 50 mg/L level after the system in both summer and winter, however, chemical oxygen demand removal rates after anaerobic baffled reactor treatment system were significant higher in summer than that in winter, which conformed to the microbial community diversity. Saccharomycotina, Fusarium, and Aspergillus were detected in both anaerobic baffled reactor and sequencing batch reactor during summer and winter. The fungal communities in anaerobic baffled reactor and sequencing batch reactor were shaped by seasons and treatment units, while there was no correlation between abundance of fungi and chemical oxygen demand removal rates. Compared to summer, the total amount of the dominant hydrocarbon degrading bacteria decreased by 10.2% in anaerobic baffled reactor, resulting in only around 23% of chemical oxygen demand was removed in winter. Although microbial community significantly varied in the three parallel sulfide reducing bacteria, the performance of these bioreactors had no significant difference between summer and winter.

  2. A System Dynamics Modeling of Water Supply and Demand in Las Vegas Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parajuli, R.; Kalra, A.; Mastino, L.; Velotta, M.; Ahmad, S.

    2017-12-01

    The rise in population and change in climate have posed the uncertainties in the balance between supply and demand of water. The current study deals with the water management issues in Las Vegas Valley (LVV) using Stella, a system dynamics modeling software, to model the feedback based relationship between supply and demand parameters. Population parameters were obtained from Center for Business and Economic Research while historical water demand and conservation practices were modeled as per the information provided by local authorities. The water surface elevation of Lake Mead, which is the prime source of water supply to the region, was modeled as the supply side whereas the water demand in LVV was modeled as the demand side. The study was done from the period of 1989 to 2049 with 1989 to 2012 as the historical one and the period from 2013 to 2049 as the future period. This study utilizes Coupled Model Intercomparison Project data sets (2013-2049) (CMIP3&5) to model different future climatic scenarios. The model simulates the past dynamics of supply and demand, and then forecasts the future water budget for the forecasted future population and future climatic conditions. The results can be utilized by the water authorities in understanding the future water status and hence plan suitable conservation policies to allocate future water budget and achieve sustainable water management.

  3. China’s rising hydropower demand challenges water sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junguo; Zhao, Dandan; Gerbens-Leenes, P. W.; Guan, Dabo

    2015-01-01

    Demand for hydropower is increasing, yet the water footprints (WFs) of reservoirs and hydropower, and their contributions to water scarcity, are poorly understood. Here, we calculate reservoir WFs (freshwater that evaporates from reservoirs) and hydropower WFs (the WF of hydroelectricity) in China based on data from 875 representative reservoirs (209 with power plants). In 2010, the reservoir WF totaled 27.9 × 109 m3 (Gm3), or 22% of China’s total water consumption. Ignoring the reservoir WF seriously underestimates human water appropriation. The reservoir WF associated with industrial, domestic and agricultural WFs caused water scarcity in 6 of the 10 major Chinese river basins from 2 to 12 months annually. The hydropower WF was 6.6 Gm3 yr−1 or 3.6 m3 of water to produce a GJ (109 J) of electricity. Hydropower is a water intensive energy carrier. As a response to global climate change, the Chinese government has promoted a further increase in hydropower energy by 70% by 2020 compared to 2012. This energy policy imposes pressure on available freshwater resources and increases water scarcity. The water-energy nexus requires strategic and coordinated implementations of hydropower development among geographical regions, as well as trade-off analysis between rising energy demand and water use sustainability. PMID:26158871

  4. Household Water Demand in Andorra: Impact of Individual Metering and Seasonality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Reynaud

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the large literature focused on residential water use, our knowledge of the impact of individual metering on household water consumption remains limited. Our work aims to fill this gap by providing the first estimate of the residential water demand function in the Principality of Andorra, where collective and individual metering coexists. Using a panel dataset covering the years 2006 to 2015, we propose estimating a domestic water demand function for the municipality of Andorra La Vella (the capital of Andorra. Our estimates reveal a price elasticity of the residential water demand equal to –0.7. Facing a price increase of 10 percent, households will react in the short run by reducing their water consumption by 7 percent. Interestingly, the price elasticity is found to be significantly different in single-family units compared to multi-family units. This may suggest a significant impact of individual metering on domestic water consumption in Andorra.

  5. Handling Uncertain Gross Margin and Water Demand in Agricultural Water Resources Management using Robust Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaerani, D.; Lesmana, E.; Tressiana, N.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, an application of Robust Optimization in agricultural water resource management problem under gross margin and water demand uncertainty is presented. Water resource management is a series of activities that includes planning, developing, distributing and managing the use of water resource optimally. Water resource management for agriculture can be one of the efforts to optimize the benefits of agricultural output. The objective function of agricultural water resource management problem is to maximizing total benefits by water allocation to agricultural areas covered by the irrigation network in planning horizon. Due to gross margin and water demand uncertainty, we assume that the uncertain data lies within ellipsoidal uncertainty set. We employ robust counterpart methodology to get the robust optimal solution.

  6. Open Source Tools for Assessment of Global Water Availability, Demands, and Scarcity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Vernon, C. R.; Hejazi, M. I.; Link, R. P.; Liu, Y.; Feng, L.; Huang, Z.; Liu, L.

    2017-12-01

    Water availability and water demands are essential factors for estimating water scarcity conditions. To reproduce historical observations and to quantify future changes in water availability and water demand, two open source tools have been developed by the JGCRI (Joint Global Change Research Institute): Xanthos and GCAM-STWD. Xanthos is a gridded global hydrologic model, designed to quantify and analyze water availability in 235 river basins. Xanthos uses a runoff generation and a river routing modules to simulate both historical and future estimates of total runoff and streamflows on a monthly time step at a spatial resolution of 0.5 degrees. GCAM-STWD is a spatiotemporal water disaggregation model used with the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) to spatially downscale global water demands for six major enduse sectors (irrigation, domestic, electricity generation, mining, and manufacturing) from the region scale to the scale of 0.5 degrees. GCAM-STWD then temporally downscales the gridded annual global water demands to monthly results. These two tools, written in Python, can be integrated to assess global, regional or basin-scale water scarcity or water stress. Both of the tools are extensible to ensure flexibility and promote contribution from researchers that utilize GCAM and study global water use and supply.

  7. Designing cost effective water demand management programs in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S B; Fane, S A

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes recent experience with integrated resource planning (IRP) and the application of least cost planning (LCP) for the evaluation of demand management strategies in urban water. Two Australian case studies, Sydney and Northern New South Wales (NSW) are used in illustration. LCP can determine the most cost effective means of providing water services or alternatively the cheapest forms of water conservation. LCP contrasts to a traditional approach of evaluation which looks only at means of increasing supply. Detailed investigation of water usage, known as end-use analysis, is required for LCP. End-use analysis allows both rigorous demand forecasting, and the development and evaluation of conservation strategies. Strategies include education campaigns, increasing water use efficiency and promoting wastewater reuse or rainwater tanks. The optimal mix of conservation strategies and conventional capacity expansion is identified based on levelised unit cost. IRP uses LCP in the iterative process, evaluating and assessing options, investing in selected options, measuring the results, and then re-evaluating options. Key to this process is the design of cost effective demand management programs. IRP however includes a range of parameters beyond least economic cost in the planning process and program designs, including uncertainty, benefit partitioning and implementation considerations.

  8. Water demand management in Yemen and Jordan: addressing power and interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitoun, Mark; Allan, Tony; Al Aulaqi, Nasser; Jabarin, Amer; Laamrani, Hammou

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the extent to which entrenched interests of stakeholder groups both maintain water use practice, and may be confronted. The focus is on the agricultural sectors of Yemen and Jordan, where water resource policymakers face resistance in their attempts to reduce water use to environmentally sustainable levels through implementation of water demand management (WDM) activities. Some farmers in both countries that have invested in irrigated production of high-value crops (such as qat and bananas) benefit from a political economy that encourages increased rather than reduced water consumption. The resultant over-exploitation of water resources affects groups in unequal measures. Stakeholder analysis demonstrates that the more ‘powerful’ groups (chiefly the large landowners and the political elites, as well as the ministries of irrigation over which they exert influence) are generally opposed to reform in water use, while the proponents of WDM (e.g. water resource managers, environmental ministries and NGOs, and the international donor community) are found to have minimal influence over water use policy and decisionmaking. Efforts and ideas attempted by this latter group to challenge the status quo are classified here as either (a) influencing or (b) challenging the power asymmetry, and the merits and limits of both approaches are discussed. The interpretation of evidence suggests current practice is likely to endure, but may be more effectively challenged if a long-term approach is taken with an awareness of opportunities generated by windows of opportunity and the participation of ‘overlap groups’.

  9. Multi-Model Prediction for Demand Forecast in Water Distribution Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Lopez Farias

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a multi-model predictor called Qualitative Multi-Model Predictor Plus (QMMP+ for demand forecast in water distribution networks. QMMP+ is based on the decomposition of the quantitative and qualitative information of the time-series. The quantitative component (i.e., the daily consumption prediction is forecasted and the pattern mode estimated using a Nearest Neighbor (NN classifier and a Calendar. The patterns are updated via a simple Moving Average scheme. The NN classifier and the Calendar are executed simultaneously every period and the most suited model for prediction is selected using a probabilistic approach. The proposed solution for water demand forecast is compared against Radial Basis Function Artificial Neural Networks (RBF-ANN, the statistical Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA, and Double Seasonal Holt-Winters (DSHW approaches, providing the best results when applied to real demand of the Barcelona Water Distribution Network. QMMP+ has demonstrated that the special modelling treatment of water consumption patterns improves the forecasting accuracy.

  10. Potential climate change impacts on water availability and cooling water demand in the Lusatian Lignite Mining Region, Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohle, Ina; Koch, Hagen; Gädeke, Anne; Grünewald, Uwe; Kaltofen, Michael; Redetzky, Michael

    2014-05-01

    In the catchments of the rivers Schwarze Elster, Spree and Lusatian Neisse, hydrologic and socioeconomic systems are coupled via a complex water management system in which water users, reservoirs and water transfers are included. Lignite mining and electricity production are major water users in the region: To allow for open pit lignite mining, ground water is depleted and released into the river system while cooling water is used in the thermal power plants. In order to assess potential climate change impacts on water availability in the catchments as well as on the water demand of the thermal power plants, a climate change impact assessment was performed using the hydrological model SWIM and the long term water management model WBalMo. The potential impacts of climate change were considered by using three regional climate change scenarios of the statistical regional climate model STAR assuming a further temperature increase of 0, 2 or 3 K by the year 2050 in the region respectively. Furthermore, scenarios assuming decreasing mining activities in terms of a decreasing groundwater depression cone, lower mining water discharges, and reduced cooling water demand of the thermal power plants are considered. In the standard version of the WBalMo model cooling water demand is considered as static with regard to climate variables. However, changes in the future cooling water demand over time according to the plans of the local mining and power plant operator are considered. In order to account for climate change impacts on the cooling water demand of the thermal power plants, a dynamical approach for calculating water demand was implemented in WBalMo. As this approach is based on air temperature and air humidity, the projected air temperature and air humidity of the climate scenarios at the locations of the power plants are included in the calculation. Due to increasing temperature and decreasing precipitation declining natural and managed discharges, and hence a lower

  11. Analytical optimization of demand management strategies across all urban water use sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Kenneth; Heaney, James P.; Morales, Miguel; Palenchar, John

    2014-07-01

    An effective urban water demand management program can greatly influence both peak and average demand and therefore long-term water supply and infrastructure planning. Although a theoretical framework for evaluating residential indoor demand management has been well established, little has been done to evaluate other water use sectors such as residential irrigation in a compatible manner for integrating these results into an overall solution. This paper presents a systematic procedure to evaluate the optimal blend of single family residential irrigation demand management strategies to achieve a specified goal based on performance functions derived from parcel level tax assessor's data linked to customer level monthly water billing data. This framework is then generalized to apply to any urban water sector, as exponential functions can be fit to all resulting cumulative water savings functions. Two alternative formulations are presented: maximize net benefits, or minimize total costs subject to satisfying a target water savings. Explicit analytical solutions are presented for both formulations based on appropriate exponential best fits of performance functions. A direct result of this solution is the dual variable which represents the marginal cost of water saved at a specified target water savings goal. A case study of 16,303 single family irrigators in Gainesville Regional Utilities utilizing high quality tax assessor and monthly billing data along with parcel level GIS data provide an illustrative example of these techniques. Spatial clustering of targeted homes can be easily performed in GIS to identify priority demand management areas.

  12. Demonstrating demand response from water distribution system through pump scheduling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menke, Ruben; Abraham, Edo; Parpas, Panos; Stoianov, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Water distribution systems can profitably provide demand response energy. • STOR and FFR are financially viable under a wide range of operating conditions. • Viability depends on the pump utilisation and peak price of the electricity tariff. • Total GHG emissions caused by the provision of reserve energy are <300 gCO_2/kW h. • These are lower than those from the major reserve energy provision technologies. - Abstract: Significant changes in the power generation mix are posing new challenges for the balancing systems of the grid. Many of these challenges are in the secondary electricity grid regulation services and could be met through demand response (DR) services. We explore the opportunities for a water distribution system (WDS) to provide balancing services with demand response through pump scheduling and evaluate the associated benefits. Using a benchmark network and demand response mechanisms available in the UK, these benefits are assessed in terms of reduced green house gas (GHG) emissions from the grid due to the displacement of more polluting power sources and additional revenues for water utilities. The optimal pump scheduling problem is formulated as a mixed-integer optimisation problem and solved using a branch and bound algorithm. This new formulation finds the optimal level of power capacity to commit to the provision of demand response for a range of reserve energy provision and frequency response schemes offered in the UK. For the first time we show that DR from WDS can offer financial benefits to WDS operators while providing response energy to the grid with less greenhouse gas emissions than competing reserve energy technologies. Using a Monte Carlo simulation based on data from 2014, we demonstrate that the cost of providing the storage energy is less than the financial compensation available for the equivalent energy supply. The GHG emissions from the demand response provision from a WDS are also shown to be smaller than

  13. Seasonality, water use and community management of water systems in rural settings: Qualitative evidence from Ghana, Kenya, and Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Emma; Shields, Katherine F; Cronk, Ryan; Lee, Kristen; Behnke, Nikki; Klug, Tori; Bartram, Jamie

    2018-07-01

    The sustainability of rural, community-managed water systems in sub-Saharan Africa depends in part on the ability of local water committees to repair breakdowns and carry out the operation and maintenance (O&M) of the system. Much of sub-Saharan Africa has two distinct seasons that affect the availability of water sources and how people use water. Little is known about how seasonality affects water system management. This qualitative study is based on 320 interviews and focus group discussions and examines the effects of season on community water use and management in Ghana, Kenya and Zambia. Participants revealed that seasonality affects water availability, water system breakdowns, resource mobilization, committee activity, and external support availability. In the rainy season, participants typically reported spending less time and money on water collection because rainwater harvesting and seasonal streams, ponds, wells and reservoirs are available. In the dry season, people used improved groundwater sources more often and spent more money and time collecting water. Although seasonal changes in household water demand and use have been examined previously, our data suggest that seasonality also influences community management through differential water system use, system breakdowns and management characteristics. We found that water committees generally have less money, time and access to external support during the rainy season, making them less able to carry out O&M. Our results suggest that community engagement should take place over a long period of time so that seasonal patterns in management can be understood and incorporated into water committee training. External support actors should make a more targeted effort to understand the cultural and economic patterns in a community in order to train committees with appropriate management strategies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. On inclusion of water resource management in Earth system models - Part 1: Problem definition and representation of water demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazemi, A.; Wheater, H. S.

    2015-01-01

    Human activities have caused various changes to the Earth system, and hence the interconnections between human activities and the Earth system should be recognized and reflected in models that simulate Earth system processes. One key anthropogenic activity is water resource management, which determines the dynamics of human-water interactions in time and space and controls human livelihoods and economy, including energy and food production. There are immediate needs to include water resource management in Earth system models. First, the extent of human water requirements is increasing rapidly at the global scale and it is crucial to analyze the possible imbalance between water demands and supply under various scenarios of climate change and across various temporal and spatial scales. Second, recent observations show that human-water interactions, manifested through water resource management, can substantially alter the terrestrial water cycle, affect land-atmospheric feedbacks and may further interact with climate and contribute to sea-level change. Due to the importance of water resource management in determining the future of the global water and climate cycles, the World Climate Research Program's Global Energy and Water Exchanges project (WRCP-GEWEX) has recently identified gaps in describing human-water interactions as one of the grand challenges in Earth system modeling (GEWEX, 2012). Here, we divide water resource management into two interdependent elements, related firstly to water demand and secondly to water supply and allocation. In this paper, we survey the current literature on how various components of water demand have been included in large-scale models, in particular land surface and global hydrological models. Issues of water supply and allocation are addressed in a companion paper. The available algorithms to represent the dominant demands are classified based on the demand type, mode of simulation and underlying modeling assumptions. We discuss

  15. Is the available cropland and water enough for food demand? A global perspective of the Land-Water-Food nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarrola-Rivas, M. J.; Granados-Ramírez, R.; Nonhebel, S.

    2017-12-01

    Land and water are essential local resources for food production but are limited. The main drivers of increasing food demand are population growth and dietary changes, which depend on the socioeconomic situation of the population. These two factors affect the availability of local resources: population growth reduces the land and water per person; and adoption of affluent diets increases the demand for land and water per person. This study shows potentials of global food supply by linking food demand drivers with national land and water availability. Whether the available land and water is enough to meet national food demand was calculated for 187 countries. The calculations were performed for the past situation (1960 and 2010) and to assess four future scenarios (2050) to discuss different paths of diets, population numbers and agricultural expansion. Inclusion of the demand perspective in the analysis has shown stronger challenges for future global food supply than have other studies. The results show that with the "business as usual" scenario, 40% of the global population in 2050 will live in countries with not enough land nor water to meet the demands of their population. Restriction to basic diets will be the most effective in lowering both land and water constraints. Our results identify both food production and food demand factors, and the regions that may experience the strongest challenges in 2050.

  16. Balancing food security and water demand for freshwater ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Amandine; Palazzo, Amanda; Havlik, Petr; Obersteiner, Michael; Biemans, Hester; Wada, Yoshihide; Kabat, Pavel; Ludwig, Fulco

    2017-04-01

    Water is not an infinite resource and demand from irrigation, household and industry is constantly increasing. This study focused on including global water availability including environmental flow requirements with water withdrawal from irrigation and other sectors at a monthly time-step in the GLOBIOM model. This model allows re-adjustment of land-use allocation, crop management, consumption and international trade. The GLOBIOM model induces an endogenous change in water price depending on water supply and demand. In this study, the focus was on how the inclusion of water resources affects land-use and, in particular, how global change will influence repartition of irrigated and rainfed lands at global scale. We used the climate change scenario including a radiative forcing of 8.5 W/m2 (RCP8.5), the socio-economic scenario (SSP2: middle-of-road), and the environmental flow method based on monthly flow allocation (the Variable Monthly Flow method) with high and low restrictions. Irrigation withdrawals were adjusted to a monthly time-step to account for biophysical water limitations at finer time resolution. Our results show that irrigated land might decrease up to 40% on average depending on the choice of EFR restrictions. Several areas were identified as future hot-spots of water stress such as the Mediterranean and Middle-East regions. Other countries were identified to be in safe position in terms of water stress such as North-European countries. Re-allocation of rainfed and irrigated land might be useful information for land-use planners and water managers at an international level to decide on appropriate legislations on climate change mitigation/adaptation when exposure and sensitivity to climate change is high and/or on adaptation measures to face increasing water demand. For example, some countries are likely to adopt measures to increase their water use efficiencies (irrigation system, soil and water conservation practices) to face water shortages, while

  17. A Framework for Sustainable Urban Water Management through Demand and Supply Forecasting: The Case of Istanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yalçıntaş

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The metropolitan city of Istanbul is becoming overcrowded and the demand for clean water is steeply rising in the city. The use of analytical approaches has become more and more critical for forecasting the water supply and demand balance in the long run. In this research, Istanbul’s water supply and demand data is collected for the period during 2006 and 2014. Then, using an autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA model, the time series water supply and demand forecasting model is constructed for the period between 2015 and 2018. Three important sustainability metrics such as water loss to supply ratio, water loss to demand ratio, and water loss to residential demand ratio are also presented. The findings show that residential water demand is responsible for nearly 80% of total water use and the consumption categories including commercial, industrial, agriculture, outdoor, and others have a lower share in total water demand. The results also show that there is a considerable water loss in the water distribution system which requires significant investments on the water supply networks. Furthermore, the forecasting results indicated that pipeline projects will be critical in the near future due to expected increases in the total water demand of Istanbul. The authors suggest that sustainable management of water can be achieved by reducing the residential water use through the use of water efficient technologies in households and reduction in water supply loss through investments on distribution infrastructure.

  18. Hierarchical prediction of industrial water demand based on refined Laspeyres decomposition analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yizi; Lu, Shibao; Gong, Jiaguo; Shang, Ling; Li, Xiaofei; Wei, Yongping; Shi, Hongwang

    2017-12-01

    A recent study decomposed the changes in industrial water use into three hierarchies (output, technology, and structure) using a refined Laspeyres decomposition model, and found monotonous and exclusive trends in the output and technology hierarchies. Based on that research, this study proposes a hierarchical prediction approach to forecast future industrial water demand. Three water demand scenarios (high, medium, and low) were then established based on potential future industrial structural adjustments, and used to predict water demand for the structural hierarchy. The predictive results of this approach were compared with results from a grey prediction model (GPM (1, 1)). The comparison shows that the results of the two approaches were basically identical, differing by less than 10%. Taking Tianjin, China, as a case, and using data from 2003-2012, this study predicts that industrial water demand will continuously increase, reaching 580 million m 3 , 776.4 million m 3 , and approximately 1.09 billion m 3 by the years 2015, 2020 and 2025 respectively. It is concluded that Tianjin will soon face another water crisis if no immediate measures are taken. This study recommends that Tianjin adjust its industrial structure with water savings as the main objective, and actively seek new sources of water to increase its supply.

  19. Community Colleges and Labor Market Conditions: How Does Enrollment Demand Change Relative to Local Unemployment Rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Nicholas W.; Orians, Erica Lee

    2013-01-01

    This study uses fixed-effects panel data techniques to estimate the elasticity of community college enrollment demand relative to local unemployment rates. The findings suggest that community college enrollment demand is counter-cyclical to changes in the labor market, as enrollments rise during periods of weak economic conditions. Using national…

  20. Economic concepts to address future water supply-demand imbalances in Iran, Morocco and Saudi Arabia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellegers, P.J.G.J.; Immerzeel, W.; Droogers, P.

    2013-01-01

    In Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries, renewable groundwater and surface water supply are limited while demand for water is growing rapidly. Climate change is expected to increase water demand even further. The main aim of this paper is to evaluate the water supply–demand imbalances in

  1. Water stress as a trigger of demand change: exploring the implications for drought planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, M. E.; Islam, S.; Portney, K. E.

    2015-12-01

    Drought in the Anthropocene is a function of both supply and demand. Despite its importance, demand is typically incorporated into planning models exogenously using a single scenario of demand change over time. Alternatively, demand is incorporated endogenously in hydro-economic models based on the assumption of rationality. However, actors are constrained by limited information and information processing capabilities, casting doubt on the rationality assumption. Though the risk of water shortage changes incrementally with demand growth and hydrologic change, significant shifts in management are punctuated and often linked to periods of stress. The observation of lasting decreases in per capita demands in a number of cities during periods of water stress prompts an alternate hypothesis: the occurrence of water stress increases the tendency of cities to promote and enforce efficient technologies and behaviors and the tendency of users to adopt them. We show the relevance of this hypothesis by building a model of a hypothetical surface water system to answer the following question: what is the impact of reservoir operation policy on the reliability of water supply for a growing city? The model links the rate of demand decreases to the past reliability to compare standard operating policy (SOP) with hedging policy (HP). Under SOP, demand is fulfilled unless available supply drops below demand; under HP, water releases are reduced in anticipation of a deficit to decrease the risk of a large shortfall. The model shows that reservoir storage acts both as a buffer for variability and as a delay triggering oscillations around a sustainable level of demand. HP reduces the threshold for action thereby decreasing the delay and the oscillation effect. As a result per capita demand decrease during periods of water stress are more frequent but less drastic and the additive effect of small adjustments decreases the tendency of the system to overshoot available supplies.

  2. Residential water demand and water consumption: an econometric analysis on municipal panel data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musolesi, Antonio; Nosvelli, Mario

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on residential water demand estimation, a rather neglected issue in the Italian environmental economics literature as compared to other European countries and the USA. This may depend on the difficulties in gathering proper data and, most of all, panel data. In some cases statistical information are not suitably collected, while in other cases legal privacy ties put some obstacles to data set transfer. Our panel data set refers to 102 municipalities in Lombardy (Italy) for the period 1998-2002. When estimating the effect of water price, we control for other relevant variables such as: income, households demographical variables - (age structure, number of component for each family) number of firms in tertiary sector, water system length. In the considered period, the data show both an increase in population (1,5 %) and in the number of water consumers (7%) associated, on aggregate, with a slight reduction in water consumption (-1,1 %). Water demand models are estimated both in a static and in a dynamic framework. In the former, the emphasis is set on the sources of endogeneity in the average price by estimating a system of simultaneous equations and relevant variables for assessing consumer behaviour - such as socio demographic ones - are incorporated in the model. In the latter, econometric methods especially designed for endogeneity in panel data models (Arellano e Bond, 1991), are employed in order to estimate the long run elasticity of water demand with respect to average price. We find evidence both that consumers significantly respond to average price only in the long run with an elasticity of about - 0,3-0,4 and that income and demographic variables are crucial in explaining consumers' behaviour. Furthermore, water consumption presents a strong auto-regressive component, showing the emergence of inertia and path dependency in consumption habits. Such results suggest important implications for water policy planning. On one side demographic

  3. Modelling global water stress of the recent past: on the relative importance of trends in water demand and climate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Y.; van Beek, L. P. H.; Bierkens, M. F. P.

    2011-12-01

    During the past decades, human water use has more than doubled, yet available freshwater resources are finite. As a result, water scarcity has been prevalent in various regions of the world. Here, we present the first global assessment of past development of water stress considering not only climate variability but also growing water demand, desalinated water use and non-renewable groundwater abstraction over the period 1960-2001 at a spatial resolution of 0.5°. Agricultural water demand is estimated based on past extents of irrigated areas and livestock densities. We approximate past economic development based on GDP, energy and household consumption and electricity production, which are subsequently used together with population numbers to estimate industrial and domestic water demand. Climate variability is expressed by simulated blue water availability defined by freshwater in rivers, lakes, wetlands and reservoirs by means of the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB. We thus define blue water stress by comparing blue water availability with corresponding net total blue water demand by means of the commonly used, Water Scarcity Index. The results show a drastic increase in the global population living under water-stressed conditions (i.e. moderate to high water stress) due to growing water demand, primarily for irrigation, which has more than doubled from 1708/818 to 3708/1832 km3 yr-1 (gross/net) over the period 1960-2000. We estimate that 800 million people or 27% of the global population were living under water-stressed conditions for 1960. This number is eventually increased to 2.6 billion or 43% for 2000. Our results indicate that increased water demand is a decisive factor for heightened water stress in various regions such as India and North China, enhancing the intensity of water stress up to 200%, while climate variability is often a main determinant of extreme events. However, our results also suggest that in several emerging and developing economies

  4. Forecasting Hourly Water Demands With Seasonal Autoregressive Models for Real-Time Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinduan; Boccelli, Dominic L.

    2018-02-01

    Consumer water demands are not typically measured at temporal or spatial scales adequate to support real-time decision making, and recent approaches for estimating unobserved demands using observed hydraulic measurements are generally not capable of forecasting demands and uncertainty information. While time series modeling has shown promise for representing total system demands, these models have generally not been evaluated at spatial scales appropriate for representative real-time modeling. This study investigates the use of a double-seasonal time series model to capture daily and weekly autocorrelations to both total system demands and regional aggregated demands at a scale that would capture demand variability across a distribution system. Emphasis was placed on the ability to forecast demands and quantify uncertainties with results compared to traditional time series pattern-based demand models as well as nonseasonal and single-seasonal time series models. Additional research included the implementation of an adaptive-parameter estimation scheme to update the time series model when unobserved changes occurred in the system. For two case studies, results showed that (1) for the smaller-scale aggregated water demands, the log-transformed time series model resulted in improved forecasts, (2) the double-seasonal model outperformed other models in terms of forecasting errors, and (3) the adaptive adjustment of parameters during forecasting improved the accuracy of the generated prediction intervals. These results illustrate the capabilities of time series modeling to forecast both water demands and uncertainty estimates at spatial scales commensurate for real-time modeling applications and provide a foundation for developing a real-time integrated demand-hydraulic model.

  5. Deconstructing Demand: The Anthropogenic and Climatic Drivers of Urban Water Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemati, Azadeh; Rippy, Megan A; Grant, Stanley B; Davis, Kristen; Feldman, David

    2016-12-06

    Cities in drought prone regions of the world such as South East Australia are faced with escalating water scarcity and security challenges. Here we use 72 years of urban water consumption data from Melbourne, Australia, a city that recently overcame a 12 year "Millennium Drought", to evaluate (1) the relative importance of climatic and anthropogenic drivers of urban water demand (using wavelet-based approaches) and (2) the relative contribution of various water saving strategies to demand reduction during the Millennium Drought. Our analysis points to conservation as a dominant driver of urban water savings (69%), followed by nonrevenue water reduction (e.g., reduced meter error and leaks in the potable distribution system; 29%), and potable substitution with alternative sources like rain or recycled water (3%). Per-capita consumption exhibited both climatic and anthropogenic signatures, with rainfall and temperature explaining approximately 55% of the variance. Anthropogenic controls were also strong (up to 45% variance explained). These controls were nonstationary and frequency-specific, with conservation measures like outdoor water restrictions impacting seasonal water use and technological innovation/changing social norms impacting lower frequency (baseline) use. The above-noted nonstationarity implies that wavelets, which do not assume stationarity, show promise for use in future predictive models of demand.

  6. Improving Water Resources Management on Global and Region Scales - Evaluating Strategies for Water Futures with the IIASA's Community Water Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burek, P.; Kahil, T.; Satoh, Y.; Greve, P.; Byers, E.; Langan, S.; Wada, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Half of the planet's population is severely impacted by severe water issues including absent or unreliable water supply, sanitation, poor water quality, unmitigated floods and droughts, and degraded water environments. In recent years, global water security has been highlighted not only by the science community but also by business leaders as one of the greatest threats to sustainable human development for different generations. How can we ensure the well-being of people and ecosystems with limited water, technology and financial resources? To evaluate this, IIASA's Water Futures and Solutions Initiative (WFaS) is identifying a portfolios of robust and cost-effective options across different economic sectors including agriculture, energy, manufacturing, households, and environment and ecosystems. Options to increase water supply and accessibility are evaluated together with water demand management and water governance options. To test these solution-portfolios in order to obtain a clear picture of the opportunities but also of the risks and the trade-offs we have developed the Community Water Model (CWATM) which joins IIASA's integrated assessment modeling framework, coupling hydrology with hydro-economics (ECHO model), energy (MESSAGE model) and land use (GLOBIOM model). CWATM has been developed to work flexibly with varying spatial resolutions from global to regional levels. The model is open source and community-driven to promote our work amongst the wider water and other science community worldwide, with flexibility to link to other models and integrate newly developed modules such as water quality. In order to identify the solution portfolios, we present a global hotspots assessment of water-related risks with the ability to zoom in at regional scale using the example of the Lake Victoria basin in E. Africa. We show how socio-economic and climate change will alter spatial patterns of the hydrological cycle and have regional impacts on water availability. At

  7. Evaluation of sea water chlorine demand in condenser cooling water at TAPS 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papachan, Deepa; Gupta, P.K.; Patil, D.P.; Save, C.B.; Anilkumar, K.R.

    2008-01-01

    To prevent microbiological growth in the condenser tubes, condenser cooling water chlorination is very important. For effective chlorination, chlorine dose rate and frequency of dosing has to be determined on the basis of sea water chlorine demand. TAPS 1 and 2 is located near Arabian sea and draws water from this sea for its condenser cooling. The present practice of chlorine dosing at TAPS 1 and 2, based on the analysis carried out by GE in 1969, is 2500 kg/day/CWpump and 90 kg/day/SSWpump for a contact period of 25 minutes. Normal frequency of dosing is once per 8 hour and booster dose is once in a week at the same rate for 1 hour. The criteria of effective chlorination is to get residual chlorine of 2-3 ppm at the condenser water box outlet during chlorination at water box inlet/CW pump suction header in the recommended dose rate. The other option of chlorination was continuous dosing to get 0.5 ppm residual chlorine. This option has its own limitations as it is more expensive and also that micro organisms get immune to chlorine eventually due to continuous dosing. Nevertheless higher chlorine dosing is detrimental to AI-brass condenser tubes. Therefore the second option was not adopted at TAPS 1 and 2. Tarapur Atomic Power Station-1 is in the process of replacement of condenser tubes due to frequent condenser tube failures in the recent years. It was essential to analyse the present sea water chlorine demand and re-determine the chlorine dose rate because of development of industries under Maharashtra Industrial Development Corporation (MIDC) and simultaneous population growth around this area over a period of three decades. This paper discusses the experimental observations regarding significant change in sea water chlorine demand over this period and the effect of seasonal changes on sea water chlorine demand. (author)

  8. Correlation Analysis of Water Demand and Predictive Variables for Short-Term Forecasting Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Brentan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Operational and economic aspects of water distribution make water demand forecasting paramount for water distribution systems (WDSs management. However, water demand introduces high levels of uncertainty in WDS hydraulic models. As a result, there is growing interest in developing accurate methodologies for water demand forecasting. Several mathematical models can serve this purpose. One crucial aspect is the use of suitable predictive variables. The most used predictive variables involve weather and social aspects. To improve the interrelation knowledge between water demand and various predictive variables, this study applies three algorithms, namely, classical Principal Component Analysis (PCA and machine learning powerful algorithms such as Self-Organizing Maps (SOMs and Random Forest (RF. We show that these last algorithms help corroborate the results found by PCA, while they are able to unveil hidden features for PCA, due to their ability to cope with nonlinearities. This paper presents a correlation study of three district metered areas (DMAs from Franca, a Brazilian city, exploring weather and social variables to improve the knowledge of residential demand for water. For the three DMAs, temperature, relative humidity, and hour of the day appear to be the most important predictive variables to build an accurate regression model.

  9. Development of water demand coefficients for power generation from renewable energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Babkir; Kumar, Amit

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Water consumption and withdrawals coefficients for renewable power generation were developed. • Six renewable energy sources (biomass, nuclear, solar, wind, hydroelectricity, and geothermal) were studied. • Life cycle water footprints for 60 electricity generation pathways were considered. • Impact of cooling systems for some power generation pathways was assessed. - Abstract: Renewable energy technology-based power generation is considered to be environmentally friendly and to have a low life cycle greenhouse gas emissions footprint. However, the life cycle water footprint of renewable energy technology-based power generation needs to be assessed. The objective of this study is to develop life cycle water footprints for renewable energy technology-based power generation pathways. Water demand is evaluated through consumption and withdrawals coefficients developed in this study. Sixty renewable energy technology-based power generation pathways were developed for a comprehensive comparative assessment of water footprints. The pathways were based on the use of biomass, nuclear, solar, wind, hydroelectricity, and geothermal as the source of energy. During the complete life cycle, power generation from bio-oil extracted from wood chips, a biomass source, was found to have the highest water demand footprint and wind power the lowest. During the complete life cycle, the water demand coefficients for biomass-based power generation pathways range from 260 to 1289 l of water per kilowatt hour and for nuclear energy pathways from 0.48 to 179 l of water per kilowatt hour. The water demand for power generation from solar energy-based pathways ranges from 0.02 to 4.39 l of water per kilowatt hour, for geothermal pathways from 0.04 to 1.94 l of water per kilowatt hour, and for wind from 0.005 to 0.104 l of water per kilowatt hour. A sensitivity analysis was conducted with varying conversion efficiencies to evaluate the impact of power plant performance on

  10. Water Demand Management for Social Justice | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-01-18

    Jan 18, 2012 ... Water Demand Management for Social Justice ... Women play larger role in Latin America's commercial urban waste management ... the management of solid waste in Latin America, according to research supported by IDRC.

  11. The development of a municipal water conservation and demand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The implementation of water conservation and water demand management ... and the municipalities do not have the necessary financial, technical and institutional capacity to support such a ... The methodology for this study was developed as part of the ... Study' for the Vaal River system (DWAF, 2006; DWAF, 2009).

  12. The determinants of domestic water demand. Empirical evidence from Emilia-Romagna municipal data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzanti, Massimiliano; Montini, Anna

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents empirical evidence on the determinants of water demand for domestic use in one Italian region, the Emilia Romagna, by using municipal data. Two main stems in urban/domestic demand analysis cab be found in the empirical literature. The first deals with the estimation of price or income demand elasticities in the short and the long run. The price demand elasticities can be used for water demand managements purpose while the income price elasticities can be useful in the forecasting process of the water requirements. The second one deals with the estimate of customer willingness to pay increasing in water service quality in holistic sense or concerning single characteristics of the service: safety, flavour, continuity, appearance, pollution rate and cost. The aim of the analysis in this case the elicitation of the direct use, indirect use and non-use values associated to the water resource consumption, by means of direct or indirect techniques. In this paper we focused the analysis in the first stem of the empirical literature in which a cross section data set is required. The paper explores the topic problems of the estimating process whit the analysis of the empirical literature (with particular regard to investigations that use municipal data) and with the analysis of the econometric problems related to the demand estimate. The theoretical model for the water demand analysis is also presented and discussed. Two datasets have been implemented: one with 125 municipalities and four years, the other with 40 municipalities and eleven years. Both the databases bring together municipal water consumption and tariffs data provided by local water utilities and other municipal data (inhabitants, surface, household, income, etc.) stemming from official sources. The econometric analysis is based on both fixed effects, performing better than random effects models, and dynamic panel models. The estimated coefficient of the tariff variable arises always

  13. Dynamic modelling of a PV pumping system with special consideration on water demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campana, Pietro Elia; Li, Hailong; Yan, Jinyue

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Evaluation of water demand and solar energy is essential for PV pumping system. ► The design for a PV water pumping system has been optimized based on dynamic simulations. ► It is important to conduct dynamic simulations to check the matching between water demand and water supply. ► AC pump driven by the fixed PV array is the most cost-effective solution. - Abstract: The exploitation of solar energy in remote areas through photovoltaic (PV) systems is an attractive solution for water pumping for irrigation systems. The design of a photovoltaic water pumping system (PVWPS) strictly depends on the estimation of the crop water requirements and land use since the water demand varies during the watering season and the solar irradiation changes time by time. It is of significance to conduct dynamic simulations in order to achieve the successful and optimal design. The aim of this paper is to develop a dynamic modelling tool for the design of a of photovoltaic water pumping system by combining the models of the water demand, the solar PV power and the pumping system, which can be used to validate the design procedure in terms of matching between water demand and water supply. Both alternate current (AC) and direct current (DC) pumps and both fixed and two-axis tracking PV array were analyzed. The tool has been applied in a case study. Results show that it has the ability to do rapid design and optimization of PV water pumping system by reducing the power peak and selecting the proper devices from both technical and economic viewpoints. Among the different alternatives considered in this study, the AC fixed system represented the best cost effective solution

  14. Combined desalination, water reuse, and aquifer storage and recovery to meet water supply demands in the GCC/MENA region

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffour, Noreddine

    2013-01-01

    Desalination is no longer considered as a nonconventional resource to supply potable water in several countries, especially in the Gulf Corporation Countries (GCC) and Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region as most of the big cities rely almost 100% on desalinated water for their supply. Due to the continuous increase in water demand, more large-scale plants are expected to be constructed in the region. However, most of the large cities in these countries have very limited water storage capacity, ranging from hours to a few days only and their groundwater capacity is very limited. The growing need for fresh water has led to significant cost reduction, because of technological improvements of desalination technologies which makes it an attractive option for water supply even in countries where desalination was unthinkable in the past. In the GCC/MENA region, operating records show that water demand is relatively constant during the year, while power demand varies considerably with a high peak in the summer season. However, desalination and power plants are economically and technically efficient only if they are fully operated at close to full capacity. In addition, desalination plants are exposed to external constraints leading to unexpected shutdowns (e.g. red tides). Hybridization of different technologies, including reverse osmosis and thermal-based plants, is used to balance the power to water mismatch in the demand by using the idle power from co-generation systems during low power demand periods. This has led to consideration of storage of additional desalinated water to allow for maximum production and stability in operation. Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) would then be a good option to store the surplus of desalinated water which could be used when water demand is high or during unexpected shutdowns of desalination plants. In addition, increased reuse of treated wastewater could bring an integrated approach to water resources management. In this

  15. Value congruence, control, sense of community and demands as determinants of burnout syndrome among hospitality workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio-Martínez, Ángela; Leiter, Michael P; Gascón, Santiago; Gumuchian, Stephanie; Masluk, Bárbara; Herrera-Mercadal, Paola; Albesa, Agustín; García-Campayo, Javier

    2017-09-07

    Employees working in the hospitality industry are constantly exposed to occupational stressors that may lead employees into experiencing burnout syndrome. Research addressing the interactive effects of control, community and value congruence to alleviate the impact of workplace demands on experiencing burnout is relatively limited. The present study examined relationships among control, community and value congruence, workplace demands and the three components of burnout. A sample of 418 employees working in a variety of hospitality associations including restaurants and hotels in Spain were recruited. Moderation analyses and linear regressions analyzed the predictive power of control, community and value congruence as moderating variables. Results indicate that control, community and value congruence were successful buffers in the relationships between workplace demands and the burnout dimensions. The present findings offer suggestions for future research on potential moderating variables, as well as implications for reducing burnout among hospitality employees.

  16. Demand-driven water withdrawals by Chinese industry: a multi-regional input-output analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Chen, Z. M.; Zeng, L.; Qiao, H.; Chen, B.

    2016-03-01

    With ever increasing water demands and the continuous intensification of water scarcity arising from China's industrialization, the country is struggling to harmonize its industrial development and water supply. This paper presents a systems analysis of water withdrawals by Chinese industry and investigates demand-driven industrial water uses embodied in final demand and interregional trade based on a multi-regional input-output model. In 2007, the Electric Power, Steam, and Hot Water Production and Supply sector ranks first in direct industrial water withdrawal (DWW), and Construction has the largest embodied industrial water use (EWU). Investment, consumption, and exports contribute to 34.6%, 33.3%, and 30.6% of the national total EWU, respectively. Specifically, 58.0%, 51.1%, 48.6%, 43.3%, and 37.5% of the regional EWUs respectively in Guangdong, Shanghai, Zhejiang, Jiangsu, and Fujian are attributed to international exports. The total interregional import/export of embodied water is equivalent to about 40% of the national total DWW, of which 55.5% is associated with the DWWs of Electric Power, Steam, and Hot Water Production and Supply. Jiangsu is the biggest interregional exporter and deficit receiver of embodied water, in contrast to Guangdong as the biggest interregional importer and surplus receiver. Without implementing effective water-saving measures and adjusting industrial structures, the regional imbalance between water availability and water demand tends to intensify considering the water impact of domestic trade of industrial products. Steps taken to improve water use efficiency in production, and to enhance embodied water saving in consumption are both of great significance for supporting China's water policies.

  17. Have Chinese water pricing reforms reduced urban residential water demand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B.; Fang, K. H.; Baerenklau, K. A.

    2017-06-01

    China continues to deal with severe levels of water scarcity and water pollution. To help address this situation, the Chinese central government initiated urban water pricing reforms in 2002 that emphasized the adoption of increasing block rate (IBR) price structures in place of existing uniform rate structures. By combining urban water use records with microlevel data from the Chinese Urban Household Survey, this research investigates the effectiveness of this national policy reform. Specifically, we compare household water consumption in 28 cities that adopted IBR pricing structures during 2002-2009, with that of 110 cities that had not yet done so. Based on difference-in-differences models, our results show that the policy reform reduced annual residential water demand by 3-4% in the short run and 5% in the longer run. These relatively modest reductions are consistent with the generous nature of the IBR pricing structures that Chinese cities have typically chosen to implement. Our results imply that more efforts are needed to address China's persistent urban water scarcity challenges.

  18. Estimating the Determinants of Residential Water Demand in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Giulia Romano; Nicola Salvati; Andrea Guerrini

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the determinants of residential water demand for chief towns of every Italian province, in the period 2007–2009, using the linear mixed-effects model estimated with the restricted-maximum-likelihood method. Results confirmed that the applied tariff had a negative effect on residential water consumption and that it was a relevant driver of domestic water consumption. Moreover, income per capita had a positive effect on water consumption. Among measured cli...

  19. Water demand studies. [central and southern California regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, L. W.; Estes, J. E.; Churchman, C. W.; Johnson, C. W.; Huning, J. R.; Rozelle, K.; Hamilton, J.; Washburn, G.; Tinney, L. R.; Thaman, R. R.

    1973-01-01

    The areas of focus of the Santa Barbara and Riverside groups in conducting water demand studies are the central and southern California regional test sites, respectively. Within each test site, sub-areas have been selected for use in the making of detailed investigations. Within each of these sub-areas an in-depth evaluation is being made as to the capability of remote sensing systems to provide pertinent data relative to water demand phenomena. These more limited sub-areas are: (1) Kern County and the San Joaquin Basin; (2) Chino-Riverside Basin; and (3) the Imperial Valley. Rational for the selection of these subareas included the following: Much of the previous remote sensing research had been conducted in these areas and therefore a great deal of remote sensing imagery and pertinent ground truth for the areas was already available.

  20. Comprehensive Forecast of Urban Water-Energy Demand Based on a Neural Network Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyi Yin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Water-energy nexus has been a popular topic of rese arch in recent years. The relationships between the demand for water resources and energy are intense and closely connected in urban areas. The primary, secondary, and tertiary industry gross domestic product (GDP, the total population, the urban population, annual precipitation, agricultural and industrial water consumption, tap water supply, the total discharge of industrial wastewater, the daily sewage treatment capacity, total and domestic electricity consumption, and the consumption of coal in industrial enterprises above the designed size were chosen as input indicators. A feedforward artificial neural network model (ANN based on a back-propagation algorithm with two hidden layers was constructed to combine urban water resources with energy demand. This model used historical data from 1991 to 2016 from Wuxi City, eastern China. Furthermore, a multiple linear regression model (MLR was introduced for comparison with the ANN. The results show the following: (a The mean relative error values of the forecast and historical urban water-energy demands are 1.58 % and 2.71%, respectively; (b The predicted water-energy demand value for 2020 is 4.843 billion cubic meters and 47.561 million tons of standard coal equivalent; (c The predicted water-energy demand value in the year 2030 is 5.887 billion cubic meters and 60.355 million tons of standard coal equivalent; (d Compared with the MLR, the ANN performed better in fitting training data, which achieved a more satisfactory accuracy and may provide a reference for urban water-energy supply planning decisions.

  1. A novel approach for examining future US domestic water demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costs of repairing and expanding aging infrastructure and competing demands for water from other sectors such as industry and agriculture are stretching policy makers’ abilities to meet essential domestic drinking water needs for future generations. Using Bayesian statistic...

  2. Electric Water Heater Modeling and Control Strategies for Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diao, Ruisheng; Lu, Shuai; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Zhang, Yu; Samaan, Nader A.

    2012-07-22

    Abstract— Demand response (DR) has a great potential to provide balancing services at normal operating conditions and emergency support when a power system is subject to disturbances. Effective control strategies can significantly relieve the balancing burden of conventional generators and reduce investment on generation and transmission expansion. This paper is aimed at modeling electric water heaters (EWH) in households and tests their response to control strategies to implement DR. The open-loop response of EWH to a centralized signal is studied by adjusting temperature settings to provide regulation services; and two types of decentralized controllers are tested to provide frequency support following generator trips. EWH models are included in a simulation platform in DIgSILENT to perform electromechanical simulation, which contains 147 households in a distribution feeder. Simulation results show the dependence of EWH response on water heater usage . These results provide insight suggestions on the need of control strategies to achieve better performance for demand response implementation. Index Terms— Centralized control, decentralized control, demand response, electrical water heater, smart grid

  3. Workshops capacity building for agricultural water demand management; final report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vehmeijer, P.W.; Wolters, W.

    2004-01-01

    Agricultural Water Demand Management (AWDM) is at the core of the Water for Food Programme launched as a result of a pledge by the Netherlands' Minister for Agriculture at the 2nd World Water Forum in March 2000, The Hague. One of the projects that was started after the March 2000 pledge was

  4. Modelling global water stress of the recent past: on the relative importance of trends in water demand and climate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Y.; van Beek, L. P. H.; Bierkens, M. F. P.

    2011-08-01

    During the past decades, human water use more than doubled, yet available freshwater resources are finite. As a result, water scarcity has been prevalent in various regions of the world. Here, we present the first global assessment of past development of water scarcity considering not only climate variability but also growing water demand, desalinated water use and non-renewable groundwater abstraction over the period 1960-2001 at a spatial resolution of 0.5°. Agricultural water demand is estimated based on past extents of irrigated areas and livestock densities. We approximate past economic development based on GDP, energy and household consumption and electricity production, which is subsequently used together with population numbers to estimate industrial and domestic water demand. Climate variability is expressed by simulated blue water availability defined by freshwater in rivers, lakes and reservoirs by means of the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB. The results show a drastic increase in the global population living under water-stressed conditions (i.e., moderate to high water stress) due to the growing water demand, primarily for irrigation, which more than doubled from 1708/818 to 3708/1832 km3 yr-1 (gross/net) over the period 1960-2000. We estimate that 800 million people or 27 % of the global population were under water-stressed conditions for 1960. This number increased to 2.6 billion or 43 % for 2000. Our results indicate that increased water demand is the decisive factor for the heightened water stress, enhancing the intensity of water stress up to 200 %, while climate variability is often the main determinant of onsets for extreme events, i.e. major droughts. However, our results also suggest that in several emerging and developing economies (e.g., India, Turkey, Romania and Cuba) some of the past observed droughts were anthropogenically driven due to increased water demand rather than being climate-induced. In those countries, it can be seen

  5. Historical effects of CO2 and climate trends on global crop water demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Daniel W.; Sheffield, Justin; Lobell, David B.

    2017-12-01

    A critical question for agricultural production and food security is how water demand for staple crops will respond to climate and carbon dioxide (CO2) changes1, especially in light of the expected increases in extreme heat exposure2. To quantify the trade-offs between the effects of climate and CO2 on water demand, we use a `sink-strength' model of demand3,4 which relies on the vapour-pressure deficit (VPD), incident radiation and the efficiencies of canopy-radiation use and canopy transpiration; the latter two are both dependent on CO2. This model is applied to a global data set of gridded monthly weather data over the cropping regions of maize, soybean, wheat and rice during the years 1948-2013. We find that this approach agrees well with Penman-Monteith potential evapotranspiration (PM) for the C3 crops of soybean, wheat and rice, where the competing CO2 effects largely cancel each other out, but that water demand in maize is significantly overstated by a demand measure that does not include CO2, such as the PM. We find the largest changes in wheat, for which water demand has increased since 1981 over 86% of the global cropping area and by 2.3-3.6 percentage points per decade in different regions.

  6. A bottom-up approach of stochastic demand allocation in water quality modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokker, E.J.M.; Vreeburg, J.H.G.; Beverloo, H.; Klein Arfman, M.; Van Dijk, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    An “all pipes” hydraulic model of a drinking water distribution system was constructed with two types of demand allocations. One is constructed with the conventional top-down approach, i.e. a demand multiplier pattern from the booster station is allocated to all demand nodes with a correction factor

  7. Combined desalination, water reuse, and aquifer storage and recovery to meet water supply demands in the GCC/MENA region

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffour, NorEddine; Missimer, Thomas M.; Amy, Gary L.

    2013-01-01

    it an attractive option for water supply even in countries where desalination was unthinkable in the past. In the GCC/MENA region, operating records show that water demand is relatively constant during the year, while power demand varies considerably with a high

  8. From hydrological regimes to water use regimes: influence of the type of habitat on drinking water demand dynamics in alpine tourist resorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calianno, Martin

    2017-04-01

    In the last decades, integrated water resources management studies produced integrated models that focus mainly on the assessment of water resources and water stress in the future. In some cases, socioeconomic development results to cause more impacts on the evolution of water systems than climate (Reynard et al., 2014). There is thus a need to develop demand-side approaches in the observation and modeling of human-influenced hydrological systems (Grouillet et al., 2015). We define the notion of water use cycle to differentiate water volumes that are withdrawn from the hydrological system and that circulate through anthropic hydro-systems along various steps: withdrawals, distribution, demands, consumption, restitution (Calianno et al., submitted). To address the spatial distribution and the temporal dynamics of the water use cycle, we define the concepts of water use basins and water use regimes (Calianno et al., submitted). The assessment of the temporal variability of water demands is important at thin time steps in touristic areas, where water resource regimes and water demands are highly variable. This is the case for are alpine ski resorts, where the high touristic season (winter) takes place during the low flow period in nival and glacio-nival basins. In this work, a monitoring of drinking water demands was undergone, at high temporal resolution, on different types of buildings in the ski resort of Megève (France). A dataset was created, from which a typology of water demand regimes was extracted. The analysis of these temporal signatures highlighted the factors influencing the volumes and the dynamics of drinking water demand. The main factors are the type of habitat (single family, collective, house, apartment blocks), the presence of a garden or an infrastructure linked to high standing chalets (pool, spa), the proportion of permanent and temporary habitat, the presence of snow in the ski resort. Also, temporalities linked to weekends and weekly tourism

  9. Estimating the own-price elasticity of demand for irrigation water in the Musi catchment of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Brian; Hellegers, Petra

    2011-10-01

    SummaryAs irrigation water is an input into a production process, its demand must be 'derived'. According to theory, a derived demand schedule should be downward sloping and dependent on the outputs produced from it, the prices of other inputs and the price of the water itself. Problems arise when an attempt is made to estimate the demand for irrigation water and the resulting own-price elasticity of demand, as the uses to which water is put are spatially, temporarily and geographically diverse. Because water is not generally freely traded, what normally passes for an estimate of the own-price elasticity of demand for irrigation water is usually a well argued assumption or an estimate that is derived from a simulation model of a hypothesized producer. Such approaches tend to provide an inadequate explanation of what is an extremely complex and important relationship. An adequate explanation of the relationship between the price and the quantity demanded of water should be one that not only accords with the theoretical expectations, but also accounts for the diversity of products produced from water (which includes the management practices of farmers), the seasons in which it is used and over the region within which it is used. The objective in this article is to present a method of estimating the demand curve for irrigation water. The method uses actual field data which is collated using the Residual Method to determine the value of the marginal product of water deployed over a wide range of crops, seasons and regions. These values of the marginal products, all which must lie of the input demand schedule for water, are then ordered from the highest value to the lowest. Then, the amount of irrigation water used for each product, in each season and in each region is cumulatively summed over the range of uses according to the order of the values of the marginal products. This data, once ordered, is then used to econometrically estimate the demand schedule from which

  10. Co-Adapting Water Demand and Supply to Changing Climate in Agricultural Water Systems, A Case Study in Northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, M.; Li, Y.; Mainardi, M.; Arias Munoz, C.; Castelletti, A.; Gandolfi, C.

    2013-12-01

    Exponentially growing water demands and increasing uncertainties in the hydrologic cycle due to changes in climate and land use will challenge water resources planning and management in the next decade. Improving agricultural productivity is particularly critical, being this sector the one characterized by the highest water demand. Moreover, to meet projected growth in human population and per-capita food demand, agricultural production will have to significantly increase in the next decades, even though water availability is expected to decrease due to climate change impacts. Agricultural systems are called to adapt their strategies (e.g., changing crop patterns and the corresponding water demand, or maximizing the efficiency in the water supply modifying irrigation scheduling and adopting high efficiency irrigation techniques) in order to re-optimize the use of limited water resources. Although many studies have assessed climate change impacts on agricultural practices and water management, most of them assume few scenarios of water demand or water supply separately, while an analysis of their reciprocal feedbacks is still missing. Moreover, current practices are generally established according to historical agreements and normative constraints and, in the absence of dramatic failures, the shift toward more efficient water management is not easily achievable. In this work, we propose to activate an information loop between farmers and water managers to improve the effectiveness of agricultural water management practices by matching the needs of the farmers with the design of water supply strategies. The proposed approach is tested on a real-world case study, namely the Lake Como serving the Muzza-Bassa Lodigiana irrigation district (Italy). A distributed-parameter, dynamic model of the system allows to simulate crop growth and the final yield over a range of hydro-climatic conditions, irrigation strategies and water-related stresses. The spatial component of the

  11. Water demand characteristics of shared water and sanitation facilities

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The provision of communal water and sanitation facilities has been mandated by the South African Government as an interim measure for informal settlement upgrading. These services form the first step in the upgrading process and are essential in meeting the basic needs of the community. The eThekwini municipality is ...

  12. Modeling and Forecasting of Water Demand in Isfahan Using Underlying Trend Concept and Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sadeghi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Accurate water demand modeling for the city is very important for forecasting and policies adoption related to water resources management. Thus, for future requirements of water estimation, forecasting and modeling, it is important to utilize models with little errors. Water has a special place among the basic human needs, because it not hampers human life. The importance of the issue of water management in the extraction and consumption, it is necessary as a basic need. Municipal water applications is include a variety of water demand for domestic, public, industrial and commercial. Predicting the impact of urban water demand in better planning of water resources in arid and semiarid regions are faced with water restrictions. Materials and Methods: One of the most important factors affecting the changing technological advances in production and demand functions, we must pay special attention to the layout pattern. Technology development is concerned not only technically, but also other aspects such as personal, non-economic factors (population, geographical and social factors can be analyzed. Model examined in this study, a regression model is composed of a series of structural components over time allows changed invisible accidentally. Explanatory variables technology (both crystalline and amorphous in a model according to which the material is said to be better, but because of the lack of measured variables over time can not be entered in the template. Model examined in this study, a regression model is composed of a series of structural component invisible accidentally changed over time allows. In this study, structural time series (STSM and ARMA time series models have been used to model and estimate the water demand in Isfahan. Moreover, in order to find the efficient procedure, both models have been compared to each other. The desired data in this research include water consumption in Isfahan, water price and the monthly pay

  13. Clustering and Support Vector Regression for Water Demand Forecasting and Anomaly Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Candelieri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a completely data-driven and machine-learning-based approach, in two stages, to first characterize and then forecast hourly water demand in the short term with applications of two different data sources: urban water demand (SCADA data and individual customer water consumption (AMR data. In the first case, reliable forecasting can be used to optimize operations, particularly the pumping schedule, in order to reduce energy-related costs, while in the second case, the comparison between forecast and actual values may support the online detection of anomalies, such as smart meter faults, fraud or possible cyber-physical attacks. Results are presented for a real case: the water distribution network in Milan.

  14. Climate change and water supply and demand in western Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawford, R.G.

    1990-01-01

    There is reason to be concerned that water resources on the Canadian Prairies could be at considerable risk due to climatic change. The Canadian Prairies frequently experience variations in the climate, which can reduce crop production by 25-50% and annual volumetric river flows by 70-90%. The potential impacts of climatic change on the Prairies are discussed. Consumptive water uses on the Prairies are dominated by irrigation and the water demands arising from thermal power generation. The overall effect of climatic change on water supplies will depend on the ways in which the various components of the hydrological cycle are affected. At the present time it is unsure whether complementary equations are more realistic in estimating evaporation than mass balance techniques. There is a need to obtain good baseline data which will allow the unequivocal resolution of the most accurate technique for estimating evaporation on the Prairies. Climate change could lead to a decrease in spring runoff, and would also lead to earlier snowmelt and peak flows. This could lead to a longer period of low flows during the summer and fall and a further drawdown of moisture reserves. Some appropriate strategies for adapting to climate change would be: encouraging water conservation; reductions in agricultural water use by developing/utilizing strains of plants with lower water demand; controlling new water developments; and enhancing on-farm retention. 10 refs

  15. A high turndown, ultra low emission low swirl burner for natural gas, on-demand water heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, Vi H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cheng, Robert K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Therkelsen, Peter L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-06-13

    Previous research has shown that on-demand water heaters are, on average, approximately 37% more efficient than storage water heaters. However, approximately 98% of water heaters in the U.S. use storage water heaters while the remaining 2% are on-demand. A major market barrier to deployment of on-demand water heaters is their high retail cost, which is due in part to their reliance on multi-stage burner banks that require complex electronic controls. This project aims to research and develop a cost-effective, efficient, ultra-low emission burner for next generation natural gas on-demand water heaters in residential and commercial buildings. To meet these requirements, researchers at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) are adapting and testing the low-swirl burner (LSB) technology for commercially available on-demand water heaters. In this report, a low-swirl burner is researched, developed, and evaluated to meet targeted on-demand water heater performance metrics. Performance metrics for a new LSB design are identified by characterizing performance of current on-demand water heaters using published literature and technical specifications, and through experimental evaluations that measure fuel consumption and emissions output over a range of operating conditions. Next, target metrics and design criteria for the LSB are used to create six 3D printed prototypes for preliminary investigations. Prototype designs that proved the most promising were fabricated out of metal and tested further to evaluate the LSB’s full performance potential. After conducting a full performance evaluation on two designs, we found that one LSB design is capable of meeting or exceeding almost all the target performance metrics for on-demand water heaters. Specifically, this LSB demonstrated flame stability when operating from 4.07 kBTU/hr up to 204 kBTU/hr (50:1 turndown), compliance with SCAQMD Rule 1146.2 (14 ng/J or 20 ppm NOX @ 3% O2), and lower CO emissions than state

  16. Demand Estimation for Irrigation Water in the Moroccan Drâa Valley using Contingent Valuation

    OpenAIRE

    Storm, Hugo; Heckelei, Thomas; Heidecke, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    Irrigation water management is crucial for agricultural production and livelihood security in Morocco as in many other parts of the world. For the implementation of an effective water management knowledge about farmers’ irrigation water demand is crucial to assess demand reactions of a water pricing policy, to establish a cost-benefit analysis of water supply investments or to determine the optimal water allocation between different users. Previously used econometric methods providing this in...

  17. Modeling and managing urban water demand through smart meters: Benefits and challenges from current research and emerging trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cominola, A.; Giuliani, M.; Castelletti, A.; Piga, D.; Rizzoli, A. E.

    2015-12-01

    Urban population growth, climate and land use change are expected to boost residential water demand in urban contexts in the next decades. In such a context, developing suitable demand-side management strategies is essential to meet future water demands, pursue water savings, and reduce the costs for water utilities. Yet, the effectiveness of water demand management strategies (WDMS) relies on our understanding of water consumers' behavior, their consumption habits, and the water use drivers. While low spatial and temporal resolution water consumption data, as traditionally gathered for billing purposes, hardly support this understanding, the advent of high-resolution, smart metering technologies allowed for quasi real-time monitoring water consumption at the single household level. This, in turn, is advancing our ability in characterizing consumers' behavior, modeling, and designing user-oriented residential water demand management strategies. Several water smart metering programs have been rolled-out in the last two decades worldwide, addressing one or more of the following water demand management phases: (i) data gathering, (ii) water end-uses characterization, (iii) user modeling, (iv) design and implementation of personalized WDMS. Moreover, the number of research studies in this domain is quickly increasing and big economic investments are currently being devoted worldwide to smart metering programs. With this work, we contribute the first comprehensive review of more than 100 experiences in the field of residential water demand modeling and management, and we propose a general framework for their classification. We revise consolidated practices, identify emerging trends and highlight the challenges and opportunities for future developments given by the use of smart meters advancing residential water demand management. Our analysis of the status quo of smart urban water demand management research and market constitutes a structured collection of information

  18. Estimation of area and income elasticities of water demand in a number of cities and towns in Gauteng

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.Ing. Water demand prediction can be useful for future planning and has a significant economic effect on a city, town or suburb. There are numerous factors influencing water demand and therefore influencing the prediction thereof. The effect of each of these factors on the water demand is called the elasticity of that factor. The main aim of this study is to determine area and income elasticities of demand. This will enable the reader to predict water demand by taking stand size (area) an...

  19. Tourism and water use: Supply, demand, and security. An international review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gössling, S.; Peeters, P.M.; Hall, C.M.; Ceron, J.P.; Dubois, G.; Lehmann, L.V.; Scott, D.

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews direct freshwater consumption in tourism from both quantitative and qualitative viewpoints to assess the current water demand of the tourism sector and to identify current and future management challenges. The article concludes that even though tourism increases global water

  20. Chlorine demand and residual chlorine decay kinetics of Kali river water at Kaiga project area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishna Bhat, D.; Prakash, T.R.; Thimme Gowda, B.; Sherigara, B.S.; Khader, A.M.A.

    1995-01-01

    The nuclear power plant at Kaiga would use Kali river water for condenser cooling. This necessitated studies on the chemistry of chlorination such as chlorine demand, kinetics of chlorination and other water characteristics aimed at obtaining base line data. The study revealed significant seasonal variation of chlorine demand ranging from 0.5 ppm to 1.7 ppm (3.0 ppm dose, 30 min contact time) and total consumption of 5.0 ppm (10.0 ppm dose, 48 hours contact time). The reaction follows first order kinetics in chlorine. High correlation of chlorine demand with chlorophyll a, suspended matter, turbidity, silica, nitrite, phosphate and sulphate indicated that chlorine demand is greatly influenced by water quality. (author). 3 refs., 1 tab

  1. Water resources adaptation to climate and demand change in the Potomac river

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of climate change are increasingly considered in conjunction with changes in water demand and reservoir sedimentation in forecasts of water supply vulnerability. Here, the relative effects of these factors are evaluated for the Washington, DC metropolitan area water supply for the near f...

  2. Water demand management in times of drought: What matters for water conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggioni, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Southern California is subject to long droughts and short wet spells. Its water agencies have put in place voluntary, mandatory, and market-based conservation strategies since the 1980s. By analyzing water agencies' data between 2006 and 2010, this research studies whether rebates for water efficient fixtures, water rates, or water ordinances have been effective, and tests whether structural characteristics of water agencies have affected the policy outcome. It finds that mandates to curb outdoor water uses are correlated with reductions in residential per capita water usage, while water rates and subsidies for water saving devices are not. It also confirms that size is a significant policy implementation factor. In a policy perspective, the transition from a water supply to a water demand management-oriented strategy appears guided by mandates and by contextual factors such as the economic cycle and the weather that occur outside the water governance system. Three factors could improve the conservation effort: using prices as a conservation tool, not only as a cost recovering instrument; investing in water efficient tools only when they provide significant water savings; supporting smaller agencies in order to give them opportunities to implement conservation strategies more effectively or to help them consolidate.

  3. Estimating irrigation water demand in the Moroccan Drâa Valley using contingent valuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Hugo; Heckelei, Thomas; Heidecke, Claudia

    2011-10-01

    Irrigation water management is crucial for agricultural production and livelihood security in Morocco as in many other parts of the world. For the implementation of an effective water management, knowledge about farmers' demand for irrigation water is crucial to assess reactions to water pricing policy, to establish a cost-benefit analysis of water supply investments or to determine the optimal water allocation between different users. Previously used econometric methods providing this information often have prohibitive data requirements. In this paper, the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) is adjusted to derive a demand function for irrigation water along farmers' willingness to pay for one additional unit of surface water or groundwater. An application in the Middle Drâa Valley in Morocco shows that the method provides reasonable results in an environment with limited data availability. For analysing the censored survey data, the Least Absolute Deviation estimator was found to be a more suitable alternative to the Tobit model as errors are heteroscedastic and non-normally distributed. The adjusted CVM to derive demand functions is especially attractive for water scarce countries under limited data availability. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A multi-scale relevance vector regression approach for daily urban water demand forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yun; Wang, Pu; Li, Chuan; Xie, Jingjing; Wang, Yin

    2014-09-01

    Water is one of the most important resources for economic and social developments. Daily water demand forecasting is an effective measure for scheduling urban water facilities. This work proposes a multi-scale relevance vector regression (MSRVR) approach to forecast daily urban water demand. The approach uses the stationary wavelet transform to decompose historical time series of daily water supplies into different scales. At each scale, the wavelet coefficients are used to train a machine-learning model using the relevance vector regression (RVR) method. The estimated coefficients of the RVR outputs for all of the scales are employed to reconstruct the forecasting result through the inverse wavelet transform. To better facilitate the MSRVR forecasting, the chaos features of the daily water supply series are analyzed to determine the input variables of the RVR model. In addition, an adaptive chaos particle swarm optimization algorithm is used to find the optimal combination of the RVR model parameters. The MSRVR approach is evaluated using real data collected from two waterworks and is compared with recently reported methods. The results show that the proposed MSRVR method can forecast daily urban water demand much more precisely in terms of the normalized root-mean-square error, correlation coefficient, and mean absolute percentage error criteria.

  5. A Probabilistic Short-Term Water Demand Forecasting Model Based on the Markov Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Gagliardi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a short-term water demand forecasting method based on the use of the Markov chain. This method provides estimates of future demands by calculating probabilities that the future demand value will fall within pre-assigned intervals covering the expected total variability. More specifically, two models based on homogeneous and non-homogeneous Markov chains were developed and presented. These models, together with two benchmark models (based on artificial neural network and naïve methods, were applied to three real-life case studies for the purpose of forecasting the respective water demands from 1 to 24 h ahead. The results obtained show that the model based on a homogeneous Markov chain provides more accurate short-term forecasts than the one based on a non-homogeneous Markov chain, which is in line with the artificial neural network model. Both Markov chain models enable probabilistic information regarding the stochastic demand forecast to be easily obtained.

  6. Fire flow water consumption in sprinklered and unsprinklered buildings an assessment of community impacts

    CERN Document Server

    Code Consultants, Inc.

    2012-01-01

    Fire Flow Water Consumption in Sprinklered and Unsprinklered Buildings offers a detailed analysis for calculating the fire water demand required in buildings with existing and non-existant sprinkler systems. The installation of automatic sprinkler systems can significantly reduce the amount of water needed during a fire, but it requires water for commissioning, inspection, testing, and maintenance (CITM). This book provides an estimate of fire water used under both fire conditions, including CITM, to allow communities to develop fire water fees for both sprinklered and unsprinklered buildings that are proportional to the anticipated fire water usage. The types of buildings analyzed include residential (family dwellings as well as those up to four stories in height), business, assembly, institutional, mercantile, and storage facilities. Water volume was studied using guidelines from the International Code Council, the National Fire Protection Association, and the Insurance Services Office. Fire Flow Water Cons...

  7. LOW WATER DEMAND CEMENTS - WAY OF EFFICIENT USE OF CLINKER AND MINERAL FILLERS IN CONCRETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khokhryakov Oleg Viktorovich

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Subject: the provisions in the updated edition of the technical specifications for cements are analyzed. A trend to decrease the clinker volume in Portland cement due to the wider use of mineral additives, up to 95%, was observed. Research objectives: substantiation of the most complete and efficient use of Portland cement and mineral additives in the composition of low water demand cements. Materials and methods: portland cement, mineral additives and superplasticizer were used as raw materials for obtaining cements of low water demand. The experimental methods comply with the current standards. Results: comparative properties of low water demand cements and cements with mineral additives are presented. The properties of cement-water suspensions of these binders have been studied, and, on their basis, heavy concretes have been made. The results of the grindability of Portland cement and mineral components with a superplasticizer are given. Conclusions: it is shown that the cement of low water demand, in which the advantages of both Portland cement and mineral additives are more fully and efficiently presented, complies with the tendency to decrease the clinker volume to the greatest degree. It is established that the clinker volume index for heavy concrete prepared on low water demand cement is almost four times lower than that for heavy concrete based on common Portland cement.

  8. Voluntary Management of Residential Water Demand in Low and Middle-Low Income Households: Case Study of Soacha (colombia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, R.; Rodriguez, J. P.

    2016-12-01

    Water resources availability is a global concern due to increasing demands, decreasing quality and uncertain spatio-temporal variability (United Nations, 2009). In urban contexts research on efficient water use is a priority to cope with the future vulnerability of water supplies as a result of the impacts of climate change (Bates et al, 2008). Following the proposed methodologies of He and Kua (2013) for implementing programs to promote sustainable energy consumption, we focused on the use of educational strategies to promote a voluntary rationalization of residential water demand. We collaborated with three schools in Soacha (Colombia) where students ranging from 12 to 15 years participated in the project as promoters of educational campaigns inside their families, covering 120 low and middle-low income households. Three intervention or treatment strategies (i.e. e-learning, in-person active learning activities and graphical learning tools) were carried out over a period of 5 months. We analyzed the effects of the treatments strategies in reducing water consumption rates and the dependence of this variable on socio-demographic, economic, environmental, and life quality factors by using personal interviews and self reported water saving technics. The results showed that educational campaigns have a positive effect on reducing consumption in the households. Graphical learning tools accounted for the highest reduction in water consumption. Moreover, the results of the study suggests that socio-economic factors such as type of house, social level, income, and life quality variables significantly affect the variability in water consumption, which is an important fact to consider in similar cases where communities face difficult socio-economic conditions, displacement or high rates of urban growth.

  9. Life cycle water demand coefficients for crude oil production from five North American locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Babkir; Kumar, Amit

    2017-10-15

    The production of liquid fuels from crude oil requires water. There has been limited focus on the assessment of life cycle water demand footprints for crude oil production and refining. The overall aim of this paper is address this gap. The objective of this research is to develop water demand coefficients over the life cycle of fuels produced from crude oil pathways. Five crude oil fields were selected in the three North American countries to reflect the impact of different spatial locations and technologies on water demand. These include the Alaska North Slope, California's Kern County heavy oil, and Mars in the U.S.; Maya in Mexico; and Bow River heavy oil in Alberta, Canada. A boundary for an assessment of the life cycle water footprint was set to cover the unit operations related to exploration, drilling, extraction, and refining. The recovery technology used to extract crude oil is one of the key determining factors for water demand. The amount of produced water that is re-injected to recover the oil is essential in determining the amount of fresh water that will be required. During the complete life cycle of one barrel of conventional crude oil, 1.71-8.25 barrels of fresh water are consumed and 2.4-9.51 barrels of fresh water are withdrawn. The lowest coefficients are for Bow River heavy oil and the highest coefficients are for Maya crude oil. Of all the unit operations, exploration and drilling require the least fresh water (less than 0.015 barrel of water per barrel of oil produced). A sensitivity analysis was conducted and uncertainty in the estimates was determined. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The increasing importance of atmospheric demand for ecosystem water and carbon fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimberly A. Novick; Darren L. Ficklin; Paul C. Stoy; Christopher A. Williams; Gil Bohrer; Andrew C. Oishi; Shirley A. Papuga; Peter D. Blanken; Asko Noormets; Benjamin N. Sulman; Russell L. Scott; Lixin Wang; Richard P. Phillips

    2016-01-01

    Soil moisture supply and atmospheric demand for water independently limit-and profoundly affect-vegetation productivity and water use during periods of hydrologic stress1-4. Disentangling the impact of these two drivers on ecosystem carbon and water cycling is difficult because they are often correlated, and experimental tools for manipulating...

  11. Evaluation of water demand and supply in the south of Iraq

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Furaiji, Mustafa; Karim, Usama F.A.; Augustijn, Dionysius C.M.; Waisi, Basma; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents results from the first study that focuses on water resources availability and demand for different purposes in the four oil-rich provinces of southern Iraq. The region accounts for 23% of the surface area and 18% of the country's population, but holds 88% of its oil. A water

  12. Community-driven demand creation for the use of routine viral load testing: a model to scale up routine viral load testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killingo, Bactrin M; Taro, Trisa B; Mosime, Wame N

    2017-11-01

    HIV treatment outcomes are dependent on the use of viral load measurement. Despite global and national guidelines recommending the use of routine viral load testing, these policies alone have not translated into widespread implementation or sufficiently increased access for people living with HIV (PLHIV). Civil society and communities of PLHIV recognize the need to close this gap and to enable the scale up of routine viral load testing. The International Treatment Preparedness Coalition (ITPC) developed an approach to community-led demand creation for the use of routine viral load testing. Using this Community Demand Creation Model, implementers follow a step-wise process to capacitate and empower communities to address their most pressing needs. This includes utlizing a specific toolkit that includes conducting a baseline assessment, developing a treatment education toolkit, organizing mobilization workshops for knowledge building, provision of small grants to support advocacy work and conducting benchmark evaluations. The Community Demand Creation Model to increase demand for routine viral load testing services by PLHIV has been delivered in diverse contexts including in the sub-Saharan African, Asian, Latin American and the Caribbean regions. Between December 2015 and December 2016, ITPC trained more than 240 PLHIV activists, and disbursed US$90,000 to network partners in support of their national advocacy work. The latter efforts informed a regional, community-driven campaign calling for domestic investment in the expeditious implementation of national viral load testing guidelines. HIV treatment education and community mobilization are critical components of demand creation for access to optimal HIV treatment, especially for the use of routine viral load testing. ITPC's Community Demand Creation Model offers a novel approach to achieving this goal. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of the International AIDS Society published by John Wiley & sons Ltd on behalf of

  13. Expanded ethanol production: Implications for agriculture, water demand, and water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De La Torre Ugarte, Daniel G.; He, Lixia; Jensen, Kimberly L.; English, Burton C.

    2010-01-01

    Feedstock production for large scale development of the U.S. ethanol industry and introduction of cellulose-to-ethanol technology will require extensive changes in land use and field management. Hence, this production will likely have significant impact on water demand and quality. This study compares two 'what if' scenarios for attaining a 227.1 hm 3 of ethanol by 2030 and 3.8 hm 3 of biodiesel by 2012. In the first scenario cellulose-to-ethanol technology is introduced in 2012, while in the second scenario the technology is delayed until 2015. Results show that the timing of introduction of cellulose-to-ethanol technology will affect the water use and water quality related input use in primarily in the eastern part of the nation. Results also suggest policy emphasis on reduced and no-till practices needs to be complementary to increased crop residue use. (author)

  14. Correlates of potable water demand among farming households in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study estimated the correlates of potable water demand among farming households through the use of cross-sectional data collected from 100 households in Abak, Nigeria. Based on the fact that heterogeneity and homogeneity exist within and among the clans and also to ensure equal representation of people from all ...

  15. Effect of land area on average annual suburban water demand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AADD) in South Africa are based on residential plot size. This paper presents a novel, robust method for estimating suburban water demand as a function of the suburb area. Seventy suburbs, identified as being predominantly residential, were ...

  16. Community-Based Monitoring in Response to Local Concerns: Creating Usable Knowledge for Water Management in Rural Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana C. Flores-Díaz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Water resources around the world are being affected by increasing demand for human consumption as well as by industrial and agricultural use. Water quality has an impact on our quality of life, so effective monitoring provides the necessary data to allow decision makers to address critical water-related issues. This study (1 analyzes water knowledge generated by a community-based water monitoring (CBWM network within a world heritage site; (2 discusses the extent to which monitoring responds to community concerns about water; and (3 indicates challenges in the generation of local usable knowledge. Using information generated over 6.5 years by a local monitoring network, we calculated a water quality index (WQI and generated a time-series analysis using the breaks for additive season and trend (Bfast algorithm. Results were grouped by specific community and institutional concerns about water. Springs under good management practices had low pollution levels, while others used for drinking and recreation had high fecal bacterial counts. Monitoring provided data about Escherichia coli counts exceeding legal limits, and about conditions of alkalinity and dissolved oxygen that represent a risk for the freshwater ecosystems. This study demonstrates how CBWM schemes can be a means of generating knowledge of water resources that can enhance the understanding of water dynamics and inform users’ decisions at local–regional levels.

  17. Optimal and Learning-Based Demand Response Mechanism for Electric Water Heater System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Lin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates how to develop a learning-based demand response approach for electric water heater in a smart home that can minimize the energy cost of the water heater while meeting the comfort requirements of energy consumers. First, a learning-based, data-driven model of an electric water heater is developed by using a nonlinear autoregressive network with external input (NARX using neural network. The model is updated daily so that it can more accurately capture the actual thermal dynamic characteristics of the water heater especially in real-life conditions. Then, an optimization problem, based on the NARX water heater model, is formulated to optimize energy management of the water heater in a day-ahead, dynamic electricity price framework. A genetic algorithm is proposed in order to solve the optimization problem more efficiently. MATLAB (R2016a is used to evaluate the proposed learning-based demand response approach through a computational experiment strategy. The proposed approach is compared with conventional method for operation of an electric water heater. Cost saving and benefits of the proposed water heater energy management strategy are explored.

  18. Development of life cycle water-demand coefficients for coal-based power generation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Babkir; Kumar, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We develop water consumption and withdrawals coefficients for coal power generation. • We develop life cycle water footprints for 36 coal-based electricity generation pathways. • Different coal power generation technologies were assessed. • Sensitivity analysis of plant performance and coal transportation on water demand. - Abstract: This paper aims to develop benchmark coefficients for water consumption and water withdrawals over the full life cycle of coal-based power generation. This study considered not only all of the unit operations involved in the full electricity generation life cycle but also compared different coal-based power generating technologies. Overall this study develops the life cycle water footprint for 36 different coal-based electricity generation pathways. Power generation pathways involving new technologies of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or ultra supercritical technology with coal transportation by conventional means and using dry cooling systems have the least complete life cycle water-demand coefficients of about 1 L/kW h. Sensitivity analysis is conducted to study the impact of power plant performance and coal transportation on the water demand coefficients. The consumption coefficient over life cycle of ultra supercritical or IGCC power plants are 0.12 L/kW h higher when conventional transportation of coal is replaced by coal-log pipeline. Similarly, if the conventional transportation of coal is replaced by its transportation in the form of a slurry through a pipeline, the consumption coefficient of a subcritical power plant increases by 0.52 L/kW h

  19. Better Water Demand and Pipe Description Improve the Distribution Network Modeling Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distribution system modeling simplifies pipe network in skeletonization and simulates the flow and water quality by using generalized water demand patterns. While widely used, the approach has not been examined fully on how it impacts the modeling fidelity. This study intends to ...

  20. Bacterial community diversity and variation in spray water sources and the tomato fruit surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telias, Adriana; White, James R; Pahl, Donna M; Ottesen, Andrea R; Walsh, Christopher S

    2011-04-21

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) consumption has been one of the most common causes of produce-associated salmonellosis in the United States. Contamination may originate from animal waste, insects, soil or water. Current guidelines for fresh tomato production recommend the use of potable water for applications coming in direct contact with the fruit, but due to high demand, water from other sources is frequently used. We sought to describe the overall bacterial diversity on the surface of tomato fruit and the effect of two different water sources (ground and surface water) when used for direct crop applications by generating a 454-pyrosequencing 16S rRNA dataset of these different environments. This study represents the first in depth characterization of bacterial communities in the tomato fruit surface and the water sources commonly used in commercial vegetable production. The two water sources tested had a significantly different bacterial composition. Proteobacteria was predominant in groundwater samples, whereas in the significantly more diverse surface water, abundant phyla also included Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Verrucomicrobia. The fruit surface bacterial communities on tomatoes sprayed with both water sources could not be differentiated using various statistical methods. Both fruit surface environments had a high representation of Gammaproteobacteria, and within this class the genera Pantoea and Enterobacter were the most abundant. Despite the major differences observed in the bacterial composition of ground and surface water, the season long use of these very different water sources did not have a significant impact on the bacterial composition of the tomato fruit surface. This study has provided the first next-generation sequencing database describing the bacterial communities living in the fruit surface of a tomato crop under two different spray water regimes, and therefore represents an important step forward towards the development of science

  1. Bacterial community diversity and variation in spray water sources and the tomato fruit surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ottesen Andrea R

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum consumption has been one of the most common causes of produce-associated salmonellosis in the United States. Contamination may originate from animal waste, insects, soil or water. Current guidelines for fresh tomato production recommend the use of potable water for applications coming in direct contact with the fruit, but due to high demand, water from other sources is frequently used. We sought to describe the overall bacterial diversity on the surface of tomato fruit and the effect of two different water sources (ground and surface water when used for direct crop applications by generating a 454-pyrosequencing 16S rRNA dataset of these different environments. This study represents the first in depth characterization of bacterial communities in the tomato fruit surface and the water sources commonly used in commercial vegetable production. Results The two water sources tested had a significantly different bacterial composition. Proteobacteria was predominant in groundwater samples, whereas in the significantly more diverse surface water, abundant phyla also included Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Verrucomicrobia. The fruit surface bacterial communities on tomatoes sprayed with both water sources could not be differentiated using various statistical methods. Both fruit surface environments had a high representation of Gammaproteobacteria, and within this class the genera Pantoea and Enterobacter were the most abundant. Conclusions Despite the major differences observed in the bacterial composition of ground and surface water, the season long use of these very different water sources did not have a significant impact on the bacterial composition of the tomato fruit surface. This study has provided the first next-generation sequencing database describing the bacterial communities living in the fruit surface of a tomato crop under two different spray water regimes, and therefore represents an

  2. Managing Water Demand : Policies, Practices and Lessons from the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    30 août 2005 ... Managing Water Demand : Policies, Practices and Lessons from the Middle East and North Africa Forums. Couverture du livre ... L'organisation HarassMap, soutenue par le CRDI, a une fois de plus incité à apporter des changements progressifs dans le domaine de la lutte contre le harcèlement sexuel.

  3. Impact of oil prices, economic diversification policies and energy conservation programs on the electricity and water demands in Kuwait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Michael; Alsayegh, Osamah A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the influences of oil revenue and government's policies toward economic developments and energy efficiency on the electricity and water demands. A Kuwait-specific electricity and water demand model was developed based on historic data of oil income, gross domestic product (GDP), population and electric load and water demand over the past twelve years (1998–2010). Moreover, the model took into account the future mega projects, annual new connected loads and expected application of energy conservation programs. It was run under six circumstances representing the combinations of three oil income scenarios and two government action policies toward economic diversification and energy conservation. The first government policy is the status quo with respect to economic diversification and applying energy conservation programs. The second policy scenario is the proactive strategy of raising the production of the non-oil sector revenue and enforcing legislations toward energy demand side management and conservation. In the upcoming 20 years, the average rates of change of the electric load and water demand increase are 0.13 GW and 3.0 MIGD, respectively, per US dollar oil price increase. Moreover, through proactive policy, the rates of average load and water demand decrease are 0.13 GW and 2.9 MIGD per year, respectively. - Highlights: • Kuwait-specific electricity and water demand model is presented. • Strong association between oil income and electricity and water demands. • Rate of change of electric load per US dollar oil price change is 0.13 GW. • Rate of change of water demand per US dollar oil price change is 3.0 MIGD. • By 2030, efficiency lowers electric load and water demand by 10 and 6%, respectively

  4. Water insecurity in Canadian Indigenous communities: some inconvenient truths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Atanu; Hanrahan, Maura; Hudson, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Canada has the second highest per capita water consumption in the world. However, little is known about complex socio-economic and cultural dynamics of water insecurities in Indigenous communities and the multiple health consequences. Most studies have concentrated on a simplified interpretation of accessibility, availability and quality issues, including some common water-borne infections as the only health outcomes. Thus, several government initiatives on potable water supply, particularly for remotely located communities, have failed to sustain and promote a healthy lifestyle. The objective was to explore the water insecurity, coping strategies and associated health risks in a small and isolated sub-Arctic Indigenous (Inuit) community in Canada. The study was based on a community-based survey (2013) in one of the most remote Inuit communities of Labrador. In-depth, open-ended key informant (KI) interviews (community leader (1), woman (1), nurse (1), teacher (1), and elder (1)) and focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with community leaders (5), community members (25), women (5), and high school students (8). Convenience sampling was followed in selection of the subjects for FGDs and approached some KIs. All the water sources (five in April and seven in October) were visited and tested for their physical, chemical and microbiological parameters. The FGDs and KI interviews were audio recorded and transcribed. In the analysis, the data (qualitative and quantitative) were broadly categorized into (a) water sources, access and quality, (b) coping, (c) health risks and (d) challenges to run a public water system. The community did not have any piped water supply. Their regular sources of water consisted of several unmonitored local streams, brooks, and ponds. The public water system was not affordable to the majority of community members who solely depended on government aid. Animal fecal contamination (in natural sources such as streams, brooks, and ponds

  5. Using an Integrated Participatory Modeling Approach to Assess Water Management Options and Support Community Conversations on Maui

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rushil S. Mistry

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to provide an integrated analysis of water distribution on Maui and the cross-sectoral impacts of policies and regulations aimed at rejuvenating and sustaining the deep-rooted culture on the island. Since the water diversion system was implemented in 1876 on the island of Maui, there has been contention among local interest groups over the right way to manage and allocate this precious resource. There is also concern over the availability of the precious resource in the long term, as the demand for water is expected to exceed the potential supply of water on Maui by 2020. This paper analyzes various long run scenarios of policy options presently being discussed on Maui. By collaborating with local experts, business leaders, and community members, to develop a tool that facilitates policy formulation and evaluation, informed decisions can then be made by the local community to ensure sustainable development.

  6. Water availability and demand in the development regions of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. de Villiers

    1988-03-01

    Full Text Available The availability of water data in the development regions is at present insufficient. This is due to the fact that water supply and demand is calculated for the physical drainage regions (watersheds, while the development regions do not correspond with the drainage regions. The necessary calculations can accordingly presently not be made. In this paper this problem is addressed.

  7. Development of Extended Period Pressure-Dependent Demand Water Distribution Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judi, David R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mcpherson, Timothy N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-20

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has used modeling and simulation of water distribution systems for N-1 contingency analyses to assess criticality of water system assets. Critical components considered in these analyses include pumps, tanks, and supply sources, in addition to critical pipes or aqueducts. A contingency represents the complete removal of the asset from system operation. For each contingency, an extended period simulation (EPS) is run using EPANET. An EPS simulates water system behavior over a time period, typically at least 24 hours. It assesses the ability of a system to respond and recover from asset disruption through distributed storage in tanks throughout the system. Contingencies of concern are identified as those in which some portion of the water system has unmet delivery requirements. A delivery requirement is defined as an aggregation of water demands within a service area, similar to an electric power demand. The metric used to identify areas of unmet delivery requirement in these studies is a pressure threshold of 15 pounds per square inch (psi). This pressure threshold is used because it is below the required pressure for fire protection. Any location in the model with pressure that drops below this threshold at any time during an EPS is considered to have unmet service requirements and is used to determine cascading consequences. The outage area for a contingency is the aggregation of all service areas with a pressure below the threshold at any time during the EPS.

  8. Just add water: reproducible singly dispersed silver nanoparticle suspensions on-demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacCuspie, Robert I.; Allen, Andrew J.; Martin, Matthew N.; Hackley, Vincent A.

    2013-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are of interest due to their antimicrobial attributes, which are derived from their inherent redox instability and subsequent release of silver ions. At the same time, this instability is a substantial challenge for achieving stable long-term storage for on-demand use of AgNPs. In this study, we describe and validate a “just add water” approach for achieving suspensions of principally singly dispersed AgNPs. By lyophilizing (freeze drying) the formulated AgNPs into a solid powder, or cake, water is removed thereby eliminating solution-based chemical changes. Storing under inert gas further reduces surface reactions such as oxidation. An example of how to optimize a lyophilization formulation is presented, as well as example formulations for three AgNP core sizes. This “just add water” approach enables ease of use for the researcher desiring on-demand singly dispersed AgNP suspensions from a single master batch. Implementation of this methodology will enable studies to be performed over long periods of time and across different laboratories using particles that are identical chemically and physically and available on-demand. In addition, the approach of freeze drying and on-demand reconstitution by adding water has enabled the development of AgNP reference materials with the required shelf-life stability, one of the principal objectives of this research

  9. Evaluating Water Demand Using Agent-Based Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, T. S.

    2004-12-01

    The supply and demand of water resources are functions of complex, inter-related systems including hydrology, climate, demographics, economics, and policy. To assess the safety and sustainability of water resources, planners often rely on complex numerical models that relate some or all of these systems using mathematical abstractions. The accuracy of these models relies on how well the abstractions capture the true nature of the systems interactions. Typically, these abstractions are based on analyses of observations and/or experiments that account only for the statistical mean behavior of each system. This limits the approach in two important ways: 1) It cannot capture cross-system disruptive events, such as major drought, significant policy change, or terrorist attack, and 2) it cannot resolve sub-system level responses. To overcome these limitations, we are developing an agent-based water resources model that includes the systems of hydrology, climate, demographics, economics, and policy, to examine water demand during normal and extraordinary conditions. Agent-based modeling (ABM) develops functional relationships between systems by modeling the interaction between individuals (agents), who behave according to a probabilistic set of rules. ABM is a "bottom-up" modeling approach in that it defines macro-system behavior by modeling the micro-behavior of individual agents. While each agent's behavior is often simple and predictable, the aggregate behavior of all agents in each system can be complex, unpredictable, and different than behaviors observed in mean-behavior models. Furthermore, the ABM approach creates a virtual laboratory where the effects of policy changes and/or extraordinary events can be simulated. Our model, which is based on the demographics and hydrology of the Middle Rio Grande Basin in the state of New Mexico, includes agent groups of residential, agricultural, and industrial users. Each agent within each group determines its water usage

  10. High Resolution Map of Water Supply and Demand for North East United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsani, N.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Fekete, B. M.

    2012-12-01

    Accurate estimates of water supply and demand are crucial elements in water resources management and modeling. As part of our NSF-funded EaSM effort to build a Northeast Regional Earth System Model (NE-RESM) as a framework to improve our understanding and capacity to forecast the implications of planning decisions on the region's environment, ecosystem services, energy and economic systems through the 21st century, we are producing a high resolution map (3' x 3' lat/long) of estimated water supply and use for the north east region of United States. Focusing on water demand, results from this study enables us to quantify how demand sources affect the hydrology and thermal-chemical water pollution across the region. In an attempt to generate this 3-minute resolution map in which each grid cell has a specific estimated monthly domestic, agriculture, thermoelectric and industrial water use. Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2005 (Kenny et al., 2009) is being coupled to high resolution land cover and land use, irrigation, power plant and population data sets. In addition to water demands, we tried to improve estimates of water supply from the WBM model by improving the way it controls discharge from reservoirs. Reservoirs are key characteristics of the modern hydrologic system, with a particular impact on altering the natural stream flow, thermal characteristics, and biogeochemical fluxes of rivers. Depending on dam characteristics, watershed characteristics and the purpose of building a dam, each reservoir has a specific optimum operating rule. It means that literally 84,000 dams in the National Inventory of Dams potentially follow 84,000 different sets of rules for storing and releasing water which must somehow be accounted for in our modeling exercise. In reality, there is no comprehensive observational dataset depicting these operating rules. Thus, we will simulate these rules. Our perspective is not to find the optimum operating rule per se but to find

  11. Optimization of ground-water withdrawal in the lower Fox River communities, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J.F.; Saad, D.A.; Krohelski, J.T.

    1998-01-01

    Pumping from closely spaced wells in the Central Brown County area and the Fox Cities area near the north shore of Lake Winnebago has resulted in the formation of deep cones of depression in the vicinity of the two pumping centers. Water-level measurements indicate there has been a steady decline in water levels in the vicinity of these two pumping centers for the past 50 years. This report describes the use of ground-water optimization modeling to efficiently allocate the ground-water resources in the Lower Fox River Valley. A 3-dimensional ground-water flow model was used along with optimization techniques to determine the optimal withdrawal rates for a variety of management alternatives. The simulations were conducted separately for the Central Brown County area and the Fox Cities area. For all simulations, the objective of the optimization was to maximize total ground-water withdrawals. The results indicate that ground water can supply nearly all of the projected 2030 demand for Central Brown County municipalities if all of the wells are managed (including the city of Green Bay), 8 new wells are installed, and the water-levels are allowed to decline to 100 ft below the bottom of the confining unit. Ground water can supply nearly all of the projected 2030 demand for the Fox Cities if the municipalities in Central Brown County convert to surface water; if Central Brown County municipalities follow the optimized strategy described above, there will be a considerable shortfall of available ground water for the Fox Cities communities. Relaxing the water-level constraint in a few wells, however, would likely result in increased availability of water. In all cases examined, optimization alternatives result in a rebound of the steady-state water levels due to projected 2030 withdrawal rates to levels at or near the bottom of the confining unit, resulting in increased well capacity. Because the simulations are steady-state, if all of the conditions of the model remain

  12. Modeling of Residential Water Demand Using Random Effect Model,Case Study: Arak City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hossein Sajadifar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study tries to apply the “Partial Adjustment Model” and “Random Effect Model” techniques to the Stone-Greay’s linear expenditure system, in order to estimate the "Residential Seasonal Demand" for water in Arak city. Per capita water consumption of family residences is regressed on marginal price, per capita income, price of other goods, average temperature and average rainfall. Panel data approaches based on a sample of 152 observations from Arak city referred to 1993-2003. From the estimation of the Elasticity-price of the residential water demand, we want to know how a policy of responsive pricing can lead to more efficient household water consumption inArakcity. Results also indicated that summer price elasticity was twice the winter and price and income elasticity was less than 1 in all cases.

  13. Energy demand in an isolated community: Arixi/AM, Brazil; Demandas energeticas de uma comunidade isolada - Arixi/AM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Elen Jane de Abreu; Barbosa, Sonia Regina da Cal Seixas [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos], e-mail: srcal@unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    Isolated energy communities in the Amazon are known by not being integrated to the rest of the net country of generation and distribution of electric energy. Therefore, federal government proposes an equal electric energy distribution for everyone in the country in order to bring social and economic development, mainly to the isolated energy communities. In this context, the isolated Arixi community, a small village in the Amazon, is focus of the project 'Alternative Production Energy from Cell Fuel and Natural Gas in the Amazon State - CELCOMB', a partnership between Federal Amazon University and State University of Campinas, which has the objective of producing alternative energy from cell fuel and natural gas. The objective of this article is to analyze the energy aspects of the isolated community of Arixi in the Amazon, and also get to know its energy demand. To do so, this article is based on a master dissertation and also in community field research. So, despite of the fact that this article is part of a larger project, by analyzing energy data and nowadays demands of the community, we will be able to examine what are the real electric energy requirements of an isolated community in the Amazon. (author)

  14. EnviroAtlas - Agricultural Water Demand by 12-Digit HUC for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The national agricultural water demand metric provides insight into the amount of water currently used for agricultural irrigation in the contiguous United States....

  15. Uncertainty analysis of daily potable water demand on the performance evaluation of rainwater harvesting systems in residential buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Arthur Santos; Ghisi, Enedir

    2016-09-15

    The objective of this paper is to perform a sensitivity analysis of design variables and an uncertainty analysis of daily potable water demand to evaluate the performance of rainwater harvesting systems in residential buildings. Eight cities in Brazil with different rainfall patterns were analysed. A numeric experiment was performed by means of computer simulation of rainwater harvesting. A sensitivity analysis was performed using variance-based indices for identifying the most important design parameters for rainwater harvesting systems when assessing the potential for potable water savings and underground tank capacity sizing. The uncertainty analysis was performed for different scenarios of potable water demand with stochastic variations in a normal distribution with different coefficients of variation throughout the simulated period. The results have shown that different design variables, such as potable water demand, number of occupants, rainwater demand, and roof area are important for obtaining the ideal underground tank capacity and estimating the potential for potable water savings. The stochastic variations on the potable water demand caused amplitudes of up to 4.8% on the potential for potable water savings and 9.4% on the ideal underground tank capacity. Average amplitudes were quite low for all cities. However, some combinations of parameters resulted in large amplitude of uncertainty and difference from uniform distribution for tank capacities and potential for potable water savings. Stochastic potable water demand generated low uncertainties in the performance evaluation of rainwater harvesting systems; therefore, uniform distribution could be used in computer simulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Demand Creation for Polio Vaccine in Persistently Poor-Performing Communities of Northern Nigeria: 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warigon, Charity; Mkanda, Pascal; Muhammed, Ado; Etsano, Andrew; Korir, Charles; Bawa, Samuel; Gali, Emmanuel; Nsubuga, Peter; Erbeto, Tesfaya B; Gerlong, George; Banda, Richard; Yehualashet, Yared G; Vaz, Rui G

    2016-05-01

    Poliomyelitis remains a global threat despite availability of oral polio vaccine (OPV), proven to reduce the burden of the paralyzing disease. In Nigeria, children continue to miss the opportunity to be fully vaccinated, owing to factors such as unmet health needs and low uptake in security-compromised and underserved communities. We describe the implementation and evaluation of several activities to create demand for polio vaccination in persistently poor-performing local government areas (LGAs). We assessed the impact of various polio-related interventions, to measure the contribution of demand creation activities in 77 LGAs at very high risk for polio, located across 10 states in northern Nigeria. Interventions included provision of commodities along with the polio vaccine. There was an increasing trend in the number of children reached by different demand creation interventions. A total of 4 819 847 children were vaccinated at health camps alone. There was a reduction in the number of wards in which >10% of children were missed by supplementary immunization activities due to noncompliance with vaccination recommendations, a rise in the proportion of children who received ≥4 OPV doses, and a decrease in the proportion of children who were underimmunized or unimmunized. Demand creation interventions increased the uptake of polio vaccines in persistently poor-performing high-risk communities in northern Nigeria during September 2013-November 2014. © 2016 World Health Organization; licensee Oxford Journals.

  17. When the 'soft-path' gets hard: demand management and financial instability for water utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeff, H. B.; Characklis, G. W.

    2014-12-01

    In the past, cost benefit analysis (CBA) has been viewed as an effective means of evaluating water utility strategies, particularly those that were dependent on the construction of new supply infrastructure. As water utilities have begun to embrace 'soft-path' approaches as a way to reduce the need for supply-centric development, CBA fails to recognize some important financial incentives affected by reduced water consumption. Demand management, both as a short-term response to drought and in longer-term actions to accommodate demand growth, can introduce revenue risks that adversely affect a utility's ability to repay debt, re-invest in aging infrastructure, or maintain reserve funds for use in a short-term emergency. A utility that does not generate sufficient revenue to support these functions may be subject to credit rating downgrades, which in turn affect the interest rate it pays on its debt. Interest rates are a critical consideration for utility managers in the capital-intensive water sector, where debt payments for infrastructure often account for a large portion of a utility's overall costs. Even a small increase in interest rates can add millions of dollars to the cost of new infrastructure. Recent studies have demonstrated that demand management techniques can lead to significant revenue variability, and credit rating agencies have begun to take notice of drought response plans when evaluating water utility credit ratings, providing utilities with a disincentive to fully embrace soft-path approaches. This analysis examines the impact of demand management schemes on key credit rating metrics for a water utility in Raleigh, North Carolina. The utility's consumer base is currently experiencing rapid population growth, and demand management has the potential to reduce the dependence on costly new supply infrastructure but could lead to financial instability that will significantly increase the costs of financing future projects. This work analyzes how 'soft

  18. EnviroAtlas - Domestic Water Demand by 12-Digit HUC for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset includes domestic water demand attributes which provide insight into the amount of water currently used for indoor and outdoor residential...

  19. Economic Value Approach to Industrial Water Demand Management, A Case Study of Chemical Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    morteza tahami pour zarandi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Limitations in water supply to meet the increasing demand have encouraged both planners and researchers to focus attention on water demand management, in which such economic tools as the water pricing system play a major role. A fundamental component of the pricing system is the estimation of the economic value of water, which reflects a firm’s maximum affordable water price or the ultimate elasticity of industrial water. The present study was conducted to estimate the economic value of water for basic chemical plants, excluding fertilizers and nitrogen compounds (code 2411, representing the four-digit ISIC industrial codes which account for about 14% of the total industrial water consumption. The econometric method of production function within the framework of panel data and the residual method were used. Data were collected from the Census of medium-sized businesses carried out by the Statistical Center of Iran over the period 1997–2013.  Results showed that one cubic meter of water allocated to the plants surveyed creates a value of 3,7071 Rials, which shows a large gap with the current purchase price of 5685 Rials. Moreover, it was found that the present water prices account for only about 1.3 percent of the total production cost of basic chemicals, excluding fertilizers and nitrogen compounds. It may, thus, be concluded that it is reasonable to increase the present water tariffs and discriminate among the various manufacturing codes by differences in tariffs in order to achieve water demand management goals. Finally, the information emerging from the study may be exploited to improve the revenues earned by water authorities or to carry out feasibility studies of industrial water development projects.

  20. Factors influencing the demand of the service of community based animal health care in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutambara, J; Dube, I; Matangi, E; Majeke, F

    2013-11-01

    This study was done to find out about animal health service providers and factors that determined demand for community based veterinary service delivery in smallholder sector of Zimbabwe. Focus group discussions and a questionnaire was used to collect data on veterinary services providers and socio-economic factors related to animal health from a sample (N=333) smallholder livestock farmers from Gutu district of Masvingo province in Zimbabwe. Analytical techniques used were descriptive statistics, K-mean cluster analysis and Tobit regression model. Results showed that the majority of farmers (45%) obtained services from both Community Based Animal Health Workers (CBAHWs) and Department of Veterinary Service (DVS), 25% DVS only, 20% used CBAHWs while 10% did not seek any services. Further analysis showed that distance to CBAHW, distance to AHMC and employment status were significantly related to demand for CBAHWs with coefficients of -1.5, 0.7 and -10.3, respectively. The study thus concluded that CBAHW is an alternative animal health service delivery approach already practiced in smallholder farming sectors of Zimbabwe. Socio-economic factors significantly influenced the demand for CBAHW services. Given limited resources by state sponsored veterinary services, it is recommended that the CBAHWs approach should be encouraged as supplementary service provider especially in areas further DVS. These community organizations can be empowered by the state to deliver more improved services based on hygiene and modern science at a relatively low cost to farmers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A Framework for Sustainable Urban Water Management through Demand and Supply Forecasting: The Case of Istanbul

    OpenAIRE

    Yalçıntaş, Murat; Bulu, Melih; Küçükvar, Murat; Samadi, Hamidreza

    2015-01-01

    Yayın, Endüstri Mühendisliği Bölümü ile ortak hazırlanmıştır; ancak tekrara düşmemek için ilk yazarın bölümü alınmıştır. The metropolitan city of Istanbul is becoming overcrowded and the demand for clean water is steeply rising in the city. The use of analytical approaches has become more and more critical for forecasting the water supply and demand balance in the long run. In this research, Istanbul’s water supply and demand data is collected for the period during 2006 and 2014. Then, usi...

  2. Testing water demand management scenarios in a water-stressed basin in South Africa: application of the WEAP model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévite, Hervé; Sally, Hilmy; Cour, Julien

    Like many river basins in South Africa, water resources in the Olifants river basin are almost fully allocated. Respecting the so-called “reserve” (water flow reservation for basic human needs and the environment) imposed by the Water Law of 1998 adds a further dimension, if not difficulty, to water resources management in the basin, especially during the dry periods. Decision makers and local stakeholders (i.e. municipalities, water users’ associations, interest groups), who will soon be called upon to work together in a decentralized manner within Catchment Management Agencies (CMAs) and Catchment Management Committees (CMCs), must therefore be able to get a rapid and simple understanding of the water balances at different levels in the basin. This paper seeks to assess the pros and cons of using the Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) model for this purpose via its application to the Steelpoort sub-basin of the Olifants river. This model allows the simulation and analysis of various water allocation scenarios and, above all, scenarios of users’ behavior. Water demand management is one of the options discussed in more detail here. Simulations are proposed for diverse climatic situations from dry years to normal years and results are discussed. It is evident that the quality of data (in terms of availability and reliability) is very crucial and must be dealt with carefully and with good judgment. Secondly, credible hypotheses have to be made about water uses (losses, return flow) if the results are to be meaningfully used in support of decision-making. Within the limits of data availability, it appears that some water users are not able to meet all their requirements from the river, and that even the ecological reserve will not be fully met during certain years. But the adoption of water demand management procedures offers opportunities for remedying this situation during normal hydrological years. However, it appears that demand management alone will not

  3. Waters without borders: Transboundary water governance and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water resources in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) play an intrinsic role in regional development. As a result, water is a highly sensitive issue, complex to understand and demanding to govern, in terms of effective and equitable use and distribution. Growing awareness of the complex challenges ...

  4. Integrated Modeling of Crop Growth and Water Resource Management to Project Climate Change Impacts on Crop Production and Irrigation Water Supply and Demand in African Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, A. L.; Boehlert, B.; Reisenauer, M.; Strzepek, K. M.; Solomon, S.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change poses substantial risks to African agriculture. These risks are exacerbated by concurrent risks to water resources, with water demand for irrigation comprising 80 to 90% of water withdrawals across the continent. Process-based crop growth models are able to estimate both crop demand for irrigation water and crop yields, and are therefore well-suited to analyses of climate change impacts at the food-water nexus. Unfortunately, impact assessments based on these models generally focus on either yields or water demand, rarely both. For this work, we coupled a crop model to a water resource management model in order to predict national trends in the impact of climate change on crop production, irrigation water demand, and the availability of water for irrigation across Africa. The crop model FAO AquaCrop-OS was run at 2ox2o resolution for 17 different climate futures from the CMIP5 archive, nine for Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 and eight for RCP8.5. Percent changes in annual rainfed and irrigated crop production and temporal shifts in monthly irrigation water demand were estimated for the years 2030, 2050, 2070, and 2090 for maize, sorghum, rice, wheat, cotton, sugarcane, fruits & vegetables, roots & tubers, and legumes & soybeans. AquaCrop was then coupled to a water management model (WEAP) in order to project changes in the ability of seven major river basins (the Congo, Niger, Nile, Senegal, Upper Orange, Volta, and Zambezi) to meet irrigation water demand out to 2050 in both average and dry years in the face of both climate change and irrigation expansion. Spatial and temporal trends were identified and interpreted through the lens of potential risk management strategies. Uncertainty in model estimates is reported and discussed.

  5. Evaluation of Ensemble Water Supply and Demands Forecasts for Water Management in the Klamath River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broman, D.; Gangopadhyay, S.; McGuire, M.; Wood, A.; Leady, Z.; Tansey, M. K.; Nelson, K.; Dahm, K.

    2017-12-01

    The Upper Klamath River Basin in south central Oregon and north central California is home to the Klamath Irrigation Project, which is operated by the Bureau of Reclamation and provides water to around 200,000 acres of agricultural lands. The project is managed in consideration of not only water deliveries to irrigators, but also wildlife refuge water demands, biological opinion requirements for Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed fish, and Tribal Trust responsibilities. Climate change has the potential to impact water management in terms of volume and timing of water and the ability to meet multiple objectives. Current operations use a spreadsheet-based decision support tool, with water supply forecasts from the National Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) and California-Nevada River Forecast Center (CNRFC). This tool is currently limited in its ability to incorporate in ensemble forecasts, which offer the potential for improved operations by quantifying forecast uncertainty. To address these limitations, this study has worked to develop a RiverWare based water resource systems model, flexible enough to use across multiple decision time-scales, from short-term operations out to long-range planning. Systems model development has been accompanied by operational system development to handle data management and multiple modeling components. Using a set of ensemble hindcasts, this study seeks to answer several questions: A) Do a new set of ensemble streamflow forecasts have additional skill beyond what?, and allow for improved decision making under changing conditions? B) Do net irrigation water requirement forecasts developed in this project to quantify agricultural demands and reservoir evaporation forecasts provide additional benefits to decision making beyond water supply forecasts? C) What benefit do ensemble forecasts have in the context of water management decisions?

  6. A Novel approach for predicting monthly water demand by combining singular spectrum analysis with neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubaidi, Salah L.; Dooley, Jayne; Alkhaddar, Rafid M.; Abdellatif, Mawada; Al-Bugharbee, Hussein; Ortega-Martorell, Sandra

    2018-06-01

    Valid and dependable water demand prediction is a major element of the effective and sustainable expansion of municipal water infrastructures. This study provides a novel approach to quantifying water demand through the assessment of climatic factors, using a combination of a pretreatment signal technique, a hybrid particle swarm optimisation algorithm and an artificial neural network (PSO-ANN). The Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA) technique was adopted to decompose and reconstruct water consumption in relation to six weather variables, to create a seasonal and stochastic time series. The results revealed that SSA is a powerful technique, capable of decomposing the original time series into many independent components including trend, oscillatory behaviours and noise. In addition, the PSO-ANN algorithm was shown to be a reliable prediction model, outperforming the hybrid Backtracking Search Algorithm BSA-ANN in terms of fitness function (RMSE). The findings of this study also support the view that water demand is driven by climatological variables.

  7. Forecasting the Water Demand in Chongqing, China Using a Grey Prediction Model and Recommendations for the Sustainable Development of Urban Water Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hua'an; Zeng, Bo; Zhou, Meng

    2017-11-15

    High accuracy in water demand predictions is an important basis for the rational allocation of city water resources and forms the basis for sustainable urban development. The shortage of water resources in Chongqing, the youngest central municipality in Southwest China, has significantly increased with the population growth and rapid economic development. In this paper, a new grey water-forecasting model (GWFM) was built based on the data characteristics of water consumption. The parameter estimation and error checking methods of the GWFM model were investigated. Then, the GWFM model was employed to simulate the water demands of Chongqing from 2009 to 2015 and forecast it in 2016. The simulation and prediction errors of the GWFM model was checked, and the results show the GWFM model exhibits better simulation and prediction precisions than those of the classical Grey Model with one variable and single order equation GM(1,1) for short and the frequently-used Discrete Grey Model with one variable and single order equation, DGM(1,1) for short. Finally, the water demand in Chongqing from 2017 to 2022 was forecasted, and some corresponding control measures and recommendations were provided based on the prediction results to ensure a viable water supply and promote the sustainable development of the Chongqing economy.

  8. A Water Demand Management Strategy For The Namibian Tourism Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachtschneider, K.; Winter, K.

    The arid conditions of Namibia are forcing its decision-makers to resort to new wa- ter resource management approaches, including Water Demand Management (WDM). When Namibia achieved its independence from South Africa 1990, a new opportunity arose to rewrite certain restrictive laws and policies in order to bring about redress, development and transformation. The new Water Policy is one example in which the mindset is changed from a supply to a demand oriented water management ap- proach. Legal support for WDM within the new Water Act is a critical component that will support the implementation of WDM in all economic sectors, such as agri- culture, mining and tourism. It is argued that an appropriate WDM strategy should be designed specifically for each sector, once the typical water use patterns in a sec- tor are understood and key water resource managers at all levels are identified. The Namibian tourism sector is geographically dispersed and control over its operations is compounded by the fact that it is frequently located in extremely remote areas that are arid and ecologically sensitive. In general, WDM is rarely practised, because it is not yet supported by law and there are currently no institutional arrangements to con- trol water use in this geographically dispersed industrial sector through which WDM could be enforced either through metering and/or payments. Managers of tourist en- terprises undertake most of the water management themselves, and have been identi- fied as being crucial to the implementation of WDM strategies. A study of six tourist facilities determined the willingness and motivation of these managers to undertake various WDM initiatives. The study identified three factors which appear to influence the actions of managers, namely external controls, economics and company ethics. It is recommended that a tourism sector WDM strategy should focus on these three factors in order to transform the WDM aims and objectives on the policy level into

  9. Robustness of the Drinking Water Distribution Network under Changing Future Demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agudelo-Vera, C.; Blokker, M.; Vreeburg, J.; Bongard, T.; Hillegers, S.; Van der Hoek, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    A methodology to determine the robustness of the drinking water distribution system is proposed. The performance of three networks under ten future demand scenarios was tested, using head loss and residence time as indicators. The scenarios consider technological and demographic changes. Daily

  10. [Method for optimal sensor placement in water distribution systems with nodal demand uncertainties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-Ming; Wu, Xue; Ouyang, Le-Yan

    2013-08-01

    The notion of identification fitness was proposed for optimizing sensor placement in water distribution systems. Nondominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II was used to find the Pareto front between minimum overlap of possible detection times of two events and the best probability of detection, taking nodal demand uncertainties into account. This methodology was applied to an example network. The solutions show that the probability of detection and the number of possible locations are not remarkably affected by nodal demand uncertainties, but the sources identification accuracy declines with nodal demand uncertainties.

  11. MUWS (Microbiology in Urban Water Systems – an interdisciplinary approach to study microbial communities in urban water systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Deines

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Microbiology in Urban Water Systems (MUWS is an integrated project, which aims to characterize the microorganisms found in both potable water distribution systems and sewer networks. These large infrastructure systems have a major impact on our quality of life, and despite the importance of these systems as major components of the water cycle, little is known about their microbial ecology. Potable water distribution systems and sewer networks are both large, highly interconnected, dynamic, subject to time and varying inputs and demands, and difficult to control. Their performance also faces increasing loading due to increasing urbanization and longer-term environmental changes. Therefore, understanding the link between microbial ecology and any potential impacts on short or long-term engineering performance within urban water infrastructure systems is important. By combining the strengths and research expertise of civil-, biochemical engineers and molecular microbial ecologists, we ultimately aim to link microbial community abundance, diversity and function to physical and engineering variables so that novel insights into the performance and management of both water distribution systems and sewer networks can be explored. By presenting the details and principals behind the molecular microbiological techniques that we use, this paper demonstrates the potential of an integrated approach to better understand how urban water system function, and so meet future challenges.

  12. Demand side management for commercial buildings using an in line heat pump water heating methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, Riaan; Rousseau, Pieter G.; Eldik, Martin van

    2004-01-01

    Most of the sanitary hot water used in South African buildings is heated by means of direct electrical resistance heaters. This is one of the major contributors to the undesirably high morning and afternoon peaks imposed on the national electricity supply grid. For this reason, water heating continues to be of concern to the electricity supplier, ESCOM. Previous studies, conducted by the Potchefstroom University for Christian Higher Education in South Africa, indicated that extensive application of the so called inline heat pump water heating methodology in commercial buildings could result in significant demand side management savings to ESKOM. Furthermore, impressive paybacks can be obtained by building owners who choose to implement the design methodology on existing or new systems. Currently, a few examples exist where the design methodology has been successfully implemented. These installations are monitored with a fully web centric monitoring system that allows 24 h access to data from each installation. Based on these preliminary results, a total peak demand reduction of 108 MW can be achieved, which represents 18% of the peak load reduction target set by ESKOM until the year 2015. This represents an avoided cost of approximately MR324 (ZAR) [Int J Energy Res 25(4) (1999) 2000]. Results based on actual data from the monitored installations shows a significant peak demand reduction for each installation. In one installation, a hotel with an occupancy of 220 people, the peak demand contribution of the hot water installation was reduced by 86%, realizing a 36% reduction in peak demand for the whole building. The savings incurred by the building owner also included significant energy consumption savings due to the superior energy efficiency of the heat pump water heater. The combined savings result in a conservatively calculated straight payback period of 12.5 months, with an internal rate of return of 98%. The actual cost of water heating is studied by

  13. Integrated management of water resources demand and supply in irrigated agriculture from plot to regional scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Schütze

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Growing water scarcity in agriculture is an increasing problem in future in many regions of the world. Recent trends of weather extremes in Saxony, Germany also enhance drought risks for agricultural production. In addition, signals of longer and more intense drought conditions during the vegetation period can be found in future regional climate scenarios for Saxony. However, those climate predictions are associated with high uncertainty and therefore, e.g. stochastic methods are required to analyze the impact of changing climate patterns on future crop water requirements and water availability. For assessing irrigation as a measure to increase agricultural water security a generalized stochastic approach for a spatial distributed estimation of future irrigation water demand is proposed, which ensures safe yields and a high water productivity at the same time. The developed concept of stochastic crop water production functions (SCWPF can serve as a central decision support tool for both, (i a cost benefit analysis of farm irrigation modernization on a local scale and (ii a regional water demand management using a multi-scale approach for modeling and implementation. The new approach is applied using the example of a case study in Saxony, which is dealing with the sustainable management of future irrigation water demands and its implementation.

  14. Relationships demand-supply of water and the rate of water shortage as tools for evaluating water resources in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez Calle, Efrain Antonio; Gonzalo Rivera, Hebert; Vanegas, Sarmiento Raquel; Moreno, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    This paper shows updated results about Colombian water resources and their requirements by the economic sectors. Water demand water availability relationship is used as a pressure index on water resources. This relationship is expressed through the water scarcity index, which applies constraints over water availability; due to the runoff temporal variability and to the low levels of water during the dry season each year and for each geographic region to characterize average and low runoff years. Different water availability scenarios were building. One for modal runoff values and another for 95 percents for 2025 also were prepared. To the results call our attention to problems caused by the concentration of high density settlements and the presence of economics sectors in regions with low water availability. The infrastructure lag for management of a scarce high variable and over pressured resources emerges as a key factor to avoid a looming crisis in the process of water management

  15. Blue water scarcity and the economic impacts of future agricultural trade and demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Christoph; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Gerten, Dieter; Dietrich, Jan Philipp; Bodirsky, Benjamin; Biewald, Anne; Popp, Alexander

    2013-06-01

    An increasing demand for agricultural goods affects the pressure on global water resources over the coming decades. In order to quantify these effects, we have developed a new agroeconomic water scarcity indicator, considering explicitly economic processes in the agricultural system. The indicator is based on the water shadow price generated by an economic land use model linked to a global vegetation-hydrology model. Irrigation efficiency is implemented as a dynamic input depending on the level of economic development. We are able to simulate the heterogeneous distribution of water supply and agricultural water demand for irrigation through the spatially explicit representation of agricultural production. This allows in identifying regional hot spots of blue water scarcity and explicit shadow prices for water. We generate scenarios based on moderate policies regarding future trade liberalization and the control of livestock-based consumption, dependent on different population and gross domestic product (GDP) projections. Results indicate increased water scarcity in the future, especially in South Asia, the Middle East, and north Africa. In general, water shadow prices decrease with increasing liberalization, foremost in South Asia, Southeast Asia, and the Middle East. Policies to reduce livestock consumption in developed countries not only lower the domestic pressure on water but also alleviate water scarcity to a large extent in developing countries. It is shown that one of the two policy options would be insufficient for most regions to retain water scarcity in 2045 on levels comparable to 2005.

  16. Give Water a Hand. Community Site Action Guide. Organizing Water Conservation and Pollution Prevention Service Projects in Your Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Coll. of Agricultural and Life Sciences.

    Students grades 4-8 can use this guide to explore the topics of water, and water conservation within a community, while conducting an environmental community service project. Youth groups, led by a group leader, work with local experts from business, government, or environmental organizations to complete the project. Nine activity sections involve…

  17. The annual number of days that solar heated water satisfies a specified demand temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yohanis, Y.G. [Thermal Systems Engineering Group, Faculty of Engineering, University of Ulster, BT37 0QB Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Popel, O.; Frid, S.E. [Non-traditional Renewable Energy Sources, Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, 13/19 Izhorskaya str., IVTAN, Moscow 127412 (Russian Federation); Norton, B. [Dublin Institute of Technology, Aungier Street, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2006-08-15

    An analysis of solar water heating systems determines the number of days in each month when solar heated water wholly meets demand above a set temperature. The approach has been used to investigate the potential contribution to water heating loads of solar water heating in two UK locations. Correlations between the approach developed and the use of solar fractions are discussed. (author)

  18. Assessment of the water supply:demand ratios in a Mediterranean basin under different global change scenarios and mitigation alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boithias, Laurie; Acuña, Vicenç; Vergoñós, Laura; Ziv, Guy; Marcé, Rafael; Sabater, Sergi

    2014-02-01

    Spatial differences in the supply and demand of ecosystem services such as water provisioning often imply that the demand for ecosystem services cannot be fulfilled at the local scale, but it can be fulfilled at larger scales (regional, continental). Differences in the supply:demand (S:D) ratio for a given service result in different values, and these differences might be assessed with monetary or non-monetary metrics. Water scarcity occurs where and when water resources are not enough to meet all the demands, and this affects equally the service of water provisioning and the ecosystem needs. In this study we assess the value of water in a Mediterranean basin under different global change (i.e. both climate and anthropogenic changes) and mitigation scenarios, with a non-monetary metric: the S:D ratio. We computed water balances across the Ebro basin (North-East Spain) with the spatially explicit InVEST model. We highlight the spatial and temporal mismatches existing across a single hydrological basin regarding water provisioning and its consumption, considering or not, the environmental demand (environmental flow). The study shows that water scarcity is commonly a local issue (sub-basin to region), but that all demands are met at the largest considered spatial scale (basin). This was not the case in the worst-case scenario (increasing demands and decreasing supply), as the S:D ratio at the basin scale was near 1, indicating that serious problems of water scarcity might occur in the near future even at the basin scale. The analysis of possible mitigation scenarios reveals that the impact of global change may be counteracted by the decrease of irrigated areas. Furthermore, the comparison between a non-monetary (S:D ratio) and a monetary (water price) valuation metrics reveals that the S:D ratio provides similar values and might be therefore used as a spatially explicit metric to valuate the ecosystem service water provisioning. © 2013.

  19. EnviroAtlas - Industrial Water Demand (2010) by 12-Digit HUC for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset includes industrial water demand attributes which provide insight into the amount of water currently used for manufacturing and production...

  20. An Interactive Computer Tool for Teaching About Desalination and Managing Water Demand in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziolkowska, J. R.; Reyes, R.

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents an interactive tool to geospatially and temporally analyze desalination developments and trends in the US in the time span 1950-2013, its current contribution to satisfying water demands and its future potentials. The computer tool is open access and can be used by any user with Internet connection, thus facilitating interactive learning about water resources. The tool can also be used by stakeholders and policy makers for decision-making support and with designing sustainable water management strategies. Desalination technology has been acknowledged as a solution to a sustainable water demand management stemming from many sectors, including municipalities, industry, agriculture, power generation, and other users. Desalination has been applied successfully in the US and many countries around the world since 1950s. As of 2013, around 1,336 desalination plants were operating in the US alone, with a daily production capacity of 2 BGD (billion gallons per day) (GWI, 2013). Despite a steady increase in the number of new desalination plants and growing production capacity, in many regions, the costs of desalination are still prohibitive. At the same time, the technology offers a tremendous potential for `enormous supply expansion that exceeds all likely demands' (Chowdhury et al., 2013). The model and tool are based on data from Global Water Intelligence (GWI, 2013). The analysis shows that more than 90% of all the plants in the US are small-scale plants with the capacity below 4.31 MGD. Most of the plants (and especially larger plants) are located on the US East Coast, as well as in California, Texas, Oklahoma, and Florida. The models and the tool provide information about economic feasibility of potential new desalination plants based on the access to feed water, energy sources, water demand, and experiences of other plants in that region.

  1. California community water systems inventory dataset, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Environmental Health Tracking Program — This data set contains information about all Community Water Systems in California. Data are derived from California Office of Drinking Water (ODW) Water Quality...

  2. Coverage of private sector community midwife services in rural Punjab, Pakistan: development and demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, Zubia; Levay, Adrienne V; Jhangri, Gian S; Bhatti, Afshan

    2015-11-25

    In 2007, the Government of Pakistan introduced a new cadre of community midwives (CMWs) to address low skilled birth attendance rates in rural areas; this workforce is located in the private-sector. There are concerns about the effectiveness of the programme for increasing skilled birth attendance as previous experience from private-sector programmes has been sub-optimal. Indonesia first promoted private sector midwifery care, but the initiative failed to provide universal coverage and reduce maternal mortality rates. A clustered, stratified survey was conducted in the districts of Jhelum and Layyah, Punjab. A total of 1,457 women who gave birth in the 2 years prior to the survey were interviewed. χ(2) analyses were performed to assess variation in coverage of maternal health services between the two districts. Logistic regression models were developed to explore whether differentials in coverage between the two districts could be explained by differential levels of development and demand for skilled birth attendance. Mean cost of childbirth care by type of provider was also calculated. Overall, 7.9% of women surveyed reported a CMW-attended birth. Women in Jhelum were six times more likely to report a CMW-attended birth than women in Layyah. The mean cost of a CMW-attended birth compared favourably with a dai-attended birth. The CMWs were, however, having difficulty garnering community trust. The majority of women, when asked why they had not sought care from their neighbourhood CMW, cited a lack of trust in CMWs' competency and that they wanted a different provider. The CMWs have yet to emerge as a significant maternity care provider in rural Punjab. Levels of overall community development determined uptake and hence coverage of CMW care. The CMWs were able to insert themselves into the maternal health marketplace in Jhelum because of an existing demand. A lower demand in Layyah meant there was less 'space' for the CMWs to enter the market. To ensure universal

  3. Change in the southern U.S. water demand and supply over the next forty years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven C. McNulty; Ge Sun; Erika C. Cohen; Jennifer A. Moore Myers

    2008-01-01

    Water shortages are often considered a problem in the western United States, where water supply is limited compared to the eastern half of the country. However, periodic water shortages are also common in the southeastern United States due to high water demand and periodic drought. Southeastern U.S. municipalities spend billions of dollars to develop water storage...

  4. Infrastructure sufficiency in meeting water demand under climate-induced socio-hydrological transition in the urbanizing Capibaribe River basin - Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro Neto, A.; Scott, C. A.; Lima, E. A.; Montenegro, S. M. G. L.; Cirilo, J. A.

    2014-09-01

    Water availability for a range of human uses will increasingly be affected by climate change, especially in the arid and semiarid tropics. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the infrastructure sufficiency in meeting water demand under climate-induced socio-hydrological transition in the Capibaribe River basin (CRB). The basin has experienced spatial and sectoral (agriculture-to-urban) reconfiguration of water demands. Human settlements that were once dispersed, relying on intermittent sources of surface water, are now larger and more spatially concentrated, which increases water-scarcity effects. Based on the application of linked hydrologic and water-resources models using precipitation and temperature projections of the IPCC SRES (Special Report: Emissions Scenarios) A1B scenario, a reduction in rainfall of 26.0% translated to streamflow reduction of 60.0%. We used simulations from four members of the HadCM3 (UK Met Office Hadley Centre) perturbed physics ensemble, in which a single model structure is used and perturbations are introduced to the physical parameterization schemes in the model (Chou et al., 2012). We considered that the change of the water availability in the basin in the future scenarios must drive the water management and the development of adaptation strategies that will manage the water demand. Several adaptive responses are considered, including water-loss reductions, wastewater collection and reuse, and rainwater collection cisterns, which together have potential to reduce future water demand by 23.0%. This study demonstrates the vulnerabilities of the infrastructure system during socio-hydrological transition in response to hydroclimatic and demand variabilities in the CRB and also indicates the differential spatial impacts and vulnerability of multiple uses of water to changes over time. The simulations showed that the measures proposed and the water from interbasin transfer project of the São Francisco River had a positive

  5. Benefits of improved water quality: a discrete choice analysis of freshwater recreational demands

    OpenAIRE

    R S Tay; P S McCarthy

    1994-01-01

    Discrete choice methodologies are increasingly being used to estimate multiple-sites recreational demands and evaluate the welfare effects of alternative environmental policies aimed at water quality improvements. In this study the authors use 1985 data on Indiana anglers to estimate a multinomial logit model of destination choice and compute the benefits of alternative water quality improvements. In general, the results indicate that anglers are reasonably sensitive to changes in water quali...

  6. Centralized Drinking Water Treatment Operations Shape Bacterial and Fungal Community Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao; Vikram, Amit; Casson, Leonard; Bibby, Kyle

    2017-07-05

    Drinking water microbial communities impact opportunistic pathogen colonization and corrosion of water distribution systems, and centralized drinking water treatment represents a potential control for microbial community structure in finished drinking water. In this article, we examine bacterial and fungal abundance and diversity, as well as the microbial community taxonomic structure following each unit operation in a conventional surface water treatment plant. Treatment operations drove the microbial composition more strongly than sampling time. Both bacterial and fungal abundance and diversity decreased following sedimentation and filtration; however, only bacterial abundance and diversity was significantly impacted by free chlorine disinfection. Similarly, each treatment step was found to shift bacterial and fungal community beta-diversity, with the exception of disinfection on the fungal community structure. We observed the enrichment of bacterial and fungal taxa commonly found in drinking water distribution systems through the treatment process, for example, Sphingomonas following filtration and Leptospirillium and Penicillium following disinfection. Study results suggest that centralized drinking water treatment processes shape the final drinking water microbial community via selection of community members and that the bacterial community is primarily driven by disinfection while the eukaryotic community is primarily controlled by physical treatment processes.

  7. The Potential for Snow to Supply Human Water Demand in the Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankin, Justin S.; Viviroli, Daniel; Singh, Deepti; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.; Diffenbaugh, Noah S.

    2015-01-01

    Runoff from snowmelt is regarded as a vital water source for people and ecosystems throughout the Northern Hemisphere (NH). Numerous studies point to the threat global warming poses to the timing and magnitude of snow accumulation and melt. But analyses focused on snow supply do not show where changes to snowmelt runoff are likely to present the most pressing adaptation challenges, given sub-annual patterns of human water consumption and water availability from rainfall. We identify the NH basins where present spring and summer snowmelt has the greatest potential to supply the human water demand that would otherwise be unmet by instantaneous rainfall runoff. Using a multi-model ensemble of climate change projections, we find that these basins - which together have a present population of approx. 2 billion people - are exposed to a 67% risk of decreased snow supply this coming century. Further, in the multi-model mean, 68 basins (with a present population of more than 300 million people) transition from having sufficient rainfall runoff to meet all present human water demand to having insufficient rainfall runoff. However, internal climate variability creates irreducible uncertainty in the projected future trends in snow resource potential, with about 90% of snow-sensitive basins showing potential for either increases or decreases over the near-term decades. Our results emphasize the importance of snow for fulfilling human water demand in many NH basins, and highlight the need to account for the full range of internal climate variability in developing robust climate risk management decisions.

  8. How to meet the increasing demands of water, food and energy in the future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haiyun; Chen, Ji; Sivakumar, Bellie; Peart, Mervyn

    2017-04-01

    Regarded as a driving force in water, food and energy demands, the world's population has been increasing rapidly since the beginning of the 20th century. According to the medium-growth projection scenario of the United Nations, the world's population will reach 9.5 billion by 2050. In response to the continuously growing population during this century, water, food and energy demands have also been increasing rapidly, and social problems (e.g., water, food, and energy shortages) will be most likely to occur, especially if no proper management strategies are adopted. Then, how to meet the increasing demands of water, food and energy in the future? This study focuses on the sustainable developments of population, water, food, energy and dams, and the significances of this study can be concluded as follows: First, we reveal the close association between dams and social development through analysing the related data for the period 1960-2010, and argue that construction of additional large dams will have to be considered as one of the best available options to meet the increasing water, food and energy demands in the future. We conduct the projections of global water, food and energy consumptions and dam development for the period 2010-2050, and the results show that, compared to 2010, the total water, food and energy consumptions in 2050 will increase by 20%, 34% and 37%, respectively. Moreover, it is projected that additional 4,340 dams will be constructed by 2050 all over the world. Second, we analyse the current situation of global water scarcity based on the related data representing water resources availability (per capita available water resources), dam development (the number of dams), and the level of economic development (per capita gross domestic product). At the global scale, water scarcity exists in more than 70% of the countries around the world, including 43 countries suffering from economic water scarcity and 129 countries suffering from physical water

  9. Modeling and Clustering Water Demand Patterns from Real-World Smart Meter Data

    OpenAIRE

    CHEIFETZ , Nicolas; Noumir , Zineb; Same , Allou; SANDRAZ , Anne-Claire; FELIERS , Cédric; HEIM , Véronique

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, drinking water utilities need an acute comprehension of the water demand on their distribution network, in order to efficiently operate the optimization of resources, manage billing and propose new customer services. With the emergence of smart grids, based on automated meter reading (AMR), a better understanding of the consumption modes is now accessible for smart cities with more granularities. In this context, this paper evaluates a novel methodology for identif...

  10. Community Based Educational Model on Water Conservation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudiajeng, L.; Parwita, I. G. L.; Wiraga, I. W.; Mudhina, M.

    2018-01-01

    The previous research showed that there were indicators of water crisis in the northern and eastern part of Denpasar city and most of coastal area experienced on seawater intrusion. The recommended water conservation programs were rainwater harvesting and educate the community to develop a water saving and environmentally conscious culture. This research was conducted to built the community based educational model on water conservation program through ergonomics SHIP approach which placed the human aspect as the first consideration, besides the economic and technically aspects. The stakeholders involved in the program started from the problem analyses to the implementation and the maintenance as well. The model was built through three main steps, included determination of accepted design; building the recharge wells by involving local communities; guidance and assistance in developing a water saving and environmentally conscious culture for early childhood, elementary and junior high school students, community and industry. The program was implemented based on the “TRIHITA KARANA” concept, which means the relationship between human to God, human-to-human, and human to environment. Through the development of the model, it is expected to grow a sense of belonging and awareness from the community to maintain the sustainability of the program.

  11. Capacity building in water demand management as a key component for attaining millennium development goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumbo, Bekithemba; Forster, Laura; Arntzen, Jaap

    Successful water demand management (WDM) implementation as a component of integrated water resource management (IWRM) can play a significant role in the alleviation of poverty through more efficient use of available water resources. The urban population in Southern African cities is characterised by so-called ‘water poor’ communities who typically expend a high percentage of their household income on poor quality water. Usually they have no access to an affordable alternative source. Although WDM as a component of IWRM is not a panacea for poverty, it can help alleviate poverty by facilitating water services management by municipal water supply agencies (MWSAs) in the region. WDM is a key strategy for achieving the millennium development goals (MDGs) and, as such, should be given due attention in the preparation of national IWRM and water efficiency plans. Various studies in the Southern African region have indicated that capacity building is necessary for nations to develop IWRM and water-use efficiency plans to meet the targets set out in the MDGs. WDM education and training of water professionals and end-users is particularly important in developing countries, which are resource and information-access poor. In response to these findings, The World Conservation Union (IUCN) and its consulting partners, the Training and Instructional Design Academy of South Africa (TIDASA), and Centre for Applied Research (CAR) designed, developed and presented a pilot WDM Guideline Training Module for MWSAs as part of Phase II of IUCN’s Southern Africa regional WDM project. Pilot training was conducted in July 2004 in Lusaka, Zambia for a group of 36 participants involved in municipal water supply from nine Southern African countries. This paper looks at the links between building the capacity of professionals, operational staff and other role-players in the municipal water supply chain to implement WDM as part of broader IWRM strategies, and the subsequent potential for

  12. Pump Management Committees and sustainable community water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PMCs), technically known as Water and Sanitation Committees (WATSAN) in the water sector, are institutionalized organs for community water management. A survey of twenty-seven (27) of these institutions in six districts across the Upper ...

  13. Analysis of water supply and demand in high mountain cities of Bolivia under growing population and changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinouchi, T.; Mendoza, J.; Asaoka, Y.; Fuchs, P.

    2017-12-01

    Water resources in La Paz and El Alto, high mountain capital cities of Bolivia, strongly depend on the surface and subsurface runoff from partially glacierized catchments located in the Cordillera Real, Andes. Due to growing population and changing climate, the balance between water supply from the source catchments and demand for drinking, agriculture, industry and hydropower has become precarious in recent years as evidenced by a serious drought during the 2015-2016 El Nino event. To predict the long-term availability of water resources under changing climate, we developed a semi-distributed glacio-hydrological model that considers various runoff pathways from partially glacierized high-altitude catchments. Two GCM projections (MRI-AGCM and INGV-ECHAM4) were used for the prediction with bias corrected by reanalysis data (ERA-INTERIM) and downscaled to target areas using data monitored at several weather stations. The model was applied to three catchments from which current water resources are supplied and eight additional catchments that will be potentially effective in compensating reduced runoff from the current water resource areas. For predicting the future water demand, a cohort-component method was used for the projection of size and composition of population change, considering natural and social change (birth, death and transfer). As a result, total population is expected to increase from 1.6 million in 2012 to 2.0 million in 2036. The water demand was predicted for given unit water consumption, non-revenue water rate (NWR), and sectorial percentage of water consumption for domestic, industrial and commercial purposes. The results of hydrological simulations and the analysis of water demand indicated that water supply and demand are barely balanced in recent years, while the total runoff from current water resource areas will continue to decrease and unprecedented water shortage is likely to occur since around 2020 toward the middle of 21st century even

  14. Impact of disinfection on drinking water biofilm bacterial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Zilong; Dai, Yu; Xie, Shuguang; Chen, Chao; Zhang, Xiaojian

    2015-11-01

    Disinfectants are commonly applied to control the growth of microorganisms in drinking water distribution systems. However, the effect of disinfection on drinking water microbial community remains poorly understood. The present study investigated the impacts of different disinfectants (chlorine and chloramine) and dosages on biofilm bacterial community in bench-scale pipe section reactors. Illumina MiSeq sequencing illustrated that disinfection strategy could affect both bacterial diversity and community structure of drinking water biofilm. Proteobacteria tended to predominate in chloraminated drinking water biofilms, while Firmicutes in chlorinated and unchlorinated biofilms. The major proteobacterial groups were influenced by both disinfectant type and dosage. In addition, chloramination had a more profound impact on bacterial community than chlorination. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Water and Climate Impacts on Power System Operations: The Importance of Cooling Systems and Demand Response Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhou, Ella [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); O' Connell, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brinkman, Gregory [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miara, Ariel [City College of New York, NY (United States); Ibanez, Eduardo [GE Energy Connections, Atlanta, GA (United States); Hummon, Marissa [Tendril, Denver, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The U.S. electricity sector is highly dependent upon water resources; changes in water temperatures and water availability can affect operational costs and the reliability of power systems. Despite the importance of water for power system operations, the effects of changes in water characteristics on multiple generators in a system are generally not modeled. Moreover, demand response measures, which can change the magnitude and timing of loads and can have beneficial impacts on power system operations, have not yet been evaluated in the context of water-related power vulnerabilities. This effort provides a first comprehensive vulnerability and cost analysis of water-related impacts on a modeled power system and the potential for demand response measures to address vulnerability and cost concerns. This study uniquely combines outputs and inputs of a water and power plant system model, production cost, model, and relative capacity value model to look at variations in cooling systems, policy-related thermal curtailments, and demand response measures to characterize costs and vulnerability for a test system. Twenty-five scenarios over the course of one year are considered: a baseline scenario as well as a suite of scenarios to evaluate six cooling system combinations, the inclusion or exclusion of policy-related thermal curtailments, and the inclusion or exclusion of demand response measures. A water and power plant system model is utilized to identify changes in power plant efficiencies resulting from ambient conditions, a production cost model operating at an hourly scale is used to calculate generation technology dispatch and costs, and a relative capacity value model is used to evaluate expected loss of carrying capacity for the test system.

  16. Demand side management in South Africa at industrial residence water heating systems using in line water heating methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, R.; Rousseau, P.G.

    2008-01-01

    The South African electrical utility, ESKOM, currently focuses its demand side management (DSM) initiatives on controlling electrical load between 18:00 and 20:00 each day, which is the utility's peak demand period. Funding is provided to energy service companies (ESCo's) to implement projects that can achieve load shifting out of this period. This paper describes how an improved in line water heating concept developed in previous studies was implemented into several real life industrial sanitary water heating systems to obtain the DSM load shift required by ESKOM. Measurements from a selection of these plants are provided to illustrate the significant load reductions that are being achieved during 18:00-20:00. The measured results also show that the peak load reduction is achieved without adversely affecting the availability of sufficient hot water to the persons using the showering and washing facilities served by the water heating system. A very good correlation also exists between these measured results and simulations that were done beforehand to predict the DSM potential of the project. The in line water heater concept provides an improved solution for DSM at sanitary water heating systems due to the stratified manner in which hot water is supplied to the tanks. This provides an improved hot water supply to users when compared to conventional in tank heating systems, even with load shifting being done. It also improves the storage efficiency of a plant, thereby allowing the available storage capacity of a plant to be utilized to its full extent for load shifting purposes

  17. Biofilm bacterial communities in urban drinking water distribution systems transporting waters with different purification strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huiting; Zhang, Jingxu; Mi, Zilong; Xie, Shuguang; Chen, Chao; Zhang, Xiaojian

    2015-02-01

    Biofilm formation in drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) has many adverse consequences. Knowledge of microbial community structure of DWDS biofilm can aid in the design of an effective control strategy. However, biofilm bacterial community in real DWDS and the impact of drinking water purification strategy remain unclear. The present study investigated the composition and diversity of biofilm bacterial community in real DWDSs transporting waters with different purification strategies (conventional treatment and integrated treatment). High-throughput Illumina MiSeq sequencing analysis illustrated a large shift in the diversity and structure of biofilm bacterial community in real DWDS. Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Nitrospirae, and Cyanobacteria were the major components of biofilm bacterial community. Proteobacteria (mainly Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria) predominated in each DWDS biofilm, but the compositions of the dominant proteobacterial classes and genera and their proportions varied among biofilm samples. Drinking water purification strategy could shape DWDS biofilm bacterial community. Moreover, Pearson's correlation analysis indicated that Actinobacteria was positively correlated with the levels of total alkalinity and dissolved organic carbon in tap water, while Firmicutes had a significant positive correlation with nitrite nitrogen.

  18. Feasibility of Rainwater Harvesting to fulfill potable water demand using quantitative water management in low-lying delta regions of Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, A.; Hossain, F.

    2016-12-01

    Low-lying deltas of Asian region are usually densely populated and located in developing countries situated at the downstream end of major rivers. Extensive dam construction by the upstream countries has now caused water scarcity in large portions of low-lying deltas. Most inhabitants depend on shallow tube well for safe drinking water that tend to suffer from water quality issues (e.g. Arsenic contamination). In addition, people also get infected from water borne diseases like Cholera and Typhoid due to lack of safe drinking water. Developing a centralized piped network based water supply system is often not a feasible option in rural regions. Due to social acceptability, environment friendliness, lower capital and maintenance cost, rainwater harvesting can be the most sustainable option to supply safe drinking water in rural areas. In this study, first we estimate the monthly rainfall variability using long precipitation climatology from satellite precipitation data. The upper and lower bounds of monthly harvestable rainwater were estimated for each satellite precipitation grid. Taking this lower bound of monthly harvestable rainwater as input, we use quantitative water management concept to determine the percent of the time of the year potable water demand can be fulfilled. Analysis indicates that a 6 m³ reservoir tank can fulfill the potable water demand of a 6 person family throughout a year in almost all parts of this region.

  19. Access to water: Technical and social solutions help communities ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-08

    Dec 8, 2010 ... English · Français ... Access to water: Technical and social solutions help communities make the most of ... IDRC-supported research engages communities, and countries, in developing durable solutions to water problems.

  20. High-throughput sequencing reveals microbial communities in drinking water treatment sludge from six geographically distributed plants, including potentially toxic cyanobacteria and pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hangzhou; Pei, Haiyan; Jin, Yan; Ma, Chunxia; Wang, Yuting; Sun, Jiongming; Li, Hongmin

    2018-04-10

    The microbial community structures of drinking water treatment sludge (DWTS) generated for raw water (RW) from different locations and with different source types - including river water, lake water and reservoir water -were investigated using high-throughput sequencing. Because the unit operations in the six DWTPs were similar, community composition in fresh sludge may be determined by microbial community in the corresponding RW. Although Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Verrucomicrobia, and Planctomycetes were the dominant phyla among the six DWTS samples, no single phylum exhibited similar abundance across all the samples, owing to differences in total phosphorus, chemical oxygen demand, Al, Fe, and chloride in RW. Three genera of potentially toxic cyanobacteria (Planktothrix, Microcystis and Cylindrospermopsis), and four potential pathogens (Escherichia coli, Bacteroides ovatus, Prevotella copri and Rickettsia) were found in sludge samples. Because proliferation of potentially toxic cyanobacteria and Rickettsia in RW was mainly affected by nutrients, while growth of Escherichia coli, Bacteroides ovatus and Prevotella copri in RW may be influenced by Fe, control of nutrients and Fe in RW is essential to decrease toxic cyanobacteria and pathogens in DWTS. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Exploring Tradeoffs in Demand-Side and Supply-Side Management of Urban Water Resources Using Agent-Based Modeling and Evolutionary Computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lufthansa Kanta

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Urban water supply systems may be managed through supply-side and demand-side strategies, which focus on water source expansion and demand reductions, respectively. Supply-side strategies bear infrastructure and energy costs, while demand-side strategies bear costs of implementation and inconvenience to consumers. To evaluate the performance of demand-side strategies, the participation and water use adaptations of consumers should be simulated. In this study, a Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS framework is developed to simulate consumer agents that change their consumption to affect the withdrawal from the water supply system, which, in turn influences operational policies and long-term resource planning. Agent-based models are encoded to represent consumers and a policy maker agent and are coupled with water resources system simulation models. The CAS framework is coupled with an evolutionary computation-based multi-objective methodology to explore tradeoffs in cost, inconvenience to consumers, and environmental impacts for both supply-side and demand-side strategies. Decisions are identified to specify storage levels in a reservoir that trigger: (1 increases in the volume of water pumped through inter-basin transfers from an external reservoir; and (2 drought stages, which restrict the volume of water that is allowed for residential outdoor uses. The proposed methodology is demonstrated for Arlington, Texas, water supply system to identify non-dominated strategies for an historic drought decade. Results demonstrate that pumping costs associated with maximizing environmental reliability exceed pumping costs associated with minimizing restrictions on consumer water use.

  2. THE ANALYSIS OF THE TIME-SERIES FLUCTUATION OF WATER DEMAND FOR THE SMALL WATER SUPPLY BLOCK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Akira; Suehiro, Miki; Arai, Yasuhiro; Inakazu, Toyono; Masuko, Atushi; Tamura, Satoshi; Ashida, Hiroshi

    The purpose of this study is to define one apartment complex as "the water supply block" and to show the relationship between the amount of water supply for an apartment house and its time series fluctuation. We examined the observation data which were collected from 33 apartment houses. The water meters were installed at individual observation points for about 20 days in Tokyo. This study used Fourier analysis in order to grasp the irregularity in a time series data. As a result, this paper demonstrated that the smaller the amount of water supply became, the larger irregularity the time series fluctuation had. We also found that it was difficult to describe the daily cyclical pattern for a small apartment house using the dominant periodic components which were obtained from a Fourier spectrum. Our research give useful information about the design for a directional water supply system, as to making estimates of the hourly fluctuation and the maximum daily water demand.

  3. A model exploring whether the coupled effects of plant water supply and demand affect the interpretation of water potentials and irrigation management

    OpenAIRE

    Spinelli, GM; Shackel, KA; Gilbert, ME

    2017-01-01

    © 2017 Elsevier B.V. Water potential is a useful predictive tool in irrigation scheduling as it, or a component, is associated with physiological responses to water deficit. Increasing atmospheric demand for water increases transpiration and decreases water potential for the same stomatal conductance. However, based on supply by the soil-plant-atmosphere-continuum, decreasing soil water potential should decrease stomatal conductance and thus transpiration but also decrease water potential. Su...

  4. Bureaucratic Blockages : Water, Civil Servants, and Community in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Juli

    2017-01-01

    How do civil servants in district water and sanitation departments address problems of water access in rural communities in Tanzania? What are the bureaucratic procedures they follow? How do the bureaucratic procedures around formulating budgets, managing money, and interacting with communities impede or enhance their ability to manage water projects? This report addresses these and related ...

  5. Assessing Vulnerability under Uncertainty in the Colorado River Basin: The Colorado River Basin Water Supply and Demand Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerla, C.; Adams, P.; Butler, A.; Nowak, K.; Prairie, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    reducing system vulnerabilities and the improving the resiliency of the Basin to vulnerable conditions. The Study is the most comprehensive long-term assessment to date of the Basin and it confirmed that without action, the Colorado River system will become increasingly challenged to sustain the communities and resources that rely on its water supply. The Study was conducted by the Bureau of Reclamation and its consultant team (CH2M Hill, Black & Veatch, and the RAND Corporation) and the seven Colorado River Basin States, in collaboration with a broad range of stakeholders throughout the Basin. The Study's strong technical foundation forms a basis from which important discussions can begin regarding possible actions to resolve future supply and demand imbalances in order to help ensure the sustainability of the Colorado River system. This talk will provide an overview of the Study's approach and findings, with a focus on the Study's assessment and characterization of vulnerability under uncertainty.

  6. Current and projected water demand and water availability estimates under climate change scenarios in the Weyib River basin in Bale mountainous area of Southeastern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serur, Abdulkerim Bedewi; Sarma, Arup Kumar

    2017-07-01

    This study intended to estimate the spatial and temporal variation of current and projected water demand and water availability under climate change scenarios in Weyib River basin, Bale mountainous area of Southeastern Ethiopia. Future downscaled climate variables from three Earth System Models under the three RCP emission scenarios were inputted into ArcSWAT hydrological model to simulate different components of water resources of a basin whereas current and projected human and livestock population of the basin is considered to estimate the total annual water demand for various purposes. Results revealed that the current total annual water demand of the basin is found to be about 289 Mm3, and this has to increase by 83.47% after 15 years, 200.67% after 45 years, and 328.78% after 75 years by the 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s, respectively, from base period water demand mainly due to very rapid increasing population (40.81, 130.80, and 229.12% by the 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s, respectively) and climatic variability. The future average annual total water availability in the basin is observed to be increased by ranging from 15.04 to 21.61, 20.08 to 23.34, and 16.21 to 39.53% by the 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s time slice, respectively, from base period available water resources (2333.39 Mm3). The current water availability per capita per year of the basin is about 3112.23 m3 and tends to decline ranging from 11.78 to 17.49, 46.02 to 47.45, and 57.18 to 64.34% by the 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s, respectively, from base period per capita per year water availability. This indicated that there might be possibility to fall the basin under water stress condition in the long term.

  7. Achieving water security through community-based agreements in rural Northwestern Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista Solís, P.; Bommel, P.; Campos, X.; Suarez, A.; Leclerc, G.

    2016-12-01

    Community-based drinking water organizations have the responsibility in supplying water for domestic use to 29% of the Costa Rican population. Nowadays, more than 1.500 of these organizations face important challenges for achieving this critical mission, such as fulfilling national drinking-water quality standards, and improving their organization and administration to secure water supply and distribution under climate change. We conducted action-research in two communities with similar geographical and demographic conditions: Cuajiniquil and Colas de Gallo located in the drought prone Guanacaste region in Costa Rica. Both communities are contrasted regarding to their assets and organization. We addressed the following research question: Can a participatory process help communities assess the situation of their aqueduct and its management, project themselves in the future, and build more resilient strategies to face domestic water restrictions? Through 16 participatory sessions, we adapted the Wat-a-Game (WAG) toolkit to the problem of domestic water provision in these communities, creating the WAG-Tico role-playing game. This was complemented by two other activities: visits by regional actors sharing their experience, and exchange visits between both communities for cross-learning about community-based water management. The process resulted in a locally-led collaboration between both communities and the emergence of community commitments for improving drought resilience. WAG-Tico sensibilized participants to appreciate the value of community organization and the impacts of climate change on water supply, and develop aqueduct management rules. Exchange visits and regional actors interventions promoted opportunities for accessing to external resources (i.e. social, human and financial). Colas de Gallo created its first water committee for building a community aqueduct and their first drilled well. Cuajiniquil has committed in protecting its water springs, organized

  8. Subsea innovative boosting technologies on deep water scenarios -- Impacts and demands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caetano, E.F.; Mendonca, J.E.; Pagot, P.R.; Cotrim, M.L.; Camargo, R.M.T.; Assayag, M.I.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the importance of deep water scenario for Brazil, the PETROBRAS Deep and Ultra-Deep Water R and D Program (PROCAP-2000) and the candidate fields for the deployment of subsea innovative boosting technologies (ESPS -- electrical submersible pump in subsea wells, SSS -- subsea separation systems and SBMS -- subsea multiphase flow pumping system) as well as the problems associated with the flow assurance in such conditions. The impact of those innovative systems, their technological stage and remaining demands to make them available for deployment in offshore subsea areas, mainly in giant deepwater fields, are discussed and predicted

  9. Predicting residential energy and water demand using publicly available data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoşgör, Enes; Fischbeck, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We built regression models using publicly available data as independent variables. • These models were used to predict monthly utility usage. • Such models can empower demand-side management program design, implementation and evaluation. • As well as planning for changes in energy and water demand. - Abstract: The overarching objective behind this work is to merge publicly available data with utility consumption histories and extract statistically significant insight on utility usage for a group of houses (n = 7022) in Gainesville, USA. This study investigates the statistical descriptive power of publicly available information for modeling utility usage. We first examine the deviations that arise from monthly utility usage reading dates as reading dates tend to shift and reading periods tend to vary across different months. Then we run regression models for individual months which in turn we compare to a yearly regression model which accounts for months as a dummy variable to understand whether a monthly model or a yearly model has a larger statistical power. It is shown that publicly available data can be used to model residential utility usage in the absence of highly private utility data. The obtained results are helpful for utilities for two reasons: (1) using the models to predict the monthly changes in demand; and (2) predicting utility usage can be translated into energy-use intensity as a first-cut metric for energy efficiency targeting in their service territory to meet their state demand reduction targets

  10. Estimating irrigation water demand using an improved method and optimizing reservoir operation for water supply and hydropower generation: a case study of the Xinfengjiang reservoir in southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiping; Chen, Ji

    2013-01-01

    The ever-increasing demand for water due to growth of population and socioeconomic development in the past several decades has posed a worldwide threat to water supply security and to the environmental health of rivers. This study aims to derive reservoir operating rules through establishing a multi-objective optimization model for the Xinfengjiang (XFJ) reservoir in the East River Basin in southern China to minimize water supply deficit and maximize hydropower generation. Additionally, to enhance the estimation of irrigation water demand from the downstream agricultural area of the XFJ reservoir, a conventional method for calculating crop water demand is improved using hydrological model simulation results. Although the optimal reservoir operating rules are derived for the XFJ reservoir with three priority scenarios (water supply only, hydropower generation only, and equal priority), the river environmental health is set as the basic demand no matter which scenario is adopted. The results show that the new rules derived under the three scenarios can improve the reservoir operation for both water supply and hydropower generation when comparing to the historical performance. Moreover, these alternative reservoir operating policies provide the flexibility for the reservoir authority to choose the most appropriate one. Although changing the current operating rules may influence its hydropower-oriented functions, the new rules can be significant to cope with the increasingly prominent water shortage and degradation in the aquatic environment. Overall, our results and methods (improved estimation of irrigation water demand and formulation of the reservoir optimization model) can be useful for local watershed managers and valuable for other researchers worldwide.

  11. Predictive Uncertainty Estimation in Water Demand Forecasting Using the Model Conditional Processor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amos O. Anele

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In a previous paper, a number of potential models for short-term water demand (STWD prediction have been analysed to find the ones with the best fit. The results obtained in Anele et al. (2017 showed that hybrid models may be considered as the accurate and appropriate forecasting models for STWD prediction. However, such best single valued forecast does not guarantee reliable and robust decisions, which can be properly obtained via model uncertainty processors (MUPs. MUPs provide an estimate of the full predictive densities and not only the single valued expected prediction. Amongst other MUPs, the purpose of this paper is to use the multi-variate version of the model conditional processor (MCP, proposed by Todini (2008, to demonstrate how the estimation of the predictive probability conditional to a number of relatively good predictive models may improve our knowledge, thus reducing the predictive uncertainty (PU when forecasting into the unknown future. Through the MCP approach, the probability distribution of the future water demand can be assessed depending on the forecast provided by one or more deterministic forecasting models. Based on an average weekly data of 168 h, the probability density of the future demand is built conditional on three models’ predictions, namely the autoregressive-moving average (ARMA, feed-forward back propagation neural network (FFBP-NN and hybrid model (i.e., combined forecast from ARMA and FFBP-NN. The results obtained show that MCP may be effectively used for real-time STWD prediction since it brings out the PU connected to its forecast, and such information could help water utilities estimate the risk connected to a decision.

  12. Evaporative demand and water requirements of the principal crops of the Guadalentin valley (SE Spain) in drought periods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Toribio, M. I.; Garcia-Marin, R.; Conesa-Garcia, C.; Lopez-Bermudez, F.

    2010-07-01

    The drought periods that affect the province of Murcia, especially the Guadalentin Valley, are aggravated by an increase in evaporative demand. The aim of the present study was to characterize the increased water demand of woody and herbaceous crops during drought periods in the Guadalentin Valley, an agricultural zone with an excellent climate for specialty crops, which is of great economic importance for Murcia. After defining the drought periods of the last three decades in time and space by means of the standard index of rainfall drought (IESP), several methods were used to determine the reference evapotranspiration (ETo): the Penman-Monteith model (ASCE and FAO models for grass), the Hargreaves method (ETo-ASCE for alfalfa), and ETo using the FAO Radiation method. Finally, the crop water requirements for each to crop type and area of cultivation were estimated using monthly crop coefficients (K{sub c}) and the mean monthly evaporative demand values were obtained by the best fitting method. The increase in the evaporative demand reflected the increased water deficits that occur in the drought years, both in summer and winter (1.23 hm{sup 3} yr{sup -}1). Drought periods are also responsible for reducing the areas dedicated to horticultural crops, because of their high water demands and the additional costs involved, resulting an aggravated socioeconomic position and increased unemployment. (Author) 25 refs.

  13. Determination of Biochemical Oxygen Demand of Area Waters: A Bioassay Procedure for Environmental Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehl, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    A graphical method for determining the 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) for a body of water is described. In this bioassay, students collect a sample of water from a designated site, transport it to the laboratory, and evaluate the amount of oxygen consumed by naturally occurring bacteria during a 5-day incubation period. An accuracy check,…

  14. Assessing the potential for using wetlands as intermediary storages to conjunctively maintain ecological values and support agricultural demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Nathan S P; Watkins, Susanne C; Gawne, Ben; Nielsen, Daryl L

    2012-09-30

    Water sharing to meet both agricultural and environmental demands is a critical issue affecting the health of many floodplain river systems around the world. This study explored the potential for using wetlands as temporary off-river storages to conjunctively maintain ecological values and support agricultural demands by assessing the effects of artificial drawdown on wetland aquatic plant communities. An initial experiment was undertaken in outdoor mesocosms in which four different treatments were compared over a 131 day duration: (1) natural drawdown where the water was left to drawdown naturally via evaporation; (2) partial drawdown where approximately half of the volume of water was pumped out after 42 days; (3) stepped drawdown where approximately half of the volume of water pumped out after 42 days, and then the remaining volume of water was pumped out after 117 days; and (4) total drawdown where all of the of water was pumped out after 117 days. A complementary field study was subsequently undertaken where two wetlands were left to drawdown naturally and two were partially drawn down artificially (i.e. had approximately half of their volume removed by pumping). Results from both of these studies indicated that neither aquatic plant abundance nor taxon richness were adversely affected by partial drawdown. Rather, both studies showed that aquatic plant communities subjected to a partial drawdown treatment became more species rich and diverse than communities subjected to a natural drawdown treatment. This suggests that it may be possible to use wetlands as intermediary storages for the dual purposes of maintaining ecological values and supporting agricultural demands. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Access to water: Technical and social solutions help communities ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Access to water: Technical and social solutions help communities make the most of available sources. 08 décembre 2010. Image. IDRC Communications. LASTING IMPACTS. IDRC-supported research engages communities, and countries, in developing durable solutions to water problems. Whatever the challenge, people ...

  16. A Holistic ICT Solution to Improve Matching between Supply and Demand over the Water Supply Distribution Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Anzaldi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available While many water management tools exist, these systems are not usually interconnected and therefore cannot communicate between one another, preventing Integrated Water Resources Management to be fully achieved. This paper presents the solution proposed by WatERP project* where a novel solution enables better matching between water supply and demand from holistic perspective. Subsystems that control the production, management and consumption of water will be interconnected through both information architecture and intelligent infrastructure. The main outcome will consist of, a web-based Open Management Platform integrating near real-time knowledge on water supplies and demand, from sources to users, across geographic and organizational scales and supported by a knowledge base where information will be structured in water management ontology to ensure interoperability and maximize usability. WatERP will thus provide a major contribution to: 1 Improve coordination among actors, 2 Foster behavioural change, 3 Reduce water and energy consumption, 4 Optimize water accountability.

  17. Readying Community Water Fluoridation Advocates through Training, Surveillance, and Empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veschusio, C; Jones, M K; Mercer, J; Martin, A B

    2018-05-30

    This paper describes the Community Water Fluoridation Advocacy Training Project that was designed to develop networks of community water fluoridation advocates in rural communities. The South Carolina (SC) Department of Health and Environmental Control Division of Oral Health staff and the SC Dental Association were responsible for developing and facilitating the training sessions for key policy influencers, which included medical and dental providers, early childhood educators, and water system operators and managers. Findings from the post-training survey indicate that participants increased their knowledge and skills to discuss the impact of water fluoridation on the dental health of community residents. Participants identified a need for online access to water fluoridation education and advocacy materials. Dental public health competencies illustrated: communication and collaboration with groups and individuals, and advocate, implement and evaluate public health policy, legislation and regulations. Copyright© 2018 Dennis Barber Ltd.

  18. The influence of the community of water macrophytes on regulation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Natural waterplant communities may help prevent the introduction of pollutants. We explore the role of macrophytes in ameliorating the waters of the Kuibyshev reservoir littoral zones through investigating plant and zooplankton communities. We suggest that water vegetation can play a sanative role to improve water quality ...

  19. Water Rights on Community Lands: LandMark’s Findings from 100 Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz Alden Wily

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes whether national laws acknowledge indigenous peoples and other rural communities in 100 countries as owners of waters that arise within their lands. Results derive from information collected by LandMark to score the legal status of community land tenure. Findings are positive; half of all countries recognize communities as lawful possessors of water on their lands. Three quarters permit communities to manage the distribution and use of water on their lands. While 71 percent of countries declare water to be a public resource, this belies the substantial existence of privately owned water. In 29 percent of countries, private water is an identified legal category, and in many other countries obtainable rights to water are sufficiently substantial to imply lawful possession. Communities are beneficiaries mainly where customary rights are accorded status as property rights, or where ownership of public lands and water are devolved to rural collectives. However, opposite trends of nationalization and regulation of water suggest that while legal recognition of community land ownership may rise in the future, this will not necessarily include waters on the land. Irrespective of tenure, rural communities in 72 of 77 countries (93.5 percent are legally assured access to water for domestic purposes. This is consistent with the rising definition of safe drinking water as a human right, although access does not necessarily come free of cost.

  20. Analysis of water use by gated communities in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-12

    Jan 12, 2018 ... to develop a method to properly plan for efficient water infrastructure in GCs. Residential water use in general. Guidelines commonly used by planners and engineers to determine the average annual daily water demand (AADD) of residential properties, based on property size, are provided by the CSIR ...

  1. The study of interrelationship between raw water quality parameters, chlorine demand and the formation of disinfection by-products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Md. Pauzi; Yee, Lim Fang; Ata, Sadia; Abdullah, Abass; Ishak, Basar; Abidin, Khairul Nidzham Zainal

    Disinfection is the most crucial process in the treatment of drinking water supply and is the final barrier against bacteriological impurities in drinking water. Chlorine is the primary disinfectant used in the drinking water treatment process throughout Malaysia. However, the occurrence of various disinfection by-products such as trihalomethanes (THM) and haloacetic acids created a major issue on the potential health hazards which may pose adverse health effects in both human and animals. To simulate real water treatment conditions and to represent the conditions inherent in a tropical country, this study was performed at an urbanized water treatment plant with a daily production of about 549,000 m 3 of treated water. The purpose of this work is to examine the relationship between the water quality parameters in the raw water with chlorine demand and the formation of disinfection by-products. This study also investigated the possibility of the statistical model applications for the prediction of chlorine demand and the THM formation. Two models were developed to estimate the chlorine demand and the THM formation. For the statistical evaluation, correlation and simple linear regression analysis were conducted using SPSS. The results of Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for the estimation of goodness-of-fit of the dependent variables of the models to the normal distribution showed that all the dependent variables followed the normal distribution at significance level of 0.05. Good linear correlations were observed between the independent parameters and formation of THM and the chlorine demand. This study also revealed that ammonia and the specific ultraviolet absorbent (SUVA) were the function of chlorine consumption in the treatment process. Chlorine dosage and SUVA increase the yield of THM. Chlorine demand and THM formation was moderately sensitive, but significant to the pH. The level of significance ( α) for the statistical tests and the inclusion of a variable in the

  2. Assessing efficiency and economic viability of rainwater harvesting systems for meeting non-potable water demands in four climatic zones of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S.; Jing, X.

    2017-12-01

    Rainwater harvesting is now increasingly used to manage urban flood and alleviate water scarcity crisis. In this study, a computational tool based on water balance equation is developed to assess stormwater capture and water saving efficiency and economic viability of rainwater harvesting systems (RHS) in eight cities across four climatic zones of China. It requires daily rainfall, contributing area, runoff losses, first flush volume, storage capacity, daily water demand and economic parameters as inputs. Three non-potable water demand scenarios (i.e., toilet flushing, lawn irrigation, and combination of them) are considered. The water demand for lawn irrigation is estimated using the Cropwat 8.0 and Climwat 2.0. Results indicate that higher water saving efficiency and water supply time reliability can be achieved for RHS with larger storage capacities, for lower water demand scenarios and located in more humid regions, while higher stormwater capture efficiency is associated with larger storage capacity, higher water demand scenarios and less rainfall. For instance, a 40 m3 RHS in Shanghai (humid climate) for lawn irrigation can capture 17% of stormwater, while its water saving efficiency and time reliability can reach 96 % and 98%, respectively. The water saving efficiency and time reliability of a 20 m3 RHS in Xining (semi-arid climate) for toilet flushing are 19% and 16%, respectively, but it can capture 63% of stormwater. With the current values of economic parameters, economic viability of RHS can be achieved in humid and semi-humid regions for reasonably designed RHS; however, it is not financially viable to install RHS in arid regions as the benefit-cost ratio is much smaller than 1.0.

  3. Community Response to Impaired Drinking Water Quality: Evidence from Bottled Water Sales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaire, M.; Zheng, S.; Lall, U.

    2017-12-01

    Drinking water contaminants pose a harm to public health. When confronted with elevated contaminate levels, individuals can take averting actions to reduce exposure, such as bottled water purchases. This study addresses a problem of national interest given that 9 to 45 million people have been affected by drinking water quality violations in each of the past 34 years. Moreover, few studies address averting behavior and avoidance costs due to water quality violations. This study assesses how responses might differ across baseline risk of impaired water quality and demographics of service area. We match a panel of weekly supermarket sales data with geocoded violations data for 67 counties in the Southeast from 2006-2015. We estimate the change in bottled water sales due to drinking water violations using a fixed effects model. Observing market behavior also allows us to calculate the cost of these averting actions. Critical findings from this study contribute to understanding how communities respond to water quality violations. We find that violations have considerable effects on bottled water consumption. Sales increase 8.1 percent due to violations related to microorganisms and 31.2 percent due to Tier 1 violations, which pose an immediate health risk. In addition, we calculate a national cost of averting actions of $26 million for microorganism violations from 2006-2015, which represents a lower-bound estimate. Averting costs vary considerably across the U.S. and some counties bear a particularly large burden, such as in California and Texas. Overall, this study provides insight into how averting behavior differs across contaminant type, water utility characteristics, and community demographics. Such knowledge can aid public health agencies, water systems, and environmental regulators to direct assistance to communities most in need.

  4. Community-based management of water supply services

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mogane-Ramahotswa, B

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important aspects of suitability of water supply is the ability of the community to manage its own scheme. Unlike in urban settlement institutional arrangements for rural water supply are rudimentary. Over the past decade...

  5. Simulation of Integrated Qualitative and Quantitative Allocation of Surafce and Underground Water Resources to Drinking Water Demand in Mashhad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoureh Atashi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that both surface and groundwater resources inside and outside the city of Mashhad have been already exploited to their maximum capacity and that the large water transfer Doosti Dam Project has been already implemented to transfer a considerable quanity of water to Mashhad, the city will be encountering a daily water shortage of about 1.7 m3/s by 2021. The problem would be even worse if the quality of the water resources are taken into account, in which case, the shortage would start even sooner in 2011 when the water deficit will be about 0.9 m3/s. As a result, it is essential to develop short- and medium-term strategies for secure adequate water supplies for the city's domestic water demand. The present study aims to carry out a qualitative and quantitative modeling of surface and groundwater resources supplying Mashhad domestic water. The qualitative model is based on the quality indices of surface and groundwater resources according to which the resources are classified in the three quality categories of resources with no limitation, those with moderate limitations, and those with high limitations for use as domestic water supplies. The pressure zones are then examined with respect to the potable water demand and supply to be simulated in the MODSIM environment. The model thus developed is verified for the 2012 data based on the measures affecting water resources in the region and various scenarios are finally evaluated for a long-term 30-year period. Results show that the peak hourdaily water shortage in 2042for the zone supplied from no limitation resources will be 38%. However, this value will drop to 28% if limitations due to resource quality are also taken into account. Finally, dilution is suggested as a solution for exploiting the maximum quantitative and qualitative potential of the resources used as domestic water supplies. In this situation, the daily peak hour water shortage will be equal to 31%.

  6. Literature Study on Community Participation in Community Based Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurbaiti, Siti Robiah; Bambang, Azis Nur

    2018-02-01

    Clean water and proper sanitation are basic human needs, existing procurement in the Law of the Republic of Indonesia Number 7 of 2004 on Water Resources and Government Regulation of the Republic of Indonesia Number 16 of 2005 on Development of Water Supply System, which the state guarantees the right of everyone water for basic daily minimum needs to meet the needs of a healthy, productive, and clean life. Norms every society has the right to get clean air to meet basic daily needs. One of the points in the goal of sustainable development goals (SDGs) in the environment sector is the guarantee of the community to achieve universal access to clean water and sanitation. The SDG High Level Panel held in 2012 calls on countries around the world to do so in 2030. Fulfillment of clean air and sanitation in Indonesia is conducted through two sectoral approaches, the first through agencies, or related agencies and the second through a Society. In accordance with its community-based principles, the role itself is a key factor in the success of the program. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to find out the forms of community participation and the factors that influence participation in community-based water supply and sanitation programs in the field of literature studies of previous research such as research journals, theses, theses, dissertations and related books This literature study topic.

  7. Literature Study on Community Participation in Community Based Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robiah Nurbaiti Siti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Clean water and proper sanitation are basic human needs, existing procurement in the Law of the Republic of Indonesia Number 7 of 2004 on Water Resources and Government Regulation of the Republic of Indonesia Number 16 of 2005 on Development of Water Supply System, which the state guarantees the right of everyone water for basic daily minimum needs to meet the needs of a healthy, productive, and clean life. Norms every society has the right to get clean air to meet basic daily needs. One of the points in the goal of sustainable development goals (SDGs in the environment sector is the guarantee of the community to achieve universal access to clean water and sanitation. The SDG High Level Panel held in 2012 calls on countries around the world to do so in 2030. Fulfillment of clean air and sanitation in Indonesia is conducted through two sectoral approaches, the first through agencies, or related agencies and the second through a Society. In accordance with its community-based principles, the role itself is a key factor in the success of the program. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to find out the forms of community participation and the factors that influence participation in community-based water supply and sanitation programs in the field of literature studies of previous research such as research journals, theses, theses, dissertations and related books This literature study topic.

  8. Water supply and demand management in the Galápagos : A case study of Santa Cruz Island

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reyes Perez, M.F.

    2017-01-01

    Water resources in tourist islands have been severely threatened, especially in the Galápagos Islands, where the increased local population has generated attractive income from the tourist services. In addition, the data regarding water supply and demand are scarce. This study investigates water

  9. Growing importance of atmospheric water demands on the hydrologcial condition of East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, C. E.; Ho, C. H.; Jeong, S. J.; Park, H.

    2015-12-01

    As global temperature increases, enhanced exchange of fresh water between the surface and atmosphere expected to make dry regions drier and wet regions wetter. This concept is well fitted for the ocean, but oversimplified for the land. How the climate change causes the complex patterns of the continental dryness change is one of challenging questions. Here we investigate the observed dryness changes of the land surface by examining the quantitative influence of several climate parameters on the background aridity changes over East Asia, containing various climate regimes from cold-arid to warm-humid regions, using observations of 189 stations covering the period from 1961 to 2010. Overall mean aridity trend is changed from negative to positive around early 1990s. The turning of dryness trend is largely influenced by sharp increase in atmospheric water demands, regardless of the background climate. The warming induced increase in water demands is larger in warm-humid regions than in cold-arid region due to the Clausius-Clapeyron relation between air temperature and saturation vapor pressure. The results show the drying of anthropogenic warming already begins and influences on the patterns of dryness change over the land surface.

  10. Working group report on water resources, supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marta, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    A summary is presented of the issues discussed, and the conclusions and recommendations of a working group on water resources, supply and demand. The issues were grouped into the categories of detecting climatic change and water impacts, simulating potential impacts, and responding to potential impacts. The workshop groups achieved consensus on the following points: the physics of global warming and climatic change have been satifactorily proven; there appears to be some evidence of climatic change and a signal could soon be detected; policy decisions and strategic plans for climatic change and its potential impacts are needed immediately; and targets and priorities for decison making should be identified and addressed immediately. Three top-priority issues are the identification of indicators for the detection of climatic change impacts on hydrology, determining response to climate-related change, and evaluation of design criteria. Better information on regional climate and hydrology under conditions of global warming is needed before design criteria could be altered

  11. Differences in microbial community composition between injection and production water samples of water flooding petroleum reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Gao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Microbial communities in injected water are expected to have significant influence on those of reservoir strata in long-term water flooding petroleum reservoirs. To investigate the similarities and differences in microbial communities in injected water and reservoir strata, high-throughput sequencing of microbial partial 16S rRNA of the water samples collected from the wellhead and downhole of injection wells, and from production wells in a homogeneous sandstone reservoir and a heterogeneous conglomerate reservoir were performed. The results indicate that a small number of microbial populations are shared between the water samples from the injection and production wells in the sandstone reservoir, whereas a large number of microbial populations are shared in the conglomerate reservoir. The bacterial and archaeal communities in the reservoir strata have high concentrations, which are similar to those in the injected water. However, microbial population abundance exhibited large differences between the water samples from the injection and production wells. The number of shared populations reflects the influence of microbial communities in injected water on those in reservoir strata to some extent, and show strong association with the unique variation of reservoir environments.

  12. Inclusion of climatic and touristic factors in the analysis and modelling of the municipal water demand in a Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Elena; Bragalli, Cristiana; Neri, Mattia

    2017-04-01

    In Mediterranean regions, inherently affected by water scarcity conditions, the gap between water availability and demand may further increase in the near future due to both climatic and anthropogenic drivers. In particular, the high degree of urbanization and the concentration of population and activities in coastal areas is often severely impacting the water availability also for the residential sector. It is therefore crucial analysing the importance of both climatic and touristic factors as drivers for the water demand in such areas, to better understand and model the expected consumption in order to improve the water management policies and practices. The study presents an analysis referred to a large number of municipalities, covering almost the whole Romagna region, in Northern Italy, representing one of the most economically developed areas in Europe and characterized by an extremely profitable tourist industry, especially in the coastal cities. For this region it is therefore extremely important to assess the significance of the drivers that may influence the demand in the different periods of the year, that is climatic factors (rainfall depths and occurrence, temperature averages and extremes), but also the presence of tourists, in both official tourist accommodation structures and in holidays homes (and the latter are very difficult to estimate). Analyses on the Italian water industry at seasonal or monthly time scale has been so far, extremely limited in the literature by the scarce availability of data on the water demands, that are made public only as annual volumes. All the study municipalities are supplied by the same water company, who provided monthly consumption volumes data at the main inlet points of the entire distribution network for a period of 7 years (2009-2015). For the same period, precipitation and temperature data have been collected and summarised in indexes representing monthly averages, days of occurrence and over threshold values

  13. Water Demand Analysis for Tree Crops in Spanish Mediterranean Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angeles Fernández-Zamudio

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive, vine and almond in rainfed farming systems are the most traditional crops in the large inland extensions of the Spanish Mediterranean. Their economic contributions enable farming activities to be maintained meaning that the villages remain inhabited. In the rainfed-farms in the Mediterranean regions it is possible to find only a certain proportion of the farms with some type of irrigation system. Given the water scarcity, the aim of this work is to determine the impact that an irrigationwater pricing policy would have on these regions, as outlined in the European Water Framework Directive. After analysing the direct effect water price would have on the net margin in these crops, demand functions have been obtained, applying the Multiattribute Utility Theory. The calculations, with reference to a farm that is representative of these regions, have been applied to two model scenarios, each with a different level of mechanization. Results show the impact on economic, social and environmental aspects of the pricing policy under the current water allotment. The work is completed by analysing the different contexts of irrigation-water availability on the farm. The study leads to the conclusion that increasing mechanization may be the most straightforward strategy to ensure the survival of these farms in the short to medium term if the current trend of increasing irrigation-water prices is consolidated.

  14. Representing Water Scarcity in Future Agricultural Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Jonathan M.; Lopez, Jose R.; Ruane, Alexander C.; Young, Charles A.; Scanlon, Bridget R.; Rosenzweig, Cynthia

    2017-01-01

    Globally, irrigated agriculture is both essential for food production and the largest user of water. A major challenge for hydrologic and agricultural research communities is assessing the sustainability of irrigated croplands under climate variability and change. Simulations of irrigated croplands generally lack key interactions between water supply, water distribution, and agricultural water demand. In this article, we explore the critical interface between water resources and agriculture by motivating, developing, and illustrating the application of an integrated modeling framework to advance simulations of irrigated croplands. We motivate the framework by examining historical dynamics of irrigation water withdrawals in the United States and quantitatively reviewing previous modeling studies of irrigated croplands with a focus on representations of water supply, agricultural water demand, and impacts on crop yields when water demand exceeds water supply. We then describe the integrated modeling framework for simulating irrigated croplands, which links trends and scenarios with water supply, water allocation, and agricultural water demand. Finally, we provide examples of efforts that leverage the framework to improve simulations of irrigated croplands as well as identify opportunities for interventions that increase agricultural productivity, resiliency, and sustainability.

  15. Is the available cropland and water enough for food demand? A global perspective of the Land-Water-Food nexus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ibarrola-Rivas, M. J.; Granados-Ramirez, R.; Nonhebel, S.

    2017-01-01

    Land and water are essential local resources for food production but are limited. The main drivers of increasing food demand are population growth and dietary changes, which depend on the socioeconomic situation of the population. These two factors affect the availability of local resources:

  16. DataBase on Demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aparicio, R Gaspar; Gomez, D; Wojcik, D; Coz, I Coterillo

    2012-01-01

    At CERN a number of key database applications are running on user-managed MySQL database services. The database on demand project was born out of an idea to provide the CERN user community with an environment to develop and run database services outside of the actual centralised Oracle based database services. The Database on Demand (DBoD) empowers the user to perform certain actions that had been traditionally done by database administrators, DBA's, providing an enterprise platform for database applications. It also allows the CERN user community to run different database engines, e.g. presently open community version of MySQL and single instance Oracle database server. This article describes a technology approach to face this challenge, a service level agreement, the SLA that the project provides, and an evolution of possible scenarios.

  17. Managing Water Demand

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The International Development Research Centre (IDRC) is a public ... Initiated in June 2004, WaDImena promotes effective water governance by enhancing ..... In agriculture, the source of water and the costs of abstraction are key to valuation.

  18. A leader-follower-interactive method for regional water resources management with considering multiple water demands and eco-environmental constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yizhong; Lu, Hongwei; Li, Jing; Ren, Lixia; He, Li

    2017-05-01

    This study presents the mathematical formulation and implementations of a synergistic optimization framework based on an understanding of water availability and reliability together with the characteristics of multiple water demands. This framework simultaneously integrates a set of leader-followers-interactive objectives established by different decision makers during the synergistic optimization. The upper-level model (leader's one) determines the optimal pollutants discharge to satisfy the environmental target. The lower-level model (follower's one) accepts the dispatch requirement from the upper-level one and dominates the optimal water-allocation strategy to maximize economic benefits representing the regional authority. The complicated bi-level model significantly improves upon the conventional programming methods through the mutual influence and restriction between the upper- and lower-level decision processes, particularly when limited water resources are available for multiple completing users. To solve the problem, a bi-level interactive solution algorithm based on satisfactory degree is introduced into the decision-making process for measuring to what extent the constraints are met and the objective reaches its optima. The capabilities of the proposed model are illustrated through a real-world case study of water resources management system in the district of Fengtai located in Beijing, China. Feasible decisions in association with water resources allocation, wastewater emission and pollutants discharge would be sequentially generated for balancing the objectives subject to the given water-related constraints, which can enable Stakeholders to grasp the inherent conflicts and trade-offs between the environmental and economic interests. The performance of the developed bi-level model is enhanced by comparing with single-level models. Moreover, in consideration of the uncertainty in water demand and availability, sensitivity analysis and policy analysis are

  19. Community Knowledge about Water: Who Has Better Knowledge and Is This Associated with Water-Related Behaviors and Support for Water-Related Policies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela J Dean

    Full Text Available Sustainable approaches to water management require broad community acceptance of changes in policy, practice and technology, which in turn, requires an engaged community. A critical first step in building an engaged community is to identify community knowledge about water management, an issue rarely examined in research. To address this, we surveyed a representative sample of Australian adults (n = 5172. Knowledge was assessed using 15 questions about impact of household activities on waterways, the urban water cycle, and water management. This survey also examined demographics, psychosocial characteristics, exposure to water-related information, and water-related behaviors and policy support. Participants correctly answered a mean of 8.0 questions (Range 0-15. Most respondents knew that household actions can reduce water use and influence waterway health, whereas less than one third correctly identified that domestic wastewater is treated prior to entering waterways, urban stormwater is not treated, and that these are carried via different pipes. Higher water knowledge was associated with older age, higher education and living in non-urban areas. Poorer water knowledge was associated with speaking a language other than English in the home. Garden size, experience of water restrictions, satisfaction, waterway use for swimming, and certain information sources were also associated with knowledge. Greater water knowledge was associated with adoption of water-saving and pollution-reduction behaviors, and support for both alternative water sources and raingardens. These findings confirm the importance of community knowledge, and identify potential subgroups who may require additional targeting to build knowledge and support for water management initiatives.

  20. Community Knowledge about Water: Who Has Better Knowledge and Is This Associated with Water-Related Behaviors and Support for Water-Related Policies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Angela J; Fielding, Kelly S; Newton, Fiona J

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable approaches to water management require broad community acceptance of changes in policy, practice and technology, which in turn, requires an engaged community. A critical first step in building an engaged community is to identify community knowledge about water management, an issue rarely examined in research. To address this, we surveyed a representative sample of Australian adults (n = 5172). Knowledge was assessed using 15 questions about impact of household activities on waterways, the urban water cycle, and water management. This survey also examined demographics, psychosocial characteristics, exposure to water-related information, and water-related behaviors and policy support. Participants correctly answered a mean of 8.0 questions (Range 0-15). Most respondents knew that household actions can reduce water use and influence waterway health, whereas less than one third correctly identified that domestic wastewater is treated prior to entering waterways, urban stormwater is not treated, and that these are carried via different pipes. Higher water knowledge was associated with older age, higher education and living in non-urban areas. Poorer water knowledge was associated with speaking a language other than English in the home. Garden size, experience of water restrictions, satisfaction, waterway use for swimming, and certain information sources were also associated with knowledge. Greater water knowledge was associated with adoption of water-saving and pollution-reduction behaviors, and support for both alternative water sources and raingardens. These findings confirm the importance of community knowledge, and identify potential subgroups who may require additional targeting to build knowledge and support for water management initiatives.

  1. UV sensitivity of planktonic net community production in ocean surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regaudie-de-Gioux, Aurore; Agustí, Susana; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2014-05-01

    The net plankton community metabolism of oceanic surface waters is particularly important as it more directly affects the partial pressure of CO2 in surface waters and thus the air-sea fluxes of CO2. Plankton communities in surface waters are exposed to high irradiance that includes significant ultraviolet blue (UVB, 280-315 nm) radiation. UVB radiation affects both photosynthetic and respiration rates, increase plankton mortality rates, and other metabolic and chemical processes. Here we test the sensitivity of net community production (NCP) to UVB of planktonic communities in surface waters across contrasting regions of the ocean. We observed here that UVB radiation affects net plankton community production at the ocean surface, imposing a shift in NCP by, on average, 50% relative to the values measured when excluding partly UVB. Our results show that under full solar radiation, the metabolic balance shows the prevalence of net heterotrophic community production. The demonstration of an important effect of UVB radiation on NCP in surface waters presented here is of particular relevance in relation to the increased UVB radiation derived from the erosion of the stratospheric ozone layer. Our results encourage design future research to further our understanding of UVB effects on the metabolic balance of plankton communities.

  2. Bacterial communities associated with an occurrence of colored water in an urban drinking water distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hui Ting; Mi, Zi Long; Zhang, Jing Xu; Chen, Chao; Xie, Shu Guang

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate bacterial community in an urban drinking water distribution system (DWDS) during an occurrence of colored water. Variation in the bacterial community diversity and structure was observed among the different waters, with the predominance of Proteobacteria. While Verrucomicrobia was also a major phylum group in colored water. Limnobacter was the major genus group in colored water, but Undibacterium predominated in normal tap water. The coexistence of Limnobacter as well as Sediminibacterium and Aquabacterium might contribute to the formation of colored water. Copyright © 2014 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  3. Mapping Multi-Cropped Land Use to Estimate Water Demand Using the California Pesticide Reporting Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, W.; Baillie, M. N.; Martin, D.

    2017-12-01

    Detailed and dynamic land-use data is one of the biggest data deficiencies facing food and water security issues. Better land-use data results in improved integrated hydrologic models that are needed to look at the feedback between land and water use, specifically for adequately representing changes and dynamics in rainfall-runoff, urban and agricultural water demands, and surface fluxes of water (e.g., evapotranspiration, runoff, and infiltration). Currently, land-use data typically are compiled from annual (e.g., Crop Scape) or multi-year composites if mapped at all. While this approach provides information about interannual land-use practices, it does not capture the dynamic changes in highly developed agricultural lands prevalent in California agriculture such as (1) dynamic land-use changes from high frequency multi-crop rotations and (2) uncertainty in sub-annual crop distribution, planting times, and cropped areas. California has collected spatially distributed data for agricultural pesticide use since 1974 through the California Pesticide Information Portal (CalPIP). A method leveraging the CalPIP database has been developed to provide vital information about dynamic agricultural land use (e.g., crop distribution and planting times) and water demand issues in Salinas Valley, California, along the central coast. This 7 billion dollar/year agricultural area produces up to 50% of U.S. lettuce and broccoli. Therefore, effective and sustainable water resource development in the area must balance the needs of this essential industry, other beneficial uses, and the environment. This new tool provides a way to provide more dynamic crop data in hydrologic models. While the current application focuses on the Salinas Valley, the methods are extensible to all of California and other states with similar pesticide reporting. The improvements in representing variability in crop patterns and associated water demands increase our understanding of land-use change and

  4. Mechanisms of water supply and vegetation demand govern the seasonality and magnitude of evapotranspiration in Amazonia and Cerrado

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christoffersen, B.O.; Restrepo-Coupe, N.; Arain, M.A.; Baker, I.T.; Cestaro, B.P.; Ciais, P.; Fisher, J.B.; Galbraith, D.; Guan, X.; Hurk, van den B.; Kruijt, B.

    2014-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (E) in the Amazon connects forest function and regional climate via its role in precipitation recycling However, the mechanisms regulating water supply to vegetation and its demand for water remain poorly understood, especially during periods of seasonal water deficits In this

  5. The applied technologies to access clean water for remote communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabindra, I. B.

    2018-01-01

    A lot of research is done to overcome the remote communities to access clean water, yet very little is utilized and implemented by the community. Various reasons can probably be made for, which is the application of research results is assessed less practical. The aims of this paper is seeking a practical approach, how to establish criteria for the design can be easier applied, at the proper locations, the simple construction, effectively producing a volume and quality of clean water designation. The methods used in this paper is a technological model assessment of treatment/filtering clean water produced a variety of previous research, to establish a model of appropriate technology for remote communities. Various research results collected from the study of literature, while the identification of opportunities and threats to its application is done using a SWOT analysis. This article discussion is looking for alternative models of clean water filtration technology from the previous research results, to be selected as appropriate technology, easily applied and bring of many benefits to the remote communities. The conclusions resulting from the discussion in this paper, expected to be used as the basic criteria of design model of clean water filtration technologies that can be accepted and applied effectively by the remote communities.

  6. Hydrological and Water Quality Characteristics of Rivers Feeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FDC analysis showed that over 80% of the time, all rivers in the study area would not meet the target community's water demand, without the dams in place. Water quality assessments show biological contamination as the major water quality problem. Significant seasonal variation in water quality is evident, with the dry ...

  7. Overview, comparative assessment and recommendations of forecasting models for short-term water demand prediction

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anele, AO

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available -term water demand (STWD) forecasts. In view of this, an overview of forecasting methods for STWD prediction is presented. Based on that, a comparative assessment of the performance of alternative forecasting models from the different methods is studied. Times...

  8. ICT Solutions for Highly-Customized Water Demand Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, M.; Cominola, A.; Castelletti, A.; Fraternali, P.; Guardiola, J.; Barba, J.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Rizzoli, A. E.

    2016-12-01

    The recent deployment of smart metering networks is opening new opportunities for advancing the design of residential water demand management strategies (WDMS) relying on improved understanding of water consumers' behaviors. Recent applications showed that retrieving information on users' consumption behaviors, along with their explanatory and/or causal factors, is key to spot potential areas where targeting water saving efforts, and to design user-tailored WDMS. In this study, we explore the potential of ICT-based solutions in supporting the design and implementation of highly customized WDMS. On one side, the collection of consumption data at high spatial and temporal resolutions requires big data analytics and machine learning techniques to extract typical consumption features from the metered population of water users. On the other side, ICT solutions and gamifications can be used as effective means for facilitating both users' engagement and the collection of socio-psychographic users' information. This latter allows interpreting and improving the extracted profiles, ultimately supporting the customization of WDMS, such as awareness campaigns or personalized recommendations. Our approach is implemented in the SmartH2O platform and demonstrated in a pilot application in Valencia, Spain. Results show how the analysis of the smart metered consumption data, combined with the information retrieved from an ICT gamified web user portal, successfully identify the typical consumption profiles of the metered users and supports the design of alternative WDMS targeting the different users' profiles.

  9. Impact of lengthening open water season on food security in Alaska coastal communities: Global impacts may outweigh local "frontline" effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolph, R.; Mahoney, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Using ice concentration data from the Alaska Sea Ice Atlas from 1953-2013 for selected communities in Alaska, we find a consistent trend toward later freeze up and earlier breakup, leading a lengthened open water period. Such changes are often considered to bring a variety of "frontline" local impacts to Arctic coastal communities such as increased rates of coastal erosion. However, direct consequences of these changes to local food security (e.g. through impacts on subsistence activities and marine transport of goods) may be outweighed at least in the short term by the effects of large scale Arctic sea ice change coupled with global oil markets. For example, a later freeze-up might delay local hunters' transition from boats to snow-machines, but whether this trend will affect hunting success, especially in the next few years, is uncertain. Likewise, the magnitude of change in open water season length is unlikely to be sufficient to increase the frequency with which communities are served by barges. However, an expanding open water season throughout the Arctic has implications for the global economy, which can have indirect effects on local communities. In the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas, where rapid sea ice change has been accompanied by increased interest in oil and gas development, the U.S. Bureau of Ocean Energy Management currently requires drilling operations to cease 38 days prior to freeze up. Taking this into account, the lengthening open water season has effectively extended the drilling season for oil companies by 184% since the 1950s. If oil development goes ahead, local communities will likely experience a range of indirect impacts on food security due to increased vessel traffic and demand on infrastructure coupled with changes in local economies and employment opportunities. Increased likelihood of an oil spill in coastal waters also poses a significant threat to local food security. Thus, while Arctic coastal communities are already experiencing

  10. Meeting multiple demands: Water transaction opportunities for environmental benefits promoting adaptation to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Amy

    2015-04-01

    In arid regions, the challenge of balancing water use among a diversity of sectors expands in lock step with conditions of water stress that are exacerbated by climate variability, prolonged drought, and growing water-use demands. The elusiveness of achieving a sustainable balance under conditions of environmental change in the southwestern United States is evidenced by reductions in both overall water availability and freshwater ecosystem health, as well as by recent projections of shortages on the Colorado River within the next five years. The water sustainability challenge in this region, as well as drylands throughout the world, can therefore be viewed through the lens of water stress, a condition wherein demands on land and water -- including the needs of freshwater ecosystems -- exceed reliable supplies, and the full range of water needs cannot be met without tradeoffs across multiple uses. Water stress influences not only ecosystems, but a region's economy, land management, quality of life, and cultural heritage -- each of which requires water to thrive. With respect to promoting successful adaptation to climate change, achieving full water sustainability would allow for water to be successfully divided among water users -- including municipalities, agriculture, and freshwater ecosystems -- at a level that meets the goals of water users and the governing body. Over the last ten to fifteen years, the use of transactional approaches in the western U.S., Mexico, and Australia has proven to be a viable management tool for achieving stream flow and shallow aquifer restoration. By broad definition, environmental water transactions are an equitable and adaptable tool that brings diverse stakeholders to the table to facilitate a fair-market exchange of rights to use water in a manner that benefits both water users and the environment. This talk will present a basic framework of necessary stakeholder engagement, hydrologic conditions, enabling laws and policies

  11. Hydraulic Network Modelling of Small Community Water Distribution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof Anyata

    ... design of a small community (Sakwa) water distribution network in North Eastern geopolitical region of Nigeria using ..... self cleansing drinking water distribution system is set at 0.4m/s, .... distribution network offers advantages over manual ...

  12. Integrated modeling of water supply and demand under management options and climate change scenarios in Chifeng City, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu Hao; Ge Sun; Yongqiang Liu; Hong Qian

    2015-01-01

    Water resource management is becoming increasingly challenging in northern China because of the rapid increase in water demand and decline in water supply due to climate change. We provide a case study demonstrating the importance of integrated watershed management in sustaining water resources in Chifeng City, northern China. We examine the consequences of various...

  13. Avoiding toxicity from water-borne contaminants in hemodialysis: new challenges in an era of increased demand for water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Richard A

    2011-05-01

    Water is necessary for all hemodialysis treatments. However, drinking water contains a range of substances that are toxic to patients on hemodialysis. Thus, all dialysis facilities are equipped with a water treatment system that removes those substances from the water before it is used to prepare dialysate. Increased demand for water and ever-evolving drinking water regulations are leading to changes in drinking water quality that may compromise the ability of typical dialysis water treatment systems to adequately remove substances that are known to be toxic or to deal with unexpected increases in other substances of unknown toxicity. In addition to these external challenges to dialysis water quality, the growing recognition that microbial contaminants in dialysate contribute to long-term morbidity has led to more stringent microbiological quality standards for dialysate and a consequent need to control biofilm formation in the fluid pathways involved in dialysate preparation. Avoiding toxicity from water contaminants in this dynamic environment requires a comprehensive approach to water treatment, including flexibility regarding the choice of water treatment processes, close communication with the suppliers of drinking water, and an emphasis on training technicians responsible for monitoring and maintaining all aspects of the fluid handling systems. Copyright © 2011 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Pond and Irrigation Model (PIM): a tool for simultaneously evaluating pond water availability and crop irrigation demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Ouyang; Gary Feng; Theodor D. Leininger; John Read; Johnie N. Jenkins

    2018-01-01

    Agricultural ponds are an important alternative source of water for crop irrigation to conserve surface and ground water resources. In recent years more such ponds have been constructed in Mississippi and around the world. There is currently, however, a lack of a tool to simultaneously estimate crop irrigation demand and pond water availability. In this study, a Pond-...

  15. Bridging the climate-induced water gap in the twenty-first century: adaptation support based on water supply, demand, adaptation and financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straatsma, Menno; Droogers, Peter; Brandsma, Jaïrus; Buytaert, Wouter; Karssenberg, Derek; Van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Sutanudjaja, Edwin; Vitolo, Claudia; Schmitz, Oliver; Meijer, Karen; Van Aalst, Maaike; Bierkens, Marc

    2014-05-01

    Water scarcity affects large parts of the world. Over the course of the twenty-first century, water demand is likely to increase due to population growth and associated food production, and increased economic activity, while water supply is projected to decrease in many regions due to climate change. Despite recent studies that analyze the effect of climate change on water scarcity, e.g. using climate projections under representative concentration pathways (RCP) of the fifth assessment report of the IPCC (AR5), decision support for closing the water gap between now and 2100 does not exist at a meaningful scale and with a global coverage. In this study, we aimed (i) to assess the joint impact of climatic and socio-economic change on water scarcity, (ii) to integrate impact and potential adaptation in one workflow, (iii) to prioritize adaptation options to counteract water scarcity based on their financial, regional socio-economic and environmental implications, and (iv) to deliver all this information in an integrated user-friendly web-based service. To enable the combination of global coverage with local relevance, we aggregated all results for 1604 water provinces (food producing units) delineated in this study, which is five times smaller than previous food producing units. Water supply was computed using the PCR-GLOBWB hydrological and water resources model, parameterized at 5 arcminutes for the whole globe, excluding Antarctica and Greenland. We ran PCR-GLOBWB with a daily forcing derived from five different GCM models from the CMIP5 (GFDL-ESM2M, Hadgem2-ES, IPSL-CMA5-LR, MIROC-ESM-CHEM, NorESM1-M) that were bias corrected using observation-based WATCH data between 1960-1999. For each of the models all four RCPs (RCP 2.6, 4.5, 6.0, and 8.5) were run, producing the ensemble of 20 future projections. The blue water supply was aggregated per month and per water province. Industrial, domestic and irrigation water demands were computed for a limited number of

  16. Intrauterine growth retardation in Iowa communities with herbicide-contaminated drinking water supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munger, R.; Isacson, P.; Hu, S.; Burns, T.; Hanson, J.; Lynch, C.F.; Cherryholmes, K.; Van Dorpe, P.; Hausler, W.J.

    1997-01-01

    In a statewide survey of 856 Iowa municipal drinking water supplies in 1986-1987 the Rathbun rural water system was found to contain elevated levels of triazine herbicides. Rates of low birth weight, prematurity, and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) in live singleton births during the period 1984-1990 by women living in 13 communities served by the Rathbun water system were compared to other communities of similar size in the same Iowa counties. The Rathbun communities had a greater risk of IUGR than southern Iowa communities with other surface sources of drinking water (relative risk = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.3, 2.7). Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that levels of the herbicides atrazine, metolachlor, and cyanazine were each significant predictors of community IUGR rates in southern Iowa after controlling for several potentially confounding factors including maternal smoking and socioeconomic variables. The association with IUGR was strongest for atrazine, but all three herbicides were intercorrelated and the independent contributions of each to IUGR risk could not be determined. We conclude that communities in southern Iowa with drinking water supplies contaminated with herbicides have elevated rates of IUGR compared to neighboring communities with different water supplies. Because of the limitations of the ecologic design of this study, including aggregate rather than individual measures of exposure and limited ability to control for confounding factors related to source of drinking water and risk of IUGR, a strong causal relationship between any specific water contaminant and risk of IUGR cannot yet be inferred. The association between the water supplied to the Rathbun communities and the increased risk of IUGR should be considered a preliminary finding that needs to be verified by more detailed epidemiologic studies.

  17. Dew as an Adaptation Measure to Meet Agricultural and Reforestation Water Demand in a Changing Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszkiewicz, Marlene; Abou Najm, Majdi; Alameddine, Ibrahim; El Fadel, Mutasem

    2014-05-01

    Dew harvesting, believed to be an ancient technique, has recently re-emerged as a viable and sustainable water resource. Nightly yields are relatively low, yet non-negligible, and dew events occur more frequently than rainfall promoting its effectiveness, particularly in arid and semi-arid regions. In this study, we demonstrate how dew can be harvested and subsequently used for small-scale irrigation to meet agricultural and reforestation water demand. Polyethylene dew harvesting systems were constructed and placed in the field. Dew was harvested as a result of the radiative cooling during the night, thus allowing dew formation under conditions of high humidity. Condensed dew formed upon the planar surface was collected by gravity. Water demand for selected crops and trees within a pilot study area (Lebanon) was estimated using a deficit irrigation model. Simulations of water demand requirements of various plants and surfaces were performed and compared to dew volumes to assess the ability of the system to meet all or in part the plant water demands across seasons. Data from the polyethylene low-cost dew condensers have shown that within the pilot study, average nightly dew yields were 0.1 L m-2 of condensing surface with a maximum yield of 0.4 L m-2. Dew events occurred generally more frequently than precipitation events, with an estimated 40% of nights producing dew condensate. This translates to 50 mm of equivalent rainfall on average (during dew nights), with a maximum of 200 mm in one night, if one assumes using drip irrigation over a seedling within a 20 cm2 area. Using a simple deficit irrigation model, it was demonstrated that crops such as the tomato plant, which typically has a growing season during the dry summer, can potentially be irrigated solely by dew, thus eliminating the need for traditional irrigation sources. Similarly, young tree seedlings, such as the cedar tree, can depend upon dew as a primary water resource. Moreover, based on similar

  18. Determining water management training needs through stakeholder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa is a water-stressed country and the efficient management of the demand for and frugal use of water is a topic that can no longer be avoided. Community-based natural resource management is an alternative approach to government stewardship of natural resources, and in the instance of water management it is ...

  19. Community shift of biofilms developed in a full-scale drinking water distribution system switching from different water sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weiying; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Junpeng; Qiao, Yu; Xu, Chen; Liu, Yao; Qian, Lin; Li, Wenming; Dong, Bingzhi

    2016-02-15

    The bacterial community of biofilms in drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) with various water sources has been rarely reported. In this research, biofilms were sampled at three points (A, B, and C) during the river water source phase (phase I), the interim period (phase II) and the reservoir water source phase (phase III), and the biofilm community was determined using the 454-pyrosequencing method. Results showed that microbial diversity declined in phase II but increased in phase III. The primary phylum was Proteobacteria during three phases, while the dominant class at points A and B was Betaproteobacteria (>49%) during all phases, but that changed to Holophagae in phase II (62.7%) and Actinobacteria in phase III (35.6%) for point C, which was closely related to its water quality. More remarkable community shift was found at the genus level. In addition, analysis results showed that water quality could significantly affect microbial diversity together, while the nutrient composition (e.g. C/N ration) of the water environment might determine the microbial community. Furthermore, Mycobacterium spp. and Pseudomonas spp. were detected in the biofilm, which should give rise to attention. This study revealed that water source switching produced substantial impact on the biofilm community. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Water availability pollution and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, K.A.

    2001-01-01

    Water has played a very important role in the development of human society. Resources of water have shaped the development of people and nations. Management of water gave the birth to innovations and technologies. Our complex metropolitan civilization and advanced technologies have generated new demands for water. Its importance to society and government has never diminished. The growing concern over resources availability and a rapid spread of water pollution, the link between water supply and water quality have become more apparent. The global management of water demands economy in use, restricted chemical and sanitation emissions, population control, discouragement of urbanization and water pollution awareness can greatly assist in averting the water holocaust that the world is expecting to face in the years to come. The scientific community in Pakistan is required to diagnose these problems in a systematic way to give advance warning of expected water scarcity, water pollution, water related land degradation, urban growth and population to assure the water cycle integrity of our world. (author)

  1. Diversity and structure of Chironomidae communities in relation to water quality differences in the Swartkops River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odume, O. N.; Muller, W. J.

    The Swartkops River is an important freshwater ecosystem in South Africa. But owing to its location, it suffers varying degrees of human induced impacts which include industrial and domestic effluent discharges, deforestation as well as agricultural land use which have negatively impacted on the water quality. Diversity and community composition of aquatic insects are frequently used to assess environmental water quality status. Chironomids occupy extremely varied biotopes. Their extraordinary ecological range and environmental sensitivity make them particularly useful for assessing and interpreting changes in water quality of aquatic ecosystems. The community structure of chironomid larvae was investigated at four sites in the Swartkops River and effects of different chemical and physical variables on their distribution were explored. Chironomid larvae were collected using the South African Scoring System version 5 (SASS5) protocol. A total of 26 taxa from four sampling sites in the Swartkops River were identified. Margalef’s species richness index, equitability, Shannon and Simpson diversity indices were highest at site 1 (reference site). The downstream sites contained 6-20 taxa compared to the 25 taxa at site 1. Site 1 was characterised by the subfamilies Orthocladiinae, Tanypodinae and the tribe Tanytarsini while the impacted sites were characterised by Orthocladiinae and Chironomini. Chironomus spp., Dirotendipes sp., Kiefferulus sp. and Tanypus sp. seemed to be tolerant to pollution, occurring in high abundance at sites 2, 3 and 4. In contrast, Polypedilum sp., Tanytarsus sp., Orthocladius sp., Cricotopus spp. and Ablabesmyia sp. appeared to be more sensitive taxa, being less common at the impacted sites (sites 2, 3 and 4). Five days biochemical oxygen demand, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, orthophosphate-phosphorus and total inorganic nitrogen were among the important variables that determine the observed chironomid community structure

  2. Energy-Cost Optimisation in Water-Supply System

    OpenAIRE

    Farrukh Mahmood; Haider Ali

    2013-01-01

    Households as well as community water-supply systems for utilisation of underground aquifers are massive consumers of energy. Prevailing energy crisis and focus of the government on demand-side energy policies (i.e., energy conservation) in Pakistan raises need of using energy efficient techniques in almost every aspect of life. This paper analyses performance of community relative to household water-supply system in connection with efficient energy utilisation. Results suggest that total ope...

  3. A multi-criteria decision making approach to balance water supply-demand strategies in water supply systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géssica Maria Cambrainha

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Paper aims this paper proposes a model to aid a group of decision makers to establish a portfolio of feasible actions (alternatives that are able to balance water supply-demand strategies. Originality Long periods of water shortages cause problems in semi-arid region of northeast Brazil, which affects different sectors such as food, public health, among others. This problem situation is intensified by population growth. Therefore, this type of decision making is complex, and it needs to be solving by a structured model. Research method The model is based on a problem structuring method (PSM and a multi-criteria decision making (MCDM method. Main findings Due to society and government influences, the proposed model showed appropriate to conduct a robust and well-structured decision making. Implications for theory and practice The main contributions were the study in regions suffering from drought and water scarcity, as well as the combination of PSM and MCDM methods to aid in this problem.

  4. Future of Water Supply and Demand in the Middle Drâa Valley, Morocco, under Climate and Land Use Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene M. Johannsen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Regions of scarce fresh water resources, such as the Middle East and North Africa, are facing great challenges already today, and even more in the future, due to climatic and socioeconomic changes. The Middle Drâa valley in Morocco is one of many semi-arid to arid mountainous areas struggling with increasing water scarcity threatening self-sufficient husbandry. In order to maintain people’s livelihoods water management needs to be adapted. The Water Evaluation And Planning System (WEAP software has been widely used to examine complex water systems in the water resource planning sector all around the world and proved to be a helpful asset to show the various interactions of water supply and demand. This paper presents the application of WEAP on the Middle Draâ valley’s water demand and supply, including several socioeconomic and land use scenarios under one basic climate change scenario. The climate scenario shows a significant decrease in available water resources up to 2029 while all socioeconomic scenarios show an increase in water demand. In years of droughts groundwater is used for irrigation, leading to increasingly depleted aquifers. The aquifers are recharged by percolation losses from irrigation and by river bed infiltration the latter of which is stronger in the northern oases than in the southern oases due to water withdrawal rules. A drastic reduction of irrigated agricultural area is the only solution to guarantee sustainable water use.

  5. the impact of community participation in rural water management in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2016-04-14

    Apr 14, 2016 ... underdeveloped areas with poor water resources. ... rural water management is purportedly a key element for community water pro ects to ..... inclusive and integrated approach to water ... Implementation: A regional response.

  6. Assessment of Climate Change Impacts on Agricultural Water Demands and Crop Yields in California's Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansey, M. K.; Flores-Lopez, F.; Young, C. A.; Huntington, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    Long term planning for the management of California's water resources requires assessment of the effects of future climate changes on both water supply and demand. Considerable progress has been made on the evaluation of the effects of future climate changes on water supplies but less information is available with regard to water demands. Uncertainty in future climate projections increases the difficulty of assessing climate impacts and evaluating long range adaptation strategies. Compounding the uncertainty in the future climate projections is the fact that most readily available downscaled climate projections lack sufficient meteorological information to compute evapotranspiration (ET) by the widely accepted ASCE Penman-Monteith (PM) method. This study addresses potential changes in future Central Valley water demands and crop yields by examining the effects of climate change on soil evaporation, plant transpiration, growth and yield for major types of crops grown in the Central Valley of California. Five representative climate scenarios based on 112 bias corrected spatially downscaled CMIP 3 GCM climate simulations were developed using the hybrid delta ensemble method to span a wide range future climate uncertainty. Analysis of historical California Irrigation Management Information System meteorological data was combined with several meteorological estimation methods to compute future solar radiation, wind speed and dew point temperatures corresponding to the GCM projected temperatures and precipitation. Future atmospheric CO2 concentrations corresponding to the 5 representative climate projections were developed based on weighting IPCC SRES emissions scenarios. The Land, Atmosphere, and Water Simulator (LAWS) model was used to compute ET and yield changes in the early, middle and late 21st century for 24 representative agricultural crops grown in the Sacramento, San Joaquin and Tulare Lake basins. Study results indicate that changes in ET and yield vary

  7. On the Behavior of Different PCMs in a Hot Water Storage Tank against Thermal Demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porteiro, Jacobo; Míguez, José Luis; Crespo, Bárbara; de Lara, José; Pousada, José María

    2016-03-21

    Advantages, such as thermal storage improvement, are found when using PCMs (Phase Change Materials) in storage tanks. The inclusion of three different types of materials in a 60 l test tank is studied. Two test methodologies were developed, and four tests were performed following each methodology. A thermal analysis is performed to check the thermal properties of each PCM. The distributions of the water temperatures inside the test tanks are evaluated by installing four Pt-100 sensors at different heights. A temperature recovery is observed after exposing the test tank to an energy demand. An energetic analysis that takes into account the energy due to the water temperature, the energy due to the PCM and the thermal loss to the ambient environment is also presented. The percentage of each PCM that remains in the liquid state after the energy demand is obtained.

  8. Functional forms and price elasticities in a discrete continuous choice model of the residential water demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez Lavín, F. A.; Hernandez, J. I.; Ponce, R. D.; Orrego, S. A.

    2017-07-01

    During recent decades, water demand estimation has gained considerable attention from scholars. From an econometric perspective, the most used functional forms include log-log and linear specifications. Despite the advances in this field and the relevance for policymaking, little attention has been paid to the functional forms used in these estimations, and most authors have not provided justifications for their selection of functional forms. A discrete continuous choice model of the residential water demand is estimated using six functional forms (log-log, full-log, log-quadratic, semilog, linear, and Stone-Geary), and the expected consumption and price elasticity are evaluated. From a policy perspective, our results highlight the relevance of functional form selection for both the expected consumption and price elasticity.

  9. Economic analysis of the water demand in the hotels and restaurants sector: Shadow prices and elasticities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, Ana; Atwi, Majed; Barberán, Ramón; Mur, Jesús

    2014-08-01

    Despite the growing economic importance of tourism, and its impact on relative water shortage, little is known about the role that water plays in the productive process of hotels and restaurants and, therefore, the possible implications of water demand management policy for this sector. This study aims to fill this gap. It is based on the microdata of 676 firms in the sector, operating in the city of Zaragoza (Spain) for a 12 year period. Based on the Translog cost function, we estimate the shadow price of water in the short run and, from a long-run perspective, its direct price elasticity, its cross elasticities relative to labor, capital, and supplies, and its elasticity with respect to the level of output. The results obtained show that water provides sector firms returns that are on average higher than its price, although in the case of hotels the margin is really narrow. This situation provides policy makers with a margin for applying price increases without affecting the sector's viability, with some caution in the case of hotels. Water demand elasticity equals -0.38 in the case of hotels, but it is not significant in the case of restaurants and bar-cafes; hence, only in hotels is there potential for influencing water use patterns, encouraging the resource's conservation through pricing policy. Moreover, capital is a substitutive factor of water, and the elasticity of water with respect to output is 0.40, all of which should also be considered by policy makers in water resource management.

  10. Community Response and Engagement During Extreme Water Events in Saskatchewan, Canada and Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMartin, Dena W.; Sammel, Alison J.; Arbuthnott, Katherine

    2018-01-01

    Technology alone cannot address the challenges of how societies, communities, and individuals understand water accessibility, water management, and water consumption, particularly under extreme conditions like floods and droughts. At the community level, people are increasingly aware challenges related to responses to and impacts of extreme water events. This research begins with an assessment of social and political capacities of communities in two Commonwealth jurisdictions, Queensland, Australia and Saskatchewan, Canada, in response to major flooding events. The research further reviews how such capacities impact community engagement to address and mitigate risks associated with extreme water events and provides evidence of key gaps in skills, understanding, and agency for addressing impacts at the community level. Secondary data were collected using template analysis to elucidate challenges associated with education (formal and informal), social and political capacity, community ability to respond appropriately, and formal government responses to extreme water events in these two jurisdictions. The results indicate that enhanced community engagement alongside elements of an empowerment model can provide avenues for identifying and addressing community vulnerability to negative impacts of flood and drought.

  11. Water demand management in Malawi: problems and prospects for its promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulwafu, W.; Chipeta, C.; Chavula, G.; Ferguson, A.; Nkhoma, B. G.; Chilima, G.

    This paper discusses the status of water demand management (WDM) in Malawi. Findings from the study indicate that, while WDM is highly advocated in the urban and peri-urban areas, very few aspects of WDM are practiced in the rural areas. The water pricing structure that the supplying institutions established serves as a disincentive for water wastages in the urban areas. Both private firms and individuals use various measures to conserve water as a way of minimizing water consumption. The motives for water conservation range from profit maximization to inadequate financial resources to meet the costs of water respectively. In the rural areas where water is supplied at no cost, the people tend to pay less attention to water conservation. In cases where water providers attempted to institute factors of cost sharing, the rural inhabitants tended to be reluctant to contribute. This is so because people view water as a social good that should be supplied to them free of charge. The paper demonstrates that although some aspects of WDM are being practiced in the country, the existing conditions on the ground militate against its increased expansion as a strategy for promoting an efficient and equitable use of existing water resources. A large section of the population still lack access to potable water and the Malawi government is committed to the provision of basic water services. Yet WDM will become even more critical in future because of the growing competition for water resources, particularly due to the growing population and the increasing economic activities such as farming, industrialization and urbanization. The paper argues that despite the promising benefits that WDM has, its promotion must necessarily be infused with ideas of water supply, considering that the largest population still lacks access to potable water. Coupled with this will be the need for a proper policy framework that promotes public awareness for people to start appreciating the economic value

  12. Exploring Community-Oriented Approaches in Demand Side Management Projects in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Mengolini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to investigate if the theoretical and political trends towards a more collective dimension of energy use are reflected in the design and development of demand side management (DSM pilot projects in Europe. Specifically, the paper analyses DSM projects in the database of the Joint Research Centre (JRC of the European Commission to capture signs of a new attention towards the wider context in which consumers live and towards the social dimension associated with energy consumption. To this end, the paper investigates the projects’ scope (in terms of project’s partners, end-use sectors and targeted services as well as the consumer engagement strategies that projects use. These elements reflect the projects’ consideration for the socio-economic dimension of the community where the pilots take place and their inclination to build on community dynamics. The analysis shows that DSM projects in the EU are increasingly being designed and developed with a collegial approach to energy consumption in mind, although an integrated approach is still missing. In addition, research is still needed to link the use of this innovative approach to project results. A closer look at the developments and results of these projects can help to identify what works and what doesn’t in real life experiences, thus supporting effective policy making at the EU and national level.

  13. Stochastic weather inputs for improved urban water demand forecasting: application of nonlinear input variable selection and machine learning methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilty, J.; Adamowski, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Urban water supply systems are often stressed during seasonal outdoor water use as water demands related to the climate are variable in nature making it difficult to optimize the operation of the water supply system. Urban water demand forecasts (UWD) failing to include meteorological conditions as inputs to the forecast model may produce poor forecasts as they cannot account for the increase/decrease in demand related to meteorological conditions. Meteorological records stochastically simulated into the future can be used as inputs to data-driven UWD forecasts generally resulting in improved forecast accuracy. This study aims to produce data-driven UWD forecasts for two different Canadian water utilities (Montreal and Victoria) using machine learning methods by first selecting historical UWD and meteorological records derived from a stochastic weather generator using nonlinear input variable selection. The nonlinear input variable selection methods considered in this work are derived from the concept of conditional mutual information, a nonlinear dependency measure based on (multivariate) probability density functions and accounts for relevancy, conditional relevancy, and redundancy from a potential set of input variables. The results of our study indicate that stochastic weather inputs can improve UWD forecast accuracy for the two sites considered in this work. Nonlinear input variable selection is suggested as a means to identify which meteorological conditions should be utilized in the forecast.

  14. Culture -independent Pathogenic Bacterial Communities in Bottled Mineral Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdy A. Hassan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Bottled mineral water (BMW is an alternative to mains water and consider it to be better and safer. Access to safe BMW from the bacteria involving potential health hazard is essential to health. Cultivation-independent technique PCR-based single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP for genetic profiling of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes was performed using Com primer set targeting the 16S rRNA genes for detection of pathogenic bacteria in bottled mineral water from the final product of six factories for bottled mineral drinking water in Wadi El-natron region- Egypt. These factories use often ozone technology to treat large quantities of water because of its effectiveness in purifying and conditioning water. A total of 27 single products were isolated from the profiles by PCR re-amplification and cloning. Sequence analysis of 27 SSCP bands revealed that the 16S rRNA sequences were clustered into seven operational taxonomic units (OTUs and the compositions of the communities of the six samples were all common. The results showed that most communities from phyla Alphaproteobacteria and certainly in the Sphingomonas sp. Culture-independent approaches produced complementary information, thus generating a more accurate view for the bacterial community in the BMW, particularly in the disinfection step, as it constitutes the final barrier before BMW distribution to the consumer

  15. A survey of the community water supply of some communities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    oil companies operating in the communities (24.72%). ... The importance of water in the maintenance of life and health makes it an essential .... Protected hand-dug well. 0. 6. 6. 3. .... synergy stems from the fact that both work together to reduce.

  16. Evaluating the effects of granular and membrane filtrations on chlorine demand in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegatheesan, Veeriah; Kim, Seung Hyun; Joo, C K; Gao, Baoyu

    2009-01-01

    In this study, chlorine decay experiments were conducted for the raw water from Nakdong River that is treated by Chilseo Water Treatment Plant (CWTP) situated in Haman, Korea as well as the effluents from sand and granular activated carbon (GAC) filters of CWTP and fitted using a chlorine decay model. The model estimated the fast and slow reacting nitrogenous as well as organic/inorganic compounds that were present in the water. It was found that the chlorine demand due to fast and slow reacting (FRA and SRA) organic/inorganic substances was not reduced significantly by sand as well as GAC filters. However, the treated effluents from those filters contained FRA and SRA that are less reactive and had small reaction rate constants. For the effluents from microfiltration, ultrafiltration, and nanofiltration the chlorine demand because FRA and SRA were further reduced but the reaction rate constants were larger compared to those of sand and GAC filter effluents. This has implications in the formation of disinfection by products (DBPs). If DBPs are assumed to form due to the interactions between chlorine and SRA, then it is possible that the DBP formation potential in the effluents from membrane filtrations could be higher than that in the effluents from granular media filters.

  17. Balancing competing water needs in Morocco's Saiss basin

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    CCAA

    to meet the needs, a research team led by Al Akhawayn University is working with local communities and authorities to examine whether managing the demand for water can protect the basin's future in the context of growth and climate change. The focus of ... cases pitting upstream communities against their downstream.

  18. On the Behavior of Different PCMs in a Hot Water Storage Tank against Thermal Demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobo Porteiro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Advantages, such as thermal storage improvement, are found when using PCMs (Phase Change Materials in storage tanks. The inclusion of three different types of materials in a 60 l test tank is studied. Two test methodologies were developed, and four tests were performed following each methodology. A thermal analysis is performed to check the thermal properties of each PCM. The distributions of the water temperatures inside the test tanks are evaluated by installing four Pt-100 sensors at different heights. A temperature recovery is observed after exposing the test tank to an energy demand. An energetic analysis that takes into account the energy due to the water temperature, the energy due to the PCM and the thermal loss to the ambient environment is also presented. The percentage of each PCM that remains in the liquid state after the energy demand is obtained.

  19. Impact on diarrhoeal illness of a community educational intervention to improve drinking water quality in rural communities in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramírez Toro Graciela I

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Waterborne disease is a major risk for small water supplies in rural settings. This study was done to assess the impact of an educational intervention designed to improve water quality and estimate the contribution of water to the incidence of diarrhoeal disease in poor rural communities in Puerto Rico a two-part study was undertaken. Methods An educational intervention was delivered to communities relying on community water supplies. This intervention consisted of student operators and administrators supervising and assisting community members who voluntarily "operate" these systems. These voluntary operators had no previous training and were principally concerned with seeing that some water was delivered. The quality of that water was not something they either understood or addressed. The impact of this intervention was measured through water sampling for standard bacteriological indicators and a frank pathogen. In addition, face-to-face epidemiological studies designed to determine the base-line occurrence of diarrhoeal disease in the communities were conducted. Some 15 months after the intervention a further epidemiological study was conducted in both the intervention communities and in control communities that had not received any intervention. Results Diarrhoeal illness rates over a four week period prior to the intervention were 3.5%. Salmonella was isolated from all of 5 distributed samples prior to intervention and from only 2 of 12 samples after the intervention. In the 15 months follow-up study, illness rates were lower in the intervention compared to control communities (2.5% vs 3.6%% (RR = 0.70, 95%CI 0.43, 1.15, though this was not statistically significant. However, in the final Poisson regression model living in an intervention system (RR = 0.318; 95%CI 0.137 - 0.739 and owning a dog (RR = 0.597, 95%CI 0.145 - 0.962 was negatively associated with illness. Whilst size of system (RR = 1.006, 95%CI 1.001 - 1

  20. A study of water pump efficiency for household water demand at Lubuklinggau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emiliawati, Anna

    2017-11-01

    Water pump is a device to transport liquid from one place to another. This device is used in most of household in Indonesia. Small-scale water pump which is effective to lift more discharge is generally used. The ones that are most preferred are centrifugal types which having low absorbability. Pump performance is limited by pressure level in real electrical power whereas pump efficiency is influenced by head and discharge. The research aims to find out the efficiency of five distinct brands of home water pumps which are broadly distributed in market. Efficiency analysis take by laboratorium and financial analysis using NPV and BCR are done in order to obtained dicharge and pressure from each pump. At the end of the research, one out of 5 home water pump brands will be selected as the optimal working home water pump with low operational expense based on the utilizing age. The result of the research shows that the maximum efficiency value among various brands of water pump is diverse. Each value is arranged as follow from water pump A to E orderly: 12,9%, 13,5%, 12,8%, 14,8%, and 3,4%. From the calculation, water demand of South Lubuklinggau at stage 1 is 1117,7 l/s and stage 2 is 3495,2 l/s.. Moreover, the researcher conducts of investment, operation and maintenance cost with 25 years pump utilizing age towards 2 conditions (1) of maximum efficiency, i.e. pump A Rp16.563.971; pump B Rp12.163.798; pump C Rp11.809.513,2; pump D Rp11.473.928,3; pump E Rp12.648.708,3; (2) of max discharge, i.e. pump A Rp111.993.822,8; pump B Rp26.128.845,1; pump C Rp51.697.208,8; pump D Rp51.098.687,4; pump E Rp22.915.952,7;Financial analysis with interest rate 13% show a positive NPV(+) for all pump except pump A in max efficiency and a negative NPV (-) for all except pump B in max discharge. BCR value for max efficiency are pump A 0,8; pump B 1,6; pump C 1,7; pump D 1,7 and pump E 1,3. And for max discharge are pump A 0,2; pump B 1,1; pump C 0,7; pump D 0,7 and pump E 0,9. Result

  1. The Ambiguity of Community: Debating Alternatives to Private-Sector Provision of Urban Water Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Bakker

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of community has become increasingly important in debates over alternatives to privatisation, and is invoked by both proponents and opponents of private sector provision of water supply. This paper presents a critique of the concept of community water supply when it is invoked as an alternative to privatisation. The analysis presents a typology of proposals for community ownership and governance of water supply, and proceeds to critique some of the flawed assumptions in the concepts of community deployed in these proposals, together with references to more general debates about the viability of the 'commons' as enacted through community-controlled water supply systems. The paper closes with a brief discussion of the future evolution of the debate over 'community' alternatives to privatisation, focusing on water supply.

  2. Upper Arctic Ocean water masses harbor distinct communities of heterotrophic flagellates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Monier

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The ubiquity of heterotrophic flagellates (HFL in marine waters has been recognized for several decades, but the phylogenetic diversity of these small (ca. 0.8–20 μm cell diameter, mostly phagotrophic protists in the upper pelagic zone of the ocean is underappreciated. Community composition of microbes, including HFL, is the result of past and current environmental selection, and different taxa may be indicative of food webs that cycle carbon and energy very differently. While all oceanic water columns can be density stratified due to the temperature and salinity characteristics of different water masses, the Arctic Ocean is particularly well stratified, with nutrients often limiting in surface waters and most photosynthetic biomass confined to a subsurface chlorophyll maximum layer, where light and nutrients are both available. This physically well-characterized system provided an opportunity to explore the community diversity of HFL from different water masses within the water column. We used high-throughput DNA sequencing techniques as a rapid means of surveying the diversity of HFL communities in the southern Beaufort Sea (Canada, targeting the surface, the subsurface chlorophyll maximum layer (SCM and just below the SCM. In addition to identifying major clades and their distribution, we explored the micro-diversity within the globally significant but uncultivated clade of marine stramenopiles (MAST-1 to examine the possibility of niche differentiation within the stratified water column. Our results strongly suggested that HFL community composition was determined by water mass rather than geographical location across the Beaufort Sea. Future work should focus on the biogeochemical and ecological repercussions of different HFL communities in the face of climate-driven changes to the physical structure of the Arctic Ocean.

  3. Structure of Mesozooplankton Communities in the Coastal Waters of Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidvanov, V. V.; Grabko, O. G.; Kukuev, E. I.; Korolkova, T. G.

    2018-03-01

    Mero- and holoplanktonic organisms from 23 large taxa have been detected in the coastal waters of Morocco. Seven Cladocera species and 164 Copepoda species were identified. Copepod fauna mostly consisted of oceanic epipelagic widely tropical species, but the constant species group (frequency of occurrence over 50%) included neritic and neritic-oceanic widely tropical species. The neritic community that formed a biotopic association with coastal upwelling waters and the distant-neritic community associated with Canary Current waters were the two major communities detected. The former community was characterized by a high abundance and biomass (5700 ind./m3 and 260 mg/m3) and predominance of neritic species. The trophic structure was dominated by thin filter feeders, mixed-food consumers, and small grabbers; the species structure was dominated by Paracalanus indicus, Acartia clausi, and Oncaea curta; the indices of species diversity (3.07 bit/ind.) and evenness (0.63) were relatively low. The latter community was characterized by low abundance and biomass (1150 ind./m3 and 90 mg/m3); variable biotopic, trophic, and species structure; and higher Shannon indices (3.99 bit/ind.) and Pielou (0.75). Seasonal variation of the abundance of organisms was not detected in the communities. Anomalous mesozooplankton states were observed in summer 1998 and winter 1998-1999.

  4. Determination of hourly contract heat and water flow and demand of the tariffs; Tuntinen tilaustehon ja -vesivirran maeaeritys ja tariffien vaatimukset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hippinen, I.; Pirhonen, J.; Ahtila, P. [Helsinki University of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland); Maekelae, V.M. [Komartek Oy, Lappeenranta (Finland)

    2000-07-01

    This is the final report of the research project 'Determination of hourly contract heat and water flow and demand of the tariffs', which was carried out by the Helsinki University of Technology and Komartek Oy. The report consists of two parts. Part A presents the study of the Helsinki University of Technology, in which the consumption of domestic hot water in different size houses were clarified. Part B presents the tariff calculations carried out by Komartek Oy. In the part of the Helsinki University of Technology, the consumption of hot household water has been measured in different sized houses in order to determine their real demand of district heat and heat exhanger capacity. Including earlier measurements, measurements were carried out in 35 buildings. The size of the houses varied from a two-family house to a house of 204 flats. The domestic hot water flows and water temperatures to and from the heat exchanger were measured continuously during periods of a day and a week. To find out the congruence between reality and the dimensioning standards, the measurement results have been compared with the current dimensioning standards. It became evident in the study, that the current dimensioning standards are considerably oversized. Measured maximum heat consumptions were in general less than half of the dimensioned maximums. Operation times for the maximum loads were very short timed, ranging from some tens of seconds to a couple of minutes. The maximum peak loads were either in the mornings or in the evenings. However, no special week-days with clear maximum loads were found during week measurements. In second part was studied how the domestic hot water consumption will influence on the incomes of a DH company and payments of different kinds of customers. Domestic hot water was calculated as a one hour maximum. It was found out that there were outstanding differences in payments of different sizes of customers between different tariffs when the total

  5. Water scarcity in the Arabian Peninsula and socio-economic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odhiambo, George O.

    2017-09-01

    The Arabian Gulf, one of the driest parts of the world, is already passing the water scarcity line as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO). The scarcity of renewable water resources and the growing discrepancy between demand and supply of water is a major challenge. Water scarcity is further worsened by rapidly growing demands due to rapid population growth, unsustainable consumption, climate change and weak management institutions and regulations. Water scarcity erodes the socio-economic sustainability of the communities that depend on the depleting storage. In this paper, an analysis of the water security situation within the Arabian Gulf region and the consequent socio-economic implications is presented.

  6. Water quality and communities associated with macrophytes in a shallow water-supply reservoir on an aquaculture farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipaúba-Tavares, L H; Dias, S G

    2014-05-01

    Plankton communities and macrofauna associated to aquatic macrophyte stands in a shallow water-supply reservoir (21°14'09″S; 48°18'38″W) on an aquaculture farm were compared to evaluate the relationship between organism densities and some abiotic features of the reservoir. Water and communities associated were sampled at two sites, one in an area with the predominance of Eichhornia azurea (Sw.) Kunth and the other with the predominance of Salvinia auriculata Aublet. Communities associated with macrophytes were sampled with floating quadrants (0.5 m2); the macrophytes were washed and plankton and macrofauna were fixated with 4% formalin and 1% lugol iodine; the specimens were then identified and counted. Plankton and macrofauna communities associated with S. auriculata and E. azurea had a similar diversity of species but different (pmacrophytes presence in the shallow reservoir is a strong predictor of favourable conditions to maintain great diversity plankton community and macrofauna associated with plants. The role of macrophytes is important for not only stabilising the clear-water state and maintaining high diversity of organisms associated, but also it seems to be a good alternative to maintaining desirable water-supply quality for aquaculture farms.

  7. Drinking water quality in a Mexico city university community: perception and preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-García, Ana C; Díaz-Ávalos, Carlos; González-Villarreal, Fernando J; Val-Segura, Rafael; Malvaez-Orozco, Velvet; Mazari-Hiriart, Marisa

    2015-03-01

    A transversal study was conducted at the University City campus of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) in Mexico City, with the goal of estimating the university community preference for drinking either tap water or bottled water and the reasons for their selection. A representative sample of three university community subpopulations (students, workers/administrative staff, and academic personnel) were interviewed with respect to their water consumption habits. The results showed that 75% of the university community drinks only bottled water and that the consumption of tap water is low. The interviewees responded that the main reason for this preference is the organoleptic features of tap water independent of quality. In general, the participants in this study do not trust the quality of the tap water, which could be caused by the facilities that distribute bottled water encouraging a general disinterest in learning about the origin and management of the tap water that is distributed on campus.

  8. Vegetative Propagule Pressure and Water Depth Affect Biomass and Evenness of Submerged Macrophyte Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Li; Wang, Yong-Yang; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Pu; Zhang, Ming-Xiang; Yu, Fei-Hai

    2015-01-01

    Vegetative propagule pressure may affect the establishment and structure of aquatic plant communities that are commonly dominated by plants capable of clonal growth. We experimentally constructed aquatic communities consisting of four submerged macrophytes (Hydrilla verticillata, Ceratophyllum demersum, Elodea nuttallii and Myriophyllum spicatum) with three levels of vegetative propagule pressure (4, 8 and 16 shoot fragments for communities in each pot) and two levels of water depth (30 cm and 70 cm). Increasing vegetative propagule pressure and decreasing water level significantly increased the growth of the submerged macrophyte communities, suggesting that propagule pressure and water depth should be considered when utilizing vegetative propagules to re-establish submerged macrophyte communities in degraded aquatic ecosystems. However, increasing vegetative propagule pressure and decreasing water level significantly decreased evenness of the submerged macrophyte communities because they markedly increased the dominance of H. verticillata and E. nuttallii, but had little impact on that of C. demersum and M. spicatum. Thus, effects of vegetative propagule pressure and water depth are species-specific and increasing vegetative propagule pressure under lower water level can facilitate the establishment success of submerged macrophyte communities.

  9. Marital and Family Satisfaction as a Function of Work-Family Demands and Community Resources: Individual- and Couple-Level Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostetler, Andrew J.; Desrochers, Stephan; Kopko, Kimberly; Moen, Phyllis

    2012-01-01

    This study uses individual- and couple-level analyses to examine the influence of work-family demands and community resources on marital and family satisfaction within a sample of dual-earner parents with dependent children (N = 260 couples, 520 individuals). Total couple work hours were strongly negatively associated with marital satisfaction for…

  10. Method for predicting water demand for crop uses in New Jersey in 1990, 2000, 2010, and 2020, and for estimating water use for livestock and selected sectors of the food-processing industry in New Jersey in 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clawges, R.M.; Titus, E.O.

    1993-01-01

    A method was developed to predict water demand for crop uses in New Jersey. A separate method was developed to estimate water use for livestock and selected sectors of the food-processing industry in 1987. Predictions of water demand for field- grown crops in New Jersey were made for 1990, 2000, 2010, and 2020 under three climatological scenarios: (1) wet year, (2) average year, and (3) drought year. These estimates ranged from 4.10 times 10 to the 9th power to 16.82 times 10 to the 9th power gal (gallons). Irrigation amounts calculated for the three climatological scenarios by using a daily water-balance model were multiplied by predicted numbers of irrigated acreage. Irrigated acreage was predicted from historical crop-irrigation data and from predictions of harvested acreage produced by using a statistical model relating population to harvested acreage. Predictions of water demand for cranberries and container-grown nursery crops also were made for 1990, 2000, 2010, and 2020. Predictions of water demand under the three climatological scenarios were made for container- grown nursery crops, but not for cranberries, because water demand for cranberries varies little in response to climatological factors. Water demand for cranberries was predicted to remain constant at 4.43 times 10 to the 9th power gal through the year 2020. Predictions of water demand for container-grown nursery crops ranged from 1.89 times 10 to the 9th power to 3.63 times 10 to the 9th power gal. Water-use for livestock in 1987 was estimated to be 0.78 times 10 to the 9th power gal, and water use for selected sectors of the food-processing industry was estimated to be 3.75 times 10 to the 9th power gal.

  11. Effect of type of water supply on water quality in a developing community in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Genthe, Bettina

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to provide water to developing communities in South Africa have resulted in various types of water supplies being used. This study examined the relationship between the type of water supply and the quality of water used. Source (communal...

  12. Environmental taxation and industrial water use in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Vallés-Giménez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Spanish Water Act, 2001 shifted responsibility for wastewater treatment from municipal to regional government, and as a consequence the Autonomous Communities have begun to levy a Sanitation Charge, apparently with environmental objectives. Industrial demand for water in Aragon is estimated in this paper using a double logarithmic model with panel data to establish whether regional Sanitation Charges rationalise water consumption. The key explanatory variable is the Sanitation Charge, in addition to the water supply charges payable in the towns and cities of Aragon and other variables which capture the characteristics of the firms in the sample. The reduction in water demand achieved appears to be due to the environmental charge rather than to any actual increase in firms’ water costs.

  13. Water availability and demand in West Africa in the 21st century: impacts of climate change and population growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisser, Dominik; Oyerinde, Ganiyu; Ibrahim, Moussa; Ibrahim, Boubacar

    2014-05-01

    The countries in West Africa are highly dependent on rainfed agriculture. Changes in the magnitude and timing of precipitation will affect the agricultural output and the economies as a whole. Irrigation is increasingly being considered an important adaptation option to help improve food security of the population that is expected to double in less than 50 years. West Africa is one of the regions where general circulation models (GCM) show the highest disagreements in the direction of future trends of precipitation, making assessments of water availability and the potential for irrigation a difficult task. We use output from a set of dynamically downscaled climate data sets from regional climate modes (RCM) from the CORDEX CMIP5 collection to drive WBMplus, a macroscale hydrological model and simultaneously calculate water demand (livestock, domestic, and irrigation) and availability for a set of land use, and socio economic scenarios around the 2050's for river basins in the ten countries participating in the West African Science Service Center on Climate Change and Adapted Land Use (WASCAL) project. Contrary to earlier results from GCMs, the set of RCMs suggest a consistent increase (~5-10%) in annual precipitation for a majority of the land area in West Africa that translates to slight increases in river flow under natural conditions for most river basins and a opportunities for increasing irrigation during the dry season. However, water demand is projected to more than double for livestock and domestic needs as a result of population growth. Demand for irrigation will rise sharply if irrigation is expanded from the current area (representing less than 3% of all croplands in the region), closer to its potential which is multiple times higher than the existing area. The pressures on water resources in the region will therefore be dominated by pressures arising from increased demand rather than changes in the availability of water and can potentially lead to

  14. Increased performance in the short-term water demand forecasting through the use of a parallel adaptive weighting strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardinha-Lourenço, A.; Andrade-Campos, A.; Antunes, A.; Oliveira, M. S.

    2018-03-01

    Recent research on water demand short-term forecasting has shown that models using univariate time series based on historical data are useful and can be combined with other prediction methods to reduce errors. The behavior of water demands in drinking water distribution networks focuses on their repetitive nature and, under meteorological conditions and similar consumers, allows the development of a heuristic forecast model that, in turn, combined with other autoregressive models, can provide reliable forecasts. In this study, a parallel adaptive weighting strategy of water consumption forecast for the next 24-48 h, using univariate time series of potable water consumption, is proposed. Two Portuguese potable water distribution networks are used as case studies where the only input data are the consumption of water and the national calendar. For the development of the strategy, the Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) method and a short-term forecast heuristic algorithm are used. Simulations with the model showed that, when using a parallel adaptive weighting strategy, the prediction error can be reduced by 15.96% and the average error by 9.20%. This reduction is important in the control and management of water supply systems. The proposed methodology can be extended to other forecast methods, especially when it comes to the availability of multiple forecast models.

  15. Improving rice production sustainability by reducing water demand and greenhouse gas emissions with biodegradable films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhisheng; Zheng, Xunhua; Liu, Chunyan; Lin, Shan; Zuo, Qiang; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    In China, rice production is facing unprecedented challenges, including the increasing demand, looming water crisis and on-going climate change. Thus, producing more rice at lower environmental cost is required for future development, i.e., the use of less water and the production of fewer greenhouse gas (GHG) per unit of rice. Ground cover rice production systems (GCRPSs) could potentially address these concerns, although no studies have systematically and simultaneously evaluated the benefits of GCRPS regarding yields and considering water use and GHG emissions. This study reports the results of a 2-year study comparing conventional paddy and various GCRPS practices. Relative to conventional paddy, GCRPSs had greater rice yields and nitrogen use efficiencies (8.5% and 70%, respectively), required less irrigation (-64%) and resulted in less total CH4 and N2O emissions (-54%). On average, annual emission factors of N2O were 1.67% and 2.00% for conventional paddy and GCRPS, respectively. A cost-benefit analysis considering yields, GHG emissions, water demand and labor and mulching costs indicated GCRPSs are an environmentally and economically profitable technology. Furthermore, substituting the polyethylene film with a biodegradable film resulted in comparable benefits of yield and climate. Overall, GCRPSs, particularly with biodegradable films, provide a promising solution for farmers to secure or even increase yields while reducing the environmental footprint.

  16. Assessing the impacts of combined climate and land use changes for water availability and demands in a Mediterranean watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacinto, Rita; Nunes, João Pedro; Santos, Juliana

    2014-05-01

    Mediterranean basins experience water scarcity issues due to the dry climate associated with the need for agricultural irrigation and recurrent severe drought episodes. Recent land use changes have increased the pressure over water resources due to an expansion of irrigation. Global climate change is expected to bring forth a drier climate, which may simultaneously lead to higher irrigation demands and less water to sustain them, which would be a great management challenge. The issues surrounding climate and associated land use changes were addressed for the Xarrama basin in southern Portugal. This is a region where there is already a large amount of irrigation, mostly consisting of corn and rice fields, but recent trends point to an increase of drip-irrigation in olives and vineyards. The water management strategies for this region assume water transfers from the larger Alqueva reservoir, without taking into account the impacts of these future changes which might introduce additional evapotranspiration losses while decreasing the amount of available water both in Xarrama and Alqueva. Future climate and land-use scenarios were downscaled to the basin level, the latter taking into account local land-use change trends in recent decades. Downscaling based on local tendencies allowed detailed land use changes for agriculture and forest (the main land uses for this region), i.e. the most likely types of crops and trees to be introduced or replaced. The results of local tendencies scenarios reflect the SRES tendencies for Europe, namely agricultural abandonment and increased biofuel production, with species adapted to this climatic region. These scenarios are the first for this region with highly detailed information about land use change scenarios under climate change. The SWAT eco-hydrological model is being applied to quantify the individual impact of climate and land-use change scenarios on both water availability and demands, and the synergies between both. This

  17. Vegetative Propagule Pressure and Water Depth Affect Biomass and Evenness of Submerged Macrophyte Communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Li Li

    Full Text Available Vegetative propagule pressure may affect the establishment and structure of aquatic plant communities that are commonly dominated by plants capable of clonal growth. We experimentally constructed aquatic communities consisting of four submerged macrophytes (Hydrilla verticillata, Ceratophyllum demersum, Elodea nuttallii and Myriophyllum spicatum with three levels of vegetative propagule pressure (4, 8 and 16 shoot fragments for communities in each pot and two levels of water depth (30 cm and 70 cm. Increasing vegetative propagule pressure and decreasing water level significantly increased the growth of the submerged macrophyte communities, suggesting that propagule pressure and water depth should be considered when utilizing vegetative propagules to re-establish submerged macrophyte communities in degraded aquatic ecosystems. However, increasing vegetative propagule pressure and decreasing water level significantly decreased evenness of the submerged macrophyte communities because they markedly increased the dominance of H. verticillata and E. nuttallii, but had little impact on that of C. demersum and M. spicatum. Thus, effects of vegetative propagule pressure and water depth are species-specific and increasing vegetative propagule pressure under lower water level can facilitate the establishment success of submerged macrophyte communities.

  18. The status of water demand management in selected cities of southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumbo, Bekithemba

    As a result of the rapid rate of urbanisation throughout Africa, many African cities face mounting challenges of providing their increasing populations with adequate and sustainable water services. Water demand management (WDM) offers a sustainable solution to water woes experienced in most cities in the southern Africa region. The region is characterised by frequent droughts, floods and erratic, unevenly distributed rainfall. Meanwhile nearly half of the southern Africa’s 200 million inhabitants do not have access to safe water and sanitation. This paper makes an assessment of the status of WDM in eight cities in the region based on published data and reports. It provides a basis of benchmarking the progress and success in WDM programmes by using selected key performance indicators. Gross unaccounted-for-water (UAW) is used as a crude measure of WDM good practice. From the eight selected case studies, Windhoek, Bulawayo and Hermanus have achieved considerable success in water use efficiency, implementing WDM programmes and recording UAW values of less than 20%, whilst Johannesburg; Maputo; Maseru; Lusaka and Mutare cannot account for about 40-60% of the water introduced into the distribution system. WDM projects require some key performance indicators which need to be recorded systematically by water supply agencies to enable a consistent monitoring and evaluation of programme. Finally for WDM to succeed, a new breed of professionals with multi-disciplinary skills is required as well as training of operatives, i.e. technicians, plumbers and meter readers.

  19. UV sensitivity of planktonic net community production in ocean surface waters

    OpenAIRE

    Regaudie de Gioux, Aurore; Agustí, Susana; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2014-01-01

    The net plankton community metabolism of oceanic surface waters is particularly important as it more directly affects the partial pressure of CO2 in surface waters and thus the air-sea fluxes of CO2. Plankton communities in surface waters are exposed to high irradiance that includes significant ultraviolet blue (UVB, 280-315 nm) radiation. UVB radiation affects both photosynthetic and respiration rates, increase plankton mortality rates, and other metabolic and chemical processes. Here we tes...

  20. A community-based approach and its impact to sustainable rural water supply – A case of Kgotlopong ‘Mountain Water Harvesting’

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maponya, G

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available communities, especially in the remote rural areas, that face daunting challenges in accessing basic water. To address these challenges, other communities have developed community-based water supply initiatives. This paper takes a keen interest...

  1. Small Water Enterprise in Rural Rwanda: Business Development and Year-One Performance Evaluation of Nine Water Kiosks at Health Care Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttinger, Alexandra; Brunson, Laura; Moe, Christine L; Roha, Kristin; Ngirimpuhwe, Providence; Mfura, Leodomir; Kayigamba, Felix; Ciza, Philbert; Dreibelbis, Robert

    2017-12-16

    Small water enterprises (SWEs) have lower capital expenditures than centralized systems, offering decentralized solutions for rural markets. This study evaluated SWEs in rural Rwanda, where nine health care facilities (HCF) owned and operated water kiosks supplying water from onsite water treatment systems (WTS). SWEs were monitored for 12 months. Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficient (r s ) was used to evaluate correlations between demand for kiosk water and community characteristics, and between kiosk profit and factors influencing the cost model. On average, SWEs distributed 15,300 L/month. One SWE ran at a loss, four had profit margins of ≤10% and four had profit margins of 45-75%. Factors influencing SWE performance were intermittent water supply (87% of SWE closures were due to water shortage), consumer demand (demand was high where populations already used improved water sources (r s = 0.81, p = 0.02)), price sensitivity (demand was lower where SWEs had high prices (r s = -0.65, p = 0.08)), and production cost (water utility tariffs negatively impacted SWE profits (r s = -0.52, p Future research is needed to assess the extent to which kiosk revenue can support ongoing operational costs of WTS and kiosks both at HCF and in other contexts.

  2. Benthic Algae Communities in the Rivers of Different Water Quality in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Vitonytė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Investigation into benthic algae communities was carried out in the Lithuanian rivers of different water quality during the period 2004–2006. The structure of benthic algae communities in the rivers of different water quality slightly differs. The community of Cladophora glomerata–Vaucheria sessilis–Fontinalis antipyretica mainly dominated in the rivers. Algae communities reiterate in unpolluted rivers (II class, according to biogenes such as Akmena, Babrungas, Bražuolė and Siesartis where Cladophora glomerata–Fontinalis antipyretica, Amblystegium riparium–Cladophora glomerata, and Fontinalis antipyretica–Cladophora glomerata communities predominate. In slightly and moderately polluted rivers, algae communities are unreiteratable. Differences in river water quality could be better determined by frequently appearing algae species in algae communities: in unpolluted rivers – Hildenbrandia rivularis, Audouinella chalybea and A. Hermanii, in slightly polluted – Vaucheria sessilis and Fontinalis antipyretica, and in moderately polluted – Stigeoclonium nanum, S. tenue, Aulacoseira islandica and Melosira varians.The variety of the structure of benthic algae communities could be determined by abiotic environmental factors such as the heterogenity of substratum, stream velocity and depth, the intensity of light and biogenes concentration.Article in Lithuanian

  3. Small Water Enterprise in Rural Rwanda: Business Development and Year-One Performance Evaluation of Nine Water Kiosks at Health Care Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Huttinger

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Small water enterprises (SWEs have lower capital expenditures than centralized systems, offering decentralized solutions for rural markets. This study evaluated SWEs in rural Rwanda, where nine health care facilities (HCF owned and operated water kiosks supplying water from onsite water treatment systems (WTS. SWEs were monitored for 12 months. Spearman’s Rank Correlation Coefficient (rs was used to evaluate correlations between demand for kiosk water and community characteristics, and between kiosk profit and factors influencing the cost model. On average, SWEs distributed 15,300 L/month. One SWE ran at a loss, four had profit margins of ≤10% and four had profit margins of 45–75%. Factors influencing SWE performance were intermittent water supply (87% of SWE closures were due to water shortage, consumer demand (demand was high where populations already used improved water sources (rs = 0.81, p = 0.02, price sensitivity (demand was lower where SWEs had high prices (rs = −0.65, p = 0.08, and production cost (water utility tariffs negatively impacted SWE profits (rs = −0.52, p < 0.01. Sustainability was more favorable in circumstances where recovery of capital expenditures was not expected, and the demand for treated water was sufficient to fund operational expenditures. Future research is needed to assess the extent to which kiosk revenue can support ongoing operational costs of WTS and kiosks both at HCF and in other contexts.

  4. Household demand for energy, water and the collection of waste. A microeconometric analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linderhof, V.G.M.

    2001-05-17

    This thesis focuses on the effectiveness and efficiency of economic incentives with respect to the household demand for energy, water and the collection of household waste. In particular, we are primarily interested in the price and income responses of households with respect to the energy and water consumption as well as the household waste production. Chapter 2 reviews the historical trends of the natural gas, electricity and water consumption and their determinants - in particular prices - in the Netherlands. The historical perspective covers the period 1950 - 1990. The development of prices has several aspects such as nominal versus real prices, pricing schedules and the price per unit of consumer durable services.' In addition, we present the penetration rates of household appliances. Furthermore, we review the development in household waste collection and taxes paid by households for the collection of household waste. Finally, we make a small side step and evaluate car ownership and usage. Chapter 3 analyzes two issues with respect to consumer durables: first, we analyze the effect of energy and water use on the purchase price of domestic appliances empirically, and secondly, we analyze the effect of subsidies on high-efficiency versions on the consumer decision and consequently on the penetration rate theoretically. As to the first issue, we estimate hedonic regressions equations for purchase prices, energy use and water use with data on four domestic appliances. As to the second issue, the purchase of an appliance has implications for future consumption. Therefore, the purchase decision is analyzed with an intertemporal choice model including the time preference of consumers measured by subjective discount rates. We build a general framework in which a consumer can choose between a low-efficiency version and a high-efficiency version. The latter version requires less energy, produces similar services, and has a higher purchase price; see Kooreman and

  5. Conflict between Water Policy and Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, A. F.

    2001-05-01

    Recent developments in the area of water policy have focussed around the concepts of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM). The goal of this activity has been to improve the efficiency of the potential worldwide investment of \\$80 billion per year into the water sector, and to lobby for more expenditure to meet the rapidly expanding demands placed upon water resources worldwide. Unfortunately, there is no definitive and widely accepted definition of IWRM and this fuels the long-standing feeling amongst the scientific community that water policy studies and institutions shortchange sustainability considerations, including those dealing scientific understanding of hydrology and aquatic ecosystems. This is made more difficult because the concepts used in describing sustainability are themselves diffuse and can be contradictory. The nature of understanding of the essential elements of sustainable development and those of the policy community are basically different. Policy has to be general, descriptive, and immediate-sustainability is just the opposite; it must be specific, analytical, and take a long perspective. No one on either side of the divide would claim that the other activities are not important, but bridging the divide is extremely difficult and rare. Typically, policy studies try to incorporate the bureaucratic concepts of water management and institutional reforms without considering the analytical work associated with long-term sustainability of water resources. Furthermore, water resource problems are characterized by high levels of complexity and require a strong interdisciplinary mix of approaches. Unfortunately, what is known and what is likely in the near future are subject to wide interpretation by different observers. This paper examines the conflict between the demands of water policy, which is essentially short-term and narrowly focused with the demands of sustainability, which are long-term and broadly based.

  6. Aflaj’s Irrigation Water Demand/Supply Ratio: Two Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Al-Ghafri

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the geographical location of Oman in an arid zone, agricultural production depends fully on irrigation. The traditional irrigation systems (Aflaj, sing. falaj supply more than one third of water for agriculture. Falaj is defined in the context of this paper as a canal system which provides water for domestic and agricultural uses. Oman has 3,107 active Aflaj producing about 680 Mm3 of water per year. The main objective of this study was to estimate the irrigation performance of Aflaj in Oman. Falaj al-Dariz and al-Nujaid were chosen as case studies. Both Aflaj are located in an extremely arid environment, where the rainfall is low and evapotranspiration is high. The study utilized an approach to estimate the irrigation performance of Aflaj by considering the falaj as a single unit of irrigation. The irrigation demand/supply ratio (D/S was used in the analysis as a tool of evaluation. Date palm, the dominant crop irrigated by Aflaj, was selected for the analysis. In falaj al-Dariz the date palms were slightly under irrigated on a yearly basis. On a monthly basis, in winter, the D/S was below 0.6 and in summer it was above 1.0. On the other hand, falaj al-Nujaid was supplying too much water than the date palms needed all round the year. In winter the D/S ratio was as low as 0.25. Even in summer, the D/S ratio did not much exceed 1.0.

  7. Evaluation of actions for better water supply and demand management in Fayoum, Egypt using RIBASIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohie M. Omar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Fayoum Governorate faces many water-related challenges being; compensating the water shortage and controlling the volumes of drainage water effluents into Quarun Lake. There are many actions, based on water resources management approach, which can help overcome these water-related challenges. These actions are classified to developing additional water resources (supply management, and properly using the existing water resources (demand management. This study investigates using the RIBASIM (RIver BAsin SIMulation model, the most suitable actions for the future. RIBASIM was used to simulate the current condition and evaluate various scenarios in 2017 based on different actions. Three scenarios were formulated being optimistic, moderate, and pessimistic which represent different implementation rates of the tested actions. RIBASIM results indicated a water shortage of 0.59, 1, and 1.85 Billion Cubic Meter (BCM/year, for the simulated scenarios, respectively. Since Fayoum is a miniature of Egypt with respect to both, the natural and water resources systems, the results of this study can be used as guidelines for optimization of the water resources system in Egypt.

  8. Community respiration/production and bacterial activity in the upper water column of the central Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherr, Barry F.; Sherr, Evelyn B.

    2003-04-01

    Community metabolism (respiration and production) and bacterial activity were assessed in the upper water column of the central Arctic Ocean during the SHEBA/JOIS ice camp experiment, October 1997-September 1998. In the upper 50 m, decrease in integrated dissolved oxygen (DO) stocks over a period of 124 d in mid-winter suggested a respiration rate of ˜3.3 nM O 2 h -1 and a carbon demand of ˜4.5 gC m -2. Increase in 0-50 m integrated stocks of DO during summer implied a net community production of ˜20 gC m -2. Community respiration rates were directly measured via rate of decrease in DO in whole seawater during 72-h dark incubation experiments. Incubation-based respiration rates were on average 3-fold lower during winter (11.0±10.6 nM O 2 h -1) compared to summer (35.3±24.8 nM O 2 h -1). Bacterial heterotrophic activity responded strongly, without noticeable lag, to phytoplankton growth. Rate of leucine incorporation by bacteria (a proxy for protein synthesis and cell growth) increased ˜10-fold, and the cell-specific rate of leucine incorporation ˜5-fold, from winter to summer. Rates of production of bacterial biomass in the upper 50 m were, however, low compared to other oceanic regions, averaging 0.52±0.47 ngC l -1 h -1 during winter and 5.1±3.1 ngC l -1 h -1 during summer. Total carbon demand based on respiration experiments averaged 2.4±2.3 mgC m -3 d -1 in winter and 7.8±5.5 mgC m -3 d -1 in summer. Estimated bacterial carbon demand based on bacterial productivity and an assumed 10% gross growth efficiency was much lower, averaging about 0.12±0.12 mgC m -3 d -1 in winter and 1.3±0.7 mgC m -3 d -1 in summer. Our estimates of bacterial activity during summer were an order of magnitude less than rates reported from a summer 1994 study in the central Arctic Ocean, implying significant inter-annual variability of microbial processes in this region.

  9. Estimating Water Demand in Urban Indonesia: A Maximum Likelihood Approach to block Rate Pricing Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietveld, Piet; Rouwendal, Jan; Zwart, Bert

    1997-01-01

    In this paper the Burtless and Hausman model is used to estimate water demand in Salatiga, Indonesia. Other statistical models, as OLS and IV, are found to be inappropiate. A topic, which does not seem to appear in previous studies, is the fact that the density function of the loglikelihood can be

  10. Treatment technology for removing radon from small community water supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinner, N.E.; Quern, P.A.; Schell, G.S.; Lessard, C.E.; Clement, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Radon contamination of drinking water primarily affects individual homeowners and small communities using ground-water supplies. Presently, three types of treatment processes have been used to remove radon: granular activated carbon adsorption (GAC), diffused-bubble aeration, and packed-tower aeration. In order to obtain data on these treatment alternatives for small communities water supplies, a field evaluation study was conducted on these three processes as well as on several modifications to aeration of water in storage tanks considered to be low cost/low technology alternatives. The paper presents the results of these field studies conducted at a small mobile home park in rural New Hampshire. The conclusion of the study was that the selection of the appropriate treatment system to remove radon from drinking water depends primarily upon: (1) precent removal of process; (2) capital operating and maintenance costs; (3) safety (radiation); and (4) raw water quality (Fe, Mn, bacteria and organics)

  11. Analysis of Current and Future Water Demands in the Upper Indus Basin under IPCC Climate and Socio-Economic Scenarios Using a Hydro-Economic WEAP Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Amin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan is currently facing physical and economic water scarcity issues that are further complicated by the rapid increase in its population and by climate change. Many studies have focused on the physical water scarcity using hydrological modeling and the measurement of the impact of climate change on water resources in the Upper Indus Basin (UIB. However, few studies have concentrated on the importance of the economic water scarcity, that is, the water management issue under the looming impacts of climate change and the population explosion of Pakistan. The purpose of this study is to develop a management strategy which helps to achieve water security and sustainability in the Upper Indus Basin (UIB with the help of different socio-economic and climate change scenarios using WEAP (Water Evaluation and Planning modeling. The streamflow data of five sub-basins (Gilgit, Hunza, Shigar, Shyok, and Astore and the entire Upper Indus Basin (UIB were calibrated (2006–2010 and validated (2011–2014 in the WEAP model. The coefficient of determination and Nash Sutcliffe values for the calibration period ranged from 0.81–0.96. The coefficient of determination and the Nash Sutcliffe values for the validation period ranged from 0.85–0.94. After the development of the WEAP model, the analysis of the unmet water demand and percent coverage of the water demand for the period of 2006–2050 was computed. Different scenarios were generated for external driving factors (population growth, urbanization, and living standards and the impact of climate change to evaluate their effect on the current water supply system. The results indicated that the future unmet water demand is likely to reach 134 million cubic meters (mcm by the year 2050 and that the external driving factors are putting more pressure on the supply service. This study further explores the importance of proposed dams (likely to be built until 2025 by WAPDA (Water and Power Development

  12. Microbial community analysis of fouled reverse osmosis membranes used in water recycling

    KAUST Repository

    Ayache, C.; Manes, Carmem Lara De O; Pidou, Marc; Croue, Jean-Philippe; Gernjak, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Biofouling on RO membranes has major cost implications in water reclamation. In this study membranes and water samples were collected from a RO pilot-plant operated on two sites to study the differences in microbial communities in order to develop a better understanding of the biofouling. For the two sites studied, the examination of the front membrane of the first stage and the tail membrane of the second stage of the RO train using 16S rRNA gene-based molecular technique showed that bacteria were similar on both stages and no significant effect of the membrane location within the RO train on the biofilm development could be discerned. However, the comparison of the identified bacteria from membrane samples between the two sites showed that each site is specific, leading to a different composition of microbial communities. The different nutrient concentrations in the RO feed water due to the different biological pre-treatments are one potential explanation for the observed differences in the microbial communities. Seasonal variations also play a major role in the development of microbial communities as shown by the significant differences observed between the communities measured in the samples in winter and summer on the second site. The results did not show similarity between the species identified on the RO membranes and in the feed water. Hence, the relationship of microbial community between the water generated during the pre-treatment process and RO membranes is not obvious. From this study, results showed that there is an actual need to investigate the development of microbial communities on membrane surface in real conditions in order to suggest tailored solutions for biofouling control and removal. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Microbial community analysis of fouled reverse osmosis membranes used in water recycling

    KAUST Repository

    Ayache, C.

    2013-06-01

    Biofouling on RO membranes has major cost implications in water reclamation. In this study membranes and water samples were collected from a RO pilot-plant operated on two sites to study the differences in microbial communities in order to develop a better understanding of the biofouling. For the two sites studied, the examination of the front membrane of the first stage and the tail membrane of the second stage of the RO train using 16S rRNA gene-based molecular technique showed that bacteria were similar on both stages and no significant effect of the membrane location within the RO train on the biofilm development could be discerned. However, the comparison of the identified bacteria from membrane samples between the two sites showed that each site is specific, leading to a different composition of microbial communities. The different nutrient concentrations in the RO feed water due to the different biological pre-treatments are one potential explanation for the observed differences in the microbial communities. Seasonal variations also play a major role in the development of microbial communities as shown by the significant differences observed between the communities measured in the samples in winter and summer on the second site. The results did not show similarity between the species identified on the RO membranes and in the feed water. Hence, the relationship of microbial community between the water generated during the pre-treatment process and RO membranes is not obvious. From this study, results showed that there is an actual need to investigate the development of microbial communities on membrane surface in real conditions in order to suggest tailored solutions for biofouling control and removal. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Future water supply and demand in response to climate change and agricultural expansion in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K.; Zhou, T.; Gao, H.; Huang, M.

    2016-12-01

    With ongoing global environmental change and an increasing population, it is challenging (to say the least) to understand the complex interactions of irrigation and reservoir systems. Irrigation is critical to agricultural production and food security, and is a vital component of Texas' agricultural economy. Agricultural irrigation currently accounts for about 60% of total water demand in Texas, and recent occurrences of severe droughts has brought attention to the availability and use of water in the future. In this study, we aim to assess future agricultural irrigation water demand, and to estimate how changes in the fraction of crop irrigated land will affect future water availability in Texas, which has the largest farm area and the highest value of livestock production in the United States. The Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, which has been calibrated and validated over major Texas river basins during the historical period, is employed for this study. The VIC model, coupling with an irrigation scheme and a reservoir module, is adopted to simulate the water management and regulations. The evolution on agricultural land is also considered in the model as a changing fraction of crop for each grid cell. The reservoir module is calibrated and validated based on the historical (1915-2011) storage records of major reservoirs in Texas. The model is driven by statistically downscaled climate projections from Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) model ensembles at a spatial resolution of 1/8°. The lowest (RCP 2.6) and highest (RC P8.5) greenhouse-gas concentration scenarios are adopted for future projections to provide an estimate of uncertainty bounds. We expect that our results will be helpful to assist decision making related to reservoir operations and agricultural water planning for Texas under future climate and environmental changes.

  15. Optimal expansion of a drinking water infrastructure system with respect to carbon footprint, cost-effectiveness and water demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ni-Bin; Qi, Cheng; Yang, Y Jeffrey

    2012-11-15

    Urban water infrastructure expansion requires careful long-term planning to reduce the risk from climate change during periods of both economic boom and recession. As part of the adaptation management strategies, capacity expansion in concert with other management alternatives responding to the population dynamics, ecological conservation, and water management policies should be systematically examined to balance the water supply and demand temporally and spatially with different scales. To mitigate the climate change impact, this practical implementation often requires a multiobjective decision analysis that introduces economic efficiencies and carbon-footprint matrices simultaneously. The optimal expansion strategies for a typical water infrastructure system in South Florida demonstrate the essence of the new philosophy. Within our case study, the multiobjective modeling framework uniquely features an integrated evaluation of transboundary surface and groundwater resources and quantitatively assesses the interdependencies among drinking water supply, wastewater reuse, and irrigation water permit transfer as the management options expand throughout varying dimensions. With the aid of a multistage planning methodology over the partitioned time horizon, such a systems analysis has resulted in a full-scale screening and sequencing of multiple competing objectives across a suite of management strategies. These strategies that prioritize 20 options provide a possible expansion schedule over the next 20 years that improve water infrastructure resilience and at low life-cycle costs. The proposed method is transformative to other applications of similar water infrastructure systems elsewhere in the world. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Bacterial communities in an ultrapure water containing storage tank of a power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohus, Veronika; Kéki, Zsuzsa; Márialigeti, Károly; Baranyi, Krisztián; Patek, Gábor; Schunk, János; Tóth, Erika M

    2011-12-01

    Ultrapure waters (UPWs) containing low levels of organic and inorganic compounds provide extreme environment. On contrary to that microbes occur in such waters and form biofilms on surfaces, thus may induce corrosion processes in many industrial applications. In our study, refined saltless water (UPW) produced for the boiler of a Hungarian power plant was examined before and after storage (sampling the inlet [TKE] and outlet [TKU] waters of a storage tank) with cultivation and culture independent methods. Our results showed increased CFU and direct cell counts after the storage. Cultivation results showed the dominance of aerobic, chemoorganotrophic α-Proteobacteria in both samples. In case of TKU sample, a more complex bacterial community structure could be detected. The applied molecular method (T-RFLP) indicated the presence of a complex microbial community structure with changes in the taxon composition: while in the inlet water sample (TKE) α-Proteobacteria (Sphingomonas sp., Novosphingobium hassiacum) dominated, in the outlet water sample (TKU) the bacterial community shifted towards the dominance of α-Proteobacteria (Rhodoferax sp., Polynucleobacter sp., Sterolibacter sp.), CFB (Bacteroidetes, formerly Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides group) and Firmicutes. This shift to the direction of fermentative communities suggests that storage could help the development of communities with an increased tendency toward corrosion.

  17. Community Water Improvement, Household Water Insecurity, and Women’s Psychological Distress: An Intervention and Control Study in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, E. G. J.; Ambelu, A.; Caruso, B. A.; Tesfaye, Y.; Freeman, M. C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Over 650 million people worldwide lack access to safe water supplies, and even among those who have gained access to ‘improved’ sources, water may be seasonally unreliable, far from homes, expensive, and provide insufficient quantity. Measurement of water access at the level of communities and households remains crude, and better measures of household water insecurity are urgently needed to inform needs assessments and monitoring and evaluation. We set out to assess the validity of a quantitative scale of household water insecurity, and to investigate (1) whether improvements to community water supply reduce water insecurity, (2) whether water interventions affect women’s psychological distress, and (3) the impacts of water insecurity on psychological distress, independent of socio-economic status, food security, and harvest quality. Methods and Findings Measures were taken before and one to six months after a community water supply improvement in three villages in rural northern Ethiopia. Villages similar in size and access to water sources and other amenities did not receive interventions, and served as controls. Household water insecurity was assessed using a 21-item scale based on prior qualitative work in Ethiopia. Women’s psychological distress was assessed using the WHO Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20). Respondents were either female heads of household or wives of the heads of household (n = 247 at baseline, n = 223 at endline); 123 households provided data at both rounds. The intervention was associated with a decline of approximately 2 points on the water insecurity scale between baseline and endline compared to the control (beta -1.99; 95% CI’s -3.15, -0.84). We did not find evidence of impact of the intervention on women’s psychological distress. Water insecurity was, however, predictive of psychological distress (p insecurity scale, and establish our approach to measuring water insecurity as a plausible means of evaluating

  18. Unintended consequences of regulating drinking water in rural Canadian communities: examples from Atlantic Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kot, Megan; Castleden, Heather; Gagnon, Graham A

    2011-09-01

    Studies that explore social capital and political will [corrected] in the context of safe drinking water provision in [corrected] Canada are limited. This paper presents findings from a study that examines the capacity of rural Canadian communities to attain regulatory compliance for drinking water. Interviews were conducted with water operators and managers in ten rural communities across Atlantic Canada to identify the burden of compliance arising from the implementation of, and adherence to, drinking water regulations. This research identifies the operator as being particularly burdened by regulatory compliance, often resulting in negative consequences including job stress and a strained relationship with the community they serve. Findings indicate that while regulations are vital to ensuring safe drinking water, not all communities have the resources in place to rise to the challenge of compliance. As a result, some communities are being negatively impacted by these regulations, rather than benefit from their intended positive effect. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Water and Health. What We Take from our Environment. Science and Technology Education in Philippine Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippines Univ., Quezon City. Inst. for Science and Mathematics Education Development.

    Information about the relationship between water and health is provided in this module. Topics considered include: (1) the various uses of water; (2) water demand of individuals in certain communities; (3) water sources; (4) water cycle; (5) pure water; (6) water pollution, focusing on pollution resulting from heat, chemicals, radioactive…

  20. Coupling bacterioplankton populations and environment to community function in coastal temperate waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traving, S. J.; Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel; Knudsen-Leerbeck, H.

    2016-01-01

    drivers of bacterioplankton community functions, taking into account the variability in community composition and environmental conditions over seasons, in two contrasting coastal systems. A Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) analysis of the biological and chemical data obtained from...... surface waters over a full year indicated that specific bacterial populations were linked to measured functions. Namely, Synechococcus (Cyanobacteria) was strongly correlated with protease activity. Both function and community composition showed seasonal variation. However, the pattern of substrate...... of common drivers of bacterioplankton community functions in two different systems indicates that the drivers may be of broader relevance in coastal temperate waters....

  1. 75 FR 11194 - San Diego County Water Authority Natural Communities Conservation Program/Habitat Conservation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... Diego County Water Authority Natural Communities Conservation Program/Habitat Conservation Plan, San... meetings for the San Diego County Water Authority's (Water Authority/Applicant) draft Natural Communities Conservation Plan (NCCP)/Habitat Conservation Plan (HCP) prepared in application to us for an incidental take...

  2. Community challenges when using large plastic bottles for Solar Energy Disinfection of Water (SODIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Borde

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Communities living in developing countries as well as populations affected by natural or man-made disasters can be left at great risk from water related diseases, especially those spread through the faecal-oral route. Conventional water treatments such as boiling and chlorination can be effective but may prove costly for impoverished communities. Solar water disinfection (SODIS has been shown to be a cheap and effective way for communities to treat their water. The exposure to sunlight is typically carried out in small volume plastic beverage bottles (up to 2 l. Given the water requirements of consumption and basic personal hygiene, this may not always meet the needs of communities. Recent work has shown 19-L plastic water dispenser containers to be effective SODIS reactors, comparable in efficacy to PET bottles. In this paper we outline the need for studying SODIS in large volumes and discuss 4 main associated challenges. Discussion Apart from clean water needed for consumption, access to adequate water is essential for sanitation and hygiene. Contamination of treated water through unwashed hands or vessels contributes heavily to the spread of water borne pathogens in communities. Traditional water treatments such as boiling and chlorination can be effective but may prove financially burdensome for low income communities. SODIS in large vessels could be used as a simple method to meet water requirements in low income and disaster affected populations. However, there have been some concerns associated with the conventional SODIS method; we identify the main ones to be: (1 cold or cloudy weather; (2 the fear of leaching in plastic bottles; (3 water turbidity, and; (4 community acceptance. Summary The application of SODIS in large bottles like WDCs has the potential to be an efficient and cost effective method of disinfecting water, either for consumption until more rigorous water treatments can be put in place, or for

  3. Climate variability and demand growth as drivers of water scarcity in the Turkwel river basin: a bottom-up risk assessment of a data-sparse basin in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirpa, F. A.; Dyer, E.; Hope, R.; Dadson, S. J.

    2017-12-01

    Sustainable water management and allocation are essential for maintaining human well-being, sustaining healthy ecosystems, and supporting steady economic growth. The Turkwel river basin, located in north-western Kenya, experiences a high level of water scarcity due to its arid climate, high rainfall variability, and rapidly growing water demand. However, due to sparse hydro-climatic data and limited literature, the water resources system of the basin has been poorly understood. Here we apply a bottom-up climate risk assessment method to estimate the resilience of the basin's water resources system to growing demand and climate stressors. First, using a water resource system model and historical climate data, we construct a climate risk map that depicts the way in which the system responds to climate change and variability. Then we develop a set of water demand scenarios to identify the conditions that potentially lead to the risk of unmet water demand and groundwater depletion. Finally, we investigate the impact of climate change and variability by stress testing these development scenarios against historically strong El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) years and future climate projections from multiple Global Circulation Models (GCMs). The results reveal that climate variability and increased water demand are the main drivers of water scarcity in the basin. Our findings show that increases in water demand due to expanded irrigation and population growth exert the strongest influence on the ability of the system to meet water resource supply requirements, and in all cases considered increase the impacts of droughts caused by future climate variability. Our analysis illustrates the importance of combining analysis of future climate risks with other development decisions that affect water resources planning. Policy and investment decisions which maximise water use efficiency in the present day are likely to impart resilience to climate change and variability under a

  4. Communities rise to the challenge of providing clean water

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    agency) and the American University of Cairo, the community ... agencies to set up experimental solar energy facilities to .... If you travel to rural areas of Burkina Faso you will inevitably ... an integrated water resources management strategy to meet ... world's most vulnerable people adapt to the water-related impacts of ...

  5. Wind energy applications for municipal water services: Opportunities, situational analyses, and case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flowers, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miner-Nordstrom, L. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, D.C. (United States)

    2006-01-01

    As communities grow, greater demands are placed on water supplies, wastewater services, and the electricity needed to power the growing water services infrastructure. Water is also a critical resource for thermoelectric power plants. Future population growth in the United States is therefore expected to heighten competition for water resources. Especially in arid U.S. regions, communities may soon face hard choices with respect to water and electric power. Many parts of the United States with increasing water stresses also have significant wind energy resources. Wind power is the fastest-growing electric generation source in the United States and is decreasing in cost to be competitive with thermoelectric generation. Wind energy can potentially offer communities in water-stressed areas the option of economically meeting increasing energy needs without increasing demands on valuable water resources. Wind energy can also provide targeted energy production to serve critical local water-system needs. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Wind Energy Technologies Program has been exploring the potential for wind power to meet growing challenges for water supply and treatment. The DOE is currently characterizing the U.S. regions that are most likely to benefit from wind-water applications and is also exploring the associated technical and policy issues associated with bringing wind energy to bear on water resource challenges.

  6. The analysis of clean water demand for land use optimization based on water resource balance in Balikpapan city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghozali, Achmad; Yanti, Rossana Margaret Kadar

    2017-11-01

    Balikpapan city has transformed from oil city to trade and industry center. In the last 5 years, industry and trade sectors experienced annual economic growth by more than 25%, while mining had only 0.05%. This condition raised a strong economic attraction which increased urban activities and population growth, especially urbanization process. Nevertheless, the growth of the city had a challenge in the urban water supply. Due to natural condition of the city, Balikpapan does not have a large river, making water supply conducted by reservoirs relying on rainfall intensity. In line with population growth and conversion of green open space, the city government should consider to the allocation of land use effectively based on sustainable water resources. As the associated pressure on water resources continued to increase, it is crucial to identify the water demand future in Balikpapan City related to domestic and non-domestic activities as the first step to optimize land use allocation. Domestic's activities is defined as household and public hydrant, while non-domestic sectors are public facilities, offices, trade and services, and industrial areas. Mathematical calculations, population projections and water consumption estimation, were used as analysis methods. Analysis result showed that the total the city population in 2025 amounted to 740.302 people, increasing by 14.5% from 2016. Population growth increased the urban water needs. From the calculations, the amount of water consumption in 2016 amounted to 5075.77 liter/s, and in 2025 to 7528.59 liter/s. Thus, the water needs of the population of Balikpapan from 2016-2025 year increased by 32.58%.

  7. Impact of electricity prices and volumetric water allocation on energy and groundwater demand management: analysis from Western India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, M.D.

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, power tariff policy has been increasingly advocated as a mean to influence groundwater use and withdrawal decisions of farmers in view of the failure of existing direct and indirect regulations on groundwater withdrawal in India. Many researchers argue that pro rata electricity tariff, with built in positive marginal cost of pumping could bring about efficient use of the resource, though some argue that the levels of tariff in which demand becomes elastic to pricing are too high to be viable from political and socio-economic points of view. The paper presents a theoretical model to analyze farmers' response to changes in power tariff and water allocation regimes vis a vis energy and groundwater use. It validates the model by analyzing water productivity in groundwater irrigation under different electricity pricing structures and water allocation regimes. Water productivity was estimated using primary data of gross crop inputs, cost of all inputs, and volumetric water inputs. The analysis shows that unit pricing of electricity influences groundwater use efficiency and productivity positively. It also shows that the levels of pricing at which demand for electricity and groundwater becomes elastic to tariff are socio-economically viable. Further, water productivity impacts of pricing would be highest when water is volumetrically allocated with rationing. Therefore, an effective power tariff policy followed by enforcement of volumetric water allocation could address the issue of efficiency, sustainability and equity in groundwater use in India

  8. Recycling of water of high pressure cleaning of pipes. Phase 1. Quality demands and economical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Weers, A.W.; Zwaard, J.

    1999-01-01

    According to the regulation 6.1 in the current licence Surface Water Pollution Law (WVO, abbreviated in Dutch) of October 10, 1997, ECN carried out the first phase of a study on the title subject with respect to pipes applied in oil and gas exploration. In the present situation water of the so-called pipe-cleaner is transported via a seapipe after precipitation and membrane filtration. Next to the quality demands and economical aspects attention is paid to a number of environmental aspects

  9. Association between perceptions of public drinking water quality and actual drinking water quality: A community-based exploratory study in Newfoundland (Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoo, Benjamin; Valcour, James; Sarkar, Atanu

    2017-11-01

    Studying public perception on drinking water quality is crucial for managing of water resources, generation of water quality standards, and surveillance of the drinking-water quality. However, in policy discourse, the reliability of public perception concerning drinking water quality and associated health risks is questionable. Does the public perception of water quality equate with the actual water quality? We investigated public perceptions of water quality and the perceived health risks and associated with the actual quality of public water supplies in the same communities. The study was conducted in 45 communities of Newfoundland (Canada) in 2012. First, a telephone survey of 100 households was conducted to examine public perceptions of drinking water quality of their respective public sources. Then we extracted public water quality reports of the same communities (1988-2011) from the provincial government's water resources portal. These reports contained the analysis of 2091 water samples, including levels of Disinfection By-Products (DBPs), nutrients, metals, ions and physical parameters. The reports showed that colour, manganese, total dissolved solids, iron, turbidity, and DBPs were the major detected parameters in the public water. However, the majority of the respondents (>56%) were either completely satisfied or very satisfied with the quality of drinking water. Older, higher educated and high-income group respondents were more satisfied with water quality than the younger, less educated and low-income group respondents. The study showed that there was no association with public satisfaction level and actual water quality of the respective communities. Even, in the communities, supplied by the same water system, the respondents had differences in opinion. Despite the effort by the provincial government to make the water-test results available on its website for years, the study showed existing disconnectedness between public perception of drinking water

  10. Assessing rural small community water supply in Limpopo, South Africa: water service benchmarks and reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majuru, Batsirai; Jagals, Paul; Hunter, Paul R

    2012-10-01

    Although a number of studies have reported on water supply improvements, few have simultaneously taken into account the reliability of the water services. The study aimed to assess whether upgrading water supply systems in small rural communities improved access, availability and potability of water by assessing the water services against selected benchmarks from the World Health Organisation and South African Department of Water Affairs, and to determine the impact of unreliability on the services. These benchmarks were applied in three rural communities in Limpopo, South Africa where rudimentary water supply services were being upgraded to basic services. Data were collected through structured interviews, observations and measurement, and multi-level linear regression models were used to assess the impact of water service upgrades on key outcome measures of distance to source, daily per capita water quantity and Escherichia coli count. When the basic system was operational, 72% of households met the minimum benchmarks for distance and water quantity, but only 8% met both enhanced benchmarks. During non-operational periods of the basic service, daily per capita water consumption decreased by 5.19l (pwater sources were 639 m further (p ≤ 0.001, 95% CI 560-718). Although both rudimentary and basic systems delivered water that met potability criteria at the sources, the quality of stored water sampled in the home was still unacceptable throughout the various service levels. These results show that basic water services can make substantial improvements to water access, availability, potability, but only if such services are reliable. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Produced water irrigation changes the soil mesofauna community in a semiarid agroecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Raimundo Nonato Costa; Weber, Olmar Baller; Crisóstomo, Lindbergue Araujo

    2015-08-01

    The scarcity of water in semiarid regions requires alternative sources for irrigation to improve agricultural production. Here, we aimed to evaluate the effects of produced water from oil exploration on the structure of soil mesofauna during the dry and rainy seasons in irrigated sunflower and castor bean fields in a Brazilian semiarid region. Three irrigation treatments were applied on plots cultivated with castor beans and sunflowers: produced water treated by filtration (filtrated) or treated by reverse osmosis (reverse osmosis) and groundwater. The mesofauna under the biofuel crops was collected and identified during the dry and rainy seasons. Although the abundance and richness of the total fauna did not differ between seasons in sunflower plots, the community was altered. In castor beans, the abundance, richness, and community of mesofauna observed in plots irrigated with produced water differed from the groundwater treatment. Irrigation with produced water promotes important changes in soil fauna community that justify their assessment for the maintenance and monitoring of agroecosystems.

  12. Concentration data for anthropogenic organic compounds in groundwater, surface water, and finished water of selected community water systems in the United States, 2002-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Janet M.; Kingsbury, James A.; Hopple, Jessica A.; Delzer, Gregory C.

    2010-01-01

    The National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey began implementing Source Water-Quality Assessments (SWQAs) in 2001 that focus on characterizing the quality of source water and finished water of aquifers and major rivers used by some of the larger community water systems in the United States. As used in SWQA studies, source water is the raw (ambient) water collected at the supply well before water treatment (for groundwater) or the raw (ambient) water collected from the river near the intake (for surface water), and finished water is the water that has been treated and is ready to be delivered to consumers. Finished-water samples are collected before the water enters the distribution system. The primary objective of SWQAs is to determine the occurrence of more than 250 anthropogenic organic compounds in source water used by community water systems, many of which currently are unregulated in drinking water by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. A secondary objective is to understand recurrence patterns in source water and determine if these patterns also occur in finished water before distribution. SWQA studies were conducted in two phases for most studies completed by 2005, and in one phase for most studies completed since 2005. Analytical results are reported for a total of 295 different anthropogenic organic compounds monitored in source-water and finished-water samples collected during 2002-10. The 295 compounds were classified according to the following 13 primary use or source groups: (1) disinfection by-products; (2) fumigant-related compounds; (3) fungicides; (4) gasoline hydrocarbons, oxygenates, and oxygenate degradates; (5) herbicides and herbicide degradates; (6) insecticides and insecticide degradates; (7) manufacturing additives; (8) organic synthesis compounds; (9) pavement- and combustion-derived compounds; (10) personal-care and domestic-use products; (11) plant- or animal-derived biochemicals; (12) refrigerants and

  13. Transient Air-Water Flow and Air Demand following an Opening Outlet Gate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In Sweden, the dam-safety guidelines call for an overhaul of many existing bottom outlets. During the opening of an outlet gate, understanding the transient air-water flow is essential for its safe operation, especially under submerged tailwater conditions. Three-dimensional CFD simulations are undertaken to examine air-water flow behaviors at both free and submerged outflows. The gate, hoisted by wire ropes and powered by AC, opens at a constant speed. A mesh is adapted to follow the gate movement. At the free outflow, the CFD simulations and model tests agree well in terms of outlet discharge capacity. Larger air vents lead to more air supply; the increment becomes, however, limited if the vent area is larger than 10 m2. At the submerged outflow, a hydraulic jump builds up in the conduit when the gate reaches approximately 45% of its full opening. The discharge is affected by the tailwater and slightly by the flow with the hydraulic jump. The flow features strong turbulent mixing of air and water, with build-up and break-up of air pockets and collisions of defragmented water bodies. The air demand rate is several times as much as required by steady-state hydraulic jump with free surface.

  14. What is safe and clean water in rural Bolivian communities? A preliminary investigation of heavy metal contamination in rural community water systems in the Bolivian Altiplano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borella, M.; Guido, Z.; Borella, P.; Ketron, T.

    2009-12-01

    A proliferation of potable water systems utilizing groundwater is currently underway in the Lake Titicaca region of the Bolivian Altiplano. With the aid of national and international organizations, rural communities are developing groundwater sources because the region’s surface water is highly contaminated with waterborne pathogens—the primary factor contributing to high child mortality rates in developing nations. According to UNICEF, 86 percent of Bolivian families have access to “improved” water systems, which predominantly take the form of deep groundwater wells or contained natural springs. While the water systems have worked well to reduce pathogens in drinking water systems that cause illnesses such as dysentery, the water is rarely tested for heavy metal contamination, such as arsenic and lead. While bacteria analysis is essential, it is not the only component of healthy drinking water. Testing for heavy metals is especially important in the Bolivian Altiplano because abundant volcanic deposits and massive sulfide deposits suggest that in some areas it is likely that the water contains elevated concentrations of heavy metals. In this study, Terra Resource Development International, A California-based 502(c)3 nonprofit organization, partnered with Stanford University, the Technical University of Bolivia, and the Bolivian Geologic and Mining Survey to collect water samples in 36 rural community situated in four watersheds feeding into Lake Titicaca. Water was collected from shallow, hand dug wells, deep groundwater wells, springs, and small rivers in the Tiwanku, Laja, Batallas, Achacachi watersheds and were analyzed for inorganic contaminants. Samples were analyzed at Stanford’s Environmental Measurements Facility using the Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) Spectrometer for major ions and heavy metals. Results will help determine which, if any, community water systems are at risk of heavy metal contamination, where more comprehensive sampling is

  15. Bacterial Community Shift Drives Antibiotic Resistance Promotion during Drinking Water Chlorination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Shuyu; Shi, Peng; Hu, Qing; Li, Bing; Zhang, Tong; Zhang, Xu-Xiang

    2015-10-20

    For comprehensive insights into the effects of chlorination, a widely used disinfection technology, on bacterial community and antibiotic resistome in drinking water, this study applied high-throughput sequencing and metagenomic approaches to investigate the changing patterns of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and bacterial community in a drinking water treatment and distribution system. At genus level, chlorination could effectively remove Methylophilus, Methylotenera, Limnobacter, and Polynucleobacter, while increase the relative abundance of Pseudomonas, Acidovorax, Sphingomonas, Pleomonas, and Undibacterium in the drinking water. A total of 151 ARGs within 15 types were detectable in the drinking water, and chlorination evidently increased their total relative abundance while reduced their diversity in the opportunistic bacteria (p < 0.05). Residual chlorine was identified as the key contributing factor driving the bacterial community shift and resistome alteration. As the dominant persistent ARGs in the treatment and distribution system, multidrug resistance genes (mainly encoding resistance-nodulation-cell division transportation system) and bacitracin resistance gene bacA were mainly carried by chlorine-resistant bacteria Pseudomonas and Acidovorax, which mainly contributed to the ARGs abundance increase. The strong correlation between bacterial community shift and antibiotic resistome alteration observed in this study may shed new light on the mechanism behind the chlorination effects on antibiotic resistance.

  16. Generating demand and community support for sexual and reproductive health services for young people: A review of the Literature and Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesterton, Amy J; Cabral de Mello, Meena

    2010-09-24

    This review investigates the effectiveness of interventions aimed at generating demand for and use of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services by young people; and interventions aimed at generating wider community support for their use. Reports and publications were found in the peer-reviewed and grey literature through academic search engines; web searches; the bibliographies of known conference proceedings and papers; and consultation with experts. The studies were reviewed against a set of inclusion criteria and those that met these were explored in more depth. The evidence-base for interventions aimed at both generating demand and community support for SRH services for young people was found under-developed and many available studies do not provide strong evidence. However, the potential of several methods to increase youth uptake has been demonstrated, this includes the linking of school education programs with youth friendly services, life skills approaches and social marketing and franchising. There is also evidence that the involvement of key community gatekeepers such as parents and religious leaders is vital to generating wider community support. In general a combined multi-component approach seems most promising with several success stories to build on. Many areas for further research have been highlighted and there is a great need for more rigorous evaluation of programmes in this area. In particular, further evaluation of individual components within a multi-component approach is needed to elucidate the most effective interventions.

  17. Generating demand and community support for sexual and reproductive health services for young people: A review of the Literature and Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabral de Mello Meena

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This review investigates the effectiveness of interventions aimed at generating demand for and use of sexual and reproductive health (SRH services by young people; and interventions aimed at generating wider community support for their use. Methods Reports and publications were found in the peer-reviewed and grey literature through academic search engines; web searches; the bibliographies of known conference proceedings and papers; and consultation with experts. The studies were reviewed against a set of inclusion criteria and those that met these were explored in more depth. Results The evidence-base for interventions aimed at both generating demand and community support for SRH services for young people was found under-developed and many available studies do not provide strong evidence. However, the potential of several methods to increase youth uptake has been demonstrated, this includes the linking of school education programs with youth friendly services, life skills approaches and social marketing and franchising. There is also evidence that the involvement of key community gatekeepers such as parents and religious leaders is vital to generating wider community support. In general a combined multi-component approach seems most promising with several success stories to build on. Conclusions Many areas for further research have been highlighted and there is a great need for more rigorous evaluation of programmes in this area. In particular, further evaluation of individual components within a multi-component approach is needed to elucidate the most effective interventions.

  18. Generating demand and community support for sexual and reproductive health services for young people: A review of the Literature and Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background This review investigates the effectiveness of interventions aimed at generating demand for and use of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services by young people; and interventions aimed at generating wider community support for their use. Methods Reports and publications were found in the peer-reviewed and grey literature through academic search engines; web searches; the bibliographies of known conference proceedings and papers; and consultation with experts. The studies were reviewed against a set of inclusion criteria and those that met these were explored in more depth. Results The evidence-base for interventions aimed at both generating demand and community support for SRH services for young people was found under-developed and many available studies do not provide strong evidence. However, the potential of several methods to increase youth uptake has been demonstrated, this includes the linking of school education programs with youth friendly services, life skills approaches and social marketing and franchising. There is also evidence that the involvement of key community gatekeepers such as parents and religious leaders is vital to generating wider community support. In general a combined multi-component approach seems most promising with several success stories to build on. Conclusions Many areas for further research have been highlighted and there is a great need for more rigorous evaluation of programmes in this area. In particular, further evaluation of individual components within a multi-component approach is needed to elucidate the most effective interventions. PMID:20863411

  19. Microbial Communities Shaped by Treatment Processes in a Drinking Water Treatment Plant and Their Contribution and Threat to Drinking Water Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Yu, Shuili; Li, Lei; Liu, Guicai; Gu, Zhengyang; Liu, Minmin; Liu, Zhiyuan; Ye, Yubing; Xia, Qing; Ren, Liumo

    2017-01-01

    Bacteria play an important role in water purification in drinking water treatment systems. On one hand, bacteria present in the untreated water may help in its purification through biodegradation of the contaminants. On the other hand, some bacteria may be human pathogens and pose a threat to consumers. The present study investigated bacterial communities using Illumina MiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA genes and their functions were predicted using PICRUSt in a treatment system, including the biofilms on sand filters and biological activated carbon (BAC) filters, in 4 months. In addition, quantitative analyses of specific bacterial populations were performed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The bacterial community composition of post-ozonation effluent, BAC effluent and disinfected water varied with sampling time. However, the bacterial community structures at other treatment steps were relatively stable, despite great variations of source water quality, resulting in stable treatment performance. Illumina MiSeq sequencing illustrated that Proteobacteria was dominant bacterial phylum. Chlorine disinfection significantly influenced the microbial community structure, while other treatment processes were synergetic. Bacterial communities in water and biofilms were distinct, and distinctions of bacterial communities also existed between different biofilms. By contrast, the functional composition of biofilms on different filters were similar. Some functional genes related to pollutant degradation were found widely distributed throughout the treatment processes. The distributions of Mycobacterium spp. and Legionella spp. in water and biofilms were revealed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Most bacteria, including potential pathogens, could be effectively removed by chlorine disinfection. However, some bacteria presented great resistance to chlorine. qPCRs showed that Mycobacterium spp. could not be effectively removed by

  20. 76 FR 42015 - Prohibition Against Payment of Interest on Demand Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ...-free demand deposit base is the primary franchise builder for community banks and the largest source of... would harm the market for municipal bonds, because community banks would be no longer able to buy fixed... banks would be likely to try to ``buy'' demand deposits by offering unsustainably high interest rates...

  1. Human well-being values of environmental flows enhancing social equity in integrated water resources management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, K.S.

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation discusses how the importance of river flow-sustained ecosystems for local communities can be quantified for the purpose of balancing water supply and demand in Integrated Water Resources Management. Due to the development of water resources, for example through the construction of

  2. Drinking water quality in Indigenous communities in Canada and health outcomes: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Lori E A; Okpalauwaekwe, Udoka; Waldner, Cheryl L; Bharadwaj, Lalita A

    2016-01-01

    Many Indigenous communities in Canada live with high-risk drinking water systems and drinking water advisories and experience health status and water quality below that of the general population. A scoping review of research examining drinking water quality and its relationship to Indigenous health was conducted. The study was undertaken to identify the extent of the literature, summarize current reports and identify research needs. A scoping review was designed to identify peer-reviewed literature that examined challenges related to drinking water and health in Indigenous communities in Canada. Key search terms were developed and mapped on five bibliographic databases (MEDLINE/PubMED, Web of Knowledge, SciVerse Scopus, Taylor and Francis online journal and Google Scholar). Online searches for grey literature using relevant government websites were completed. Sixteen articles (of 518; 156 bibliographic search engines, 362 grey literature) met criteria for inclusion (contained keywords; publication year 2000-2015; peer-reviewed and from Canada). Studies were quantitative (8), qualitative (5) or mixed (3) and included case, cohort, cross-sectional and participatory designs. In most articles, no definition of "health" was given (14/16), and the primary health issue described was gastrointestinal illness (12/16). Challenges to the study of health and well-being with respect to drinking water in Indigenous communities included irregular funding, remote locations, ethical approval processes, small sample sizes and missing data. Research on drinking water and health outcomes in Indigenous communities in Canada is limited and occurs on an opportunistic basis. There is a need for more research funding, and inquiry to inform policy decisions for improvements of water quality and health-related outcomes in Indigenous communities. A coordinated network looking at First Nations water and health outcomes, a database to store and create access to research findings, increased

  3. Drinking water quality in Indigenous communities in Canada and health outcomes: a scoping review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori E. A. Bradford

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many Indigenous communities in Canada live with high-risk drinking water systems and drinking water advisories and experience health status and water quality below that of the general population. A scoping review of research examining drinking water quality and its relationship to Indigenous health was conducted. Objective: The study was undertaken to identify the extent of the literature, summarize current reports and identify research needs. Design: A scoping review was designed to identify peer-reviewed literature that examined challenges related to drinking water and health in Indigenous communities in Canada. Key search terms were developed and mapped on five bibliographic databases (MEDLINE/PubMED, Web of Knowledge, SciVerse Scopus, Taylor and Francis online journal and Google Scholar. Online searches for grey literature using relevant government websites were completed. Results: Sixteen articles (of 518; 156 bibliographic search engines, 362 grey literature met criteria for inclusion (contained keywords; publication year 2000–2015; peer-reviewed and from Canada. Studies were quantitative (8, qualitative (5 or mixed (3 and included case, cohort, cross-sectional and participatory designs. In most articles, no definition of “health” was given (14/16, and the primary health issue described was gastrointestinal illness (12/16. Challenges to the study of health and well-being with respect to drinking water in Indigenous communities included irregular funding, remote locations, ethical approval processes, small sample sizes and missing data. Conclusions: Research on drinking water and health outcomes in Indigenous communities in Canada is limited and occurs on an opportunistic basis. There is a need for more research funding, and inquiry to inform policy decisions for improvements of water quality and health-related outcomes in Indigenous communities. A coordinated network looking at First Nations water and health outcomes, a

  4. Linking poverty levels to water resource use and conflicts in rural Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madulu, Ndalahwa F.

    Water scarcity is an important environmental constraint to development. Water availability is closely linked to human welfare and health by affecting nutrition status and quantity of drinking water especially for the poor. It has impacts on household labour because of the time and energy spent in obtaining it. These problems are more keenly felt among the poor households and in the agricultural subsistence economy. In many areas, the demand for water has been increasing due to rapid population growth, economic development, and climatic change. Water scarcity also stimulates social conflicts between various water users: individuals, communities, industries, livestock, wildlife, agriculture etc. Consequently, local communities have evolved strategies for coping with water stress and drought. These strategies include use of various sources of water, inaction to strict bye-laws regarding the use of water, crop diversification, wage labour, and possibly seasonal migration. The available strategies are likely to vary from one area to another. Some of these actions have measurable longterm demographic consequences, particularly if water stress is severe or repetitive. Although most governments and donor organizations often put much emphasis on the provision of water for drinking purposes, there is clear evidence that the supply of water for other uses has equal importance especially among rural communities. This observation suggests that putting too much emphasis on drinking water needs, addresses a rather insignificant part of the problem of water resources and biases the range of solutions which are likely to be proposed for perceived shortages. The presence of other water uses necessitates the provision of multi-purpose water sources that can serve a number of contrasting functions. This demand-responsive approach can enable the local communities and the poor households to choose the type of services they require on the basis of perceived needs and their ability to

  5. The Economics of Bulk Water Transport in Southern California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Hodges

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Municipalities often face increasing demand for limited water supplies with few available alternative sources. Under some circumstances, bulk water transport may offer a viable alternative. This case study documents a hypothetical transfer between a water utility district in northern California and urban communities located on the coast of central and southern California. We compare bulk water transport costs to those of constructing a new desalination facility, which is the current plan of many communities for increasing supplies. We find that using water bags to transport fresh water between northern and southern California is in some instances a low-cost alternative to desalination. The choice is constrained, however, by concerns about reliability and, thus, risk. Case-study results demonstrate the challenges of water supply augmentation in water-constrained regions.

  6. Dredging induced changes in zooplankton community and water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    water characteristics and zooplankton community structure in Dal Lake. An assessment was done ... et al., 2007; Zhang et al., 2010). In aquatic ecosystems, .... generally high in fine grain sediment (Fisher et al., 1982;. Valiela, 1995). In post ...

  7. A Water and Energy Community of Practice (WECoP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, P. R.

    2008-12-01

    Earth is a unique, living planet due to the abundance and vigorous cycling and replenishing of water throughout the global environment. The water cycle operates on a continuum of time and space scales and exchanges large amounts of energy as water undergoes phase changes and is moved from one part of the Earth system to another. Water is essential to life and is central to society's welfare, progress, and sustainable economic growth. However, global water cycle variability which regulates flood, drought, and disease hazards is being continuously transformed by climate change, erosion, pollution, salinization, and agriculture and civil engineering practices. The most visible manifestation that could be expected from climate warming would be changes in the distribution of precipitation and evaporation, and the exacerbation of extreme hydrologic events, floods and droughts. Technological advances, climate modeling and forecasting improvements and the emergence of earth system science will enable development of solutions for these daunting global water problems, and much of the needed scientific information is already available. A plethora of institutional, policy, management and communication problems have been neglected, which has resulted in significant underutilization of existing scientific information for solving contemporary and anticipated water issues. Effective communication and outreach is the critical task to enable existing science to be used to its full potential, to develop comprehensive solution strategies and to set future research priorities. The missing link is a water-focused Community of Practice (CoP) who has knowledge of both the decision support needs and the cutting-edge research results, and therefore can formulate a broad array of solutions to water problems today and into the future. The concept of a community of practice refers to the process of social learning that occurs when people who have a common interest in some subject or problem

  8. Water regime history drives responses of soil Namib Desert microbial communities to wetting events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frossard, Aline; Ramond, Jean-Baptiste; Seely, Mary; Cowan, Don A.

    2015-07-01

    Despite the dominance of microorganisms in arid soils, the structures and functional dynamics of microbial communities in hot deserts remain largely unresolved. The effects of wetting event frequency and intensity on Namib Desert microbial communities from two soils with different water-regime histories were tested over 36 days. A total of 168 soil microcosms received wetting events mimicking fog, light rain and heavy rainfall, with a parallel “dry condition” control. T-RFLP data showed that the different wetting events affected desert microbial community structures, but these effects were attenuated by the effects related to the long-term adaptation of both fungal and bacterial communities to soil origins (i.e. soil water regime histories). The intensity of the water pulses (i.e. the amount of water added) rather than the frequency of wetting events had greatest effect in shaping bacterial and fungal community structures. In contrast to microbial diversity, microbial activities (enzyme activities) showed very little response to the wetting events and were mainly driven by soil origin. This experiment clearly demonstrates the complexity of microbial community responses to wetting events in hyperarid hot desert soil ecosystems and underlines the dynamism of their indigenous microbial communities.

  9. The microbial quality of drinking water in Manonyane community: Maseru District (Lesotho).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwimbi, P

    2011-09-01

    Provision of good quality household drinking water is an important means of improving public health in rural communities especially in Africa; and is the rationale behind protecting drinking water sources and promoting healthy practices at and around such sources. To examine the microbial content of drinking water from different types of drinking water sources in Manonyane community of Lesotho. The community's hygienic practices around the water sources are also assessed to establish their contribution to water quality. Water samples from thirty five water sources comprising 22 springs, 6 open wells, 6 boreholes and 1 open reservoir were assessed. Total coliform and Escherichia coli bacteria were analyzed in water sampled. Results of the tests were compared with the prescribed World Health Organization desirable limits. A household survey and field observations were conducted to assess the hygienic conditions and practices at and around the water sources. Total coliform were detected in 97% and Escherichia coli in 71% of the water samples. The concentration levels of Total coliform and Escherichia coli were above the permissible limits of the World Health Organization drinking water quality guidelines in each case. Protected sources had significantly less number of colony forming units (cfu) per 100 ml of water sample compared to unprotected sources (56% versus 95%, p water sources from livestock faeces, laundry practices, and water sources being down slope of pit latrines in some cases. These findings suggest source water protection and good hygiene practices can improve the quality of household drinking water where disinfection is not available. The results also suggest important lines of inquiry and provide support and input for environmental and public health programmes, particularly those related to water and sanitation.

  10. GateWay Community College Water Resources Program Partnerships: An Opportunity for Program Success and Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaneda, M.

    2012-12-01

    GateWay Community College Water Resources Technologies (WRT) Program offers Certificate of Completions and Associate Degrees on Hydrologic Studies, Water Treatment and Wastewater Treatment. The program has been in existence since 1998 and has gone through several updates to meet the demand for professionals in those areas. The program includes theoretical and practical hands-on training in the monitoring of water quality and quantity as well as in water and industrial wastewater treatment. The WRT program offers online, face-to-face, and hybrid courses to address different student's needs for training. The program only Full-time faculty is supported by 15 adjunct- faculty professionals. Adjunct faculty is usually hired from a wide variety of professional people already working in the industry that have shown interest on teaching. Adjunct faculty also provide free tutoring to the WRT students when they are not teaching courses. The college Learning Center provides funding to support these tutoring activities. The program has an active Advisory Committee that provides guidance and recommends program changes to meet their training needs. This Advisory Committee is made of professionals from different federal, state, county agencies, and municipalities, private industry and consulting companies in the area. The Advisory Committee meets every year to provide feedback to GateWay on curriculum changes and commit to potential internship opportunities for the WRT students. Those internships (or voluntary work) are paid directly by the municipalities or agencies or can be paid by the GateWay WRT program. These internship jobs provides with an opportunity to actively promote the WRT program throughout the valley. The GateWay WRT program considers the Advisory Committee an essential component for the program success: the committee supports the program in recommending and acquiring the latest field equipment needed for the hands-on training. One of the main WRT program

  11. Combining high resolution water use data from smart meters with remote sensing and geospatial datasets to investigate outdoor water demand and greenness changes during drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesnel, K.; Ajami, N.; Urata, J.; Marx, A.

    2017-12-01

    Infrastructure modernization, information technology, and the internet of things are impacting urban water use. Advanced metering infrastructure (AMI), also known as smart meters, is one forthcoming technology that holds the potential to fundamentally shift the way customers use water and utilities manage their water resources. Broadly defined, AMI is a system and process used to measure, communicate, and analyze water use data at high resolution intervals at the customer or sub-customer level. There are many promising benefits of AMI systems, but there are also many challenges; consequently, AMI in the water sector is still in its infancy. In this study we provide insights into this emerging technology by taking advantage of the higher temporal and spatial resolution of water use data provided by these systems. We couple daily water use observations from AMI with monthly and bimonthly billing records to investigate water use trends, patterns, and drivers using a case study of the City of Redwood City, CA from 2007 through 2016. We look across sectors, with a particular focus on water use for urban irrigation. Almost half of Redwood City's irrigation accounts use recycled water, and we take this unique opportunity to investigate if the behavioral response for recycled water follows the water and energy efficiency paradox in which customers who have upgraded to more efficient devices end up using more of the commodity. We model potable and recycled water demand using geospatially explicit climate, demographic, and economic factors to gain insight into various water use drivers. Additionally, we use high resolution remote sensing data from the National Agricultural Imaging Program (NAIP) to observe how changes in greenness and impervious surface are related to water use. Using a series of statistical and unsupervised machine learning techniques, we find that water use has changed dramatically over the past decade corresponding to varying climatic regimes and drought

  12. Fog Water Collection: Challenges beyond Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzoor Qadir

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Sustainable Development Goal (SDG 6, calling for access to safe water and sanitation for all by the year 2030 supports the efforts in water-scarce countries and regions to go beyond conventional resources and tap unconventional water supplies to narrow the water demand-supply gap. Among the unconventional water resources, the potential to collect water from the air, such as fog harvesting, is by far the most under-explored. Fog water collection is a passive, low maintenance, and sustainable option that can supply fresh drinking water to communities where fog events are common. Because of the relatively simple design of fog collection systems, their operation and maintenance are minimal and the associated cost likewise; although, in certain cases, some financially constrained communities would need initial subsidies. Despite technology development and demonstrated benefits, there are certain challenges to fog harvesting, including lack of supportive policies, limited functional local institutions, inexpert communities, gender inequality, and perceived high costs without undertaking comprehensive economic analyses. By addressing such challenges, there is an opportunity to provide potable water in areas where fog intensity and duration are sufficient, and where the competition for clean water is intensifying because water resources are at a far distance or provided by expensive sources.

  13. Capacity factor analysis for evaluating water and sanitation infrastructure choices for developing communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouabid, Ali; Louis, Garrick E

    2015-09-15

    40% of the world's population lacks access to adequate supplies of water and sanitation services to sustain human health. In fact, more than 780 million people lack access to safe water supplies and about 2.5 billion people lack access to basic sanitation. Appropriate technology for water supply and sanitation (Watsan) systems is critical for sustained access to these services. Current approaches for the selection of Watsan technologies in developing communities have a high failure rate. It is estimated that 30%-60% of Watsan installed infrastructures in developing countries are not operating. Inappropriate technology is a common explanation for the high rate of failure of Watsan infrastructure, particularly in lower-income communities (Palaniappan et al., 2008). This paper presents the capacity factor analysis (CFA) model, for the assessment of a community's capacity to manage and sustain access to water supply and sanitation services. The CFA model is used for the assessment of a community's capacity to operate, and maintain a municipal sanitation service (MSS) such as, drinking water supply, wastewater and sewage treatment, and management of solid waste. The assessment of the community's capacity is based on seven capacity factors that have been identified as playing a key role in the sustainability of municipal sanitation services in developing communities (Louis, 2002). These capacity factors and their constituents are defined for each municipal sanitation service. Benchmarks and international standards for the constituents of the CFs are used to assess the capacity factors. The assessment of the community's capacity factors leads to determine the overall community capacity level (CCL) to manage a MSS. The CCL can then be used to assist the community in the selection of appropriate Watsan technologies for their MSS needs. The selection is done from Watsan technologies that require a capacity level to operate them that matches the assessed CCL of the

  14. The CEDSS model of direct domestic energy demand

    OpenAIRE

    Gotts, Nicholas Mark

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the design, implementation and testing of the CEDSS model of direct domestic energy demand, and the first results of its use to produce estimates of future demand under a range of scenarios. CEDSS simulates direct domestic energy demand at within communities of approximately 200 households. The scenarios explored differ in the economic conditions assumed, and policy measures adopted at national level.

  15. Using System Dynamics to Explore the Water Supply and Demand Dilemmas of a Small South African Municipality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clifford Holmes, J.K.; Slinger, J.H.; Musango, J.K.; Brent, A.C.; Palmer, C.G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the challenges faced by small municipalities in providing water services in a developing-world context of increasing urban demand. The paper uses a case study of the Sundays River Valley Municipality (SRVM) in South Africa. The municipality faces multiple dilemmas in reconciling

  16. Well Head Protection Areas For Public Non-Community Water Supply Wells In New Jersey

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A Well Head Protection Area for a Public Non-Community Water Supply Well (PNCWS) in New Jersey is a map area calculated around a Public Non-Community Water Supply...

  17. Community management and sustainability of rural water facilities in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandara, C.G.; Butijn, C.A.A.; Niehof, Anke

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of whether community management in water service delivery affects the sustainability of rural water facilities (RWFs) at village level, in terms of their technical and managerial aspects, and what role capacity building of users and providers plays in this process.

  18. Coupling bacterioplankton populations and environment to community function in coastal temperate waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traving, S. J.; Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel; Knudsen-Leerbeck, H.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterioplankton play a key role in marine waters facilitating processes important for carbon cycling. However, the influence of specific bacterial populations and environmental conditions on bacterioplankton community performance remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to identify...... drivers of bacterioplankton community functions, taking into account the variability in community composition and environmental conditions over seasons, in two contrasting coastal systems. A Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) analysis of the biological and chemical data obtained from...... surface waters over a full year indicated that specific bacterial populations were linked to measured functions. Namely, Synechococcus (Cyanobacteria) was strongly correlated with protease activity. Both function and community composition showed seasonal variation. However, the pattern of substrate...

  19. A Community-based Bacteriological Study of Quality of Drinking-water and Its Feedback to a Rural Community in Western Maharashtra, India

    OpenAIRE

    Tambe, Prachi V.; Daswani, Poonam G.; Mistry, Nerges F.; Ghadge, Appasaheb A.; Antia, Noshir H.

    2008-01-01

    A longitudinal study of the bacteriological quality of rural water supplies was undertaken for a movement towards self-help against diseases, such as diarrhoea, and improved water management through increased community participation. Three hundred and thirteen water samples from different sources, such as well, tank, community standpost, handpumps, percolation lakes, and streams, and from households were collected from six villages in Maharashtra, India, over a one-year period. Overall, 49.8%...

  20. 76 FR 6491 - San Diego County Water Authority Subregional Natural Community Conservation Program/Habitat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ...] San Diego County Water Authority Subregional Natural Community Conservation Program/Habitat Conservation Plan, San Diego and Riverside Counties, CA; Final Environmental Impact Statement and Habitat... also announce the availability of the Water Authority's Subregional Natural Community Conservation...

  1. Clean water, sanitation and diarrhoea in Indonesia: Effects of household and community factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarulzaman, Ahmad; Smits, Jeroen; de Jong, Eelke

    2017-09-01

    Diarrhoea is an important health issue in low- and middle-income countries, including Indonesia. We applied a multilevel regression analysis on the Indonesian Demographic and Health Survey to examine the effects of drinking water and sanitation facilities at the household and community level on diarrhoea prevalence among children under five (n = 33,339). The role of the circumstances was explored by studying interactions between the water and sanitation variables and other risk factors. Diarrhoea prevalence was reported by 4820 (14.4%) children, who on average were younger, poorer and were living in a poorer environment. At the household level, piped water was significantly associated with diarrhoea prevalence (OR = 0.797, 95% CI: 0.692-0.918), improved sanitation had no direct effect (OR = 0.992, 95% CI: 0.899-1.096) and water treatment was not related to diarrhoea incidence (OR = 1.106, 95% CI: 0.994-1.232). At the community level, improved water coverage had no direct effect (OR = 1.002, 95% CI: 0.950-1.057) but improved sanitation coverage was associated with lower diarrhoea prevalence (OR = 0.917, 95% CI: 0.843-0.998). Our interaction analysis showed that the protective effects of better sanitation at the community level were increased by better drinking water at the community level. This illustrates the importance of improving both drinking water and sanitation simultaneously.

  2. Analysis of Water Resources Supply and Demand and Security of Water Resources Development in Irrigation Regions of the Middle Reaches of the Heihe River Basin, Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Xi-bin; KANG Er-si; CHEN Ren-sheng; ZHAO Wen-zhi; XIAO Sheng-chun; JIN Bo-wen

    2006-01-01

    Based on the data for meteorology, hydrology, soil, planting, vegetation, and socio-economic development of the irrigation region in the middle reaches of the Heihe River basin, Northwest China, the model of balance of water supply and demand in the region was established, and the security of water resource was assessed, from which the results that the effects of unified management of water resources in the Heihe River basin between Gansu Province and Inner Mongolia on regional hydrology are significant with a decrease in water supply diverted from Heihe River and an increase in groundwater extracted. In addition, it was found that the groundwater level has been steadily decreasing due to over pumping and decrease in recharges. In present year (2003), the volume of potential groundwater in the irrigation districts is far small because of the groundwater overdraft; even in the particular regions, there is no availability of groundwater resources for use. By 2003, water supply is not sufficient to meet the water demand in the different irrigation districts, the sustainable development and utilization of water resources are not secured, and the water supply crisis occurs in Pingchuan irrigation district. Achieving water security for the sustainable development of society, agriculture, economy, industry, and livelihoods while maintaining or improving the abilities of the management and planning of water resources, determining of the reasonable percentage between water supply and groundwater utilization and water saving in agricultural irrigation are taken into account. If this does not occur, it is feared that the present performance of water development and planning may further aggravate the problem of scarcities of water resources and further damage the fragile ecological system.

  3. Application of stakeholder-based and modelling approaches for supporting robust adaptation decision making under future climatic uncertainty and changing urban-agricultural water demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhave, Ajay; Dessai, Suraje; Conway, Declan; Stainforth, David

    2016-04-01

    Deep uncertainty in future climate change and socio-economic conditions necessitates the use of assess-risk-of-policy approaches over predict-then-act approaches for adaptation decision making. Robust Decision Making (RDM) approaches embody this principle and help evaluate the ability of adaptation options to satisfy stakeholder preferences under wide-ranging future conditions. This study involves the simultaneous application of two RDM approaches; qualitative and quantitative, in the Cauvery River Basin in Karnataka (population ~23 million), India. The study aims to (a) determine robust water resources adaptation options for the 2030s and 2050s and (b) compare the usefulness of a qualitative stakeholder-driven approach with a quantitative modelling approach. For developing a large set of future scenarios a combination of climate narratives and socio-economic narratives was used. Using structured expert elicitation with a group of climate experts in the Indian Summer Monsoon, climatic narratives were developed. Socio-economic narratives were developed to reflect potential future urban and agricultural water demand. In the qualitative RDM approach, a stakeholder workshop helped elicit key vulnerabilities, water resources adaptation options and performance criteria for evaluating options. During a second workshop, stakeholders discussed and evaluated adaptation options against the performance criteria for a large number of scenarios of climatic and socio-economic change in the basin. In the quantitative RDM approach, a Water Evaluation And Planning (WEAP) model was forced by precipitation and evapotranspiration data, coherent with the climatic narratives, together with water demand data based on socio-economic narratives. We find that compared to business-as-usual conditions options addressing urban water demand satisfy performance criteria across scenarios and provide co-benefits like energy savings and reduction in groundwater depletion, while options reducing

  4. Radon-removal techniques for small community public water supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinner, N.E.; Malley, J.P.; Clement, J.A.; Quern, P.A.; Schell, G.S.

    1990-08-01

    The report presents the results of an evaluation, performed by the University of New Hampshire--Environmental Research Group (ERG), of radon removal in small community water supplies using full-scale granular activated carbon adsorption, diffused bubble aeration and packed tower aeration. Various low technology alternatives, such as loss in a distribution system and addition of coarse bubble aeration to a pilot-scale atmospheric storage tank were also evaluated. The report discusses each of the treatment alternatives with respect to their radon removal efficiency, potential problems (i.e., waste disposal, radiation exposure and intermedia pollution), and economics in small community applications. In addition, several sampling methods, storage times, scintillation cocktails and extraction procedures currently used in the liquid scintillation technique for analysis of radon in water were compared

  5. Comparison of microbial community shifts in two parallel multi-step drinking water treatment processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiajiong; Tang, Wei; Ma, Jun; Wang, Hong

    2017-07-01

    Drinking water treatment processes remove undesirable chemicals and microorganisms from source water, which is vital to public health protection. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of treatment processes and configuration on the microbiome by comparing microbial community shifts in two series of different treatment processes operated in parallel within a full-scale drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) in Southeast China. Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA genes of water samples demonstrated little effect of coagulation/sedimentation and pre-oxidation steps on bacterial communities, in contrast to dramatic and concurrent microbial community shifts during ozonation, granular activated carbon treatment, sand filtration, and disinfection for both series. A large number of unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at these four treatment steps further illustrated their strong shaping power towards the drinking water microbial communities. Interestingly, multidimensional scaling analysis revealed tight clustering of biofilm samples collected from different treatment steps, with Nitrospira, the nitrite-oxidizing bacteria, noted at higher relative abundances in biofilm compared to water samples. Overall, this study provides a snapshot of step-to-step microbial evolvement in multi-step drinking water treatment systems, and the results provide insight to control and manipulation of the drinking water microbiome via optimization of DWTP design and operation.

  6. Microbial quality of water in rural communities of Trinidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welch Pedro

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted in four rural communities of northeastern Trinidad to determine the microbial quality of water supply to households and that quality's relationship to source and storage device. Of the 167 household water samples tested, total coliforms were detected in 132 of the samples (79.0%, fecal coliforms in 102 (61.1%, and E. coli in 111 (66.5%. There were significant differences among the towns in the proportion of the samples contaminated with coliforms (P < 0.001 and E. coli (P < 0.001. Of 253 strains of E. coli studied, 4 (1.6% were mucoid, 9 (3.6% were hemolytic, and 37 (14.6% were nonsorbitol fermenters. Of 69 isolates of E. coli tested, 10 (14.5% were verocytotoxigenic. Twenty-eight (14.0% of 200 E. coli isolates tested belonged to enteropathogenic serogroups. Standpipe, the most common water source, was utilized by 57 (34.1% of the 167 households. Treated water (pipeborne in homes, standpipes, or truckborne was supplied to 119 households (71.3%, while 48 households (28.7% used water from untreated sources (rain, river/stream, or well as their primary water supply. The type of household storage device was associated with coli-form contamination. Water stored in drums, barrels, or buckets was more likely to harbor fecal coliforms (74.2% of samples than was water stored in tanks (53.3% of samples, even after controlling for water source (P = 0.04. Compared with water from other sources, water piped into homes was significantly less likely to be contaminated with total coliforms (56.9% versus 88.8%, P < 0.001 and fecal coliforms (41.2% versus 69.8%, P < 0.01, even when the type of storage device was taken into account. However, fecal contamination was not associated with whether the water came from a treated or untreated source. We concluded that the drinking water in rural communities in Trinidad was grossly unfit for human consumption, due both to contamination of various water sources and during household

  7. Microbial quality of water in rural communities of Trinidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Welch

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted in four rural communities of northeastern Trinidad to determine the microbial quality of water supply to households and that quality's relationship to source and storage device. Of the 167 household water samples tested, total coliforms were detected in 132 of the samples (79.0%, fecal coliforms in 102 (61.1%, and E. coli in 111 (66.5%. There were significant differences among the towns in the proportion of the samples contaminated with coliforms (P < 0.001 and E. coli (P < 0.001. Of 253 strains of E. coli studied, 4 (1.6% were mucoid, 9 (3.6% were hemolytic, and 37 (14.6% were nonsorbitol fermenters. Of 69 isolates of E. coli tested, 10 (14.5% were verocytotoxigenic. Twenty-eight (14.0% of 200 E. coli isolates tested belonged to enteropathogenic serogroups. Standpipe, the most common water source, was utilized by 57 (34.1% of the 167 households. Treated water (pipeborne in homes, standpipes, or truckborne was supplied to 119 households (71.3%, while 48 households (28.7% used water from untreated sources (rain, river/stream, or well as their primary water supply. The type of household storage device was associated with coli-form contamination. Water stored in drums, barrels, or buckets was more likely to harbor fecal coliforms (74.2% of samples than was water stored in tanks (53.3% of samples, even after controlling for water source (P = 0.04. Compared with water from other sources, water piped into homes was significantly less likely to be contaminated with total coliforms (56.9% versus 88.8%, P < 0.001 and fecal coliforms (41.2% versus 69.8%, P < 0.01, even when the type of storage device was taken into account. However, fecal contamination was not associated with whether the water came from a treated or untreated source. We concluded that the drinking water in rural communities in Trinidad was grossly unfit for human consumption, due both to contamination of various water sources and during household

  8. Do Amplitudes of Water Level Fluctuations Affect the Growth and Community Structure of Submerged Macrophytes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mo-Zhu; Liu, Zheng-Yuan; Luo, Fang-Li; Lei, Guang-Chun; Li, Hong-Li

    2016-01-01

    Submerged macrophytes are subjected to potential mechanical stresses associated with fluctuating water levels in natural conditions. However, few experimental studies have been conducted to further understand the effects of water level fluctuating amplitude on submerged macrophyte species and their assemblages or communities. We designed a controlled experiment to investigate the responses of three submerged macrophyte species (Hydrilla verticillata, Ceratophyllum demersum and Elodea nuttallii) and their combinations in communities to three amplitudes (static, ± 30 cm, ± 60 cm) of water level fluctuations. Results showed that water level fluctuating amplitude had little effects on the community performance and the three tested species responded differently. H. verticillata exhibited more growth in static water and it was negatively affected by either of the water level fluctuations amplitude, however, growth parameters of H. verticillata in two fluctuating water level treatments (i.e., ± 30 cm, ± 60 cm) were not significantly different. On the other hand, the growth of C. demersum was not significantly correlated with different amplitude treatments. However, it became more abundant when water levels fluctuated. E. nuttallii was inhibited by the two fluctuating water level treatments, and was less in growth parameters compared to the other species especially in water level fluctuating conditions. The inherent differences in the adaptive capabilities of the tested species indicate that C. demersum or other species with similar responses may be dominant species to restore submerged macrophyte communities with great fluctuating water levels. Otherwise, H. verticillata, E. nuttallii or other species with similar responses could be considered for constructing the community in static water conditions. PMID:26735689

  9. Do Amplitudes of Water Level Fluctuations Affect the Growth and Community Structure of Submerged Macrophytes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mo-Zhu; Liu, Zheng-Yuan; Luo, Fang-Li; Lei, Guang-Chun; Li, Hong-Li

    2016-01-01

    Submerged macrophytes are subjected to potential mechanical stresses associated with fluctuating water levels in natural conditions. However, few experimental studies have been conducted to further understand the effects of water level fluctuating amplitude on submerged macrophyte species and their assemblages or communities. We designed a controlled experiment to investigate the responses of three submerged macrophyte species (Hydrilla verticillata, Ceratophyllum demersum and Elodea nuttallii) and their combinations in communities to three amplitudes (static, ± 30 cm, ± 60 cm) of water level fluctuations. Results showed that water level fluctuating amplitude had little effects on the community performance and the three tested species responded differently. H. verticillata exhibited more growth in static water and it was negatively affected by either of the water level fluctuations amplitude, however, growth parameters of H. verticillata in two fluctuating water level treatments (i.e., ± 30 cm, ± 60 cm) were not significantly different. On the other hand, the growth of C. demersum was not significantly correlated with different amplitude treatments. However, it became more abundant when water levels fluctuated. E. nuttallii was inhibited by the two fluctuating water level treatments, and was less in growth parameters compared to the other species especially in water level fluctuating conditions. The inherent differences in the adaptive capabilities of the tested species indicate that C. demersum or other species with similar responses may be dominant species to restore submerged macrophyte communities with great fluctuating water levels. Otherwise, H. verticillata, E. nuttallii or other species with similar responses could be considered for constructing the community in static water conditions.

  10. Do Amplitudes of Water Level Fluctuations Affect the Growth and Community Structure of Submerged Macrophytes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo-Zhu Wang

    Full Text Available Submerged macrophytes are subjected to potential mechanical stresses associated with fluctuating water levels in natural conditions. However, few experimental studies have been conducted to further understand the effects of water level fluctuating amplitude on submerged macrophyte species and their assemblages or communities. We designed a controlled experiment to investigate the responses of three submerged macrophyte species (Hydrilla verticillata, Ceratophyllum demersum and Elodea nuttallii and their combinations in communities to three amplitudes (static, ± 30 cm, ± 60 cm of water level fluctuations. Results showed that water level fluctuating amplitude had little effects on the community performance and the three tested species responded differently. H. verticillata exhibited more growth in static water and it was negatively affected by either of the water level fluctuations amplitude, however, growth parameters of H. verticillata in two fluctuating water level treatments (i.e., ± 30 cm, ± 60 cm were not significantly different. On the other hand, the growth of C. demersum was not significantly correlated with different amplitude treatments. However, it became more abundant when water levels fluctuated. E. nuttallii was inhibited by the two fluctuating water level treatments, and was less in growth parameters compared to the other species especially in water level fluctuating conditions. The inherent differences in the adaptive capabilities of the tested species indicate that C. demersum or other species with similar responses may be dominant species to restore submerged macrophyte communities with great fluctuating water levels. Otherwise, H. verticillata, E. nuttallii or other species with similar responses could be considered for constructing the community in static water conditions.

  11. Pricing, subsidies, and the poor : demand for improved water services in Central America

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Ian; Ordonez, Fidel; Serrano, Pedro; Halpern, Jonathan

    2000-01-01

    Reformulating tariff and subsidy policies is central to improving water and sanitation services in developing countries. The traditional model of state enterprise service provision, coupled with residential tariffs set well below the cost of service, has generally delivered unsatisfactory results. Low internal generation of funds has impeded expansion of networks into poor communities and ...

  12. Scheduling of Domestic Water Heater Power Demand for Maximizing PV Self-Consumption Using Model Predictive Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sossan, Fabrizio; Kosek, Anna Magdalena; Martinenas, Sergejus

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a model predictive control (MPC) strategy for maximizing photo-voltaic (PV) selfconsumption in a household context exploiting the flexible demand of an electric water heater. The predictive controller uses a water heater model and forecast of the hot Water consumption in order...... to predict the future temperature of the water and it manages its state (on and off) according to the forecasted PV production, which are computed starting from forecast of the solar irradiance. Simulations for the proof of concept and for validating the proposed control strategy are proposed. Results...... of the control approach are compared with a traditional thermostatic controller using historical measurements of a 10 kW PV installation. Economic results based on the Italian self consumption tariffs are also reported. The model of the water heater complex is a mixed grey and white box and its parameters have...

  13. Natural sunlight shapes crude oil-degradingbacterial communities in northern Gulf of Mexico surface waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando P Bacosa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Following the Deepwater Horizon (DWH spill in 2010, an enormous amount of oil was observed in the deep and surface waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico. Surface waters are characterized by intense sunlight and high temperature during summer. While the oil-degrading bacterial communities in the deep-sea plume have been widely investigated, the effect of natural sunlight on those in oil polluted surface waters remains unexplored to date. In this study, we incubated surface water from the DWH site with amendments of crude oil, Corexit dispersant, or both for 36 d under natural sunlight in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The bacterial community was analyzed over time for total abundance, density of alkane and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degraders, and community composition via pyrosequencing. Our results showed that, for treatments with oil and/or Corexit, sunlight significantly reduced bacterial diversity and evenness and was a key driver of shifts in bacterial community structure. In samples containing oil or dispersant, sunlight greatly reduced abundance of the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus but increased the relative abundances of Alteromonas, Marinobacter, Labrenzia, Sandarakinotalea, Bartonella, and Halomonas. Dark samples with oil were represented by members of Thalassobius, Winogradskyella, Alcanivorax, Formosa, Pseudomonas, Eubacterium, Erythrobacter, Natronocella, and Coxiella. Both oil and Corexit inhibited the Candidatus Pelagibacter with or without sunlight exposure. For the first time, we demonstrated the effects of light in structuring microbial communities in water with oil and/or Corexit. Overall, our findings improve understanding of oil pollution in surface water, and provide unequivocal evidence that sunlight is a key factor in determining bacterial community composition and dynamics in oil polluted marine waters.

  14. Temporary Water Markets in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slim Zekri

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Market vis-à-vis command and control approaches have been widely adopted in natural resource and environmental management since the 1980s. Adoption of markets in managing irrigation water resources is also emerging. It has been argued that markets are ineffective in managing the demand for irrigation water due to very low price elasticity. Most studies have been based on mathematical models simulating water markets and not on observed prices and quantities in real water markets since such data are rarely available. In Oman, perhaps in response to the extreme scarcity of water, elaborate water demand management institutions emulating markets have evolved and have been used for centuries. Water entitlements are leased based on prices through a community auction. The traded quantities of water and related prices have been recorded. This study uses this unique data set to estimate the elasticity of irrigation water. A log function on quantity and price of irrigation water is used with dummy variables on time and type of irrigation system. The price elasticity varies from -0.10 to -0.28, depending on the specifications of the econometric model. These estimates are higher than most estimates reported in past studies, indicating the efficacy of the indigenous market-based irrigation water management institution adopted in Oman.

  15. Social and Structural Patterns of Drought-Related Water Conservation and Rebound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Patricia; Ajami, Newsha

    2017-12-01

    Water use practices and conservation are the result of complex sociotechnical interactions of political, economic, hydroclimatic, and social factors. While the drivers of water demand have been extensively studied, they have traditionally been applied to models that assume stationary relationships between these various factors, and usually do not account for potential societal changes in response to increased scarcity awareness. For example, following a period of sustained low demand such as during a drought, communities often increase water use during a hydrologically wet period, a phenomenon known as "rebounding" water use. Previous experiences show the extent of this rebound is not a straightforward function of policy and efficiency improvements, but may also reflect short-term or long-lasting change in community behavior, which are not easily captured by models that assume stationarity. In this work, we develop a system dynamics model to represent water demand as a function of both structural and social factors. We apply this model to the analysis of three diverse water utilities in the San Francisco Bay Area between 1980 and 2017, identifying drought response trends and drivers over time. Our model is consistent with empirical patterns and historical context of water use in California, and provides important insights on the rebound phenomenon that can be extended to other locations. This comparative assessment indicates that policies, public outreach, and better data availability have played a key role in raising public awareness of water scarcity, especially with the raise of the internet era in recent years.

  16. The Biofuels Revolution: Understanding the Social, Cultural and Economic Impacts of Biofuels Development on Rural Communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selfa, Theresa L; Goe, Richard; Kulcsar, Laszlo; Middendorf, Gerad; Bain, Carmen

    2013-02-11

    The aim of this research was an in-depth analysis of the impacts of biofuels industry and ethanol plants on six rural communities in the Midwestern states of Kansas and Iowa. The goal was to provide a better understanding of the social, cultural, and economic implications of biofuels development, and to contribute to more informed policy development regarding bioenergy.Specific project objectives were: 1. To understand how the growth of biofuel production has affected and will affect Midwestern farmers and rural communities in terms of economic, demographic, and socio-cultural impacts; 2. To determine how state agencies, groundwater management districts, local governments and policy makers evaluate or manage bioenergy development in relation to competing demands for economic growth, diminishing water resources, and social considerations; 3. To determine the factors that influence the water management practices of agricultural producers in Kansas and Iowa (e.g. geographic setting, water management institutions, competing water-use demands as well as producers attitudes, beliefs, and values) and how these influences relate to bioenergy feedstock production and biofuel processing; 4. To determine the relative importance of social-cultural, environmental and/or economic factors in the promotion of biofuels development and expansion in rural communities; The research objectives were met through the completion of six detailed case studies of rural communities that are current or planned locations for ethanol biorefineries. Of the six case studies, two will be conducted on rural communities in Iowa and four will be conducted on rural communities in Kansas. A multi-method or mixed method research methodology was employed for each case study.

  17. Efforts to monitor Global progress on individual and community demand for immunization: Development of definitions and indicators for the Global Vaccine Action Plan Strategic Objective 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickler, Benjamin; MacDonald, Noni E; Senouci, Kamel; Schuh, Holly B

    2017-06-16

    The Second Strategic Objective of the Global Vaccine Action Plan, "individuals and communities understand the value of vaccines and demand immunization as both their right and responsibility", differs from the other five in that it does not focus on supply-side aspects of immunization programs but rather on public demand for vaccines and immunization services. This commentary summarizes the work (literature review, consultations with experts, and with potential users) and findings of the UNICEF/World Health Organization Strategic Objective 2 informal Working Group on Vaccine Demand, which developed a definition for demand and indicators related to Strategic Objective 2. Demand for vaccines and vaccination is a complex concept that is not external to supply systems but rather encompasses the interaction between human behaviors and system structure and dynamics. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Active microorganisms thrive among extremely diverse communities in cloud water.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Amato

    Full Text Available Clouds are key components in Earth's functioning. In addition of acting as obstacles to light radiations and chemical reactors, they are possible atmospheric oases for airborne microorganisms, providing water, nutrients and paths to the ground. Microbial activity was previously detected in clouds, but the microbial community that is active in situ remains unknown. Here, microbial communities in cloud water collected at puy de Dôme Mountain's meteorological station (1465 m altitude, France were fixed upon sampling and examined by high-throughput sequencing from DNA and RNA extracts, so as to identify active species among community members. Communities consisted of ~103-104 bacteria and archaea mL-1 and ~102-103 eukaryote cells mL-1. They appeared extremely rich, with more than 28 000 distinct species detected in bacteria and 2 600 in eukaryotes. Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes largely dominated in bacteria, while eukaryotes were essentially distributed among Fungi, Stramenopiles and Alveolata. Within these complex communities, the active members of cloud microbiota were identified as Alpha- (Sphingomonadales, Rhodospirillales and Rhizobiales, Beta- (Burkholderiales and Gamma-Proteobacteria (Pseudomonadales. These groups of bacteria usually classified as epiphytic are probably the best candidates for interfering with abiotic chemical processes in clouds, and the most prone to successful aerial dispersion.

  19. 基于互联网社区的消费者需求信息采集策略%Strategies of Consumer Demand Information Acquisition Based on Internet Community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐颖; 李倩

    2011-01-01

    从互联网社区参与者角色——社区建设者、主题发布者、话题讨论者出发,提出企业在互联网社区上采集消费者需求信息的基本方针,分析在互联网社区上消费者需求信息表现形式的转化过程,构建在互联网社区上采集消费者需求信息的具体路线,以此为企业制定在互联网社区上采集消费者需求信息策略提供借鉴。%From the roles of Interact community participants—— the community constructor, the subject promulgator and the topic discusser, the paper proposes the basic acquisition policies for consumer demand information on the Internet community. It analyzes the conversion process of the forms of the consumer demand information, and constructs the concrete routes of gathering the information on the Internet community. It provides the reference to develop strategies of consumer demand information acquisition for enterprises.

  20. Involving regional expertise in nationwide modeling for adequate prediction of climate change effects on different demands for fresh water

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, W. J.

    2014-05-01

    Wim J. de Lange, Geert F. Prinsen, Jacco H. Hoogewoud, Ab A Veldhuizen, Joachim Hunink, Erik F.W. Ruijgh, Timo Kroon Nationwide modeling aims to produce a balanced distribution of climate change effects (e.g. harm on crops) and possible compensation (e.g. volume fresh water) based on consistent calculation. The present work is based on the Netherlands Hydrological Instrument (NHI, www.nhi.nu), which is a national, integrated, hydrological model that simulates distribution, flow and storage of all water in the surface water and groundwater systems. The instrument is developed to assess the impact on water use on land-surface (sprinkling crops, drinking water) and in surface water (navigation, cooling). The regional expertise involved in the development of NHI come from all parties involved in the use, production and management of water, such as waterboards, drinking water supply companies, provinces, ngo's, and so on. Adequate prediction implies that the model computes changes in the order of magnitude that is relevant to the effects. In scenarios related to drought, adequate prediction applies to the water demand and the hydrological effects during average, dry, very dry and extremely dry periods. The NHI acts as a part of the so-called Deltamodel (www.deltamodel.nl), which aims to predict effects and compensating measures of climate change both on safety against flooding and on water shortage during drought. To assess the effects, a limited number of well-defined scenarios is used within the Deltamodel. The effects on demand of fresh water consist of an increase of the demand e.g. for surface water level control to prevent dike burst, for flushing salt in ditches, for sprinkling of crops, for preserving wet nature and so on. Many of the effects are dealt with by regional and local parties. Therefore, these parties have large interest in the outcome of the scenario analyses. They are participating in the assessment of the NHI previous to the start of the analyses

  1. Marine bacterioplankton community turnover within seasonally hypoxic waters of a subtropical sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parsons, Rachel J.; Nelson, Craig E.; Carlson, Craig A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding bacterioplankton community dynamics in coastal hypoxic environments is relevant to global biogeochemistry because coastal hypoxia is increasing worldwide. The temporal dynamics of bacterioplankton communities were analysed throughout the illuminated water column of Devil's Hole...

  2. Effects of hydraulic frac fluids and formation waters on groundwater microbial communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Martin; Jimenez, Nuria

    2017-04-01

    Shale gas is being considered as a complementary energy resource to other fossil fuels. Its exploitation requires using advanced drilling techniques and hydraulic stimulation (fracking). During fracking operations, large amounts of fluids (fresh water, proppants and chemicals) are injected at high pressures into the formations, to create fractures and fissures, and thus to release gas from the source rock into the wellbore. The injected fluid partly remains in the formation, while up to 40% flows back to the surface, together with reservoir waters, sometimes containing dissolved hydrocarbons, high salt concentrations, etc. The aim of our study was to investigate the potential impacts of frac or geogenic chemicals, frac fluid, formation water or flowback on groudnwater microbial communities. Laboratory experiments under in situ conditions (i.e. at in situ temperature, high pressure) were conducted using groundwater samples from three different locations. Series of microcosms containing R2 broth medium or groundwater spiked with either single frac chemicals (including biocides), frac fluids, artificial reservoir water, NaCl, or different mixtures of reservoir water and frac fluid (to simulate flowback) were incubated in the dark. Controls included non-amended and non-inoculated microcosms. Classical microbiological methods and molecular analyses were used to assess changes in the microbial abundance, community structure and function in response to the different treatments. Microbial communities were quite halotolerant and their growth benefited from low concentrations of reservoir waters or salt, but they were negatively affected by higher concentrations of formation waters, salt, biocides or frac fluids. Changes on the microbial community structure could be detected by T-RFLP. Single frac components like guar gum or choline chloride were used as substrates, while others like triethanolamine or light oil distillate hydrogenated prevented microbial growth in

  3. water demand prediction using artificial neural network

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2017-01-01

    Jan 1, 2017 ... Interface for activation and deactivation of valves. •. Interface demand ... process could be done and monitored at the computer terminal as expected of a .... [15] Arbib, M. A.The Handbook of Brain Theory and Neural. Networks.

  4. The functional potential of microbial communities in hydraulic fracturing source water and produced water from natural gas extraction characterized by metagenomic sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Murali Mohan

    Full Text Available Microbial activity in produced water from hydraulic fracturing operations can lead to undesired environmental impacts and increase gas production costs. However, the metabolic profile of these microbial communities is not well understood. Here, for the first time, we present results from a shotgun metagenome of microbial communities in both hydraulic fracturing source water and wastewater produced by hydraulic fracturing. Taxonomic analyses showed an increase in anaerobic/facultative anaerobic classes related to Clostridia, Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteroidia and Epsilonproteobacteria in produced water as compared to predominantly aerobic Alphaproteobacteria in the fracturing source water. The metabolic profile revealed a relative increase in genes responsible for carbohydrate metabolism, respiration, sporulation and dormancy, iron acquisition and metabolism, stress response and sulfur metabolism in the produced water samples. These results suggest that microbial communities in produced water have an increased genetic ability to handle stress, which has significant implications for produced water management, such as disinfection.

  5. Transpiration Demand in Southern California Oak Woodlands: Making the Leap from Lab and Individual Tree to Watershed Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, J. L.; Quinlan, P. T.; Martin, J.; Tartakovsky, D. M.

    2013-12-01

    Watershed scale estimates of evapotranspiration (ET) have proven difficult to quantify in areas of native vegetation with uncertain or unknown crop coefficients. In this study, we evaluate the water use in Quercus engelmanni and Quercus agrifolia, two species of oak native to Southern California. Thermal dissipation probes (TDPs) were installed at four locations within a 14,500 acre watershed, comprising 770 acres of Q. agrifolia woodland and 2440 acres of Q. engelmanni woodland. Installation duration ranged from 6 weeks to 14 months. The TDPs were calibrated to each species in the laboratory using limbs ranging from 2 to 5 inches in diameter. Dye was run through each limb at the end of the calibration test in order to establish a relationship between active sapwood area and limb diameter. ET measured in the field for each species was 0.15 to 0.3 times that of the reference evapotranspiration (ETo) derived from the Penman-Monteith equation, with the primary variability in the demand related to measured incident solar radiation. The total water demand for each species is estimated using the laboratory determined relationship between the active sapwood area and the diameter of the limb, and a survey of the tree diameter breast height (DBH) of each tree in the watershed. This study provides new insight into the actual water demand of two native tree species in Southern California and has serious implications for conservation plans, which are often developed using watershed models that apply ETo to all vegetation communities, regardless of actual water demand.

  6. Biomass Assessment. Assessment of global biomass potentials and their links to food, water, biodiversity, energy demand and economy. Inventory and analysis of existing studies. Supporting document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dornburg, V.; Faaij, A.; Verweij, P.; Banse, M.; Van Diepen, K.; Van Keulen, H.; Langeveld, H.; Meeusen, M.; Van de Ven, G.; Wester, F.; Alkemade, R.; Ten Brink, B.; Van den Born, G.J.; Van Oorschot, M.; Ros, J.; Smout, F.; Van Vuuren, D.; Van den Wijngaart, R.; Aiking, H.; Londo, M.; Mozaffarian, H.; Smekens, K.; Lysen, E.

    2008-01-01

    This supporting document contains the result from the inventory phase of the biomass assessment of global biomass potentials and their links to food, water, biodiversity, energy demand and economy. This study provides a comprehensive assessment of global biomass potential estimates, focusing on the various factors affecting these potentials, such as food supplies, water use, biodiversity, energy demands and agro-economics

  7. An integrated study of earth resources in the State of California using remote sensing techniques. [supply, demand, and impact of California water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, R. N.; Burgy, R. H.; Algazi, V. R.; Draeger, W. C.; Estes, J. E.; Bowden, L. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The supply, demand, and impact relationships of California's water resources as exemplified by the Feather River project and other aspects of the California Water Plan are discussed.

  8. Does External Funding Help Adaptation? Evidence from Community-Based Water Management in the Colombian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtinho, Felipe; Eakin, Hallie; López-Carr, David; Hayes, Tanya M.

    2013-11-01

    Despite debate regarding whether, and in what form, communities need external support for adaptation to environmental change, few studies have examined how external funding impacts adaptation decisions in rural resource-dependent communities. In this article, we use quantitative and qualitative methods to assess how different funding sources influence the initiative to adapt to water scarcity in the Colombian Andes. We compare efforts to adapt to water scarcity in 111 rural Andean communities with varied dependence on external funding for water management activities. Findings suggest that despite efforts to use their own internal resources, communities often need external support to finance adaptation strategies. However, not all external financial support positively impacts a community’s abilities to adapt. Results show the importance of community-driven requests for external support. In cases where external support was unsolicited, the results show a decline, or “crowding-out,” in community efforts to adapt. In contrast, in cases where communities initiated the request for external support to fund their own projects, findings show that external intervention is more likely to enhance or “crowds-in” community-driven adaptation.

  9. Comparability of slack water and Lagrangian flow respirometry methods for community metabolic measurements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily C Shaw

    Full Text Available Coral reef calcification is predicted to decline as a result of ocean acidification and other anthropogenic stressors. The majority of studies predicting declines based on in situ relationships between environmental parameters and net community calcification rate have been location-specific, preventing accurate predictions for coral reefs globally. In this study, net community calcification and production were measured on a coral reef flat at One Tree Island, Great Barrier Reef, using Lagrangian flow respirometry and slack water methods. Net community calcification, daytime net photosynthesis and nighttime respiration were higher under the flow respirometry method, likely due to increased water flow relative to the slack water method. The two methods also varied in the degrees to which they were influenced by potential measurement uncertainties. The difference in the results from these two commonly used methods implies that some of the location-specific differences in coral reef community metabolism may be due to differences in measurement methods.

  10. Working With an Aboriginal Community to Understand Drinking Water Perceptions and Acceptance in Rural New South Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidelis Jaravani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the Walhallow Aboriginal community’s experiences with drinking water to gain a shared understanding about community concerns and to develop ways to address these concerns together. There is a strong connection between people and water, as well as a need to appreciate the social factors associated with the unique cultural and socioeconomic factors that the provision of drinking water has for Aboriginal communities. We used a mixed method design within a community-based participatory action Research (PAR framework. Water hardness and parental influence were the key factors associated with participants’ decisions to drink rainwater. This study provides important insights for water supply authorities when assessing health risks and when choosing appropriate mitigation measures for water quality improvement programs in Aboriginal communities.

  11. Smart candle soot coated membranes for on-demand immiscible oil/water mixture and emulsion switchable separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Zhao, Zhihong; Li, Dianming; Tian, Haifeng; Zha, Fei; Feng, Hua; Guo, Lin

    2017-09-21

    Oil/water separation is of great importance for the treatment of oily wastewater, including immiscible light/heavy oil-water mixtures, oil-in-water or water-in-oil emulsions. Smart surfaces with responsive wettability have received extensive attention especially for controllable oil/water separation. However, traditional smart membranes with a switchable wettability between superhydrophobicity and superhydrophilicity are limited to certain responsive materials and continuous external stimuli, such as pH, electrical field or light irradiation. Herein, a candle soot coated mesh (CSM) with a larger pore size and a candle soot coated PVDF membrane (CSP) with a smaller pore size with underwater superoleophobicity and underoil superhydrophobicity were successfully fabricated, which can be used for on-demand immiscible oil/water mixtures and surfactants-stabilized oil/water emulsion separation, respectively. Without any continuous external stimulus, the wettability of our membranes could be reversibly switched between underwater superoleophobicity and underoil superhydrophobicity simply by drying and washing alternately, thus achieving effective and switchable oil/water separation with excellent separation efficiency. We believe that such smart materials will be promising candidates for use in the removal of oil pollutants in the future.

  12. Life cycle and hydrologic modeling of rainwater harvesting in urban neighborhoods: Implications of urban form and water demand patterns in the US and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit-Boix, Anna; Devkota, Jay; Phillips, Robert; Vargas-Parra, María Violeta; Josa, Alejandro; Gabarrell, Xavier; Rieradevall, Joan; Apul, Defne

    2018-04-15

    Water management plays a major role in any city, but applying alternative strategies might be more or less feasible depending on the urban form and water demand. This paper aims to compare the environmental performance of implementing rainwater harvesting (RWH) systems in American and European cities. To do so, two neighborhoods with a water-stressed Mediterranean climate were selected in contrasting cities, i.e., Calafell (Catalonia, Spain) and Ukiah (California, US). Calafell is a high-density, tourist city, whereas Ukiah is a typical sprawled area. We studied the life cycle impacts of RWH in urban contexts by using runoff modeling before (i.e. business as usual) and after the implementation of this system. In general, cisterns were able to supply >75% of the rainwater demand for laundry and toilet flushing. The exception were multi-story buildings with roofs smaller than 200m 2 , where the catchment area was insufficient to meet demand. The implementation of RWH was environmentally beneficial with respect to the business-as-usual scenario, especially because of reduced runoff treatment needs. Along with soil features, roof area and water demand were major parameters that affected this reduction. RWH systems are more attractive in Calafell, which had 60% lower impacts than in Ukiah. Therefore, high-density areas can potentially benefit more from RWH than sprawled cities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Energy demand: Facts and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chateau, B; Lapillonne, B

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between economic development and energy demand is investigated in this book. It gives a detailed analysis of the energy demand dynamics in industrialized countries and compares the past evolution of the driving factors behind energy demand by sector and by end-uses for the main OECD countries: residential sector (space heating, water heating, cooking...), tertiary sector, passenger and goods transport by mode, and industry (with particular emphasis on the steel and cement industry). This analysis leads to a more precise understanding of the long-term trends of energy demand; highlighting the influence on these trends of energy prices, especially after the oil price shocks, and of the type of economic development pattern.

  14. Alaska Native Villages and Rural Communities Water Grant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Significant human health and water quality problems exist in Alaska Native Village and other rural communities in the state due to lack of sanitation. To address these issues, EPA created the Alaska Rural and Native Villages Grant Program.

  15. A community-based bacteriological study of quality of drinking-water and its feedback to a rural community in Western Maharashtra, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambe, Prachi V; Daswani, Poonam G; Mistry, Nerges F; Ghadge, Appasaheb A; Antia, Noshir H

    2008-06-01

    A longitudinal study of the bacteriological quality of rural water supplies was undertaken for a movement towards self-help against diseases, such as diarrhoea, and improved water management through increased community participation. Three hundred and thirteen water samples from different sources, such as well, tank, community standpost, handpumps, percolation lakes, and streams, and from households were collected from six villages in Maharashtra, India, over a one-year period. Overall, 49.8% of the 313 samples were polluted, whereas 45.9% of the samples from piped water supply were polluted. The quality of groundwater was generally good compared to open wells. Irregular and/or inadequate treatment of water, lack of drainage systems, and domestic washing near the wells led to deterioration in the quality of water. No major diarrhoeal epidemics were recorded during the study, although a few sporadic cases were noted during the rainy season. As a result of a continuous feedback of bacteriological findings to the community, perceptions of the people changed with time. An increased awareness was observed through active participation of the people cutting across age-groups and different socioeconomic strata of the society in village activities.

  16. Modeling and clustering water demand patterns from real-world smart meter data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Cheifetz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, drinking water utilities need an acute comprehension of the water demand on their distribution network, in order to efficiently operate the optimization of resources, manage billing and propose new customer services. With the emergence of smart grids, based on automated meter reading (AMR, a better understanding of the consumption modes is now accessible for smart cities with more granularities. In this context, this paper evaluates a novel methodology for identifying relevant usage profiles from the water consumption data produced by smart meters. The methodology is fully data-driven using the consumption time series which are seen as functions or curves observed with an hourly time step. First, a Fourier-based additive time series decomposition model is introduced to extract seasonal patterns from time series. These patterns are intended to represent the customer habits in terms of water consumption. Two functional clustering approaches are then used to classify the extracted seasonal patterns: the functional version of K-means, and the Fourier REgression Mixture (FReMix model. The K-means approach produces a hard segmentation and K representative prototypes. On the other hand, the FReMix is a generative model and also produces K profiles as well as a soft segmentation based on the posterior probabilities. The proposed approach is applied to a smart grid deployed on the largest water distribution network (WDN in France. The two clustering strategies are evaluated and compared. Finally, a realistic interpretation of the consumption habits is given for each cluster. The extensive experiments and the qualitative interpretation of the resulting clusters allow one to highlight the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  17. Modeling and clustering water demand patterns from real-world smart meter data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheifetz, Nicolas; Noumir, Zineb; Samé, Allou; Sandraz, Anne-Claire; Féliers, Cédric; Heim, Véronique

    2017-08-01

    Nowadays, drinking water utilities need an acute comprehension of the water demand on their distribution network, in order to efficiently operate the optimization of resources, manage billing and propose new customer services. With the emergence of smart grids, based on automated meter reading (AMR), a better understanding of the consumption modes is now accessible for smart cities with more granularities. In this context, this paper evaluates a novel methodology for identifying relevant usage profiles from the water consumption data produced by smart meters. The methodology is fully data-driven using the consumption time series which are seen as functions or curves observed with an hourly time step. First, a Fourier-based additive time series decomposition model is introduced to extract seasonal patterns from time series. These patterns are intended to represent the customer habits in terms of water consumption. Two functional clustering approaches are then used to classify the extracted seasonal patterns: the functional version of K-means, and the Fourier REgression Mixture (FReMix) model. The K-means approach produces a hard segmentation and K representative prototypes. On the other hand, the FReMix is a generative model and also produces K profiles as well as a soft segmentation based on the posterior probabilities. The proposed approach is applied to a smart grid deployed on the largest water distribution network (WDN) in France. The two clustering strategies are evaluated and compared. Finally, a realistic interpretation of the consumption habits is given for each cluster. The extensive experiments and the qualitative interpretation of the resulting clusters allow one to highlight the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  18. Does global progress on sanitation really lag behind water? An analysis of global progress on community- and household-level access to safe water and sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Oliver; Elliott, Mark; Overbo, Alycia; Bartram, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Safe drinking water and sanitation are important determinants of human health and wellbeing and have recently been declared human rights by the international community. Increased access to both were included in the Millennium Development Goals under a single dedicated target for 2015. This target was reached in 2010 for water but sanitation will fall short; however, there is an important difference in the benchmarks used for assessing global access. For drinking water the benchmark is community-level access whilst for sanitation it is household-level access, so a pit latrine shared between households does not count toward the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target. We estimated global progress for water and sanitation under two scenarios: with equivalent household- and community-level benchmarks. Our results demonstrate that the "sanitation deficit" is apparent only when household-level sanitation access is contrasted with community-level water access. When equivalent benchmarks are used for water and sanitation, the global deficit is as great for water as it is for sanitation, and sanitation progress in the MDG-period (1990-2015) outstrips that in water. As both drinking water and sanitation access yield greater benefits at the household-level than at the community-level, we conclude that any post-2015 goals should consider a household-level benchmark for both.

  19. Natural Sunlight Shapes Crude Oil-Degrading Bacterial Communities in Northern Gulf of Mexico Surface Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacosa, Hernando P; Liu, Zhanfei; Erdner, Deana L

    2015-01-01

    Following the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill in 2010, an enormous amount of oil was observed in the deep and surface waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico. Surface waters are characterized by intense sunlight and high temperature during summer. While the oil-degrading bacterial communities in the deep-sea plume have been widely investigated, the effect of natural sunlight on those in oil polluted surface waters remains unexplored to date. In this study, we incubated surface water from the DWH site with amendments of crude oil, Corexit dispersant, or both for 36 days under natural sunlight in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The bacterial community was analyzed over time for total abundance, density of alkane and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degraders, and community composition via pyrosequencing. Our results showed that, for treatments with oil and/or Corexit, sunlight significantly reduced bacterial diversity and evenness and was a key driver of shifts in bacterial community structure. In samples containing oil or dispersant, sunlight greatly reduced abundance of the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus but increased the relative abundances of Alteromonas, Marinobacter, Labrenzia, Sandarakinotalea, Bartonella, and Halomonas. Dark samples with oil were represented by members of Thalassobius, Winogradskyella, Alcanivorax, Formosa, Pseudomonas, Eubacterium, Erythrobacter, Natronocella, and Coxiella. Both oil and Corexit inhibited the Candidatus Pelagibacter with or without sunlight exposure. For the first time, we demonstrated the effects of light in structuring microbial communities in water with oil and/or Corexit. Overall, our findings improve understanding of oil pollution in surface water, and provide unequivocal evidence that sunlight is a key factor in determining bacterial community composition and dynamics in oil polluted marine waters.

  20. Effects of rainwater harvesting on centralized urban water supply systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandet, C.; Binning, Philip John; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2010-01-01

    depths but very different temporal distributions. Supply reliability and the extent of reliance on the public distribution system are identified as suitable performance indicators for mains water infrastructure. A uniform temporal distribution of rainfall in an oceanic climate like that of Dinard......, Northern France, yielded supply reliabilities close to 100% for reasonable tank sizes (0.065 m3/m2 of roof area in Dinard compared with 0.262 m3/m2 in Nice with a RWSO of 30% for a detached house). However, the collection and use of rainfall results in a permanent decrease in mains water demand leading...... to an increase in water age in the distribution network. Investigations carried on a real network showed that water age is greatly affected when rainwater supplies more than 30% of the overall water demand. In urban water utilities planning, rainwater supply systems may however be profitable for the community...

  1. Water, sanitation and hygiene in community based care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Majority of the HIV/AIDS patients in South Africa receive health care services at home. However, limited studies have been conducted to examine the water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) situation in the homes of the care receivers and its impact on community-based care. The main objective of this study was to explore ...

  2. Global monthly water stress: II. Water demand and severity of water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wada, Y.; Beek, L.P.H. van; Viviroli, D.; Dürr, H.H.; Weingartner, R.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper assesses global water stress at a finer temporal scale compared to conventional assessments. To calculate time series of global water stress at a monthly time scale, global water availability, as obtained from simulations of monthly river discharge from the companion paper, is confronted

  3. Estimating the burden of illness in an Ontario community with untreated drinking water and sewage disposal problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, L W; Shimoda, F; Walter, S D; Pickard, L; Hunter, B; Ford, J; Deivanayagam, N; Cunningham, I

    1989-01-01

    The Hamilton-Wentworth regional health department was asked by one of its municipalities to determine whether the present water supply and sewage disposal methods used in a community without piped water and regional sewage disposal posed a threat to the health of its residents. Three approaches were used: assessments by public health inspectors of all households; bacteriological and chemical analyses of water samples; and completion of a specially designed questionnaire by residents in the target community and a control community. 89% of the 227 residences in the target community were found to have a drinking water supply that, according to the Ministry of Environment guidelines, was unsafe and/or unsatisfactory. According to on-site inspections, 32% of households had sewage disposal problems. Responses to the questionnaire revealed that the target community residents reported more symptoms associated with enteric infections due to the water supply. Two of these symptoms, diarrhea and stomach cramps, had a relative risk of 2.2 when compared to the control community (p less than 0.05). The study was successfully used by the municipality to argue for provincial funding of piped water.

  4. Predictive Control Applied to a Solar Desalination Plant Connected to a Greenhouse with Daily Variation of Irrigation Water Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Roca

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The water deficit in the Mediterranean area is a known matter severely affecting agriculture. One way to avoid the aquifers’ exploitation is to supply water to crops by using thermal desalination processes. Moreover, in order to guarantee long-term sustainability, the required thermal energy for the desalination process can be provided by solar energy. This paper shows simulations for a case study in which a solar multi-effect distillation plant produces water for irrigation purposes. Detailed models of the involved systems are the base of a predictive controller to operate the desalination plant and fulfil the water demanded by the crops.

  5. Considering the risk of infection by cryptosporidium via consumption of municipally treated drinking water from a surface water source in a Southwestern Ontario community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintar, K D M; Fazil, A; Pollari, F; Waltner-Toews, D; Charron, D F; McEwen, S A; Walton, T

    2012-07-01

    Through the use of case-control analyses and quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA), relative risks of transmission of cryptosporidiosis have been evaluated (recreational water exposure vs. drinking water consumption) for a Canadian community with higher than national rates of cryptosporidiosis. A QMRA was developed to assess the risk of Cryptosporidium infection through the consumption of municipally treated drinking water. Simulations were based on site-specific surface water contamination levels and drinking water treatment log₁₀ reduction capacity for Cryptosporidium. Results suggested that the risk of Cryptosporidium infection via drinking water in the study community, assuming routine operation of the water treatment plant, was negligible (6 infections per 10¹³ persons per day--5th percentile: 2 infections per 10¹⁵ persons per day; 95th percentile: 3 infections per 10¹² persons per day). The risk is essentially nonexistent during optimized, routine treatment operations. The study community achieves between 7 and 9 log₁₀ Cryptosporidium oocyst reduction through routine water treatment processes. Although these results do not preclude the need for constant vigilance by both water treatment and public health professionals in this community, they suggest that the cause of higher rates of cryptosporidiosis are more likely due to recreational water contact, or perhaps direct animal contact. QMRA can be successfully applied at the community level to identify data gaps, rank relative public health risks, and forecast future risk scenarios. It is most useful when performed in a collaborative way with local stakeholders, from beginning to end of the risk analysis paradigm. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  6. Water Demand Management for Social Justice

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Bob Stanley

    with men, in the design and management of water projects enhances the intended results of projects and contributes to ... the area of domestic water supply and sanitation. There is .... mandate reducing the loss of quantity or quality of water as ...

  7. Meeting the food, energy, and water demands of nine billion people: Will climate change add a new dimension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change will add a new stress to our ability to produce food and supply water and energy for the expanding population. There is an emerging gap between the current production trends in food commodities around the world and the projected needs to meet the demands for the world population. This...

  8. A comparison of arsenic exposure in young children and home water arsenic in two rural West Texas communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Del Rio

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a previously conducted Health Impact Assessment of a well-water dependent southwest community, arsenic (As levels greater than the EPA Maximum Contaminant Level (10 μg/L were identified in home water samples. The goals of this study were to test whether children from the previously studied well-water dependent community (Community 1 had higher blood As levels than children from a demographically similar and geographically nearby community dependent on a municipal water supply (Community 2; to test whether home water As levels predicted child As blood levels; and to examine how child As blood levels changed over time. Methods This was an observational study of 252 children aged 4 to 12 years from two communities. Children were recruited through elementary schools and tested during the school day; 204 children participated in follow-up testing. Home water samples were collected according to U.S. Environmental Protection agency recommended procedures. Child heavy metal blood levels and home water sample heavy metal levels were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. General linear regression analysis was used to test the influence of community on child As levels, and to examine the contribution of home water As levels to child blood As levels. Results Arsenic was detectable in all children tested. Blood levels ranged from 0.09–2.61 μg/dL; approximately 31% of children tested at Time I (79/252 had blood As values above the current acceptable limit (1.2 μg/dL. Approximately 8% of household water samples (6/76 had As levels higher than 10 μg/L. Community did not predict child blood As levels; seasonal effects differed by Community. At Time II, child blood As levels were higher in Community 2 than in Community 1. Conclusion A large proportion of children in the communities tested had As exposure. Home water As levels did not predict child blood As levels. Fluctuating child blood As levels by season

  9. Opinion of residents from the Gold Coast, Queensland, on community water fluoridation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroon, Jeroen; Reid, Kate Emily; Cutting, Jenna Renae; Lalloo, Ratilal; Chiu, Kandy Chien

    2014-02-01

    To investigate opinions and concerns of Gold Coast residents regarding fluoridation of community water supplies. Anonymous data were collected in four major shopping centers from approximately 500 Gold Coast residents. Eighty-one percent of participants were aware of the addition of fluoride to the water supply. More than half obtained information on water fluoridation through the print and electronic media. Sixty percent of respondents supported water fluoridation. The majority preferred the public and/or health professionals to have made the decision on water fluoridation rather than the government. The percentage of residents supporting water fluoridation was lower than that found in other Queensland, Australian, and worldwide surveys. In this study, only age and the highest level of education attained were factors significantly related to levels of support for water fluoridation. The Queensland Government's decision to implement water fluoridation without a referendum caused disquiet amongst some Gold Coast residents. Future public health initiatives therefore may be assisted by more consultation with, and involvement from, health professionals in the relevant fields. Public health campaigns may benefit more from interaction with the community in order to address their specific concerns. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. The Effect of the 2015 Earthquake on the Bacterial Community Compositions in Water in Nepal

    KAUST Repository

    Uprety, Sital

    2017-12-06

    We conducted a study to examine the effect of seasonal variations and the disruptive effects of the 2015 Nepal earthquake on microbial communities associated with drinking water sources. We first characterized the microbial communities of water samples in two Nepali regions (Kathmandu and Jhapa) to understand the stability of microbial communities in water samples collected in 2014. We analyzed additional water samples from the same sources collected from May to August 2015, allowing the comparison of samples from dry-to-dry season and from dry-to-monsoon seasons. Emphasis was placed on microbes responsible for maintaining the geobiochemical characteristics of water (e.g., ammonia-oxidizing and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria and archaea and sulfate-reducing bacteria) and opportunistic pathogens often found in water (Acinetobacter). When examining samples from Jhapa, we identified that most geobiochemical microbe populations remained similar. When examining samples from Kathmandu, the abundance of microbial genera responsible for maintaining the geobiochemical characteristics of water increased immediately after the earthquake and decreased 8 months later (December 2015). In addition, microbial source tracking was used to monitor human fecal contamination and revealed deteriorated water quality in some specific sampling sites in Kathmandu post-earthquake. This study highlights a disruption of the environmental microbiome after an earthquake and the restoration of these microbial communities as a function of time and sanitation practices.

  11. Water And Waste Water Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Byeong Ju

    1988-04-01

    This book shows US the distribution diagram of water and waste water processing with device of water processing, and device of waste water processing, property of water quality like measurement of pollution of waste water, theoretical Oxygen demand, and chemical Oxygen demand, processing speed like zero-order reactions and enzyme reactions, physical processing of water and waste water, chemical processing of water and waste water like neutralization and buffering effect, biological processing of waste water, ammonia removal, and sludges processing.

  12. Performance of ceramic disk filter coated with nano ZnO for removing Escherichia coli from water in small rural and remote communities of developing regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Huang, Guohe; An, Chunjiang; He, Yuan; Yao, Yao; Zhang, Peng; Shen, Jian

    2018-03-12

    Global water safety is facing great challenges due to increased population and demand. There is an urgent need to develop suitable water treatment strategy for small rural and remote communities in low-income developing countries. In order to find a low-cost solution, the reduction of E. coli using ceramic water disk coated with nano ZnO was investigated in this study. The performance of modified ceramic disk filters was influenced by several factors in the filter production process. Based on the factorial analysis, the pore size of the disk filters was the most significant factor for influencing E. coli removal efficiency and the clay content was the most significant one for influencing flow rate of modified disk filters. The coating of nano ZnO led to the change of disk filter surface and porosity. The reduction of E. coli could be attributed to both filter retention and photocatalytic antibacterial activity of nano ZnO. The effects of filter operation factors including initial E. coli concentration, illumination time and lamp power on E. coli removal effectiveness were also revealed. The results can help find a safe and cost-effective approach to solve drinking water problems in small rural and remote communities of developing regions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Microbial community changes in hydraulic fracturing fluids and produced water from shale gas extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali Mohan, Arvind; Hartsock, Angela; Bibby, Kyle J; Hammack, Richard W; Vidic, Radisav D; Gregory, Kelvin B

    2013-11-19

    Microbial communities associated with produced water from hydraulic fracturing are not well understood, and their deleterious activity can lead to significant increases in production costs and adverse environmental impacts. In this study, we compared the microbial ecology in prefracturing fluids (fracturing source water and fracturing fluid) and produced water at multiple time points from a natural gas well in southwestern Pennsylvania using 16S rRNA gene-based clone libraries, pyrosequencing, and quantitative PCR. The majority of the bacterial community in prefracturing fluids constituted aerobic species affiliated with the class Alphaproteobacteria. However, their relative abundance decreased in produced water with an increase in halotolerant, anaerobic/facultative anaerobic species affiliated with the classes Clostridia, Bacilli, Gammaproteobacteria, Epsilonproteobacteria, Bacteroidia, and Fusobacteria. Produced water collected at the last time point (day 187) consisted almost entirely of sequences similar to Clostridia and showed a decrease in bacterial abundance by 3 orders of magnitude compared to the prefracturing fluids and produced water samplesfrom earlier time points. Geochemical analysis showed that produced water contained higher concentrations of salts and total radioactivity compared to prefracturing fluids. This study provides evidence of long-term subsurface selection of the microbial community introduced through hydraulic fracturing, which may include significant implications for disinfection as well as reuse of produced water in future fracturing operations.

  14. Field Testing of a Small Water Purification System for Non-PRASA Rural Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, rural communities typically do not have adequate water purification systems to sustain their life quality and residents are exposed to pathogens present in drinking water. In Puerto Rico (PR), approximately 4% of the population does not have access to drinking water provi...

  15. 75 FR 9921 - San Diego County Water Authority Natural Communities Conservation Program/Habitat Conservation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... Diego County Water Authority Natural Communities Conservation Program/Habitat Conservation Plan, San... the NCCP/HCP's conservation strategy. Covered Activities would include developing new water... permit application, and notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The San Diego County Water Authority (Water...

  16. Spatial diversity of bacterioplankton communities in surface water of northern South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jialin; Li, Nan; Li, Fuchao; Zou, Tao; Yu, Shuxian; Wang, Yinchu; Qin, Song; Wang, Guangyi

    2014-01-01

    The South China Sea is one of the largest marginal seas, with relatively frequent passage of eddies and featuring distinct spatial variation in the western tropical Pacific Ocean. Here, we report a phylogenetic study of bacterial community structures in surface seawater of the northern South China Sea (nSCS). Samples collected from 31 sites across large environmental gradients were used to construct clone libraries and yielded 2,443 sequences grouped into 170 OTUs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed 23 bacterial classes with major components α-, β- and γ-Proteobacteria, as well as Cyanobacteria. At class and genus taxon levels, community structure of coastal waters was distinctively different from that of deep-sea waters and displayed a higher diversity index. Redundancy analyses revealed that bacterial community structures displayed a significant correlation with the water depth of individual sampling sites. Members of α-Proteobacteria were the principal component contributing to the differences of the clone libraries. Furthermore, the bacterial communities exhibited heterogeneity within zones of upwelling and anticyclonic eddies. Our results suggested that surface bacterial communities in nSCS had two-level patterns of spatial distribution structured by ecological types (coastal VS. oceanic zones) and mesoscale physical processes, and also provided evidence for bacterial phylogenetic phyla shaped by ecological preferences.

  17. Spatial diversity of bacterioplankton communities in surface water of northern South China Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialin Li

    Full Text Available The South China Sea is one of the largest marginal seas, with relatively frequent passage of eddies and featuring distinct spatial variation in the western tropical Pacific Ocean. Here, we report a phylogenetic study of bacterial community structures in surface seawater of the northern South China Sea (nSCS. Samples collected from 31 sites across large environmental gradients were used to construct clone libraries and yielded 2,443 sequences grouped into 170 OTUs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed 23 bacterial classes with major components α-, β- and γ-Proteobacteria, as well as Cyanobacteria. At class and genus taxon levels, community structure of coastal waters was distinctively different from that of deep-sea waters and displayed a higher diversity index. Redundancy analyses revealed that bacterial community structures displayed a significant correlation with the water depth of individual sampling sites. Members of α-Proteobacteria were the principal component contributing to the differences of the clone libraries. Furthermore, the bacterial communities exhibited heterogeneity within zones of upwelling and anticyclonic eddies. Our results suggested that surface bacterial communities in nSCS had two-level patterns of spatial distribution structured by ecological types (coastal VS. oceanic zones and mesoscale physical processes, and also provided evidence for bacterial phylogenetic phyla shaped by ecological preferences.

  18. Demand Response at the Naval Postgraduate School

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stouffer, Dean; Wilson, Daryl

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this MBA project is to assist the Naval Postgraduate School's Public Works department to assimilate into a Demand Response program that will not only benefit the school but also the community...

  19. Community Responses to the Removal of Bottled Water on a University Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailovich, Katja; Fitzgerald, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aimed to examine the impact of the removal of bottled water on the campus community. This paper presents the findings of a survey conducted at the first Australian university to remove single-use bottled water from sale on a small regional university campus. The removal of bottled water from sale at the university formed part…

  20. Water and energy: a symbiotic marriage. [Looming water shortages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mageed, Y A

    1977-02-01

    The United Nations Water Conference held in Mar del Plata, Argentina, March 14-25, 1977 dealt with all aspects of the world's use of water: community supply, agriculture, industry, energy production, preservation of life and property through flood control, and transportation. The symbiosis between energy and water carries over into atomic power field--nuclear reactors are both users and a potential source of freshwater through desalination. The purpose of the conference was to call the attention of all concerned governments, opinion leaders, and public at large to the looming water crisis; to establish that the world's water problems cannot be solved by the lone water engineer or community water board, or even the scientist or administrator, but can be tackled with any hope of success only through a broad collaboration not only among all of these but of environmentalists, farm leaders, industrialists, and above all by governments, their planners, their budget officers, and their political leaders. The end of the explosive rise in water demand is nowhere in sight. Two-thirds of the world's people live in developing countries--most lacking in minimum public sanitation and hygiene. In summarizing all uses of water and its correlation with energy, the author expressed a desire that the conference would spark renewed initiative to accelerate capture of water from sources that are untapped or stress water conservation. Specifically, he calls on the nuclear community to improve efficiency of heat cycles so that generating units can cut down on the amount of water needed for cooling purposes; encourage utilization of take-off heat of nuclear power stations and its use in industry, agriculture, or municipal heating systems in the vicinity of the generating plant; and plan and construct nuclear plants in such a way that they form a part of comprehensive area or river valley development schemes in which the total investment is addressed to the area's total needs.

  1. The influence of land use on water quality and diatom community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Epilithic diatom communities offer a holistic and integrated approach for assessing water quality as they remain in one place for a number of months and reflect an ecological memory of water quality over a period of time. The objective of this study is to use diatom assemblages to distinguish between particular land types ...

  2. Community-based Monitoring of Water Resources in Remote Mountain Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buytaert, W.; Hannah, D. M.; Dewulf, A.; Clark, J.; Zulkafli, Z. D.; Karpouzoglou, T.; Mao, F.; Ochoa-Tocachi, B. F.

    2016-12-01

    Remote mountain regions are often represented by pockets of poverty combined with accelerated environmental change. The combination of harsh climatic and topographical conditions with limited infrastructure puts severe pressures on local livelihoods, many of which rely strongly on local ecosystem services (ESS) such as agricultural production and water supply. It is therefore paramount to optimise the management of ESS for the benefit of local people. This is hindered by a scarcity of quantitative data about physical processes such as precipitation and river flow as well as qualitative data concerning the management of water and land. National and conventional scientific monitoring networks tend to be insufficient to cover adequately the spatial and temporal gradients. Additionally, the data that are being collected often fail to be converted into locally relevant and actionable knowledge for ESS management. In such conditions, community-based monitoring of natural resources may be an effective way to reduce this knowledge gap. The participatory nature of such monitoring also enhances knowledge co-production and integration in locally-based decision-making processes. Here, we present the results of a 4-year consortium project on the use of citizen science technologies for ecosystem services management (Mountain-EVO). The project analyzed ecosystem service dynamics and decision-making processes and implemented a comparative analysis of experiments with community-based monitoring of water resources in 4 remote mountain regions, i.e. Peru, Nepal, Kyrgyzstan, and Ethiopia. We find that community-based monitoring can have a transformative impact on local ESS management, because of its potential to be more inclusive, polycentric, and context-driven as compared to conventional monitoring. However, the results and effectiveness of community-based approaches depend strongly on the natural and socio-economic boundary conditions. As such, this requires a tailored and bottom

  3. Demand generation and social mobilisation for integrated community case management (iCCM) and child health: Lessons learned from successful programmes in Niger and Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Alyssa B; Martin, Sandrine; Cerveau, Teresa; Wetzler, Erica; Berzal, Rocio

    2014-12-01

    We present the approaches used in and outcomes resulting from integrated community case management (iCCM) programmes in Niger and Mozambique with a strong focus on demand generation and social mobilisation. We use a case study approach to describe the programme and contextual elements of the Niger and Mozambique programmes. Awareness and utilisation of iCCM services and key family practices increased following the implementation of the Niger and Mozambique iCCM and child survival programmes, as did care-seeking within 24 hours and care-seeking from appropriate, trained providers in Mozambique. These approaches incorporated interpersonal communication activities and community empowerment/participation for collective change, partnerships and networks among key stakeholder groups within communities, media campaigns and advocacy efforts with local and national leaders. iCCM programmes that train and equip community health workers and successfully engage and empower community members to adopt new behaviours, have appropriate expectations and to trust community health workers' ability to assess and treat illnesses can lead to improved care-seeking and utilisation, and community ownership for iCCM.

  4. Demand generation and social mobilisation for integrated community case management (iCCM and child health: Lessons learned from successful programmes in Niger and Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa B Sharkey

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We present the approaches used in and outcomes resulting from integrated community case management (iCCM programmes in Niger and Mozambique with a strong focus on demand generation and social mobilisation. We use a case study approach to describe the programme and contextual elements of the Niger and Mozambique programmes. Awareness and utilisation of iCCM services and key family practices increased following the implementation of the Niger and Mozambique iCCM and child survival programmes, as did care–seeking within 24 hours and care–seeking from appropriate, trained providers in Mozambique. These approaches incorporated interpersonal communication activities and community empowerment/participation for collective change, partnerships and networks among key stakeholder groups within communities, media campaigns and advocacy efforts with local and national leaders. iCCM programmes that train and equip community health workers and successfully engage and empower community members to adopt new behaviours, have appropriate expectations and to trust community health workers’ ability to assess and treat illnesses can lead to improved care–seeking and utilisation, and community ownership for iCCM.

  5. Agent-Based Modelling of Agricultural Water Abstraction in Response to Climate, Policy, and Demand Changes: Results from East Anglia, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinscoe, T. H. A.; Knoeri, C.; Fleskens, L.; Barrett, J.

    2014-12-01

    Freshwater is a vital natural resource for multiple needs, such as drinking water for the public, industrial processes, hydropower for energy companies, and irrigation for agriculture. In the UK, crop production is the largest in East Anglia, while at the same time the region is also the driest, with average annual rainfall between 560 and 720 mm (1971 to 2000). Many water catchments of East Anglia are reported as over licensed or over abstracted. Therefore, freshwater available for agricultural irrigation abstraction in this region is becoming both increasingly scarce due to competing demands, and increasingly variable and uncertain due to climate and policy changes. It is vital for water users and policy makers to understand how these factors will affect individual abstractors and water resource management at the system level. We present first results of an Agent-based Model that captures the complexity of this system as individual abstractors interact, learn and adapt to these internal and external changes. The purpose of this model is to simulate what patterns of water resource management emerge on the system level based on local interactions, adaptations and behaviours, and what policies lead to a sustainable water resource management system. The model is based on an irrigation abstractor typology derived from a survey in the study area, to capture individual behavioural intentions under a range of water availability scenarios, in addition to farm attributes, and demographics. Regional climate change scenarios, current and new abstraction licence reforms by the UK regulator, such as water trading and water shares, and estimated demand increases from other sectors were used as additional input data. Findings from the integrated model provide new understanding of the patterns of water resource management likely to emerge at the system level.

  6. Phytoremediation of industrial mines wastewater using water hyacinth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Priyanka; Shinde, Omkar; Sarkar, Supriya

    2017-01-02

    The wastewater at Sukinda chromite mines (SCM) area of Orissa (India) showed high levels of toxic hexavalent chromium (Cr VI). Wastewater from chromium-contaminated mines exhibit potential threats for biotic community in the vicinity. The aim of the present investigation is to develop a suitable phytoremediation technology for the effective removal of toxic hexavalent chromium from mines wastewater. A water hyacinth species Eichhornia crassipes was chosen to remediate the problem of Cr (VI) pollution from wastewater. It has been observed that this plant was able to remove 99.5% Cr (VI) of the processed water of SCM in 15 days. This aquatic plant not only removed hexavalent Cr, but is also capable of reducing total dissolved solids (TDS), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and other elements of water also. Large-scale experiment was also performed using 100 L of water from SCM and the same removal efficiency was achieved.

  7. Phytoremediation of industrial mines wastewater using water hyacinth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Priyanka; Shinde, Omkar; Sarkar, Supriya

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The wastewater at Sukinda chromite mines (SCM) area of Orissa (India) showed high levels of toxic hexavalent chromium (Cr VI). Wastewater from chromium-contaminated mines exhibit potential threats for biotic community in the vicinity. The aim of the present investigation is to develop a suitable phytoremediation technology for the effective removal of toxic hexavalent chromium from mines wastewater. A water hyacinth species Eichhornia crassipes was chosen to remediate the problem of Cr (VI) pollution from wastewater. It has been observed that this plant was able to remove 99.5% Cr (VI) of the processed water of SCM in 15 days. This aquatic plant not only removed hexavalent Cr, but is also capable of reducing total dissolved solids (TDS), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and other elements of water also. Large-scale experiment was also performed using 100 L of water from SCM and the same removal efficiency was achieved. PMID:27551860

  8. On-demand oil-water separation via low-voltage wettability switching of core-shell structures on copper substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Chun Haow; Zahiri, Beniamin; Sow, Pradeep Kumar; Mérida, Walter

    2018-06-01

    A copper mesh with dendritic copper-oxide core-shell structure is prepared using an additive-free electrochemical deposition strategy for on-demand oil-water separation. Electrochemical manipulation of the oxidation state of the copper oxide shell phase results in opposite affinities towards water and oil. The copper mesh can be tuned to manifest both superhydrophobic and superoleophilic properties to enable oil-removal. Conversely, switching to superhydrophilic and underwater superoleophobic allows water-removal. These changes correspond to the application of small reduction voltages (air drying. In the oil-removal mode, heavy oil selectively passes through the mesh while water is retained; in water-removal mode, the mesh allows water to permeate but blocks light oil. The smart membrane achieved separation efficiencies higher than 98% for a series of oil-water mixtures. The separation efficiency remains high with less than 5% variation after 30 cycles of oil-water separation in both modes. The switchable wetting mechanism is demonstrated with the aid of microstructural and electrochemical analysis and based on the well-known Cassie-Baxter and Wenzel theories. The selective removal of water or oil from the oil-water mixtures is driven solely by gravity and yields high efficiency and recyclability. The potential applications for the relevant technologies include oil spills cleanup, fuel purification, and wastewater treatment.

  9. A global water scarcity assessment under Shared Socio-economic Pathways – Part 1: Water use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hanasaki

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A novel global water scarcity assessment for the 21st century is presented in a two-part paper. In this first paper, water use scenarios are presented for the latest global hydrological models. The scenarios are compatible with the socio-economic scenarios of the Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs, which are a part of the latest set of scenarios on global change developed by the integrated assessment, the IAV (climate change impact, adaptation, and vulnerability assessment, and the climate modeling community. The SSPs depict five global situations based on substantially different socio-economic conditions during the 21st century. Water use scenarios were developed to reflect not only quantitative socio-economic factors, such as population and electricity production, but also key qualitative concepts such as the degree of technological change and overall environmental consciousness. Each scenario consists of five factors: irrigated area, crop intensity, irrigation efficiency, and withdrawal-based potential industrial and municipal water demands. The first three factors are used to estimate the potential irrigation water demand. All factors were developed using simple models based on a literature review and analysis of historical records. The factors are grid-based at a spatial resolution of 0.5° × 0.5° and cover the whole 21st century in five-year intervals. Each factor shows wide variation among the different global situations depicted: the irrigated area in 2085 varies between 2.7 × 106 and 4.5 × 106 km2, withdrawal-based potential industrial water demand between 246 and 1714 km3 yr−1, and municipal water between 573 and 1280 km3 yr−1. The water use scenarios can be used for global water scarcity assessments that identify the regions vulnerable to water scarcity and analyze the timing and magnitude of scarcity conditions.

  10. Demand flexibility from residential heat pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    2014-01-01

    Demand response (DR) is considered as a potentially effective tool to compensate generation intermittency imposed by renewable sources. Further, DR can instigate to offer optimum asset utilization and to avoid or delay the need for new infrastructure investment. Being a sizable load together...... with high thermal time constant, heat pumps (HP) can offer a great deal of flexibility in the future intelligent grids especially to compensate fluctuating generation. However, the HP flexibility is highly dependent on thermal demand profile, namely hot water and space heating demand. This paper proposes...... price based scheduling followed by a demand dispatch based central control and a local voltage based adaptive control, to realize HP demand flexibility. Two-step control architecture, namely local primary control encompassed by the central coordinative control, is proposed to implement...

  11. An investigation of total bacterial communities, culturable antibiotic-resistant bacterial communities and integrons in the river water environments of Taipei city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chu-Wen; Chang, Yi-Tang; Chao, Wei-Liang; Shiung, Iau-Iun; Lin, Han-Sheng; Chen, Hsuan; Ho, Szu-Han; Lu, Min-Jheng; Lee, Pin-Hsuan; Fan, Shao-Ning

    2014-07-30

    The intensive use of antibiotics may accelerate the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB). The global geographical distribution of environmental ARB has been indicated by many studies. However, the ARB in the water environments of Taiwan has not been extensively investigated. The objective of this study was to investigate the communities of ARB in Huanghsi Stream, which presents a natural acidic (pH 4) water environment. Waishuanghsi Stream provides a neutral (pH 7) water environment and was thus also monitored to allow comparison. The plate counts of culturable bacteria in eight antibiotics indicate that the numbers of culturable carbenicillin- and vancomycin-resistant bacteria in both Huanghsi and Waishuanghsi Streams are greater than the numbers of culturable bacteria resistant to the other antibiotics tested. Using a 16S rDNA sequencing approach, both the antibiotic-resistant bacterial communities (culture-based) and the total bacterial communities (metagenome-based) in Waishuanghsi Stream exhibit a higher diversity than those in Huanghsi Stream were observed. Of the three classes of integron, only class I integrons were identified in Waishuanghsi Stream. Our results suggest that an acidic (pH 4) water environment may not only affect the community composition of antibiotic-resistant bacteria but also the horizontal gene transfer mediated by integrons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Sulfate Reducing Bacteria and Mycobacteria Dominate the Biofilm Communities in a Chloraminated Drinking Water Distribution System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Smith, C Kimloi; LaPara, Timothy M; Hozalski, Raymond M

    2015-07-21

    The quantity and composition of bacterial biofilms growing on 10 water mains from a full-scale chloraminated water distribution system were analyzed using real-time PCR targeting the 16S rRNA gene and next-generation, high-throughput Illumina sequencing. Water mains with corrosion tubercles supported the greatest amount of bacterial biomass (n = 25; geometric mean = 2.5 × 10(7) copies cm(-2)), which was significantly higher (P = 0.04) than cement-lined cast-iron mains (n = 6; geometric mean = 2.0 × 10(6) copies cm(-2)). Despite spatial variation of community composition and bacterial abundance in water main biofilms, the communities on the interior main surfaces were surprisingly similar, containing a core group of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) assigned to only 17 different genera. Bacteria from the genus Mycobacterium dominated all communities at the main wall-bulk water interface (25-78% of the community), regardless of main age, estimated water age, main material, and the presence of corrosion products. Further sequencing of the mycobacterial heat shock protein gene (hsp65) provided species-level taxonomic resolution of mycobacteria. The two dominant Mycobacteria present, M. frederiksbergense (arithmetic mean = 85.7% of hsp65 sequences) and M. aurum (arithmetic mean = 6.5% of hsp65 sequences), are generally considered to be nonpathogenic. Two opportunistic pathogens, however, were detected at low numbers: M. hemophilum (arithmetic mean = 1.5% of hsp65 sequences) and M. abscessus (arithmetic mean = 0.006% of hsp65 sequences). Sulfate-reducing bacteria from the genus Desulfovibrio, which have been implicated in microbially influenced corrosion, dominated all communities located underneath corrosion tubercules (arithmetic mean = 67.5% of the community). This research provides novel insights into the quantity and composition of biofilms in full-scale drinking water distribution systems, which is critical for assessing the risks to public health and to the

  13. Demand access communications for TDRSS users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zillig, David; Weinberg, Aaron; Mcomber, Robert

    1994-01-01

    The Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) has long been used to provide reliable low and high-data rate relay services between user spacecraft in Earth orbit and the ground. To date, these TDRSS services have been implemented via prior scheduling based upon estimates of user needs and mission event timelines. While this approach may be necessary for large users that require greater amounts of TDRSS resources, TDRSS can potentially offer the planned community of smaller science missions (e.g., the small explorer missions), and other emerging users, the unique opportunity for services on demand. In particular, innovative application of the existing TDRSS Multiple Access (MA) subsystem, with its phased array antenna, could be used to implement true demand access services without modification to either the TDRSS satellites or the user transponder, thereby introducing operational and performance benefits to both the user community and the Space Network. In this paper, candidate implementations of demand access service via the TDRSS MA subsystem are examined in detail. Both forward and return link services are addressed and a combination of qualitative and quantitative assessments are provided. The paper also identifies further areas for investigation in this ongoing activity that is being conducted by GSFC/Code 531 under the NASA Code O Advanced Systems Program.

  14. Residential Water Demand in a Mexican Biosphere Reserve: Evidence of the Effects of Perceived Price

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Almendarez-Hernández

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide empirical evidence for policy-makers of water management, evaluate the applicability of economic variables such as price and other factors that affect demand, and determine the impact thereof on decision-making surrounding water management in the El Vizcaino Biosphere Reserve in Mexico. We estimated a dynamic function with an average price specification, as well as price perception specification. Findings demonstrated that consumers tend to react to perceived average price but not to the marginal price. Furthermore, long-term price elasticity was found to be higher than short-term elasticity, and both elasticities were found to be inelastic. Inelastic elasticities, coupled with rising prices, generate substantial revenues with which to improve water planning and supply quality and to expand service coverage. The results suggest that users’ level of knowledge surrounding price is a key factor to take into account when restructuring rates, especially in situations where consumers do not readily possess the necessary information about their rate structure and usage within a given billing period. Furthermore, the results can help water management policy-makers to achieve goals of economic efficiency, social equity, and environmental sustainability.

  15. Source Water Protection Planning for Ontario First Nations Communities: Case Studies Identifying Challenges and Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Collins

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available After the Walkerton tragedy in 2000, where drinking water contamination left seven people dead and many suffering from chronic illness, the Province of Ontario, Canada implemented policies to develop Source Water Protection (SWP plans. Under the Clean Water Act (2006, thirty-six regional Conservation Authorities were mandated to develop watershed-based SWP plans under 19 Source Protection Regions. Most First Nations in Ontario are outside of these Source Protection Regions and reserve lands are under Federal jurisdiction. This paper explores how First Nations in Ontario are attempting to address SWP to improve drinking water quality in their communities even though these communities are not part of the Ontario SWP framework. The case studies highlight the gap between the regulatory requirements of the Federal and Provincial governments and the challenges for First Nations in Ontario from lack of funding to implement solutions to address the threats identified in SWP planning. This analysis of different approaches taken by Ontario First Nations shows that the Ontario framework for SWP planning is not an option for the majority of First Nations communities, and does not adequately address threats originating on reserve lands. First Nations attempting to address on-reserve threats to drinking water are using a variety of resources and approaches to develop community SWP plans. However, a common theme of all the cases surveyed is a lack of funding to support implementing solutions for the threats identified by the SWP planning process. Federal government initiatives to address the chronic problem of boil water advisories within Indigenous communities do not recognize SWP planning as a cost-effective tool for improving drinking water quality.

  16. Community-specific hydraulic conductance potential of soil water decomposed for two Alpine grasslands by small-scale lysimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenck, Georg; Leitinger, Georg; Obojes, Nikolaus; Hofmann, Magdalena; Newesely, Christian; Deutschmann, Mario; Tappeiner, Ulrike; Tasser, Erich

    2018-02-01

    For central Europe in addition to rising temperatures an increasing variability in precipitation is predicted. This will increase the probability of drought periods in the Alps, where water supply has been sufficient in most areas so far. For Alpine grasslands, community-specific imprints on drought responses are poorly analyzed so far due to the sufficient natural water supply. In a replicated mesocosm experiment we compared evapotranspiration (ET) and biomass productivity of two differently drought-adapted Alpine grassland communities during two artificial drought periods divided by extreme precipitation events using high-precision small lysimeters. The drought-adapted vegetation type showed a high potential to utilize even scarce water resources. This is combined with a low potential to tran