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Sample records for community structure modified

  1. Effects of field-grown genetically modified Zoysia grass on bacterial community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong-Eok; Yang, Sang-Hwan; Bae, Tae-Woong; Kang, Hong-Gyu; Lim, Pyung-Ok; Lee, Hyo-Yeon

    2011-04-01

    Herbicide-tolerant Zoysia grass has been previously developed through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. We investigated the effects of genetically modified (GM) Zoysia grass and the associated herbicide application on bacterial community structure by using culture-independent approaches. To assess the possible horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of transgenic DNA to soil microorganisms, total soil DNAs were amplified by PCR with two primer sets for the bar and hpt genes, which were introduced into the GM Zoysia grass by a callus-type transformation. The transgenic genes were not detected from the total genomic DNAs extracted from 1.5 g of each rhizosphere soils of GM and non-GM Zoysia grasses. The structures and diversities of the bacterial communities in rhizosphere soils of GM and non-GM Zoysia grasses were investigated by constructing 16S rDNA clone libraries. Classifier, provided in the RDP II, assigned 100 clones in the 16S rRNA gene sequences library into 11 bacterial phyla. The most abundant phyla in both clone libraries were Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria. The bacterial diversity of the GM clone library was lower than that of the non- GM library. The former contained four phyla, whereas the latter had seven phyla. Phylogenetic trees were constructed to confirm these results. Phylogenetic analyses of the two clone libraries revealed considerable difference from each other. The significance of difference between clone libraries was examined with LIBSHUFF statistics. LIBSHUFF analysis revealed that the two clone libraries differed significantly (P〈0.025), suggesting alterations in the composition of the microbial community associated with GM Zoysia grass.

  2. Structure and Composition of Reptile Communities in Human Modified Landscape in Gianyar Regency, Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Ayu Ari Janiawati

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available As one of the centres of tourism in Bali, Gianyar Regency has undergone a rapid development rate which could threaten wildlife, including reptile community. This research was carried out in July to October 2014 to (1 analyse the reptile community on various gradients of human modified landscape, (2 determine the relationship between environmental character and reptiles, and (3 determine body size trend of generalist species along landscape gradient. Standard visual encountered surveys were used to observe reptile community in four human modified landscape (settlements, rice fields, farmland/cropland, and monoculture stands. We found 21 species of reptiles (n = 602 individuals and the Shannon–Wiener index for diversity was 1.78. Reptile abundance tends to decline in increasing level of modification. Water sources and vegetation cover were positively correlated to reptile community, while disturbance factors (i.e. decrease in area size and shorter distance to settlements give negative impact to reptile community. There was no correlation between body size of generalist species of reptile (Gekko gecko and level of landscape modification.

  3. Nutrient availability modifies species abundance and community structure of Fucus-associated littoral benthic fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpinen, Samuli; Jormalainen, Veijo; Pettay, Esko

    2010-01-01

    The brown alga Fucus vesiculosus is a foundation species in the Baltic Sea littoral, hosting a rich faunal community. We compared the species composition and diversity of invertebrate macrofauna living on F. vesiculosus between sites differing in their eutrophication status and exposure to waves at three different times during a season. We determined the size, nitrogen and phlorotannin content of the alga. The invertebrate community differed substantially between sites near fish farms and those in more pristine environment. Snails and bivalves were more abundant on the Fucus stands near fish farms than on control stands, where crustaceans were more abundant. The abundance of molluscs decreased with the increasing shore exposure, while gammaridean amphipods dominated on the exposed shores. Abundance of several taxa increased during the proceeding growing season. The density of the most important herbivore of F. vesiculosus, Idotea balthica, varied 100-fold during the season being the lowest in June and the highest in August when the generation born in the summer started to feed on Fucus. Thus, the diversity and composition of Fucus-associated invertebrate fauna varies both with environmental conditions of the stand and seasonally. Although the negative effects of eutrophication on distribution and abundance of Fucus stands are well documented, a moderate increase of nutrients was found to increase the species richness of Fucus-associated fauna in early summer. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Glyphosate input modifies microbial community structure in clear and turbid freshwater systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, H; Vera, M S; Vinocur, A; Pérez, G; Ferraro, M; Menéndez Helman, R J; Dos Santos Afonso, M

    2016-03-01

    Since it was commercially introduced in 1974, glyphosate has been one of the most commonly used herbicides in agriculture worldwide, and there is growing concern about its adverse effects on the environment. Assuming that glyphosate may increase the organic turbidity of water bodies, we evaluated the effect of a single application of 2.4 ± 0.1 mg l(-1) of glyphosate (technical grade) on freshwater bacterioplankton and phytoplankton (pico, micro, and nanophytoplankton) and on the physical and chemical properties of the water. We used outdoor experimental mesocosms under clear and oligotrophic (phytoplanktonic chlorophyll a = 2.04 μg l(-1); turbidity = 2.0 NTU) and organic turbid and eutrophic (phytoplanktonic chlorophyll a = 50.3 μg l(-1); turbidity = 16.0 NTU) scenarios. Samplings were conducted at the beginning of the experiment and at 1, 8, 19, and 33 days after glyphosate addition. For both typologies, the herbicide affected the abiotic water properties (with a marked increase in total phosphorus), but it did not affect the structure of micro and nanophytoplankton. In clear waters, glyphosate treatment induced a trend toward higher bacteria and picoeukaryotes abundances, while there was a 2 to 2.5-fold increase in picocyanobacteria number. In turbid waters, without picoeukaryotes at the beginning of the experiment, glyphosate decreased bacteria abundance but increased the number of picocyanobacteria, suggesting a direct favorable effect. Moreover, our results show that the impact of the herbicide was observed in microorganisms from both oligo and eutrophic conditions, indicating that the impact would be independent of the trophic status of the water body.

  5. A Comparison of Soil microbial community structure, protozoa and nematodes in field plots of conventional and genetically modified maize expressing the Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab toxin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griffiths, B. S.; Caul, S.; Thompson, J.

    2005-01-01

    Field trials were established at three European sites (Denmark, Eastern France, South-West France) of genetically modified maize (Zea mays L.) expressing the CryIAb Bacillus thuringiensis toxin (Bt), the near-isogenic non-Bt cultivar, another conventional maize cultivar and grass. Soil from Denmark...... was sampled at sowing (May) and harvest (October) over two years (2002, 2003); from E France at harvest 2002, sowing and harvest 2003; and from SW France at sowing and harvest 2003. Samples were analysed for microbial community structure (2003 samples only) by community-level physiological-profiling (CLPP...

  6. Modified structure of graphene oxide by investigation of structure ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 38; Issue 7. Modified structure of graphene ... In this regard, GO was produced using the modified Hummers method and was investigated using X-ray diffraction pattern, Fourier transform infrared analysis and Boehm titration method. Based on the obtained results, ...

  7. Leveraging disjoint communities for detecting overlapping community structure

    OpenAIRE

    Chakraborty, Tanmoy

    2015-01-01

    Network communities represent mesoscopic structure for understanding the organization of real-world networks, where nodes often belong to multiple communities and form overlapping community structure in the network. Due to non-triviality in finding the exact boundary of such overlapping communities, this problem has become challenging, and therefore huge effort has been devoted to detect overlapping communities from the network. In this paper, we present PVOC (Permanence based Vertex-replicat...

  8. Local communities as meso structures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrand, Alexis

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available In between micro and macro levels: meso. If macro is defined by national, state or market regulation, and micro by relational interpersonnal regulation, a major agency of intermediate regulation has been defined as "local communities" (Wellmann, Fischer. Apart the organizational (local organizations, clubs, shops... and institutional (local power, parties,... dimensions of localities, it is possible to define some pertinent structural properties of systems of private interpersonal relations : one is the degree of local closure (Barnes : local vs transversal networks, or the "duality" of these systems. Grounded on the idea that the efficiency of "bridges" rest upon the kind of cliques they connect (Lin, it is possible to define various types of micro-structures, the distributions of which in different localities are proxy indicators of the different meso structures of relational systems as combinations of "local" and "unlocal" networks.

  9. Discovering network structure beyond communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Takashi; Motter, Adilson E

    2011-01-01

    To understand the formation, evolution, and function of complex systems, it is crucial to understand the internal organization of their interaction networks. Partly due to the impossibility of visualizing large complex networks, resolving network structure remains a challenging problem. Here we overcome this difficulty by combining the visual pattern recognition ability of humans with the high processing speed of computers to develop an exploratory method for discovering groups of nodes characterized by common network properties, including but not limited to communities of densely connected nodes. Without any prior information about the nature of the groups, the method simultaneously identifies the number of groups, the group assignment, and the properties that define these groups. The results of applying our method to real networks suggest the possibility that most group structures lurk undiscovered in the fast-growing inventory of social, biological, and technological networks of scientific interest.

  10. Exploring lot-to-lot variation in spoilage bacterial communities on commercial modified atmosphere packaged beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Säde, Elina; Penttinen, Katri; Björkroth, Johanna; Hultman, Jenni

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the factors influencing meat bacterial communities is important as these communities are largely responsible for meat spoilage. The composition and structure of a bacterial community on a high-O2 modified-atmosphere packaged beef product were examined after packaging, on the use-by date and two days after, to determine whether the communities at each stage were similar to those in samples taken from different production lots. Furthermore, we examined whether the taxa associated with product spoilage were distributed across production lots. Results from 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing showed that while the early samples harbored distinct bacterial communities, after 8-12 days storage at 6 °C the communities were similar to those in samples from different lots, comprising mainly of common meat spoilage bacteria Carnobacterium spp., Brochothrix spp., Leuconostoc spp. and Lactococcus spp. Interestingly, abundant operational taxonomic units associated with product spoilage were shared between the production lots, suggesting that the bacteria enable to spoil the product were constant contaminants in the production chain. A characteristic succession pattern and the distribution of common spoilage bacteria between lots suggest that both the packaging type and the initial community structure influenced the development of the spoilage bacterial community. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Bacterial communities of fresh goat meat packaged in modified atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrizosa, Elia; Benito, María José; Ruiz-Moyano, Santiago; Hernández, Alejandro; Villalobos, Maria Del Carmen; Martín, Alberto; Córdoba, María de Guía

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this work was to study the growth and development of fortuitous flora and food pathogens in fresh goat meat packaged under modified atmospheres containing two different concentrations of CO2. Meat samples were stored at 10 °C under two different modified-atmosphere packing (MAP) conditions: treatment A had 45% CO2 + 20% O2 + 35% N2 and treatment B had 20% CO2 + 55% O2 + 25% N2. During 14 days of storage, counts of each bacterial group and dominant species identification by 16S rRNA gene sequencing were performed to determine the microbial diversity present. The MAP condition used for treatment A was a more effective gas mixture for increasing the shelf life of fresh goat meat, significantly reducing the total number of viable bacteria and enterobacteria counts. Members of the Enterobacteriaceae family were the most common contaminants, although Hafnia alvei was dominant in treatment A and Serratia proteamaculans in treatment B. Identification studies at the species level showed that different microorganisms develop under different storage conditions, reflecting the importance of gas composition in the modified atmosphere on the bacterial community. This work provides new insights into the microbial changes of goat meat storage under different MAP conditions, which will be beneficial for the meat industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 13C pulse-labeling assessment of the community structure of active fungi in the rhizosphere of a genetically starch-modified potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivar and its parental isoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannula, S E; Boschker, H T S; de Boer, W; van Veen, J A

    2012-05-01

    • The aim of this study was to gain understanding of the carbon flow from the roots of a genetically modified (GM) amylopectin-accumulating potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivar and its parental isoline to the soil fungal community using stable isotope probing (SIP). • The microbes receiving (13)C from the plant were assessed through RNA/phospholipid fatty acid analysis with stable isotope probing (PLFA-SIP) at three time-points (1, 5 and 12 d after the start of labeling). The communities of Ascomycota, Basidiomycota and Glomeromycota were analysed separately with RT-qPCR and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). • Ascomycetes and glomeromycetes received carbon from the plant as early as 1 and 5 d after labeling, while basidiomycetes were slower in accumulating the labeled carbon. The rate of carbon allocation in the GM variety differed from that in its parental variety, thereby affecting soil fungal communities. • We conclude that both saprotrophic and mycorrhizal fungi rapidly metabolize organic substrates flowing from the root into the rhizosphere, that there are large differences in utilization of root-derived compounds at a lower phylogenetic level within investigated fungal phyla, and that active communities in the rhizosphere differ between the GM plant and its parental cultivar through effects of differential carbon flow from the plant. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. Significant scales in community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traag, V A; Krings, G; Van Dooren, P

    2013-10-14

    Many complex networks show signs of modular structure, uncovered by community detection. Although many methods succeed in revealing various partitions, it remains difficult to detect at what scale some partition is significant. This problem shows foremost in multi-resolution methods. We here introduce an efficient method for scanning for resolutions in one such method. Additionally, we introduce the notion of "significance" of a partition, based on subgraph probabilities. Significance is independent of the exact method used, so could also be applied in other methods, and can be interpreted as the gain in encoding a graph by making use of a partition. Using significance, we can determine "good" resolution parameters, which we demonstrate on benchmark networks. Moreover, optimizing significance itself also shows excellent performance. We demonstrate our method on voting data from the European Parliament. Our analysis suggests the European Parliament has become increasingly ideologically divided and that nationality plays no role.

  14. Aerogel Modified Structural Thermal Protection System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This program will mature and further develop structural syntactic foam insulated integral Thermal Protection System (TPS) designs and materials as an enabling...

  15. Structure of Hydrophobically Modified Phytoglycogen Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, John; Nickels, Jonathan; Dutcher, John; Katsaras, John

    Phytoglycogen is a highly branched, polysaccharide nanoparticle produced by some varieties of plants including sweet corn. These particles are attractive candidates for cosmetic, industrial and biomedical applications. Many of these applications result from phytoglycogen's unique interaction with water: (1) high solubility; (2) low viscosity and high stability in aqueous dispersions; and (3) a remarkable capacity to sequester and retain water. Neutron scattering measurements of native phytoglycogen revealed that the particles have uniform size, uniform radial particle density, and a high level of hydration. Hydrophobically modifying the outer surface of the hydrophilic nanoparticles opens up new applications in food and biomedicine, such as solubilizing and stabilizing bioactive compounds. One such modification is octenyl succinate anhydride (OSA), where the hydrophobicity can be tuned by adjusting the degree of substitution. I will present the results of small angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements of aqueous dispersions of OSA-modified phytoglycogen with two different degrees of modification. Contrast series SANS measurements have yielded information about the radial density profile, providing insight into the nature of the chemical modification of the particles.

  16. Psychometric Properties of the Catastrophic Cognitions Questionnaire-Modified (CCQ-Modified) Among Community Samples in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Khaiyom, Jamilah Hanum; Mukhtar, Firdaus; Ibrahim, Normala; Mohd Sidik, Sherina; Oei, Tian Po Sumantri

    2016-12-01

    The Catastrophic Cognitions Questionnaire-Modified (CCQ-M) is a common instrument for measuring catastrophic thoughts. In some countries, however, CCQ-M still poses concerns following the lack of appropriate validation among their populations. The current study aimed to examine the factor structure of the CCQ-M, the reliability, and the validity in community samples in Malaysia. The Malay version of CCQ-M and additional measures assessing the symptoms and cognitions relevant to anxiety disorders were completed by 682 university students and general community. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a two-factor structure accounting for 62.2% of the total variance. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the two-factor model by deleting four items. The Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the total and the two subscales were .94, .90, and .92, respectively. Test-retest reliability analysis was conducted on 82 university students in the interval period of 14 days, and the result was r = .58. Evidence supported the concurrent, convergent, and discriminant validity. In conclusion, the 17-item CCQ-M-Malaysia is a valid and reliable instrument for assessing catastrophic cognitions among Malaysian populations. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. A case study for assessment of microbial community dynamics in genetically modified Bt cotton crop fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, Manisha; Bhatia, Ranjana; Pandey, Gunjan; Pandey, Janmejay; Paul, Debarati; Jain, Rakesh K

    2010-08-01

    Bt cotton was the first genetically modified crop approved for use in India. However, only a few studies have been conducted to assess the feasibility of its commercial application. Bt cotton is genetically modified to express a proteinaceous endotoxin (Cry) encoded by cry gene of Bacillus thuringiensis that has specific insecticidal activity against bollworms. Therefore, the amount of pesticides used for growing Bt cotton is postulated to be considerably low as compared to their non-Bt counterparts. Alternatively, it is also speculated that application of a genetically modified crop may alter the bio-geochemical balance of the agriculture field(s). Microbial community composition and dynamics is an important descriptor for assessment of such alterations. In the present study, we have assessed the culturable and non-culturable microbial diversities in Bt cotton and non-Bt cotton soils to determine the ecological consequences of application of Bt cotton. The analyses of microbial community structures indicated that cropping of Bt cotton did not adversely affect the diversity of the microbial communities.

  18. Waste steel wires modified structural lightweight concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Aghaee, Kamran; Yazdi,Mohammad Ali

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, the use of different waste fibers in concrete has started to increase rapidly due to some reasons such as economic savings and positive effects on the environment. In this study, waste steel wires taken from reinforcement and formwork which were previously utilized in construction projects, were employed in structural lightweight concrete (SLWC). The objective was to investigate the possibility of using this type of fiber as reinforcement in the SLWC. Compressive, tensile, flexural ...

  19. Enhancing community detection by local structural information

    CERN Document Server

    Xiang, Ju; Zhang, Yan; Bao, Mei-Hua; Tang, Liang; Tang, Yan-Ni; Gao, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Jian-Ming; Chen, Benyan; Hu, Jing-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Many real-world networks such as the gene networks, protein-protein interaction networks and metabolic networks exhibit community structures, meaning the existence of groups of densely connected vertices in the networks. Many local similarity measures in the networks are closely related to the concept of the community structures, and may have positive effect on community detection in the networks. Here, various local similarity measures are used to extract the local structural information and then are applied to community detection in the networks by using the edge-reweighting strategy. The effect of the local similarity measures on community detection is carefully investigated and compared in various networks. The experimental results show that the local similarity measures are crucial to the improvement for the community detection methods, while the positive effect of the local similarity measures is closely related to the networks under study and the applied community detection methods.

  20. The impact of genetically modified crops on soil microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannetti, Manuela; Sbrana, Cristiana; Turrini, Alessandra

    2005-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) plants represent a potential benefit for environmentally friendly agriculture and human health. Though, poor knowledge is available on potential hazards posed by unintended modifications occurring during genetic manipulation. The increasing amount of reports on ecological risks and benefits of GM plants stresses the need for experimental works aimed at evaluating the impact of GM crops on natural and agro-ecosystems. Major environmental risks associated with GM crops include their potential impact on non-target soil microorganisms playing a fundamental role in crop residues degradation and in biogeochemical cycles. Recent works assessed the effects of GM crops on soil microbial communities on the basis of case-by-case studies, using multimodal experimental approaches involving different target and non-target organisms. Experimental evidences discussed in this review confirm that a precautionary approach should be adopted, by taking into account the risks associated with the unpredictability of transformation events, of their pleiotropic effects and of the fate of transgenes in natural and agro-ecosystems, weighing benefits against costs.

  1. Structure effect on graphene-modified enzyme electrode glucose sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Liao, Qingliao; Chu, Mingming; Liu, Shuo; Zhang, Yue

    2014-02-15

    Using structural characterizations and electrochemical measurements, we explored and investigated the effect of the structure of enzyme electrodes with glucose oxidase (GOD) that were modified by reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets. The rGO sheets with different defect density, layers, and oxygen concentrations were chosen to modify the enzyme electrode, and all the modified enzyme electrodes exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activities and performances towards glucose. The abundant defects in rGO induce easy absorption of GOD. At a low oxygen concentration, rGO sheets help to induce the direct electron transfer (DET) on the rGO-modified electrode, and at a higher oxygen concentration, the reduction of H2O2 occurred instead of DET on the surface of the rGO-modified electrode. When rGO modified the enzyme electrode under the working model of H2O2 reduction, an increase in the number of the oxygen functional groups could lead to an increase in the absorption of GOD, resulting in the improvement of the affinity and sensitivity of the biosensor. The rGO-modified enzyme electrode can provide faster response, higher sensitivity, and better affinity by optimizing and controlling the structure of graphene and its derivatives. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Exploring the Community Structure of Complex Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Drago, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Regarding complex networks, one of the most relevant problems is to understand and to explore community structure. In particular it is important to define the network organization and the functions associated to the different network partitions. In this context, the idea is to consider some new approaches based on interval data in order to represent the different relevant network components as communities. The method is also useful to represent the network community structure, especially the ...

  3. Tripartite community structure in social bookmarking data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Nicolas; Obermayer, Klaus

    2011-12-01

    Community detection is a branch of network analysis concerned with identifying strongly connected subnetworks. Social bookmarking sites aggregate datasets of often hundreds of millions of triples (document, user, and tag), which, when interpreted as edges of a graph, give rise to special networks called 3-partite, 3-uniform hypergraphs. We identify challenges and opportunities of generalizing community detection and in particular modularity optimization to these structures. Two methods for community detection are introduced that preserve the hypergraph's special structure to different degrees. Their performance is compared on synthetic datasets, showing the benefits of structure preservation. Furthermore, a tool for interactive exploration of the community detection results is introduced and applied to examples from real datasets. We find additional evidence for the importance of structure preservation and, more generally, demonstrate how tripartite community detection can help understand the structure of social bookmarking data.

  4. Temporal dynamics of microbial communities in the rhizosphere of two genetically modified (GM) maize hybrids in tropical agrosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cotta, Simone Raposo; Franco Dias, Armando Cavalcante; Marriel, Ivanildo Evodio; Gomes, Eliane Aparecida; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Seldin, Lucy

    The use of genetically modified (GM) plants still raises concerns about their environmental impact. The present study aimed to evaluate the possible effects of GM maize, in comparison to the parental line, on the structure and abundance of microbial communities in the rhizosphere. Moreover, the

  5. Structural Optimization Using the Newton Modified Barrier Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khot, N. S.; Polyak, R. A.; Schneur, R.; Berke, L.

    1995-01-01

    The Newton Modified Barrier Method (NMBM) is applied to structural optimization problems with large a number of design variables and constraints. This nonlinear mathematical programming algorithm was based on the Modified Barrier Function (MBF) theory and the Newton method for unconstrained optimization. The distinctive feature of the NMBM method is the rate of convergence that is due to the fact that the design remains in the Newton area after each Lagrange multiplier update. This convergence characteristic is illustrated by application to structural problems with a varying number of design variables and constraints. The results are compared with those obtained by optimality criteria (OC) methods and by the ASTROS program.

  6. Community structure in the phonological network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia S. Q. Siew

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Community structure, which refers to the presence of densely connected groups within a larger network, is a common feature of several real-world networks from a variety of domains such as the human brain, social networks of hunter-gatherers and business organizations, and the World Wide Web (Porter et al., 2009. Using a community detection technique known as the Louvain optimization method, 17 communities were extracted from the giant component of the phonological network described in Vitevitch (2008. Additional analyses comparing the lexical and phonological characteristics of words in these communities against words in randomly generated communities revealed several novel discoveries. Larger communities tend to consist of short, frequent words of high degree and low age of acquisition ratings, and smaller communities tend to consist of longer, less frequent words of low degree and high age of acquisition ratings. Real communities also contained fewer different phonological segments compared to random communities, although the number of occurrences of phonological segments found in real communities was much higher than that of the same phonological segments in random communities. Interestingly, the observation that relatively few biphones occur very frequently and a large number of biphones occur rarely within communities mirrors the pattern of the overall frequency of words in a language (Zipf, 1935. The present findings have important implications for understanding the dynamics of activation spread among words in the phonological network that are relevant to lexical processing, as well as understanding the mechanisms that underlie language acquisition and the evolution of language.

  7. Social significance of community structure: statistical view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui-Jia; Daniels, Jasmine J

    2015-01-01

    Community structure analysis is a powerful tool for social networks that can simplify their topological and functional analysis considerably. However, since community detection methods have random factors and real social networks obtained from complex systems always contain error edges, evaluating the significance of a partitioned community structure is an urgent and important question. In this paper, integrating the specific characteristics of real society, we present a framework to analyze the significance of a social community. The dynamics of social interactions are modeled by identifying social leaders and corresponding hierarchical structures. Instead of a direct comparison with the average outcome of a random model, we compute the similarity of a given node with the leader by the number of common neighbors. To determine the membership vector, an efficient community detection algorithm is proposed based on the position of the nodes and their corresponding leaders. Then, using a log-likelihood score, the tightness of the community can be derived. Based on the distribution of community tightness, we establish a connection between p-value theory and network analysis, and then we obtain a significance measure of statistical form . Finally, the framework is applied to both benchmark networks and real social networks. Experimental results show that our work can be used in many fields, such as determining the optimal number of communities, analyzing the social significance of a given community, comparing the performance among various algorithms, etc.

  8. Rumor propagation on networks with community structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruixia; Li, Deyu

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, based on growth and preferential attachment mechanism, we give a network generation model aiming at generating networks with community structure. There are three characteristics for the networks generated by the generation model. The first is that the community sizes can be nonuniform. The second is that there are bridge hubs in each community. The third is that the strength of community structure is adjustable. Next, we investigate rumor propagation behavior on the generated networks by performing Monte Carlo simulations to reveal the influence of bridge hubs, nonuniformity of community sizes and the strength of community structure on the dynamic behavior of the rumor propagation. We find that bridge hubs have outstanding performance in propagation speed and propagation size, and larger modularity can reduce rumor propagation. Furthermore, when the decay rate of rumor spreading β is large, the final density of the stiflers is larger if the rumor originates in larger community. Additionally, when on networks with different strengths of community structure, rumor propagation exhibits greater difference in the density of stiflers and in the peak prevalence if the decay rate β is larger.

  9. Determinants of the detrital arthropod community structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lessard, J.P.; Sackett, Tara E.; Reynolds, William N.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the factors that shape community structure, and whether those factors vary geographically, has a long history in ecology. Because the abiotic environment often varies in predictable ways along elevational gradients, montane systems are ideal to study geographic variation in the dete......Understanding the factors that shape community structure, and whether those factors vary geographically, has a long history in ecology. Because the abiotic environment often varies in predictable ways along elevational gradients, montane systems are ideal to study geographic variation...

  10. Understanding Microbial Communities: Function, Structure and Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-11

    microbial communities: Function, structure and dynamics’, at the Isaac Newton Institute, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom, from August to...dynamics’, at the Isaac Newton Institute, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom, from August to December 2014. The programme involved over 150...Communities: Function, Structure and Dynamics’, at the Isaac Newton Institute, Cambridge University, UK, from 19th August 2014 – 19th December 2014

  11. Structural, dielectric and piezoelectric study of Ca-, Zr-modified ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 40; Issue 5. Structural, dielectric and piezoelectric study of Ca-, Zr-modified BaTiO 3 lead-free ceramics. H MSOUNI A TACHAFINE M EL AATMANI D FASQUELLE J C CARRU M EL HAMMIOUI M RGUITI A ZEGZOUTI A OUTZOURHIT M DAOUD. Volume 40 Issue 5 ...

  12. Species composition, Plant Community structure and Natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Belete forest is one of the very few remnant moist evergreen montane forests in Ethiopia. The objective of this work was to study the vegetation structure, composition and Natural regeneration status of Belete moist evergreen montane forest. To investigate the plant community structure, composition and regeneration status ...

  13. Discovering Network Structure Beyond Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Nishikawa, Takashi; Motter, Adilson E.

    2011-01-01

    To understand the formation, evolution, and function of complex systems, it is crucial to understand the internal organization of their interaction networks. Partly due to the impossibility of visualizing large complex networks, resolving network structure remains a challenging problem. Here we overcome this difficulty by combining the visual pattern recognition ability of humans with the high processing speed of computers to develop an exploratory method for discovering groups of nodes chara...

  14. Finding local community structure in networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauset, Aaron

    2005-08-01

    Although the inference of global community structure in networks has recently become a topic of great interest in the physics community, all such algorithms require that the graph be completely known. Here, we define both a measure of local community structure and an algorithm that infers the hierarchy of communities that enclose a given vertex by exploring the graph one vertex at a time. This algorithm runs in time O(k2d) for general graphs when d is the mean degree and k is the number of vertices to be explored. For graphs where exploring a new vertex is time consuming, the running time is linear, O(k) . We show that on computer-generated graphs the average behavior of this technique approximates that of algorithms that require global knowledge. As an application, we use this algorithm to extract meaningful local clustering information in the large recommender network of an online retailer.

  15. Network repair based on community structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianyu; Zhang, Jun; Sun, Xiaoqian; Wandelt, Sebastian

    2017-06-01

    Real-world complex systems are often fragile under disruptions. Accordingly, research on network repair has been studied intensively. Recently proposed efficient strategies for network disruption, based on collective influence, call for more research on efficient network repair strategies. Existing strategies are often designed to repair networks with local information only. However, the absence of global information impedes the creation of efficient repairs. Motivated by this limitation, we propose a concept of community-level repair, which leverages the community structure of the network during the repair process. Moreover, we devise a general framework of network repair, with in total six instances. Evaluations on real-world and random networks show the effectiveness and efficiency of the community-level repair approaches, compared to local and random repairs. Our study contributes to a better understanding of repair processes, and reveals that exploitation of the community structure improves the repair process on a disrupted network significantly.

  16. Phylogenetic structure in tropical hummingbird communities

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Catherine H.; Parra, Juan L.; Rahbek, Carsten; McGuire, Jimmy A.

    2009-01-01

    How biotic interactions, current and historical environment, and biogeographic barriers determine community structure is a fundamental question in ecology and evolution, especially in diverse tropical regions. To evaluate patterns of local and regional diversity, we quantified the phylogenetic composition of 189 hummingbird communities in Ecuador. We assessed how species and phylogenetic composition changed along environmental gradients and across biogeographic barriers. We show that humid, l...

  17. Structure formation in a nonlocally modified gravity model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sohyun; Dodelson, Scott

    2013-01-01

    We study a nonlocally modified gravity model proposed by Deser and Woodard which gives an explanation for current cosmic acceleration. By deriving and solving the equations governing the evolution of the structure in the Universe, we show that this model predicts a pattern of growth that differs from standard general relativity (+dark energy) at the 10-30% level. These differences will be easily probed by the next generation of galaxy surveys, so the model should be tested shortly.

  18. 13C pulse-labeling assessment of the community structure of active fungi in the rhizosphere of a genetically starch-modified potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivar and its parental isoline

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hannula, S.E; Boschker, H.T.S; De Boer, W; Van Veen, J.A

    2012-01-01

    ...) at three time-points (1, 5 and 12 d after the start of labeling). The communities of Ascomycota, Basidiomycota and Glomeromycota were analysed separately with RT-qPCR and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP...

  19. Community structure from spectral properties in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servedio, V. D. P.; Colaiori, F.; Capocci, A.; Caldarelli, G.

    2005-06-01

    We analyze the spectral properties of complex networks focusing on their relation to the community structure, and develop an algorithm based on correlations among components of different eigenvectors. The algorithm applies to general weighted networks, and, in a suitably modified version, to the case of directed networks. Our method allows to correctly detect communities in sharply partitioned graphs, however it is useful to the analysis of more complex networks, without a well defined cluster structure, as social and information networks. As an example, we test the algorithm on a large scale data-set from a psychological experiment of free word association, where it proves to be successful both in clustering words, and in uncovering mental association patterns.

  20. Structural and surface changes of copper modified manganese oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gac, Wojciech; Słowik, Grzegorz; Zawadzki, Witold

    2016-05-01

    The structural and surface properties of manganese and copper-manganese oxides were investigated. The oxides were prepared by the redox-precipitation method. X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy studies evidenced transformation of cryptomelane-type nanoparticles with 1-D channel structure into the large MnO crystallites with regular rippled-like surface patterns under reduction conditions. The development of Cu/CuO nanorods from strongly dispersed species was evidenced. Coper-modified manganese oxides showed good catalytic performance in methanol steam reforming reaction for hydrogen production. Low selectivity to CO was observed in the wide range of temperatures.

  1. Finding Community Structures In Social Activity Data

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chengbin

    2015-05-19

    Social activity data sets are increasing in number and volume. Finding community structure in such data is valuable in many applications. For example, understand- ing the community structure of social networks may reduce the spread of epidemics or boost advertising revenue; discovering partitions in tra c networks can help to optimize routing and to reduce congestion; finding a group of users with common interests can allow a system to recommend useful items. Among many aspects, qual- ity of inference and e ciency in finding community structures in such data sets are of paramount concern. In this thesis, we propose several approaches to improve com- munity detection in these aspects. The first approach utilizes the concept of K-cores to reduce the size of the problem. The K-core of a graph is the largest subgraph within which each node has at least K connections. We propose a framework that accelerates community detection. It first applies a traditional algorithm that is relatively slow to the K-core, and then uses a fast heuristic to infer community labels for the remaining nodes. The second approach is to scale the algorithm to multi-processor systems. We de- vise a scalable community detection algorithm for large networks based on stochastic block models. It is an alternating iterative algorithm using a maximum likelihood ap- proach. Compared with traditional inference algorithms for stochastic block models, our algorithm can scale to large networks and run on multi-processor systems. The time complexity is linear in the number of edges of the input network. The third approach is to improve the quality. We propose a framework for non- negative matrix factorization that allows the imposition of linear or approximately linear constraints on each factor. An example of the applications is to find community structures in bipartite networks, which is useful in recommender systems. Our algorithms are compared with the results in recent papers and their quality and e

  2. Leaf treatments with a protein-based resistance inducer partially modify phyllosphere microbial communities of grapevine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Cappelletti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Protein derivatives and carbohydrates can stimulate plant growth, increase stress tolerance and activate plant defense mechanisms. However, these molecules can also act as a nutritional substrate for microbial communities living on the plant phyllosphere and possibly affect their biocontrol activity against pathogens. We investigated the mechanisms of action of a protein derivative (nutrient broth, NB against grapevine downy mildew, specifically focusing on the effects of foliar treatments on plant defense stimulation and on the composition and biocontrol features of the phyllosphere microbial populations. NB reduced downy mildew symptoms and induced the expression of defense-related genes in greenhouse- and in vitro-grown plants, indicating the activation of grapevine resistance mechanisms. Furthermore, NB increased the number of culturable phyllosphere bacteria and altered the composition of bacterial and fungal populations on leaves of greenhouse-grown plants. Although NB-induced changes on microbial populations were affected by the structure of indigenous communities originally residing on grapevine leaves, degrees of disease reduction and defense gene modulation were consistent among the experiments. Thus, modifications in the structure of phyllosphere populations caused by NB application could partially contribute to downy mildew control by competition for space or other biocontrol strategies. Particularly, changes in the abundance of phyllosphere microorganisms may provide a contribution to resistance induction, partially affecting the hormone-mediated signaling pathways involved. Modifying phyllosphere populations by increasing natural biocontrol agents with the application of selected nutritional factors can open new opportunities in terms of sustainable plant protection strategies.

  3. Leaf Treatments with a Protein-Based Resistance Inducer Partially Modify Phyllosphere Microbial Communities of Grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelletti, Martina; Perazzolli, Michele; Antonielli, Livio; Nesler, Andrea; Torboli, Esmeralda; Bianchedi, Pier L; Pindo, Massimo; Puopolo, Gerardo; Pertot, Ilaria

    2016-01-01

    Protein derivatives and carbohydrates can stimulate plant growth, increase stress tolerance, and activate plant defense mechanisms. However, these molecules can also act as a nutritional substrate for microbial communities living on the plant phyllosphere and possibly affect their biocontrol activity against pathogens. We investigated the mechanisms of action of a protein derivative (nutrient broth, NB) against grapevine downy mildew, specifically focusing on the effects of foliar treatments on plant defense stimulation and on the composition and biocontrol features of the phyllosphere microbial populations. NB reduced downy mildew symptoms and induced the expression of defense-related genes in greenhouse- and in vitro-grown plants, indicating the activation of grapevine resistance mechanisms. Furthermore, NB increased the number of culturable phyllosphere bacteria and altered the composition of bacterial and fungal populations on leaves of greenhouse-grown plants. Although, NB-induced changes on microbial populations were affected by the structure of indigenous communities originally residing on grapevine leaves, degrees of disease reduction and defense gene modulation were consistent among the experiments. Thus, modifications in the structure of phyllosphere populations caused by NB application could partially contribute to downy mildew control by competition for space or other biocontrol strategies. Particularly, changes in the abundance of phyllosphere microorganisms may provide a contribution to resistance induction, partially affecting the hormone-mediated signaling pathways involved. Modifying phyllosphere populations by increasing natural biocontrol agents with the application of selected nutritional factors can open new opportunities in terms of sustainable plant protection strategies.

  4. Leaf Treatments with a Protein-Based Resistance Inducer Partially Modify Phyllosphere Microbial Communities of Grapevine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelletti, Martina; Perazzolli, Michele; Antonielli, Livio; Nesler, Andrea; Torboli, Esmeralda; Bianchedi, Pier L.; Pindo, Massimo; Puopolo, Gerardo; Pertot, Ilaria

    2016-01-01

    Protein derivatives and carbohydrates can stimulate plant growth, increase stress tolerance, and activate plant defense mechanisms. However, these molecules can also act as a nutritional substrate for microbial communities living on the plant phyllosphere and possibly affect their biocontrol activity against pathogens. We investigated the mechanisms of action of a protein derivative (nutrient broth, NB) against grapevine downy mildew, specifically focusing on the effects of foliar treatments on plant defense stimulation and on the composition and biocontrol features of the phyllosphere microbial populations. NB reduced downy mildew symptoms and induced the expression of defense-related genes in greenhouse- and in vitro-grown plants, indicating the activation of grapevine resistance mechanisms. Furthermore, NB increased the number of culturable phyllosphere bacteria and altered the composition of bacterial and fungal populations on leaves of greenhouse-grown plants. Although, NB-induced changes on microbial populations were affected by the structure of indigenous communities originally residing on grapevine leaves, degrees of disease reduction and defense gene modulation were consistent among the experiments. Thus, modifications in the structure of phyllosphere populations caused by NB application could partially contribute to downy mildew control by competition for space or other biocontrol strategies. Particularly, changes in the abundance of phyllosphere microorganisms may provide a contribution to resistance induction, partially affecting the hormone-mediated signaling pathways involved. Modifying phyllosphere populations by increasing natural biocontrol agents with the application of selected nutritional factors can open new opportunities in terms of sustainable plant protection strategies. PMID:27486468

  5. A framework for solving ill-structured community problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, William Cotesworth

    A multifaceted protocol for solving ill-structured community problems has been developed. It embodies the lessons learned from the past by refining and extending features of previous models from the systems thinkers, and the fields of behavioral decision making and creative problem solving. The protocol also embraces additional features needed to address the unique aspects of community decision situations. The essential elements of the protocol are participants from the community, a problem-solving process, a systems picture, a facilitator, a modified Delphi method of communications, and technical expertise. This interdisciplinary framework has been tested by a quasi experiment with a real world community problem (the high cost of electrical power on Long Island, NY). Results indicate the protocol can enable members of the community to understand a complicated, ill-structured problem and guide them to action to solve the issue. However, the framework takes time (over one year in the test case) and will be inappropriate for crises where quick action is needed.

  6. Shifting Niches for Community Structure Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grappiolo, Corrado; Togelius, Julian; Yannakakis, Georgios N.

    2013-01-01

    We present a new evolutionary algorithm for com- munity structure detection in both undirected and unweighted (sparse) graphs and fully connected weighted digraphs (complete networks). Previous investigations have found that, although evolutionary computation can identify community structure...... in complete networks, this approach seems to scale badly due to solutions with the wrong number of communities dominating the population. The new algorithm is based on a niching model, where separate compartments of the population contain candidate solutions with different numbers of communities. We...... experimentally compare the new algorithm to the well-known algorithms of Pizzuti and Tasgin, and find that we outperform those algorithms for sparse graphs under some conditions, and drastically outperform them on complete networks under all tested conditions....

  7. Modelling community structure in freshwater ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lek, S.; Scardi, M.; Verdonschot, P.F.M.; Descy, J.P.; Park, Y.S.

    2005-01-01

    The book presents approaches and methodologies for predicting the structure and diversity of key aquatic communities (namely diatoms, benthic macroinvertebrates and fish), under natural conditions and under man-made disturbance. Such an approach will make it possible to: 1) set up procedures for

  8. Distribution and Community Structure of Butterflyfishes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and community structure of butterflyfishes were studied on nine reefs in southern Mozambique using the point count method. Nineteen species ... multi—species reef fish assessments (e.g. Loureiro,. 1998; Pereira er al., 2004). This paper .... allow fishes to resume normal behaviour. (Carpenter er al., 1981). Fish density data ...

  9. Species composition, Plant Community structure and Natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    at good regeneration status. Planning and management of the forest should be assisted by research findings, such as detailed ecological studies in relation to various environmental factors. Keywords: Belete forest, Community structure, Moist Evergreen Montane Forest, Regeneration. 1. INTRODUCTION. Ethiopia has the ...

  10. The interplay between microevolution and community structure in microbial populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Siobhán; Hodgson, David J; Buckling, Angus

    2013-08-01

    The structure of microbial communities is key to their functionality. However, this structure is likely to be influenced by adaptive genetic change in members of the community, which can occur over a matter of days. Changes in community structure can in turn influence the evolutionary trajectories of species within the community, further altering community structure. Microbial communities provide evidence for this interplay between rapid evolution and community structure. To date, studies are primarily limited to simple in vitro systems, but we suggest similar processes are inevitably operating in both natural and derived communities, which are important for biotechnology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Information transfer in community structured multiplex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé Ribalta, Albert; Granell, Clara; Gómez, Sergio; Arenas, Alex

    2015-08-01

    The study of complex networks that account for different types of interactions has become a subject of interest in the last few years, specially because its representational power in the description of users interactions in diverse online social platforms (Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, etc.). The mathematical description of these interacting networks has been coined under the name of multilayer networks, where each layer accounts for a type of interaction. It has been shown that diffusive processes on top of these networks present a phenomenology that cannot be explained by the naive superposition of single layer diffusive phenomena but require the whole structure of interconnected layers. Nevertheless, the description of diffusive phenomena on multilayer networks has obviated the fact that social networks have strong mesoscopic structure represented by different communities of individuals driven by common interests, or any other social aspect. In this work, we study the transfer of information in multilayer networks with community structure. The final goal is to understand and quantify, if the existence of well-defined community structure at the level of individual layers, together with the multilayer structure of the whole network, enhances or deteriorates the diffusion of packets of information.

  12. Information transfer in community structured multiplex networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert eSolé Ribalta

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study of complex networks that account for different types of interactions has become a subject of interest in the last few years, specially because its representational power in the description of users interactions in diverse online social platforms (Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, etc.. The mathematical description of these interacting networks has been coined under the name of multilayer networks, where each layer accounts for a type of interaction. It has been shown that diffusive processes on top of these networks present a phenomenology that cannot be explained by the naive superposition of single layer diffusive phenomena but require the whole structure of interconnected layers. Nevertheless, the description of diffusive phenomena on multilayer networks has obviated the fact that social networks have strong mesoscopic structure represented by different communities of individuals driven by common interests, or any other social aspect. In this work, we study the transfer of information in multilayer networks with community structure. The final goal is to understand and quantify, if the existence of well-defined community structure at the level of individual layers, together with the multilayer structure of the whole network, enhances or deteriorates the diffusion of packets of information.

  13. Phylogenetic structure in tropical hummingbird communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Catherine H; Parra, Juan L; Rahbek, Carsten; McGuire, Jimmy A

    2009-11-17

    How biotic interactions, current and historical environment, and biogeographic barriers determine community structure is a fundamental question in ecology and evolution, especially in diverse tropical regions. To evaluate patterns of local and regional diversity, we quantified the phylogenetic composition of 189 hummingbird communities in Ecuador. We assessed how species and phylogenetic composition changed along environmental gradients and across biogeographic barriers. We show that humid, low-elevation communities are phylogenetically overdispersed (coexistence of distant relatives), a pattern that is consistent with the idea that competition influences the local composition of hummingbirds. At higher elevations communities are phylogenetically clustered (coexistence of close relatives), consistent with the expectation of environmental filtering, which may result from the challenge of sustaining an expensive means of locomotion at high elevations. We found that communities in the lowlands on opposite sides of the Andes tend to be phylogenetically similar despite their large differences in species composition, a pattern implicating the Andes as an important dispersal barrier. In contrast, along the steep environmental gradient between the lowlands and the Andes we found evidence that species turnover is comprised of relatively distantly related species. The integration of local and regional patterns of diversity across environmental gradients and biogeographic barriers provides insight into the potential underlying mechanisms that have shaped community composition and phylogenetic diversity in one of the most species-rich, complex regions of the world.

  14. Thermal and structural properties of zinc modified tellurite based glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundu, R. S., E-mail: rskundu2007@gmail.com; Dhankhar, Sunil; Dult, Meenakshi [Department of Applied Physics, G.J.University of Science & Technology,Hisar-125001, Haryana (India); Punia, R. [Department of Physics, Indira Gandhi University, Meerpur-123401, Rewari, Haryana (India); Kishore, N. [Department of Physics, Central University of Haryana, Mahendergarh-123029, Haryana (India)

    2016-05-23

    Glass system 60 TeO{sub 2} – 10 B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-(30-x) Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-x ZnO with mole fraction x = 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 were synthesized by conventional melt quenching technique under controlled atmospheric conditions. The glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) has been determined using differential scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and its value is observed to increase with increase in ZnO content. This increase may be due to the increase in the concentration of the bridging oxygen (BO) atoms. IR and Raman spectra of the present glass system indicate that ZnO acts as network modifier and exists in ZnO{sub 4} units. TeO{sub 2} exists as TeO{sub 3}, TeO{sub 4}, and TeO{sub 3+1} structural units. Bismuth plays the role of network modifier with BiO{sub 6} octahedral structural units whereas B{sub 2}O{sub 3} exists in the form of BO{sub 3} trigonal and BO{sub 4} tetrahedral structural units.

  15. Environmental and spatial drivers of taxonomic, functional, and phylogenetic characteristics of bat communities in human-modified landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Matthew E.; Willig, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Assembly of species into communities following human disturbance (e.g., deforestation, fragmentation) may be governed by spatial (e.g., dispersal) or environmental (e.g., niche partitioning) mechanisms. Variation partitioning has been used to broadly disentangle spatial and environmental mechanisms, and approaches utilizing functional and phylogenetic characteristics of communities have been implemented to determine the relative importance of particular environmental (or niche-based) mechanisms. Nonetheless, few studies have integrated these quantitative approaches to comprehensively assess the relative importance of particular structuring processes. Methods We employed a novel variation partitioning approach to evaluate the relative importance of particular spatial and environmental drivers of taxonomic, functional, and phylogenetic aspects of bat communities in a human-modified landscape in Costa Rica. Specifically, we estimated the amount of variation in species composition (taxonomic structure) and in two aspects of functional and phylogenetic structure (i.e., composition and dispersion) along a forest loss and fragmentation gradient that are uniquely explained by landscape characteristics (i.e., environment) or space to assess the importance of competing mechanisms. Results The unique effects of space on taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic structure were consistently small. In contrast, landscape characteristics (i.e., environment) played an appreciable role in structuring bat communities. Spatially-structured landscape characteristics explained 84% of the variation in functional or phylogenetic dispersion, and the unique effects of landscape characteristics significantly explained 14% of the variation in species composition. Furthermore, variation in bat community structure was primarily due to differences in dispersion of species within functional or phylogenetic space along the gradient, rather than due to differences in functional or

  16. Complexation Thermodynamics of Modified Cyclodextrins: Extended Cavities and Distorted Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schönbeck, Jens Christian Sidney; Westh, Peter; Holm, Rene

    2014-01-01

    in ΔH° and ΔS°, but due to enthalpy–entropy compensation the changes in Gibbs free energy, and the binding constant, were much smaller. For the methylated β-cyclodextrins, the substituent-induced increments in ΔH° and ΔS° were nonmonotonic with an initial strong increase in both ΔH° and ΔS....... The structural effects are not expected to be specific for methylated cyclodextrins but should be observed for most modified cyclodextrins. An even more general conclusion is that variations in the extent of hydration are an important underlying reason for the commonly observed phenomenon termed enthalpy...

  17. A preferential attachment approach to community structure and the structure of communities

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Jean-Gabriel; Allard, Antoine; Dubé, Louis J

    2016-01-01

    We introduce an intuitive mechanism to describe both the emergence of community structure and the evolution of the internal structure of communities in social networks. Our idea is based on the simple assumption that each individual can, for every social group to which it belongs, develop connections and introduce new members. Complex behaviors emerge from opposing time scales for the activities of individuals and for the sum of individuals gathered in groups. We show how the resulting model reproduces behaviors observed in real social networks and in the anthropological theory known as Dunbar's number, i.e. the empirical observation of a maximal number of ties which an average individual can sustain within its social groups. Using this growth process, we organically reproduce the micro and mesoscopic structure of social networks. In so doing, we highlight two interesting properties of the community structure of social networks. First, strong correlations between the number of communities to which a node belo...

  18. Modifiable Risk Factors for Hypertension in a Rural Community of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Each respondent was interviewed with a researcher administered semi structured questionnaire and had weight and height measured, and body mass index (BMI) calculated. Farmers (41.0%) and artisans (19.7 %) make up most of the population and majority had secondary education (51.0%) as the highest level attained.

  19. Identifying community structure in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Chenxi; Duan, Yubing

    2015-07-01

    A wide variety of applications could be formulated to resolve the problem of finding all communities from a given network, ranging from social and biological network analysis to web mining and searching. In this study, we propose the concept of virtual attractive strength between each pair of node in networks, and then give the definition of community structure based on the proposed attractive strength. Furthermore, we present a community detection method by moving vertices to the clusters that produce the largest attractive strengths to them until the division of network reaches unchanged. Experimental results on synthetic and real networks indicate that the proposed approach has favorite effectiveness and fast convergence speed, which provides an efficient method for exploring and analyzing complex systems.

  20. A cheating limit for structured communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perelson, Alan S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gerrish, Philip J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    The constructive creativity of natural selection originates from its paradoxical ability to foster cooperation through competition. Cooperating communities ranging from complex societies to somatic tissue are constantly under attack, however, by non-cooperating mutants or transformants, called 'cheaters'. Structure in these communities promotes the formation of cooperating clusters whose competitive superiority can alone be sufficient to thwart outgrowths of cheaters and thereby maintain cooperation. But we find that when cheaters appear too frequently -- exceeding a threshold mutation or transformation rate -- their scattered outgrowths infiltrate and break up cooperating clusters, resulting in a cascading loss of community integrity, a switch to net positive selection for cheaters, and ultimately in the loss of cooperation. We find that this threshold mutation rate is directly proportional to the fitness support received from each cooperating neighbor minus the individual fitness benefit of cheating. When mutation rate also evolves, this threshold is crossed spontaneously after thousands of generations, at which point cheaters rapidly invade. In a structured community, cooperation can persist only if the mutation rate remains below a critical value.

  1. Physicochemical and structural characteristics of rice starch modified by irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polesi, Luís Fernando; Sarmento, Silene Bruder Silveira; Moraes, Jaqueline de; Franco, Célia Maria Landi; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin

    2016-01-15

    This work evaluated the physicochemical and structural properties of rice starch of the cultivars IAC 202 and IRGA 417 modified by irradiation. Starch samples were irradiated by (60)Co in doses 1, 2 and 5kGy, on a rate of 0.4kGy/h. A control not irradiated was used for comparison. The granule morphology and A-type X-ray diffraction pattern were not altered by irradiation. There was an increase in amylose content, carboxyl content and acidity with irradiation. Gamma radiation did not affect the thermal properties of IAC202, but increased gelatinization temperature of IRGA417, in the higher dose (5kGy). The number of long chains of amylopectin was reduced and short chains were increased for IAC202, whereas for IRGA 417, the opposite was observed, probably due to cross-linking of starch chains. Starches had their physicochemical and structural properties modified by irradiation differently. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Walk modularity and community structure in networks

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrle, David; Strosser, Amy; Harkin, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Modularity maximization has been one of the most widely used approaches in the last decade for discovering community structure in networks of practical interest in biology, computing, social science, statistical mechanics, and more. Modularity is a quality function that measures the difference between the number of edges found within clusters minus the number of edges one would statistically expect to find based on random chance. We present a natural generalization of modularity based on the ...

  3. Taxonomies of networks from community structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; Fenn, Daniel J.; Reid, Stephen; Porter, Mason A.; Mucha, Peter J.; Fricker, Mark D.; Jones, Nick S.

    2012-09-01

    The study of networks has become a substantial interdisciplinary endeavor that encompasses myriad disciplines in the natural, social, and information sciences. Here we introduce a framework for constructing taxonomies of networks based on their structural similarities. These networks can arise from any of numerous sources: They can be empirical or synthetic, they can arise from multiple realizations of a single process (either empirical or synthetic), they can represent entirely different systems in different disciplines, etc. Because mesoscopic properties of networks are hypothesized to be important for network function, we base our comparisons on summaries of network community structures. Although we use a specific method for uncovering network communities, much of the introduced framework is independent of that choice. After introducing the framework, we apply it to construct a taxonomy for 746 networks and demonstrate that our approach usefully identifies similar networks. We also construct taxonomies within individual categories of networks, and we thereby expose nontrivial structure. For example, we create taxonomies for similarity networks constructed from both political voting data and financial data. We also construct network taxonomies to compare the social structures of 100 Facebook networks and the growth structures produced by different types of fungi.

  4. Structure-function relationships in highly modified shoots of cactaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauseth, James D

    2006-11-01

    Cacti are extremely diverse structurally and ecologically, and so modified as to be intimidating to many biologists. Yet all have the same organization as most dicots, none differs fundamentally from Arabidopsis or other model plants. This review explains cactus shoot structure, discusses relationships between structure, ecology, development and evolution, and indicates areas where research on cacti is necessary to test general theories of morphogenesis. Cactus leaves are diverse; all cacti have foliage leaves; many intermediate stages in evolutionary reduction of leaves are still present; floral shoots often have large, complex leaves whereas vegetative shoots have microscopic leaves. Spines are modified bud scales, some secrete sugar as extra-floral nectaries. Many cacti have juvenile/adult phases in which the flowering adult phase (a cephalium) differs greatly from the juvenile; in some, one side of a shoot becomes adult, all other sides continue to grow as the juvenile phase. Flowers are inverted: the exterior of a cactus 'flower' is a hollow vegetative shoot with internodes, nodes, leaves and spines, whereas floral organs occur inside, with petals physically above stamens. Many cacti have cortical bundles vascularizing the cortex, however broad it evolves to be, thus keeping surface tissues alive. Great width results in great weight of weak parenchymatous shoots, correlated with reduced branching. Reduced numbers of shoot apices is compensated by great increases in number of meristematic cells within individual SAMs. Ribs and tubercles allow shoots to swell without tearing during wet seasons. Shoot epidermis and cortex cells live and function for decades then convert to cork cambium. Many modifications permit water storage within cactus wood itself, adjacent to vessels.

  5. Advection by ocean currents modifies phytoplankton size structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font-Muñoz, Joan S; Jordi, Antoni; Tuval, Idan; Arrieta, Jorge; Anglès, Sílvia; Basterretxea, Gotzon

    2017-05-01

    Advection by ocean currents modifies phytoplankton size structure at small scales (1-10 cm) by aggregating cells in different regions of the flow depending on their size. This effect is caused by the inertia of the cells relative to the displaced fluid. It is considered that, at larger scales (greater than or equal to 1 km), biological processes regulate the heterogeneity in size structure. Here, we provide observational evidence of heterogeneity in phytoplankton size structure driven by ocean currents at relatively large scales (1-10 km). Our results reveal changes in the phytoplankton size distribution associated with the coastal circulation patterns. A numerical model that incorporates the inertial properties of phytoplankton confirms the role of advection on the distribution of phytoplankton according to their size except in areas with enhanced nutrient inputs where phytoplankton dynamics is ruled by other processes. The observed preferential concentration mechanism has important ecological consequences that range from the phytoplankton level to the whole ecosystem. © 2017 The Author(s).

  6. Epidemic spreading on complex networks with community structures

    CERN Document Server

    Stegehuis, Clara; van Leeuwaarden, Johan S H

    2016-01-01

    Many real-world networks display a community structure. We study two random graph models that create a network with similar community structure as a given network. One model preserves the exact community structure of the original network, while the other model only preserves the set of communities and the vertex degrees. These models show that community structure is an important determinant of the behavior of percolation processes on networks, such as information diffusion or virus spreading: the community structure can both \\textit{enforce} as well as \\textit{inhibit} diffusion processes. Our models further show that it is the mesoscopic set of communities that matters. The exact internal structures of communities barely influence the behavior of percolation processes across networks. This insensitivity is likely due to the relative denseness of the communities.

  7. Structural evolution of silica sols modified with formamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenza R.F.S.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we investigated the influence of formamide on the acid-catalyzed sol-gel process by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. Three silica sols were studied: Sol catalyzed with nitric acid without formamide, sol catalyzed with nitric acid containing formamide and sol catalyzed with a mixture of nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid and modified with formamide. Following the time evolution of both the Si-(OH stretching vibration at around 950 cm-1 and the Si-O-(Si vibration between 1040 cm-1 and 1200 cm-1 we were able to describe the structural evolution of each sol. The curve of evolution of Si-(OH stretching vibration corresponding to sol A has a simple asymptotic evolution. In the case of formamide containing sol, we observed a two-step structural evolution indicating that for the system containing formamide the polymerization goes through a temporary stabilization of oligomers, which can explain the non-variation of the Si-O(H bond wavenumber for a certain time. Gelation times were of several days for gels without formamide and few hours for gels containing additive. The presence of additive resulted in a highly interconnected gel.

  8. Community structure in introductory physics course networks

    CERN Document Server

    Traxler, Adrienne L

    2015-01-01

    Student-to-student interactions are foundational to many active learning environments, but are most often studied using qualitative methods. Network analysis tools provide a quantitative complement to this picture, allowing researchers to describe the social interactions of whole classrooms as systems. Past results from introductory physics courses have suggested a sharp division in the formation of social structure between large lecture sections and small studio classroom environments. Extending those results, this study focuses on calculus-based introductory physics courses at a large public university with a heavily commuter and nontraditional student population. Community detection network methods are used to characterize pre- and post-course collaborative structure in several sections, and differences are considered between small and large classes. These results are compared with expectations from earlier findings, and comment on implications for instruction and further study.

  9. Immunization of networks with community structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masuda, Naoki [Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan)], E-mail: masuda@mist.i.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2009-12-15

    In this study, an efficient method to immunize modular networks (i.e. networks with community structure) is proposed. The immunization of networks aims at fragmenting networks into small parts with a small number of removed nodes. Its applications include prevention of epidemic spreading, protection against intentional attacks on networks, and conservation of ecosystems. Although preferential immunization of hubs is efficient, good immunization strategies for modular networks have not been established. On the basis of an immunization strategy based on eigenvector centrality, we develop an analytical framework for immunizing modular networks. To this end, we quantify the contribution of each node to the connectivity in a coarse-grained network among modules. We verify the effectiveness of the proposed method by applying it to model and real networks with modular structure.

  10. Information transfer in community structured multiplex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Solé-Ribalta, Albert; Gómez, Sergio; Arenas, Alex

    2015-01-01

    The study of complex networks that account for different types of interactions has become a subject of interest in the last few years, specially because its representational power in the description of users interactions in diverse online social platforms (Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, etc.). The mathematical description of these interacting networks has been coined under the name of multilayer networks, where each layer accounts for a type of interaction. It has been shown that diffusive processes on top of these networks present a phenomenology that cannot be explained by the naive superposition of single layer diffusive phenomena but require the whole structure of interconnected layers. Nevertheless, the description of diffusive phenomena on multilayer networks has obviated the fact that social networks have strong mesoscopic structure represented by different communities of individuals driven by common interests, or any other social aspect. In this work, we study the transfer of information in multilayer ...

  11. Study of the diversity of microbial communities in a sequencing batch reactor oxic-settling-anaerobic process and its modified process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lianpeng; Chen, Jianfan; Wei, Xiange; Guo, Wuzhen; Lin, Meishan; Yu, Xiaoyu

    2016-05-01

    To further reveal the mechanism of sludge reduction in the oxic-settling-anaerobic (OSA) process, the polymerase chain reaction - denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis protocol was used to study the possible difference in the microbial communities between a sequencing batch reactor (SBR)-OSA process and its modified process, by analyzing the change in the diversity of the microbial communities in each reactor of both systems. The results indicated that the structure of the microbial communities in aerobic reactors of the 2 processes was very different, but the predominant microbial populations in anaerobic reactors were similar. The predominant microbial population in the aerobic reactor of the SBR-OSA belonged to Burkholderia cepacia, class Betaproteobacteria, while those of the modified process belonged to the classes Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria. These 3 types of microbes had a cryptic growth characteristic, which was the main cause of a greater sludge reduction efficiency achieved by the modified process.

  12. Community Structure in Online Collegiate Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traud, Amanda; Kelsic, Eric; Mucha, Peter; Porter, Mason

    2009-03-01

    Online social networking sites have become increasingly popular with college students. The networks we studied are defined through ``friendships'' indicated by Facebook users from UNC, Oklahoma, Caltech, Georgetown, and Princeton. We apply the tools of network science to study the Facebook networks from these five different universities at a single point in time. We investigate each single-institution network's community structure, which we obtain through partitioning the graph using an eigenvector method. We use both graphical and quantitative tools, including pair-counting methods, which we interpret through statistical analysis and permutation tests to measure the correlations between the network communities and a set of characteristics given by each user (residence, class year, major, and high school). We also analyze the single gender subsets of these networks, and the impact of missing demographical data. Our study allows us to compare the online social networks for the five schools as well as infer differences in offline social interactions. At the schools studied, we were able to define which characteristics of the Facebook users correlate best with friendships.

  13. Bipartite Community Structure of eQTLs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Platig

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS and expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL analyses have identified genetic associations with a wide range of human phenotypes. However, many of these variants have weak effects and understanding their combined effect remains a challenge. One hypothesis is that multiple SNPs interact in complex networks to influence functional processes that ultimately lead to complex phenotypes, including disease states. Here we present CONDOR, a method that represents both cis- and trans-acting SNPs and the genes with which they are associated as a bipartite graph and then uses the modular structure of that graph to place SNPs into a functional context. In applying CONDOR to eQTLs in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, we found the global network "hub" SNPs were devoid of disease associations through GWAS. However, the network was organized into 52 communities of SNPs and genes, many of which were enriched for genes in specific functional classes. We identified local hubs within each community ("core SNPs" and these were enriched for GWAS SNPs for COPD and many other diseases. These results speak to our intuition: rather than single SNPs influencing single genes, we see groups of SNPs associated with the expression of families of functionally related genes and that disease SNPs are associated with the perturbation of those functions. These methods are not limited in their application to COPD and can be used in the analysis of a wide variety of disease processes and other phenotypic traits.

  14. Stochastic graph Voronoi tessellation reveals community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázár, Zsolt I; Papp, István; Varga, Levente; Járai-Szabó, Ferenc; Deritei, Dávid; Ercsey-Ravasz, Mária

    2017-02-01

    Given a network, the statistical ensemble of its graph-Voronoi diagrams with randomly chosen cell centers exhibits properties convertible into information on the network's large scale structures. We define a node-pair level measure called Voronoi cohesion which describes the probability for sharing the same Voronoi cell, when randomly choosing g centers in the network. This measure provides information based on the global context (the network in its entirety), a type of information that is not carried by other similarity measures. We explore the mathematical background of this phenomenon and several of its potential applications. A special focus is laid on the possibilities and limitations pertaining to the exploitation of the phenomenon for community detection purposes.

  15. Dynamics and control of diseases in networks with community structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Salathé

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of infectious diseases spread via direct person-to-person transmission (such as influenza, smallpox, HIV/AIDS, etc. depends on the underlying host contact network. Human contact networks exhibit strong community structure. Understanding how such community structure affects epidemics may provide insights for preventing the spread of disease between communities by changing the structure of the contact network through pharmaceutical or non-pharmaceutical interventions. We use empirical and simulated networks to investigate the spread of disease in networks with community structure. We find that community structure has a major impact on disease dynamics, and we show that in networks with strong community structure, immunization interventions targeted at individuals bridging communities are more effective than those simply targeting highly connected individuals. Because the structure of relevant contact networks is generally not known, and vaccine supply is often limited, there is great need for efficient vaccination algorithms that do not require full knowledge of the network. We developed an algorithm that acts only on locally available network information and is able to quickly identify targets for successful immunization intervention. The algorithm generally outperforms existing algorithms when vaccine supply is limited, particularly in networks with strong community structure. Understanding the spread of infectious diseases and designing optimal control strategies is a major goal of public health. Social networks show marked patterns of community structure, and our results, based on empirical and simulated data, demonstrate that community structure strongly affects disease dynamics. These results have implications for the design of control strategies.

  16. Cobalt Phthalocyanine Modified Electrodes Utilised in Electroanalysis: Nano-Structured Modified Electrodes vs. Bulk Modified Screen-Printed Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher W. Foster

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPC compounds have been reported to provide electrocatalytic performances towards a substantial number of analytes. In these configurations, electrodes are typically constructed via drop casting the CoPC onto a supporting electrode substrate, while in other cases the CoPC complex is incorporated within the ink of a screen-printed sensor, providing a one-shot economical and disposable electrode configuration. In this paper we critically compare CoPC modified electrodes prepared by drop casting CoPC nanoparticles (nano-CoPC onto a range of carbon based electrode substrates with that of CoPC bulk modified screen-printed electrodes in the sensing of the model analytes L-ascorbic acid, oxygen and hydrazine. It is found that no “electrocatalysis” is observed towards L-ascorbic acid using either of these CoPC modified electrode configurations and that the bare underlying carbon electrode is the origin of the obtained voltammetric signal, which gives rise to useful electroanalytical signatures, providing new insights into literature reports where “electrocatalysis” has been reported with no clear control experiments undertaken. On the other hand true electrocatalysis is observed towards hydrazine, where no such voltammetric features are witnessed on the bare underlying electrode substrate.

  17. Community Attachment and Satisfaction: The Role of a Community's Social Network Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    This paper links the micro and macro levels of analysis by examining how different aspects of community sentiment are affected by one's personal ties to the community compared with the organizational network structure of the community. Using data collected from residents of six communities in Washington State, network analysis combined with…

  18. Exploring community structure in biological networks with random graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sah, Pratha; Singh, Lisa O; Clauset, Aaron; Bansal, Shweta

    2014-06-25

    Community structure is ubiquitous in biological networks. There has been an increased interest in unraveling the community structure of biological systems as it may provide important insights into a system's functional components and the impact of local structures on dynamics at a global scale. Choosing an appropriate community detection algorithm to identify the community structure in an empirical network can be difficult, however, as the many algorithms available are based on a variety of cost functions and are difficult to validate. Even when community structure is identified in an empirical system, disentangling the effect of community structure from other network properties such as clustering coefficient and assortativity can be a challenge. Here, we develop a generative model to produce undirected, simple, connected graphs with a specified degrees and pattern of communities, while maintaining a graph structure that is as random as possible. Additionally, we demonstrate two important applications of our model: (a) to generate networks that can be used to benchmark existing and new algorithms for detecting communities in biological networks; and (b) to generate null models to serve as random controls when investigating the impact of complex network features beyond the byproduct of degree and modularity in empirical biological networks. Our model allows for the systematic study of the presence of community structure and its impact on network function and dynamics. This process is a crucial step in unraveling the functional consequences of the structural properties of biological systems and uncovering the mechanisms that drive these systems.

  19. Sheep-urine-induced changes in soil microbial community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunan, Naoise; Singh, Brajesh; Reid, Eileen; Ord, Brian; Papert, Artemis; Squires, Julie; Prosser, Jim I; Wheatley, Ron E; McNicol, Jim; Millard, Peter

    2006-05-01

    Soil microbial communities play an important role in nutrient cycling and nutrient availability, especially in unimproved soils. In grazed pastures, sheep urine causes local changes in nutrient concentration which may be a source of heterogeneity in microbial community structure. In the present study, we investigated the effects of synthetic urine on soil microbial community structure, using physiological (community level physiological profiling, CLPP), biochemical (phospholipid fatty acid analysis, PLFA) and molecular (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, DGGE) fingerprinting methods. PLFA data suggested that synthetic urine treatment had no significant effect on total microbial (total PLFA), total bacterial or fungal biomass; however, significant changes in microbial community structure were observed with both PLFA and DGGE data. PLFA data suggested that synthetic urine induced a shift towards communities with higher concentrations of branched fatty acids. DGGE banding patterns derived from control and treated soils differed, due to a higher proportion of DNA sequences migrating only to the upper regions of the gel in synthetic urine-treated samples. The shifts in community structure measured by PLFA and DGGE were significantly correlated with one another, suggesting that both datasets reflected the same changes in microbial communities. Synthetic urine treatment preferentially stimulated the use of rhizosphere-C in sole-carbon-source utilisation profiles. The changes caused by synthetic urine addition accounted for only 10-15% of the total variability in community structure, suggesting that overall microbial community structure was reasonably stable and that changes were confined to a small proportion of the communities.

  20. No adverse effect of genetically modified antifungal wheat on decomposition dynamics and the soil fauna community--a field study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Duc

    Full Text Available The cultivation of genetically modified (GM plants has raised several environmental concerns. One of these concerns regards non-target soil fauna organisms, which play an important role in the decomposition of organic matter and hence are largely exposed to GM plant residues. Soil fauna may be directly affected by transgene products or indirectly by pleiotropic effects such as a modified plant metabolism. Thus, ecosystem services and functioning might be affected negatively. In a litterbag experiment in the field we analysed the decomposition process and the soil fauna community involved. Therefore, we used four experimental GM wheat varieties, two with a race-specific antifungal resistance against powdery mildew (Pm3b and two with an unspecific antifungal resistance based on the expression of chitinase and glucanase. We compared them with two non-GM isolines and six conventional cereal varieties. To elucidate the mechanisms that cause differences in plant decomposition, structural plant components (i.e. C∶N ratio, lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose were examined and soil properties, temperature and precipitation were monitored. The most frequent taxa extracted from decaying plant material were mites (Cryptostigmata, Gamasina and Uropodina, springtails (Isotomidae, annelids (Enchytraeidae and Diptera (Cecidomyiidae larvae. Despite a single significant transgenic/month interaction for Cecidomyiidae larvae, which is probably random, we detected no impact of the GM wheat on the soil fauna community. However, soil fauna differences among conventional cereal varieties were more pronounced than between GM and non-GM wheat. While leaf residue decomposition in GM and non-GM wheat was similar, differences among conventional cereals were evident. Furthermore, sampling date and location were found to greatly influence soil fauna community and decomposition processes. The results give no indication of ecologically relevant adverse effects of antifungal GM

  1. No Adverse Effect of Genetically Modified Antifungal Wheat on Decomposition Dynamics and the Soil Fauna Community – A Field Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duc, Caroline; Nentwig, Wolfgang; Lindfeld, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    The cultivation of genetically modified (GM) plants has raised several environmental concerns. One of these concerns regards non-target soil fauna organisms, which play an important role in the decomposition of organic matter and hence are largely exposed to GM plant residues. Soil fauna may be directly affected by transgene products or indirectly by pleiotropic effects such as a modified plant metabolism. Thus, ecosystem services and functioning might be affected negatively. In a litterbag experiment in the field we analysed the decomposition process and the soil fauna community involved. Therefore, we used four experimental GM wheat varieties, two with a race-specific antifungal resistance against powdery mildew (Pm3b) and two with an unspecific antifungal resistance based on the expression of chitinase and glucanase. We compared them with two non-GM isolines and six conventional cereal varieties. To elucidate the mechanisms that cause differences in plant decomposition, structural plant components (i.e. C∶N ratio, lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose) were examined and soil properties, temperature and precipitation were monitored. The most frequent taxa extracted from decaying plant material were mites (Cryptostigmata, Gamasina and Uropodina), springtails (Isotomidae), annelids (Enchytraeidae) and Diptera (Cecidomyiidae larvae). Despite a single significant transgenic/month interaction for Cecidomyiidae larvae, which is probably random, we detected no impact of the GM wheat on the soil fauna community. However, soil fauna differences among conventional cereal varieties were more pronounced than between GM and non-GM wheat. While leaf residue decomposition in GM and non-GM wheat was similar, differences among conventional cereals were evident. Furthermore, sampling date and location were found to greatly influence soil fauna community and decomposition processes. The results give no indication of ecologically relevant adverse effects of antifungal GM wheat on the

  2. No adverse effect of genetically modified antifungal wheat on decomposition dynamics and the soil fauna community--a field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duc, Caroline; Nentwig, Wolfgang; Lindfeld, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    The cultivation of genetically modified (GM) plants has raised several environmental concerns. One of these concerns regards non-target soil fauna organisms, which play an important role in the decomposition of organic matter and hence are largely exposed to GM plant residues. Soil fauna may be directly affected by transgene products or indirectly by pleiotropic effects such as a modified plant metabolism. Thus, ecosystem services and functioning might be affected negatively. In a litterbag experiment in the field we analysed the decomposition process and the soil fauna community involved. Therefore, we used four experimental GM wheat varieties, two with a race-specific antifungal resistance against powdery mildew (Pm3b) and two with an unspecific antifungal resistance based on the expression of chitinase and glucanase. We compared them with two non-GM isolines and six conventional cereal varieties. To elucidate the mechanisms that cause differences in plant decomposition, structural plant components (i.e. C∶N ratio, lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose) were examined and soil properties, temperature and precipitation were monitored. The most frequent taxa extracted from decaying plant material were mites (Cryptostigmata, Gamasina and Uropodina), springtails (Isotomidae), annelids (Enchytraeidae) and Diptera (Cecidomyiidae larvae). Despite a single significant transgenic/month interaction for Cecidomyiidae larvae, which is probably random, we detected no impact of the GM wheat on the soil fauna community. However, soil fauna differences among conventional cereal varieties were more pronounced than between GM and non-GM wheat. While leaf residue decomposition in GM and non-GM wheat was similar, differences among conventional cereals were evident. Furthermore, sampling date and location were found to greatly influence soil fauna community and decomposition processes. The results give no indication of ecologically relevant adverse effects of antifungal GM wheat on the

  3. Bacterial community structure in the Cerasus sachalinensis Kom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bacterial community structures of the Cerasus sachalinensis Kom. rhizosphere in wild and cultivated soil were studied and the community changes in different growth stages were analyzed by the PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) method. The results showed that the bacterial community ...

  4. Growing networks of overlapping communities with internal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jean-Gabriel; Hébert-Dufresne, Laurent; Allard, Antoine; Dubé, Louis J.

    2016-08-01

    We introduce an intuitive model that describes both the emergence of community structure and the evolution of the internal structure of communities in growing social networks. The model comprises two complementary mechanisms: One mechanism accounts for the evolution of the internal link structure of a single community, and the second mechanism coordinates the growth of multiple overlapping communities. The first mechanism is based on the assumption that each node establishes links with its neighbors and introduces new nodes to the community at different rates. We demonstrate that this simple mechanism gives rise to an effective maximal degree within communities. This observation is related to the anthropological theory known as Dunbar's number, i.e., the empirical observation of a maximal number of ties which an average individual can sustain within its social groups. The second mechanism is based on a recently proposed generalization of preferential attachment to community structure, appropriately called structural preferential attachment (SPA). The combination of these two mechanisms into a single model (SPA+) allows us to reproduce a number of the global statistics of real networks: The distribution of community sizes, of node memberships, and of degrees. The SPA+ model also predicts (a) three qualitative regimes for the degree distribution within overlapping communities and (b) strong correlations between the number of communities to which a node belongs and its number of connections within each community. We present empirical evidence that support our findings in real complex networks.

  5. Phylogenetic structure in tropical hummingbird communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, Catherine H; Parra, Juan L; Rahbek, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    composition of 189 hummingbird communities in Ecuador. We assessed how species and phylogenetic composition changed along environmental gradients and across biogeographic barriers. We show that humid, low-elevation communities are phylogenetically overdispersed (coexistence of distant relatives), a pattern...... that is consistent with the idea that competition influences the local composition of hummingbirds. At higher elevations communities are phylogenetically clustered (coexistence of close relatives), consistent with the expectation of environmental filtering, which may result from the challenge of sustaining...

  6. The formation of cosmic structure with modified Newtonian dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, R. H.

    2001-01-01

    I consider the growth of inhomogeneities in a low-density, baryonic, vacuum energy-dominated universe in the context of modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND). I first write down a two-field Langrangian-based theory of MOND (nonrelativistic) that embodies several assumptions, such as constancy of the

  7. Temporal abiotic variability structures invertebrate communities in agricultural drainage ditches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whatley, M.H.; Vonk, J.A.; van der Geest, H.G.; Admiraal, W.

    2015-01-01

    Abiotic variability is known to structure lotic invertebrate communities, yet its influence on lentic invertebrates is not clear. This study tests the hypothesis that variability of nutrients and macro-ions are structuring invertebrate communities in agricultural drainage ditches. This was

  8. Community structure and diversity of macrobenthic invertebrates in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Macrobenthic invertebrates' community structure and diversity in relation to some water quality parameters of Owan River; Edo State, was investigated from March 2011 to August, 2011. The study was aimed to determine the water-quality and their relationship with the community structure and diversity of ...

  9. Community detection using global and local structural information

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Community detection is of considerable importance for understanding both the structure and function of complex networks. In this paper, we introduced the general procedure of the community detection algorithms using global and local structural information, where the edge betweenness and the local similarity measures ...

  10. Investigating Effects of Invasive Species on Plant Community Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Wilfred

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a field study project that explores factors influencing forest community structure and lifts the veil off of "plant blindness." This ecological study consists of three laboratories: (1) preliminary field trip to the study site; (2) plant survey; and (3) analyzing plant community structure with descriptive…

  11. Upstream trophic structure modulates downstream community dynamics via resource subsidies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Eric; Gounand, Isabelle; Little, Chelsea J; Fronhofer, Emanuel A; Altermatt, Florian

    2017-08-01

    In many natural systems, the physical structure of the landscape dictates the flow of resources. Despite mounting evidence that communities' dynamics can be indirectly coupled by reciprocal among ecosystem resource flows, our understanding of how directional resource flows might indirectly link biological communities is limited. We here propose that differences in community structure upstream should lead to different downstream dynamics, even in the absence of dispersal of organisms. We report an experimental test of the effect of upstream community structure on downstream community dynamics in a simplified but highly controlled setting, using protist microcosms. We implemented directional flows of resources, without dispersal, from a standard resource pool into upstream communities of contrasting interaction structure and then to further downstream communities of either one or two trophic levels. Our results demonstrate that different types of species interactions in upstream habitats may lead to different population sizes and levels of biomass in these upstream habitats. This, in turn, leads to varying levels of detritus transfer (dead biomass) to the downstream communities, thus influencing their population densities and trophic interactions in predictable ways. Our results suggest that the structure of species interactions in directionally structured ecosystems can be a key mediator of alterations to downstream habitats. Alterations to upstream habitats can thus cascade down to downstream communities, even without dispersal.

  12. Neuroticism modifies the association of vision impairment and cognition among community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaynes, Bruce I; Shah, Raj; Leurgans, Sue; Bennett, David

    2013-01-01

    Vision impairment (best-corrected binocular visual acuity worse than 20/40) is a common age-related health condition requiring adaptation to maintain well-being. Whether neuroticism, a personality trait associated with decreased ability to adapt to change, modifies the association of vision impairment with worse cognition is uncertain. Using baseline visual acuity, neuroticism and cognitive function data from 714 community-dwelling, older participants in the Rush Memory and Aging Project, we examined whether self-reported neuroticism level modified the cross-sectional association between vision impairment and lower cognitive level. Women represented 76% of the participants. The mean age was 79.6 (SD = 6.9) years and the mean education level was 14.6 (SD = 2.9) years; 26% of the participants had vision impairment. In a linear regression model adjusted for age, sex and education, each unit higher in neuroticism level worsened the association between vision impairment and lower global cognitive function level (parameter estimate for vision impairment and neuroticism interaction term = -0.017; standard error = 0.005; p = 0.001). For participants with vision impairment, a high neuroticism level (50th percentile or above) was associated with a mean global cognitive score that was 0.297 z-score units lower than for participants with a low neuroticism level (p persons, neuroticism modifies the association between vision impairment and cognitive function level. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Detecting Community Structure by Using a Constrained Label Propagation Algorithm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Hou Chin

    Full Text Available Community structure is considered one of the most interesting features in complex networks. Many real-world complex systems exhibit community structure, where individuals with similar properties form a community. The identification of communities in a network is important for understanding the structure of said network, in a specific perspective. Thus, community detection in complex networks gained immense interest over the last decade. A lot of community detection methods were proposed, and one of them is the label propagation algorithm (LPA. The simplicity and time efficiency of the LPA make it a popular community detection method. However, the LPA suffers from instability detection due to randomness that is induced in the algorithm. The focus of this paper is to improve the stability and accuracy of the LPA, while retaining its simplicity. Our proposed algorithm will first detect the main communities in a network by using the number of mutual neighbouring nodes. Subsequently, nodes are added into communities by using a constrained LPA. Those constraints are then gradually relaxed until all nodes are assigned into groups. In order to refine the quality of the detected communities, nodes in communities can be switched to another community or removed from their current communities at various stages of the algorithm. We evaluated our algorithm on three types of benchmark networks, namely the Lancichinetti-Fortunato-Radicchi (LFR, Relaxed Caveman (RC and Girvan-Newman (GN benchmarks. We also apply the present algorithm to some real-world networks of various sizes. The current results show some promising potential, of the proposed algorithm, in terms of detecting communities accurately. Furthermore, our constrained LPA has a robustness and stability that are significantly better than the simple LPA as it is able to yield deterministic results.

  14. Community structure of complex networks based on continuous neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ting-ting; Shan, Chang-ji; Dong, Yan-shou

    2017-09-01

    As a new subject, the research of complex networks has attracted the attention of researchers from different disciplines. Community structure is one of the key structures of complex networks, so it is a very important task to analyze the community structure of complex networks accurately. In this paper, we study the problem of extracting the community structure of complex networks, and propose a continuous neural network (CNN) algorithm. It is proved that for any given initial value, the continuous neural network algorithm converges to the eigenvector of the maximum eigenvalue of the network modularity matrix. Therefore, according to the stability of the evolution of the network symbol will be able to get two community structure.

  15. Effects of drought on avian community structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas P. Albright; Anna M. Pidgeon; Chadwick D. Rittenhouse; Murray K. Clayton; Curtis H. Flather; Patrick D. Culbert; Brian D. Wardlow; Volker C. Radeloff

    2010-01-01

    Droughts are expected to become more frequent under global climate change. Avifauna depend on precipitation for hydration, cover, and food. While there are indications that avian communities respond negatively to drought, little is known about the response of birds with differing functional and behavioural traits, what time periods and indicators of drought are most...

  16. Vegetation community structure, composition and distribution pattern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was no significant difference in species diversity between sampling areas, which had a Shannon's diversity index ranging from 1.64 to 2.63. ... We conclude that habitat characteristics, fire, past and the present exploitation clearly influence the species diversity, distribution and variation in vegetation communities.

  17. Triclosan alterations of estuarine phytoplankton community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinckney, James L; Thompson, Laura; Hylton, Sarah

    2017-06-15

    Antimicrobial additives in pharmaceutical and personal care products are a major environmental concern due to their potential ecological impacts on aquatic ecosystems. Triclosan (TCS) has been used as an antiseptic, disinfectant, and preservative in various media. The sublethal and lethal effects of TCS on estuarine phytoplankton community composition were investigated using bioassays of natural phytoplankton communities to measure phytoplankton responses to different concentrations of TCS ranging from 1 to 200μgl -1 . The EC 50 (the concentration of an inhibitor where the growth is reduced by half) for phytoplankton groups (diatoms, chlorophytes, cryptophytes) examined in this ranged from 10.7 to 113.8μg TCS l -1 . Exposures resulted in major shifts in phytoplankton community composition at concentrations as low as 1.0μg TCS l -1 . This study demonstrates estuarine ecosystem sensitivity to TCS exposure and highlights potential alterations in phytoplankton community composition at what are typically environmental concentrations of TCS in urbanized estuaries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Virality prediction and community structure in social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Lilian; Menczer, Filippo; Ahn, Yong-Yeol

    2013-01-01

    How does network structure affect diffusion? Recent studies suggest that the answer depends on the type of contagion. Complex contagions, unlike infectious diseases (simple contagions), are affected by social reinforcement and homophily. Hence, the spread within highly clustered communities is enhanced, while diffusion across communities is hampered. A common hypothesis is that memes and behaviors are complex contagions. We show that, while most memes indeed spread like complex contagions, a few viral memes spread across many communities, like diseases. We demonstrate that the future popularity of a meme can be predicted by quantifying its early spreading pattern in terms of community concentration. The more communities a meme permeates, the more viral it is. We present a practical method to translate data about community structure into predictive knowledge about what information will spread widely. This connection contributes to our understanding in computational social science, social media analytics, and marketing applications.

  19. Virality Prediction and Community Structure in Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Lilian; Menczer, Filippo; Ahn, Yong-Yeol

    2013-08-01

    How does network structure affect diffusion? Recent studies suggest that the answer depends on the type of contagion. Complex contagions, unlike infectious diseases (simple contagions), are affected by social reinforcement and homophily. Hence, the spread within highly clustered communities is enhanced, while diffusion across communities is hampered. A common hypothesis is that memes and behaviors are complex contagions. We show that, while most memes indeed spread like complex contagions, a few viral memes spread across many communities, like diseases. We demonstrate that the future popularity of a meme can be predicted by quantifying its early spreading pattern in terms of community concentration. The more communities a meme permeates, the more viral it is. We present a practical method to translate data about community structure into predictive knowledge about what information will spread widely. This connection contributes to our understanding in computational social science, social media analytics, and marketing applications.

  20. Stochastic and deterministic processes jointly structure tropical arthropod communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellwood, M D Farnon; Manica, Andrea; Foster, William A

    2009-04-01

    The question of whether ecological assemblages are structured by stochastic and deterministic (e.g. interspecific competition) processes is controversial, but it is difficult to design sampling regimes and experiments that can dissect the relative importance of stochastic and deterministic processes in natural assemblages. Using null models, we tested communities of arthropod decomposers in tropical epiphytes for patterns of species co-occurrence, while controlling for habitat gradients, seasonal variations and ecological succession. When environmental conditions were controlled, our analysis showed that the communities were structured stochastically. However, analysing mixed sets of communities that were deliberately created either from two distinct heights or two successional stages revealed that communities were structured deterministically. These results confirm that habitat gradients and dispersal/competition trade-offs are capable of generating non-random patterns within decomposer arthropod communities, but reveal that when such effects are accounted for, species co-occurrence is fundamentally random.

  1. Colonisation and community structure of benthic diatoms on artificial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A major flooding event that occurred during October–November 2012 caused major changes in the Kowie River hydromorphology and aquatic communities. The aim of our study was to identify the environmental variables that structure riverine benthic diatom communities at upstream and downstream locations 25 km apart ...

  2. Faculty Scholarship at Community Colleges: Culture, Institutional Structures, and Socialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morest, Vanessa Smith

    2015-01-01

    This chapter looks at community college faculty engagement in scholarship. Community college faculty spend the majority of their time engaged in teaching, and therefore their scholarship typically focuses on strengthening curriculum and instruction. The paper identifies some of the structural and cultural challenges and supports to scholarship at…

  3. A new dynamic null model for phylogenetic community structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pigot, Alex L; Etienne, Rampal S

    Phylogenies are increasingly applied to identify the mechanisms structuring ecological communities but progress has been hindered by a reliance on statistical null models that ignore the historical process of community assembly. Here, we address this, and develop a dynamic null model of assembly by

  4. "Structured Discovery": A Modified Inquiry Approach to Teaching Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lordon, John

    1981-01-01

    Describes structured discovery approach to inquiry teaching which encourages the teacher to select instructional objectives, content, and questions to be answered. The focus is on individual and group activities. A brief outline using this approach to analyze Adolf Hitler is presented. (KC)

  5. variabilty in parasites' community structure and composition in cat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    This study investigated the composition and structure of the parasite communities in Cat fish with respect to ... Reliable technologies for detection of ... these techniques are expensive and time ... is a satellite lake with a surface area of about.

  6. Experimental shift in benthic community structure

    OpenAIRE

    Naim, Odile; Cuet, Pascale; Letourneur, Y.

    1996-01-01

    International audience; In January 1989, hypersedimentation generated by hurricane Firinga was responsible for 99% mortality within the St-Leu reef flat coral community (Reunion Island, S.W. Indian Ocean). In September 1992, one homogeneous zone (400 m2) of dead Acropora pharaonis (60% coverage: cv) was selected on the inner ~eef flat: corals were almost totally covered by macroalgae and turfs (Stegastes nigricans territories). Macroalgae and turfs were removed from half of the zone (zone M, ...

  7. Ecological and evolutionary effects of stickleback on community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Des Roches, Simone; Shurin, Jonathan B; Schluter, Dolph; Harmon, Luke J

    2013-01-01

    Species' ecology and evolution can have strong effects on communities. Both may change concurrently when species colonize a new ecosystem. We know little, however, about the combined effects of ecological and evolutionary change on community structure. We simultaneously examined the effects of top-predator ecology and evolution on freshwater community parameters using recently evolved generalist and specialist ecotypes of three-spine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). We used a mesocosm experiment to directly examine the effects of ecological (fish presence and density) and evolutionary (phenotypic diversity and specialization) factors on community structure at lower trophic levels. We evaluated zooplankton biomass and composition, periphyton and phytoplankton chlorophyll-a concentration, and net primary production among treatments containing different densities and diversities of stickleback. Our results showed that both ecological and evolutionary differences in the top-predator affect different aspects of community structure and composition. Community structure, specifically the abundance of organisms at each trophic level, was affected by stickleback presence and density, whereas composition of zooplankton was influenced by stickleback diversity and specialization. Primary productivity, in terms of chlorophyll-a concentration and net primary production was affected by ecological but not evolutionary factors. Our results stress the importance of concurrently evaluating both changes in density and phenotypic diversity on the structure and composition of communities.

  8. Ecological and evolutionary effects of stickleback on community structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Des Roches

    Full Text Available Species' ecology and evolution can have strong effects on communities. Both may change concurrently when species colonize a new ecosystem. We know little, however, about the combined effects of ecological and evolutionary change on community structure. We simultaneously examined the effects of top-predator ecology and evolution on freshwater community parameters using recently evolved generalist and specialist ecotypes of three-spine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus. We used a mesocosm experiment to directly examine the effects of ecological (fish presence and density and evolutionary (phenotypic diversity and specialization factors on community structure at lower trophic levels. We evaluated zooplankton biomass and composition, periphyton and phytoplankton chlorophyll-a concentration, and net primary production among treatments containing different densities and diversities of stickleback. Our results showed that both ecological and evolutionary differences in the top-predator affect different aspects of community structure and composition. Community structure, specifically the abundance of organisms at each trophic level, was affected by stickleback presence and density, whereas composition of zooplankton was influenced by stickleback diversity and specialization. Primary productivity, in terms of chlorophyll-a concentration and net primary production was affected by ecological but not evolutionary factors. Our results stress the importance of concurrently evaluating both changes in density and phenotypic diversity on the structure and composition of communities.

  9. Comparing Community Structure to Characteristics in Online Collegiate Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Traud, Amanda L.; Kelsic, Eric D.; Mucha, Peter J; Porter, Mason A.

    2008-01-01

    We study the structure of social networks of students by examining the graphs of Facebook "friendships" at five American universities at a single point in time. We investigate each single-institution network's community structure and employ graphical and quantitative tools, including standardized pair-counting methods, to measure the correlations between the network communities and a set of self-identified user characteristics (residence, class year, major, and high school). We review the bas...

  10. Improving Coarsening Schemes for Hypergraph Partitioning by Exploiting Community Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Heuer, Tobias; Schlag, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    We present an improved coarsening process for multilevel hypergraph partitioning that incorporates global information about the community structure. Community detection is performed via modularity maximization on a bipartite graph representation. The approach is made suitable for different classes of hypergraphs by defining weights for the graph edges that express structural properties of the hypergraph. We integrate our approach into a leading multilevel hypergraph partitioner with strong lo...

  11. Host niches and defensive extended phenotypes structure parasitoid wasp communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Bailey

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Oak galls are spectacular extended phenotypes of gallwasp genes in host oak tissues and have evolved complex morphologies that serve, in part, to exclude parasitoid natural enemies.Parasitoids and their insect herbivore hosts have coevolved to produce diverse communities comprising about a third of all animal species. The factors structuring these communities, however, remain poorly understood. An emerging theme in community ecology is the need to consider the effects of host traits, shaped by both natural selection and phylogenetic history, on associated communities of natural enemies. Here we examine the impact of host traits and phylogenetic relatedness on 48 ecologically closed and species-rich communities of parasitoids attacking gall-inducing wasps on oaks. Gallwasps induce the development of spectacular and structurally complex galls whose species- and generation-specific morphologies are the extended phenotypes of gallwasp genes. All the associated natural enemies attack their concealed hosts through gall tissues, and several structural gall traits have been shown to enhance defence against parasitoid attack. Here we explore the significance of these and other host traits in predicting variation in parasitoid community structure across gallwasp species. In particular, we test the "Enemy Hypothesis," which predicts that galls with similar morphology will exclude similar sets of parasitoids and therefore have similar parasitoid communities. Having controlled for phylogenetic patterning in host traits and communities, we found significant correlations between parasitoid community structure and several gall structural traits (toughness, hairiness, stickiness, supporting the Enemy Hypothesis. Parasitoid community structure was also consistently predicted by components of the hosts' spatiotemporal niche, particularly host oak taxonomy and gall location (e.g., leaf versus bud versus seed. The combined explanatory power of structural and

  12. Modifying the food supply at a community swimming pool: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Beverley; Dumbrell, Susan

    2011-04-01

    We report on a process evaluation of a project that aimed to replace energy-dense, nutrient-poor (EDNP) items at a community swimming pool kiosk. The analytic framework was the Analysis Grid for Environments Linked to Obesity (ANGELO). To contribute to health promotion practice in recreational settings, the process evaluation sought to determine the extent to which project'controversies' modified project objectives and strategies. The case study method captured the project narrative. The primary data were interviews with key project participants, supplemented with project records and media articles.These were analysed thematically. The socio-cultural and political environments, particularly the capacity to exercise choice in relation to ENDP products, had considerable influence on the project. In the face of two controversies -"I thought everyone was signed up to it"and "We can't deny the kiddies their ice-cream" it was necessary for the project partners to modify the objectives and strategies and substantially change the target. The setting is highly responsive to both the micro and macro socio-cultural and political aspects of the environment.

  13. Subversion of innate and adaptive immune activation induced by structurally modified lipopolysaccharide from Salmonella typhimurium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastelin-Palacios, Rodolfo; Gil-Cruz, Cristina; Pérez-Shibayama, Christian I; Moreno-Eutimio, Mario A; Cervantes-Barragán, Luisa; Arriaga-Pizano, Lourdes; Ludewig, Burkhard; Cunningham, Adam F; García-Zepeda, Eduardo A; Becker, Ingeborg; Alpuche-Aranda, Celia; Bonifaz, Laura; Gunn, John S; Isibasi, Armando; López-Macías, Constantino

    2011-01-01

    Salmonella are successful pathogens that infect millions of people every year. During infection, Salmonella typhimurium changes the structure of its lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in response to the host environment, rendering bacteria resistant to cationic peptide lysis in vitro. However, the role of these structural changes in LPS as in vivo virulence factors and their effects on immune responses and the generation of immunity are largely unknown. We report that modified LPS are less efficient than wild-type LPS at inducing pro-inflammatory responses. The impact of this LPS-mediated subversion of innate immune responses was demonstrated by increased mortality in mice infected with a non-lethal dose of an attenuated S. typhimurium strain mixed with the modified LPS moieties. Up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules on antigen-presenting cells and CD4+ T-cell activation were affected by these modified LPS. Strains of S. typhimurium carrying structurally modified LPS are markedly less efficient at inducing specific antibody responses. Immunization with modified LPS moiety preparations combined with experimental antigens, induced an impaired Toll-like receptor 4-mediated adjuvant effect. Strains of S. typhimurium carrying structurally modified LPS are markedly less efficient at inducing immunity against challenge with virulent S. typhimurium. Hence, changes in S. typhimurium LPS structure impact not only on innate immune responses but also on both humoral and cellular adaptive immune responses. PMID:21631497

  14. Experimental Climate Change Modifies Degradative Succession in Boreal Peatland Fungal Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asemaninejad, Asma; Thorn, R Greg; Lindo, Zoë

    2017-04-01

    Peatlands play an important role in global climate change through sequestration of atmospheric CO 2 . Climate-driven changes in the structure of fungal communities in boreal peatlands that favor saprotrophic fungi can substantially impact carbon dynamics and nutrient cycling in these crucial ecosystems. In a mesocosm study using a full factorial design, 100 intact peat monoliths, complete with living Sphagnum and above-ground vascular vegetation, were subjected to three climate change variables (increased temperature, reduced water table, and elevated CO 2 concentrations). Peat litterbags were placed in mesocosms, and fungal communities in litterbags were monitored over 12 months to assess the impacts of climate change variables on peat-inhabiting fungi. Changes in fungal richness, diversity, and community composition were assessed using Illumina MiSeq sequencing of ribosomal DNA (rDNA). While general fungal richness reduced under warming conditions, Ascomycota exhibited higher diversity under increased temperature treatments over the course of the experiment. Both increased temperature and lowered water table position drove shifts in fungal community composition with a strong positive effect on endophytic and mycorrhizal fungi (including one operational taxonomic unit (OTU) tentatively identified as Barrenia panicia) and different groups of saprotrophs identified as Mortierella, Galerina, and Mycena. These shifts were observed during a predicted degradative succession in the decomposer community as different carbon substrates became available. Since fungi play a central role in peatland communities, increased abundances of saprotrophic fungi under warming conditions, at the expense of reduced fungal richness overall, may increase decomposition rates under future climate scenarios and could potentially aggravate the impacts of climate change.

  15. PHACCS, an online tool for estimating the structure and diversity of uncultured viral communities using metagenomic information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salamon Peter

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phages, viruses that infect prokaryotes, are the most abundant microbes in the world. A major limitation to studying these viruses is the difficulty of cultivating the appropriate prokaryotic hosts. One way around this limitation is to directly clone and sequence shotgun libraries of uncultured viral communities (i.e., metagenomic analyses. PHACCS http://phage.sdsu.edu/phaccs, Phage Communities from Contig Spectrum, is an online bioinformatic tool to assess the biodiversity of uncultured viral communities. PHACCS uses the contig spectrum from shotgun DNA sequence assemblies to mathematically model the structure of viral communities and make predictions about diversity. Results PHACCS builds models of possible community structure using a modified Lander-Waterman algorithm to predict the underlying contig spectrum. PHACCS finds the most appropriate structure model by optimizing the model parameters until the predicted contig spectrum is as close as possible to the experimental one. This model is the basis for making estimates of uncultured viral community richness, evenness, diversity index and abundance of the most abundant genotype. Conclusion PHACCS analysis of four different environmental phage communities suggests that the power law is an important rank-abundance form to describe uncultured viral community structure. The estimates support the fact that the four phage communities were extremely diverse and that phage community biodiversity and structure may be correlated with that of their hosts.

  16. Jellyfish modulate bacterial dynamic and community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinta, Tinkara; Kogovšek, Tjaša; Malej, Alenka; Turk, Valentina

    2012-01-01

    Jellyfish blooms have increased in coastal areas around the world and the outbreaks have become longer and more frequent over the past few decades. The Mediterranean Sea is among the heavily affected regions and the common bloom-forming taxa are scyphozoans Aurelia aurita s.l., Pelagia noctiluca, and Rhizostoma pulmo. Jellyfish have few natural predators, therefore their carcasses at the termination of a bloom represent an organic-rich substrate that supports rapid bacterial growth, and may have a large impact on the surrounding environment. The focus of this study was to explore whether jellyfish substrate have an impact on bacterial community phylotype selection. We conducted in situ jellyfish-enrichment experiment with three different jellyfish species. Bacterial dynamic together with nutrients were monitored to assess decaying jellyfish-bacteria dynamics. Our results show that jellyfish biomass is characterized by protein rich organic matter, which is highly bioavailable to 'jellyfish-associated' and 'free-living' bacteria, and triggers rapid shifts in bacterial population dynamics and composition. Based on 16S rRNA clone libraries and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis, we observed a rapid shift in community composition from unculturable Alphaproteobacteria to culturable species of Gammaproteobacteria and Flavobacteria. The results of sequence analyses of bacterial isolates and of total bacterial community determined by culture independent genetic analysis showed the dominance of the Pseudoalteromonadaceae and the Vibrionaceae families. Elevated levels of dissolved proteins, dissolved organic and inorganic nutrient release, bacterial abundance and carbon production as well as ammonium concentrations characterized the degradation process. The biochemical composition of jellyfish species may influence changes in the amount of accumulated dissolved organic and inorganic nutrients. Our results can contribute insights into possible changes in

  17. Jellyfish modulate bacterial dynamic and community structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinkara Tinta

    Full Text Available Jellyfish blooms have increased in coastal areas around the world and the outbreaks have become longer and more frequent over the past few decades. The Mediterranean Sea is among the heavily affected regions and the common bloom-forming taxa are scyphozoans Aurelia aurita s.l., Pelagia noctiluca, and Rhizostoma pulmo. Jellyfish have few natural predators, therefore their carcasses at the termination of a bloom represent an organic-rich substrate that supports rapid bacterial growth, and may have a large impact on the surrounding environment. The focus of this study was to explore whether jellyfish substrate have an impact on bacterial community phylotype selection. We conducted in situ jellyfish-enrichment experiment with three different jellyfish species. Bacterial dynamic together with nutrients were monitored to assess decaying jellyfish-bacteria dynamics. Our results show that jellyfish biomass is characterized by protein rich organic matter, which is highly bioavailable to 'jellyfish-associated' and 'free-living' bacteria, and triggers rapid shifts in bacterial population dynamics and composition. Based on 16S rRNA clone libraries and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE analysis, we observed a rapid shift in community composition from unculturable Alphaproteobacteria to culturable species of Gammaproteobacteria and Flavobacteria. The results of sequence analyses of bacterial isolates and of total bacterial community determined by culture independent genetic analysis showed the dominance of the Pseudoalteromonadaceae and the Vibrionaceae families. Elevated levels of dissolved proteins, dissolved organic and inorganic nutrient release, bacterial abundance and carbon production as well as ammonium concentrations characterized the degradation process. The biochemical composition of jellyfish species may influence changes in the amount of accumulated dissolved organic and inorganic nutrients. Our results can contribute insights into

  18. Impacts of chemical gradients on microbial community structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jianwei; Hanke, Anna; Tegetmeyer, Halina E

    2017-01-01

    Succession of redox processes is sometimes assumed to define a basic microbial community structure for ecosystems with oxygen gradients. In this paradigm, aerobic respiration, denitrification, fermentation and sulfate reduction proceed in a thermodynamically determined order, known as the 'redox ...... Journal advance online publication, 17 January 2017; doi:10.1038/ismej.2016.175....... tower'. Here, we investigated whether redox sorting of microbial processes explains microbial community structure at low-oxygen concentrations. We subjected a diverse microbial community sampled from a coastal marine sediment to 100 days of tidal cycling in a laboratory chemostat. Oxygen gradients (both...

  19. Impact of organic and inorganic nanomaterials in the soil microbial community structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Veronica; Lopes, Isabel [Department of Biology, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitario de Santiago, P-3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); CESAM (Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies), University of Aveiro, Campus de Santiago 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Rocha-Santos, Teresa [ISEIT/Viseu, Instituto Piaget, Estrada do Alto do Gaio, Galifonge, 3515-776 Lordosa, Viseu (Portugal); Santos, Ana L. [Department of Biology, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitario de Santiago, P-3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); CESAM (Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies), University of Aveiro, Campus de Santiago 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Rasteiro, Graca M.; Antunes, Filipe [CIEPQPF, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, Polo II, University of Coimbra, 3030-290 Coimbra (Portugal); Goncalves, Fernando; Soares, Amadeu M.V.M.; Cunha, Angela; Almeida, Adelaide [Department of Biology, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitario de Santiago, P-3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); CESAM (Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies), University of Aveiro, Campus de Santiago 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Gomes, Newton N.C.M., E-mail: gomesncm@ua.pt [Department of Biology, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitario de Santiago, P-3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); CESAM (Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies), University of Aveiro, Campus de Santiago 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Pereira, Ruth [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); CESAM (Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies), University of Aveiro, Campus de Santiago 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2012-05-01

    In this study the effect of organic and inorganic nanomaterials (NMs) on the structural diversity of the soil microbial community was investigated by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis, after amplification with universal primers for the bacterial region V6-V8 of 16S rDNA. The polymers of carboxylmethyl-cellulose (CMC), of hydrophobically modified CMC (HM-CMC), and hydrophobically modified polyethylglycol (HM-PEG); the vesicles of sodium dodecyl sulphate/didodecyl dimethylammonium bromide (SDS/DDAB) and of monoolein/sodium oleate (Mo/NaO); titanium oxide (TiO{sub 2}), titanium silicon oxide (TiSiO{sub 4}), CdSe/ZnS quantum dots, gold nanorods, and Fe/Co magnetic fluid were the NMs tested. Soil samples were incubated, for a period of 30 days, after being spiked with NM suspensions previously characterized by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) or by an ultrahigh-resolution scanning electron microscope (SEM). The analysis of similarities (ANOSIM) of DGGE profiles showed that gold nanorods, TiO{sub 2}, CMC, HM-CMC, HM-PEG, and SDS/DDAB have significantly affected the structural diversity of the soil bacterial community. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Organic and inorganic nanomaterials on soil microbial community. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structural diversity was investigated by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer All the organic nanomaterials, TiO{sub 2} and gold nanorods significantly affected the structural diversity.

  20. Structural and thermodynamics properties of organo-modified montmorillonite clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anoukou, K.; Zaoui, A.; Zaïri, F.; Naït-Abdelaziz, M.; Gloaguen, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Polymer clay nanocomposites (PCNs) have been seen as the most novel materials in engineering applications since they exhibit significant improvement in mechanical and physical properties. Indeed, with few amount of organoclay, PCNs exhibit enhanced mechanical, optical, thermal and liquid or gas barrier properties compared to pure polymers and to their counterpart microcomposites. Thus, organoclays are extensively used as precursors in the preparation of PCNs. They are the best candidate in reinforcing PCNs because of the lightweight and the high availability of clay minerals in the nature. However, structure and physical phenomena arising at molecular level in organoclays, and subsequently in PCNs, are not completely or difficultly accessible with existing experimental techniques. In this work, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was conducted using the combination of two force fields (CLAYFF and CHARMM) to evaluate the thermodynamics and structural properties of organoclay such as heat capacities, isothermal bulk modulus, density, basal spacing and chains arrangement in the interlayer spacing. Our results regarding the basal spacing and density are in fairly good agreement with available experimental data. This allows us to validate the use of the two force fields to represent interactions in organoclays. The effect of the cation exchange capacity (CEC) on the basal spacing and the thermodynamics properties is assessed. We found, through our MD simulation, that the calculated isothermal bulk modulus is in good agreement with the density value of organoclays with two different CEC.

  1. Fragmentation alters stream fish community structure in dendritic ecological networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkin, Joshuah S; Gido, Keith B

    2012-12-01

    Effects of fragmentation on the ecology of organisms occupying dendritic ecological networks (DENs) have recently been described through both conceptual and mathematical models, but few hypotheses have been tested in complex, real-world ecosystems. Stream fishes provide a model system for assessing effects of fragmentation on the structure of communities occurring within DENs, including how fragmentation alters metacommunity dynamics and biodiversity. A recently developed habitat-availability measure, the "dendritic connectivity index" (DCI), allows for assigning quantitative measures of connectivity in DENs regardless of network extent or complexity, and might be used to predict fish community response to fragmentation. We characterized stream fish community structure in 12 DENs in the Great Plains, USA, during periods of dynamic (summer) and muted (fall) discharge regimes to test the DCI as a predictive model of fish community response to fragmentation imposed by road crossings. Results indicated that fish communities in stream segments isolated by road crossings had reduced species richness (alpha diversity) relative to communities that maintained connectivity with the surrounding DEN during summer and fall. Furthermore, isolated communities had greater dissimilarity (beta diversity) to downstream sites notisolated by road crossings during summer and fall. Finally, dissimilarity among communities within DENs decreased as a function of increased habitat connectivity (measured using the DCI) for summer and fall, suggesting that communities within highly connected DENs tend to be more homogeneous. Our results indicate that the DCI is sensitive to community effects of fragmentation in riverscapes and might be used by managers to predict ecological responses to changes in habitat connectivity. Moreover, our findings illustrate that relating structural connectivity of riverscapes to functional connectivity among communities might aid in maintaining metacommunity

  2. Local factors determine plant community structure on closely neighbored islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianbo Lu

    Full Text Available Despite the recent popularity of the metacommunity concept, ecologists have not evaluated the applicability of different metacommunity frameworks to insular organisms. We surveyed 50 closely spaced islands in the Thousand-Island Lake of China to examine the role of local (environmental and regional (dispersal factors in structuring woody plant assemblages (tree and shrub species on these islands. By partitioning the variation in plant community structure into local and regional causes, we showed that local environmental conditions, specifically island morphometric characteristics, accounted for the majority of the variation in plant community structure among the studied islands. Spatial variables, representing the potential importance of species dispersal, explained little variation. We conclude that one metacommunity framework-species sorting-best characterizes these plant communities. This result reinforces the idea that the traditional approach of emphasizing the local perspective when studying ecological communities continues to hold its value.

  3. Local factors determine plant community structure on closely neighbored islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jianbo; Jiang, Lin; Yu, Lin; Sun, Que

    2011-05-10

    Despite the recent popularity of the metacommunity concept, ecologists have not evaluated the applicability of different metacommunity frameworks to insular organisms. We surveyed 50 closely spaced islands in the Thousand-Island Lake of China to examine the role of local (environmental) and regional (dispersal) factors in structuring woody plant assemblages (tree and shrub species) on these islands. By partitioning the variation in plant community structure into local and regional causes, we showed that local environmental conditions, specifically island morphometric characteristics, accounted for the majority of the variation in plant community structure among the studied islands. Spatial variables, representing the potential importance of species dispersal, explained little variation. We conclude that one metacommunity framework-species sorting-best characterizes these plant communities. This result reinforces the idea that the traditional approach of emphasizing the local perspective when studying ecological communities continues to hold its value.

  4. Method for Molding Structural Parts Utilizing Modified Silicone Rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, Erik S. (Inventor); Baucom, Robert M. (Inventor); Snoha, John J. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    This invention improves upon a method for molding structural parts from preform material. Preform material to be used for the part is provided. A silicone rubber composition containing entrained air voids is prepared. The silicone rubber and preform material assembly is situated within a rigid mold cavity used to shape the preform material to die desired shape. The entire assembly is heated in a standard heating device so that the thermal expansion of the silicone rubber exerts the pressure necessary to force the preform material into contact with the mold container. The introduction of discrete air voids into the silicone rubber allows for accurately controlled pressure application on the preform material at the cure temperature.

  5. Fire modifies the phylogenetic structure of soil bacterial co-occurrence networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Valera, Eduardo; Goberna, Marta; Faust, Karoline; Raes, Jeroen; García, Carlos; Verdú, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Fire alters ecosystems by changing the composition and community structure of soil microbes. The phylogenetic structure of a community provides clues about its main assembling mechanisms. While environmental filtering tends to reduce the community phylogenetic diversity by selecting for functionally (and hence phylogenetically) similar species, processes like competitive exclusion by limiting similarity tend to increase it by preventing the coexistence of functionally (and phylogenetically) similar species. We used co-occurrence networks to detect co-presence (bacteria that co-occur) or exclusion (bacteria that do not co-occur) links indicative of the ecological interactions structuring the community. We propose that inspecting the phylogenetic structure of co-presence or exclusion links allows to detect the main processes simultaneously assembling the community. We monitored a soil bacterial community after an experimental fire and found that fire altered its composition, richness and phylogenetic diversity. Both co-presence and exclusion links were more phylogenetically related than expected by chance. We interpret such a phylogenetic clustering in co-presence links as a result of environmental filtering, while that in exclusion links reflects competitive exclusion by limiting similarity. This suggests that environmental filtering and limiting similarity operate simultaneously to assemble soil bacterial communities, widening the traditional view that only environmental filtering structures bacterial communities. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Community stability under different correlation structures of species' environmental responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruokolainen, Lasse; Ranta, Esa; Kaitala, Veijo; Fowler, Mike S

    2009-12-07

    The outcome of species interactions in a variable environment is expected to depend on how similarly different species react to variation in environmental conditions. We study community stability (evenness and species diversity) in competitive communities that are either closed or subjected to random migration, under different regimes of environmental forcing. Community members respond to environmental variation: (i) independently (IR), (ii) in a positively correlated way (CR), or (iii) hierarchically, according to niche differences (HR). Increasing the amplitude of environmental variation and environmental reddening both reduce species evenness in closed communities through a reduction in species richness and increased skew in species abundances, under all three environmental response scenarios, although autocorrelation only has a minor effect with HR. Open communities show important qualitative differences, according to changes in the correlation structure of species' environmental responses. There is an intermediate minimum in evenness for HR communities with increasing environmental amplitude, explained by the interaction of changes in species richness and changes in the variance of within-species environmental responses across the community. Changes in autocorrelation also lead to qualitative differences between IR, CR and HR communities. Our results highlight the importance of considering mechanistically derived, hierarchical environmental correlations between species when addressing the influence of environmental variation on ecological communities, not only uniform environmental correlation across all species within a community.

  7. Stress analysis of the modified Pulsed Neutron Activation system downstream shield support structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosby, W.R.

    1980-05-28

    The modified LOFT Pulsed Neutron Activation (PNA) System downstream shielding support structure was stress analyzed for deadweight and worst-case LOCE loads. No deficiencies were found in the structure. This stress analysis was performed for the PNA Shielding Configuration that has been used on Test L3-2 and that is to be used on Test L3-7.

  8. Vertical and Horizontal Vegetation Structure across Natural and Modified Habitat Types at Mount Kilimanjaro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutten, Gemma; Ensslin, Andreas; Hemp, Andreas; Fischer, Markus

    2015-01-01

    In most habitats, vegetation provides the main structure of the environment. This complexity can facilitate biodiversity and ecosystem services. Therefore, measures of vegetation structure can serve as indicators in ecosystem management. However, many structural measures are laborious and require expert knowledge. Here, we used consistent and convenient measures to assess vegetation structure over an exceptionally broad elevation gradient of 866-4550 m above sea level at Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. Additionally, we compared (human)-modified habitats, including maize fields, traditionally managed home gardens, grasslands, commercial coffee farms and logged and burned forests with natural habitats along this elevation gradient. We distinguished vertical and horizontal vegetation structure to account for habitat complexity and heterogeneity. Vertical vegetation structure (assessed as number, width and density of vegetation layers, maximum canopy height, leaf area index and vegetation cover) displayed a unimodal elevation pattern, peaking at intermediate elevations in montane forests, whereas horizontal structure (assessed as coefficient of variation of number, width and density of vegetation layers, maximum canopy height, leaf area index and vegetation cover) was lowest at intermediate altitudes. Overall, vertical structure was consistently lower in modified than in natural habitat types, whereas horizontal structure was inconsistently different in modified than in natural habitat types, depending on the specific structural measure and habitat type. Our study shows how vertical and horizontal vegetation structure can be assessed efficiently in various habitat types in tropical mountain regions, and we suggest to apply this as a tool for informing future biodiversity and ecosystem service studies.

  9. A unified method of detecting core-periphery structure and community structure in networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Bing-Bing; Bao, Zhong-Kui; Ma, Chuang; Zhang, Xingyi; Chen, Han-Shuang; Zhang, Hai-Feng

    2018-01-01

    The core-periphery structure and the community structure are two typical meso-scale structures in complex networks. Although community detection has been extensively investigated from different perspectives, the definition and the detection of the core-periphery structure have not received much attention. Furthermore, the detection problems of the core-periphery and community structure were separately investigated. In this paper, we develop a unified framework to simultaneously detect the core-periphery structure and community structure in complex networks. Moreover, there are several extra advantages of our algorithm: our method can detect not only single but also multiple pairs of core-periphery structures; the overlapping nodes belonging to different communities can be identified; different scales of core-periphery structures can be detected by adjusting the size of the core. The good performance of the method has been validated on synthetic and real complex networks. So, we provide a basic framework to detect the two typical meso-scale structures: the core-periphery structure and the community structure.

  10. Measuring the robustness of network community structure using assortativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shizuka, Daizaburo; Farine, Damien R.

    2016-01-01

    The existence of discrete social clusters, or ‘communities’, is a common feature of social networks in human and nonhuman animals. The level of such community structure in networks is typically measured using an index of modularity, Q. While modularity quantifies the degree to which individuals associate within versus between social communities and provides a useful measure of structure in the social network, it assumes that the network has been well sampled. However, animal social network data is typically subject to sampling errors. In particular, the associations among individuals are often not sampled equally, and animal social network studies are often based on a relatively small set of observations. Here, we extend an existing framework for bootstrapping network metrics to provide a method for assessing the robustness of community assignment in social networks using a metric we call community assortativity (rcom). We use simulations to demonstrate that modularity can reliably detect the transition from random to structured associations in networks that differ in size and number of communities, while community assortativity accurately measures the level of confidence based on the detectability of associations. We then demonstrate the use of these metrics using three publicly available data sets of avian social networks. We suggest that by explicitly addressing the known limitations in sampling animal social network, this approach will facilitate more rigorous analyses of population-level structural patterns across social systems. PMID:26949266

  11. Inclusion of caraway in the ryegrass-red clover mixture modifies soil microbial community composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cong, Wenfeng; Jing, Jingying; Søegaard, Karen

    -containing grass-clover mixtures may potentially affect soil microbial community structure, biomass and associated ecosystem functions, but it is yet to be elucidated. We hypothesized that inclusion of plantain in the grass-clover mixture would enhance soil microbial biomas and functions through its high biomass......Perennial ryegrass-clover mixtures are widely used in intensively managed grasslands due to their high biomass production. Recent studies have shown that inclusion of competitive forbs such as plantain enhanced above-and below-ground biomass of ryegrass-red clover mixtures (Cong et al., 2016...

  12. Improving the Robustness of Complex Networks with Preserving Community Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Li, Zhoujun; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Xiaoming; Wang, Senzhang

    2015-01-01

    Complex networks are everywhere, such as the power grid network, the airline network, the protein-protein interaction network, and the road network. The networks are ‘robust yet fragile’, which means that the networks are robust against random failures but fragile under malicious attacks. The cascading failures, system-wide disasters and intentional attacks on these networks are deserving of in-depth study. Researchers have proposed many solutions to improve the robustness of these networks. However whilst many solutions preserve the degree distribution of the networks, little attention is paid to the community structure of these networks. We argue that the community structure of a network is a defining characteristic of a network which identifies its functionality and thus should be preserved. In this paper, we discuss the relationship between robustness and the community structure. Then we propose a 3-step strategy to improve the robustness of a network, while retaining its community structure, and also its degree distribution. With extensive experimentation on representative real-world networks, we demonstrate that our method is effective and can greatly improve the robustness of networks, while preserving community structure and degree distribution. Finally, we give a description of a robust network, which is useful not only for improving robustness, but also for designing robust networks and integrating networks. PMID:25674786

  13. Finding community structure in networks using the eigenvectors of matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, M E J

    2006-09-01

    We consider the problem of detecting communities or modules in networks, groups of vertices with a higher-than-average density of edges connecting them. Previous work indicates that a robust approach to this problem is the maximization of the benefit function known as "modularity" over possible divisions of a network. Here we show that this maximization process can be written in terms of the eigenspectrum of a matrix we call the modularity matrix, which plays a role in community detection similar to that played by the graph Laplacian in graph partitioning calculations. This result leads us to a number of possible algorithms for detecting community structure, as well as several other results, including a spectral measure of bipartite structure in networks and a centrality measure that identifies vertices that occupy central positions within the communities to which they belong. The algorithms and measures proposed are illustrated with applications to a variety of real-world complex networks.

  14. Phytoplankton community structure is influenced by seabird guano enrichment in the Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatova, O. A.; Wing, S. R.; Hoffmann, L. J.; Wing, L. C.; Gault-Ringold, M.

    2017-05-01

    Phytoplankton biomass, productivity and community structure are strongly influenced by differences in nutrient concentrations among oceanographic water masses. Changes in community composition, particularly in the distribution of cell sizes, can result in dramatic changes in the energetics of pelagic food webs and ecosystem function in terms of biogeochemical cycling and carbon sequestration. Here we examine responses of natural phytoplankton communities from four major water masses in the Southern Ocean to enrichment from seabird guano, a concentrated source of bioactive metals (Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn) and macronutrients (N, P), in a series of incubation experiments. Phytoplankton communities from sub-tropical water, modified sub-tropical water from the Snares Island wake, sub-Antarctic water and Antarctic water from the Ross Sea, each showed dramatic changes in community structure following additions of seabird guano. We observed particularly high growth of prymnesiophytes in response to the guano-derived nutrients within sub-Antarctic and sub-tropical frontal zones, resulting in communities dominated by larger cell sizes than in control incubations. Community changes within treatments enriched with guano were distinct, and in most cases more extensive, than those observed for treatments with additions of macronutrients (N, P) or iron (Fe) alone. These results provide the first empirical evidence that seabird guano enrichment can drive significant changes in the structure and composition of natural phytoplankton communities. Our findings have important implications for understanding the consequences of accumulation of bioactive metals and macronutrients within food webs and the role of seabirds as nutrient vectors within the Southern Ocean ecosystem.

  15. Change in fish community structure in the Barents Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Aschan

    Full Text Available Change in oceanographic conditions causes structural alterations in marine fish communities, but this effect may go undetected as most monitoring programs until recently mainly have focused on oceanography and commercial species rather than on whole ecosystems. In this paper, the objective is to describe the spatial and temporal changes in the Barents Sea fish community in the period 1992-2004 while taking into consideration the observed abundance and biodiversity patterns for all 82 observed fish species. We found that the spatial structure of the Barents Sea fish community was determined by abiotic factors such as temperature and depth. The observed species clustered into a deep assemblage, a warm water southern assemblage, both associated with Atlantic water, and a cold water north-eastern assemblage associated with mixed water. The latitude of the cold water NE and warm water S assemblages varied from year to year, but no obvious northward migration was observed over time. In the period 1996-1999 we observed a significant reduction in total fish biomass, abundance, mean fish weight, and a change in community structure including an increase in the pelagic/demersal ratio. This change in community structure is probably due to extremely cold conditions in 1996 impacting on a fish community exposed to historically high fishing rates. After 1999 the fish community variables such as biomass, abundance, mean weight, P/D ratio as well as community composition did not return to levels of the early 90s, although fishing pressure and climatic conditions returned to earlier levels.

  16. Community Structure in Time-Dependent, Multiscale, and Multiplex Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Mucha, Peter J; Richardson, Thomas; Macon, Kevin; Porter, Mason A.; Onnela, Jukka-Pekka

    2009-01-01

    Network science is an interdisciplinary endeavor, with methods and applications drawn from across the natural, social, and information sciences. A prominent problem in network science is the algorithmic detection of tightly-connected groups of nodes known as communities. We developed a generalized framework of network quality functions that allowed us to study the community structure of arbitrary multislice networks, which are combinations of individual networks coupled through links that con...

  17. Warmer night-time temperature promotes microbial heterotrophic activity and modifies stream sediment community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freixa, Anna; Acuña, Vicenç; Casellas, Maria; Pecheva, Stoyana; Romaní, Anna M

    2017-09-01

    Diel temperature patterns are changing because of global warming, with higher temperatures being predicted to be more pronounced at night. Biological reactions are temperature dependent, with some occurring only during the daylight hours (e.g., light photosynthesis) and other during the entire day (e.g., respiration). Consequently, we expect the modification of daily temperature cycles to alter microbial biological reactions in stream sediments. Here, we aimed to study the effect of warming and changes of the diel temperature patterns on stream sediment biofilm functions tied to organic carbon decomposition, as well as on biofilm meiofaunal community structure. We performed an eight-week experiment with 12 artificial streams subjected to three different diel temperature patterns: warming, warmer nights and control. Significant effects of warming on biofilm function and structure were mainly detected in the long term. Our results showed that warming altered biofilm function, especially in the warmer nights' treatment, which enhanced β-glucosidase enzyme activity. Interestingly, clear opposite diel patterns were observed for dissolved organic carbon and β-glucosidase activity, suggesting that, at night, sediment bacteria quickly consume the input of photosynthetic dissolved organic carbon labile compounds created during light-time. The biofilm structure was also altered by warming, as both warming and warmer night treatments enhanced copepod abundance and diminished abundances of turbellaria and nematodes, which, in turn, controlled bacterial, algal and ciliate communities. Overall, we conclude that warming has strong effect on sediment biofilm structure and enhanced microbial organic matter degradation which might, consequently, affect higher trophic levels and river carbon cycling. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. An investigation for structure transformation in electric pulse modified liquid aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi Jingang, E-mail: Qijingang1974@sina.co [School of Material Science and Engineering, Liaoning University of Technology, Jinzhou 121001 (China); Wang Jianzhong; He Lijia; Zhao Zuofu; Du Huiling [School of Material Science and Engineering, Liaoning University of Technology, Jinzhou 121001 (China)

    2011-02-15

    The electric pulse (EP) modification of liquid metal is a novel method for grain refinement. In this work, the structure tests of EP-modified liquid aluminum were conducted and investigated using high-temperature X-ray diffractometer by virtue of the outstanding structural heredity of EP-modified liquid aluminum. The results show that the EP-modified liquid structure tends to be slack and unordered with increasing temperature similar to that of the unmodified. Nevertheless, the quantitative characterization denoted by the liquid structural parameters exhibits its discrepancy. At the modifying temperature of 750 {sup o}C, the order of degree of EP-modified liquid aluminum is remarkably strengthened and the value of average atomic number per cluster changes from 119 (no EP) up to 174 (EP) by an increase of 46%. These tests experimentally testified Wang's electric pulse modification (EPM) model that was built only by phenomenology, and hereby the mechanism of grain refinement resulting from EPM is further elucidated.

  19. Solution structure of Urm1 and its implications for the origin of protein modifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Junjie; Zhang, Jiahai; Wang, Li; Zhou, Jie; Huang, Hongda; Wu, Jihui; Zhong, Yang; Shi, Yunyu

    2006-08-01

    Protein modifiers are involved in diverse biological processes and regulate the activity or function of target proteins by covalently conjugating to them. Although ubiquitin and a number of ubiquitin-like protein modifiers (Ubls) in eukaryotes have been identified, no protein modifier has been found in prokaryotes; thus, their evolutionary origin remains a puzzle. To infer the evolutionary relationships between the protein modifiers and sulfur carrier proteins, we solved the solution NMR structure of the Urm1 (ubiquitin-related modifier-1) protein from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Both structural comparison and phylogenetic analysis of the ubiquitin superfamily, with emphasis on the Urm1 family, indicate that Urm1 is the unique "molecular fossil" that has the most conserved structural and sequence features of the common ancestor of the entire superfamily. The similarities of 3D structure and hydrophobic and electrostatic surface features between Urm1 and MoaD (molybdopterin synthase small subunit) suggest that they may interact with partners in a similar manner, and similarities between Urm1-Uba4 and MoaD-MoeB establish an evolutionary link between ATP-dependent protein conjugation in eukaryotes and ATP-dependent cofactor sulfuration.

  20. Sampling from complex networks with high community structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Mostafa; Rabiee, Hamid R; Rajabi, Arezo

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel link-tracing sampling algorithm, based on the concepts from PageRank vectors, to sample from networks with high community structures. Our method has two phases; (1) Sampling the closest nodes to the initial nodes by approximating personalized PageRank vectors and (2) Jumping to a new community by using PageRank vectors and unknown neighbors. Empirical studies on several synthetic and real-world networks show that the proposed method improves the performance of network sampling compared to the popular link-based sampling methods in terms of accuracy and visited communities.

  1. Random field Ising model and community structure in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, S.-W.; Jeong, H.; Noh, J. D.

    2006-04-01

    We propose a method to determine the community structure of a complex network. In this method the ground state problem of a ferromagnetic random field Ising model is considered on the network with the magnetic field Bs = +∞, Bt = -∞, and Bi≠s,t=0 for a node pair s and t. The ground state problem is equivalent to the so-called maximum flow problem, which can be solved exactly numerically with the help of a combinatorial optimization algorithm. The community structure is then identified from the ground state Ising spin domains for all pairs of s and t. Our method provides a criterion for the existence of the community structure, and is applicable equally well to unweighted and weighted networks. We demonstrate the performance of the method by applying it to the Barabási-Albert network, Zachary karate club network, the scientific collaboration network, and the stock price correlation network. (Ising, Potts, etc.)

  2. Graph spectra and the detectability of community structure in networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadakuditi, Raj Rao; Newman, M E J

    2012-05-04

    We study networks that display community structure--groups of nodes within which connections are unusually dense. Using methods from random matrix theory, we calculate the spectra of such networks in the limit of large size, and hence demonstrate the presence of a phase transition in matrix methods for community detection, such as the popular modularity maximization method. The transition separates a regime in which such methods successfully detect the community structure from one in which the structure is present but is not detected. By comparing these results with recent analyses of maximum-likelihood methods, we are able to show that spectral modularity maximization is an optimal detection method in the sense that no other method will succeed in the regime where the modularity method fails.

  3. Peptidolytic microbial community of methanogenic reactors from two modified UASBs of brewery industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Díaz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We studied the peptide-degrading anaerobic communities of methanogenic reactors from two mesophilic full-scale modified upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactors treating brewery wastewater in Colombia. Most probable number (MPN counts varied between 7.1 x 10(8 and 6.6 x 10(9 bacteria/g volatile suspended solids VSS (Methanogenic Reactor 1 and 7.2 x 10(6 and 6.4 x 10(7 bacteria/g (VSS (Methanogenic Reactor 2. Metabolites detected in the highest positive MPN dilutions in both reactors were mostly acetate, propionate, isovalerate and, in some cases, negligible concentrations of butyrate. Using the highest positive dilutions of MPN counts, 50 dominant strains were isolated from both reactors, and 12 strains were selected for sequencing their 16S rRNA gene based on their phenotypic characteristics. The small-subunit rRNA gene sequences indicated that these strains were affiliated to the families Propionibacteriaceae, Clostridiaceae and Syntrophomonadaceae in the low G + C gram-positive group and Desulfovibrio spp. in the class d-Proteobacteria. The main metabolites detected in the highest positive dilutions of MPN and the presence of Syntrophomonadaceae indicate the effect of the syntrophic associations on the bioconversion of these substrates in methanogenic reactors. Additionally, the potential utilization of external electron acceptors for the complete degradation of amino acids by Clostridium strains confirms the relevance of these acceptors in the transformation of peptides and amino acids in these systems.

  4. Functional structure of biological communities predicts ecosystem multifunctionality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Mouillot

    Full Text Available The accelerating rate of change in biodiversity patterns, mediated by ever increasing human pressures and global warming, demands a better understanding of the relationship between the structure of biological communities and ecosystem functioning (BEF. Recent investigations suggest that the functional structure of communities, i.e. the composition and diversity of functional traits, is the main driver of ecological processes. However, the predictive power of BEF research is still low, the integration of all components of functional community structure as predictors is still lacking, and the multifunctionality of ecosystems (i.e. rates of multiple processes must be considered. Here, using a multiple-processes framework from grassland biodiversity experiments, we show that functional identity of species and functional divergence among species, rather than species diversity per se, together promote the level of ecosystem multifunctionality with a predictive power of 80%. Our results suggest that primary productivity and decomposition rates, two key ecosystem processes upon which the global carbon cycle depends, are primarily sustained by specialist species, i.e. those that hold specialized combinations of traits and perform particular functions. Contrary to studies focusing on single ecosystem functions and considering species richness as the sole measure of biodiversity, we found a linear and non-saturating effect of the functional structure of communities on ecosystem multifunctionality. Thus, sustaining multiple ecological processes would require focusing on trait dominance and on the degree of community specialization, even in species-rich assemblages.

  5. Observing and modelling phytoplankton community structure in the North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, David A.; van der Molen, Johan; Hyder, Kieran; Bacon, John; Barciela, Rosa; Creach, Veronique; McEwan, Robert; Ruardij, Piet; Forster, Rodney

    2017-03-01

    Phytoplankton form the base of the marine food chain, and knowledge of phytoplankton community structure is fundamental when assessing marine biodiversity. Policy makers and other users require information on marine biodiversity and other aspects of the marine environment for the North Sea, a highly productive European shelf sea. This information must come from a combination of observations and models, but currently the coastal ocean is greatly under-sampled for phytoplankton data, and outputs of phytoplankton community structure from models are therefore not yet frequently validated. This study presents a novel set of in situ observations of phytoplankton community structure for the North Sea using accessory pigment analysis. The observations allow a good understanding of the patterns of surface phytoplankton biomass and community structure in the North Sea for the observed months of August 2010 and 2011. Two physical-biogeochemical ocean models, the biogeochemical components of which are different variants of the widely used European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model (ERSEM), were then validated against these and other observations. Both models were a good match for sea surface temperature observations, and a reasonable match for remotely sensed ocean colour observations. However, the two models displayed very different phytoplankton community structures, with one better matching the in situ observations than the other. Nonetheless, both models shared some similarities with the observations in terms of spatial features and inter-annual variability. An initial comparison of the formulations and parameterizations of the two models suggests that diversity between the parameter settings of model phytoplankton functional types, along with formulations which promote a greater sensitivity to changes in light and nutrients, is key to capturing the observed phytoplankton community structure. These findings will help inform future model development, which should be coupled

  6. Kinetic, Thermodynamic and Structural Studies of Native and N-Bromosuccinimide-Modified Mushroom Tyrosinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Emami

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Mushroom tyrosinase (MT as a metalloenzyme is a good model for mechanistic studies of melanogenesis. To recognize the mechanism of MT action, it is important to investigate its inhibition, activation, mutation, and modification properties. Objectives In this study, the chemical modification of MT tryptophan residues was carried out by using N-bromosuccinimide (NBS and then, the activity, stability, and structure of the native and modified enzymes were compared. Methods Chemical modification of MT tryptophan residues was accomplished by enzyme incubation with different concentrations of NBS. The relative activity of native and modified MT was investigated through catecholase enzyme reaction in presence of dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-Dopa as substrate. Thermodynamic parameters including standard Gibbs free energy change (∆G25°C and Melting temperature (Tm were obtained from thermal denaturation of the native and modified enzymes. The circular dichroism and intrinsic fluorescence techniques were used to study secondary and tertiary structure of MT, respectively. All experiments were conducted in 2015 in biophysical laboratory of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences and Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran. Results The relative activity reduced from 100% for native enzyme to 10%, 7.9%, and 6.4% for modified MT with different NBS of concentrations 2, 10, and 20 mM, respectively. Thermal instability of modified enzyme was confirmed by decreased Tm and ∆G25°C values after modification. In accordance with kinetic and thermodynamic results, the lower stability of modified MT was observed from the changes occurred on its secondary and tertiary structures. Conclusions Chemical modification of tryptophan residues with NBS reduces the activity and stability of MT simultaneously with its structural change. Thus, this study emphasizes the crucial role of tryptophan residues in the structure-function relationship of MT

  7. Evidence of community structure in biomedical research grant collaborations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, Radhakrishnan; Kalinka, Alex T; Hogan, William R

    2013-02-01

    Recent studies have clearly demonstrated a shift towards collaborative research and team science approaches across a spectrum of disciplines. Such collaborative efforts have also been acknowledged and nurtured by popular extramurally funded programs including the Clinical Translational Science Award (CTSA) conferred by the National Institutes of Health. Since its inception, the number of CTSA awardees has steadily increased to 60 institutes across 30 states. One of the objectives of CTSA is to accelerate translation of research from bench to bedside to community and train a new genre of researchers under the translational research umbrella. Feasibility of such a translation implicitly demands multi-disciplinary collaboration and mentoring. Networks have proven to be convenient abstractions for studying research collaborations. The present study is a part of the CTSA baseline study and investigates existence of possible community-structure in Biomedical Research Grant Collaboration (BRGC) networks across data sets retrieved from the internally developed grants management system, the Automated Research Information Administrator (ARIA) at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS). Fastgreedy and link-community community-structure detection algorithms were used to investigate the presence of non-overlapping and overlapping community-structure and their variation across years 2006 and 2009. A surrogate testing approach in conjunction with appropriate discriminant statistics, namely: the modularity index and the maximum partition density is proposed to investigate whether the community-structure of the BRGC networks were different from those generated by certain types of random graphs. Non-overlapping as well as overlapping community-structure detection algorithms indicated the presence of community-structure in the BRGC network. Subsequent, surrogate testing revealed that random graph models considered in the present study may not necessarily be appropriate

  8. Microbial Community Structure in Relation to Water Quality in ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks Bay is a shallow, microtidal, eutrophic sub-estuary of Mobile Bay, AL. High watershed nutrient inputs to the estuary contribute to a eutrophic condition characterized by frequent summertime diel-cycling hypoxia and dissolved oxygen (DO) oversaturation. Spatial and seasonal variability of microbial communities that contribute to estuarine ecosystem metabolism were characterized using high-throughput DNA sequencing. Surface water samples were collected from spring to fall at three sites along a transect of Weeks Bay from the Fish River to Mobile Bay. Water samples were analyzed for physiochemical properties and were also filtered onto Sterivex filters for DNA extraction. Genes for 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA were amplified and sequenced according to Earth Microbiome Project protocols. Sequences were assembled into contigs and clustered into OTUs with mothur using the Silva database. The prokaryotes were dominated by Cyanobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Spartobacteria, whereas the eukaryotes were dominated by Bacillariophyta (diatoms). Multivariate statistical analysis of microbial community composition and environmental data showed that Bacteria, Archaea and Eukaryota were clustered by season. BEST analysis by station showed that prokaryotic community structure was associated with salinity and CDOM (Rho=0.924), whereas eukaryotic community structure was most associated with salinity (Rho=0.846). Prokaryotic community structure within seasons was associated with six

  9. Functional and phylogenetic structure of island bird communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Xingfeng; Cadotte, Marc W; Zeng, Di; Baselga, Andrés; Zhao, Yuhao; Li, Jiaqi; Wu, Yiru; Wang, Siyu; Ding, Ping

    2017-05-01

    Biodiversity change in anthropogenically transformed habitats is often nonrandom, yet the nature and importance of the different mechanisms shaping community structure are unclear. Here, we extend the classic Theory of Island Biogeography (TIB) to account for nonrandom processes by incorporating species traits and phylogenetic relationships into a study of faunal relaxation following habitat loss and fragmentation. Two possible mechanisms can create nonrandom community patterns on fragment islands. First, small and isolated islands might consist of similar or closely related species because they are environmentally homogeneous or select for certain shared traits, such as dispersal ability. Alternatively, communities on small islands might contain more dissimilar or distantly related species than on large islands because limited space and resource availability result in greater competitive exclusion among species with high niche overlap. Breeding birds were surveyed on 36 islands and two mainland sites annually from 2010 to 2014 in the Thousand Island Lake region, China. We assessed community structure of breeding birds on these subtropical land-bridge islands by integrating species' trait and evolutionary distances. We additionally analysed habitat heterogeneity and variance in size ratios to distinguish biotic and abiotic processes of community assembly. Results showed that functional-phylogenetic diversity increased with island area, and decreased with isolation. Bird communities on the mainland were more diverse and generally less clustered than island bird communities and not different than randomly assembled communities. Bird communities on islands tend to be functionally similar and phylogenetically clustered, especially on small and isolated islands. The nonrandom decline in species diversity and change in bird community structure with island area and isolation, along with the relatively homogeneous habitats on small islands, support the environmental

  10. Understanding and mitigating tsunami risk for coastal structures and communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sangki

    Tsunamis have attracted the world's attention over the last decade due to their destructive power and the vast areas they can affect. The 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, killed more than 200,000 people, and the 2011 Great Tohoku Japan Earthquake and Tsunami, resulted in 15,000 deaths and an estimated US $300B in damage, are recent examples. An improved understanding of tsunamis and their interactive effects on the built environment will significantly reduce loss of life in tsunamis. In addition, it is important to consider both the effect of the earthquake ground motion and the tsunami it creates for certain coastal regions. A numerical model to predict structural behavior of buildings subjected to successive earthquakes and the tsunamis was developed. Collapse fragilities for structures were obtained by subjecting a structure to a suite of earthquake ground motions. After each motion the numerically damaged structural model was subjected to tsunami wave loading as defined by FEMA P646. This approach was then extended to the community level; a methodology to determine the probability of fatalities for a community as a function of the number of vertical evacuation shelters was computed. Such an approach also considered the location and number of vertical evacuation sites as an optimization problem. Both the single structure cases and the community analyses were presented in terms of fragilities as a function of the earthquake intensity level and evacuation time available. It is envisioned that the approach may be extended to any type of structure as they are typically modeled nonlinearly with strength and stiffness degradation. A logical fragility-based, or performance-based, procedure for vertical evacuation for coastal buildings and for whole communities was developed. A mechanism to obtain a reduction in the collapse risk of structure and more critically maximize the survival rate for a community was a major outcome of this dissertation. The proposed tsunami vertical

  11. Intraspecific variation in a predator affects community structure and cascading trophic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, David M; Palkovacs, Eric P; Schielke, Erika G; Dodson, Stanley I

    2008-07-01

    Intraspecific phenotypic variation in ecologically important traits is widespread and important for evolutionary processes, but its effects on community and ecosystem processes are poorly understood. We use life history differences among populations of alewives, Alosa pseudoharengus, to test the effects of intraspecific phenotypic variation in a predator on pelagic zooplankton community structure and the strength of cascading trophic interactions. We focus on the effects of differences in (1) the duration of residence in fresh water (either seasonal or year-round) and (2) differences in foraging morphology, both of which may strongly influence interactions between alewives and their prey. We measured zooplankton community structure, algal biomass, and spring total phosphorus in lakes that contained landlocked, anadromous, or no alewives. Both the duration of residence and the intraspecific variation in foraging morphology strongly influenced zooplankton community structure. Lakes with landlocked alewives had small-bodied zooplankton year-round, and lakes with no alewives had large-bodied zooplankton year-round. In contrast, zooplankton communities in lakes with anadromous alewives cycled between large-bodied zooplankton in the winter and spring and small-bodied zooplankton in the summer. In summer, differences in feeding morphology of alewives caused zooplankton biomass to be lower and body size to be smaller in lakes with anadromous alewives than in lakes with landlocked alewives. Furthermore, intraspecific variation altered the strength of the trophic cascade caused by alewives. Our results demonstrate that intraspecific phenotypic variation of predators can regulate community structure and ecosystem processes by modifying the form and strength of complex trophic interactions.

  12. Is interspecific competition a major structuring force in animal communities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. J. Ryke

    1987-03-01

    Full Text Available Until recently the view that competition is the dominant ecological interaction was the prevailing one. Interspecific competition was widely regarded as a principal mechanism in determining community structure and organization and thus the distribution and abundance of species. The volume of literature that provides indirect evidence in favour of competition (observational approach greatly exceeds the number of studies that provide direct evidence (experimental approach. In part for this reason the importance of competition in community ecology is questioned by some ecologists. The strongest evidence for competition is derived from controlled field experiments which manipulate the abundancies of putative competitor species. It is stressed that to be able to study competition in the field and to test its theories, interaction coefficients have to be measured. In community studies the question should be asked how important competition, relative to other processes, is. A mechanistic perspective could be a powerful heuristic tool for community ecologists.

  13. Stable pelagic vertebrate community structure through extreme Paleogene greenhouse conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibert, E. C.; Friedman, M.; Hull, P. M.; Hunt, G.; Norris, R. D.

    2016-02-01

    The species composition (structure) and energy transfer (function) of an ecosystem is reflected by the presence and type of consumers that it supports. Here we use ichthyoliths, microfossil fish teeth and shark denticles, to assess the ecological variability of the pelagic fish community structure and composition from the Late Cretaceous to the middle Eocene from a drill core in the South Pacific gyre (DSDP Site 596). We find that the overall vertebrate community structure, as measured by the relative abundance of sharks to ray-finned fishes, has a punctuated change at the Cretaceous/Paleogene mass extinction. The vertebrate community structure remained stable throughout the Paleogene despite a five-fold increase in overall abundance of ichthyoliths during the extreme greenhouse of the Early Eocene. Further, we use a novel system to quantify the morphological variation in fish teeth. We find that the morphospace occupied by the tooth assemblage is conserved throughout the interval, with a slight expansion following the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction, and the evolution of a distinct morphotype-group around the Paleocene-Eocene boundary. While there are elevated rates of morphotype origination and extinction following the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction, the extreme greenhouse warming of the Early Eocene and associated increase in fish production produce near-zero origination and extinction rates. The relative stability in composition of the pelagic vertebrate community during intervals of extreme climate change and across large ranges of total fish accumulation, suggests that pelagic ecosystem structure is robust to climate events, and that the overall structure of the pelagic fish community may be decoupled from both climate and ecosystem function.

  14. Community structure changes of macrobenthos in the South Yellow Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junlong; Xu, Fengshan; Liu, Ruiyu

    2012-03-01

    The ecological environment in the Yellow Sea has changed greatly from the 1950s to 1990s and this has had significant impact on marine organisms. In this study, data on soft-sediment macrobenthos occurring in depths from 25 m to 81 m in the South Yellow Sea were used to compare changes in community structure. The agglomerative classification (CLUSTER) and multidimensional scaling (MDS) methods were applied. Five communities were recognized by cluster analysis: 1. The Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass community dominated by cold water species, which changed slightly in species composition since the 1950s; 2. The mixed community with the coexistence of cold water species and warm water species, as had been reported previously; 3. The polychaete-dominated eurythermal community in which the composition changed considerably as some dominant species disappeared or decreased; 4. The Changjiang (Yangtze) River Estuarine community, with some typical estuarine species; 5. The community affected by the Yellow Sea Warm Current. The greatest change occurred in the coastal area, which indicated that the change may be caused by human activities. Macrobenthos in the central region remained almost unchanged, particularly the cold water species shielded by the Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass. The depth, temperature and median grain size of sediments were important factors affecting the distributions of macrobenthos in the South Yellow Sea.

  15. Structure of UvrA nucleotide excision repair protein in complex with modified DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaciuk, Marcin; Nowak, Elżbieta; Skowronek, Krzysztof; Tańska, Anna; Nowotny, Marcin

    2012-01-01

    One of the primary pathways for removal of DNA damage is nucleotide excision repair (NER). In bacteria, the UvrA protein is the component of NER that locates the lesion. A notable feature of NER is its ability to act on many DNA modifications that vary in chemical structure. So far, the mechanism underlying this broad specificity has been unclear. Here, we report the first crystal structure of a UvrA protein in complex with a chemically modified oligonucleotide. The structure shows that the UvrA dimer does not contact the site of lesion directly, but rather binds the DNA regions on both sides of the modification. The DNA region harboring the modification is deformed, with the double helix bent and unwound. UvrA uses damage-induced deformations of the DNA and a less rigid structure of the modified double helix for indirect readout of the lesion. PMID:21240268

  16. Microbial communities may modify how litter quality affects potential decomposition rates as tree species migrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley D. Keiser; Jennifer D. Knoepp; Mark A. Bradford

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims Climate change alters regional plant species distributions, creating new combinations of litter species and soil communities. Biogeographic patterns in microbial communities relate to dissimilarity in microbial community function, meaning novel litters to communities may decompose differently than predicted from their chemical composition. Therefore...

  17. Exponential random graph models for networks with community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronczak, Piotr; Fronczak, Agata; Bujok, Maksymilian

    2013-09-01

    Although the community structure organization is an important characteristic of real-world networks, most of the traditional network models fail to reproduce the feature. Therefore, the models are useless as benchmark graphs for testing community detection algorithms. They are also inadequate to predict various properties of real networks. With this paper we intend to fill the gap. We develop an exponential random graph approach to networks with community structure. To this end we mainly built upon the idea of blockmodels. We consider both the classical blockmodel and its degree-corrected counterpart and study many of their properties analytically. We show that in the degree-corrected blockmodel, node degrees display an interesting scaling property, which is reminiscent of what is observed in real-world fractal networks. A short description of Monte Carlo simulations of the models is also given in the hope of being useful to others working in the field.

  18. Methodology for Structural and Parametric Optimization of Cascade Automatic Control Systems Based on Modified Smith Predictor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kulakov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents methodology for structural and parametric optimization of cascade ACS   technological parameters of thermal power processes which has been developed on the basis of a modified Smith predictor. The given methodology permits significantly to improve quality of regulation in comparison with the typical cascade AСS. 

  19. Chemical and Conformational Diversity of Modified Nucleosides Affects tRNA Structure and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ville Y. P. Väre

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available RNAs are central to all gene expression through the control of protein synthesis. Four major nucleosides, adenosine, guanosine, cytidine and uridine, compose RNAs and provide sequence variation, but are limited in contributions to structural variation as well as distinct chemical properties. The ability of RNAs to play multiple roles in cellular metabolism is made possible by extensive variation in length, conformational dynamics, and the over 100 post-transcriptional modifications. There are several reviews of the biochemical pathways leading to RNA modification, but the physicochemical nature of modified nucleosides and how they facilitate RNA function is of keen interest, particularly with regard to the contributions of modified nucleosides. Transfer RNAs (tRNAs are the most extensively modified RNAs. The diversity of modifications provide versatility to the chemical and structural environments. The added chemistry, conformation and dynamics of modified nucleosides occurring at the termini of stems in tRNA’s cloverleaf secondary structure affect the global three-dimensional conformation, produce unique recognition determinants for macromolecules to recognize tRNAs, and affect the accurate and efficient decoding ability of tRNAs. This review will discuss the impact of specific chemical moieties on the structure, stability, electrochemical properties, and function of tRNAs.

  20. Community structure and distribution of phytomacrofauna in Iyagbe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports the results of an investigation into the community structure and spatial distribution of phytomacrofauna inhabiting the roots of water hyacinth in ... total phytomacrofauna population, Mollusca had 454 individuals accounting for 23.45% while, Annelida was represented by 22 individuals of polychaetes and ...

  1. Variability in Parasites' Community Structure and Composition in Cat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the composition and structure of the parasite communities in Cat fish with respect to levels of water pollution in Lake Victoria. A total of 1071 Clarias gariepinus with mean TL range of 19 to 27 cm were analyzed from three localities in Mwanza Gulf (Kirumba, 298 fish infected with 15 parasite species), ...

  2. Conservation status and community structure of cliff-nesting raptors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conservation status and community structure of cliff-nesting raptors and ravens on the Cape Peninsula, South Africa. AR Jenkins, AJ van Zyl. Abstract. We detail the sizes, spatial distributions and trends in nest site selection of cliff-nesting raptor and raven populations resident in the mountains of the Cape Peninsula, South ...

  3. Population densities and community structure of birds in riverine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Population density and community structure of birds were studied at three sites in riverine forest in the lowveld of Swaziland. Birds were surveyed monthly using a standard point count technique. A total of 101 species of birds was recorded. Species richness at the three sites ranged between 70–76 species. Population ...

  4. Analysis of bacterial and fungal community structure in replant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High quality DNA is the basis of analyzing bacterial and fungal community structure in replant strawberry rhizosphere soil with the method of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). DNA of soil microorganisms was extracted from the rhizosphere soil of strawberries planted in different replanted years (0, two, ...

  5. Macrofaunal community structure in the littoral zone of a freshwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multidimensional scaling (MDS) indicated that there were no significant spatial patterns in the macrofaunal community structure within the four zones which could be related to the predominance of euryhaline species, including Marphysa sanguinea (estuarine wonder worm), Arcuatula capensis (estuarine mussel), Macoma ...

  6. Zooplankton community structure and dynamics during the transition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Canonical Correspondence Analysis was used to determine correlation between the physicochemical parameters and the zooplankton species abundance. The transition from ... Zooplankton community structure showed that species diversity and abundance decreased during the transition from 24 in March to 16 in June.

  7. Vascular plant diversity and community Structure of nandi forests ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of this study was assessing the species diversity and plant community structure of Nandi forests of Kenya. Seventy six (20 × 20 m) sample plots, of which 27 located in North Nandi and 49 from South Nandi Forest were used to collect vegetation data. Sample plots were established along transects ...

  8. Impact of Physician Community Structure on Healthcare Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Shahadat; Kelaher, Margaret; Piraveenan, Mahendra

    2015-01-01

    There is a substantial variation in healthcare spending and readmission rate for individuals having admissions to different hospitals. This study assessed how the community structure of physician collaboration networks that evolve during the period of providing healthcare services to hospitalised patients contribute to this variation. A physician collaboration network is said to have a community structure if the nodes (i.e. physicians) of that network can be easily grouped into sets of nodes such that each set of nodes is densely connected internally but sparsely connected between groups. This study constructed physician collaboration networks based on patient-sharing ties among physicians who provided healthcare services to hospitalised patients. An administrative health insurance claim dataset was utilised to extract patient-sharing ties among physicians. Simple linear regression models were estimated to assess the impact of the community structure of physician collaboration networks on the healthcare outcome measures (i.e. readmission rate and hospitalisation cost). From these models, this study found that the structure of a physician community has significant impact on readmission rate and hospitalisation cost. Healthcare administrators or managers could consider this finding in developing effective and efficient healthcare environments in their respective healthcare organisations.

  9. Analysis of bacterial and fungal community structure in replant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-06-19

    Jun 19, 2012 ... High quality DNA is the basis of analyzing bacterial and fungal community structure in replant strawberry rhizosphere soil with the method of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). DNA of soil microorganisms was extracted from the rhizosphere soil of strawberries planted in different replanted ...

  10. Relating methanogen community structure and anaerobic digester function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocher, B T W; Cherukuri, K; Maki, J S; Johnson, M; Zitomer, D H

    2015-03-01

    Much remains unknown about the relationships between microbial community structure and anaerobic digester function. However, knowledge of links between community structure and function, such as specific methanogenic activity (SMA) and COD removal rate, are valuable to improve anaerobic bioprocesses. In this work, quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) were developed using multiple linear regression (MLR) to predict SMA using methanogen community structure descriptors for 49 cultures. Community descriptors were DGGE demeaned standardized band intensities for amplicons of a methanogen functional gene (mcrA). First, predictive accuracy of MLR QSARs was assessed using cross validation with training (n = 30) and test sets (n = 19) for glucose and propionate SMA data. MLR equations correlating band intensities and SMA demonstrated good predictability for glucose (q(2) = 0.54) and propionate (q(2) = 0.53). Subsequently, data from all 49 cultures were used to develop QSARs to predict SMA values. Higher intensities of two bands were correlated with higher SMA values; high abundance of methanogens associated with these two bands should be encouraged to attain high SMA values. QSARs are helpful tools to identify key microorganisms or to study and improve many bioprocesses. Development of new, more robust QSARs is encouraged for anaerobic digestion or other bioprocesses, including nitrification, nitritation, denitrification, anaerobic ammonium oxidation, and enhanced biological phosphorus removal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dynamics of bacterial community structure in a fullscale wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The 16S rDNA sequence analysis indicated that the. DGGE bands of dominant bacterial from this plant harbored sequences of possible nitrogen remover with potential aerobic denitrification / heterotrophic nitrification. Key words: Community structure, PCR-DGGE, 16S ribosomal DNA, wastewater treatment plant (WWTP); ...

  12. Association between avian communities and vegetation structure in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The community structure and population density of birds was studied at 10 sites in three broad woodland types in the lowveld of Swaziland. Birds were surveyed on a ... The first axis (accounting for 57.7% of the total variation) represented variation in tree cover below 3.5m and grass cover above 0.25m. The second axis ...

  13. Impacts of chemical gradients on microbial community structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, J.; Hanke, A.; Tegetmeyer, H.E.; Kattelmann, I.; Sharma, R.; Hamann, E.; Hargesheimer, T.; Kraft, B.; Lenk, S.; Geelhoed, J.S.; Hettich, R.L.; Strous, M.

    2017-01-01

    Succession of redox processes is sometimes assumed to define a basic microbial community structure for ecosystems with oxygen gradients. In this paradigm, aerobic respiration, denitrification, fermentation and sulfate reduction proceed in a thermodynamically determined order, known as the ‘redox

  14. Population fluctuations and community structure of small mammals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Small mammals were live trapped monthly over a three year period in a subtropical grassland in Swaziland. Seven species of small mammals were recorded from the study grid. There were significant seasonal and inter annual differences in rodent numbers, breeding intensity and community structure. Mastomys natalensis ...

  15. Biological and functional diversity of bird communities in natural and human modified habitats in Northern Flank of Knuckles Mountain Forest Range, Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KALYA SUBASINGHE

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Subasinghe K, Sumanapala AP. 2014. Biological and functional diversity of bird communities in natural and human modified habitats in Northern Flank of Knuckles Mountain Forest Range, Sri Lanka. Biodiversitas 15: 200-205. The Knuckles Mountain Forest Range (KMFR has a complex mosaic of natural and human modified habitats and the contribution of these habitats to the biological and functional diversities has not been deeply studied. Present study investigated both of these diversities in five habitat types (two natural habitats: Sub-montane forest and Pitawala Patana grassland; three modified habitats: cardamom, pinus and abandoned tea plantations in Northern Flank of KMFR using birds as the indicator group. Bird communities were surveyed using point count method. A total of 1,150 individuals belonging to 56 species were observed. The highest species richness was reported from the cardamom plantation where as sub-montane forest had the highest feeding guild diversity in terms of Shannon Weiner index. The abandoned tea plantation and the Pitawala Patana grasslands with fairly open habitats, showed relatively lower levels of feeding guild diversities. It is clear that the structurally complex habitats contribute more to the area’s biological and functional diversities and need to be taken into consideration when developing conservation plans.

  16. Community interactions modify the effects of pharmaceutical exposure: a microcosm study on responses to propranolol in Baltic Sea coastal organisms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oskarsson, Hanna; Eriksson Wiklund, Ann-Kristin; Thorsén, Gunnar; Danielsson, Gabriela; Kumblad, Linda

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the uptake and effects of a common human pharmaceutical, propranolol, on the structure and function of a coastal Baltic Sea model community consisting of macroalga (Ceramium tenuicorne), mussels...

  17. Collembola Community Structure as a Tool to Assess Land Use Effects on Soil Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Carlos Iuñes de Oliveira Filho

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Collembolan species are differently affected by soil tillage (conventional, minimum tillage, and no-tillage and are known to modify plant growth. This study relies on the relationships between Collembola community structures and land use systems as a proxy for characterizing changes in soil quality. Thus, Collembola community structure (eco-morphological groups - edaphic, hemiedaphic and epigeic, and morphotypes were examined in a no-tillage system and crop-livestock integration system to evaluate the discriminative power of the Collembola community structure and to determine which soil properties drives structural diversity. Thirty-eight morphotypes of Collembola were recorded in this study, 11 belonging to the edaphic eco-morphological group, 14 hemiedaphic, and 13 epigeic. The hemiedaphic and epigeic groups, in the no-tillage system, were more influenced by changes in soil properties (total organic carbon, particulate organic carbon, total N, Ca, Mg, moisture, bulk density and mycelium length than the groups in the crop-livestock integration system (mycorrhizal inoculum potential, and soil properties as dehydrogenase, particulate organic carbon, Mg, sand. Collembola eco-morphological groups were better predictors for ecosystem functioning than Collembola density and can be used to distinguish differences between soil uses, reducing laboratory analysis time.

  18. Multilabel user classification using the community structure of online networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizos, Georgios; Papadopoulos, Symeon; Kompatsiaris, Yiannis

    2017-01-01

    We study the problem of semi-supervised, multi-label user classification of networked data in the online social platform setting. We propose a framework that combines unsupervised community extraction and supervised, community-based feature weighting before training a classifier. We introduce Approximate Regularized Commute-Time Embedding (ARCTE), an algorithm that projects the users of a social graph onto a latent space, but instead of packing the global structure into a matrix of predefined rank, as many spectral and neural representation learning methods do, it extracts local communities for all users in the graph in order to learn a sparse embedding. To this end, we employ an improvement of personalized PageRank algorithms for searching locally in each user's graph structure. Then, we perform supervised community feature weighting in order to boost the importance of highly predictive communities. We assess our method performance on the problem of user classification by performing an extensive comparative study among various recent methods based on graph embeddings. The comparison shows that ARCTE significantly outperforms the competition in almost all cases, achieving up to 35% relative improvement compared to the second best competing method in terms of F1-score.

  19. A clustering algorithm for determining community structure in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hong; Yu, Wei; Li, ShiJun

    2018-02-01

    Clustering algorithms are attractive for the task of community detection in complex networks. DENCLUE is a representative density based clustering algorithm which has a firm mathematical basis and good clustering properties allowing for arbitrarily shaped clusters in high dimensional datasets. However, this method cannot be directly applied to community discovering due to its inability to deal with network data. Moreover, it requires a careful selection of the density parameter and the noise threshold. To solve these issues, a new community detection method is proposed in this paper. First, we use a spectral analysis technique to map the network data into a low dimensional Euclidean Space which can preserve node structural characteristics. Then, DENCLUE is applied to detect the communities in the network. A mathematical method named Sheather-Jones plug-in is chosen to select the density parameter which can describe the intrinsic clustering structure accurately. Moreover, every node on the network is meaningful so there were no noise nodes as a result the noise threshold can be ignored. We test our algorithm on both benchmark and real-life networks, and the results demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm over other popularity density based clustering algorithms adopted to community detection.

  20. Multilabel user classification using the community structure of online networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Rizos

    Full Text Available We study the problem of semi-supervised, multi-label user classification of networked data in the online social platform setting. We propose a framework that combines unsupervised community extraction and supervised, community-based feature weighting before training a classifier. We introduce Approximate Regularized Commute-Time Embedding (ARCTE, an algorithm that projects the users of a social graph onto a latent space, but instead of packing the global structure into a matrix of predefined rank, as many spectral and neural representation learning methods do, it extracts local communities for all users in the graph in order to learn a sparse embedding. To this end, we employ an improvement of personalized PageRank algorithms for searching locally in each user's graph structure. Then, we perform supervised community feature weighting in order to boost the importance of highly predictive communities. We assess our method performance on the problem of user classification by performing an extensive comparative study among various recent methods based on graph embeddings. The comparison shows that ARCTE significantly outperforms the competition in almost all cases, achieving up to 35% relative improvement compared to the second best competing method in terms of F1-score.

  1. Microbial community structure and functioning along metal pollution gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarbad, Hamed; Niklińska, Maria; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; van Straalen, Nico M; Röling, Wilfred F M; Laskowski, Ryszard

    2013-09-01

    Toxic effects of heavy metals on soil microorganisms have been confirmed in a number of laboratory studies. However, most real-field studies do not allow for strong general conclusions due to a range of problems, such as pseudoreplication and confounding factors, which are almost impossible to control for with the most commonly used polluted versus unpolluted or random sampling designs. Effects of metal contamination on soil microbial community traits were measured along 2 pollution gradients in southern Poland. Employing an experimental regression design, using 2 separate gradients, the authors aimed to control for effects of soil properties and beta-diversity of microbial communities. General microbial activity was measured as soil basal respiration rate and substrate-induced respiration, while microbial functional and structural diversity were analyzed with community-level physiological profiles and phospholipid fatty acid patterns, respectively. Metal concentrations were normalized to their toxicity and integrated in a toxicity index (TI). Microbial activity (basal and substrate-induced respiration) decreased in both gradients with increasing TI. Community-level physiological profiles for fungi correlated positively with TI, but no impact of TI on the community-level physiological profiles of bacteria was observed. The phospholipid fatty acids a:15 and i:17 were positively correlated with TI, whereas 16:1ω9 and 18:2ω9 were negatively correlated with TI. The use of 2 gradients (Olkusz and Miasteczko Śląskie) allowed the authors to reveal a clear effect of pollution on general microbial structure and activities, even though they were not able to control completely for all confounding factors. Soil pH, organic matter content, and nutrient level appeared to be at least as important as TI in determining microbial community structure and activities. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  2. Fishing degrades size structure of coral reef fish communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, James P W; Williams, Ivor D; Edwards, Andrew M; McPherson, Jana; Yeager, Lauren; Vigliola, Laurent; Brainard, Russell E; Baum, Julia K

    2017-03-01

    Fishing pressure on coral reef ecosystems has been frequently linked to reductions of large fishes and reef fish biomass. Associated impacts on overall community structure are, however, less clear. In size-structured aquatic ecosystems, fishing impacts are commonly quantified using size spectra, which describe the distribution of individual body sizes within a community. We examined the size spectra and biomass of coral reef fish communities at 38 US-affiliated Pacific islands that ranged in human presence from near pristine to human population centers. Size spectra 'steepened' steadily with increasing human population and proximity to market due to a reduction in the relative biomass of large fishes and an increase in the dominance of small fishes. Reef fish biomass was substantially lower on inhabited islands than uninhabited ones, even at inhabited islands with the lowest levels of human presence. We found that on populated islands size spectra exponents decreased (analogous to size spectra steepening) linearly with declining biomass, whereas on uninhabited islands there was no relationship. Size spectra were steeper in regions of low sea surface temperature but were insensitive to variation in other environmental and geomorphic covariates. In contrast, reef fish biomass was highly sensitive to oceanographic conditions, being influenced by both oceanic productivity and sea surface temperature. Our results suggest that community size structure may be a more robust indicator than fish biomass to increasing human presence and that size spectra are reliable indicators of exploitation impacts across regions of different fish community compositions, environmental drivers, and fisheries types. Size-based approaches that link directly to functional properties of fish communities, and are relatively insensitive to abiotic variation across biogeographic regions, offer great potential for developing our understanding of fishing impacts in coral reef ecosystems. © 2016

  3. Correlations between community structure and link formation in complex networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Links in complex networks commonly represent specific ties between pairs of nodes, such as protein-protein interactions in biological networks or friendships in social networks. However, understanding the mechanism of link formation in complex networks is a long standing challenge for network analysis and data mining. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Links in complex networks have a tendency to cluster locally and form so-called communities. This widely existed phenomenon reflects some underlying mechanism of link formation. To study the correlations between community structure and link formation, we present a general computational framework including a theory for network partitioning and link probability estimation. Our approach enables us to accurately identify missing links in partially observed networks in an efficient way. The links having high connection likelihoods in the communities reveal that links are formed preferentially to create cliques and accordingly promote the clustering level of the communities. The experimental results verify that such a mechanism can be well captured by our approach. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings provide a new insight into understanding how links are created in the communities. The computational framework opens a wide range of possibilities to develop new approaches and applications, such as community detection and missing link prediction.

  4. Correlations between community structure and link formation in complex networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; He, Jia-Lin; Kapoor, Komal; Srivastava, Jaideep

    2013-01-01

    Links in complex networks commonly represent specific ties between pairs of nodes, such as protein-protein interactions in biological networks or friendships in social networks. However, understanding the mechanism of link formation in complex networks is a long standing challenge for network analysis and data mining. Links in complex networks have a tendency to cluster locally and form so-called communities. This widely existed phenomenon reflects some underlying mechanism of link formation. To study the correlations between community structure and link formation, we present a general computational framework including a theory for network partitioning and link probability estimation. Our approach enables us to accurately identify missing links in partially observed networks in an efficient way. The links having high connection likelihoods in the communities reveal that links are formed preferentially to create cliques and accordingly promote the clustering level of the communities. The experimental results verify that such a mechanism can be well captured by our approach. Our findings provide a new insight into understanding how links are created in the communities. The computational framework opens a wide range of possibilities to develop new approaches and applications, such as community detection and missing link prediction.

  5. Species differences drive nonneutral structure in pleistocene coral communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Michael; Connolly, Sean R; Pandolfi, John M

    2012-11-01

    Although ecological assemblages frequently depart from neutral model predictions, these discrepancies have not been unambiguously attributed to neutral theory's core assumption: that community structure is primarily the result of chance variation in birth, death, speciation, and dispersal, rather than the manifestation of demographic differences among species. Using coral communities in Barbados from four time periods during the Pleistocene, we demonstrate that the neutral theory cannot explain coral community similarity distributions, species' regional abundance distributions, or their local occupancy. Furthermore, discrepancies between the neutral theory and the observed communities can be attributed to violation of the core assumption of species equivalence. In particular, species' variable growth rates are driving departures from neutral predictions. Our results reinforce an understanding of reef coral community assembly that invokes trade-offs in species' demographic strategies. The results further suggest that conservation management actions will fail if they are based on the neutral assumption that different coral species are equally able to create live coral cover in the shallow-water reef environment. These findings highlight the importance of developing biodiversity theory that can parsimoniously incorporate species differences in coral reef communities, rather than further elaborating neutral theory.

  6. Modelling sequences and temporal networks with dynamic community structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Tiago P; Rosvall, Martin

    2017-09-19

    In evolving complex systems such as air traffic and social organisations, collective effects emerge from their many components' dynamic interactions. While the dynamic interactions can be represented by temporal networks with nodes and links that change over time, they remain highly complex. It is therefore often necessary to use methods that extract the temporal networks' large-scale dynamic community structure. However, such methods are subject to overfitting or suffer from effects of arbitrary, a priori-imposed timescales, which should instead be extracted from data. Here we simultaneously address both problems and develop a principled data-driven method that determines relevant timescales and identifies patterns of dynamics that take place on networks, as well as shape the networks themselves. We base our method on an arbitrary-order Markov chain model with community structure, and develop a nonparametric Bayesian inference framework that identifies the simplest such model that can explain temporal interaction data.The description of temporal networks is usually simplified in terms of their dynamic community structures, whose identification however relies on a priori assumptions. Here the authors present a data-driven method that determines relevant timescales for the dynamics and uses it to identify communities.

  7. Modified niche optima and breadths explain the historical contingency of bacterial community responses to eutrophication in coastal sediments

    KAUST Repository

    Fodelianakis, Stylianos

    2016-09-23

    Previous studies have shown that the response of bacterial communities to disturbances depends on their environmental history. Historically fluctuating habitats host communities that respond better to disturbance than communities of historically stable habitats. However, the exact ecological mechanism that drives this dependency remains unknown. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that modifications of niche optima and niche breadths of the community members are driving this dependency of bacterial responses to past environmental conditions. First, we develop a novel, simple method to calculate the niche optima and breadths of bacterial taxa regarding single environmental gradients. Then, we test this method on sediment bacterial communities of three habitats, one historically stable and less loaded and two historically more variable and more loaded habitats in terms of historical chlorophyll-α water concentration, that we subject to hypoxia via organic matter addition ex situ. We find that communities containing bacterial taxa differently adapted to hypoxia show different structural and functional responses, depending on the sediment\\'s environmental history. Specifically, in the historically less fluctuating and loaded sediments where we find more taxa poorly adapted to hypoxic conditions, communities change a lot over time and organic matter is not degraded efficiently. The opposite is true for the historically more fluctuating and loaded sediments where we find more taxa well adapted to hypoxia. Based on the community responses observed here, we also propose an alternative calculation of community resistance that takes into account how rapidly the communities respond to disturbances and not just the initial and final states of the community.

  8. Quantitative structure-interplanar spacing models based on montmorillonite modified with quaternary alkylammonium salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorev, V. Yu.; Grigoreva, L. D.; Salimov, I. E.

    2017-08-01

    Models of the quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) between the structure of 19 alkylammonium cations and the basal distances ( d 001) of Na+ montmorillonite modified with these cations are created. Seven descriptors characterizing intermolecular interaction, including new fractal descriptors, are used to describe the structure of the compounds. It is shown that equations obtained via multiple linear regression have good statistical characteristics, and the calculated d 001 values agree with the results from experimental studies. The quantitative contribution from hydrogen bonds to the formation of interplanar spacing in Na+ montmorillonite is found by analyzing the QSPR models.

  9. The short-term effect of heat waves on mortality and its modifiers in China: an analysis from 66 communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenjun; Zeng, Weilin; Zhou, Maigeng; Wang, Lijun; Rutherford, Shannon; Lin, Hualiang; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Yonghui; Xiao, Jianpeng; Zhang, Yewu; Wang, Xiaofeng; Gu, Xin; Chu, Cordia

    2015-02-01

    Many studies have reported increased mortality risk associated with heat waves. However, few have assessed the health impacts at a nation scale in a developing country. This study examines the mortality effects of heat waves in China and explores whether the effects are modified by individual-level and community-level characteristics. Daily mortality and meteorological variables from 66 Chinese communities were collected for the period 2006-2011. Heat waves were defined as ≥2 consecutive days with mean temperature ≥95th percentile of the year-round community-specific distribution. The community-specific mortality effects of heat waves were first estimated using a Distributed Lag Non-linear Model (DLNM), adjusting for potential confounders. To investigate effect modification by individual characteristics (age, gender, cause of death, education level or place of death), separate DLNM models were further fitted. Potential effect modification by community characteristics was examined using a meta-regression analysis. A total of 5.0% (95% confidence intervals (CI): 2.9%-7.2%) excess deaths were associated with heat waves in 66 Chinese communities, with the highest excess deaths in north China (6.0%, 95% CI: 1%-11.3%), followed by east China (5.2%, 95% CI: 0.4%-10.2%) and south China (4.5%, 95% CI: 1.4%-7.6%). Our results indicate that individual characteristics significantly modified heat waves effects in China, with greater effects on cardiovascular mortality, cerebrovascular mortality, respiratory mortality, the elderly, females, the population dying outside of a hospital and those with a higher education attainment. Heat wave mortality effects were also more pronounced for those living in urban cities or densely populated communities. Heat waves significantly increased mortality risk in China with apparent spatial heterogeneity, which was modified by some individual-level and community-level factors. Our findings suggest adaptation plans that target vulnerable

  10. Impact of Cropping Systems, Soil Inoculum, and Plant Species Identity on Soil Bacterial Community Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaq, Suzanne L; Johnson, Stephen P; Miller, Zach J; Lehnhoff, Erik A; Olivo, Sarah; Yeoman, Carl J; Menalled, Fabian D

    2017-02-01

    Farming practices affect the soil microbial community, which in turn impacts crop growth and crop-weed interactions. This study assessed the modification of soil bacterial community structure by organic or conventional cropping systems, weed species identity [Amaranthus retroflexus L. (redroot pigweed) or Avena fatua L. (wild oat)], and living or sterilized inoculum. Soil from eight paired USDA-certified organic and conventional farms in north-central Montana was used as living or autoclave-sterilized inoculant into steam-pasteurized potting soil, planted with Am. retroflexus or Av. fatua and grown for two consecutive 8-week periods to condition soil nutrients and biota. Subsequently, the V3-V4 regions of the microbial 16S rRNA gene were sequenced by Illumina MiSeq. Treatments clustered significantly, with living or sterilized inoculum being the strongest delineating factor, followed by organic or conventional cropping system, then individual farm. Living inoculum-treated soil had greater species richness and was more diverse than sterile inoculum-treated soil (observed OTUs, Chao, inverse Simpson, Shannon, P Organically farmed inoculum-treated soil had greater species richness, more diversity (observed OTUs, Chao, Shannon, P conventionally farmed inoculum-treated soil. Cyanobacteria were higher in pots growing Am. retroflexus, regardless of inoculum type, for three of the four organic farms. Results highlight the potential of cropping systems and species identity to modify soil bacterial communities, subsequently modifying plant growth and crop-weed competition.

  11. Statistical learning of temporal community structure in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schapiro, Anna C; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B; Norman, Kenneth A; Botvinick, Matthew M

    2016-01-01

    The hippocampus is involved in the learning and representation of temporal statistics, but little is understood about the kinds of statistics it can uncover. Prior studies have tested various forms of structure that can be learned by tracking the strength of transition probabilities between adjacent items in a sequence. We test whether the hippocampus can learn higher-order structure using sequences that have no variance in transition probability and instead exhibit temporal community structure. We find that the hippocampus is indeed sensitive to this form of structure, as revealed by its representations, activity dynamics, and connectivity with other regions. These findings suggest that the hippocampus is a sophisticated learner of environmental regularities, able to uncover higher-order structure that requires sensitivity to overlapping associations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. [Phytoplankton community structure in Mingzhu Lake of Chongming Island, Shanghai].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Jing; Wu, Zhu-Chen; Hu, Zhong-Jun; Peng, Zi-Ran; Liu, Qi-Gen

    2011-06-01

    A preliminary study was conducted on the phytoplankton community structure and the annual variation of species diversity in Mingzhu Lake of Chongming Island from January to December 2007. A total of 120 phytoplankton species belonging to 8 phyla and 63 genera were collected, among which, Phormidium tenue, Meismopedia tenuissima, M. convoluta, Microcystis incerta and Synedra ulna were the dominant species. The mean annual density and biomass of the phytoplankton were 5361.57 x 10(4) cell x L(-1) and 7.68 mg x L(-1) respectively. There was a significant difference in the monthly phytoplankton standing crop (P phytoplankton community were higher in spring and winter than in the summer and autumn. Biological evaluation indicated that the water quality of Mingzhu Lake was better in spring and winter than in the other two seasons, and canonical correlation analysis (CCA) suggested that the main factors affecting the phytoplankton community were water temperature, followed by total phosphorus, and total nitrogen.

  13. Multi-scale structural community organisation of the human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulos, Rasha E; Tremblay, Nicolas; Arneodo, Alain; Borgnat, Pierre; Audit, Benjamin

    2017-04-11

    Structural interaction frequency matrices between all genome loci are now experimentally achievable thanks to high-throughput chromosome conformation capture technologies. This ensues a new methodological challenge for computational biology which consists in objectively extracting from these data the structural motifs characteristic of genome organisation. We deployed the fast multi-scale community mining algorithm based on spectral graph wavelets to characterise the networks of intra-chromosomal interactions in human cell lines. We observed that there exist structural domains of all sizes up to chromosome length and demonstrated that the set of structural communities forms a hierarchy of chromosome segments. Hence, at all scales, chromosome folding predominantly involves interactions between neighbouring sites rather than the formation of links between distant loci. Multi-scale structural decomposition of human chromosomes provides an original framework to question structural organisation and its relationship to functional regulation across the scales. By construction the proposed methodology is independent of the precise assembly of the reference genome and is thus directly applicable to genomes whose assembly is not fully determined.

  14. Modified Early Warning System improves patient safety and clinical outcomes in an academic community hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirag Mathukia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Severe adverse events such as cardiac arrest and death are often heralded by abnormal vital signs hours before the event. This necessitates an organized track and trigger approach of early recognition and response to subtle changes in a patient's condition. The Modified Early Warning System (MEWS is one of such systems that use temperature, blood pressure, pulse, respiratory rate, and level of consciousness with each progressive higher score triggering an action. Root cause analysis for mortalities in our institute has led to the implementation of MEWS in an effort to improve patient outcomes. Here we discuss our experience and the impact of MEWS implementation on patient care at our community academic hospital. Methods: MEWS was implemented in a protocolized manner in June 2013. The following data were collected from non-ICU wards on a monthly basis from January 2010 to June 2014: 1 number of rapid response teams (RRTs per 100 patient-days (100PD; 2 number of cardiopulmonary arrests ‘Code Blue’ per 100PD; and 3 result of each RRT and Code Blue (RRT progressed to Code Blue, higher level of care, ICU transfer, etc.. Overall inpatient mortality data were also analyzed. Results: Since the implementation of MEWS, the number of RRT has increased from 0.24 per 100PD in 2011 to 0.38 per 100PD in 2013, and 0.48 per 100PD in 2014. The percentage of RRTs that progressed to Code Blue, an indicator of poor outcome of RRT, has been decreasing. In contrast, the numbers of Code Blue in non-ICU floors has been progressively decreasing from 0.05 per 100PD in 2011 to 0.02 per 100PD in 2013 and 2014. These improved clinical outcomes are associated with a decline of overall inpatient mortality rate from 2.3% in 2011 to 1.5% in 2013 and 1.2% in 2014. Conclusions: Implementation of MEWS in our institute has led to higher rapid response system utilization but lower cardiopulmonary arrest events; this is associated with a lower mortality

  15. Are Gay Communities Dying or Just in Transition? Results from an International Consultation Examining Structural Change in Gay Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Simon Rosser, B. R.; West, William; Weinmeyer, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This study sought to identify how urban gay communities are undergoing structural change, reasons for that change, and implications for HIV prevention planning. Key informants (N=29) at the AIDS Impact Conference from 17 cities in 14 countries completed surveys and participated in a facilitated structured dialog about how gay communities are changing. In all cities, the virtual gay community was identified as now larger than the offline physical community. Most cities identified that while th...

  16. Changes in Soil Fungal Community Structure with Increasing Disturbance Frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyunjun; Kim, Mincheol; Tripathi, Binu; Adams, Jonathan

    2017-07-01

    Although disturbance is thought to be important in many ecological processes, responses of fungal communities to soil disturbance have been little studied experimentally. We subjected a soil microcosm to physical disturbance, at a range of frequencies designed to simulate ecological disturbance events. We analyzed the fungal community structure using Illumina HiSeq sequencing of the ITS1 region. Fungal diversity was found to decline with the increasing disturbance frequencies, with no sign of the "humpback" pattern found in many studies of larger sedentary organisms. There is thus no evidence of an effect of release from competition resulting from moderate disturbance-which suggests that competition and niche overlap may not be important in limiting soil fungal diversity. Changing disturbance frequency also led to consistent differences in community composition. There were clear differences in OTU-level composition, with different disturbance treatments each having distinct fungal communities. The functional profile of fungal groups (guilds) was changed by the level of disturbance frequency. These predictable differences in community composition suggest that soil fungi can possess different niches in relation to disturbance frequency, or time since last disturbance. Fungi appear to be most abundant relative to bacteria at intermediate disturbance frequencies, on the time scale we studied here.

  17. A community detection algorithm based on structural similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xuchao; Hao, Xia; Liu, Yaqiong; Zhang, Li; Wang, Lu

    2017-09-01

    In order to further improve the efficiency and accuracy of community detection algorithm, a new algorithm named SSTCA (the community detection algorithm based on structural similarity with threshold) is proposed. In this algorithm, the structural similarities are taken as the weights of edges, and the threshold k is considered to remove multiple edges whose weights are less than the threshold, and improve the computational efficiency. Tests were done on the Zachary’s network, Dolphins’ social network and Football dataset by the proposed algorithm, and compared with GN and SSNCA algorithm. The results show that the new algorithm is superior to other algorithms in accuracy for the dense networks and the operating efficiency is improved obviously.

  18. Community structure benefits the fixation of cooperation under strong selection

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Zhi-Xi; Yang, Han-Xin

    2014-01-01

    Recent empirical studies suggest that heavy-tailed distributions of human activities are universal in real social dynamics [Muchnik, \\emph{et al.}, Sci. Rep. \\textbf{3}, 1783 (2013)]. On the other hand, community structure is ubiquitous in biological and social networks [M.~E.~J. Newman, Nat. Phys. \\textbf{8}, 25 (2012)]. Motivated by these facts, we here consider the evolutionary Prisoner's dilemma game taking place on top of a real social network to investigate how the community structure and the heterogeneity in activity of individuals affect the evolution of cooperation. In particular, we account for a variation of the birth-death process (which can also be regarded as a proportional imitation rule from social point of view) for the strategy updating under both weak- and strong-selection (meaning the payoffs harvested from games contribute either slightly or heavily to the individuals' performance). By implementing comparative studies, where the players are selected either randomly or in terms of their ac...

  19. Is interspecific competition a major structuring force in animal communities?

    OpenAIRE

    P. A. J. Ryke

    1987-01-01

    Until recently the view that competition is the dominant ecological interaction was the prevailing one. Interspecific competition was widely regarded as a principal mechanism in determining community structure and organization and thus the distribution and abundance of species. The volume of literature that provides indirect evidence in favour of competition (observational approach) greatly exceeds the number of studies that provide direct evidence (experimental approach). In part for this re...

  20. Community Structure in the United Nations General Assembly

    OpenAIRE

    Macon, Kevin T.; Mucha, Peter J; Porter, Mason A.

    2010-01-01

    We study the community structure of networks representing voting on resolutions in the United Nations General Assembly. We construct networks from the voting records of the separate annual sessions between 1946 and 2008 in three different ways: (1) by considering voting similarities as weighted unipartite networks; (2) by considering voting similarities as weighted, signed unipartite networks; and (3) by examining signed bipartite networks in which countries are connected to resolutions. For ...

  1. Comparison and validation of community structures in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Mika; Hörnquist, Michael; Lombardi, Anna

    2006-07-01

    The issue of partitioning a network into communities has attracted a great deal of attention recently. Most authors seem to equate this issue with the one of finding the maximum value of the modularity, as defined by Newman. Since the problem formulated this way is believed to be NP-hard, most effort has gone into the construction of search algorithms, and less to the question of other measures of community structures, similarities between various partitionings and the validation with respect to external information. Here we concentrate on a class of computer generated networks and on three well-studied real networks which constitute a bench-mark for network studies; the karate club, the US college football teams and a gene network of yeast. We utilize some standard ways of clustering data (originally not designed for finding community structures in networks) and show that these classical methods sometimes outperform the newer ones. We discuss various measures of the strength of the modular structure, and show by examples features and drawbacks. Further, we compare different partitions by applying some graph-theoretic concepts of distance, which indicate that one of the quality measures of the degree of modularity corresponds quite well with the distance from the true partition. Finally, we introduce a way to validate the partitionings with respect to external data when the nodes are classified but the network structure is unknown. This is here possible since we know everything of the computer generated networks, as well as the historical answer to how the karate club and the football teams are partitioned in reality. The partitioning of the gene network is validated by use of the Gene Ontology database, where we show that a community in general corresponds to a biological process.

  2. Modified RNA-seq method for microbial community and diversity analysis using rRNA in different types of environmental samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yong-Wei; Zou, Bin; Zhu, Ting; Hozzein, Wael N.

    2017-01-01

    RNA-seq-based SSU (small subunit) rRNA (ribosomal RNA) analysis has provided a better understanding of potentially active microbial community within environments. However, for RNA-seq library construction, high quantities of purified RNA are typically required. We propose a modified RNA-seq method for SSU rRNA-based microbial community analysis that depends on the direct ligation of a 5’ adaptor to RNA before reverse-transcription. The method requires only a low-input quantity of RNA (10–100 ng) and does not require a DNA removal step. The method was initially tested on three mock communities synthesized with enriched SSU rRNA of archaeal, bacterial and fungal isolates at different ratios, and was subsequently used for environmental samples of high or low biomass. For high-biomass salt-marsh sediments, enriched SSU rRNA and total nucleic acid-derived RNA-seq datasets revealed highly consistent community compositions for all of the SSU rRNA sequences, and as much as 46.4%-59.5% of 16S rRNA sequences were suitable for OTU (operational taxonomic unit)-based community and diversity analyses with complete coverage of V1-V2 regions. OTU-based community structures for the two datasets were also highly consistent with those determined by all of the 16S rRNA reads. For low-biomass samples, total nucleic acid-derived RNA-seq datasets were analyzed, and highly active bacterial taxa were also identified by the OTU-based method, notably including members of the previously underestimated genus Nitrospira and phylum Acidobacteria in tap water, members of the phylum Actinobacteria on a shower curtain, and members of the phylum Cyanobacteria on leaf surfaces. More than half of the bacterial 16S rRNA sequences covered the complete region of primer 8F, and non-coverage rates as high as 38.7% were obtained for phylum-unclassified sequences, providing many opportunities to identify novel bacterial taxa. This modified RNA-seq method will provide a better snapshot of diverse

  3. Modifiers in rhodium catalysts for carbon monoxide hydrogenation: Structure-activity relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhore, N. A.

    1989-05-01

    This report is aimed at identifying interesting modified rhodium systems and elucidating structure-activity relationships in these systems with the overall goal of understanding the scientific issues in the catalytic conversion of syngas to oxygenates. Specific additives (sodium and molybdenum) are selected based on the scoping experiments. The effect of the additives on supported rhodium catalysts is then investigated. Throughout the investigation, experiments and analysis were performed on real systems instead of ideal systems. 374 refs., 82 figs., 57 tabs.

  4. A modified anode/electrolyte structure for a solid oxide electrochemical cell and a method for making said structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    A novel modified anode/electrolyte structure for a solid oxide electrochemical cell is an assembly comprising (a) an anode consisting of a backbone of electronically conductive perovskite oxides selected from the group of doped strontium titanates and mixtures thereof, (b) a scandia and yttria...... treatments resulted in a distribution of the metallic and/or ceramic interlayers in the electrolyte/anode backbone junction taking place. The structure is prepared by (a) depositing a ceramic interlayer onto one side of the electrolyte, (b) optionally applying a metallic interlayer thereon, (c) repeating...

  5. Structure and Electrical Study of New Chemically Modified Poly(vinyl chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ammari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the structural and electrical properties of a new polymer obtained by functionalization of a commercial poly(vinyl chloride (PVC (Mw = 48000 by grafting aminoalkyl and aminoaryl groups. Modified poly(vinyl chloride was prepared in two steps. The structural properties of the polymer were systematically investigated by varieties of techniques as differential scanning calorimetric (DSC, thermogravimetry analysis (TG, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. The electrical properties of the polymer were studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS.

  6. Oceanographic structure drives the assembly processes of microbial eukaryotic communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monier, Adam; Comte, Jérôme; Babin, Marcel; Forest, Alexandre; Matsuoka, Atsushi; Lovejoy, Connie

    2015-01-01

    Arctic Ocean microbial eukaryote phytoplankton form subsurface chlorophyll maximum (SCM), where much of the annual summer production occurs. This SCM is particularly persistent in the Western Arctic Ocean, which is strongly salinity stratified. The recent loss of multiyear sea ice and increased particulate-rich river discharge in the Arctic Ocean results in a greater volume of fresher water that may displace nutrient-rich saltier waters to deeper depths and decrease light penetration in areas affected by river discharge. Here, we surveyed microbial eukaryotic assemblages in the surface waters, and within and below the SCM. In most samples, we detected the pronounced SCM that usually occurs at the interface of the upper mixed layer and Pacific Summer Water (PSW). Poorly developed SCM was seen under two conditions, one above PSW and associated with a downwelling eddy, and the second in a region influenced by the Mackenzie River plume. Four phylogenetically distinct communities were identified: surface, pronounced SCM, weak SCM and a deeper community just below the SCM. Distance–decay relationships and phylogenetic structure suggested distinct ecological processes operating within these communities. In the pronounced SCM, picophytoplanktons were prevalent and community assembly was attributed to water mass history. In contrast, environmental filtering impacted the composition of the weak SCM communities, where heterotrophic Picozoa were more numerous. These results imply that displacement of Pacific waters to greater depth and increased terrigenous input may act as a control on SCM development and result in lower net summer primary production with a more heterotroph dominated eukaryotic microbial community. PMID:25325383

  7. Spatial analysis of early successional, temperate forest community structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R. H.; Williams, C. A.; MacLean, R. G.; Epstein, H. E.; Vanderhoof, M. K.

    2013-12-01

    The global importance of sequestration of carbon by temperate forests makes characterizing the regrowth of these forests post-disturbance both ecologically and economically important. High intensity disturbances, such as logging, result in substantial alteration of community composition post-disturbance, creating the potential for alterations to the cycling of carbon, water, and nutrients in the ecosystem. Because logging pressure in New England continues to increase, understanding how forest ecosystems in this region respond to disturbance is crucial. This study aims to characterize interspecies interactions within New England forests by identifying synchronous and asynchronous colocation of species following a disturbance. To accomplish this, line-intercept surveys of vegetation were conducted in a clearcut forest stand located within the Harvard Forest LTER site. Survey data collected two (2010) and five (2013) years post-clearcut were analyzed using a one-dimensional Ripley's K. From 2010 to 2013, an increase in the number of interspecies relationships was observed, indicating the development of community structure. Additionally, the analysis found an increase in total vegetative cover from 2010 to 2013, and also found the majority of observed interspecies relationships to be asynchronous relationships. Together, these results imply an increase in resource competition that had the potential to drive the increase in community structure. Specifically, an increase in community structure led to the development of three distinct sub-communities: homogenous fern, tree seedling canopy over ground cover, and shrub dominated. This creates a patchy landscape in the early successional forest that allows for high species diversity (Shannon's H = 2.455). Based on the results of the Ripley's K analyses, species demonstrated definite patterns of synchronicity and asynchronicity based on both specific species interactions as well as functional group interactions. These

  8. Competition for space and the structure of ecological communities

    CERN Document Server

    Yodzis, Peter

    1978-01-01

    This volume is an investigation of interspecific competition for space, particularly among sessile organisms, both plant and animal, and its consequences for community structure. While my own contribu­ tion ----and the bulk of this volume --- lies in mathematical analysis of the phenomenon, I have also tried to summarize the most important natural historical aspects of these communities, and have devoted much effort to relating the mathematical results to observations of the natural world. Thus, the volume has both a synthetic and an analytic aspect. On the one hand, I have been struck by certain similarities among many communities, from forests to mussel beds, in which spatial com­ petition is important. On the other hand, I have analyzed this pheno­ menon by means of reaction-dispersal models. Finally, the mathematical analysis has suggested a conceptual framework for these communities which, I believe, further unifies and illuminates the field data. A focal perception of this work is that, just as niche...

  9. Linking Microbial Community Structure to Function in Representative Simulated Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Ian M.; Wilder, Hailey A.; Quazi, Shanin J.

    2013-01-01

    Pathogenic bacteria are generally studied as a single strain under ideal growing conditions, although these conditions are not the norm in the environments in which pathogens typically proliferate. In this investigation, a representative microbial community along with Escherichia coli O157:H7, a model pathogen, was studied in three environments in which such a pathogen could be found: a human colon, a septic tank, and groundwater. Each of these systems was built in the lab in order to retain the physical/chemical and microbial complexity of the environments while maintaining control of the feed into the models. The microbial community in the colon was found to have a high percentage of bacteriodetes and firmicutes, while the septic tank and groundwater systems were composed mostly of proteobacteria. The introduction of E. coli O157:H7 into the simulated systems elicited a shift in the structures and phenotypic cell characteristics of the microbial communities. The fate and transport of the microbial community with E. coli O157:H7 were found to be significantly different from those of E. coli O157:H7 studied as a single isolate, suggesting that the behavior of the organism in the environment was different from that previously conceived. The findings in this study clearly suggest that to gain insight into the fate of pathogens, cells should be grown and analyzed under conditions simulating those of the environment in which the pathogens are present. PMID:23396331

  10. Microbial community structure in the rhizosphere of rice plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn eBreidenbach

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The microbial community in the rhizosphere environment is critical for the health of land plants and the processing of soil organic matter. The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which rice plants shape the microbial community in rice field soil over the course of a growing season. Rice (Oryza sativa was cultivated under greenhouse conditions in rice field soil from Vercelli, Italy and the microbial community in the rhizosphere of planted soil microcosms was characterized at four plant growth stages using quantitative PCR and 16S rRNA gene pyrotag analysis and compared to that of unplanted bulk soil. The abundances of 16S rRNA genes in the rice rhizosphere were on average twice that of unplanted bulk soil, indicating a stimulation of microbial growth in the rhizosphere. Soil environment type (i.e. rhizosphere versus bulk soil had a greater effect on the community structure than did time (e.g. plant growth stage. Numerous phyla were affected by the presence of rice plants, but the strongest effects were observed for Gemmatimonadetes, Proteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia. With respect to functional groups of microorganisms, potential iron reducers (e.g. Geobacter, Anaeromyxobacter and fermenters (e.g. Clostridiaceae, Opitutaceae were notably enriched in the rhizosphere environment. A Herbaspirillum species was always more abundant in the rhizosphere than bulk soil and was enriched in the rhizosphere during the early stage of plant growth.

  11. Invasive lionfish had no measurable effect on prey fish community structure across the Belizean Barrier Reef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Hackerott

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Invasive lionfish are assumed to significantly affect Caribbean reef fish communities. However, evidence of lionfish effects on native reef fishes is based on uncontrolled observational studies or small-scale, unrepresentative experiments, with findings ranging from no effect to large effects on prey density and richness. Moreover, whether lionfish affect populations and communities of native reef fishes at larger, management-relevant scales is unknown. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of lionfish on coral reef prey fish communities in a natural complex reef system. We quantified lionfish and the density, richness, and composition of native prey fishes (0–10 cm total length at sixteen reefs along ∼250 km of the Belize Barrier Reef from 2009 to 2013. Lionfish invaded our study sites during this four-year longitudinal study, thus our sampling included fish community structure before and after our sites were invaded, i.e., we employed a modified BACI design. We found no evidence that lionfish measurably affected the density, richness, or composition of prey fishes. It is possible that higher lionfish densities are necessary to detect an effect of lionfish on prey populations at this relatively large spatial scale. Alternatively, negative effects of lionfish on prey could be small, essentially undetectable, and ecologically insignificant at our study sites. Other factors that influence the dynamics of reef fish populations including reef complexity, resource availability, recruitment, predation, and fishing could swamp any effects of lionfish on prey populations.

  12. Invasive lionfish had no measurable effect on prey fish community structure across the Belizean Barrier Reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackerott, Serena; Valdivia, Abel; Cox, Courtney E; Silbiger, Nyssa J; Bruno, John F

    2017-01-01

    Invasive lionfish are assumed to significantly affect Caribbean reef fish communities. However, evidence of lionfish effects on native reef fishes is based on uncontrolled observational studies or small-scale, unrepresentative experiments, with findings ranging from no effect to large effects on prey density and richness. Moreover, whether lionfish affect populations and communities of native reef fishes at larger, management-relevant scales is unknown. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of lionfish on coral reef prey fish communities in a natural complex reef system. We quantified lionfish and the density, richness, and composition of native prey fishes (0-10 cm total length) at sixteen reefs along ∼250 km of the Belize Barrier Reef from 2009 to 2013. Lionfish invaded our study sites during this four-year longitudinal study, thus our sampling included fish community structure before and after our sites were invaded, i.e., we employed a modified BACI design. We found no evidence that lionfish measurably affected the density, richness, or composition of prey fishes. It is possible that higher lionfish densities are necessary to detect an effect of lionfish on prey populations at this relatively large spatial scale. Alternatively, negative effects of lionfish on prey could be small, essentially undetectable, and ecologically insignificant at our study sites. Other factors that influence the dynamics of reef fish populations including reef complexity, resource availability, recruitment, predation, and fishing could swamp any effects of lionfish on prey populations.

  13. A local immunization strategy for networks with overlapping community structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghavian, Fatemeh; Salehi, Mostafa; Teimouri, Mehdi

    2017-02-01

    Since full coverage treatment is not feasible due to limited resources, we need to utilize an immunization strategy to effectively distribute the available vaccines. On the other hand, the structure of contact network among people has a significant impact on epidemics of infectious diseases (such as SARS and influenza) in a population. Therefore, network-based immunization strategies aim to reduce the spreading rate by removing the vaccinated nodes from contact network. Such strategies try to identify more important nodes in epidemics spreading over a network. In this paper, we address the effect of overlapping nodes among communities on epidemics spreading. The proposed strategy is an optimized random-walk based selection of these nodes. The whole process is local, i.e. it requires contact network information in the level of nodes. Thus, it is applicable to large-scale and unknown networks in which the global methods usually are unrealizable. Our simulation results on different synthetic and real networks show that the proposed method outperforms the existing local methods in most cases. In particular, for networks with strong community structures, high overlapping membership of nodes or small size communities, the proposed method shows better performance.

  14. The use of a modified pairwise comparison method in evaluating critical success factors for community-based rural homestay programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daud, Shahidah Md; Ramli, Razamin; Kasim, Maznah Mat; Kayat, Kalsom; Razak, Rafidah Abd

    2014-12-01

    Tourism industry has become the highlighted sector which has amazingly increased the national income level. Despite the tourism industry being one of the highest income generating sectors, Homestay Programme as a Community-Based Tourism (CBT) product in Malaysia does not absorbed much of the incoming wealth. Homestay Programme refers to a programme in a community where a tourist stays together with a host family and experiences the everyday way of life of the family in both direct and indirect manner. There are over 100 Homestay Programme currently being registered with the Ministry of Culture and Tourism Malaysia which mostly are located in rural areas, but only a few excel and enjoying the fruit of the booming industry. Hence, this article seeks to identify the critical success factors for a Community-Based Rural Homestay Programme in Malaysia. A modified pairwise method is utilized to further evaluate the identified success factors in a more meaningful way. The findings will help Homestay Programme function as a community development tool that manages tourism resources. Thus, help the community in improving local economy and creating job opportunities.

  15. Impacts of chemical gradients on microbial community structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jianwei; Hanke, Anna; Tegetmeyer, Halina E

    2017-01-01

    Succession of redox processes is sometimes assumed to define a basic microbial community structure for ecosystems with oxygen gradients. In this paradigm, aerobic respiration, denitrification, fermentation and sulfate reduction proceed in a thermodynamically determined order, known as the 'redox...... in space and time) led to the assembly of a microbial community dominated by populations that each performed aerobic and anaerobic metabolism in parallel. This was shown by metagenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and stable isotope incubations. Effective oxygen consumption combined with the formation...... of microaggregates sustained the activity of oxygen-sensitive anaerobic enzymes, leading to braiding of unsorted redox processes, within and between populations. Analyses of available metagenomic data sets indicated that the same ecological strategies might also be successful in some natural ecosystems.The ISME...

  16. Functional and spatial structure of the urbotechnozem mesopedobiont community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Kunah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of studying the spatial structure of soil mesofauna of an urbanotechnozem by OMI- and RLQ-analysis are presented. The research was conducted on 5 June 2012 in the Botanic Garden of Oles Gonchar University (previously – territory of the Park Y. Gagarin, Dnipropetrovsk. The studied plot is situated on the slope of the Krasnopostachekaya balka (48°25'57.43" N, 35°2'16.52" E. The plot consists of 15 transects directed in a perpendicular manner in relation to the talweg. Each transect is made of seven sample points. The distance between points is 2 m. The coordinates of the lower left point were taken as (0; 0. The plot consisted of artificial grassland with a single tree. The vegetation was composed of grassland and steppe, of a mega-mesotrophic, xeromesophilic character. At each point the mesopedobionts were studied (data presented as L-table; temperature, electrical conductivity and soil penetration resistance, and grass height were measured (data presented as R-table. The soil-zoological test area was 25×25 cm. The mesopedobiont community was represented by 28 species and with total abundance 70.1 ind./m2. The following groups were dominant in the ecological structure of the soil animal community; saprohages, pratants, mesotrophocoenomorphs and the endogeic group. The measured edaphic characteristics were shown to play an important role in structurization of the ecological niche of the mesopedobiont community. The usage of morphological or physiological features of animals for the assessment of degree of specific distinctions is applicable for homogeneous taxonomic or ecological groups possessing comparable characteristics which also can be interpreted ecologically. The soil mesofauna is characterized by high taxonomic and ecological diversity of forms,which are difficult to compare by morphological or physiological criteria. The ecological value of characteristics in different groups will be not identical, and the basis for

  17. Chromium-modified a-C films with advanced structural, mechanical and corrosive-resistant characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ming, Miao Yi [International Chinese-Belarusian scientific laboratory on vacuum-plasma technology, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Francisk Skorina Gomel State University, Gomel 246019 (Belarus); Jiang, Xiaohong, E-mail: jxh0668@sina.com [International Chinese-Belarusian scientific laboratory on vacuum-plasma technology, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Francisk Skorina Gomel State University, Gomel 246019 (Belarus); Piliptsou, D.G., E-mail: pdg_@mail.ru [International Chinese-Belarusian scientific laboratory on vacuum-plasma technology, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Francisk Skorina Gomel State University, Gomel 246019 (Belarus); Zhuang, Yuzhao; Rogachev, A.V.; Rudenkov, A.S. [International Chinese-Belarusian scientific laboratory on vacuum-plasma technology, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Francisk Skorina Gomel State University, Gomel 246019 (Belarus); Balmakou, A. [Faculty of Material Science and Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Trnava 91724 (Slovakia)

    2016-08-30

    Highlights: • Influence of the chromium interlayer on the structure and mechanical properties of a-C:Cr films. • Residual stress and wear of a-C:Cr and Cr/a-C varies due to their phase and surface morphology. • Chromium-modified a-C films with advanced structural, mechanical and corrosive-resistant characteristics. - Abstract: To improve structural, mechanical and chemical properties of diamond-like carbon films, we developed amorphous carbon chromium-modified composite films fabricated by means of cathode magnetic filtered arc deposition. The properties were analyzed by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy for the purpose of the structure characterization, elemental analysis and topology examination. Moreover, we also assessed residual stress, the coefficient of friction, hardness, the elastic modulus and corrosion parameters through X-ray double-crystal surface profilometry, tribo-testing, nanoindenter-testing, as well as contact angle measurements and potentiodynamic polarization analysis. As a result of a comparative analysis, we revealed a substantial improvement in the characteristics of developed composite films in comparison with amorphous carbon films. For example, Cr-modification is resulted, in greater integrated performance, toughness and corrosion resistance; the residual stress was reduced substantially.

  18. Perfluoroalkyl Acids Shift Microbial Community Structure Across Experimental Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weathers, T. S.; Sharp, J.

    2016-12-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are contaminants of emerging concern that have increasingly been found in groundwater and drinking water systems. Previously, we demonstrated that PFAAs significantly alter the abundance of specific microbial clades in batch reductive dechlorinating systems, resulting in decreased chlorinated solvent attenuation capabilities. To further understand the impacts of PFAA exposure on subsurface microbial processes and PFAA transport, we investigated changes in microbial community structure as a function of PFAA presence in flow-through columns simulating aquifer transport. Phylogenetic analysis using high throughput, next generation sequencing performed after exposure to 250 pore volumes of source zone concentrations of PFAAs (10 mg/L each of 11 analytes including PFOS and PFOA) resulted in patterns that mirrored those observed in batch systems, demonstrating a conservation of community dynamics across experimental scales. Of the nine clades observed in both batch and flow-through systems, six were similarly impacted as a function of PFAA exposure, regardless of the experimental differences in transport and redox state. Specifically, the presence of PFAAs enhanced the relative abundance of Archaea, Bacteroidetes (phylum), and the family Veillonellaceae in both systems. Repressed clades include the genus Sedimentibacter, Ruminococcaceae (family), and the Anaerolineales, which contains Dehalococcoides, a genus known for its ability to fully dechlorinate TCE. As PFAAs are often co-located with TCE and BTEX, changes in microbial community structure can result in hindered bioremediation of these co-contaminants. Consideration of community shifts and corresponding changes in behavior, such as repressed reductive dechlorination or increased biofilm formation, will aid in the development of conceptual site models that account for co-contaminant bioremediation potential and PFAA transport.

  19. Black-hole horizons in modified spacetime structures arising from canonical quantum gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bojowald, Martin; Paily, George M [Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos, The Pennsylvania State University, 104 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Reyes, Juan D [Instituto de Matematicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus Morelia, A. Postal 61-3, C.P. 58090, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Tibrewala, Rakesh, E-mail: bojowald@gravity.psu.edu, E-mail: gmpaily@phys.psu.edu, E-mail: jdreyes@matmor.unam.mx, E-mail: rtibs@imsc.res.in [Institute of Mathematical Sciences, CIT Campus, Chennai 600113 (India)

    2011-09-21

    Several properties of canonical quantum gravity modify spacetime structures, sometimes to the degree that no effective line elements exist to describe the geometry. An analysis of solutions, for instance in the context of black holes, then requires new insights. In this paper, standard definitions of horizons in spherical symmetry are first reformulated canonically, and then evaluated for solutions of equations and constraints modified by inverse-triad corrections of loop quantum gravity. When possible, a spacetime analysis is performed which reveals a mass threshold for black holes and small changes to Hawking radiation. For more general conclusions, canonical perturbation theory is developed to second order to include back-reaction from matter. The results shed light on the questions of whether renormalization of Newton's constant or other modifications of horizon conditions should be taken into account in computations of black-hole entropy in loop quantum gravity.

  20. Structure and spatial patterns of macrobenthic community in Tai Lake, a large shallow lake, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Li,; Erickson, Richard A.; Song Tang,; Xuwen Li,; Niu, Zhichun; Xia Wang,; Hongling Liu,; Hongxia Yu,

    2016-01-01

    Tai Lake (Chinese: Taihu), the third-largest freshwater lake in China, suffers from harmful cyanobacteria blooms that are caused by economic development and population growth near the lake. Several studies have focused on phytoplankton in Tai Lake after a drinking water crisis in 2007; however, these studies primarily focused on microcystin bioaccumulation and toxicity to individual species without examining the effects of microcystin on macrobenthic community diversity. In this study, we conducted a survey of the lake to examine the effects of microcystine and other pollutants on marcobenthic community diversity. A totally of forty-nine species of macroinvertebrates were found in Tai Lake. Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri and Corbicula fluminea were the most abundant species. Cluster-analysis and one-way analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) identified three significantly different macrobenthic communities among the sample sites. More specifically, sites in the eastern bays, where aquatic macrophytes were abundant, had the highest diversity of macrobenthic communities, which were dominated by Bellamya aeruginosa, Bellamya purificata, L. hoffmeisteri, and Alocinma longicornis. Sites in Zhushan Bay contained relatively diverse communities, mainly composed of L. hoffmeisteri, C. fluminea, L. claparederanus, R. sinicus, and Cythura sp. Sites in the western region, Meiliang Bay and Wuli Bay had the lowest diversity, mainly composed ofL. hoffmeisteri, C. fluminea, Branchiura sowerbyi, and Rhyacodrilus sinicus. In addition, the relationships between macrobenthic metrics (Shannon–Wiener, Margalef, and Pielou) and environmental variables showed that community structure and spatial patterns of macrobenthos in Tai Lake were significantly influenced by chemical oxygen demand (CODCr), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), lead (Pb), and microcystin-LR (L for leucine and R for arginine). Our findings provide critical information that could help managers and policymakers

  1. Modified Denavit-Hartenberg Coordinate System for Robot Actuating Mechanisms with Tree-like Kinematic Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Kovalchuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To build mathematical models of actuating mechanisms (AM of robots with linear kinematic structure, J. Denavit and R.S. Hartenberg (D-H proposed to use a special coordinate system (CS. It uses a matrix of homogeneous transformation and provides clear and unambiguous rules to build mathematical models of robot actuating mechanisms. Developers widely use this approach because of its clarity and binding to AM design parameters. However, its use to describe robots the AM of which has a spatial tree-like kinematic structure revealed the certain hardship.The paper offers a method for building a modified D-H coordinate system. Its using allows to create mathematical models of robot AM, having spatial kinematic structure. The method is based on using both the graphs theory and the known D-H coordinate system jointly.The paper defines concepts of main and auxiliary coordinate systems and the order of their location on the tree-like AM. The values of the modified parameters of D-H are obtained. There its known parameters are complemented by parameters f(i, which determine the father number of the link i, and ns(i, that shows, which son in succession is the link i for the link f(i. An algorithm to form the matrix of reachability and the graph of reachability of the tree-like AM is proposed.It is proved that the use of the modified D-H coordinate system allows us to record in a block-matrix form both kinematic and dynamic equations for all links of the tree-like AM of robot. The use of these equations together with D'Alembert principle allowed us to write the equations of the tree-like AM dynamics of robot in the form traditional for recording the AM dynamics equations with open kinematic structure.Via examples of mathematically described kinematics and dynamics of tree-like AM of specific robots (robot-dog, robot-crab, anthropomorphic walking robot, etc. the paper shows efficiency of modified D-H coordinate system.Obtained research results of the medical

  2. Structure and Phase Composition of 09G2S Steel Modified by Different Types of Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Aleksandr N.; Popova, Natal’ya A.; Nikonenko, Elena L.; Ozhiganov, Evgenii A.; Ababkov, Nikolai V.; Koneva, Nina A.

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigations of the structure and phase composition of the type 09G2S weld steel modified by four types of welding, namely: electrode welding and electropercussive welding both with and without the introduction of artificial flaws. Artificial flows are aluminum pieces. TEM investigations are carried out within the heat-affected zone, i.e. between the deposited and base metal, at 0.5 mm distance to the former. Welding electrode of the type E50A is used for welding 09G2S steel specimens. It is shown how the type of welding affects the steel morphology, phase composition, defect structure and its parameters. After each type of welding, the dislocation structure is polarized. This, however, does not cause internal stresses which can destroy the specimen.

  3. Strontium As a Structure Modifier for Non-binary Al–Si Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbora Bryksí Stunová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of the influence on the structure of AlSi10Mg alloy when 400 ppm of strontium is added. Not only changes in the morphology of eutectic silicon, but in particular changes in the morphology of the intermetallicphases are monitored, namely phases containing iron and magnesium. The effect of strontium on structural defects,namely cavities formation, is also observed. It was found, that in non-binary system Al–Si–Mg also intermetallic phases of magnesium are affected by addition of strontium: especially phase Mg2Si changes the morphology significantly fromunmodified to modified structure. Moreover, findings of other authors, that strontium has a negative effect on the levelof gas porosity and on the distribution of shrinkages, are also confirmed.

  4. Trophic structure and community stability in an overfished ecosystem

    KAUST Repository

    Utne-Palm, Anne Christine

    2010-07-15

    Since the collapse of the pelagic fisheries off southwest Africa in the late 1960s, jellyfish biomass has increased and the structure of the Benguelan fish community has shifted, making the bearded goby (Sufflogobius bibarbatus) the new predominant prey species. Despite increased prédation pressure and a harsh environment, the gobies are thriving. Here we show that physiological adaptations and antipredator and foraging behaviors underpin the success of these fish. In particular, body-tissue isotope signatures reveal that gobies consume jellyfish and sulphidic diatomaceous mud, transferring "dead-end" resources back into the food chain.

  5. Habitat structure and fish communities of warmwater streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karr, J.R.; Schlosser, I.J.; Angermeier, P.L.

    1983-09-01

    The basic goal of recent clean water legislation is to restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the nation's waters. A research program was initiated to evaluate the role of physical habitat in regulating the structure of fish communities in warmwater streams in east-central Illinois. An empirical approach involving observations of fish in relatively natural conditions was combined with studies of stream areas that have been subjected to extensive modification by human society. This report is a summary of the work relating to this research.

  6. The Interplay between Environmental Filtering and Spatial Processes in Structuring Communities: The Case of Neotropical Snake Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalheri, Hamanda; Both, Camila; Martins, Marcio

    2015-01-01

    Both habitat filters and spatial processes can influence community structure. Space alone affects species immigration from the regional species pool, whereas habitat filters affect species distribution and inter-specific interactions. This study aimed to understand how the interplay between environmental and geographical processes influenced the structure of Neotropical snake communities in different habitat types. We selected six studies that sampled snakes in forests, four conducted in savannas and two in grasslands (the latter two are grouped in a non-forest category). We used the net relatedness and nearest taxon indices to assess phylogenetic structure within forest and non-forest areas. We also used the phylogenetic fuzzy-weighting algorithm to characterize phylogenetic structure across communities and the relation of phylogenetic composition patterns to habitat type, structure, and latitude. Finally, we tested for morphological trait convergence and phylogenetic niche conservatism using four forest and four non-forest areas for which morphological data were available. Community phylogenetic composition changed across forest and non-forest areas suggesting that environmental filtering influences community structure. Species traits were affected by habitat type, indicating convergence at the metacommunity level. Tail length, robustness, and number of ventral scales maximized community convergence among forest and non-forest areas. The observed patterns suggested environmental filtering, indicating that less vertically structured habitats represent a strong filter. Despite the fact that phylogenetic structure was not detected individually for each community, we observed a trend towards communities composed by more closely related species in higher latitudes and more overdispersed compositions in lower latitudes. Such pattern suggests that the limited distribution of major snake lineages constrained species distributions. Structure indices for each community

  7. The Interplay between Environmental Filtering and Spatial Processes in Structuring Communities: The Case of Neotropical Snake Communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamanda Cavalheri

    Full Text Available Both habitat filters and spatial processes can influence community structure. Space alone affects species immigration from the regional species pool, whereas habitat filters affect species distribution and inter-specific interactions. This study aimed to understand how the interplay between environmental and geographical processes influenced the structure of Neotropical snake communities in different habitat types. We selected six studies that sampled snakes in forests, four conducted in savannas and two in grasslands (the latter two are grouped in a non-forest category. We used the net relatedness and nearest taxon indices to assess phylogenetic structure within forest and non-forest areas. We also used the phylogenetic fuzzy-weighting algorithm to characterize phylogenetic structure across communities and the relation of phylogenetic composition patterns to habitat type, structure, and latitude. Finally, we tested for morphological trait convergence and phylogenetic niche conservatism using four forest and four non-forest areas for which morphological data were available. Community phylogenetic composition changed across forest and non-forest areas suggesting that environmental filtering influences community structure. Species traits were affected by habitat type, indicating convergence at the metacommunity level. Tail length, robustness, and number of ventral scales maximized community convergence among forest and non-forest areas. The observed patterns suggested environmental filtering, indicating that less vertically structured habitats represent a strong filter. Despite the fact that phylogenetic structure was not detected individually for each community, we observed a trend towards communities composed by more closely related species in higher latitudes and more overdispersed compositions in lower latitudes. Such pattern suggests that the limited distribution of major snake lineages constrained species distributions. Structure indices for

  8. The structure and amphipathy characteristics of modified γ-zeins by SDS or alkali in conjunction with heating treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shi-Rong; Xu, Hong-Hua; Tan, Jun-Yan; Xie, Ming-Ming; Yu, Guo-Ping

    2017-10-15

    γ-Zein was modified by SDS or alkali combined with heating treatments in water and in 70% ethanol to change its amphipathic properties and explore the relationship between amphipathic characteristic and structure. γ-Zein water-dispersibility was dramatically increased via alkali or SDS combined with heating treatments, but their ethanol-dispersibilities were significantly different during ethanol evaporation. High both water-dispersibility and ethanol-dispersibility were found from alkali modified γ-zein while high water-dispersibility but low ethanol-dispersibility were obtained from SDS modified γ-zein, indicating that alkali modified γ-zein had better amphipathic characteristic compared with SDS modified γ-zein. Alkali modified γ-zein with higher amphipathic characteristic possessed higher structural inversion ability since it was easy to recover its native state as solvent changing from water to ethanol, contrary to SDS modified γ-zeins whose amphipathic characteristic was not improved. Moreover, the higher structural inversion ability of alkali modified γ-zein depended on the recovery capability of α-helix structure as solvent altering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Structural and electrical study of ZrO{sub 2} nanoparticles modified with surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidhu, Gaganpreet Kaur; Kumar, Rajesh, E-mail: rajeshbaboria@gmail.com; Tripathi, S. K. [Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160014 (India)

    2015-06-24

    Zirconia ceramic is one of the most investigated materials for its outstanding mechanical properties and ionic conduction properties, due to its high oxygen ion conduction. In order to achieve novel properties of zirconia nanoparticles, nanoparticles of zirconia are modified by using two different surfactants (SDS and CTAB) were prepared by in-situ method using zirconia/surfactant dispersions. Zirconia nanoparticles with surfactant (SDS or CTAB) were synthesized by hydrothermal method. The structural and optical properties of Zirconia/surfactant nanoparticles were investigated comprehensively by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), and electrical measurements. XRD highlights the crystalline behavior of nanoparticles.

  10. Fine structural analyses of pancreatic acinar cell nuclei from mice fed on genetically modified soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Malatesta

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We carried out ultrastructural morphometrical and immunocytochemical analyses on pancreatic acinar cell nuclei from mice fed on genetically modified (GM soybean, in order to investigate possible structural and molecular modifications of nucleoplasmic and nucleolar constituents.We found a significant lowering of nucleoplasmic and nucleolar splicing factors as well as a perichromatin granule accumulation in GM-fed mice, suggestive of reduced post-transcriptional hnRNA processing and/or nuclear export. This is in accordance to already described zymogen synthesis and processing modifications in the same animals.

  11. Maps of random walks on complex networks reveal community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosvall, Martin; Bergstrom, Carl T

    2008-01-29

    To comprehend the multipartite organization of large-scale biological and social systems, we introduce an information theoretic approach that reveals community structure in weighted and directed networks. We use the probability flow of random walks on a network as a proxy for information flows in the real system and decompose the network into modules by compressing a description of the probability flow. The result is a map that both simplifies and highlights the regularities in the structure and their relationships. We illustrate the method by making a map of scientific communication as captured in the citation patterns of >6,000 journals. We discover a multicentric organization with fields that vary dramatically in size and degree of integration into the network of science. Along the backbone of the network-including physics, chemistry, molecular biology, and medicine-information flows bidirectionally, but the map reveals a directional pattern of citation from the applied fields to the basic sciences.

  12. Mass media influence spreading in social networks with community structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candia, Julián; Mazzitello, Karina I.

    2008-07-01

    We study an extension of Axelrod's model for social influence, in which cultural drift is represented as random perturbations, while mass media are introduced by means of an external field. In this scenario, we investigate how the modular structure of social networks affects the propagation of mass media messages across a society. The community structure of social networks is represented by coupled random networks, in which two random graphs are connected by intercommunity links. Considering inhomogeneous mass media fields, we study the conditions for successful message spreading and find a novel phase diagram in the multidimensional parameter space. These findings show that social modularity effects are of paramount importance for designing successful, cost-effective advertising campaigns.

  13. Regulations governing veterinary medicinal products containing genetically modified organisms in the European community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin, G

    2005-04-01

    This paper describes particular aspects of the marketing of veterinary medicinal products (VMPs) that contain or consist of genetically modified micro-organisms (GMMs) or genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The regulatory requirements and the procedures applied in the European Union for each phase (pre-marketing, authorisation process, and post-authorisation labelling and monitoring) are explained. In most cases VMPs are subject to both pharmaceutical and GMO regulations. In the early stages of the process, before applications for marketing authorisation are submitted, the assessment of clinical trials and experiments in contained areas is principally the responsibility of national authorities. However, the marketing of all VMPs containing or consisting of GMOs must be authorised at European level, although the national authorities are informed and involved in the assessment process.

  14. STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF A CERAMIC BRICK MODIFIED WITH TECHNOGENIC MINERAL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEREVIANKO V. N.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Problem statement. One way to conserve the scarce high-quality raw materials resources and to reduce transport and energy costs is to use the accumulated technogenic mineral systems, as well as to study technogenic raw materials which were not previously used [1-3]. A shortage of high plasticity clays determines the need for using local low-grade loamy raw materials for the manufacture of wall ceramics. Strength properties of the ceramic brick can be improved by using expensive corrective additives or local technogenic raw materials [4-7]. Purpose. Development of compositions for the ceramic brick, modified with technogenic mineral systems. Conclusion. The author has studied the influence of the mixture ratio on the structure and fundamental physical and mechanical properties of the ceramic brick modified with technogenic mineral systems. The author has also developed the best ceramic batch compositions based on technogenic mineral systems conferring the required physical and mechanical parameters of the ceramic brick; they consist of: overburden (67%, refuse heap (28% and red mud from NGZ (Mykolaiv Alumina Refinery (5% for making 150 Grade ceramic brick with an average density of 1,650-1,730 kg/m3 at a temperature of 850°C, which allows to reduce firing energy costs. It has been established that the sintering initiation temperature of the modified mixture decreases by 150-200°C compared to the unmodified one.

  15. Imidazole modified g-C3N4 photocatalyst: Structural characterization and versatile energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Liu, Qianqian; Chai, Yuanyuan; Ren, Jia; Dai, Wei-Lin

    2018-02-01

    Novel imidazole modified g-C3N4 were firstly synthesized via a facile one-pot thermo-induced co-condensation method. Characterization results showed that imidazole modification can improve the visible light harvesting, interfacial charge transfer and separation of g-C3N4, without destroying its pristine framework structure. The as-obtained imidazole modified g-C3N4 showed remarkably enhanced and rather stable photocatalytic performance in H2 evolution, photo-degradation of water contaminants and selective photo-oxidation of benzyl alcohol, demonstrating its all-round applications as a versatile photocatalyst. The weight ratio between imidazole and urea was well tuned and the optimal photocatalytic activity was obtained, which shows CNU-I50 sample (50 mg imidazole in 15 g urea) possesses the highest hydrogen evolution rate of 2150 μmol g-1 h-1, superior to most of the previous reported g-C3N4 materials. These results suggest that those imidazole modified g-C3N4 materials are potential photocatalyst when applied to solar energy conversion, water purification and selective photosynthesis reactions.

  16. [Community structure of planktonic rotifers in the Pearl River Delta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Li, Xin-Hui; Lai, Zi-Ni; Yu, Jing; Wang, Chao; Zeng, Yan-Yi; Liu, Qian-Fu; Yang, Wan-Ling

    2014-07-01

    Four ecological investigations were carried out on planktonic rotifers in Pearl River Delta in 2012. The community structure, including spatial and temporal patterns of species composition, dominant species, biomass and biodiversity, was investigated. The correlation between the community structure of rotifers and the environmental factors was discussed. Moreover, the aggregation structures of rotifers were analyzed. A total of 53 rotifer species were found. Dominant species changed markedly with season and space. Polyarthra trigla had higher dominance. In terms of seasonal changes, the density and biomass were higher in dry season than in wet season, while the biodiversity and evenness indices were vice versa. The biomass and biodiversity of rotifers showed highly significant differences among seasons. In terms of spatial distribution, the average density and the average biomass showed an increase from the southwest to the northeast. The highest density and biomass were recorded in Shiqiao. The biodiversity and evenness indices had an opposite spatial distribution, with the highest values being recorded in Qingqi. The rotifer density was significantly different among the investigated sites, while the biomass and biodiversity were not significantly different. Correlation analysis demonstrated a highly significant positive correlation between rotifer density and biomass, as well as between biodiversity and evenness indices, and a highly negative correlation between biodiversity and biomass. The biodiversity and evenness indices both decreased markedly with the increase of biomass. Principal component analysis indicated that the rotifer density was closely correlated with environment factors, such as water temperature, pH, dissolved oxy- gen, chlorophyll a content, total phosphorus, and total nitrogen, in different seasons. Aggregation analysis based on rotifer density revealed five aggregation structures in the investigated sites, indicating significant differences

  17. Coral Community Structure and Recruitment in Seagrass Meadows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn E. Lohr

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Coral communities are increasingly found to populate non-reef habitats prone to high environmental variability. Such sites include seagrass meadows, which are generally not considered optimal habitats for corals as a result of limited suitable substrate for settlement and substantial diel and seasonal fluctuations in physicochemical conditions relative to neighboring reefs. Interest in understanding the ability of corals to persist in non-reef habitats has grown, however little baseline data exists on community structure and recruitment of scleractinian corals in seagrass meadows. To determine how corals populate seagrass meadows, we surveyed the established and recruited coral community over 25 months within seagrass meadows at Little Cayman, Cayman Islands. Simultaneous surveys of established and recruited coral communities at neighboring back-reef sites were conducted for comparison. To fully understand the amount of environmental variability to which corals in each habitat were exposed, we conducted complementary surveys of physicochemical conditions in both seagrass meadows and back-reefs. Despite overall higher variability in physicochemical conditions, particularly pH, compared to the back-reef, 14 coral taxa were capable of inhabiting seagrass meadows, and multiple coral families were also found to recruit to these sites. However, coral cover and species diversity, richness, and evenness were lower at sites within seagrass meadows compared to back-reef sites. Although questions remain regarding the processes governing recruitment, these results provide evidence that seagrass beds can serve as functional habitats for corals despite high levels of environmental variability and suboptimal conditions compared to neighboring reefs.

  18. 3D printing of layered brain-like structures using peptide modified gellan gum substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Rodrigo; Stevens, Leo; Thompson, Brianna C; Gilmore, Kerry J; Gorkin, Robert; Stewart, Elise M; in het Panhuis, Marc; Romero-Ortega, Mario; Wallace, Gordon G

    2015-10-01

    The brain is an enormously complex organ structured into various regions of layered tissue. Researchers have attempted to study the brain by modeling the architecture using two dimensional (2D) in vitro cell culturing methods. While those platforms attempt to mimic the in vivo environment, they do not truly resemble the three dimensional (3D) microstructure of neuronal tissues. Development of an accurate in vitro model of the brain remains a significant obstacle to our understanding of the functioning of the brain at the tissue or organ level. To address these obstacles, we demonstrate a new method to bioprint 3D brain-like structures consisting of discrete layers of primary neural cells encapsulated in hydrogels. Brain-like structures were constructed using a bio-ink consisting of a novel peptide-modified biopolymer, gellan gum-RGD (RGD-GG), combined with primary cortical neurons. The ink was optimized for a modified reactive printing process and developed for use in traditional cell culturing facilities without the need for extensive bioprinting equipment. Furthermore the peptide modification of the gellan gum hydrogel was found to have a profound positive effect on primary cell proliferation and network formation. The neural cell viability combined with the support of neural network formation demonstrated the cell supportive nature of the matrix. The facile ability to form discrete cell-containing layers validates the application of this novel printing technique to form complex, layered and viable 3D cell structures. These brain-like structures offer the opportunity to reproduce more accurate 3D in vitro microstructures with applications ranging from cell behavior studies to improving our understanding of brain injuries and neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Phytoplankton community structure and eutrophication risk assessment of Beijiang River].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Ting; Ma, Qian-Li; Xu, Zhen-Cheng; Wang, Li; Li, Jie; Zhao, Xue-Min

    2015-03-01

    To study the distribution of phytoplankton and water quality of Beijiang River, the community structure of phytoplankton was investigated and analyzed in wet and dry seasons. The results showed that a total of 74 species belonging to six phyla, 29 family and 48 genera of phytoplankton were identified, including 58 species of five phyla, 23 family and 41 genera in wet season and 59 species of six phyla, 26 family and 40 genera in dry season. Phytoplankton community structure in Beijiang River was represented by Bacillariophyta, Chlorophyta and Cyanophyta. Bacillariophyta dominanted the phytoplankton, and the dominant species were Aulacoseira granulate, Fragilaria virescens, Surirella biseriata, Nitzschia amphibia, Navicula simplex, Cyclotella meneghiniana, Synedra ulna, Gomphonema angustatum and Cymbella tumida. There was little difference in phytoplankton density between both seasons with the mean values being 3.54 x 10(5) and 4.87 x 10(5) cells L(-1) in dry and wet seasons, respectively. Based on the RDA results, DO, permanganate index, nitrogen and phosphorus were the important environmental factors affecting the distribution of phytoplankton in Beijiang River. The water quality of Beijiang River was classified as oligo-mesotrophic level even if this river was subjected to nitrogen and phosphorus pollution mainly from agricultural non-point source.

  20. Bacterial community shift and improved performance induced by in situ preparing dual graphene modified bioelectrode in microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junfeng; Hu, Yongyou; Zhang, Lihua; Huang, Wantang; Sun, Jian

    2017-08-01

    Dual graphene modified bioelectrode (D-GM-BE) was prepared by in situ microbial-induced reduction of graphene oxide (GO) and polarity reversion in microbial fuel cell (MFC). Next Generation Sequencing technology was used to elucidate bacterial community shift in response to improved performance in D-GM-BE MFC. The results indicated an increase in the relative ratio of Proteobacteria, but a decrease of Firmicutes was observed in graphene modified bioanode (GM-BA); increase of Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were observed in graphene modified biocathode (GM-BC). Genus analysis demonstrated that GM-BE was beneficial to enrich electrogens. Typical exoelectrogens were accounted for 13.02% and 8.83% in GM-BA and GM-BC. Morphology showed that both GM-BA and GM-BC formed 3D-like graphene/biofilm architectures and revealed that the biofilm viability and thickness would decrease to some extent when GM-BE was formed. D-GM-BE MFC obtained the maximum power density by 124.58±6.32mWm-2, which was 2.34 times over C-BE MFC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Soil nitrogen availability and plant genotype modify the nutrition strategies of M. truncatula and the associated rhizosphere microbial communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouk Zancarini

    Full Text Available Plant and soil types are usually considered as the two main drivers of the rhizosphere microbial communities. The aim of this work was to study the effect of both N availability and plant genotype on the plant associated rhizosphere microbial communities, in relation to the nutritional strategies of the plant-microbe interactions, for six contrasted Medicago truncatula genotypes. The plants were provided with two different nutrient solutions varying in their nitrate concentrations (0 mM and 10 mM. First, the influence of both nitrogen availability and Medicago truncatula genotype on the genetic structure of the soil bacterial and fungal communities was determined by DNA fingerprint using Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (ARISA. Secondly, the different nutritional strategies of the plant-microbe interactions were evaluated using an ecophysiological framework. We observed that nitrogen availability affected rhizosphere bacterial communities only in presence of the plant. Furthermore, we showed that the influence of nitrogen availability on rhizosphere bacterial communities was dependent on the different genotypes of Medicago truncatula. Finally, the nutritional strategies of the plant varied greatly in response to a modification of nitrogen availability. A new conceptual framework was thus developed to study plant-microbe interactions. This framework led to the identification of three contrasted structural and functional adaptive responses of plant-microbe interactions to nitrogen availability.

  2. Hidden information revealed by optimal community structure from a protein-complex bipartite network improves protein function prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Juyong; Lee, Jooyoung

    2013-01-01

    The task of extracting the maximal amount of information from a biological network has drawn much attention from researchers, for example, predicting the function of a protein from a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. It is well known that biological networks consist of modules/communities, a set of nodes that are more densely inter-connected among themselves than with the rest of the network. However, practical applications of utilizing the community information have been rather limited. For protein function prediction on a network, it has been shown that none of the existing community-based protein function prediction methods outperform a simple neighbor-based method. Recently, we have shown that proper utilization of a highly optimal modularity community structure for protein function prediction can outperform neighbor-assisted methods. In this study, we propose two function prediction approaches on bipartite networks that consider the community structure information as well as the neighbor information from the network: 1) a simple screening method and 2) a random forest based method. We demonstrate that our community-assisted methods outperform neighbor-assisted methods and the random forest method yields the best performance. In addition, we show that using the optimal community structure information is essential for more accurate function prediction for the protein-complex bipartite network of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Community detection can be carried out either using a modified modularity for dealing with the original bipartite network or first projecting the network into a single-mode network (i.e., PPI network) and then applying community detection to the reduced network. We find that the projection leads to the loss of information in a significant way. Since our prediction methods rely only on the network topology, they can be applied to various fields where an efficient network-based analysis is required.

  3. Cardio-respiratory outcomes associated with exposure to wildfire smoke are modified by measures of community health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappold, Ana G; Cascio, Wayne E; Kilaru, Vasu J; Stone, Susan L; Neas, Lucas M; Devlin, Robert B; Diaz-Sanchez, David

    2012-09-24

    Characterizing factors which determine susceptibility to air pollution is an important step in understanding the distribution of risk in a population and is critical for setting appropriate policies. We evaluate general and specific measures of community health as modifiers of risk for asthma and congestive heart failure following an episode of acute exposure to wildfire smoke. A population-based study of emergency department visits and daily concentrations of fine particulate matter during a wildfire in North Carolina was performed. Determinants of community health defined by County Health Rankings were evaluated as modifiers of the relative risk. A total of 40 mostly rural counties were included in the study. These rankings measure factors influencing health: health behaviors, access and quality of clinical care, social and economic factors, and physical environment, as well as, the outcomes of health: premature mortality and morbidity. Pollutant concentrations were obtained from a mathematically modeled smoke forecasting system. Estimates of relative risk for emergency department visits were based on Poisson mixed effects regression models applied to daily visit counts. For asthma, the strongest association was observed at lag day 0 with excess relative risk of 66% (28,117). For congestive heart failure the excess relative risk was 42% (5,93). The largest difference in risk was observed after stratifying on the basis of Socio-Economic Factors. Difference in risk between bottom and top ranked counties by Socio-Economic Factors was 85% and 124% for asthma and congestive heart failure respectively. The results indicate that Socio-Economic Factors should be considered as modifying risk factors in air pollution studies and be evaluated in the assessment of air pollution impacts.

  4. Improvement of surface acidity and structural regularity of Zr-modified mesoporous MCM-41

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, L.F. [Departamento de Ciencias Basicas, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-A, Av. San Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa-Tamaulipas, 02200 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: chenlf2001@yahoo.com; Norena, L.E. [Departamento de Ciencias Basicas, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-A, Av. San Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa-Tamaulipas, 02200 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Navarrete, J. [Grupo de Molecular Ingenieria, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Lazaro Cardenas 152, 07730 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Wang, J.A. [Laboratorio de Catalisis y Materiales, SEPI-ESIQIE, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Av. Politecnico S/N, Col. Zacatenco, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-06-10

    This work reports the synthesis and surface characterization of a Zr-modified mesoporous MCM-41 solid with an ordered hexagonal arrangement, prepared through a templated synthesis route, using cetyltrimethylammonium chloride as the template. The surface features, crystalline structure, textural properties and surface acidity of the materials were characterized by in situ Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), N{sub 2} physisorption isotherms, {sup 29}Si MAS-NMR and in situ FT-IR of pyridine adsorption. It is evident that the surfactant cations inserted into the network of the solids during the preparation could be removed by calcination of the sample above 500 deg. C. The resultant material showed a large surface area of 680.6 m{sup 2} g{sup -1} with a uniform pore diameter distribution in a very narrow range centered at approximately 2.5 nm. Zirconium incorporation into the Si-MCM-41 framework, confirmed by {sup 29}Si MAS-NMR analysis, increased not only the wall thickness of the mesopores but also the long-range order of the periodically hexagonal structure. Both, Lewis and Broensted acid sites, were formed on the surface of the Zr-modified MCM-41 solid. Compared to Si-MCM-41 on which only very weak Lewis acid sites were formed, the densities of both Lewis and Broensted acid sites and the strength of the acidity on the Zr-modified sample were significantly increased, indicating that the incorporation of zirconium greatly enhances the acidity of the material.

  5. Modified Anderson orthogonality catastrophe power law in the presence of shell structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandopadhyay, Swarnali; Hentschel, Martina

    2011-01-01

    We study Anderson orthogonality catastrophe (AOC) for parabolic quantum dots and focus on the effects of degeneracies, realized through the inherent shell structure of their energy levels that can be lifted through an external magnetic field, on the Anderson overlap. We find rich and interesting behaviors as a function of the strength and position of the perturbation, the system size, and the applied magnetic field. In particular, even for weak perturbations, we observe a pronounced AOC that is related to the degeneracy of energy levels. Most importantly, the power-law decay of the Anderson overlap as a function of the number of particles is modified in comparison to the metallic case due to the rearrangement of the energy-level shell structure. We support our analytical results by numerical calculations and also study the distribution of Anderson overlaps.

  6. Effect of Inoculation of Acacia senegal mature trees with Mycorrhiza and Rhizobia on soil properties and microbial community structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assigbetsé, K.; Ciss, I.; Bakhoum, N.; Dieng, L.

    2012-04-01

    diazotrophic and denitrifying communities fingerprints, indicating that the inoculation with microsymbionts have modified the genetic structure of the two functional communities in soil. Further, the diazotrophic community richness was reduced over the control indicating the impact of the addition of symbionts on the free-living N2-fixing bacterial (nifH) diversity. This study shows that inoculation of A. senegal mature trees with rhizobium and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus has enhanced soil biofunctioning and modified the genetic structure of microbial community involved in N-cycling. Combined inoculation of AM fungi and Rhizobium have improved these effects on chemical characteristics, microbial community abundance and activity demonstrating synergism between the two microsymbionts.

  7. A spectral method to detect community structure based on distance modularity matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin-Xuan; Zhang, Xiao-Dong

    2017-08-01

    There are many community organizations in social and biological networks. How to identify these community structure in complex networks has become a hot issue. In this paper, an algorithm to detect community structure of networks is proposed by using spectra of distance modularity matrix. The proposed algorithm focuses on the distance of vertices within communities, rather than the most weakly connected vertex pairs or number of edges between communities. The experimental results show that our method achieves better effectiveness to identify community structure for a variety of real-world networks and computer generated networks with a little more time-consumption.

  8. Pregnancy and birth in an indigenous Huichol community: from structural violence to structural policy responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamlin, Jennie B; Hawkes, Sarah J

    2015-01-01

    Mexico's indigenous regions are characterised by socio-economic marginalisation and poor health outcomes and the Maternal Mortality Rate in indigenous communities continues to be around six times higher than the national rate. Using as a case study the Huichol community of North-Western Mexico we will discuss how institutional health and welfare programmes which aim to address accepted risk factors for maternal health are undermined by a series of structural barriers which put indigenous women especially in harm's way. Semi-structured interviews and observational data were gathered between 2009 and 2011 in highland communities and on coastal tobacco plantations to where a large number of this ethnic group migrate. Many Huichol women birth alone, and to facilitate this process they maintain a low nutritional intake to reduce their infant's growth and seek spiritual guidance during pregnancy from a shaman. These practices are reinforced by feelings of shame and humiliation encountered when using institutional health provision. These are some of the structural barriers to care that need to be addressed. Effective interventions could include addressing the training of health professionals, focusing on educational inequalities and the structural determinants of poverty whilst designing locally specific programmes that encourage acceptance of available health care.

  9. Graph kernels, hierarchical clustering, and network community structure: experiments and comparative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S.; Ning, X.-M.; Zhang, X.-S.

    2007-05-01

    There has been a quickly growing interest in properties of complex networks, such as the small world property, power-law degree distribution, network transitivity, and community structure, which seem to be common to many real world networks. In this study, we consider the community property which is also found in many real networks. Based on the diffusion kernels of networks, a hierarchical clustering approach is proposed to uncover the community structure of different extent of complex networks. We test the method on some networks with known community structures and find that it can detect significant community structure in these networks. Comparison with related methods shows the effectiveness of the method.

  10. Community Structure and Productivity in Western Mongolian Steppe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyokazu Kawada

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The people of the Mongolian steppe have maintained a sustainable, nomadic lifestyle. However, several ecological processes are threatening their way of life. Ecological changan be detected through the analysis of quantitative and qualitative data. It is therefore, imperative to develop a sustainable rangeland management system aimed at combating desertifi cation. In this study we quantitatively and qualitatively describe several western Mongolian steppe plant communities by examining species composition, plant volume and community structure. Study sites were located in the Uvs and Khovd provinces and had all been affected by livestock grazing. A total of 48 species were found. Stipa krylovii , S . gobica , Cleistogenes songorica , Koeleria cristata and Ajania achilleoides were dominant. There was a signifi cant relationship between biomass and plant volume at all sites. Study sites were classifi ed into four groups using cluster analysis, based on the presence or absence of several species. More than 90% of plant volumes at all groups were perennial grasses and perennial forbs. The ratio of C 3 to C 4 plants at site 3 was reversed in comparison to the other sites. Species highly palatable to livestock were dominant at all sites. To ensure the sustainable use of biological resources in these arid areas, these fi ndings should be taken into account in designing land-use plans.

  11. Community structure of ectomycorrhizal fungi in Swedish boreal forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, Lena [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Mycology and Pathology

    1998-12-31

    The main aim of this work has been to elucidate the species composition and community structure of ectomycorrhizal fungi associated with mature trees and naturally regenerated seedlings in natural boreal forests in Sweden. Further, the effects of disturbances, such as wildfire and nitrogen inputs, were studied. Sporocarp surveys, morphological stratification and DNA-based analyses of mycorrhizas were used to describe the mycorrhizal fungal communities. In addition, a reference database useful for identifying individual mycorrhizas was developed based on analyses of sporocarp tissue. Overall, the species richness of ectomycorrhizal fungi was at least 30 to 40 times higher than that of their host trees. Naturally regenerated seedlings were colonized by the ectomycorrhizal fungal species present in the mycelial network of the old trees, indicating that the species composition will remain about the same provided that the host does not disappear. Wildfire, disturbing the fungal continuum, caused a shift in the frequencies of ectomycorrhizal fungi rather than a change in species composition. Nitrogen addition did not have any detectable effect on the abundance or species richness of mycorrhizas, but led to a decrease in sporocarp production. In all the studies, there was little resemblance between the species composition of sporocarps and that of mycorrhizas. The ITS-RFLP reference database was very useful in identifying single mycorrhizas, and proved to be a powerful tool for species identification of unknown mycorrhizas 76 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  12. Predator foraging altitudes reveal the structure of aerial insect communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Jackson A; Godfrey, Aaron P; Ames, Tayna; Bridge, Eli S

    2016-06-29

    The atmosphere is populated by a diverse array of dispersing insects and their predators. We studied aerial insect communities by tracking the foraging altitudes of an avian insectivore, the Purple Martin (Progne subis). By attaching altitude loggers to nesting Purple Martins and collecting prey delivered to their nestlings, we determined the flight altitudes of ants and other insects. We then tested hypotheses relating ant body size and reproductive ecology to flight altitude. Purple Martins flew up to 1,889 meters above ground, and nestling provisioning trips ranged up to 922 meters. Insect communities were structured by body size such that species of all sizes flew near the ground but only light insects flew to the highest altitudes. Ant maximum flight altitudes decreased by 60% from the lightest to the heaviest species. Winged sexuals of social insects (ants, honey bees, and termites) dominated the Purple Martin diet, making up 88% of prey individuals and 45% of prey biomass. By transferring energy from terrestrial to aerial food webs, mating swarms of social insects play a substantial role in aerial ecosystems. Although we focus on Purple Martins and ants, our combined logger and diet method could be applied to a range of aerial organisms.

  13. Methodological development: structured outcome assessment and community risk monitoring (SORM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grann, Martin; Sturidsson, Knut; Haggård-Grann, Ulrika; Hiscoke, Ulrika L; Alm, Per-Olof; Dernevik, Mats; Gumpert, Clara; Hallqvist, Johan; Hallquist, Tommy; Kullgren, Gunnar; Långström, Niklas; Lotterberg, Malin; Nordström, Kristina; Ståhle, Birgitta; Woodhouse, Anni

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an effort to develop a clinical tool for the continuous monitoring of risk for violence in forensic mental health clients who have left their institutions and who are dwelling in the community on a conditional release basis. The model is called Structured Outcome Assessment and Community Risk Monitoring (SORM). The SORM consists of 30 dynamic factors and each factor in SORM is assessed in two ways: The current absence, presence or partial och intermittent presence of the factors, which is an actuarial (systematized and 'objective') assessment. Secondly, the risk effect, i.e. whether the presence/absence of factors currently increases, decreases or is perceived as unrelated to violence risk, is a clinical (or impressionistic) assessment. Thus, the factors considered via the SORM can be coded as risk factors or protective factors (or as factors unimportant to risk of violence) depending on circumstances that apply in the individual case. Further, the SORM has a built-in module for gathering idiographical information about risk-affecting contextual factors. The use of the SORM and its potential as a risk monitoring instrument is illustrated via preliminary data and case vignettes from an ongoing multicenter project. In this research project, patients leaving any of the 9 participating forensic hospitals in Sweden is assessed at release on a variety of static background factors, and the SORM is then administered every 30 days for 2 years.

  14. [Arthropod community structures in transgenic Bt cotton fields].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, G; Cui, L; Zhang, X; Liu, S; Lü, N; Zhang, Q

    2001-08-01

    Arthropod community structures were investigated in transgenic Bt cultivars, Bollgard(B) and Chinese cotton 30 (CC30), and common cultivars, control (C) and no control (NC) cotton field in North China in 1998. The results showed that compared with common cultivars, the species richness and the number of total individual of arthropod community in transgenic Bt cultivars field were reduced 2.4-16.3% and 71.0-78.3% respectively, in which dominant species in phytophagous subcommunity varied. The number of individual of predatory and parastic subcommunity were all increased. The similarity coefficient between CC30 and NC was 0.8243, B and NC 0.7320, B and C 0.3380, C and NC 0.3128, CC30 and C 0.2665. The order of diversity and evenness value of these were CC30 (2.3712 and 0.6428), NC (2.3654 and 0.6251), B (2.1364 and 0.5791), and C (1.0877 and 0.2949), their dominant value was 0.8726 (C), 0.3528(B), 0.1178(NC) and 0.1048 (CC30) respectively. It was concluded that different integrated pest management (IPM) strategy should be implemented in transgenic Bt cotton instead of common variety cotton field.

  15. Yellow structurally modified fluorescence in the longhorn beetles Celosterna pollinosa sulfurea and Phosphorus virescens (Cerambycidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hooijdonk, Eloise, E-mail: eloise.vanhooijdonk@fundp.ac.be [Centre de recherche en Physique de la Matière et du Rayonnement (PMR) – Laboratoire de Physique du Solide (LPS), University of Namur - FUNDP, 61 rue de Bruxelles, Namur 5000 (Belgium); Institut des NanoSciences de Paris (INSP), Pierre and Marie Curie University – Paris 6 (UPMC), CNRS-UMR 7588, 4 Place Jussieu, Paris 75005 (France); Barthou, Carlos [Institut des NanoSciences de Paris (INSP), Pierre and Marie Curie University – Paris 6 (UPMC), CNRS-UMR 7588, 4 Place Jussieu, Paris 75005 (France); Vigneron, Jean Pol [Centre de recherche en Physique de la Matière et du Rayonnement (PMR) – Laboratoire de Physique du Solide (LPS), University of Namur - FUNDP, 61 rue de Bruxelles, Namur 5000 (Belgium); Berthier, Serge [Institut des NanoSciences de Paris (INSP), Pierre and Marie Curie University – Paris 6 (UPMC), CNRS-UMR 7588, 4 Place Jussieu, Paris 75005 (France)

    2013-04-15

    Celosterna pollinosa sulfurea and Phosphorus virescens are longhorn beetles which both have a sulphur-yellow pigmentary coloration and, more surprisingly, a yellow-green fluorescence coloration. In this study, we used a refined experimental examination to characterize the angular distribution of light and unveiled a different behavior between these reflection and emission processes. A key feature of these observations is the peculiar architecture of the scales (a three-dimensional photonic structure), which acts differently on each phenomenon. For reflection, this architecture can be viewed as a scattering device, while, for emission, it can be viewed as a waveguide. These effects were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) diagrams and spectrophotometric measurements. Collection and analysis of data at every emergence direction was found to be crucial when studying optical properties in materials with spatial changes in composition at the scale of the light wavelength. -- Highlights: ► We examine structurally modified fluorescence in two longhorn beetles. ► Reflection and emission are complementary processes in the final visual aspect. ► The specific three-dimensional photonic structure of the scales is the keystone. ► Structure impacts the spatial angular distribution of reflected and emitted light.

  16. Structural and dynamical properties of water on chemically modified surfaces: The role of the instantaneous surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekele, Selemon; Tsige, Mesfin

    Surfaces of polymers such as atactic polystyrene (aPS) represent very good model systems for amorphous material surfaces. Such polymer surfaces are usually modified either chemically or physically for a wide range of applications that include friction, lubrication and adhesion. It is thus quite important to understand the structural and dynamical properties of liquids that come in contact with them to achieve the desired functional properties. Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we investigate the structural and dynamical properties of water molecules in a slab of water in contact with atactic polystyrene surfaces of varying polarity. We find that the density of water molecules and the number distribution of hydrogen bonds as a function of distance relative to an instantaneous surface exhibit a structure indicative of a layering of water molecules near the water/PS interface. For the dynamics, we use time correlation functions of hydrogen bonds and the incoherent structure function for the water molecules. Our results indicate that the polarity of the surface dramatically affects the dynamics of the interfacial water molecules with the dynamics slowing down with increasing polarity. This work was supported by NSF Grant DMR1410290.

  17. Structural, electronic and mechanical properties of inner surface modified imogolite nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Chagas Da Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The electronic, structural and mechanical properties of the modified imogolites have been investigated using self consistent charge-density functional-tight binding method with a posteriori treatment of the dispersion interaction (SCC-DFTB-D. The zigzag (12,0 imogolite has been used as the initial structure for the calculations. The functionalization of the interior (12,0 imogolite nanotubes by organosilanes and by heat treatment leading to the dehydroxylation of the silanols were investigated. The reaction of the silanols with the trimethylmethoxysilanes is favored and the arrangement of the different substitutions that leads to the most symmetrical structures are preferred. The Young moduli and band gaps are slightly decreased. However, the dehydroxylation of the silanol groups in the inner surface of the imogolite leads to the increase of the Young moduli and a drastic decrease of the band gap of about 4.4 eV. It has been shown that the degree of the dehydroxylation can be controlled by heat treatment and tune the band gap, eventually, leading to a semiconductor material with well defined nanotube structure.

  18. Unraveling the Molecular Mechanisms Underlying the Nasopharyngeal Bacterial Community Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter A. A. de Steenhuijsen Piters

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The upper respiratory tract is colonized by a diverse array of commensal bacteria that harbor potential pathogens, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae. As long as the local microbial ecosystem—also called “microbiome”—is in balance, these potentially pathogenic bacterial residents cause no harm to the host. However, similar to macrobiological ecosystems, when the bacterial community structure gets perturbed, potential pathogens can overtake the niche and cause mild to severe infections. Recent studies using next-generation sequencing show that S. pneumoniae, as well as other potential pathogens, might be kept at bay by certain commensal bacteria, including Corynebacterium and Dolosigranulum spp. Bomar and colleagues are the first to explore a specific biological mechanism contributing to the antagonistic interaction between Corynebacterium accolens and S. pneumoniae in vitro [L. Bomar, S. D. Brugger, B. H. Yost, S. S. Davies, K. P. Lemon, mBio 7(1:e01725-15, 2016, doi:10.1128/mBio.01725-15]. The authors comprehensively show that C. accolens is capable of hydrolyzing host triacylglycerols into free fatty acids, which display antipneumococcal properties, suggesting that these bacteria might contribute to the containment of pneumococcus. This work exemplifies how molecular epidemiological findings can lay the foundation for mechanistic studies to elucidate the host-microbe and microbial interspecies interactions underlying the bacterial community structure. Next, translation of these results to an in vivo setting seems necessary to unveil the magnitude and importance of the observed effect in its natural, polymicrobial setting.

  19. ORGANIC VS CONVENTIONAL: SOIL NEMATODE COMMUNITY STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapp, C; Storey, S G; Malan, A P

    2014-01-01

    Global increases in human population are creating an ever-greater need for food production. Poor soil management practices have degraded soil to such an extent that rapidly improved management practices is the only way to ensure future food demands. In South Africa, deciduous fruit producers are realising the need for soil health, and for an increased understanding of the benefits of soil ecology, to ensure sustainable fruit production. This depends heavily on improved orchard management. Conventional farming relies on the addition of artificial fertilizers, and the application of chemicals, to prevent or minimise, the effects of the soil stages of pest insects, and of plant-parasitic nematodes. Currently, there is resistance toward conventional farming practices, which, it is believed, diminishes biodiversity within the soil. The study aimed to establish the soil nematode community structure and function in organically, and conventionally, managed deciduous fruit orchards. This was done by determining the abundance, the diversity, and the functionality of the naturally occurring free-living, and plant-parasitic, nematodes in deciduous fruit orchards in the Western Cape province of South Africa. The objective of the study was to form the basis for the use of nematodes as future indicators of soil health in deciduous fruit orchards. Orchards from neighbouring organic, and conventional, apricot farms, and from an organic apple orchard, were studied. All the nematodes were quantified, and identified, to family level. The five nematode-classified trophic groups were found at each site, while 14 families were identified in each orchard, respectively. Herbivores were dominant in all the orchards surveyed. Organic apples had the fewest herbivores and fungivores, with the highest number of carnivores. When comparing organic with conventional apricot orchards, higher numbers of plant-parasitic nematodes were found in the organic apricot orchards. The Maturity Index (MI

  20. Primate communities are structured more by dispersal limitation than by niches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudrot, Lydia H; Marshall, Andrew J

    2011-03-01

    1. A major goal in community ecology is to identify mechanisms that govern the assembly and maintenance of ecological communities. Current models of metacommunity dynamics differ chiefly in the relative emphasis placed on dispersal limitation and niche differentiation as causal mechanisms structuring ecological communities. Herein we investigate the relative roles of these two mechanisms in structuring primate communities in Africa, South America, Madagascar and Borneo. 2. We hypothesized that if dispersal limitation is important in structuring communities, then community similarity should depend on geographical proximity even after controlling for ecological similarity. Conversely, if communities are assembled primarily through niche processes, then community similarity should be determined by ecological similarity regardless of geographical proximity. 3. We performed Mantel and partial Mantel tests to investigate correlations among primate community similarity, ecological distance and geographical distance. Results showed significant and strongly negative relationships between diurnal primate community similarity and both ecological similarity and geographical distance in Madagascar, but significant and stronger negative relationships between community similarity and geographical distance in African, South American and Bornean metacommunities. 4. We conclude that dispersal limitation is an important determinant of primate community structure and may play a stronger role in shaping the structure of some terrestrial vertebrate communities than niche differentiation. These patterns are consistent with neutral theory. We recommend tests of functional equivalence to determine the extent to which neutral theory may explain primate community composition. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 British Ecological Society.

  1. A novel dynamics combination model reveals the hidden information of community structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui-Jia; Li, Huiying; Jia, Chuanliang

    2015-09-01

    The analysis of the dynamic details of community structure is an important question for scientists from many fields. In this paper, we propose a novel Markov-Potts framework to uncover the optimal community structures and their stabilities across multiple timescales. Specifically, we model the Potts dynamics to detect community structure by a Markov process, which has a clear mathematical explanation. Then the local uniform behavior of spin values revealed by our model is shown that can naturally reveal the stability of hierarchical community structure across multiple timescales. To prove the validity, phase transition of stochastic dynamic system is used to indicate that the stability of community structure we proposed is able to describe the significance of community structure based on eigengap theory. Finally, we test our framework on some example networks and find it does not have resolute limitation problem at all. Results have shown the model we proposed is able to uncover hierarchical structure in different scales effectively and efficiently.

  2. Are Gay Communities Dying or Just in Transition? Results from an International Consultation Examining Structural Change in Gay Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon Rosser, B. R.; West, William; Weinmeyer, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This study sought to identify how urban gay communities are undergoing structural change, reasons for that change, and implications for HIV prevention planning. Key informants (N=29) at the AIDS Impact Conference from 17 cities in 14 countries completed surveys and participated in a facilitated structured dialog about how gay communities are changing. In all cities, the virtual gay community was identified as now larger than the offline physical community. Most cities identified that while the gay population in their cities appeared stable or growing, the gay community appeared in decline. Measures included greater integration of heterosexuals into historically gay-identified neighborhoods and movement of gay persons into suburbs, decreased number of gay bars and clubs, less attendance at gay events, less volunteerism in gay or AIDS organizations and overall identification and visibility as a gay community. Participants attributed structural change to multiple factors including gay neighborhood gentrification, achievement of civil rights, less discrimination, a vibrant virtual community and changes in drug use. Consistent with social assimilation, across cities, gay infrastructure, visibility and community identification appears to be decreasing. HIV prevention planning, interventions, treatment services, and policies need to be re-conceptualized for MSM in post-gay communities. Four recommendations for future HIV prevention and research are detailed. PMID:18484330

  3. Macrobenthic community structure response to coastal hypoxia off Southeastern Arabian sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.; Periasamy, R.; De, K.

    The analysis of changes in macrobenthic community using multivariate statistical techniques has been applied to find the structure by the environmental condition. The aim of the study was to evaluate macrofaunal community patterns between natural...

  4. Barrier Properties and Structural Study of Nanocomposite of HDPE/Montmorillonite Modified with Polyvinylalcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María C. Carrera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work was studied the permeation of CO2 in films of high-density polyethylene (HDPE and organoclay modified with polyvinylalcohol (MMTHDTMA/PVA obtained from melt blending. Permeation study showed that the incorporation of the modified organoclay generates a significant effect on the barrier properties of HDPE. When a load of 2 wt% of MMTHDTMA/PVA was incorporated in the polymer matrix, the flow of CO2 decreased 43.7% compared to pure polyethylene. The results of TEM showed that clay layers were dispersed in the polymeric matrix, obtaining an exfoliated-structure nanocomposite. The thermal stability of nanocomposite was significantly enhanced with respect to the pristine HDPE. DSC results showed that the crystallinity was maintained as the pure polymeric matrix. Consequently, the decrease of permeability was attributable only to the effect of tortuosity generated by the dispersion of MMTHDTMA/PVA. Notably the mechanical properties remain equal to those of pure polyethylene, but with an increase in barrier properties to CO2. This procedure allows obtaining nanocomposites of HDPE with a good barrier property to CO2 which would make it competitive in the use of packaging.

  5. Construction of Escherichia coli Mutant with Decreased Endotoxic Activity by Modifying Lipid A Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Liu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3 and its derivatives are widely used for the production of recombinant proteins, but these purified proteins are always contaminated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS. LPS is recognized by the toll-like receptor 4 and myeloid differentiation factor 2 complex of mammalian immune cells and leads to release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. It is a vital step to remove LPS from the proteins before use for therapeutic purpose. In this study, we constructed BL21 (DE3 ∆msbB28 ∆pagP38 mutant, which produces a penta-acylated LPS with reduced endotoxicity. The plasmids harboring pagL and/or lpxE were then introduced into this mutant to further modify the LPS. The new strain (S004 carrying plasmid pQK004 (pagL and lpxE produced mono-phosphoryated tetra-acylated lipid A, which induces markedly less production of tumor necrosis factor-α in the RAW264.7 and IL-12 in the THP1, but still retains ability to produce recombinant proteins. This study provides a strategy to decrease endotoxic activity of recombinant proteins purified from E. coli BL21 backgrounds and a feasible approach to modify lipid A structure for alternative purposes such as mono-phosphoryl lipid A (MPL as vaccine adjuvants.

  6. Quantitative structure-activity relationships for cellular uptake of surface-modified nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rong; Rallo, Robert; Bilal, Muhammad; Cohen, Yoram

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) were developed, for cellular uptake of nanoparticles (NPs) of the same iron oxide core but with different surface-modifying organic molecules, based on linear and non-linear (epsilon support vector regression (ε-SVR)). A linear QSAR provided high prediction accuracy of R2=0.751 (coefficient of determination) using 11 descriptors selected from an initial pool of 184 descriptors calculated for the NP surfacemodifying molecules, while a ε-SVR based QSAR with only 6 descriptors improved prediction accuracy to R2=0.806. The linear and ε-SVR based QSARs both demonstrated good robustness and well spanned applicability domains. It is suggested that the approach of evaluating pertinent descriptors and their significance, via QSAR analysis, to cellular NP uptake could support planning and interpretation of toxicity studies as well as provide guidance for the tailor-design NPs with respect to targeted cellular uptake for various applications.

  7. Sulfur (VI) modified graphite carbon nitride nanosheets with chrysanthemum-like structure and enhanced photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lili; Dai, Yunrong; Zhou, Yijing; Chang, Xin; Yin, Lifeng

    2018-02-01

    Chrysanthemum-like sulfur (VI) modified graphite carbon nitride (s/g-C3N4) was synthesized by sulfuring and sonicating bulk g-C3N4 at 800 kHz. The sulfuring relaxed the interlayer force of g-C3N4, and the sonication constructed its chrysanthemum-like structure which enhances the separation of photo-generated carriers and photochemical response. Density functional calculation and diffusion reflection spectra (DRS) verified that sulfur (VI) modification shifted down the valence band edge of g-C3N4 and improved the redox potentials of g-C3N4. The photocatalytic degradation efficiency of 4-nitrophenol (10 mg L-1) by s/g-C3N4 was 49.3 times higher than that by bulk g-C3N4 under visible light irradiation (>400 nm).

  8. A modified precise integration method for transient dynamic analysis in structural systems with multiple damping models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhe; Li, Li; Hu, Yujin

    2018-01-01

    Sophisticated engineering systems are usually assembled by subcomponents with significantly different levels of energy dissipation. Therefore, these damping systems often contain multiple damping models and lead to great difficulties in analyzing. This paper aims at developing a time integration method for structural systems with multiple damping models. The dynamical system is first represented by a generally damped model. Based on this, a new extended state-space method for the damped system is derived. A modified precise integration method with Gauss-Legendre quadrature is then proposed. The numerical stability and accuracy of the proposed integration method are discussed in detail. It is verified that the method is conditionally stable and has inherent algorithmic damping, period error and amplitude decay. Numerical examples are provided to assess the performance of the proposed method compared with other methods. It is demonstrated that the method is more accurate than other methods with rather good efficiency and the stable condition is easy to be satisfied in practice.

  9. Synthesis and structural characterization of piperazino-modified DNA that favours hybridization towards DNA over RNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Joan; Bryld, Torsten; Lindegaard, Dorthe

    2011-01-01

    modifications are tolerated in DNA:RNA hybrids but leave their melting temperatures virtually unaffected. Fluorescence data indicate that the pyrene moiety is residing outside the helix. The available data suggest that the DNA discrimination is due to (i) the positive charge of the piperazino ring having...... a greater impact in the narrow and deep minor groove of a B-type dsDNA duplex than in the wide and shallow minor groove of an A-type DNA:RNA hybrid and (ii) the B-type dsDNA duplex allowing the pyrene to intercalate and bury its apolar surface.......We report the synthesis of two C4'-modified DNA analogues and characterize their structural impact on dsDNA duplexes. The 4'-C-piperazinomethyl modification stabilizes dsDNA by up to 5°C per incorporation. Extension of the modification with a butanoyl-linked pyrene increases the dsDNA stabilization...

  10. The effect of modifiable healthy practices on higher-level functional capacity decline among Japanese community dwellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rei Otsuka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to clarify the effects of the accumulation of 8 modifiable practices related to health, including smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, sleeping hours, body mass index, dietary diversity, ikigai (life worth living, and health checkup status, on higher-level functional capacity decline among Japanese community dwellers. Data were derived from the National Institute for Longevity Sciences - Longitudinal Study of Aging. Subjects comprised 1269 men and women aged 40 to 79 years at baseline (1997–2000 who participated in a follow-up postal survey (2013. Higher-level functional capacity was measured using the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence (total score and 3 subscales: instrumental self-maintenance, intellectual activity, and social role. The odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI for a decline in higher-level functional capacity in the follow-up study according to the total number of healthy practices were analyzed using the lowest category as a reference. Multivariate adjusted ORs (95% CIs for the total score of higher-level functional capacity, which declined according to the total number of healthy practices (0–4, 5–6, 7–8 groups were 1.00 (reference, 0.63 (0.44–0.92, and 0.54 (0.31–0.94. For the score of social role decline, multivariate adjusted ORs (95% CIs were 1.00 (reference, 0.62 (0.40–0.97, and 0.46 (0.23–0.90, respectively (P for trend = 0.04. Having more modifiable healthy practices, especially in social roles, may protect against a decline in higher-level functional capacity among middle-aged and elderly community dwellers in Japan.

  11. Tropical Rainforest and Human-Modified Landscapes Support Unique Butterfly Communities That Differ in Abundance and Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambhu, Hemchandranauth; Northfield, Tobin; Nankishore, Alliea; Ansari, Abdullah; Turton, Stephen

    2017-12-08

    Tropical forests account for at least 50% of documented diversity, but anthropogenic activities are converting forests to agriculture and urban areas at an alarming rate, with potentially strong effects on insect abundance and diversity. However, the questions remain whether insect populations are uniformly affected by land conversion and if insect conservation can occur in agricultural margins and urban gardens. We compare butterfly populations in tropical secondary forests to those found in sugarcane and urban areas in coastal Guyana and evaluate the potential for particular butterfly communities to inhabit human-modified landscapes. Butterflies were sampled for 1 yr using fruit-baited traps in three separated geographical locations on the coast. We used nonmetric multidimensional scaling to assess differences in species assemblages and a generalized linear mixed model to evaluate abundance, species richness, evenness, and diversity. The secondary forests in all three locations supported higher butterfly abundance and diversity than other human-modified areas, although the magnitude of this effect varied by season and location. However, each land use supported its own type of butterfly community, as species composition was different across the three land uses. Sugarcane field margins and urban gardens supported populations of butterflies rarely found in our tropical secondary forest sites. Land management practices that encourage forest conservation along with butterfly-friendly activities in human settlements and agricultural areas could improve butterfly conservation. To this end, butterfly conservation in Guyana and other tropical landscapes would benefit from a shift from inadvertently to actively making the landscape attractive for butterflies. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Modifying the Target Normal Sheath Accelerated Ion Spectrum Using Structured Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Kevin Mitchell

    In the interaction of high intensity (> 1018 W/cm2), ultrashort (physical mechanism known as target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA). Since its discovery in 2000, TNSA has been widely studied throughout the High Energy Density Physics community in order to understand and enhance this process for its potential applications ranging from cancer therapy to radiography. However, much of this work has been conducted on thin (1s to 10s of microns thick) metal foils exploring optimization only through critical laser parameters such as intensity, energy, and prepulse. This thesis addresses the development of novel micro-structured targets for the enhancement of TNSA ions. These targets were developed through the use of optical lithography techniques to pattern micron-scale structures onto thin substrates at the OSU Nanosystem Laboratory (NSL) user facility. These targets permit on-demand patterning of designs with 1 mum lateral resolution, heights varying between 0.5-2 mum, on substrates ranging from 0.5-2 mum thick with high throughput. An experiment was conducted at the Scarlet laser facility to characterize the effect of structuring the laser-target interface on the energy spectrum of TNSA protons. A comparison of the proton dose from structured versus at photoresist on silicon nitride substrates was performed. Results obtained using radiochromic film demonstrate an increase in proton dose by a factor of 2.3 through the use of structured photoresist as compared to unstructured photoresist of the same thickness. Two dimensional absorption simulations were conducted to verify enhanced absorption from the structured targets which, in turn, generates a stronger TNSA field. A nearly 200% increase in absorption was found to occur with the use of the structured interface and vacuum heating was identified as the dominant absorption mechanism. An intuitive structured target vacuum heating model was developed to account for the structured surface orientations which are

  13. Collagen-chitosan scaffold modified with Au and Ag nanoparticles: Synthesis and structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubina, M.S.; Kamitov, E.E. [A.N. Nesmeyanov Institute of Organoelement Compounds, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 119991 Russian Federation (Russian Federation); Zubavichus, Ya. V.; Peters, G.S. [National Research center «Kurchatov Institute», Moscow, 123182 Russian Federation (Russian Federation); Naumkin, A.V. [A.N. Nesmeyanov Institute of Organoelement Compounds, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 119991 Russian Federation (Russian Federation); Suzer, S. [Department of Chemistry, Bilkent University, Ankara, 06800 Turkey (Turkey); Vasil’kov, A.Yu., E-mail: alexandervasilkov@yandex.ru [A.N. Nesmeyanov Institute of Organoelement Compounds, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 119991 Russian Federation (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Biocompatible collagen-chitosan scaffolds were modified by Au and Ag nanoparticles via the metal-vapor synthesis. • Structural and morphological parameters of the nanocomposites were assessed using a set of modern instrumental techniques, including electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, small-angle X-ray scattering, EXAFS, XPS. • Potential application of the nanocomposites are envisaged. - Abstract: Nowadays, the dermal biomimetic scaffolds are widely used in regenerative medicine. Collagen-chitosan scaffold one of these materials possesses antibacterial activity, good compatibility with living tissues and has been already used as a wound-healing material. In this article, collagen-chitosan scaffolds modified with Ag and Au nanoparticles have been synthesized using novel method - the metal-vapor synthesis. The nanocomposite materials are characterized by XPS, TEM, SEM and synchrotron radiation-based X-ray techniques. According to XRD data, the mean size of the nanoparticles (NPs) is 10.5 nm and 20.2 nm in Au-Collagen-Chitosan (Au-CollCh) and Ag-Collagen-Chitosan (Ag-CollCh) scaffolds, respectively in fair agreement with the TEM data. SAXS analysis of the composites reveals an asymmetric size distribution peaked at 10 nm for Au-CollCh and 25 nm for Ag-CollCh indicative of particle's aggregation. According to SEM data, the metal-carrying scaffolds have layered structure and the nanoparticles are rather uniformly distributed on the surface material. XPS data indicate that the metallic nanoparticles are in their unoxidized/neutral states and dominantly stabilized within the chitosan-rich domains.

  14. Structural and fractal characterization of tungstophosphoric acid modified titanium dioxide photocatalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, S.; Rožić, Lj; Vuković, Z.; Grbić, B.; Radić, N.; Stojadinović, S.; Vasilić, R.

    2017-04-01

    This article presents the comparison of structural and fractal properties of nanocrystalline titanium dioxide (TiO2) and TiO2 modified with tungstophosphoric acid (TiO2/HPW) and their impact on the photocatalytic degradation of hazardous water pollutants. TiO2 and TiO2/HPW samples were synthesized by a combined sol-gel and hydrothermal processing. The XRD analysis of pure TiO2 samples revealed that phase composition was mainly dependent on the calcination temperature, changing from amorphous TiO2 to crystalline anatase and rutile by increasing the temperature. On the other hand, the XRD of TiO2/HPW samples calcined at temperatures above 600 °C showed crystalline peaks associated to formation of WO3 and WO2.92 crystalline domains. The N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm and pore size distribution of TiO2/HPW samples detected the existence of mesoporous characteristic with very narrow bimodal pores in the mesoporous region. The structural heterogeneity of samples was analyzed by means of pore size distribution functions, while the variation in fractal dimension were determined from the nitrogen adsorption isotherms, using the modified Frenkel-Halsey-Hill method. The results demonstrate that the approach is capable of characterizing complex textures such as those present in the TiO2 and TiO2/HPW photocatalysts. Besides, the effect of calcinations condition on photocatalytic properties of the samples was also investigated. The highest efficiency with respect to methyl orange photodecomposition was observed for TiO2/HPW photocatalysts calcined at 700 °C.

  15. 3D modeling method for computer animate based on modified weak structured light method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Hanwei; Pan, Ming; Zhang, Xiangwei

    2010-11-01

    A simple and affordable 3D scanner is designed in this paper. Three-dimensional digital models are playing an increasingly important role in many fields, such as computer animate, industrial design, artistic design and heritage conservation. For many complex shapes, optical measurement systems are indispensable to acquiring the 3D information. In the field of computer animate, such an optical measurement device is too expensive to be widely adopted, and on the other hand, the precision is not as critical a factor in that situation. In this paper, a new cheap 3D measurement system is implemented based on modified weak structured light, using only a video camera, a light source and a straight stick rotating on a fixed axis. For an ordinary weak structured light configuration, one or two reference planes are required, and the shadows on these planes must be tracked in the scanning process, which destroy the convenience of this method. In the modified system, reference planes are unnecessary, and size range of the scanned objects is expanded widely. A new calibration procedure is also realized for the proposed method, and points cloud is obtained by analyzing the shadow strips on the object. A two-stage ICP algorithm is used to merge the points cloud from different viewpoints to get a full description of the object, and after a series of operations, a NURBS surface model is generated in the end. A complex toy bear is used to verify the efficiency of the method, and errors range from 0.7783mm to 1.4326mm comparing with the ground truth measurement.

  16. Structural, Dynamical, and Electronic Transport Properties of Modified DNA Duplexes Containing Size-Expanded Nucleobases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes-Cabrera, Miguel A [ORNL; Orozco, Modesto [Institut de Recerca Biomedica, Parc Cientific de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Luque, Javier [Universitat de Barcelona; Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Blas, Jose [Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha; Ordejon, Pablo J [ORNL; Huertas, Oscar [Universitat de Barcelona; Tabares, Carolina [Universitat de Barcelona

    2011-01-01

    Among the distinct strategies proposed to expand the genetic alphabet, sizeexpanded nucleobases are promising for the development of modified DNA duplexes with improved biotechnological properties. In particular, duplexes built up by replacing canonical bases with the corresponding benzo-fused counterparts could be valuable as molecular nanowires. In this context, this study reports the results of classical molecular dynamics simulations carried out to examine the structural and dynamical features of size-expanded DNAs, including both hybrid duplexes containing mixed pairs of natural and benzo-fused bases (xDNA) and pure size-expanded (xxDNA) duplexes. Furthermore, the electronic structure of both natural and size-expanded duplexes is examined by means of density functional computations. The results confirm that the structural and flexibility properties of the canonical DNA are globally little affected by the presence of benzo-fused bases. Themost relevant differences are found in the enhanced size of the grooves, and the reduction in the twist. However, the analysis also reveals subtle structural effects related to the nature and sequence of benzo-fused bases in the duplex. On the other hand, electronic structure calculations performed for xxDNAs confirm the reduction in the HOMOLUMO gap predicted from the analysis of the natural bases and their size-expanded counterparts, which suggests that pure size-expanded DNAs can be good conductors. A more complex situation is found for xDNAs, where fluctuations in the electrostatic interaction between base pairs exerts a decisive influence on the modulation of the energy gap.

  17. Development of dynamic loudspeakers modified as incident pressure sources for noise reduction in a double panel structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, J.; Berkhoff, Arthur P.; Crocker, Malcolm J.; Pawelczyk, Marek; Paosawatyanyong, Boonchoat

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a modified loudspeaker source for decentralized feedback cavity control in a double panel structure to reduce the noise transmission. The double panel structure con-sists of two panels with air in between and offers the advantages of low weight, low sound transmission at high

  18. Development of Dynamic Loudspeakers Modified as Incident Pressure Sources for Noise Reductiuon in a Double Panel Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, J.H.; Berkhoff, A.P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a modified loudspeaker source for decentralized feedback cavity control in a double panel structure to reduce the noise transmission. The double panel structure con-sists of two panels with air in between and offers the advantages of low weight, low sound transmission at high

  19. Assessing diabetes support in adolescents: factor structure of the Modified Diabetes Social Support Questionnaire (M-DSSQ-Family)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malik, J.A.; Koot, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the underlying factor structure of diabetes specific support using a modified diabetes family social support questionnaire, the M-DSSQ-Family, in one half of a sample of adolescents with type 1 diabetes, confirm it in the second half, test invariance in factor structure

  20. Structuring of bacterioplankton communities by specific dissolved organic carbon compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Consarnau, Laura; Lindh, Markus V; Gasol, Josep M; Pinhassi, Jarone

    2012-09-01

    The main role of microorganisms in the cycling of the bulk dissolved organic carbon pool in the ocean is well established. Nevertheless, it remains unclear if particular bacteria preferentially utilize specific carbon compounds and whether such compounds have the potential to shape bacterial community composition. Enrichment experiments in the Mediterranean Sea, Baltic Sea and the North Sea (Skagerrak) showed that different low-molecular-weight organic compounds, with a proven importance for the growth of marine bacteria (e.g. amino acids, glucose, dimethylsulphoniopropionate, acetate or pyruvate), in most cases differentially stimulated bacterial growth. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis 'fingerprints' and 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that some bacterial phylotypes that became abundant were highly specific to enrichment with specific carbon compounds (e.g. Acinetobacter sp. B1-A3 with acetate or Psychromonas sp. B3-U1 with glucose). In contrast, other phylotypes increased in relative abundance in response to enrichment with several, or all, of the investigated carbon compounds (e.g. Neptuniibacter sp. M2-A4 with acetate, pyruvate and dimethylsulphoniopropionate, and Thalassobacter sp. M3-A3 with pyruvate and amino acids). Furthermore, different carbon compounds triggered the development of unique combinations of dominant phylotypes in several of the experiments. These results suggest that bacteria differ substantially in their abilities to utilize specific carbon compounds, with some bacteria being specialists and others having a more generalist strategy. Thus, changes in the supply or composition of the dissolved organic carbon pool can act as selective forces structuring bacterioplankton communities. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Biological and functional diversity of bird communities in natural and human modified habitats in Northern Flank of Knuckles Mountain Forest Range, Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    KALYA SUBASINGHE; AMILA P. SUMANAPALA

    2014-01-01

    Subasinghe K, Sumanapala AP. 2014. Biological and functional diversity of bird communities in natural and human modified habitats in Northern Flank of Knuckles Mountain Forest Range, Sri Lanka. Biodiversitas 15: 200-205. The Knuckles Mountain Forest Range (KMFR) has a complex mosaic of natural and human modified habitats and the contribution of these habitats to the biological and functional diversities has not been deeply studied. Present study investigated both of these diversities in five ...

  2. Are gay communities dying or just in transition? Results from an international consultation examining possible structural change in gay communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon Rosser, B R; West, William; Weinmeyer, Richard

    2008-05-01

    This study sought to identify how urban gay communities are undergoing structural change, reasons for that change, and implications for HIV prevention planning. Key informants (N=29) at the AIDS Impact Conference from 17 cities in 14 countries completed surveys and participated in a facilitated structured dialog about if gay communities are changing, and if so, how they are changing. In all cities, the virtual gay community was identified as currently larger than the offline physical community. Most cities identified that while the gay population in their cities appeared stable or growing, the gay community appeared in decline. Measures included greater integration of heterosexuals into historically gay-identified neighborhoods and movement of gay persons into suburbs, decreased number of gay bars/clubs, less attendance at gay events, less volunteerism in gay or HIV/AIDS organizations, and the overall declining visibility of gay communities. Participants attributed structural change to multiple factors including gay neighborhood gentrification, achievement of civil rights, less discrimination, a vibrant virtual community, and changes in drug use. Consistent with social assimilation, gay infrastructure, visibility, and community identification appears to be decreasing across cities. HIV prevention planning, interventions, treatment services, and policies need to be re-conceptualized for MSM in the future. Four recommendations for future HIV prevention and research are detailed.

  3. Modifying the home environment or community setting for people with cognitive impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiatt, L G

    1990-01-01

    We need a great deal of work on household and day care environmental design. Systematic research, linked to the degree of impairment and to individual lifestyles, is appropriate. I have only scratched the surface of environmental considerations, with some attention to distinguishing the issues of home, community, and institutional environments. It is important that we identify some of the unique priorities in each of these settings. To draw conclusions from institutional settings and apply them to the home is to miss some of the strengths inherent in the home. We have come a long way. Once, it was pretty well accepted that older people with dementia were oblivious to their environments. Now, through observation and improvisation, we have come to understand that there are both individual reactions and patterns of responsiveness. In the future, we need to identify environmental design issues appropriate to mild, moderate, and severe levels of impairment; to different types of contexts (urban versus rural or suburban); and to different subcultures and economic groups.

  4. Temporally invariable bacterial community structure in the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jain, A.; Bandekar, M.; Gomes, J.; Shenoy, D.M.; Meena, R.M.; Naik, H.; Khandeparkar, R.; Ramaiah, N.

    (1993) Viruses in marine planktonic systems. Oceanography 6: 51- 63. Fuhrman JA (2002) Community structure and function in prokaryotic marine plankton. Anton Leeun Int J G 81: 521-527 Grasshoff K, Ehrhardt E, Kremling K, (1983) Methods of Seawater... version: Aquat. Microb. Ecol., vol.73(1); 2014; 51-67 Temporally invariable bacterial community structure in the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone Running page head: Invariable bacterial community structure Arabian Sea Anand Jain1, Mandar Bandekar1...

  5. Pine Defensive Monoterpene α-Pinene Influences the Feeding Behavior of Dendroctonus valens and Its Gut Bacterial Community Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letian Xu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The exposure to plant defense chemicals has negative effects on insect feeding activity and modifies insect gut microbial community composition. Dendroctonus valens is a very destructive forest pest in China, and harbors a large diversity and abundance of gut microorganisms. Host pine defensive chemicals can protect the pines from attack by the holobiont. In this study, boring length of D. valens feeding on 0 mg/g α-pinene and 9 mg/g α-pinene concentration in phloem media for 6 and 48 h were recorded, and their gut bacterial communities were analyzed in parallel. Nine milligram per gram α-pinene concentration significantly inhibited boring length of D. valens and altered its gut microbial community structure after 6 h. The inhibition of boring length from 9 mg/g α-pinene in diets ceased after 48 h. No significant differences of the bacterial communities were observed between the beetles in 0 and 9 mg/g α-pinene concentration in phloem media after 48 h. Our results showed that the inhibition of the feeding behavior of D. valens and the disturbance to its gut bacterial communities in 9 mg/g α-pinene concentration in phloem media after 6 h were eliminated after 48 h. The resilience of gut bacterial community of D. valens may help the beetle catabolize pine defense chemical.

  6. Influence of the structure of Posidonia oceanica meadows modified by bottom trawling on crustacean assemblages: comparison of amphipods and decapods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sánchez-Jerez

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The seagrass Posidonia oceanica plays an important role as habitat for invertebrates. A correlative study was done in El Campello (SE Spain to understand the relationships between assemblage structure of crustaceans and modification of P. oceanica structure caused by bottom trawling. We compared the changes of community structure of the most important groups of crustaceans, amphipods and decapods with changes of cover, density, detritus and rhizome fragments. Sampling was carried out in four control and four impact locations, along a gradient of degradation (17 m depth, August 1992. Multivariate analysis was used for community data (nm-MDS and P. oceanica structure (PCA. Both groups showed a similar number of species. The amphipod community showed a clear pattern of community changes with significant differences between impact and control locations (global R = 0.298, p

  7. Studies on alkali-modified cassava starch - changes of structural and enzyme (. alpha. -amylase) susceptibility properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raja, K.C.M. (Regional Research Lab., Trivandrum (India). Fermentation Section)

    1992-04-01

    Properties of cassava starch could be modified by subjecting to alkali treatment under controlled experimental conditions. Modified starch samples showed lower amylose content and higher alkali number. Compared to untreated starch samples, alkali modified starches had higher {alpha}-amylase (Bacillus sp.) susceptibility. The properties could be advantageously made use of for preparing maltodextrins having DE 20-23. (orig.).

  8. Community structure discovery method based on the Gaussian kernel similarity matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chonghui; Zhao, Haipeng

    2012-03-01

    Community structure discovery in complex networks is a popular issue, and overlapping community structure discovery in academic research has become one of the hot spots. Based on the Gaussian kernel similarity matrix and spectral bisection, this paper proposes a new community structure discovery method. First, by adjusting the Gaussian kernel parameter to change the scale of similarity, we can find the corresponding non-overlapping community structure when the value of the modularity is the largest relatively. Second, the changes of the Gaussian kernel parameter would lead to the unstable nodes jumping off, so with a slight change in method of non-overlapping community discovery, we can find the overlapping community nodes. Finally, synthetic data, karate club and political books datasets are used to test the proposed method, comparing with some other community discovery methods, to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of this method.

  9. Shifts in microbial community structure along an ecological gradient of hypersaline soils and sediments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hollister, Emily B; Engledow, Amanda S; Hammett, Amy Jo M; Provin, Tony L; Wilkinson, Heather H; Gentry, Terry J

    2010-01-01

    ..., hypersaline lake located in southern Texas, USA, were surveyed to characterize the structure and diversity of their microbial communities. Samples were collected along a transect that spanned vegetat...

  10. Rainfall and soils modify plant community response to grazing in Serengeti National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, T Michael; Ritchie, Mark E; McNaughton, Samuel J

    2007-05-01

    Terrestrial plant community responses to herbivory depend on resource availability, but the separate influences of different resources are difficult to study because they often correlate across natural environmental gradients. We studied the effects of excluding ungulate herbivores on plant species richness and composition, as well as available soil nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), across eight grassland sites in Serengeti National Park (SNP), Tanzania. These sites varied independently in rainfall and available soil N and P. Excluding herbivores decreased plant species richness at all sites and by an average of 5.4 species across all plots. Although plant species richness was a unimodal function of rainfall in both grazed and ungrazed plots, fences caused a greater decrease in plant species richness at sites of intermediate rainfall compared to sites of high or low rainfall. In terms of the relative or proportional decreases in plant species richness, excluding herbivores caused the strongest relative decreases at lower rainfall and where exclusion of herbivores increased available soil P. Herbivore exclusion increased among-plot heterogeneity in species composition but decreased coexistence of congeneric grasses. Compositional similarity between grazed and ungrazed treatments decreased with increasing rainfall due to greater forb richness in exclosures and greater sedge richness outside exclosures and was not related to effects of excluding herbivores on soil nutrients. Our results show that plant resources, especially water and P, appear to modulate the effects of herbivores on tropical grassland plant diversity and composition. We show that herbivore effects on soil P may be an important and previously unappreciated mechanism by which herbivores influence plant diversity, at least in tropical grasslands.

  11. Effect of temperature, viscosity and surface tension on gelatine structures produced by modified 3D printer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkandelen, C.; Ozbek, B.; Ergul, N. M.; Akyol, S.; Moukbil, Y.; Oktar, F. N.; Ekren, N.; Kılıc, O.; Kılıc, B.; Gunduz, O.

    2017-12-01

    In the present study, gelatine scaffolds were manufactured by using modified 3D (3 Dimensional) printing machine and the effect of different parameters on scaffold structure were investigated. Such as; temperature, viscosity and surface tension of the gelatine solutions. The varying of gelatine solutions (1, 3, 5, 10, 15 and 20 wt.%) were prepared and characterized. It has been detected that, viscosity of those solutions were highly influenced by temperature and gelatine concentration. Specific CAD (Computer Assistant Design) model which has 67% porosity and original design were created via computer software. However, at high temperatures gelatine solutions caused like liquid but at the lower temperatures were observed the opposite behaviour. In addition to that, viscosity of 1,3,5 wt.% solutions were not enough to build a structure and 20 wt.% gelatine solution too hard to handle, because of the sudden viscosity changes with temperature. Even though, scaffold of the 20 wt.% gelatine solution printed hardly but it was observed the best printed solutions, which were 10 and 15 wt.% gelatine solutions. As a result, 3D printing of gelatine were found the values of the best temperature, viscosity, surface tension and gelatine concentration such as 25-35 °C, 36-163 cP, 46-59 mN/m and 15 wt.% gelatine concentration respectively.

  12. Challenges to self-acceleration in modified gravity from gravitational waves and large-scale structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombriser, Lucas, E-mail: llo@roe.ac.uk; Lima, Nelson A.

    2017-02-10

    With the advent of gravitational-wave astronomy marked by the aLIGO GW150914 and GW151226 observations, a measurement of the cosmological speed of gravity will likely soon be realised. We show that a confirmation of equality to the speed of light as indicated by indirect Galactic observations will have important consequences for a very large class of alternative explanations of the late-time accelerated expansion of our Universe. It will break the dark degeneracy of self-accelerated Horndeski scalar–tensor theories in the large-scale structure that currently limits a rigorous discrimination between acceleration from modified gravity and from a cosmological constant or dark energy. Signatures of a self-acceleration must then manifest in the linear, unscreened cosmological structure. We describe the minimal modification required for self-acceleration with standard gravitational-wave speed and show that its maximum likelihood yields a 3σ poorer fit to cosmological observations compared to a cosmological constant. Hence, equality between the speeds challenges the concept of cosmic acceleration from a genuine scalar–tensor modification of gravity.

  13. Challenges to self-acceleration in modified gravity from gravitational waves and large-scale structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Lombriser

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of gravitational-wave astronomy marked by the aLIGO GW150914 and GW151226 observations, a measurement of the cosmological speed of gravity will likely soon be realised. We show that a confirmation of equality to the speed of light as indicated by indirect Galactic observations will have important consequences for a very large class of alternative explanations of the late-time accelerated expansion of our Universe. It will break the dark degeneracy of self-accelerated Horndeski scalar–tensor theories in the large-scale structure that currently limits a rigorous discrimination between acceleration from modified gravity and from a cosmological constant or dark energy. Signatures of a self-acceleration must then manifest in the linear, unscreened cosmological structure. We describe the minimal modification required for self-acceleration with standard gravitational-wave speed and show that its maximum likelihood yields a 3σ poorer fit to cosmological observations compared to a cosmological constant. Hence, equality between the speeds challenges the concept of cosmic acceleration from a genuine scalar–tensor modification of gravity.

  14. An algorithm Walktrap-SPM for detecting overlapping community structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Fang; Zhu, Youze; Shi, Yuan; Cai, Jianchao; Chen, Luogeng; Shen, Shaowu

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, based on Walktrap algorithm with the idea of random walk, and by selecting the neighbor communities, introducing improved signed probabilistic mixture (SPM) model and considering the edges within the community as positive links and the edges between the communities as negative links, a novel algorithm Walktrap-SPM for detecting overlapping community is proposed. This algorithm not only can identify the overlapping communities, but also can greatly increase the objectivity and accuracy of the results. In order to verify the accuracy, the performance of this algorithm is tested on several representative real-world networks and a set of computer-generated networks based on LFR benchmark. The experimental results indicate that this algorithm can identify the communities accurately, and it is more suitable for overlapping community detection. Compared with Walktrap, SPM and LMF algorithms, the presented algorithm can acquire higher values of modularity and NMI. Moreover, this new algorithm has faster running time than SPM and LMF algorithms.

  15. Structure and thermodynamic insights on acetylaminofluorene-modified deletion DNA duplexes as models for frameshift mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandineni, Anusha; Lin, Bin; MacKerell, Alexander D; Cho, Bongsup P

    2013-06-17

    2-Acetylaminofluorene (AAF) is a prototype arylamine carcinogen that forms C8-substituted dG-AAF and dG-AF as the major DNA lesions. The bulky N-acetylated dG-AAF lesion can induce various frameshift mutations depending on the base sequence around the lesion. We hypothesized that the thermodynamic stability of bulged-out slipped mutagenic intermediates (SMIs) is directly related to deletion mutations. The objective of the present study was to probe the structural/conformational basis of various dG-AAF-induced SMIs formed during translesion synthesis. We performed spectroscopic, thermodynamic, and molecular dynamics studies of several AAF-modified 16-mer model DNA duplexes, including fully paired and -1, -2, and -3 deletion duplexes of the 5'-CTCTCGATG[FAAF]CCATCAC-3' sequence and an additional -1 deletion duplex of the 5'-CTCTCGGCG[FAAF]CCATCAC-3' NarI sequence. Modified deletion duplexes existed in a mixture of external B and stacked S conformers, with the population of the S conformer being 'GC'-1 (73%) > 'AT'-1 (72%) > full (60%) > -2 (55%) > -3 (37%). Thermodynamic stability was in the order of -1 deletion > -2 deletion > fully paired > -3 deletion duplexes. These results indicate that the stacked S-type conformer of SMIs is thermodynamically more stable than the conformationally flexible external B conformer. Results from the molecular dynamics simulations indicate that perturbation of base stacking dominates the relative stability along with contributions from bending, duplex dynamics, and solvation effects that are important in specific cases. Taken together, these results support a hypothesis that the conformational and thermodynamic stabilities of the SMIs are critical determinants for the induction of frameshift mutations.

  16. Standard setting of objective structured practical examination by modified Angoff method: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, M Ganesh; Pallath, Vinod; Ramnarayan, K; Kamath, Asha; Torke, Sharmila; Gonsalves, James

    2016-01-01

    The undergraduate curriculum at our institution is divided system-wise into four blocks, each block ending with theory and objective structured practical examination (OSPE). The OSPE in Physiology consists of 12 stations, and a conventional minimum score to qualify is 50%. We aimed to incorporate standard setting using the modified Angoff method in OSPE to differentiate the competent from the non-competent student and to explore the possibility of introducing standard setting in Physiology OSPE at our institution. Experts rated the OSPE using the modified Angoff method to obtain the standard set cut-off in two of the four blocks. We assessed the OSPE marks of 110 first year medical students. Chi-square test was used to compare the number of students who scored less than standard set cut-off and conventional cut-off; correlation coefficient was used to assess the relation between OSPE and theory marks in both blocks. Feedback was obtained from the experts. The standard set was 62% and 67% for blocks II and III, respectively. The use of standard set cut-off resulted in 16.3% (n=18) and 22.7% (n=25) students being declared unsuccessful in blocks II and III, respectively. Comparison between the number, who scored less than standard set and conventional cut-off was statistically significant (p=0.001). The correlation coefficient was 0.65 (p=0.003) and 0.52 (psetting. Standard setting helped in differentiating the competent from the non-competent student, indicating that standard setting enhances the quality of OSPE as an assessment tool.

  17. Modified silk fibroin scaffolds with collagen/decellularized pulp for bone tissue engineering in cleft palate: Morphological structures and biofunctionalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sangkert, Supaporn [Biological Materials for Medicine Research Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla90110 (Thailand); Meesane, Jirut, E-mail: jirutmeesane999@yahoo.co.uk [Biological Materials for Medicine Research Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla90110 (Thailand); Kamonmattayakul, Suttatip [Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Preventive Dentistry, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla90110 (Thailand); Chai, Wen Lin [Faculty of Dentistry, Department of General Dental Practice and Oral and Maxillofacial Imaging, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2016-01-01

    Cleft palate is a congenital malformation that generates a maxillofacial bone defect around the mouth area. The creation of performance scaffolds for bone tissue engineering in cleft palate is an issue that was proposed in this research. Because of its good biocompatibility, high stability, and non-toxicity, silk fibroin was selected as the scaffold of choice in this research. Silk fibroin scaffolds were prepared by freeze-drying before immerging in a solution of collagen, decellularized pulp, and collagen/decellularized pulp. Then, the immersed scaffolds were freeze-dried. Structural organization in solution was observed by Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). The molecular organization of the solutions and crystal structure of the scaffolds were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The weight increase of the modified scaffolds and the pore size were determined. The morphology was observed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Mechanical properties were tested. Biofunctionalities were considered by seeding osteoblasts in silk fibroin scaffolds before analysis of the cell proliferation, viability, total protein assay, and histological analysis. The results demonstrated that dendrite structure of the fibrils occurred in those solutions. Molecular organization of the components in solution arranged themselves into an irregular structure. The fibrils were deposited in the pores of the modified silk fibroin scaffolds. The modified scaffolds showed a beta-sheet structure. The morphological structure affected the mechanical properties of the silk fibroin scaffolds with and without modification. Following assessment of the biofunctionalities, the modified silk fibroin scaffolds could induce cell proliferation, viability, and total protein particularly in modified silk fibroin with collagen/decellularized pulp. Furthermore, the histological analysis indicated that the cells could adhere in modified silk fibroin

  18. Unusual bacterioplankton community structure in ultra-oligotrophic Crater Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbach, Ena; Vergin, Kevin L.; Morse, Ariel

    2001-01-01

    The bacterioplankton assemblage in Crater Lake, Oregon (U.S.A.), is different from communities found in other oxygenated lakes, as demonstrated by four small subunit ribosomal ribonucleic acid (SSU rRNA) gene clone libraries and oligonucleotide probe hybridization to RNA from lake water. Populations in the euphotic zone of this deep (589 m), oligotrophic caldera lake are dominated by two phylogenetic clusters of currently uncultivated bacteria: CL120-10, a newly identified cluster in the verrucomicrobiales, and ACK4 actinomycetes, known as a minor constituent of bacterioplankton in other lakes. Deep-water populations at 300 and 500 m are dominated by a different pair of uncultivated taxa: CL500-11, a novel cluster in the green nonsulfur bacteria, and group I marine crenarchaeota. b-Proteobacteria, dominant in most other freshwater environments, are relatively rare in Crater Lake (marine crenarchaeota and green nonsulfur bacteria. Comparison of Crater Lake to other lakes studied by rRNA methods suggests that selective factors structuring Crater Lake bacterioplankton populations may include low concentrations of available trace metals and dissolved organic matter, chemistry of infiltrating hydrothermal waters, and irradiation by high levels of ultraviolet light.

  19. Spatial variation of phytoplankton community structure in Daya Bay, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhao-Yu; Wang, You-Shao; Cheng, Hao; Zhang, Jian-Dong; Fei, Jiao

    2015-10-01

    Daya Bay is one of the largest and most important gulfs in the southern coast of China, in the northern part of the South China Sea. The phylogenetic diversity and spatial distribution of phytoplankton from the Daya Bay surface water and the relationship with the in situ water environment were investigated by the clone library of the large subunit of ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase (rbcL) gene. The dominant species of phytoplankton were diatoms and eustigmatophytes, which accounted for 81.9 % of all the clones of the rbcL genes. Prymnesiophytes were widely spread and wide varieties lived in Daya Bay, whereas the quantity was limited. The community structure of phytoplankton was shaped by pH and salinity and the concentration of silicate, phosphorus and nitrite. The phytoplankton biomass was significantly positively affected by phosphorus and nitrite but negatively by salinity and pH. Therefore, the phytoplankton distribution and biomass from Daya Bay were doubly affected by anthropic activities and natural factors.

  20. The Modified Reasons for Smoking Scale: factorial structure, validity and reliability in pregnant smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wilde, Katrien Sophie; Tency, Inge; Boudrez, Hedwig; Temmerman, Marleen; Maes, Lea; Clays, Els

    2016-06-01

    Smoking during pregnancy can cause several maternal and neonatal health risks, yet a considerable number of pregnant women continue to smoke. The objectives of this study were to test the factorial structure, validity and reliability of the Dutch version of the Modified Reasons for Smoking Scale (MRSS) in a sample of smoking pregnant women and to understand reasons for continued smoking during pregnancy. A longitudinal design was performed. Data of 97 pregnant smokers were collected during prenatal consultation. Structural equation modelling was performed to assess the construct validity of the MRSS: an exploratory factor analysis was conducted, followed by a confirmatory factor analysis.Test-retest reliability (<16 weeks and 32-34 weeks pregnancy) and internal consistency were assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient and the Cronbach's alpha, respectively. To verify concurrent validity, Mann-Whitney U-tests were performed examining associations between the MRSS subscales and nicotine dependence, daily consumption, depressive symptoms and intention to quit. We found a factorial structure for the MRSS of 11 items within five subscales in order of importance: tension reduction, addiction, pleasure, habit and social function. Results for internal consistency and test-retest reliability were good to acceptable. There were significant associations of nicotine dependence with tension reduction and addiction and of daily consumption with addiction and habit. Validity and reliability of the MRSS were shown in a sample of pregnant smokers. Tension reduction was the most important reason for continued smoking, followed by pleasure and addiction. Although the score for nicotine dependence was low, addiction was an important reason for continued smoking during pregnancy; therefore, nicotine replacement therapy could be considered. Half of the respondents experienced depressive symptoms. Hence, it is important to identify those women who need more specialized care

  1. Detection of forest stand-level spatial structure in ectomycorrhizal fungal communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erik A. Lilleskov; Thomas D. Bruns; Thomas R. Horton; D. Lee Taylor; Paul Grogan

    2004-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungal (EMF) communities are highly diverse at the stand level. To begin to understand what might lead to such diversity, and to improve sampling designs, we investigated the spatial structure of these communities. We used EMF community data from a number of studies carried out in seven mature and one recently fire-initiated forest stand. We applied...

  2. Plant and litter influences on earthworm abundance and community structures in a tropical wet forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Gonzalez; X. Zou

    1999-01-01

    Plant communities differ in species composition and litter input. To examine the influence of plant species on the abundance and community structure of soil fauna, we sampled earthworms in areas close to and away from the bases of Dacryodes excelsa and Heliconia caribaea, two distinct plant communities within a tropical wet forest in Puerto Rico. We also carried out a...

  3. CHANGES IN EARTHWORM DENSITY AND COMMUNITY STRUCTURE DURING SECONDARY SUCCESSION IN ABANDONED TROPICAL PASTURES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoming Zou; Grizelle Gonzalez

    1997-01-01

    Plant community succession alters the quantity and chemistry of organic inputs to soils. These differences in organic input may trigger changes in soil fertility and fauna1 activity. We examined earthworm density and community structure along a successional sequence of plant communities in abandoned tropical pastures in Puerto Rico. The chronological sequence of these...

  4. Simulation modeling to understand how selective foraging by beaver can drive the structure and function of a willow community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peinetti, H.R.; Baker, B.W.; Coughenour, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Beaver-willow (Castor-Salix) communities are a unique and vital component of healthy wetlands throughout the Holarctic region. Beaver selectively forage willow to provide fresh food, stored winter food, and construction material. The effects of this complex foraging behavior on the structure and function of willow communities is poorly understood. Simulation modeling may help ecologists understand these complex interactions. In this study, a modified version of the SAVANNA ecosystem model was developed to better understand how beaver foraging affects the structure and function of a willow community in a simulated riparian ecosystem in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado (RMNP). The model represents willow in terms of plant and stem dynamics and beaver foraging in terms of the quantity and quality of stems cut to meet the energetic and life history requirements of beaver. Given a site where all stems were equally available, the model suggested a simulated beaver family of 2 adults, 2 yearlings, and 2 kits required a minimum of 4 ha of willow (containing about10 stems m-2) to persist in a steady-state condition. Beaver created a willow community where the annual net primary productivity (ANPP) was 2 times higher and plant architecture was more diverse than the willow community without beaver. Beaver foraging created a plant architecture dominated by medium size willow plants, which likely explains how beaver can increase ANPP. Long-term simulations suggested that woody biomass stabilized at similar values even though availability differed greatly at initial condition. Simulations also suggested that willow ANPP increased across a range of beaver densities until beaver became food limited. Thus, selective foraging by beaver increased productivity, decreased biomass, and increased structural heterogeneity in a simulated willow community.

  5. Biodegradation of a biochar-modified waterborne polyacrylate membrane coating for controlled-release fertilizer and its effects on soil bacterial community profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zijun; Du, Changwen; Li, Ting; Shen, Yazhen; Zeng, Yin; Du, Jie; Zhou, Jianmin

    2015-06-01

    Biochar-modified polyacrylate-like polymers are promising waterborne polymer-based membrane coatings for controlled-release fertilizers. However, the effect of these membrane polymers on paddy soil is unknown. A soil incubation experiment was conducted using Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy to monitor the changes in the polymer-coated membranes in paddy soil, and Biolog EcoPlates and polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis were used to detect the effects of the membranes on soil bacterial community profiles. Compared to unmodified membranes, the biodegradation rate of the biochar-modified membrane was slower, and the membrane was more intact, which improved and guaranteed the controlled release of nutrients. Compared to the soil without membranes, the biochar-modified membranes, as well as unmodified ones, showed no significant impacts on the composition diversity of soil dominant bacterial community. The activity and functional diversity of soil culturable microbial community during the early stage of incubation were reduced by biochar-modified membranes due to the release of small amount of soluble organic materials but were both recovered in the 12(th) month of the incubation period. Therefore, the biochar-modified waterborne polyacrylate was environmentally friendly, demonstrating its potential both in the development of coated controlled-release fertilizers and in the utilization of crop residue.

  6. Joint effect of the first and the second kind of modifiers on the constructional steels structure and properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Петро Степанович Харлашин

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The influence of modifying horophilic and refractory elements injected at the main smelting stages into structural steels on their structural mechanical properties has been analyzed. The solid crust building-up rate in castings that makes it possible to evaluate the thermal characteristics of steel hardening has been experimentally determined. It has been found that increase of the amount of solid additives into molten steel before melting results in a significant increase of the thickness of the hardened layer during the same period of time. The microstructure of the 09G2S and St3 steels after modifying the melt with a solid additive, with titanium nitride and a joint modifying with calcium and titanium nitride has been studied. As a result of the combined effect of the modifiers of the first and second kind the cast steel macrostructure improves. The mechanical tests of the 09G2S steel and St3 deformed steel specimens, modified by calcium and titanium nitride, after the ingots were forged and rolled with subsequent normalization showed that the strength increased by 15÷25%, the elongation increased by 10÷25%, while impact strength increased by 0,5 MJ/m2 at room temperature. The results can be applied to improve and manage the process of structuring during steel smelting and casting, as well as to improve their quality

  7. Accuracy of "Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers" ("M-CHAT") in Detecting Autism and Other Developmental Disorders in Community Clinics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Teck-Hock; Tan, Vivian Wee-Yen; Lau, Peter Sie-Teck; Kiyu, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    This study determined the accuracy of "Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers" ("M-CHAT") in detecting toddlers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other developmental disorders (DD) in community mother and child health clinics. We analysed 19,297 eligible toddlers (15-36 months) who had "M-CHAT" performed in…

  8. Non-random seasonal variation in the structure of a Mediterranean snake community

    OpenAIRE

    Filippi, E.; L. Luiselli

    2007-01-01

    The community structure in relation to habitat type was studied in a Mediterranean community of snakes from Canale Monterano, central Italy. Habitat data for snakes were analysed both overall and divided by season, i.e. spring (April–June) and summer (July–September). Community analyses were performed using null models (RA2 and RA3 algorithms) and Monte Carlo simulations on habitat niche overlap estimates. Null models suggested that the community was assem...

  9. Genetically Modified (GM) Mosquito Use to Reduce Mosquito-Transmitted Disease in the US: A Community Opinion Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adalja, Amesh; Sell, Tara Kirk; McGinty, Meghan; Boddie, Crystal

    2016-05-25

    Mosquito-borne infectious diseases such as dengue, chikungunya, and now Zika, pose a public health threat to the US, particularly Florida, the Gulf Coast states, and Hawaii. Recent autochthonous transmission of dengue and chikungunya in Florida, the recent dengue outbreak in Hawaii, and the potential for future local spread of Zika in the US, has led to the consideration of novel approaches to mosquito management. One such novel approach, the release of sterile genetically modified mosquitoes, has been proposed as a possible intervention, and a trial release of GM mosquitoes is being considered in one Florida community. However, this proposal has been controversial. The objective of this research was to increase understanding of community knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding mosquito control and GM mosquitoes.   An 18-question self-administered survey was mailed to all households in the identified Key West, Florida neighborhood where a GM mosquito trial has been proposed. This survey was fielded between July 20, 2015 and November 1, 2015. The main outcome variable was opposition to the use of GM mosquitoes. Measures included demographic information and opinions on mosquitoes, mosquito control, and vector-borne diseases.   A majority of survey respondents did not support use of GM mosquitoes as a mosquito control method. Reasons for opposition included general fears about possible harmful impacts of this intervention, specific worries about human and animal health impacts from the GM mosquitoes, and environmental concerns about potential negative effects on the ecosystem. Residents were more likely to oppose GM mosquito use if they had a low perception of the potential risks posed by diseases like dengue and chikungunya, if they were female, and if they were less concerned about the need to control mosquitoes in general. These findings suggest a need for new approaches to risk communication, including educational efforts surrounding mosquito control and

  10. Supraglacial bacterial community structures vary across the Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameron, Karen A.; Stibal, Marek; Zarsky, Jakub D.

    2016-01-01

    The composition and spatial variability of microbial communities that reside within the extensive (>200 000 km(2)) biologically active area encompassing the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) is hypothesized to be variable. We examined bacterial communities from cryoconite debris and surface ice across t...

  11. Organizational Structures to Support Oakland Community Schools. Knowledge Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Gardner Center for Youth and Their Communities, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This brief is part of a series that shares findings from a research collaboration between the John W. Gardner Center for Youth and Their Communities at Stanford University and Oakland Unified School District (OUSD) focused on understanding implementation of the community school model in the district. This brief highlights findings related to…

  12. Shoulder Structure and Function Following the Modified Latarjet Procedure: A Clinical and Radiological Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garewal, Devinder; Evans, Mathew; Taylor, David; Hoy, Gregory A.; Barwood, Shane; Connell, David

    2013-01-01

    Background To evaluate the clinical and radiological outcomes of the modified Latarjet procedure for traumatic, antero-inferior glenohumeral joint instability. Methods Case series were used with a mean follow-up of 21.3 months for clinical and radiological review and 47.2 months for recurrent instability. Shoulder function was evaluated by clinical examination and validated shoulder scales: Western Ontario Shoulder Stability Index (WOSI), Melbourne Instability Shoulder Score (MISS) and l'Insalata Shoulder Questionnaire. Shoulder structure was evaluated by computed tomography. Results Thirty-two cases were enrolled (mean age 27.0 years). One patient reported a redislocation during the follow-up period. Clinical examination revealed that the median external rotation (at 0° and 90° abduction) was reduced on the operative side by 7.5° (p 0.05). Radiological evaluation revealed a mean (SD) pre-operative glenoid surface area loss of 169.5 (48.5) mm2 reconstituted surgically by a bone block of 225.4 (73.8) mm2. Subscapularis muscle bulk was reduced on the operative side, above the level of the muscle split (p Latarjet procedure reliably restores lost glenoid surface area, shoulder stability, strength and function. A small loss of external rotation is expected and related to altered subscapularis anatomy. PMID:27582905

  13. Crystalline and structural properties of acid-modified lotus rhizome C-type starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jinwen; Cai, Canhui; Man, Jianmin; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Fengmin; Wei, Cunxu

    2014-02-15

    The crystalline and structural properties of acid-modified C-type starch from lotus rhizomes were investigated using a combination of techniques. The degradation of granule during hydrolysis began from the end distant from the hilum and then propagated into the center of granule, accompanied by loss of birefringence. The crystallinity changed from C-type to A-type via CA-type during hydrolysis. At the early stage of hydrolysis, the amylose content substantially reduced, the peak and conclusion gelatinization temperatures increased, and the enthalpy decreased. During hydrolysis, the double helix content gradually increased and the amorphous component decreased, the lamellar peak intensity firstly increased and then decreased accompanied by hydrolysis of amorphous and crystalline regions. This study elucidated that B-type allomorph was mainly arranged in the distal region of eccentric hilum, A-type allomorph was mainly located in the periphery of hilum end, and the center of granule was a mixed distribution of A- and B-type allomorphs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Biophysical and structural characterisation of nucleic acid complexes with modified cyclodextrins using circular dichroism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mahony, Aoife M; Cronin, Michael F; McMahon, Anthony; Evans, James C; Daly, Kathleen; Darcy, Raphael; O'Driscoll, Caitriona M

    2014-05-01

    Modified cyclodextrins (CDs) have shown great promise as non-viral gene and siRNA delivery vectors in a range of in vitro and in vivo studies. In the current study, structural and biophysical characterisation of selected CDs was carried out to enhance our understanding of their interaction with nucleic acids. The methods used for such characterisation were dynamic light scattering, zeta potential measurements and circular dichroism. Variations in the chemistries of individual CDs and in the type of formulation were shown to affect key properties of complexes such as size, surface charge and nucleic acid conformation. Furthermore, the effects of temperature and pH on the conformation of nucleic acids were investigated. pH studies were intended to mimic the conditions encountered by cationic complexes during endocytosis. Circular dichroism studies revealed that changes occurred in DNA and siRNA conformation upon complexation with CDs and when exposed to increasing temperature and decreasing pH. Overall, siRNA appeared to be more susceptible to conformational changes although complexation of siRNA with CDs tended to have a stabilising effect. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  15. Predicting Cell Association of Surface-Modified Nanoparticles Using Protein Corona Structure - Activity Relationships (PCSAR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Padmaja; Fernandez, Alberto; Giralt, Francesc; Rallo, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles are likely to interact in real-case application scenarios with mixtures of proteins and biomolecules that will absorb onto their surface forming the so-called protein corona. Information related to the composition of the protein corona and net cell association was collected from literature for a library of surface-modified gold and silver nanoparticles. For each protein in the corona, sequence information was extracted and used to calculate physicochemical properties and statistical descriptors. Data cleaning and preprocessing techniques including statistical analysis and feature selection methods were applied to remove highly correlated, redundant and non-significant features. A weighting technique was applied to construct specific signatures that represent the corona composition for each nanoparticle. Using this basic set of protein descriptors, a new Protein Corona Structure-Activity Relationship (PCSAR) that relates net cell association with the physicochemical descriptors of the proteins that form the corona was developed and validated. The features that resulted from the feature selection were in line with already published literature, and the computational model constructed on these features had a good accuracy (R(2)LOO=0.76 and R(2)LMO(25%)=0.72) and stability, with the advantage that the fingerprints based on physicochemical descriptors were independent of the specific proteins that form the corona.

  16. Collagen-chitosan scaffold modified with Au and Ag nanoparticles: Synthesis and structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubina, M. S.; Kamitov, E. E.; Zubavichus, Ya. V.; Peters, G. S.; Naumkin, A. V.; Suzer, S.; Vasil'kov, A. Yu.

    2016-03-01

    Nowadays, the dermal biomimetic scaffolds are widely used in regenerative medicine. Collagen-chitosan scaffold one of these materials possesses antibacterial activity, good compatibility with living tissues and has been already used as a wound-healing material. In this article, collagen-chitosan scaffolds modified with Ag and Au nanoparticles have been synthesized using novel method - the metal-vapor synthesis. The nanocomposite materials are characterized by XPS, TEM, SEM and synchrotron radiation-based X-ray techniques. According to XRD data, the mean size of the nanoparticles (NPs) is 10.5 nm and 20.2 nm in Au-Collagen-Chitosan (Au-CollCh) and Ag-Collagen-Chitosan (Ag-CollCh) scaffolds, respectively in fair agreement with the TEM data. SAXS analysis of the composites reveals an asymmetric size distribution peaked at 10 nm for Au-CollCh and 25 nm for Ag-CollCh indicative of particle's aggregation. According to SEM data, the metal-carrying scaffolds have layered structure and the nanoparticles are rather uniformly distributed on the surface material. XPS data indicate that the metallic nanoparticles are in their unoxidized/neutral states and dominantly stabilized within the chitosan-rich domains.

  17. Musculoskeletal Simulation for Assessment of Effect of Movement-Based Structure-Modifying Treatment Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tien Tuan Dao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The better understanding of the complex mechanism between neural motor control and its resulting joint kinematics and muscle forces allows a better elucidation of the mechanisms behind body growth, aging progression, and disease development. This study aimed at investigating the impact of movement-based structure-modifying treatment strategies on joint kinematics, muscle forces, and muscle synergies of the gait with instrumented implant. A patient-specific musculoskeletal model was used to quantitatively assess the deviations of joint and muscle behaviors between the normal gait and 4 gait modifications (bouncy, medial thrust, midcrouch, and mtp (i.e., gait with forefoot strike. Moreover, muscle synergy analysis was performed using EMG-based nonnegative matrix factorization. Large variation of 19 degrees and 190 N was found for knee flexion/extension and lower limb muscle forces, respectively. EMG-based muscle synergy analysis revealed that the activation levels of the vastus lateralis and tibialis anterior are dominant for the midcrouch gait. In addition, an important contribution of semimembranosus to the medial thrust and midcrouch gaits was also observed. In fact, such useful information could allow a better understanding of the joint function and muscle synergy strategies leading to deeper knowledge of joint and muscle mechanisms related to neural voluntary motor commands.

  18. Human exploitation and benthic community structure on a tropical intertidal mudflat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de W.F.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2002-01-01

    Human exploitation of intertidal marine invertebrates is known to alter benthic community structure. This study describes the impact that harvesting by women and children has on the intertidal community structure of the mudflats of the Saco on Inhaca Island, Mozambique, by comparing the benthic

  19. Fish Community Structure in Iyi-Ekpen Stream, Delta State, Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of fish community structure and diversity in bioassessment is a fundamental and an important water management issue worldwide. This study examines the spatial variations in fish community structure at three stations along Iyi-Ekpen stream, southern, Nigeria between January and July, 2011 as part of a baseline ...

  20. Effect of agricultural management regime on Burkholderia community structure in soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salles, J. F.; van Elsas, J. D.; van Veen, J. A.

    The main objective of this study was to determine the Burkholderia community structure associated with areas under different agricultural management and to evaluate to which extent this community structure is affected by changes in agricultural management. Two fields with distinct soil history

  1. Effect of agricultural management regime on Burkholderia community structure in soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salles, J.F.; Elsas, van J.D.; Veen, van J.A.

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the Burkholderia community structure associated with areas under different agricultural management and to evaluate to which extent this community structure is affected by changes in agricultural management. Two fields with distinct soil history

  2. Effect of agricultural management regimes on Burkholderia community structure in soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salles, J.F.; van Elsas, J.D.; Van Veen, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the Burkholderia community structure associated with areas under different agricultural management and to evaluate to which extent this community structure is affected by changes in agricultural management. Two fields with distinct soil history

  3. Human exploitation and benthic community structure on a tropical intertidal flat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, WF; Prins, HHT

    2002-01-01

    Human exploitation of intertidal marine invertebrates is known to alter benthic community structure. This study describes the impact that harvesting by women and children has on the intertidal community structure of the mudflats of the Saco on Inhaca Island, Mozambique, by comparing the benthic

  4. Paradoxes of Social Networking in a Structured Web 2.0 Language Learning Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiseau, Mathieu; Zourou, Katerina

    2012-01-01

    This paper critically inquires into social networking as a set of mechanisms and associated practices developed in a structured Web 2.0 language learning community. This type of community can be roughly described as learning spaces featuring (more or less) structured language learning resources displaying at least some notions of language learning…

  5. Structure and morphology evolution of silica-modified pseudoboehmite aerogels during heat treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakharukova, V.P., E-mail: verapakh@catalysis.ru [Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, SB RAS, Pr. Lavrentieva 5, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Pirogova Street 2, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Research and Educational Center for Energy Efficient Catalysis, Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Shalygin, A.S.; Gerasimov, E. Yu.; Tsybulya, S.V.; Martyanov, O.N. [Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, SB RAS, Pr. Lavrentieva 5, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Pirogova Street 2, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Research and Educational Center for Energy Efficient Catalysis, Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    Silica-modified pseudoboehmite aerogels (0, 10, 20 at% of Si) were prepared by sol–gel method followed by supercritical drying. The phase transformations, changes in structure and morphology upon calcination were thoroughly investigated by advanced X-Ray diffraction (XRD) techniques and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Obtained pseudoboehmite samples had specific nanostructure: ultrathin two-dimensional (2D) crystallites were loosely packed. The silica dopant drastically enhanced the crystallite anisotropy. Thus, the aerogel with Al:Si atomic ratio of 9:1 consisted of the pseudoboehmite nanosheets with thickness of one unit cell (average dimensions of 14.0×1.2×14.5 nm). The specific nanostructure caused remarkable features of experimental XRD patterns, including anisotropic peak broadening and appearance of forbidden reflection. Direct simulation of XRD patterns with using the Debye Scattering Equation allowed the size and morphology of pseudoboehmite crystallites to be determined. The silica addition strongly delayed formation of γ-alumina and further phase transformations upon calcinaton. Thermal stability of alumina was suggested to be affected by the particle morphology inherited from the pseudoboehmite precursor. - Graphical abstract: Pseudoboehmite samples had specific nanostructure: ultrathin two-dimensional (2D) crystallites were loosely packed. - Highlights: • Silica-doped boehmites were prepared by sol–gel method with supercritical drying. • Ultrathin two-dimensional crystallites of pseudoboehmite were obtained. • Changes in structure and morphology upon calcination were studied. • Simulation of XRD patterns was performed with use of the Debye Scattering Equation. • Thermal stability of alumina depended on morphology inherited from pseudoboehmite.

  6. On the relationship between the structural and socioacademic communities of an interdisciplinary coauthorship network

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Marko A; Pepe, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a study that compares detected structural communities in a coauthorship network to the socioacademic characteristics of the scholars that compose the network. The coauthorship network was created from the bibliographic record of an overt interdisciplinary research group focused on sensor networks and wireless communication. The popular leading eigenvector community detection algorithm was employed to assign a structural community to each scholar in the network. Socioacad...

  7. Community Structure, Biodiversity, and Ecosystem Services in Treeline Whitebark Pine Communities: Potential Impacts from a Non-Native Pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana F. Tomback

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis has the largest and most northerly distribution of any white pine (Subgenus Strobus in North America, encompassing 18° latitude and 21° longitude in western mountains. Within this broad range, however, whitebark pine occurs within a narrow elevational zone, including upper subalpine and treeline forests, and functions generally as an important keystone and foundation species. In the Rocky Mountains, whitebark pine facilitates the development of krummholz conifer communities in the alpine-treeline ecotone (ATE, and thus potentially provides capacity for critical ecosystem services such as snow retention and soil stabilization. The invasive, exotic pathogen Cronartium ribicola, which causes white pine blister rust, now occurs nearly rangewide in whitebark pine communities, to their northern limits. Here, we synthesize data from 10 studies to document geographic variation in structure, conifer species, and understory plants in whitebark pine treeline communities, and examine the potential role of these communities in snow retention and regulating downstream flows. Whitebark pine mortality is predicted to alter treeline community composition, structure, and function. Whitebark pine losses in the ATE may also alter response to climate warming. Efforts to restore whitebark pine have thus far been limited to subalpine communities, particularly through planting seedlings with potential blister rust resistance. We discuss whether restoration strategies might be appropriate for treeline communities.

  8. Aggregate structure and effect of phthalic anhydride modified soy protein on the mechanical properties of styrene-butadiene copolymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aggregate structure of phthalic anhydride (PA) modified soy protein isolate (SPI) was investigated by estimating its fractal dimension from the equilibrated dynamic strain sweep experiments. The estimated fractal dimensions of the filler aggregates were less than 2, indicating that these partic...

  9. The effect of modifying wood with sulfur-bearing compounds on the porous structure of activated charcoal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yatsevskaya, M.I.; Artemova, T.A.; Komarov, V.S.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of added modifiers on the nature of the porous structure of activated charcoals is studied through methods of adsorptive structural and differential thermal analysis. It is shown that the formation of a uniform microporous structure is provided through modification of the structure by reagents capable of catalyzing the reaction of dehydration of its components, such as H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and its derivative, which are broken down in the process of heat treatment with the production of free acid (ammonium persulfate, sulfosalicylic acid and so on).

  10. Influence of the surface structure on the filtration performance of UV-modified PES membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kæselev, Bozena Alicja; Kingshott, P.; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    2002-01-01

    Poly (ether sulfone) (PES) 50 kDa membranes were surface modified by irradiation with UV light (254 nm) in the presence of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidine (NVP), 2-acrylamidoglycolic acid monohydrate (AAG) and 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid (AAP). The surfaces of the modified membranes were c...

  11. Salivary gland acinar cells regenerate functional glandular structures in modified hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Swati

    Xerostomia, a condition resulting from irradiation of the head and neck, affects over 40,000 cancer patients each year in the United States. Direct radiation damage of the acinar cells that secrete fluid and protein results in salivary gland hypofunction. Present medical management for xerostomia for patients treated for upper respiratory cancer is largely ineffective. Patients who have survived their terminal diagnosis are often left with a diminished quality of life and are unable to enjoy the simple pleasures of eating and drinking. This project aims to ultimately reduce human suffering by developing a functional implantable artificial salivary gland. The goal was to create an extracellular matrix (ECM) modified hyaluronic acid (HA) based hydrogel culture system that allows for the growth and differentiation of salivary acinar cells into functional acini-like structures capable of secreting large amounts of protein and fluid unidirectionally and to ultimately engineer a functional artificial salivary gland that can be implanted into an animal model. A tissue collection protocol was established and salivary gland tissue was obtained from patients undergoing head and neck surgery. The tissue specimen was assessed by histology and immunohistochemistry to establish the phenotype of normal salivary gland cells including the native basement membranes. Hematoxylin and eosin staining confirmed normal glandular tissue structures including intercalated ducts, striated ducts and acini. alpha-Amylase and periodic acid schiff stain, used for structures with a high proportion of carbohydrate macromolecules, preferentially stained acinar cells in the tissue. Intercalated and striated duct structures were identified using cytokeratins 19 and 7 staining. Myoepithelial cells positive for cytokeratin 14 were found wrapped around the serous and mucous acini. Tight junction components including ZO-1 and E-cadherin were present between both ductal and acinar cells. Ductal and acinar

  12. Macrofouling community structure in Kanayama Bay, Kii Peninsula (Japan)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raveendran, T.V.; Harada, E.

    An investigation on the macrofouling community in Kanayama Bay, Kill Peninsula, Japan was undertaken from June 1994 to May 1995 by exposing fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) panels at subsurface and bottom (2.2 m) depths. The composition and abundance...

  13. Community detection using global and local structural information

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    , Anhui, China. 4Department of Physics, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105, Hunan, China. ∗. Corresponding author. E-mail: xiangju0208@yahoo.com.cn. Abstract. Community detection is of considerable importance for understanding both ...

  14. Reef community structure, Sand Island, Oahu HI, (NODC Accession 0000177)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These reports provide the results of nine years (1990-98) of an annual quantitative monitoring of shallow marine communities inshore of the Sand Island Ocean...

  15. Observing and modelling phytoplankton community structure in the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ford, D.A.; van der Molen, J.; Hyder, K.; Bacon, J.; Barciela, R.; Creach, V.; McEwan, R.; Ruardij, P.; Forster, R.

    2017-01-01

    Phytoplankton form the base of the marine foodchain, and knowledge of phytoplankton community structureis fundamental when assessing marine biodiversity. Policymakers and other users require information on marinebiodiversity and other aspects of the marine environmentfor the North Sea, a highly

  16. Virality prediction and community structure in social networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weng, Lilian; Menczer, Filippo; Ahn, Yong-Yeol

    2013-01-01

    .... A common hypothesis is that memes and behaviors are complex contagions. We show that, while most memes indeed spread like complex contagions, a few viral memes spread across many communities, like diseases...

  17. Strong influence of regional species pools on continent-wide structuring of local communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lessard, Jean-Philippe; Borregaard, Michael Krabbe; Fordyce, James A.

    2012-01-01

    pool, to examine the interplay between broad-scale evolutionary and fine-scale ecological processes. Finally, a renewed interest in the influence of species source pools on communities has shown that the definition of the source pool influences interpretations of patterns of community structure. We use...... a continent-wide dataset of local ant communities and implement ecologically explicit source pool definitions to examine the relative importance of regional species pools and local interactions for shaping community structure. Then we assess which factors underlie systematic variation in the structure...... of communities along climatic gradients. We find that the average phylogenetic relatedness of species in ant communities decreases from tropical to temperate regions, but the strength of this relationship depends on the level of ecological realism in the definition of source pools. We conclude that the evolution...

  18. Resources alter the structure and increase stochasticity in bromeliad microfauna communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana S Petermann

    Full Text Available Although stochastic and deterministic processes have been found to jointly shape structure of natural communities, the relative importance of both forces may vary across different environmental conditions and across levels of biological organization. We tested the effects of abiotic environmental conditions, altered trophic interactions and dispersal limitation on the structure of aquatic microfauna communities in Costa Rican tank bromeliads. Our approach combined natural gradients in environmental conditions with experimental manipulations of bottom-up interactions (resources, top-down interactions (predators and dispersal at two spatial scales in the field. We found that resource addition strongly increased the abundance and reduced the richness of microfauna communities. Community composition shifted in a predictable way towards assemblages dominated by flagellates and ciliates but with lower abundance and richness of algae and amoebae. While all functional groups responded strongly and predictably to resource addition, similarity among communities at the species level decreased, suggesting a role of stochasticity in species-level assembly processes. Dispersal limitation did not affect the communities. Since our design excluded potential priority effects we can attribute the differences in community similarity to increased demographic stochasticity of resource-enriched communities related to erratic changes in population sizes of some species. In contrast to resources, predators and environmental conditions had negligible effects on community structure. Our results demonstrate that bromeliad microfauna communities are strongly controlled by bottom-up forces. They further suggest that the relative importance of stochasticity may change with productivity and with the organizational level at which communities are examined.

  19. Effects of structural factors on upwelling fouling community, Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Pereira Masi

    Full Text Available Abstract To assess the successional pattern of fouling organisms three hypotheses were tested: 1 a thermocline is caused by seasonal upwelling events, and therefore, depth influences the successional trajectory of the fouling community; 2 a reduction in the intensity of natural light of the substrate influences the fouling composition and the successional trajectory; 3 fish predation influences the community composition and its successional trajectory. During one year, up-facing and down-facing PVC panels on open, partially caged or fully caged, and placed at depths of 1.5 and 3.5 meters were monthly sampled by digital photograph to determine the community composition and by contact point to estimate the percent coverage of organisms. The upwelling impact provided different water masses, and light intensity was also a determining factor of the overall successional trajectory of the fouling community. After the installation of full and partial cages, differences were identified in the respective successional trajectories. The results of this study suggest that each physical factor or biological process can change the successional trajectory of the community, and the successional model (e.g., convergent, divergent, parallel, or cyclic depends on the magnitudes of the determinants that act on the community at each stage of its trajectory.

  20. Light structures phototroph, bacterial and fungal communities at the soil surface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence O Davies

    Full Text Available The upper few millimeters of soil harbour photosynthetic microbial communities that are structurally distinct from those of underlying bulk soil due to the presence of light. Previous studies in arid zones have demonstrated functional importance of these communities in reducing soil erosion, and enhancing carbon and nitrogen fixation. Despite being widely distributed, comparative understanding of the biodiversity of the soil surface and underlying soil is lacking, particularly in temperate zones. We investigated the establishment of soil surface communities on pasture soil in microcosms exposed to light or dark conditions, focusing on changes in phototroph, bacterial and fungal communities at the soil surface (0-3 mm and bulk soil (3-12 mm using ribosomal marker gene analyses. Microbial community structure changed with time and structurally similar phototrophic communities were found at the soil surface and in bulk soil in the light exposed microcosms suggesting that light can influence phototroph community structure even in the underlying bulk soil. 454 pyrosequencing showed a significant selection for diazotrophic cyanobacteria such as Nostoc punctiforme and Anabaena spp., in addition to the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus. The soil surface also harboured distinct heterotrophic bacterial and fungal communities in the presence of light, in particular, the selection for the phylum Firmicutes. However, these light driven changes in bacterial community structure did not extend to the underlying soil suggesting a discrete zone of influence, analogous to the rhizosphere.

  1. Structure, hardness and adhesion in electroless nickel interlayer modified TiN coating on mild steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duh, J.G.; Doong, J.C. (Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu (Taiwan))

    1993-03-10

    TiN films have been prepared by reactive rf magnetron sputtering on mild steel substrates, and electroless Ni-P plating has been introduced as an interlayer. A hypophospite-based bath has been used in this study to produce electroless Ni-P coatings. The electroless Ni-O deposits crystallize during rf sputtering due to the high sputtering temperature and a TiN/Ni[sub 3]/Fe coating assembly is formed. The pH value of the bath will affect the phosphorus content of the electroless Ni-P deposits, and the phosphorus content changes from 6.7 wt.% to 11 wt.% for pH 5.5 to pH 4.0. It is observed that the Ar/N[sub 2] flux ratio has a significant influence on the phase and structure of the deposited TiN film. The deposition rate increases as the nitrogen content is decreased. Pure TiN coatings are obtained for the Ar/N[sub 2] flux ratio range from 90/10 to 70/30. Unreacted Ti is found at an Ar/N[sub 2] ratio of 95/5 and 60/40 due to the incomplete reaction to form TiN. The employment of an electroless Ni-P deposit results in an increase in the surface microhardness and the adhesion strength. The surface hardness values were as high as 2266 HK[sub 1], close to the hardness of bulk TiN with the formation of an Ni[sub 3]P interlayer modified TiN coating. (orig.).

  2. Saliva Proteins of Vector Culicoides Modify Structure and Infectivity of Bluetongue Virus Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darpel, Karin E.; Langner, Kathrin F. A.; Nimtz, Manfred; Anthony, Simon J.; Brownlie, Joe; Takamatsu, Haru-Hisa; Mellor, Philip S.; Mertens, Peter P. C.

    2011-01-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) and epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) are related orbiviruses, transmitted between their ruminant hosts primarily by certain haematophagous midge vectors (Culicoides spp.). The larger of the BTV outer-capsid proteins, ‘VP2’, can be cleaved by proteases (including trypsin or chymotrypsin), forming infectious subviral particles (ISVP) which have enhanced infectivity for adult Culicoides, or KC cells (a cell-line derived from C. sonorensis). We demonstrate that VP2 present on purified virus particles from 3 different BTV strains can also be cleaved by treatment with saliva from adult Culicoides. The saliva proteins from C. sonorensis (a competent BTV vector), cleaved BTV-VP2 more efficiently than those from C. nubeculosus (a less competent / non-vector species). Electrophoresis and mass spectrometry identified a trypsin-like protease in C. sonorensis saliva, which was significantly reduced or absent from C. nubeculosus saliva. Incubating purified BTV-1 with C. sonorensis saliva proteins also increased their infectivity for KC cells ∼10 fold, while infectivity for BHK cells was reduced by 2–6 fold. Treatment of an ‘eastern’ strain of EHDV-2 with saliva proteins of either C. sonorensis or C. nubeculosus cleaved VP2, but a ‘western’ strain of EHDV-2 remained unmodified. These results indicate that temperature, strain of virus and protein composition of Culicoides saliva (particularly its protease content which is dependent upon vector species), can all play a significant role in the efficiency of VP2 cleavage, influencing virus infectivity. Saliva of several other arthropod species has previously been shown to increase transmission, infectivity and virulence of certain arboviruses, by modulating and/or suppressing the mammalian immune response. The findings presented here, however, demonstrate a novel mechanism by which proteases in Culicoides saliva can also directly modify the orbivirus particle structure, leading to

  3. Saliva proteins of vector Culicoides modify structure and infectivity of bluetongue virus particles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin E Darpel

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Bluetongue virus (BTV and epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV are related orbiviruses, transmitted between their ruminant hosts primarily by certain haematophagous midge vectors (Culicoides spp.. The larger of the BTV outer-capsid proteins, 'VP2', can be cleaved by proteases (including trypsin or chymotrypsin, forming infectious subviral particles (ISVP which have enhanced infectivity for adult Culicoides, or KC cells (a cell-line derived from C. sonorensis. We demonstrate that VP2 present on purified virus particles from 3 different BTV strains can also be cleaved by treatment with saliva from adult Culicoides. The saliva proteins from C. sonorensis (a competent BTV vector, cleaved BTV-VP2 more efficiently than those from C. nubeculosus (a less competent/non-vector species. Electrophoresis and mass spectrometry identified a trypsin-like protease in C. sonorensis saliva, which was significantly reduced or absent from C. nubeculosus saliva. Incubating purified BTV-1 with C. sonorensis saliva proteins also increased their infectivity for KC cells ∼10 fold, while infectivity for BHK cells was reduced by 2-6 fold. Treatment of an 'eastern' strain of EHDV-2 with saliva proteins of either C. sonorensis or C. nubeculosus cleaved VP2, but a 'western' strain of EHDV-2 remained unmodified. These results indicate that temperature, strain of virus and protein composition of Culicoides saliva (particularly its protease content which is dependent upon vector species, can all play a significant role in the efficiency of VP2 cleavage, influencing virus infectivity. Saliva of several other arthropod species has previously been shown to increase transmission, infectivity and virulence of certain arboviruses, by modulating and/or suppressing the mammalian immune response. The findings presented here, however, demonstrate a novel mechanism by which proteases in Culicoides saliva can also directly modify the orbivirus particle structure, leading to

  4. Community interactions modify the effects of pharmaceutical exposure: a microcosm study on responses to propranolol in Baltic Sea coastal organisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Oskarsson

    Full Text Available This study investigated the uptake and effects of a common human pharmaceutical, propranolol, on the structure and function of a coastal Baltic Sea model community consisting of macroalga (Ceramium tenuicorne, mussels (Mytilus edulis trossulus, amphipods (Gammarus spp., water and sediment. The most sensitive species, the mussel, was affected to the same extent as in previous single species studies, while the effects on the amphipod and alga were smaller or even positive compared to experiments performed in less complex test systems. The observed cascade of beneficial effects was a result of inter-specific species interactions that buffered for more severe effects. The poor condition of the mussel led to a feeding shift from alga to mussel by the amphipods. The better food quality, due to the dietary shift, counteracted the effects of the exposure. Less amphipod grazing, together with increased levels of nutrients in the water was favourable for the alga, despite the negative effects of propranolol. This microcosm study showed effects on organisms on different organizational levels as well as interactions among the different components resulting in indirect exposure effects of both functional and structural nature. The combination of both direct and indirect effects would not have been detected using simpler single- or even two-species study designs. The observed structural changes would in the natural environment have a long-term influence on ecosystem function, especially in a low-biodiversity ecosystem like the Baltic Sea.

  5. Community Interactions Modify the Effects of Pharmaceutical Exposure: A Microcosm Study on Responses to Propranolol in Baltic Sea Coastal Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskarsson, Hanna; Eriksson Wiklund, Ann-Kristin; Thorsén, Gunnar; Danielsson, Gabriela; Kumblad, Linda

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the uptake and effects of a common human pharmaceutical, propranolol, on the structure and function of a coastal Baltic Sea model community consisting of macroalga (Ceramium tenuicorne), mussels (Mytilus edulis trossulus), amphipods (Gammarus spp.), water and sediment. The most sensitive species, the mussel, was affected to the same extent as in previous single species studies, while the effects on the amphipod and alga were smaller or even positive compared to experiments performed in less complex test systems. The observed cascade of beneficial effects was a result of inter-specific species interactions that buffered for more severe effects. The poor condition of the mussel led to a feeding shift from alga to mussel by the amphipods. The better food quality, due to the dietary shift, counteracted the effects of the exposure. Less amphipod grazing, together with increased levels of nutrients in the water was favourable for the alga, despite the negative effects of propranolol. This microcosm study showed effects on organisms on different organizational levels as well as interactions among the different components resulting in indirect exposure effects of both functional and structural nature. The combination of both direct and indirect effects would not have been detected using simpler single- or even two-species study designs. The observed structural changes would in the natural environment have a long-term influence on ecosystem function, especially in a low-biodiversity ecosystem like the Baltic Sea. PMID:24713620

  6. Structure Modify of High-pressure Chamber in Pressure-retaining Sampler for Deep-sea Sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiawang; Ge, Han; Fu, Mengru

    2017-10-01

    The titanium alloy high-pressure chamber studied in this paper serves as a key component of the manipulator-held sampler, which has an ability of in-situ pressure-retaining and used for deep-sea sediment in manned submersibles. Finite element analysis (FEA) had been used to analyze the burst of the high-pressure chamber with original structure under simulated deep-sea condition. Numerical results showed that the burst was due to stress concentration on the top rounded surface of the lower section of pressure chamber, so the structure of high-pressure chamber was further designed to eliminate this stress concentration. After improvement, the maximum principal stress of the concentration point on modified structure was 396.672 MPa about two times smaller than that on the original structure (809.282 MPa). Moreover, an experimental test was carried out to verify the modified structure. The experiment results showed that the in-situ pressure-retaining ability of modified high-pressure chamber could achieve 93% under an ambient pressure of 60 MPa, and the ability was 86.7% when exposed to 71.5 MPa.

  7. Community structure of the metabolically active rumen bacterial and archaeal communities of dairy cows over the transition period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Zhigang; Noel, Samantha Joan; Difford, Gareth Frank

    2017-01-01

    over the transition period, likely in response to the dramatic changes in physiology and nutritional factors like dry matter intake and feed composition. It should be noted however that for the methanogens, the observed community changes were influenced by the analyzed gene (mcrA or 16S rRNA).......Dairy cows experience dramatic changes in host physiology from gestation to lactation period and dietary switch from high-forage prepartum diet to high-concentrate postpartum diet over the transition period (parturition +/- three weeks). Understanding the community structure and activity...... was extracted from the rumen samples and cDNA thereof was subsequently used for characterizing the metabolically active bacterial (16S rRNA transcript amplicon sequencing) and archaeal (qPCR, T-RFLP and mcrA and 16S rRNA transcript amplicon sequencing) communities. The metabolically active bacterial community...

  8. Linking microbial community structure and product spectrum of rice straw fermentation with undefined mixed culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Binling; Chi, Xue; Meng, Jia; Sheng, Zhanwu; Zheng, Lili; Zheng, Xiaoyan; Li, Jianzheng

    2017-12-01

    Undefined mixed culture-based fermentation is an alternative strategy for biofuels and bioproducts production from lignocellulosic biomass without supplementary cellulolytic enzymes. Mixed culture produces mixed carboxylates. To estimate the relationship between microbial community structure and product spectrum, carboxylate production was initiated by mixed cultures with different microbial community structure. All the inoculum cultures were derived from the same enrichment culture from the combination of cattle manure, pig manure compost, corn field soil and rotten wood. Due to the differences in the preparation method and culture time, the inoculum cultures for batch fermentation had high similarity in microbial community structure, while the community structure of each inoculum culture for repeated batch fermentation differed from that of another. The inoculum cultures with similar community structure led to a similar product spectrum. In batch fermentation, the selectivity of main product butyric acid stabilized around 76%. The inoculum cultures with different community structures resulted in different product spectra. In repeated batch fermentation, the butyric acid content gradually decreased to 27%, and the by-product acetic acid content steadily increased to 56%. The other by-products including propionic, valeric and caproic acids were also increased. It is deduced that keeping the microbial community structure stable makes the basic and key precondition for steady production of specific carboxylic acid with undefined mixed culture.

  9. The structure of small mammal communities in some alpine habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Locatelli

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We studied the composition of several small mammal communities living in different mountain and forest habitats of the central eastern Italian Alps. The small mammals were then grouped together, by cluster analysis, according to similarities in species and density. From the 22 stations investigated, five groups emerged, each one having also distinct environmental characteristics. We observed that spruce forest communities are grouped separately from those of mixed forests (larch and Swiss stone pine. We must stress the considerable difference existing between the small mammal communities living in different kinds of coniferous forests. The larch and Swiss stone pine forest seem to be able to support a greater density of small mammals, which includes in particular the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus.

  10. The solidification and structure of Al-17wt.%Si alloy modified with intermetallic phases containing Ti and Fe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Piątkowski

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the process of casting and solidification of Al-17wt.%Si alloy that have been modified with composite powdercontaining the intermetallic phases of Ti and Fe. The chemical and phase composition of the applied modifier was described with thefollowingformula:FeAlx–TiAlx–Al2O3. Applying the method of thermal analysis ATD, the characteristic parameters of the solidificationprocess were determined, and exo-and endothermic effects of the modifying powder on the run of the silumin solidification curves wereobserved. By the methods of light, scanning, and X-ray microscopy, the structure of alloy and the chemical composition of the dispersionhardening precipitates were examined. A change in the morphology of Al-Si eutectic from the lamellar to fibrous type was reportedtogether with changes in the form of complex eutectics of an Al-Si-Ti and Al-Si-Fe type and size reduction of primary silicon crystals.

  11. Impact of the O2 concentrations on bacterial communities and quality of modified atmosphere packaged Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yun-Fang; Yang, Sheng-Ping; Xie, Jing; Xiong, Qing; Gao, Zhi-Li

    2013-12-01

    The importance of spoilage-related bacteria in fresh Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) under different modified atmospheres (MAs) at 4 °C and the effect of O2 were demonstrated in the current study. The changes of bacterial communities in MA-packed shrimp during cold storage were studied by a combined method of plate counts with isolation and identification. Three gas mixtures were applied: 80% CO2 /5% O2 /15% N2, 80% CO2 /10% O2 /10% N2 and 80% CO2 /20% O2, and unsealed packages of shrimp were used as the control. In addition, the TVB-N, pH, whiteness index, and sensory scores were also determined to evaluate the quality changes of shrimp. MA packaging effectively inhibited the increase of total psychrotrophic bacteria counts and H2 S-producing bacteria counts by about 1.7 and 2.1 log cycles, respectively. The growth of Gram-negative spoilage bacteria in shrimp, including Shewanella spp., Aeromonas spp., and Pseudomonas spp., was inhibited by MA packaging, but the growth rate of Gram-positive bacteria such as lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Brochothrix spp. were less affected by MA as effectively as Gram-negative bacteria. In comparison with the MA-packaged samples, the counts of H2 S producers in shrimp under a CO2 -enriched atmosphere with 20% O2 were slightly lower than the count in samples under an atmosphere with 5% O2 . However, MA with 20% O2 led to higher concentrations of TVB-N, and lower whiteness values and sensory scores. The shelf life of shrimp under 80% CO2 /10% O2 /10% N2 has been prolonged by > 6 d in comparison with the control according to the sensory scores. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. Microbes as Engines of Ecosystem Function: When Does Community Structure Enhance Predictions of Ecosystem Processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Emily B; Knelman, Joseph E; Schindlbacher, Andreas; Siciliano, Steven; Breulmann, Marc; Yannarell, Anthony; Beman, J M; Abell, Guy; Philippot, Laurent; Prosser, James; Foulquier, Arnaud; Yuste, Jorge C; Glanville, Helen C; Jones, Davey L; Angel, Roey; Salminen, Janne; Newton, Ryan J; Bürgmann, Helmut; Ingram, Lachlan J; Hamer, Ute; Siljanen, Henri M P; Peltoniemi, Krista; Potthast, Karin; Bañeras, Lluís; Hartmann, Martin; Banerjee, Samiran; Yu, Ri-Qing; Nogaro, Geraldine; Richter, Andreas; Koranda, Marianne; Castle, Sarah C; Goberna, Marta; Song, Bongkeun; Chatterjee, Amitava; Nunes, Olga C; Lopes, Ana R; Cao, Yiping; Kaisermann, Aurore; Hallin, Sara; Strickland, Michael S; Garcia-Pausas, Jordi; Barba, Josep; Kang, Hojeong; Isobe, Kazuo; Papaspyrou, Sokratis; Pastorelli, Roberta; Lagomarsino, Alessandra; Lindström, Eva S; Basiliko, Nathan; Nemergut, Diana R

    2016-01-01

    Microorganisms are vital in mediating the earth's biogeochemical cycles; yet, despite our rapidly increasing ability to explore complex environmental microbial communities, the relationship between microbial community structure and ecosystem processes remains poorly understood. Here, we address a fundamental and unanswered question in microbial ecology: 'When do we need to understand microbial community structure to accurately predict function?' We present a statistical analysis investigating the value of environmental data and microbial community structure independently and in combination for explaining rates of carbon and nitrogen cycling processes within 82 global datasets. Environmental variables were the strongest predictors of process rates but left 44% of variation unexplained on average, suggesting the potential for microbial data to increase model accuracy. Although only 29% of our datasets were significantly improved by adding information on microbial community structure, we observed improvement in models of processes mediated by narrow phylogenetic guilds via functional gene data, and conversely, improvement in models of facultative microbial processes via community diversity metrics. Our results also suggest that microbial diversity can strengthen predictions of respiration rates beyond microbial biomass parameters, as 53% of models were improved by incorporating both sets of predictors compared to 35% by microbial biomass alone. Our analysis represents the first comprehensive analysis of research examining links between microbial community structure and ecosystem function. Taken together, our results indicate that a greater understanding of microbial communities informed by ecological principles may enhance our ability to predict ecosystem process rates relative to assessments based on environmental variables and microbial physiology.

  13. Overlapping communities reveal rich structure in large-scale brain networks during rest and task conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Mahshid; McMenamin, Brenton W; Simon, Jonathan Z; Pessoa, Luiz

    2016-07-15

    Large-scale analysis of functional MRI data has revealed that brain regions can be grouped into stable "networks" or communities. In many instances, the communities are characterized as relatively disjoint. Although recent work indicates that brain regions may participate in multiple communities (for example, hub regions), the extent of community overlap is poorly understood. To address these issues, here we investigated large-scale brain networks based on "rest" and task human functional MRI data by employing a mixed-membership Bayesian model that allows each brain region to belong to all communities simultaneously with varying membership strengths. The approach allowed us to 1) compare the structure of disjoint and overlapping communities; 2) determine the relationship between functional diversity (how diverse is a region's functional activation repertoire) and membership diversity (how diverse is a region's affiliation to communities); 3) characterize overlapping community structure; 4) characterize the degree of non-modularity in brain networks; 5) study the distribution of "bridges", including bottleneck and hub bridges. Our findings revealed the existence of dense community overlap that was not limited to "special" hubs. Furthermore, the findings revealed important differences between community organization during rest and during specific task states. Overall, we suggest that dense overlapping communities are well suited to capture the flexible and task dependent mapping between brain regions and their functions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Structure and function of fish communities in the southern Lake Michigan basin with emphasis on restoration of native fish communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Thomas P.; Stewart, Paul M.

    1999-01-01

    The southern Lake Michigan basin in northwest Indiana possesses a variety of aquatic habitats including riverine, palustrine, and lacustrine systems. The watershed draining this area is a remnant of glacial Lake Chicago and supports fish communities that are typically low in species richness. Composition of the presettlement Lake Michigan fish community near the Indiana Dunes has been difficult to reconstruct. Existing data indicate that the number of native species in the Lake Michigan watershed, including nearshore Lake Michigan, has declined by 22% since the onset of European settlement. Few remnants of natural fish communities exist, and those occur principally in the ponds of Miller Woods, the Grand Calumet Lagoons, and the Little Calumet River. These communities have maintained a relatively diverse assemblage of fishes despite large-scale anthropogenic disturbances in the area, including channelization, massive river redirection, fragmentation, habitat alteration, exotic species invasions, and the introduction of toxic chemicals. Data that we collected from 1985 to 1996 suggested that the Grand Calumet River has the highest proportion of exotic fish species of any inland wetland in northwest Indiana. Along the Lake Michigan shoreline, another group of exotics (e.g., round goby, alewife, and sea lamprey) have affected the structure of native fish communities, thereby altering lake ecosystem function. Stocking programs contribute to the impairment of native communities. Nonindigenous species have restructured the function of Lake Michigan tributaries, causing disruptions in trophic dynamics, guild structure, and species diversity. Several fish communities have been reduced or eliminated by the alteration and destruction of spawning and nursery areas. Degradation of habitats has caused an increase in numbers and populations of species able to tolerate and flourish when confronted with hydrologic alteration. Fish communities found on public lands in northwest

  15. Dynamic changes in bacterial community structure and in naphthalene dioxygenase expression in vermicompost-amended PAH-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Gennaro, Patrizia; Moreno, Beatriz; Annoni, Emanuele; García-Rodríguez, Sonia; Bestetti, Giuseppina; Benitez, Emilio

    2009-12-30

    The aim of the present study was to explore the potential for using vermicompost from olive-mill waste as an organic amendment for enhanced bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)-contaminated soils. The focus was to analyse the genetic potential and the naphthalene dioxygenase (NDO) expression of the bacterial communities involved in the degradation of naphthalene, as chemical model for the degradation of PAH. The structure of the metabolically active bacterial population was evidenced in the RNA-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles. The relative expression of NDO was determined with real-time PCR in both the soil and the vermicompost cDNA. Naphthalene changed the structure of the metabolically active bacterial community in the vermicompost when this was artificially contaminated. When used as amendment, naphthalene-free vermicompost modified the bacterial population in the PAH-contaminated soil, evidenced in the DGGE gels after 1 month of incubation. In the amended soil, the vermicompost enhanced the NDO enzyme expression with a concomitant biodegradation of naphthalene. The effect of the vermicompost was to induce the expression of biodegradation indicator genes in the autochthonous bacterial community and/or incorporate new bacterial species capable of degrading PAH. The results indicated that vermicompost from olive-mill wastes could be considered a suitable technology to be used in PAH bioremediation.

  16. Effect of Some Environmental Variables on the Community Structure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water samples and zooplankton were collected monthly for five months in three sites in Wushishi Dam, Niger State. The study was undertaken to look at effect of some environmental variables on zooplankton community in the dam. Dissolved oxygen (DO) was highest in site 1 with mean value of 2.60±0.248 mg/l. There was ...

  17. Implementing a structured triage system at a community health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: We set out to standardise the triage process and to manage unbooked patients presenting to the community health centre (CHC) in a manner that is medico-legally safe, cost efficient and patient friendly, using the Kaizen method. Methods: The principles of Kaizen were used to observe and identify inefficiencies in the ...

  18. Bacterial community structure in the Cerasus sachalinensis Kom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-21

    Jul 21, 2011 ... bacterial community diversity in the cultivated C. sachalinensis rhizosphere was always higher than the wild, while the evenness and ... The richness and diversity of the bacteria both corresponded to: bud- breaking phase > growing ..... Wright valley, Victoria land, Antarctica. Soil Biol. Biochem. 38: 3041-.

  19. Distribution and community structure of Ostracoda (Crustacea) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current study presents the ostracod communities recovered from 26 shallow waterbodies in southern Kenya, combined with an ecological assessment of habitat characteristics. A total of 37 waterbodies were sampled in 2001 and 2003, ranging from small ephemeral pools to large permanent lakes along broad ...

  20. Post fumigation recovery of soil microbial community structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil fumigants have been extensively used to control target soil-borne pathogens and weeds for the past few decades. It is known that the fumigants with broad biocidal activity can affect both target and non-target soil organisms, but the recovery of soil microbial communities are unknown until rece...

  1. Microbial Community Structure and Soil pH Predict Methane Production in Alaskan Tussock Tundra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, R.; Oechel, W. C.; Zona, D.; Lipson, D.

    2016-12-01

    Microbial diversity and community structure can mediate the rate of biogeochemical processes. Physical and chemical soil properties have been shown to be associated with the microbial community. Soil pH, in particular, is strongly associated with microbial diversity. In the work presented here, metagenomic sequencing was used to investigate links between methane production, soil chemical and physical properties, and ecological measures of microbial diversity and community structure in Arctic Alaska. The top 40cm of soil from two remote sites were investigated at Atqasuk and Ivotuk. Soil pH predicted both microbial community structure (as measured through Bray-Curtis dissimilarity), as well as alpha diversity and species richness. Soil pH was also significantly correlated with methane production in anaerobic incubations. It appears that soil pH may indirectly mediate methane production through control of the microbial community structure. Soil formate (a methanogenesis substrate utilizing the hydrogenotrophic pathway) was also a (marginally) significant predictor of methane production and microbial community structure. Taken together, these results indicate that soil pH and methanogenic substrate abundances may be controlling the microbial community structure (i.e. the distribution of abundances of microbial species), which in turn may affect methane production in Arctic soils.

  2. Electrocatalytic oxidation of formic acid at Pt modified electrodes: substrate effect of unsintered Au nano-structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, R. [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou, 215123 (China); Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi, 830011 (China); Yue, R.; Jiang, F. [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou, 215123 (China); Jiangxi Key Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Jiangxi Science and Technology Normal University, Nanchang, 330013 (China); Du, Y.; Yang, P. [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou, 215123 (China); Wang, C. [Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi, 830011 (China); Xu, J. [Jiangxi Key Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Jiangxi Science and Technology Normal University, Nanchang, 330013 (China)

    2012-12-15

    A Pt-modified Au catalyst featured with novel layered structures and ultra-low Pt loading has been designed and electrochemically fabricated on a glassy carbon (GC) electrode. SEM characterization suggests that as-formed Pt/Au/GC electrode grows in a Stranski-Krastanov mode, resulting in a nearly ideal layered structure with Au at the inner layer and Pt at the outer layer. The electrocatalytic activity of the synthesized Pt/Au/GC electrode towards formic acid electrooxidation was studied, and comparative experiments with other modified electrodes (i.e., Pt/GC, Pt/Au, and Pt/Pt) were also conducted. As a result, the electrocatalytic activity of the outer-layered Pt depends significantly on the intrinsic properties of the substrates. The prepared Pt/Au/GC electrode with Au nanoparticles modified GC as the substrate shows remarkable catalytic activity for the formic acid oxidation, much higher than that of its counterparts, Pt/GC, Pt/Au, and Pt/Pt electrodes. Additionally, the measured electrochemical impedance spectra indicate that the charge-transfer resistance for formic acid electrooxidation on Pt/Au/GC electrode is smaller than that on other Pt modified electrodes. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Geochip: A high throughput genomic tool for linking community structure to functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Liang, Yuting; He, Zhili; Li, Guanghe; Zhou, Jizhong

    2009-01-30

    GeoChip is a comprehensive functional gene array that targets key functional genes involved in the geochemical cycling of N, C, and P, sulfate reduction, metal resistance and reduction, and contaminant degradation. Studies have shown the GeoChip to be a sensitive, specific, and high-throughput tool for microbial community analysis that has the power to link geochemical processes with microbial community structure. However, several challenges remain regarding the development and applications of microarrays for microbial community analysis.

  4. The Structure and Distribution of Benthic Communities on a Shallow Seamount (Cobb Seamount, Northeast Pacific Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherisse Du Preez

    Full Text Available Partially owing to their isolation and remote distribution, research on seamounts is still in its infancy, with few comprehensive datasets and empirical evidence supporting or refuting prevailing ecological paradigms. As anthropogenic activity in the high seas increases, so does the need for better understanding of seamount ecosystems and factors that influence the distribution of sensitive benthic communities. This study used quantitative community analyses to detail the structure, diversity, and distribution of benthic mega-epifauna communities on Cobb Seamount, a shallow seamount in the Northeast Pacific Ocean. Underwater vehicles were used to visually survey the benthos and seafloor in ~1600 images (~5 m2 in size between 34 and 1154 m depth. The analyses of 74 taxa from 11 phyla resulted in the identification of nine communities. Each community was typified by taxa considered to provide biological structure and/or be a primary producer. The majority of the community-defining taxa were either cold-water corals, sponges, or algae. Communities were generally distributed as bands encircling the seamount, and depth was consistently shown to be the strongest environmental proxy of the community-structuring processes. The remaining variability in community structure was partially explained by substrate type, rugosity, and slope. The study used environmental metrics, derived from ship-based multibeam bathymetry, to model the distribution of communities on the seamount. This model was successfully applied to map the distribution of communities on a 220 km2 region of Cobb Seamount. The results of the study support the paradigms that seamounts are diversity 'hotspots', that the majority of seamount communities are at risk to disturbance from bottom fishing, and that seamounts are refugia for biota, while refuting the idea that seamounts have high endemism.

  5. Magnetism and structure of graphene nanodots with interiors modified by boron, nitrogen, and charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpott, Michael R.; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

    2012-08-01

    The properties (geometry, spin, and charge distribution) of a series of flat hexagonal zigzag edged graphene nanodots (GNDs), with interiors modified by centrally located substituent atoms boron and nitrogen and by positive and negative charge, have been calculated using ab initio density functional theory. The doped series X-GND has the stoichiometry C_{6m2-1}XH6m, zigzag size index m = 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and substituent X = B or N. The undoped parents C_{6m2}H6m with m ⩽ 8 have spin paired ground states and the parent m = 10 has a spin polarized singlet ground state with edges that alternate α- and β-spin. The spin on the substituent atom decreases to zero with size index m and magnetization builds on the edges of all the X-GND. This demonstrates translocation of substituent spin and a proximity or directional effect for small m as the edges show different degrees of magnetization. For the largest X-GND (m = 10) the magnetization on edges resembles the calculated triplet S = 1(a) configuration of the parent (four edge spins up and two down) and has a higher apparent symmetry than the C2v point group of X-GND. For charged (m = 10) GNDs the edge magnetization has strength comparable to the parent on two parallel edges and weak on the other four in a perimeter pattern that resembles the triplet S = 1(b) configuration of the undoped parent and not the ground configuration of the isoelectronic X-GND molecule. Many of the results can be interpreted by simple Kekulacute{e} valence bond structures for an unpaired spin on a network where the substituent site group symmetry is not compatible with the perimeter. A deeper understanding is provided by the properties of the Kohn-Sham orbitals. The calculations of the X-doped GNDs reveal limitations in the use of the hex-radical hypothesis of the parent ground state to systems where foreign atoms lower symmetry and perturb the π- and σ-bond manifolds.

  6. The network structure of human personality according to the NEO-PI-R: matching network community structure to factor structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutger Goekoop

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Human personality is described preferentially in terms of factors (dimensions found using factor analysis. An alternative and highly related method is network analysis, which may have several advantages over factor analytic methods. AIM: To directly compare the ability of network community detection (NCD and principal component factor analysis (PCA to examine modularity in multidimensional datasets such as the neuroticism-extraversion-openness personality inventory revised (NEO-PI-R. METHODS: 434 healthy subjects were tested on the NEO-PI-R. PCA was performed to extract factor structures (FS of the current dataset using both item scores and facet scores. Correlational network graphs were constructed from univariate correlation matrices of interactions between both items and facets. These networks were pruned in a link-by-link fashion while calculating the network community structure (NCS of each resulting network using the Wakita Tsurumi clustering algorithm. NCSs were matched against FS and networks of best matches were kept for further analysis. RESULTS: At facet level, NCS showed a best match (96.2% with a 'confirmatory' 5-FS. At item level, NCS showed a best match (80% with the standard 5-FS and involved a total of 6 network clusters. Lesser matches were found with 'confirmatory' 5-FS and 'exploratory' 6-FS of the current dataset. Network analysis did not identify facets as a separate level of organization in between items and clusters. A small-world network structure was found in both item- and facet level networks. CONCLUSION: We present the first optimized network graph of personality traits according to the NEO-PI-R: a 'Personality Web'. Such a web may represent the possible routes that subjects can take during personality development. NCD outperforms PCA by producing plausible modularity at item level in non-standard datasets, and can identify the key roles of individual items and clusters in the network.

  7. The Network Structure of Human Personality According to the NEO-PI-R: Matching Network Community Structure to Factor Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goekoop, Rutger; Goekoop, Jaap G.; Scholte, H. Steven

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Human personality is described preferentially in terms of factors (dimensions) found using factor analysis. An alternative and highly related method is network analysis, which may have several advantages over factor analytic methods. Aim To directly compare the ability of network community detection (NCD) and principal component factor analysis (PCA) to examine modularity in multidimensional datasets such as the neuroticism-extraversion-openness personality inventory revised (NEO-PI-R). Methods 434 healthy subjects were tested on the NEO-PI-R. PCA was performed to extract factor structures (FS) of the current dataset using both item scores and facet scores. Correlational network graphs were constructed from univariate correlation matrices of interactions between both items and facets. These networks were pruned in a link-by-link fashion while calculating the network community structure (NCS) of each resulting network using the Wakita Tsurumi clustering algorithm. NCSs were matched against FS and networks of best matches were kept for further analysis. Results At facet level, NCS showed a best match (96.2%) with a ‘confirmatory’ 5-FS. At item level, NCS showed a best match (80%) with the standard 5-FS and involved a total of 6 network clusters. Lesser matches were found with ‘confirmatory’ 5-FS and ‘exploratory’ 6-FS of the current dataset. Network analysis did not identify facets as a separate level of organization in between items and clusters. A small-world network structure was found in both item- and facet level networks. Conclusion We present the first optimized network graph of personality traits according to the NEO-PI-R: a ‘Personality Web’. Such a web may represent the possible routes that subjects can take during personality development. NCD outperforms PCA by producing plausible modularity at item level in non-standard datasets, and can identify the key roles of individual items and clusters in the network. PMID:23284713

  8. The network structure of human personality according to the NEO-PI-R: matching network community structure to factor structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goekoop, Rutger; Goekoop, Jaap G; Scholte, H Steven

    2012-01-01

    Human personality is described preferentially in terms of factors (dimensions) found using factor analysis. An alternative and highly related method is network analysis, which may have several advantages over factor analytic methods. To directly compare the ability of network community detection (NCD) and principal component factor analysis (PCA) to examine modularity in multidimensional datasets such as the neuroticism-extraversion-openness personality inventory revised (NEO-PI-R). 434 healthy subjects were tested on the NEO-PI-R. PCA was performed to extract factor structures (FS) of the current dataset using both item scores and facet scores. Correlational network graphs were constructed from univariate correlation matrices of interactions between both items and facets. These networks were pruned in a link-by-link fashion while calculating the network community structure (NCS) of each resulting network using the Wakita Tsurumi clustering algorithm. NCSs were matched against FS and networks of best matches were kept for further analysis. At facet level, NCS showed a best match (96.2%) with a 'confirmatory' 5-FS. At item level, NCS showed a best match (80%) with the standard 5-FS and involved a total of 6 network clusters. Lesser matches were found with 'confirmatory' 5-FS and 'exploratory' 6-FS of the current dataset. Network analysis did not identify facets as a separate level of organization in between items and clusters. A small-world network structure was found in both item- and facet level networks. We present the first optimized network graph of personality traits according to the NEO-PI-R: a 'Personality Web'. Such a web may represent the possible routes that subjects can take during personality development. NCD outperforms PCA by producing plausible modularity at item level in non-standard datasets, and can identify the key roles of individual items and clusters in the network.

  9. Marine protected areas increase temporal stability of community structure, but not density or diversity, of tropical seagrass fish communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Alonso Aller

    Full Text Available Marine protected areas (MPAs have been shown to increase long-term temporal stability of fish communities and enhance ecosystem resilience to anthropogenic disturbance. Yet, the potential ability of MPAs to buffer effects of environmental variability at shorter time scales remains widely unknown. In the tropics, the yearly monsoon cycle is a major natural force affecting marine organisms in tropical regions, and its timing and severity are predicted to change over the coming century, with potentially severe effects on marine organisms, ecosystems and ecosystem services. Here, we assessed the ability of MPAs to buffer effects of monsoon seasonality on seagrass-associated fish communities, using a field survey in two MPAs (no-take zones and two unprotected (open-access sites around Zanzibar (Tanzania. We assessed the temporal stability of fish density and community structure within and outside MPAs during three monsoon seasons in 2014-2015, and investigated several possible mechanisms that could regulate temporal stability. Our results show that MPAs did not affect fish density and diversity, but that juvenile fish densities were temporally more stable within MPAs. Second, fish community structure was more stable within MPAs for juvenile and adult fish, but not for subadult fish or the total fish community. Third, the observed effects may be due to a combination of direct and indirect (seagrass-mediated effects of seasonality and, potentially, fluctuating fishing pressure outside MPAs. In summary, these MPAs may not have the ability to enhance fish density and diversity and to buffer effects of monsoon seasonality on the whole fish community. However, they may increase the temporal stability of certain groups, such as juvenile fish. Consequently, our results question whether MPAs play a general role in the maintenance of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning under changing environmental conditions in tropical seagrass fish communities.

  10. Marine protected areas increase temporal stability of community structure, but not density or diversity, of tropical seagrass fish communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso Aller, Elisa; Jiddawi, Narriman S; Eklöf, Johan S

    2017-01-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) have been shown to increase long-term temporal stability of fish communities and enhance ecosystem resilience to anthropogenic disturbance. Yet, the potential ability of MPAs to buffer effects of environmental variability at shorter time scales remains widely unknown. In the tropics, the yearly monsoon cycle is a major natural force affecting marine organisms in tropical regions, and its timing and severity are predicted to change over the coming century, with potentially severe effects on marine organisms, ecosystems and ecosystem services. Here, we assessed the ability of MPAs to buffer effects of monsoon seasonality on seagrass-associated fish communities, using a field survey in two MPAs (no-take zones) and two unprotected (open-access) sites around Zanzibar (Tanzania). We assessed the temporal stability of fish density and community structure within and outside MPAs during three monsoon seasons in 2014-2015, and investigated several possible mechanisms that could regulate temporal stability. Our results show that MPAs did not affect fish density and diversity, but that juvenile fish densities were temporally more stable within MPAs. Second, fish community structure was more stable within MPAs for juvenile and adult fish, but not for subadult fish or the total fish community. Third, the observed effects may be due to a combination of direct and indirect (seagrass-mediated) effects of seasonality and, potentially, fluctuating fishing pressure outside MPAs. In summary, these MPAs may not have the ability to enhance fish density and diversity and to buffer effects of monsoon seasonality on the whole fish community. However, they may increase the temporal stability of certain groups, such as juvenile fish. Consequently, our results question whether MPAs play a general role in the maintenance of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning under changing environmental conditions in tropical seagrass fish communities.

  11. Centralized Drinking Water Treatment Operations Shape Bacterial and Fungal Community Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao; Vikram, Amit; Casson, Leonard; Bibby, Kyle

    2017-07-05

    Drinking water microbial communities impact opportunistic pathogen colonization and corrosion of water distribution systems, and centralized drinking water treatment represents a potential control for microbial community structure in finished drinking water. In this article, we examine bacterial and fungal abundance and diversity, as well as the microbial community taxonomic structure following each unit operation in a conventional surface water treatment plant. Treatment operations drove the microbial composition more strongly than sampling time. Both bacterial and fungal abundance and diversity decreased following sedimentation and filtration; however, only bacterial abundance and diversity was significantly impacted by free chlorine disinfection. Similarly, each treatment step was found to shift bacterial and fungal community beta-diversity, with the exception of disinfection on the fungal community structure. We observed the enrichment of bacterial and fungal taxa commonly found in drinking water distribution systems through the treatment process, for example, Sphingomonas following filtration and Leptospirillium and Penicillium following disinfection. Study results suggest that centralized drinking water treatment processes shape the final drinking water microbial community via selection of community members and that the bacterial community is primarily driven by disinfection while the eukaryotic community is primarily controlled by physical treatment processes.

  12. Microbial activity and community structure in two drained fen soils in the Ljubljana Marsh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraigher, Barbara; Stres, Blaz; Hacin, Janez; Ausec, Luka; Mahne, Ivan; van Elsas, Jan D.; Mandic-Mulec, Ines

    Fen peatlands are specific wetland ecosystems containing high soil organic carbon (SOC). There is a general lack of knowledge about the microbial communities that abound in these systems. We examined the microbial activity and community structure in two fen soils differing in SOC content sampled

  13. Influence of static habitat attributes on local and regional Rocky intertidal community structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konar, B.; Iken, K.; Coletti, H.; Monson, Daniel H.; Weitzman, Ben P.

    2016-01-01

    Rocky intertidal communities are structured by local environmental drivers, which can be dynamic, fluctuating on various temporal scales, or static and not greatly varying across years. We examined the role of six static drivers (distance to freshwater, tidewater glacial presence, wave exposure, fetch, beach slope, and substrate composition) on intertidal community structure across the northern Gulf of Alaska. We hypothesized that community structure is less similar at the local scale compared with the regional scale, coinciding with static drivers being less similar on smaller than larger scales. We also hypothesized that static attributes mainly drive local biological community structure. For this, we surveyed five to six sites in each of the six regions in the mid and low intertidal strata. Across regions, static attributes were not consistently different and only small clusters of sites had similar attributes. Additionally, intertidal communities were less similar on the site compared with the region level. These results suggest that these biological communities are not strongly influenced by the local static attributes measured in this study. An alternative explanation is that static attributes among our regions are not different enough to influence the biological communities. This lack of evidence for a strong static driver may be a result of our site selection, which targeted rocky sheltered communities. This suggests that this habitat may be ideal to examine the influence of dynamic drivers. We recommend that future analyses of dynamic attributes may best be performed after analyses have demonstrated that sites do not differ in static attributes.

  14. The Scope and Design of Structured Group Learning Experiences at Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Deryl K.; Bohlig, E. Michael

    2015-01-01

    This study explores through descriptive analysis the similarities of structured group learning experiences such as first-year seminars, learning communities, orientation, success courses, and accelerated developmental education programs, in terms of their design features and implementation at community colleges. The study takes as its conceptual…

  15. The fungal community structure of barley malts from diverse geographical regions correlates with malt quality parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Mandeep; Bowman, John P; Stewart, Doug C; Evans, David E

    2015-12-23

    Malt is a preferred base for fermentations that produce beer or whisky. Barley for malt is grown under diverse environments in different geographical locations. Malt provides an ecological niche for a varied range of microorganisms with both positive and negative effects on its quality for brewing. Little information exists in the literature on the microbial community structure of Australian malt as well as broader global geographical differences in the associated fungal and bacterial communities. The aims of the present study were to compare the bacterial and fungal community structures of Australian commercial malt with its international counterparts originating from different geographical regions using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) fingerprinting and clone library analyses of ribosomal RNA genes. Further, the relationship between malt associated microbial communities and conventional malt quality parameters was also compared. Results showed that differences in fungal communities of malts from different geographical location were more pronounced than bacterial communities. TRFLP analysis discriminated high quality commercial malts with low fungal loads from malts deliberately infected with fungal inocula (Fusarium/Penicillium). Malt moisture, beta-amylase, α-amylase and limit dextrinase contents showed significant correlations with fungal community structure. This investigation concluded that fungal community structure was more important to subsequent malt quality outcomes than bacteria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of landscape structure and land-use intensity on similarity of plant and animal communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dormann, C.; Schweiger, O.; Augenstein, I.; Bailey, D.; Billeter, R.; Blust, de G.; DeFilippi, R.; Frenzel, M.; Hendrickx, F.; Herzog, F.; Klotz, S.; Liira, J.; Maelfait, J.P.; Schmidt, T.; Speelmans, M.; Wingerden, van W.K.R.E.; Zobel, M.

    2007-01-01

    Aim Species richness in itself is not always sufficient to evaluate land management strategies for nature conservation. The exchange of species between local communities may be affected by landscape structure and land-use intensity. Thus, species turnover, and its inverse, community similarity, may

  17. Simulated nitrogen deposition affects community structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in northern hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda T.A. Van Diepen; Erik Lilleskov; Kurt S. Pregitzer

    2011-01-01

    Our previous investigation found elevated nitrogen deposition caused declines in abundance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) associated with forest trees, but little is known about how nitrogen affects the AMF community composition and structure within forest ecosystems. We hypothesized that N deposition would lead to significant changes in the AMF community...

  18. Relationship between microbial activity and microbial community structure in six full-scale anaerobic digesters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regueiro, L.; Veiga, P.; Figueroa, M.; Alonso-Gutierrez, J.; Stams, A.J.M.; Lema, J.M.; Carballa, M.

    2012-01-01

    High activity levels and balanced anaerobic microbial communities are necessary to attain proper anaerobic digestion performance. Therefore, this work was focused on the kinetic performance and the microbial community structure of six full-scale anaerobic digesters and one lab-scale co-digester.

  19. A sampling theory for dispersal-limited, niche-structured communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E. Noble; N.M. Temme (Nico); W.F. Fagan; T.H. Keitt

    2011-01-01

    textabstractWe introduce the first analytical model of a dispersal-limited, niche-structured community to yield Hubbell's neutral theory in the limit of functional equivalence among all species. Dynamics of the multivariate species abundance distribution (SAD) for an asymmetric local community are

  20. Diverse Asian American Families and Communities: Culture, Structure, and Education (Part 1: Why They Differ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Susan J.; Rahman, Zaynah; Kula, Stacy M.; Saito, L. Erika; Witenstein, Matthew A.

    2017-01-01

    Based on 11 diverse Asian American (AA) communities, this article discusses the similarities and differences across East, South, and Southeast Asians. Of two parts in this journal issue, Part 1 presents a review of literature and census data to understand the cultural and structural factors of different types of coethnic communities (strong, weak,…

  1. Control of flexible structures and the research community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keckler, Claude R.; Pyle, Jon S.

    1987-01-01

    The Control of Flexible Structures II (CPFS) program is a complex and ambitious undertaking which addresses several critical technology areas. Among them are modeling, structural dynamics, control, and ground testing issues, which are also applicable to other large space structure programs being contemplated. This effort requires early integration of controls and structural dynamic considerations. Several technological advances must be achieved in the areas of system modeling, control synthesis and methodology, sensor/actuator development, and ground testing techniques for system evaluation and on-orbit performance prediction and verification. This program offers an opportunity for the integration of several disciplines to produce technology advances which will benefit many future programs.

  2. Structural phase states in NiTi near-surface layers modified by electron and ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meisner, Ludmila, E-mail: llm@ispms.tsc.ru; Meisner, Stanislav, E-mail: msn@ispms.tsc.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055, Russia and National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Mironov, Yurii, E-mail: myp@ispms.tsc.ru; Kashin, Oleg, E-mail: okashin@ispms.tsc.ru; Lotkov, Aleksandr, E-mail: lotkov@ispms.tsc.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); Kudryashov, Andrey, E-mail: info@angioline.ru [Angioline Interventional Device, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-14

    The paper considers the effects arising on X-ray diffraction patterns taken in different diffraction geometries and how these effects can be interpreted to judge structural states in NiTi near-surface regions after electron and ion beam treatment. It is shown that qualitative and quantitative analysis of phase composition, lattice parameters of main phases, elastic stress states, and their in-depth variation requires X-ray diffraction patterns in both symmetric Bragg–Brentano and asymmetric Lambot–Vassamilleta geometries with variation in X-ray wavelengths and imaging conditions (with and with no β-filter). These techniques of structural phase analysis are more efficient when the thickness of modified NiTi surface layers is 1–10 μm (after electron beam treatment) and requires special imaging conditions when the thickness of modified NiTi surface layers is no greater than 1 μm (after ion beam treatment)

  3. Comparative analysis of the spatio-temporal dynamics of rotifer community structure based on taxonomic indices and functional groups in two subtropical lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xinli; Zhai, Pan; Feng, Ruonan; Yang, Ruijie; Xi, Yilong

    2017-04-03

    Little research has focused on how rotifer communities respond to eutrophication based on their combined taxonomic and functional indices. In this research, the relationship of the environment and rotifer communities was comparatively investigated in two subtropical lakes over one year. The taxon-based indices, including species number (S), Margalef index (D), Simpson index (d), Shannon-wiener index (H'), and functional traits relying on the guild ratio (GR) and the modified guild ratio (GR') from the moderately eutrophic Lake Xiyanghu were significantly lower than those from the slightly eutrophic Lake Jinghu. Redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that both lakes were distinct from each other. Taken together, the findings indicate that trophic state was an important factor affecting rotifer community structure. In addition, the average annual GR' of Lake Xiyanghu was trophic state and the rotifer community in seriously eutrophic lakes.

  4. Biofouling-resistant ceragenin-modified materials and structures for water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbs, Michael; Altman, Susan J.; Jones, Howland D. T.; Savage, Paul B.

    2013-09-10

    This invention relates to methods for chemically grafting and attaching ceragenin molecules to polymer substrates; methods for synthesizing ceragenin-containing copolymers; methods for making ceragenin-modified water treatment membranes and spacers; and methods of treating contaminated water using ceragenin-modified treatment membranes and spacers. Ceragenins are synthetically produced antimicrobial peptide mimics that display broad-spectrum bactericidal activity. Alkene-functionalized ceragenins (e.g., acrylamide-functionalized ceragenins) can be attached to polyamide reverse osmosis membranes using amine-linking, amide-linking, UV-grafting, or silane-coating methods. In addition, silane-functionalized ceragenins can be directly attached to polymer surfaces that have free hydroxyls.

  5. Dynamic and structural correlations in nanocomposites of silica with modified surface and carboxylated nitrile rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Renata L; Oliveira Xavier, Tatielih P; Venâncio, Tiago; Arantes, Tatiane Moraes; Paranhos, Caio M; Camargo, Emerson R

    2016-03-15

    Distinct affinities between the organic and inorganic phases were observed in nanocomposites prepared through a colloidal route with carboxylated nitrile rubber and modified silica nanoparticles, which resulted in variable mechanical properties and improved thermal stability. Nanoparticles with modified surface affected the macromolecular arrangements of the elastomeric matrix, changing the final mechanical behavior of the nanocomposite, which could be predicted by the spin-lattice relaxation time measured by solid-state NMR. It was also possible to identify how each different nanoparticle affected the molecular dynamic of nanocomposite, correlating the dynamic-mechanical analysis with the NMR data of the saturated carbons of the elastomer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Dominant Tree Species and Soil Type Affect the Fungal Community Structure in a Boreal Peatland Forest

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sun, Hui; Terhonen, Eeva; Kovalchuk, Andriy; Tuovila, Hanna; Chen, Hongxin; Oghenekaro, Abbot O; Heinonsalo, Jussi; Kohler, Annegret; Kasanen, Risto; Vasander, Harri; Asiegbu, Fred O

    2016-01-01

    .... In this study, we have investigated the fungal diversity and community structure of both the organic soil layer and buried wood in boreal forest soils using high-throughput sequencing of the internal...

  7. Impact of maintenance dredging on macrobenthic community structure of a tropical estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rehitha, T.V.; Ullas, N; Vineetha, G.; Benny, P.Y; Madhu, N; Revichandran, C.

    This paper demonstrates the impact of maintenance dredging activities on the macrobenthic community structure of a tropical monsoonal estuary (Cochin estuary), located in the southwest coast of India for three consecutive years. The results...

  8. Is benthic food web structure related to diversity of marine macrobenthic communities?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sokolowski, A.; Wolowicz, M.; Asmus, H.; Asmus, R.; Carlier, A.; Gasiunaite, Z.; Gremare, A.; Hummel, H.; Lesutiene, J.; Razinkovas, A.; Renaud, P.E.; Richard, P.; Kedra, M.

    2012-01-01

    Numerical structure and the organisation of food webs within macrozoobenthic communities has been assessed in the European waters (Svalbard, Barents Sea, Baltic Sea, North Sea, Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea) to address the interactions between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning.

  9. Size and structure of bacterial, fungal and nematode communities along an Antarctic environmental gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yergeau, E.; Bokhorst, S.F.; Huiskes, A.H.L.; Boschker, H.T.S.; Aerts, R.A.M.; Kowalchuk, G.A.

    2007-01-01

    The unusually harsh environmental conditions of terrestrial Antarctic habitats result in ecosystems with simplified trophic structures, where microbial processes are especially dominant as drivers of soil-borne nutrient cycling. We examined soil-borne Antarctic communities (bacteria, fungi and

  10. Size and structure of microbial, fungal and nematode communities along an Antarctic environmental gradient.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yergeau, E.; Bokhorst, S.F.; Huiskes, A.H.L.; Boschker, H.T.S.; Aerts, R.; Kowalchuk, G.A.

    2007-01-01

    The unusually harsh environmental conditions of terrestrial Antarctic habitats result in ecosystems with simplified trophic structures, where microbial processes are especially dominant as drivers of soil-borne nutrient cycling. We examined soil-borne Antarctic communities (bacteria, fungi and

  11. Seasonal Dynamics of Ant Community Structure in the Moroccan Argan Forest

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abderrahim El Keroumi; Khalid Naamani; Hassna Soummane; Abdallah Dahbi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract In this study we describe the structure and composition of ant communities in the endemic Moroccan Argan forest, using pitfall traps sampling technique throughout the four seasons between May...

  12. Determinants of the microbial community structure of eutrophic, hyporheic river sediments polluted with chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamonts, K.; Ryngaert, A.; Smidt, H.; Springael, D.; Dejonghe, W.

    2014-01-01

    Chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) often discharge into rivers as contaminated groundwater baseflow. As biotransformation of CAHs in the impacted river sediments might be an effective remediation strategy, we investigated the determinants of the microbial community structure of eutrophic,

  13. Effect of tropical rainfall in structuring the macrobenthic community of Mandovi estuary, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaonkar, U.V.; Sivadasa, S.K.; Ingole, B.S

    Macrofaunal community structure is determined by a number of environmental variables. The riverine run-off during the monsoon brings about drastic changes in the physico-chemical parameters of a tropical estuary. The aim of the present study...

  14. Insidious Power: The Structure of Community College Course Placement Counseling

    OpenAIRE

    Maldonado, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Past research has shown slightly mixed results about the relationship between community college academic counseling and Latino student experiences. Latino student experiences with academic counseling have been shown to be positive within the context of a special program. However, researchers have not examined how academic counseling is related to course access for Latino students. Given limitations of past research, this dissertation sought to examine counselor and Latino student perceptions ...

  15. Polychaete community structure of Indian west coast shelf, Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joydas, T.V.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Damodaran, R.

    . The present study investigates the scope of TS in benthic fauna of con- tinental shelf off the west coast of India, where our study 12 has shown that the depth and natural environmental gradi- ents influence the distribution and abun- dance of polychaetes.... The present study confirmed that in the western con- tinental shelf of India, genus and family aggregations of polychaetes show similar community response as that of species on a depth gradient in this environment. Our high resolution data showed...

  16. Structure of the Scientific Community Modelling the Evolution of Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Faced with the recurrent evolution of resistance to pesticides and drugs, the scientific community has developed theoretical models aimed at identifying the main factors of this evolution and predicting the efficiency of resistance management strategies. The evolutionary forces considered by these models are generally similar for viruses, bacteria, fungi, plants or arthropods facing drugs or pesticides, so interaction between scientists working on different biological organisms would be expec...

  17. Predicting Successful Memes using Network and Community Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Weng, Lilian; Menczer, Filippo; Ahn, Yong-Yeol

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the predictability of successful memes using their early spreading patterns in the underlying social networks. We propose and analyze a comprehensive set of features and develop an accurate model to predict future popularity of a meme given its early spreading patterns. Our paper provides the first comprehensive comparison of existing predictive frameworks. We categorize our features into three groups: influence of early adopters, community concentration, and characteristics of...

  18. Unique Gene-Silencing and Structural Properties of 2;#8242;-Fluoro-Modified siRNAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manoharan, Muthiah; Akinc, Akin; Pandey, Rajendra K.; Qin, June; Hadwiger, Philipp; John, Matthias; Mills, Kathy; Charisse, Klaus; Maier, Martin A.; Nechev, Lubomir; Greene, Emily M.; Pallan, Pradeep S.; Rozners, Eriks; Rajeev, Kallanthottathil G.; Egli, Martin (Binghamton); (Alnylam Pharm.); (Vanderbilt)

    2015-10-15

    With little or no negative impact on the activity of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), regardless of the number of modifications or the positions within the strand, the 2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro (2'-F) modification is unique. Furthermore, the 2'-F-modified siRNA (see crystal structure) was thermodynamically more stable and more nuclease-resistant than the parent siRNA, and produced no immunostimulatory response.

  19. [Effects of Perfluoroalkyl Substances on the Microbial Community Structure in Surface Sediments of Typical River, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ya-jun; Wang, Tie-yu; Peng, Xia-wei; Wang, Pei

    2015-07-01

    In order to reveal the relationship between Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) contamination and the bacterial community composition, surface sediment samples were collected along the Xiaoqing River in Shandong Province in April and July 2014 (XQ1-XQ10), where many PFASs manufacturers were located. PFASs were quantified by HPLC/MS-MS, related environmental factors affecting the microbial community structure were measured, and the microbial community structure in surface sediments was measured by the second-generation sequencing technology Illumina MiSeq. The results not only revealed the degree of PFASs pollution in the sediments of Xiaoqing River, but also illustrated the relationship between PFASs pollution and the microbial community structure. Among the twelve kinds of PFASs detected in this study, PFOA was the predominant compound, and the highest PFOA concentrations were detected in the sample of XQ5 (April: 456. 2 ng. g-1; July: 748.7 ng . g-1) located at the downstream of Xiaoqing River with many fluoropolymer producing facilities. PFOA contamination was the main factor affecting the microbial community structure in April, accordingly community richness and evenness were significantly negatively correlated with PFOA levels. The abundance of Thiobacillus increased with the increasing PFOA concentration in the sediment PFOA. This suggested that Thiobacillus was sensitive to PFOA pollution and might be the potential indicator to reveal the degree of PFOA pollution in sediment. When the concentrations of PFOA were below 100 ng . g-1, no significant effects on the microbial community structure were observed.

  20. Planktonic ciliate community structure in shallow lakes of lowland Western Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wichelen, Jeroen; Johansson, Liselotte S; Vanormelingen, Pieter; Declerck, Steven A J; Lauridsen, Torben L; De Meester, Luc; Jeppesen, Erik; Vyverman, Wim

    2013-11-01

    Temperate shallow meso- to eutrophic lakes can exist in one of two alternative states with contrasting foodwebs, referred to as the clear-water and the turbid state. We describe the planktonic ciliate communities of such lakes based on a survey of 66 northwestern European lakes. Ciliates were enumerated and identified to species level according to the quantitative protargol staining technique. Ciliate biomass was on average twice as high in the turbid than in the clear-water lakes. The ciliate communities were dominated by oligotrichs and protostomatids, and no differences in functional composition or α-diversity could be detected between turbid and clear-water lakes, although β-diversity tended to be higher in the latter. At the species level, however, community structure strongly differed between turbid and clear-water lakes, and several indicator species could be identified for the different lake categories. Variation partitioning showed that nutrient status did not explain ciliate community structure independent of the alternative states, while lake area was identified as an additional structuring factor for the ciliate communities. These results stress the importance of the ecosystem structure in shaping ciliate communities in temperate shallow lakes and suggest that nutrient status has little direct effect on ciliate community structure in such lakes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Variations in Microbial Community Structure through the Stratified Water Column in the Tyrrhenian Sea (Central Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Smedile

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The central Mediterranean Sea is among the most oligotrophic habitats in the marine environment. In this study, we investigated the abundance, diversity and activity of prokaryoplankton in the water column (25–3000-m depth at Station Vector (Tyrrhenian Sea, 39°32.050′ N; 13°22.280′ E. This specific water column consists of three different water masses (Modified Atlantic Water (MAW, Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW and Tyrrhenian Deep Water (TDW, possessing a typical stratification of the Central Mediterranean basin. CARD-FISH showed that the metabolically-active fraction of bacterial populations exceeded the archaeal fraction along the whole water column, except at the deepest water masses. 16S rDNA and 16S rRNA clone libraries obtained from each type of water mass were used to analyse the prokaryoplankton community structure and to distinguish between active and “less active” microbial fractions. Our results showed that the rRNA-derived bacterial libraries seemed to be more depth specific compared to 16S rDNA-derived counterparts. Major differences were detected between the active fractions of bacterioplankton thriving in photic (25 m, MAW and aphotic layers (500–3000 m, LIW and TDW respectively, whereas no statistically-significant differences were detected within the deep, aphotic layers (500–3000 m, LIW and TDW. Archaeal communities possessed more depth-specific distribution patterns with both total and active fractions showing depth stratification. Cyanobacteria and Marine Group II MAGII of Euryarchaea dominated the MAW prokaryoplankton. A notable fraction of Geitlerinema-related cyanobacteria was detected among the metabolically-active bacterial population recovered from the mesopelagic (500 m, LIW aphotic layer, which is indicative of their mixotrophic behaviour. Heterotrophic Gammaproteobacteria and members of Marine Group 1.1a and the PSL12-related ALOHA group of Thaumarchaeota were both abundant in the aphotic layers

  2. Microbial resource utilization traits and trade-offs: implications for community structure, functioning and biogeochemical impacts at present and in the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena eLitchman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Trait-based approaches provide a mechanistic framework to understand and predict the structure and functioning of microbial communities. Resource utilization traits and trade-offs are among key microbial traits that describe population dynamics and competition among microbes. Several important trade-offs have been identified for prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial taxa that define contrasting ecological strategies and contribute to species coexistence and diversity. The shape, dimensionality and hierarchy of trade-offs may determine coexistence patterns and need to be better characterized. Laboratory measured resource utilization traits can be used to explain temporal and spatial structure and dynamics of natural microbial communities and predict biogeochemical impacts. Global environmental change can alter microbial community composition through altering resource utilization by different microbes and, consequently, may modify biogeochemical impacts of microbes.

  3. Gut bacterial community structure of two Australian tropical fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Narit Thaochan; Richard A.I. Drew; Anuchit Chinajariyawong; Anurag Sunpapao; Chaninun Pornsuriya

    2015-01-01

    The community structure of the alimentary tract bacteria of two Australian fruit fly species, Bactrocera cacuminata (Hering) and Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), was studied using a molecular cloning method based on the 16S rRNA gene. Differences in the bacterial community structure were shown between the crops and midguts of the two species and sexes of each species. Proteobacteria was the dominant bacterial phylum in the flies, especially bacteria in the order Gammaproteobacteria w...

  4. Megaherbivores influence trophic guilds structure in African ungulate communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Hervé; Duncan, Patrick; Gordon, Iain J; Illius, Andrew W

    2002-05-01

    We used a data set of ungulate censuses from 31 natural ecosystems from East and Southern Africa to test two hypotheses: (1) megaherbivores should dominate ungulate communities in ecosystems with high rainfall and low soil nutrient status because of their ability to survive on poor quality food resources, and (2) the abundance of megaherbivores affects the abundance of the mesoherbivores, distinguishing the different feeding guilds: mesograzers, mesobrowsers and mesomixed feeders. Two axes of a multivariate analysis (77% of the variance) discriminated the sites well, the first separating sites dominated by megaherbivores from those dominated by mesoherbivores, and the second representing a gradient between mesograzers and mesobrowsers. Our analysis shows (1) that megaherbivores can be considered to be a separate trophic guild and (2) that mesograzers and mesobrowsers respond differently to variation in their trophic environments. The metabolic biomass density of megaherbivores increased with annual rainfall, but was not related to soil nutrient status, and as predicted, megaherbivores comprised a larger proportion of the biomass of ungulate communities in ecosystems with high rainfall and low nutrient soils. The metabolic biomass density of mesoherbivores increased with rainfall and soil nutrient status. Within the mesoherbivores, the metabolic biomass density of mesograzers showed the same trend, and seemed unaffected by megaherbivores. Conversely, mesobrowsers and mesomixed feeders appeared to be unaffected by rainfall or soil nutrient status, but mesomixed feeders declined when megaherbivores were abundant. This suggests that megaherbivores may compete with the mesomixed-feeder species for food or they may alter the vegetation communities unfavourably. A similar analysis using elephants alone instead of megaherbivores as a group showed that both mesobrowsers and mesomixed feeders were affected significantly by elephant, which is consistent with the fact that

  5. A model based on soil structural aspects describing the fate of genetically modified bacteria in soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeven, van der N.; Elsas, van J.D.; Heijnen, C.E.

    1996-01-01

    A computer simulation model was developed which describes growth and competition of bacteria in the soil environment. In the model, soil was assumed to contain millions of pores of a few different size classes. An introduced bacterial strain, e.g. a genetically modified micro-organism (GEMMO), was

  6. Convergent evolution of modularity in metabolic networks through different community structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wanding; Nakhleh, Luay

    2012-09-14

    It has been reported that the modularity of metabolic networks of bacteria is closely related to the variability of their living habitats. However, given the dependency of the modularity score on the community structure, it remains unknown whether organisms achieve certain modularity via similar or different community structures. In this work, we studied the relationship between similarities in modularity scores and similarities in community structures of the metabolic networks of 1021 species. Both similarities are then compared against the genetic distances. We revisited the association between modularity and variability of the microbial living environments and extended the analysis to other aspects of their life style such as temperature and oxygen requirements. We also tested both topological and biological intuition of the community structures identified and investigated the extent of their conservation with respect to the taxonomy. We find that similar modularities are realized by different community structures. We find that such convergent evolution of modularity is closely associated with the number of (distinct) enzymes in the organism's metabolome, a consequence of different life styles of the species. We find that the order of modularity is the same as the order of the number of the enzymes under the classification based on the temperature preference but not on the oxygen requirement. Besides, inspection of modularity-based communities reveals that these communities are graph-theoretically meaningful yet not reflective of specific biological functions. From an evolutionary perspective, we find that the community structures are conserved only at the level of kingdoms. Our results call for more investigation into the interplay between evolution and modularity: how evolution shapes modularity, and how modularity affects evolution (mainly in terms of fitness and evolvability). Further, our results call for exploring new measures of modularity and network

  7. Convergent evolution of modularity in metabolic networks through different community structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Wanding

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been reported that the modularity of metabolic networks of bacteria is closely related to the variability of their living habitats. However, given the dependency of the modularity score on the community structure, it remains unknown whether organisms achieve certain modularity via similar or different community structures. Results In this work, we studied the relationship between similarities in modularity scores and similarities in community structures of the metabolic networks of 1021 species. Both similarities are then compared against the genetic distances. We revisited the association between modularity and variability of the microbial living environments and extended the analysis to other aspects of their life style such as temperature and oxygen requirements. We also tested both topological and biological intuition of the community structures identified and investigated the extent of their conservation with respect to the taxomony. Conclusions We find that similar modularities are realized by different community structures. We find that such convergent evolution of modularity is closely associated with the number of (distinct enzymes in the organism’s metabolome, a consequence of different life styles of the species. We find that the order of modularity is the same as the order of the number of the enzymes under the classification based on the temperature preference but not on the oxygen requirement. Besides, inspection of modularity-based communities reveals that these communities are graph-theoretically meaningful yet not reflective of specific biological functions. From an evolutionary perspective, we find that the community structures are conserved only at the level of kingdoms. Our results call for more investigation into the interplay between evolution and modularity: how evolution shapes modularity, and how modularity affects evolution (mainly in terms of fitness and evolvability. Further, our results

  8. Correlation of Bulk Dielectric and Piezoelectric Properties to the Local Scale Phase Transformations, Domain Morphology, and Crystal Structure Modified

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priya, Shashank [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Viehland, Dwight [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2014-12-14

    Three year program entitled “Correlation of bulk dielectric and piezoelectric properties to the local scale phase transformations, domain morphology, and crystal structure in modified lead-free grain-textured ceramics and single crystals” was supported by the Department of Energy. This was a joint research program between D. Viehland and S. Priya at Virginia Tech. Single crystal and textured ceramics have been synthesized and characterized. Our goals have been (i) to conduct investigations of lead-free piezoelectric systems to establish the local structural and domain morphologies that result in enhanced properties, and (ii) to synthesize polycrystalline and grain oriented ceramics for understanding the role of composition, microstructure, and anisotropy

  9. Introducing TreeClimber, a test to compare microbial community structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloss, Patrick D; Handelsman, Jo

    2006-04-01

    The phylogenetic and ecological complexity of microbial communities necessitates the development of new methods to determine whether two or more communities have the same structure even though it is not possible to sample the communities exhaustively. To address this need, we adapted a method used in population genetics, the parsimony test, to determine the relatedness of communities. Here we describe our implementation of the parsimony test, TreeClimber, in which we reanalyzed six previously published studies and compared the results of the analysis to those obtained using integral-LIBSHUFF.

  10. Structure of the scientific community modelling the evolution of resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-05

    Faced with the recurrent evolution of resistance to pesticides and drugs, the scientific community has developed theoretical models aimed at identifying the main factors of this evolution and predicting the efficiency of resistance management strategies. The evolutionary forces considered by these models are generally similar for viruses, bacteria, fungi, plants or arthropods facing drugs or pesticides, so interaction between scientists working on different biological organisms would be expected. We tested this by analysing co-authorship and co-citation networks using a database of 187 articles published from 1977 to 2006 concerning models of resistance evolution to all major classes of pesticides and drugs. These analyses identified two main groups. One group, led by ecologists or agronomists, is interested in agricultural crop or stock pests and diseases. It mainly uses a population genetics approach to model the evolution of resistance to insecticidal proteins, insecticides, herbicides, antihelminthic drugs and miticides. By contrast, the other group, led by medical scientists, is interested in human parasites and mostly uses epidemiological models to study the evolution of resistance to antibiotic and antiviral drugs. Our analyses suggested that there is also a small scientific group focusing on resistance to antimalaria drugs, and which is only poorly connected with the two larger groups. The analysis of cited references indicates that each of the two large communities publishes its research in a different set of literature and has its own keystone references: citations with a large impact in one group are almost never cited by the other. We fear the lack of exchange between the two communities might slow progress concerning resistance evolution which is currently a major issue for society.

  11. Structural Analysis of Surface-Modified Oxidation-Resistant Zirconium Alloy Cladding for Light Water Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youho; No, Hee Cheon; Lee, Jeong Ik [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    -suppression performance of coated zirconium-based alloy cladding. It is important to note that oxidation-suppression performance of coated zirconium-based alloy cladding assumes mechanical integrity of the coating layer. Hence, maintaining mechanical integrity of coated layer as well as the underlying cladding material under as well as the underlying cladding material under realistic stress fields holds a key to success of coating technology. In this study, we investigate stress fields that coated zircaloy would experience during steady-state operation. With the obtained stress fields, we discuss mechanical integrity of coated zircaloy cladding with inferable failure modes. From the stress analysis of the coated zirconium-based alloy cladding with Cr, we would like to inform ATF communities that there could be potentially a structural issue for high burnup operation of coated zircaloy cladding. We anticipate noticeable dispersed fractures of the protective oxide layer once fuel rod reaches an interfacial gap pressure - not particularly higher than the typical gap interfacial pressure that we would normally expect as a result of pellet and cladding mechanical interaction (PCMI). Hence, in order for the cladding coating idea to survive and gain much more confidence, we recommend experimentalists to run their oxidation experiments under high-burnup simulating stress fields. A material that could sustain its mechanical integrity under such simulated stress fields should be treated as a potential coating candidate. This study may be used to infer a key technical challenge associated with cladding surface modification concept - that one may be able to understand with a mere common sense; in notorious incore environments, laminating multiple layers would be never as easy as one can easily expect in the lab.

  12. Violence, omissions and structures faced by LGBTI community individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Fernando Quinche Ramírez

    2016-07-01

    text works on the issue of legislative and conventional omissions, and identifies some of the traditional domain structures, those that impede the recognition and protection of this community’s rights.

  13. Bacterial community structure and soil properties of a subarctic tundra soil in Council, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Min; Jung, Ji Young; Yergeau, Etienne; Hwang, Chung Yeon; Hinzman, Larry; Nam, Sungjin; Hong, Soon Gyu; Kim, Ok-Sun; Chun, Jongsik; Lee, Yoo Kyung

    2014-08-01

    The subarctic region is highly responsive and vulnerable to climate change. Understanding the structure of subarctic soil microbial communities is essential for predicting the response of the subarctic soil environment to climate change. To determine the composition of the bacterial community and its relationship with soil properties, we investigated the bacterial community structure and properties of surface soil from the moist acidic tussock tundra in Council, Alaska. We collected 70 soil samples with 25-m intervals between sampling points from 0-10 cm to 10-20 cm depths. The bacterial community was analyzed by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes, and the following soil properties were analyzed: soil moisture content (MC), pH, total carbon (TC), total nitrogen (TN), and inorganic nitrogen (NH4+ and NO3-). The community compositions of the two different depths showed that Alphaproteobacteria decreased with soil depth. Among the soil properties measured, soil pH was the most significant factor correlating with bacterial community in both upper and lower-layer soils. Bacterial community similarity based on jackknifed unweighted unifrac distance showed greater similarity across horizontal layers than through the vertical depth. This study showed that soil depth and pH were the most important soil properties determining bacterial community structure of the subarctic tundra soil in Council, Alaska. © 2014 The Authors. FEMS Microbiology Ecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the Federation of European Microbiological Societies.

  14. Changes in microbial community structure in the wake of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral-Zettler, Linda A; Rocca, Jennifer D; Lamontagne, Michael G; Dennett, Mark R; Gast, Rebecca J

    2008-12-15

    Hurricanes have the potential to alter the structures of coastal ecosystems and generate pathogen-laden floodwaters thatthreaten public health. To examine the impact of hurricanes on urban systems, we compared microbial community structures in samples collected after Hurricane Katrina and before and after Hurricane Rita. We extracted environmental DNA and sequenced small-subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) gene clone libraries to survey microbial communities in floodwater, water, and sediment samples collected from Lake Charles, Lake Pontchartrain, the 17th Street and Industrial Canals in New Orleans, and raw sewage. Correspondence analysis showed that microbial communities associated with sediments formed one cluster while communities associated with lake and Industrial Canal water formed a second. Communities associated with water from the 17th Street Canal and floodwaters collected in New Orleans showed similarity to communities in raw sewage and contained a number of sequences associated with possible pathogenic microbes. This suggests that a distinct microbial community developed in floodwaters following Hurricane Katrina and that microbial community structures as a whole might be sensitive indicators of ecosystem health and serve as "sentinels" of water quality in the environment.

  15. Exploring anti-community structure in networks with application to incompatibility of traditional Chinese medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiajing; Liu, Yongguo; Zhang, Yun; Liu, Xiaofeng; Xiao, Yonghua; Wang, Shidong; Wu, Xindong

    2017-11-01

    Community structure is one of the most important properties in networks, in which a node shares its most connections with the others in the same community. On the contrary, the anti-community structure means the nodes in the same group have few or no connections with each other. In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), the incompatibility problem of herbs is a challenge to the clinical medication safety. In this paper, we propose a new anti-community detection algorithm, Random non-nEighboring nOde expansioN (REON), to find anti-communities in networks, in which a new evaluation criterion, anti-modularity, is designed to measure the quality of the obtained anti-community structure. In order to establish anti-communities in REON, we expand the node set by non-neighboring node expansion and regard the node set with the highest anti-modularity as an anti-community. Inspired by the phenomenon that the node with higher degree has greater contribution to the anti-modularity, an improved algorithm called REONI is developed by expanding node set by the non-neighboring node with the maximum degree, which greatly enhances the efficiency of REON. Experiments on synthetic and real-world networks demonstrate the superiority of the proposed algorithms over the existing methods. In addition, by applying REONI to the herb network, we find that it can discover incompatible herb combinations.

  16. Can microcystins affect zooplankton structure community in tropical eutrophic reservoirs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. S. V. Paes

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of our study was to assess whether cyanotoxins (microcystins can affect the composition of the zooplankton community, leading to domination of microzooplankton forms (protozoans and rotifers. Temporal variations in concentrations of microcystins and zooplankton biomass were analyzed in three eutrophic reservoirs in the semi-arid northeast region of Brazil. The concentration of microcystins in water proved to be correlated with the cyanobacterial biovolume, indicating the contributions from colonial forms such as Microcystis in the production of cyanotoxins. At the community level, the total biomass of zooplankton was not correlated with the concentration of microcystin (r2 = 0.00; P > 0.001, but in a population-level analysis, the biomass of rotifers and cladocerans showed a weak positive correlation. Cyclopoid copepods, which are considered to be relatively inefficient in ingesting cyanobacteria, were negatively correlated (r2 = – 0.01; P > 0.01 with the concentration of cyanotoxins. Surprisingly, the biomass of calanoid copepods was positively correlated with the microcystin concentration (r2 = 0.44; P > 0.001. The results indicate that allelopathic control mechanisms (negative effects of microcystin on zooplankton biomass do not seem to substantially affect the composition of mesozooplankton, which showed a constant and high biomass compared to the microzooplankton (rotifers. These results may be important to better understand the trophic interactions between zooplankton and cyanobacteria and the potential effects of allelopathic compounds on zooplankton.

  17. The structure and functions of bacterial communities in an agrocenosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrovol'skaya, T. G.; Khusnetdinova, K. A.; Manucharova, N. A.; Balabko, P. N.

    2016-01-01

    The most significant factor responsible for the specific taxonomic composition of the bacterial communities in the agrocenosis studied was found to be a part or organ of plants (leaves, flowers, roots, fruits). A stage of plant ontogeny also determines changes of taxa. In the course of the plant growth, eccrisotrophic bacteria are replaced by hydrolytic ones that belong to the group of cellulose-decomposing bacteria. Representatives of the proteobacteria genera that are difficult to identify by phenotypic methods were determined using molecular-biological methods. They were revealed only on oat leaves in the moist period. As the vetch-oat mixture was fertilized with BIOUD-1 (foliar application) in the phyllosphere of both oats and vetch, on all the plant organs, representatives of the Rhodococcus genus as dominants were isolated. This fact was related to the capability of bacteria to decompose the complex aromatic compounds that are ingredients of the fertilizers applied. Another positive effect for plants of the bacterial communities forming in agrocenoses is the presence of bacteria that are antagonists of phytopathogenic bacteria. Thus, in agrocenoses, some interrelationships promoting the growth and reproduction of plants are formed in crop plants and bacteria.

  18. Optimal Control Strategy for Traffic Driven Epidemic Spreading Based on Community Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Shao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that community structure has a great impact on traffic transportation and epidemic spreading. The density of infected nodes and the epidemic threshold have been proven to have significant relationship with the node betweenness in traffic driven epidemic spreading method. In this paper, considering the impact of community structure on traffic driven epidemic spreading, an effective and novel strategy to control epidemic spreading in scale-free networks is proposed. Theoretical analysis shows that the new control strategy will obviously increase the ratio between the first and the second moments of the node betweenness distribution in scale-free networks. It is also found that the more accurate the community is identified, the stronger community structure the network has and the more efficient the control strategy is. Simulations on both computer-generated and real-world networks have confirmed the theoretical results.

  19. The type of carbohydrates specifically selects microbial community structures and fermentation patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatellard, Lucile; Trably, Eric; Carrère, Hélène

    2016-12-01

    The impact on dark fermentation of seven carbohydrates as model substrates of lignocellulosic fractions (glucose, cellobiose, microcrystalline cellulose, arabinose, xylose, xylan and wheat straw) was investigated. Metabolic patterns and bacterial communities were characterized at the end of batch tests inoculated with manure digestate. It was found that hydrogen production was linked to the sugar type (pentose or hexose) and the degree of polymerisation. Hexoses produced less hydrogen, with a specific selection of lactate-producing bacterial community structures. Maximal hydrogen production was five times higher on pentose-based substrates, with specific bacterial community structures producing acetate and butyrate as main metabolites. Low hydrogen amounts accumulated from complex sugars (cellulose, xylan and wheat straw). A relatively high proportion of the reads was affiliated to Ruminococcaceae suggesting an efficient hydrolytic activity. Knowing that the bacterial community structure is very specific to a particular substrate offers new possibilities to design more efficient H2-producing biological systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Topological Characteristics and Community Structure in Consumer-Service Bipartite Graph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Gu, Bao-Yan; Chen, Li

    We apply network analysis to study bipartite consumer- service graph that represents service transaction to understand consumer demand. Based on real-world computer log files of a library, we found that consumer graph projected from bipartite graph deviates significantly from theoretical predictions based on random bipartite graph. We observed smaller-than-expected average degree, larger-than-expected average path length and stronger-than-expected tendency to cluster. These findings motivated to explore the community structure of the network. As a result, the weighted consumer network showed significant community structure than the unweighted network. Communities picked out by the algorithm revealed that individuals in the same community were due to their common specialties or the overlapping structure of knowledge between their specialties.

  1. Community structure and scale-free collections of Erdős-Rényi graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshadhri, C; Kolda, Tamara G; Pinar, Ali

    2012-05-01

    Community structure plays a significant role in the analysis of social networks and similar graphs, yet this structure is little understood and not well captured by most models. We formally define a community to be a subgraph that is internally highly connected and has no deeper substructure. We use tools of combinatorics to show that any such community must contain a dense Erdős-Rényi (ER) subgraph. Based on mathematical arguments, we hypothesize that any graph with a heavy-tailed degree distribution and community structure must contain a scale-free collection of dense ER subgraphs. These theoretical observations corroborate well with empirical evidence. From this, we propose the Block Two-Level Erdős-Rényi (BTER) model, and demonstrate that it accurately captures the observable properties of many real-world social networks.

  2. Fungal Community Structure as an Indicator of Soil Agricultural Management Effects in the Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana de Almeida Valadares-Pereira

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Forest-to-agriculture conversion and soil management practices for soybean cropping are frequently performed in the Cerrado (Brazilian tropical savanna. However, the effects of these practices on the soil microbial communities are still unknown. We evaluated and compared the fungal community structure in soil from soybean cropland with soil under native Cerrado vegetation at different times of the year in the Tocantins State. Soil samples were collected in two periods after planting (December and in two periods during the soybean reproductive growth stage (February. Concomitantly, soil samples were collected from an area under native Cerrado vegetation surrounding the agricultural area. The soil DNA was analyzed using a fingerprinting method termed Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Space Analysis (ARISA to assess the fungal community structure in the soil. Differences in the fungal community structure in the soil were found when comparing soybean cropland with the native vegetation (R = 0.932 for sampling 1 and R = 0.641 for sampling 2. Changes in the fungal community structure after management practices for soybean planting in Cerrado areas were related to changes in soil properties, mainly in copper, calcium, and iron contents, cation exchange capacity, base saturation, and calcium to magnesium ratio. These results show the changes in the fungal community structure in the soil as an effect of agricultural soil management in Cerrado vegetation in the state of Tocantins.

  3. Rainbows without unicorns: metric structures in theories with modified dispersion relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobo, Iarley P. [Universita ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); ICRANet, Pescara (Italy); CAPES Foundation, Ministry of Education of Brazil, Brasilia (Brazil); Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); INFN Sezione Roma 1 (Italy); Loret, Niccolo [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Division of Theoretical Physics, Zagreb (Croatia); Nettel, Francisco [Universita ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Mexico (Mexico); INFN Sezione Roma 1 (Italy)

    2017-07-15

    Rainbow metrics are a widely used approach to the metric formalism for theories with modified dispersion relations. They have had a huge success in the quantum gravity phenomenology literature, since they allow one to introduce momentum-dependent space-time metrics into the description of systems with a modified dispersion relation. In this paper, we introduce the reader to some realizations of this general idea: the original rainbow metrics proposal, the momentum-space-inspired metric and a Finsler geometry approach. As the main result of this work we also present an alternative definition of a four-velocity dependent metric which allows one to handle the massless limit. This paper aims to highlight some of their properties and how to properly describe their relativistic realizations. (orig.)

  4. Large Scale Structure in Bekenstein’s Theory of Relativistic Modified Newtonian Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Skordis, C; Ferreira, P G; Böhm, C

    2006-01-01

    A relativistic theory of modified gravity has been recently proposed by Bekenstein. The tensor field in Einstein’s theory of gravity is replaced by a scalar, a vector, and a tensor field which interact in such a way to give modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) in the weak-field nonrelativistic limit. We study the evolution of the Universe in such a theory, identifying its key properties and comparing it with the standard cosmology obtained in Einstein gravity. The evolution of the scalar field is akin to that of tracker quintessence fields. We expand the theory to linear order to find the evolution of perturbations on large scales. The impact on galaxy distributions and the cosmic microwave background is calculated in detail. We show that it may be possible to reproduce observations of the cosmic microwave background and galaxy distributions with Bekenstein’s theory of MOND.

  5. Rainbows without unicorns: metric structures in theories with modified dispersion relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Iarley P.; Loret, Niccoló; Nettel, Francisco

    2017-07-01

    Rainbow metrics are a widely used approach to the metric formalism for theories with modified dispersion relations. They have had a huge success in the quantum gravity phenomenology literature, since they allow one to introduce momentum-dependent space-time metrics into the description of systems with a modified dispersion relation. In this paper, we introduce the reader to some realizations of this general idea: the original rainbow metrics proposal, the momentum-space-inspired metric and a Finsler geometry approach. As the main result of this work we also present an alternative definition of a four-velocity dependent metric which allows one to handle the massless limit. This paper aims to highlight some of their properties and how to properly describe their relativistic realizations.

  6. Synthesis and Structural Characterization of 2'-Fluoro-α-L-RNA-Modified Oligonucleotides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard Jensen, Troels; Pasternak, Anna; Stahl Madsen, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    -α-L-RNA monomer was designed as a monocyclic mimic of the bicyclic α-L-LNA, and molecular modeling showed that this indeed is the case as the 2'-fluoro monomer adopts a C3'-endo/C2'-exo sugar pucker. Molecular modeling of modified duplexes show that the 2'-fluoro-α-L-RNA nucleotides partake in Watson-Crick base...

  7. Structure and properties of organically modified poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) based nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasyida, A.; Fukushima, K.; Yang, M.-C.

    2017-07-01

    Poly (butylene adipate-co-terephthalate (PBAT) nanocomposites were prepared by melt blending PBAT with 5 wt.% of modified or unmodified montmorillonites (MMT). The effect of the presence of organic modifiers in MMT on the morphological, crystalline, thermal, and mechanical properties of PBAT nanocomposites was evaluated. The dispersion and distribution of the clays were studied by using wide angle X-ray analysis (WAXS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. Materials characterization techniques included: contact angle measurements, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry (TGA) and surface hardness analysis. As general results, nanocomposites exhibited different level of clay dispersion depending on the clay/organic modifier’s chemical affinity with the polymer. Contact angle measurements show increases in the hydrophobicity level of PBAT based CLO30B, this could depict its high potential for packaging applications. In addition, Thermal analysis showed that clays partially hindered kinetics and extent of PBAT crystallization on cooling. In general, thermal properties of PBAT were improved by addition of clays, for a barrier effect of the nanoparticle towards polymer decomposition products ablation. In parallel, addition of clays led to enhancements in polymer hardness. These properties were found to be apparently influenced by clay dispersion level and chemical compatibility between the organic modifier and polymer matrix.

  8. Efficient simulations of large-scale structure in modified gravity cosmologies with comoving Lagrangian acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valogiannis, Georgios; Bean, Rachel

    2017-05-01

    We implement an adaptation of the cola approach, a hybrid scheme that combines Lagrangian perturbation theory with an N-body approach, to model nonlinear collapse in chameleon and symmetron modified gravity models. Gravitational screening is modeled effectively through the attachment of a suppression factor to the linearized Klein-Gordon equations. The adapted cola approach is benchmarked, with respect to an N-body code both for the Λ cold dark matter (Λ CDM ) scenario and for the modified gravity theories. It is found to perform well in the estimation of the dark matter power spectra, with consistency of 1% to k ˜2.5 h /Mpc . Redshift space distortions are shown to be effectively modeled through a Lorentzian parametrization with a velocity dispersion fit to the data. We find that cola performs less well in predicting the halo mass functions but has consistency, within 1 σ uncertainties of our simulations, in the relative changes to the mass function induced by the modified gravity models relative to Λ CDM . The results demonstrate that cola, proposed to enable accurate and efficient, nonlinear predictions for Λ CDM , can be effectively applied to a wider set of cosmological scenarios, with intriguing properties, for which clustering behavior needs to be understood for upcoming surveys such as LSST, DESI, Euclid, and WFIRST.

  9. Thermo-physical and structural studies of sodium zinc borovanadate glasses in the region of high concentration of modifier oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chethana, B.K. [Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India); Reddy, C. Narayana [Maharani' s Science College for Women, Bangalore 560 001 (India); Rao, K.J., E-mail: kalyajrao@yahoo.co.in [Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India)

    2012-07-15

    Highlights: ► Highly modified sodium zinc borovanadate glasses. ► Structural model for borovanadate glasses. ► Network forming tendency of ZnO in borovanadate glasses. ► Fragility can be limited to NBO concentration in borovanadate glasses. -- Abstract: This paper reports investigation of Na{sub 2}O and ZnO modified borovanadate glasses in the highly modified regime of compositions. These glasses have been prepared by microwave route. Ultraviolet (UV) and visible, infrared (IR), Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (MAS NMR) and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopies have been used to characterize the speciation in the glasses. Together with the variation of properties such as molar volume and glass transition temperatures, spectroscopic data indicate that at high levels of modification, ZnO tends to behave like network former. It is proposed that the observed variation of all the properties can be reasonably well understood with a structural model. The model considers that the modification and speciation in glasses are strongly determined by the hierarchy of group electronegativities. Further, it is proposed that the width of the transitions of glasses obtained under same condition reflects the fragility of the glasses. An empirical expression has been suggested to quantify fragility on the basis of width of the transition regions.

  10. Long-term trends in trait structure of riverine communities facing predation risk increase and trophic resource decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latli, Adrien; Descy, Jean-Pierre; Mondy, Cédric P; Floury, Mathieu; Viroux, Laurent; Otjacques, William; Marescaux, Jonathan; Depiereux, Eric; Ovidio, Michael; Usseglio-Polatera, Philippe; Kestemont, Patrick

    2017-12-01

    Many large European rivers have undergone multiple pressures that have strongly impaired ecosystem functioning at different spatial and temporal scales. Global warming and other environmental changes have favored the success of invasive species, deeply modifying the structure of aquatic communities in large rivers. Some exogenous species could alter trophic interactions within assemblages by increasing the predation risk for potential prey species (top-down effect) and limiting the dynamics of others via resource availability limitation (bottom-up effect). Furthermore, large transboundary rivers are complex aquatic ecosystems that have often been poorly investigated so that data for assessing long-term ecological trends are missing. In this study, we propose an original approach for investigating long-term combined effects of global warming, trophic resource decrease, predation risk, and water quality variations on the trait-based structure of macroinvertebrate and fish assemblages over 26 yr (1985-2011) and 427-km stretch of the river Meuse (France and Belgium). The study of temporal variations in biological, physiological, and ecological traits of macroinvertebrate and fish allowed identifying community trends and distinguishing impacts of environmental perturbations from those induced by biological alterations. We provide evidence, for this large European river, of an increase in water temperature (close to 1°C) and a decrease in phytoplankton biomass (-85%), as well as independent effects of these changes on both invertebrate and fish communities. The reduction of trophic resources in the water column by invasive molluscs has dramatically affected the density of omnivorous fish in favor of invertebrate feeders, while scrapers became the major feeding guild among invertebrates. Macroinvertebrate and fish communities have shifted from large-sized organisms with low fecundity to prolific, small-sized organisms, with early maturity, as a response to increased

  11. Microbial activity and bacterial community structure during degradation of microcystins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, K.; Lyck, Susanne; Winding, A.

    2002-01-01

    experiment to evaluate the effects of organic lysates on bacterial proliferation in the absence of microcystin. An exponential decline of the dissolved toxins was observed in all cases with toxins present, and the degradation rates ranged between 0.5 and 1.0 d(-1). No lag phases were observed but slow......Degradation of realistic microcystin concentrations in lake water with indigenous bacteria was studied in laboratory and field experiments following inoculation with lysed toxic algal material containing microcystin primarily from Microcystis sp. or purified commercial microcystin-LR to microcosms....... It was hypothesised that the bacterial community from a lake with frequent occurrence of toxic cyanobacteria can degrade microcystin along with other organic compounds. The initial dissolved microcystin concentrations ranged between 10 and 136 mug 1(-1) (microcystin-LR equivalents) in the laboratory experiment, using...

  12. Perturbation of seafloor bacterial community structure by drilling waste discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tan T; Cochrane, Sabine K J; Landfald, Bjarne

    2017-10-31

    Offshore drilling operations result in the generation of drill cuttings and localized smothering of the benthic habitats. This study explores bacterial community changes in the in the upper layers of the seafloor resulting from an exploratory drilling operation at 1400m water depth on the Barents Sea continental slope. Significant restructurings of the sediment microbiota were restricted to the sampling sites notably affected by the drilling waste discharge, i.e. at 30m and 50m distances from the drilling location, and to the upper 2cm of the seafloor. Three bacterial groups, the orders Clostridiales and Desulfuromonadales and the class Mollicutes, were almost exclusively confined to the upper two centimeters at 30m distance, thereby corroborating an observed increase in anaerobicity inflicted by the drilling waste deposition. The potential of these phylogenetic groups as microbial bioindicators of the spatial extent and persistence of drilling waste discharge should be further explored. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Structural basis for IL-1α recognition by a modified DNA aptamer that specifically inhibits IL-1α signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaoming; Gelinas, Amy D; von Carlowitz, Ira; Janjic, Nebojsa; Pyle, Anna Marie

    2017-10-09

    IL-1α is an essential cytokine that contributes to inflammatory responses and is implicated in various forms of pathogenesis and cancer. Here we report a naphthyl modified DNA aptamer that specifically binds IL-1α and inhibits its signaling pathway. By solving the crystal structure of the IL-1α/aptamer, we provide a high-resolution structure of this critical cytokine and we reveal its functional interaction interface with high-affinity ligands. The non-helical aptamer, which represents a highly compact nucleic acid structure, contains a wealth of new conformational features, including an unknown form of G-quadruplex. The IL-1α/aptamer interface is composed of unusual polar and hydrophobic elements, along with an elaborate hydrogen bonding network that is mediated by sodium ion. IL-1α uses the same interface to interact with both the aptamer and its cognate receptor IL-1RI, thereby suggesting a novel route to immunomodulatory therapeutics.The cytokine interleukin 1α (IL-1α) plays an important role in inflammatory processes. Here the authors use SELEX to generate a modified DNA aptamer which specifically binds IL-1α, present the structure of the IL-1α/aptamer complex and show that this aptamer inhibits the IL-1α signaling pathway.

  14. Structural and mechanical characteristics of film using modified corn starch by the same two chemical processes used in different sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Liping; Hu, Fei; Peng, Yali

    2013-01-16

    Structure of dual modified starches, cross-linked esterified corn starch (CES) and esterified cross-linked corn starch (ECS), and product films (CEF and ECF) were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The peak 1730cm(-1) of IR spectra confirmed the formation of ester carbonyl groups in starch matrix. The sequence of modification procedure had an impact on the final modification degree, resulting in structural differences of modified starches and starch films. Compared to native starch film (NF), CEF and ECF showed improved transparence (77.59% and 74.39% respectively) with compact structure, lower crystallinity (6.5% and 7.4% respectively). Results of mechanical test indicated that structure of ECF was more flexible than CEF, whereas tensile strength was higher in CEF. Accordingly, complex modification could be an effective method to adequate properties of starch films for specific processing requirements. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Family Structure and Community Context: Evaluating Influences on Adolescent Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowaleski-Jones, Lori; Dunifon, Rachel

    2006-01-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth merged mother-child file, this article examines the relationship between living in four different family structures on key measures of youth well-being, studied separately by race. The authors also examine whether contextual factors mediate these associations. For Black youth, we find no…

  16. The Structure of Psychopathology in a Community Sample of Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Jennifer; Keller, Jennifer; Lavigne, John V.; Gouze, Karen; Hopkins, Joyce; LeBailly, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Despite growing interest in the development of alternative diagnostic classification systems for psychopathology in young children, little is known about the adequacy of the DSM symptom structure for describing psychopathology in this population. This paper examines the fit of the DSM-IV emotional (ED) and disruptive behavior disorder (DD) symptom…

  17. Zinc oxide modified with benzylphosphonic acids as transparent electrodes in regular and inverted organic solar cell structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, Ilja; Reiter, Sina; Kniepert, Juliane; Piersimoni, Fortunato; Brenner, Thomas; Neher, Dieter, E-mail: neher@uni-potsdam.de [Institute of Physics and Astronomy, University of Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Strasse 24-25, 14476 Potsdam (Germany); Pätzel, Michael; Hildebrandt, Jana; Hecht, Stefan [Department of Chemistry and IRIS Adlershof, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Brook-Taylor-Str. 2, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-03-16

    An approach is presented to modify the work function of solution-processed sol-gel derived zinc oxide (ZnO) over an exceptionally wide range of more than 2.3 eV. This approach relies on the formation of dense and homogeneous self-assembled monolayers based on phosphonic acids with different dipole moments. This allows us to apply ZnO as charge selective bottom electrodes in either regular or inverted solar cell structures, using poly(3-hexylthiophene):phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester as the active layer. These devices compete with or even surpass the performance of the reference on indium tin oxide/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate. Our findings highlight the potential of properly modified ZnO as electron or hole extracting electrodes in hybrid optoelectronic devices.

  18. The structure and properties of the carbon non-wovens modified with bioactive nanoceramics for medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraczek-Szczypta, A; Rabiej, S; Szparaga, G; Pabjanczyk-Wlazlo, E; Krol, P; Brzezinska, M; Blazewicz, S; Bogun, M

    2015-06-01

    The paper presents the results of the manufacture of carbon fibers (CF) from polyacrylonitrile fiber precursor containing bioactive ceramic nanoparticles. In order to modify the precursor fibers two types of bio-glasses and wollastonite in the form of nanoparticles were used. The processing variables of the thermal conversion of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) precursor fibers into carbon fibers were determined using the FTIR method. The carbonization process of oxidized PAN fibers was carried out up to 1000°C. The carbon fibers were characterized by a low ordered crystalline structure. The bioactivity tests of carbon fibers modified with a ceramic nanocomponent carried out in the artificial serum (SBF) revealed the apatite precipitation on the fibers' surfaces. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Relationship between phenol degradation efficiency and microbial community structure in an anaerobic SBR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkranz, F; Cabrol, L; Carballa, M; Donoso-Bravo, A; Cruz, L; Ruiz-Filippi, G; Chamy, R; Lema, J M

    2013-11-01

    Phenol is a common wastewater contaminant from various industrial processes, including petrochemical refineries and chemical compounds production. Due to its toxicity to microbial activity, it can affect the efficiency of biological wastewater treatment processes. In this study, the efficiency of an Anaerobic Sequencing Batch Reactor (ASBR) fed with increasing phenol concentrations (from 120 to 1200 mg L(-1)) was assessed and the relationship between phenol degradation capacity and the microbial community structure was evaluated. Up to a feeding concentration of 800 mg L(-1), the initial degradation rate steadily increased with phenol concentration (up to 180 mg L(-1) d(-1)) and the elimination capacity remained relatively constant around 27 mg phenol removed∙gVSS(-1) d(-1). Operation at higher concentrations (1200 mg L(-1)) resulted in a still efficient but slower process: the elimination capacity and the initial degradation rate decreased to, respectively, 11 mg phenol removed∙gVSS(-1) d(-1) and 154 mg L(-1) d(-1). As revealed by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis, the increase of phenol concentration induced level-dependent structural modifications of the community composition which suggest an adaptation process. The increase of phenol concentration from 120 to 800 mg L(-1) had little effect on the community structure, while it involved drastic structural changes when increasing from 800 to 1200 mg L(-1), including a strong community structure shift, suggesting the specialization of the community through the emergence and selection of most adapted phylotypes. The thresholds of structural and functional disturbances were similar, suggesting the correlation of degradation performance and community structure. The Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) confirmed that the ASBR functional performance was essentially driven by specific community traits. Under the highest feeding concentration, the most abundant ribotype probably involved in

  20. Communicative genres as organising structures in online communities- of team players and story tellers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moser, C.; Ganley, D.; Groenewegen, P.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the question of how participants in online communities enact organising structures. We conduct an empirical study based on interpretative and quantitative data and analysis, and argue that communicative genres fulfil the role of intangible organising structures in online

  1. Traveling salesman problems with PageRank Distance on complex networks reveal community structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhongzhou; Liu, Jing; Wang, Shuai

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a new algorithm for community detection problems (CDPs) based on traveling salesman problems (TSPs), labeled as TSP-CDA. Since TSPs need to find a tour with minimum cost, cities close to each other are usually clustered in the tour. This inspired us to model CDPs as TSPs by taking each vertex as a city. Then, in the final tour, the vertices in the same community tend to cluster together, and the community structure can be obtained by cutting the tour into a couple of paths. There are two challenges. The first is to define a suitable distance between each pair of vertices which can reflect the probability that they belong to the same community. The second is to design a suitable strategy to cut the final tour into paths which can form communities. In TSP-CDA, we deal with these two challenges by defining a PageRank Distance and an automatic threshold-based cutting strategy. The PageRank Distance is designed with the intrinsic properties of CDPs in mind, and can be calculated efficiently. In the experiments, benchmark networks with 1000-10,000 nodes and varying structures are used to test the performance of TSP-CDA. A comparison is also made between TSP-CDA and two well-established community detection algorithms. The results show that TSP-CDA can find accurate community structure efficiently and outperforms the two existing algorithms.

  2. Drug resistance and population structure of M.tuberculosis isolates from prisons and communities in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Solomon; Beckert, Patrick; Haileamlak, Abraham; Wieser, Andreas; Pritsch, Michael; Heinrich, Norbert; Löscher, Thomas; Hoelscher, Michael; Niemann, Stefan; Rachow, Andrea

    2016-11-21

    The population structure and drug resistance pattern of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) isolates in Ethiopian prisons and some communities is still unknown. A comparative cross sectional study was conducted on 126 MTBC strains isolated from prisons and communities in southwestern, southern and eastern Ethiopia. Phenotypic drug susceptibility testing was performed with the MGIT960 system. Combined 24-loci Mycobacterium interspersed repetitive unit-variable number tandem repeat and spacer oligonucleotide typing methods were used to study the MTBC population structure. The obtained data from prisons and communities were compared using statistical tests and regression analysis. A diverse population structure with 11 different lineages and sub-lineages was identified. The predominant strains were the recently described Ethiopia_H37Rv like (27.52%) and Ethiopia_3 (16.51%) with equal lineage distribution between prisons and communities. 28.57% of prison strains and 31.82% of community strains shared the identical genotype with at least one other strain. The multidrug-resistance (MDR) prevalence of the community was 2.27% whereas that of prisons was 9.52%. The highest mono resistance was seen against streptomycin (15.89%). Tuberculosis in communities and prisons is caused by a variety of MTBC lineages with predominance of local Ethiopian lineages. The increasing prevalence of MDR MTBC strains is alarming. These findings suggest the need for new approaches for control of MDR tuberculosis in Ethiopia.

  3. Microbial community structure characteristics associated membrane fouling in A/O-MBR system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Da-Wen; Wen, Zhi-Dan; Li, Bao; Liang, Hong

    2014-02-01

    The study demonstrated the potential relationship between microbial community structure and membrane fouling in an anoxic-oxic membrane bioreactor (A/O-MBR). The results showed that the microbial community structure in biocake was different with aerobic mixture, and the dominant populations were out of sync during the fouling process. Based on microbial community structure and metabolites analysis, the results showed that the succession of microbial community might be the leading factor to the variation of metabolites, and it might be the primary cause of membrane fouling. The rise of Shannon diversity index (H) of the microbial community in A/O-MBR went with the gradually serious membrane fouling. Pareto-Lorenz curve was used to describe the evenness of microbial distribution in A/O-MBR, and the result indicated when community evenness was low, the membrane fouling took place smoothly or slightly, otherwise, high evenness of microbial community would lead to more seriously membrane fouling. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Seasonal dynamics and community structure of bacterioplankton in upper Paraná River floodplain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaramonte, Josiane Barros; Roberto, Maria do Carmo; Pagioro, Thomaz Aurélio

    2013-11-01

    Knowing the bacterial community, as well as understanding how it changes during a hydrological pulse, is very important to understand nutrient cycles in floodplain systems. The bacterial community structure was analyzed in the 12 sites of upper Paraná River floodplain, and its changes during a flood pulse were described. In order to understand how high and low water phases change bacterial community by changing abiotical variables, the bacterial community distribution was determined in superficial water of 12 different sampling stations, every 3 months, from December 2010 to September 2011. The bacterial community structure and diversity was analyzed by fluorescent in situ hybridization, considering the main domains Bacteria and Archaea and the subdivisions of the phylum Proteobacteria (Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria) and the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium cluster. Smaller densities were observed on ebb and low water periods and the highest density was observed in March 2011. The high water period caused a decrease in diversity because of the lost of equitability. The highest values of Shannon-Wiener index were found on December 2010 and September 2011. The nutrients runoff to the aquatic environments of the floodplain promoted an increase in the total bacterial density during the high water phase as well as changes in bacterial community composition. The bacterial community presented both spatial and temporal differences. Yet, temporal changes in limnological characteristics of the floodplain were the most important predictor of bacterial community and also influenced its diversity.

  5. Changes in Bacterial And Archaeal Community Structure And Functional Diversity Along a Geochemically Variable Soil Profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansel, C.M.; Fendorf, S.; Jardine, P.M.; Francis, C.A.

    2009-05-18

    Spatial heterogeneity in physical, chemical, and biological properties of soils allows for the proliferation of diverse microbial communities. Factors influencing the structuring of microbial communities, including availability of nutrients and water, pH, and soil texture, can vary considerably with soil depth and within soil aggregates. Here we investigated changes in the microbial and functional communities within soil aggregates obtained along a soil profile spanning the surface, vadose zone, and saturated soil environments. The composition and diversity of microbial communities and specific functional groups involved in key pathways in the geochemical cycling of nitrogen, Fe, and sulfur were characterized using a coupled approach involving cultivation-independent analysis of both 16S rRNA (bacterial and archaeal) and functional genes (amoA and dsrAB) as well as cultivation-based analysis of Fe(III)-reducing organisms. Here we found that the microbial communities and putative ammonia-oxidizing and Fe(III)-reducing communities varied greatly along the soil profile, likely reflecting differences in carbon availability, water content, and pH. In particular, the Crenarchaeota 16S rRNA sequences are largely unique to each horizon, sharing a distribution and diversity similar to those of the putative (amoA-based) ammonia-oxidizing archaeal community. Anaerobic microenvironments within soil aggregates also appear to allow for both anaerobic- and aerobic-based metabolisms, further highlighting the complexity and spatial heterogeneity impacting microbial community structure and metabolic potential within soils.

  6. Metabolic and demographic feedbacks shape the emergent spatial structure and function of microbial communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Estrela

    Full Text Available Microbes are predominantly found in surface-attached and spatially structured polymicrobial communities. Within these communities, microbial cells excrete a wide range of metabolites, setting the stage for interspecific metabolic interactions. The links, however, between metabolic and ecological interactions (functional relationships, and species spatial organization (structural relationships are still poorly understood. Here, we use an individual-based modelling framework to simulate the growth of a two-species surface-attached community where food (resource is traded for detoxification (service and investigate how metabolic constraints of individual species shape the emergent structural and functional relationships of the community. We show that strong metabolic interdependence drives the emergence of mutualism, robust interspecific mixing, and increased community productivity. Specifically, we observed a striking and highly stable emergent lineage branching pattern, generating a persistent lineage mixing that was absent when the metabolic exchange was removed. These emergent community properties are driven by demographic feedbacks, such that aid from neighbouring cells directly enhances focal cell growth, which in turn feeds back to neighbour fecundity. In contrast, weak metabolic interdependence drives conflict (exploitation or competition, and in turn greater interspecific segregation. Together, these results support the idea that species structural and functional relationships represent the net balance of metabolic interdependencies.

  7. Shifts in bacterial community structure during succession in a glacier foreland of the High Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mincheol; Jung, Ji Young; Laffly, Dominique; Kwon, Hye Young; Lee, Yoo Kyung

    2017-01-01

    Primary succession after glacier retreat has been widely studied in plant communities, but bacterial succession is still poorly understood. In particular, few studies of microbial succession have been performed in the Arctic. We investigated the shifts in bacterial community structure and soil physicochemical properties along a successional gradient in a 100-year glacier foreland of the High Arctic. Multivariate analyses revealed that time after glacier retreat played a key role in associated bacterial community structure during succession. However, environmental filtering (i.e. pH and soil temperature) also accounted for a different, but substantial, proportion of the bacterial community structure. Using the functional trait-based approach, we found that average rRNA operon (rrn) copy number of bacterial communities is high in earlier successional stages and decreased over time. This suggests that soil bacterial taxa with higher rrn copy number have a selective advantage in early successional stages due to their ability of rapidly responding to nutrient inputs in newly exposed soils after glacier retreat. Taken together, our results demonstrate that both deglaciation time and environmental filters play key roles in structuring bacterial communities and soil bacterial groups with different ecological strategies occur in different stages of succession in this glacier foreland. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Incorporating clade identity in analyses of phylogenetic community structure: an example with hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Juan L; McGuire, Jimmy A; Graham, Catherine H

    2010-11-01

    An important challenge in community ecology is to determine how processes occurring at multiple spatial, temporal, and phylogenetic scales influence the structure of local communities. While indexes of phylogenetic structure, which measure how related species are in a community, provide insight into the processes that shape species coexistence, they fail to pinpoint the phylogenetic scales at which those processes occur. Here, we explore a framework to identify the species and clades responsible for the inferred patterns of phylogenetic structure within a given community. Further, we evaluate how communities that share the nonrandom representation of species from a given clade in the phylogeny are distributed across geography and environmental gradients. Using Ecuadorian hummingbird communities, we found that multiple patterns of phylogenetic structure often occur within a local assemblage. We also identified four geographic regions where species from certain clades exhibit nonrandom representation: the eastern Amazonian lowlands, the western dry lowlands, the Andes at middle elevations, and the Andes at high elevations. The environmental gradients along which changes in the local coexistence of species occurred were mainly elevation, annual precipitation, and seasonality in both temperature and precipitation. Finally, we show how these patterns can be used to generate hypotheses about the processes that allow species coexistence.

  9. Microbes as engines of ecosystem function: when does community structure enhance predictions of ecosystem processes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily B. Graham

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms are vital in mediating the earth’s biogeochemical cycles; yet, despite our rapidly increasing ability to explore complex environmental microbial communities, the relationship between microbial community structure and ecosystem processes remains poorly understood. Here, we address a fundamental and unanswered question in microbial ecology: ‘When do we need to understand microbial community structure to accurately predict function?’ We present a statistical analysis investigating the value of environmental data and microbial community structure independently and in combination for explaining rates of carbon and nitrogen cycling processes within 82 global datasets. Environmental variables were the strongest predictors of process rates but left 44% of variation unexplained on average, suggesting the potential for microbial data to increase model accuracy. Although only 29% of our datasets were significantly improved by adding information on microbial community structure, we observed improvement in models of processes mediated by narrow phylogenetic guilds via functional gene data, and conversely, improvement in models of facultative microbial processes via community diversity metrics. Our results also suggest that microbial diversity can strengthen predictions of respiration rates beyond microbial biomass parameters, as 53% of models were improved by incorporating both sets of predictors compared to 35% by microbial biomass alone. Our analysis represents the first comprehensive analysis of research examining links between microbial community structure and ecosystem function. Taken together, our results indicate that a greater understanding of microbial communities informed by ecological principles may enhance our ability to predict ecosystem process rates relative to assessments based on environmental variables and microbial physiology.

  10. Ocean acidification shows negligible impacts on high-latitude bacterial community structure in coastal pelagic mesocosms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, A.-S.; Gibbons, S. M.; Schunck, H.; Owens, S.; Caporaso, J. G.; Sperling, M.; Nissimov, J. I.; Romac, S.; Bittner, L.; Mühling, M.; Riebesell, U.; LaRoche, J.; Gilbert, J. A.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of ocean acidification and carbonation on microbial community structure was assessed during a large-scale in situ costal pelagic mesocosm study, included as part of the EPOCA 2010 Arctic campaign. The mesocosm experiment included ambient conditions (fjord) and nine mesocosms with pCO2 levels ranging from ~145 to ~1420 μatm. Samples for the present study were collected at ten time points (t-1, t1, t5, t7, t12, t14, t18, t22, t26 to t28) in seven treatments (ambient fjord (~145), 2 × ~185, ~270, ~685, ~820, ~1050 μatm) and were analysed for "small" and "large" size fraction microbial community composition using 16S RNA (ribosomal ribonucleic acid) amplicon sequencing. This high-throughput sequencing analysis produced ~20 000 000 16S rRNA V4 reads, which comprised 7000 OTUs. The main variables structuring these communities were sample origins (fjord or mesocosms) and the community size fraction (small or large size fraction). The community was significantly different between the unenclosed fjord water and enclosed mesocosms (both control and elevated CO2 treatments) after nutrients were added to the mesocosms, suggesting that the addition of nutrients is the primary driver of the change in mesocosm community structure. The relative importance of each structuring variable depended greatly on the time at which the community was sampled in relation to the phytoplankton bloom. The sampling strategy of separating the small and large size fraction was the second most important factor for community structure. When the small and large size fraction bacteria were analysed separately at different time points, the only taxon pCO2 was found to significantly affect were the Gammaproteobacteria after nutrient addition. Finally, pCO2 treatment was found to be significantly correlated (non-linear) with 15 rare taxa, most of which increased in abundance with higher CO2.

  11. Dynamic structure of stock communities: a comparative study between stock returns and turnover rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Li-Ling; Jiang, Xiong-Fei; Li, Sai-Ping; Zhong, Li-Xin; Ren, Fei

    2017-07-01

    The detection of community structure in stock market is of theoretical and practical significance for the study of financial dynamics and portfolio risk estimation. We here study the community structures in Chinese stock markets from the aspects of both price returns and turnover rates, by using a combination of the PMFG and infomap methods based on a distance matrix. An empirical study using the overall data set shows that for both returns and turnover rates the largest communities are composed of specific industrial or conceptional sectors and the correlation inside a sector is generally larger than the correlation between different sectors. However, the community structure for turnover rates is more complex than that for returns, which indicates that the interactions between stocks revealed by turnover rates may contain more information. This conclusion is further confirmed by the analysis of the changes in the dynamics of community structures over five sub-periods. Sectors like banks, real estate, health care and New Shanghai take turns to comprise a few of the largest communities in different sub-periods, and more interestingly several specific sectors appear in the communities with different rank orders for returns and turnover rates even in the same sub-period. To better understand their differences, a comparison between the evolution of the returns and turnover rates of the stocks from these sectors is conducted. We find that stock prices only had large changes around important events while turnover rates surged after each of these events relevant to specific sectors, which shows strong evidence that the turnover rates are more susceptible to exogenous shocks than returns and its measurement for community detection may contain more useful information about market structure.

  12. Structural changes in benthic macrovegetation and associated epibenthic faunal communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson, Ingela; Pihl, Leif

    Mobile epibenthic fauna was quantitatively assessed using a drop-trap in two shallow-water (0 to 1.5 m) soft-bottom areas on the Swedish west coast during spring and autum in three to four years during the period 1981 to 1990. Changes in commmunity structure and distribution of benthic macroalgae with increased dominance with filamentous algae were observed in the two study areas. Concurrent changes in both quantity and structure of mobile epibenthic fauna were registered, suggesting a causal relationship. Increased abundance of benthic epifauna and a shift in species composition were observed when increases from low to moderate vegetation cover occured. Heavy overgrowth by filamentous algae on Zostera marina was accompanied by a reduction in the epibenthic faunal quantity. Shallow coastal areas have high value as feeding grounds and nursery areas for many commercially important fish species. A change in habitat structure will probably have considerable consequences for these species. Among coastal fish populations, eel would be favoured by an increase of filamentous algae, whereas plaice would be negatively affected.

  13. Complex networks, community structure, and catchment classification in a large-scale river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Koren; Sivakumar, Bellie; Woldemeskel, Fitsum M.

    2017-02-01

    This study introduces the concepts of complex networks, especially community structure, to classify catchments in large-scale river basins. The Mississippi River basin (MRB) is considered as a representative large-scale basin, and daily streamflow from a network of 1663 stations are analyzed. Six community structure methods are employed: edge betweenness, greedy algorithm, multilevel modularity optimization, leading eigenvector, label propagation, and walktrap. The influence of correlation threshold (i.e. spatial correlation in flow between stations) on classification (i.e. community formation) is examined. The consistency among the methods in classifying catchments is assessed, using a normalized mutual information (NMI) index. An attempt is also made to explain the community formation in terms of river network/branching and some important catchment/flow properties. The results indicate that the correlation threshold has a notable influence on the number and size of communities identified and that there is a high level of consistency in the performance among the methods (except for the leading eigenvector method at lower thresholds). The results also reveal that only a few communities combine to represent a majority of the catchments, with the 10 largest communities (roughly 4% of the total number of communities) representing almost two-thirds of the catchments. Community formation is found to be influenced not only by geographic proximity but also, more importantly, by the organization of the river network (i.e. main stem and subsequent branching). Some communities are found to exhibit a greater variability in catchment/flow properties within themselves when compared to that of the whole network, thus indicating that such characteristics are unlikely to be a significant influence on community grouping.

  14. Structurally modified pectin for targeted lipid antioxidant capacity in linseed/sunflower oil-in-water emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celus, Miete; Salvia-Trujillo, Laura; Kyomugasho, Clare; Maes, Ine; Van Loey, Ann M; Grauwet, Tara; Hendrickx, Marc E

    2018-02-15

    The present work explored the lipid antioxidant capacity of citrus pectin addition to 5%(w/v) linseed/sunflower oil emulsions stabilized with 0.5%(w/v) Tween 80, as affected by pectin molecular characteristics. The peroxide formation in the emulsions, containing tailored pectin structures, was studied during two weeks of storage at 35°C. Low demethylesterified pectin (≤33%) exhibited a higher antioxidant capacity than high demethylesterified pectin (≥58%), probably due to its higher chelating capacity of pro-oxidative metal ions (Fe2+), whereas the distribution pattern of methylesters along the pectin chain only slightly affected the antioxidant capacity. Nevertheless, pectin addition to the emulsions caused emulsion destabilization probably due to depletion or bridging effect, independent of the pectin structural characteristics. These results evidence the potential of structurally modified citrus pectin as a natural antioxidant in emulsions. However, optimal conditions for emulsion stability should be carefully selected. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Structural basis for IL-1α recognition by a modified DNA aptamer that specifically inhibits IL-1α signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Xiaoming; Gelinas, Amy D.; von Carlowitz, Ira; Janjic, Nebojsa; Pyle, Anna Marie (Yale); (SomaLogic)

    2017-10-09

    IL-1α is an essential cytokine that contributes to inflammatory responses and is implicated in various forms of pathogenesis and cancer. Here we report a naphthyl modified DNA aptamer that specifically binds IL-1α and inhibits its signaling pathway. By solving the crystal structure of the IL-1α/aptamer, we provide a high-resolution structure of this critical cytokine and we reveal its functional interaction interface with high-affinity ligands. The non-helical aptamer, which represents a highly compact nucleic acid structure, contains a wealth of new conformational features, including an unknown form of G-quadruplex. The IL-1α/aptamer interface is composed of unusual polar and hydrophobic elements, along with an elaborate hydrogen bonding network that is mediated by sodium ion. IL-1α uses the same interface to interact with both the aptamer and its cognate receptor IL-1RI, thereby suggesting a novel route to immunomodulatory therapeutics.

  16. Corundum ceramic materials modified with silica nanopowders: structure and mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostytsyn, M. A.; Muratov, D. S.; Lysov, D. V.; Chuprunov, K. O.; Yudin, A. G.; Leybo, D. V.

    2016-01-01

    Filtering elements are often used in the metallurgy of rare earth metals. Corundum ceramic is one of the most suitable materials for this purpose. The process of formation and the properties of nanomodified ceramic materials, which are proposed as filtering materials with tunable effective porosity, are described. A silica nanopowder is used as a porosity-increasing agent. Vortex layer apparatus is used for mixing of precursor materials. The obtained results show that nanomodification with the vortex layer apparatus using 0.04 wt. % silica nanopowder as a modifying agent leads to an increase in the compression strength of corundum ceramic by the factor of 1.5.

  17. Comparing metabolic functionalities, community structures, and dynamics of herbicide-degrading communities cultivated with different substrate concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gözdereliler, Erkin; Boon, Nico; Aamand, Jens; De Roy, Karen; Granitsiotis, Michael S; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Sørensen, Sebastian R

    2013-01-01

    Two 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA)-degrading enrichment cultures selected from an aquifer on low (0.1 mg liter(-1)) or high (25 mg liter(-1)) MCPA concentrations were compared in terms of metabolic activity, community composition, population growth, and single cell physiology. Different community compositions and major shifts in community structure following exposure to different MCPA concentrations were observed using both 16S rRNA gene denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprinting and pyrosequencing. The communities also differed in their MCPA-mineralizing activities. The enrichments selected on low concentrations mineralized MCPA with shorter lag phases than those selected on high concentrations. Flow cytometry measurements revealed that mineralization led to cell growth. The presence of low-nucleic acid-content bacteria (LNA bacteria) was correlated with mineralization activity in cultures selected on low herbicide concentrations. This suggests that LNA bacteria may play a role in degradation of low herbicide concentrations in aquifers impacted by agriculture. This study shows that subpopulations of herbicide-degrading bacteria that are adapted to different pesticide concentrations can coexist in the same environment and that using a low herbicide concentration enables enrichment of apparently oligotrophic subpopulations.

  18. Network Structure among Brain Systems in Adult ADHD is Uniquely Modified by Stimulant Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cary, Robert P; Ray, Siddharth; Grayson, David S; Painter, Julia; Carpenter, Samuel; Maron, Leeza; Sporns, Olaf; Stevens, Alexander A; Nigg, Joel T; Fair, Damien A

    2017-08-01

    Current research in connectomics highlights that self-organized functional networks or "communities" of cortical areas can be detected in the adult brain. This perspective may provide clues to mechanisms of treatment response in psychiatric conditions. Here we examine functional brain community topology based on resting-state fMRI in adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; n = 22) and controls (n = 31). We sought to evaluate ADHD patterns in adulthood and their modification by short term stimulants administration. Participants with ADHD were scanned one or two weeks apart, once with medication and once without; comparison participants were scanned at one time-point. Functional connectivity was estimated from these scans and community detection applied to determine cortical network topology. Measures of change in connectivity profile were calculated via a graph measure, termed the Node Dissociation Index (NDI). Compared to controls, several cortical networks had atypical connectivity in adults with ADHD when withholding stimulants, as measured by NDI. In most networks stimulants significantly reduced, but did not eliminate, differences in the distribution of connections between key brain systems relative to the control sample. These findings provide an enriched model of connectivity in ADHD and demonstrate how stimulants may exert functional effects by altering connectivity profiles in the brain. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Structure of Fungal Communities in Sub-Irrigated Agricultural Soil from Cerrado Floodplains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elainy Cristina A. M. Oliveira

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the influence of soybean cultivation on the fungal community structure in a tropical floodplain area. Soil samples were collected from two different soybean cropland sites and a control area under native vegetation. The soil samples were collected at a depth of 0–10 cm soil during the off-season in July 2013. The genetic structure of the soil fungal microbial community was analyzed using the automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA technique. Among the 26 phylotypes with abundance levels higher than 1% detected in the control area, five were also detected in the area cultivated for five years, and none of them was shared between the control area and the area cultivated for eight years. Analysis of similarity (ANOSIM revealed differences in fungal community structure between the control area and the soybean cropland sites, and also between the soybean cropland sites. ANOSIM results were confirmed by multivariate statistics, which additionally revealed a nutrient-dependent relation for the fungal community structure in agricultural soil managed for eight consecutive years. The results indicated that land use affects soil chemical properties and richness and structure of the soil fungal microbial community in a tropical floodplain agricultural area, and the effects became more evident to the extent that soil was cultivated for soybean for more time.

  20. Meiobenthic and Macrobenthic Community Structure in Carbonate Sediments of Rocas Atoll (North-east, Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netto, S. A.; Warwick, R. M.; Attrill, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    Rocas is the only atoll of the South Atlantic and it is built almost exclusively by coralline red algae, vermetid gastropods and encrusting foraminiferans. Patterns in the community structure of meiofauna and macrofauna, particularly nematodes and polychaetes, at Rocas Atoll, north-east Brazil, are determined and compared for different habitats: sublittoral, tidal flat, reef pools and lagoon. Nematodes and copepods were the most abundant meiofaunal taxa. In all studied habitats at Rocas Atoll, oligochaetes, nematodes and polychaetes numerically dominate the macrofauna. Univariate and multivariate analyses reveal clear differences in community structure between the habitats of the atoll, especially between the sublittoral and the inner habitats. The number of species, total density, diversity (H') and trophic structure vary significantly between the habitats, but the differences are dependent on which faunistic category (meiobenthic or macrobenthic) is analysed. Nematodes belonging to the Epsilonematidae and Draconematidae, together with a diverse community of meiobenthic polychaetes, characterize the sublittoral habitat of Rocas Atoll. Both meiofauna and macrofauna are depressed in the tidal flat, and the local sediment instability particularly affects the polychaete abundance. Reef pools and lagoons support a very dense aggregation of invertebrates, particularly the macrofauna, when compared with other carbonate reef sediments. However, differences in the structure of meiofauna and macrofauna communities between reef pools and lagoons are not significant. Changes in meiobenthic and macrobenthic community structure are related to the gradation in the physical environment of the atoll.

  1. Evidential community detection using structural and attribute information

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Kuang; Martin, Arnaud; Pan, Quan

    2015-01-01

    International audience; RÉSUMÉ. L'objectif de la détection de communautés est de créer une partition des sommets, de telle sorte que les communautés soient composées de sommets fortement connectés. Les ap-proches existantes de détection de communautés se concentrent principalement sur la structure topologique du réseau, mais elles ignorent largement les informations disponibles à propos des attributs des noeuds. Dans cet article, une nouvelle appproche de détection de communautés qui utilise ...

  2. Chemical Structure and Properties: A Modified Atoms-First, One-Semester Introductory Chemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Chris P.; Graham, Kate J.; Johnson, Brian J.; Jakubowski, Henry V.; McKenna, Anna G.; McIntee, Edward J.; Jones, T. Nicholas; Fazal, M. A.; Peterson, Alicia A.

    2015-01-01

    A one-semester, introductory chemistry course is described that develops a primarily qualitative understanding of structure-property relationships. Starting from an atoms-first approach, the course examines the properties and three-dimensional structure of metallic and ionic solids before expanding into a thorough investigation of molecules. In…

  3. University Students' Knowledge Structures and Informal Reasoning on the Use of Genetically Modified Foods: Multidimensional Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying-Tien

    2012-12-01

    This study aims to provide insights into the role of learners' knowledge structures about a socio-scientific issue (SSI) in their informal reasoning on the issue. A total of 42 non-science major university students' knowledge structures and informal reasoning were assessed with multidimensional analyses. With both qualitative and quantitative analyses, this study revealed that those students with more extended and better-organized knowledge structures, as well as those who more frequently used higher-order information processing modes, were more oriented towards achieving a higher-level informal reasoning quality. The regression analyses further showed that the "richness" of the students' knowledge structures explained 25 % of the variation in their rebuttal construction, an important indicator of reasoning quality, indicating the significance of the role of students' sophisticated knowledge structure in SSI reasoning. Besides, this study also provides some initial evidence for the significant role of the "core" concept within one's knowledge structure in one's SSI reasoning. The findings in this study suggest that, in SSI-based instruction, science instructors should try to identify students' core concepts within their prior knowledge regarding the SSI, and then they should try to guide students to construct and structure relevant concepts or ideas regarding the SSI based on their core concepts. Thus, students could obtain extended and well-organized knowledge structures, which would then help them achieve better learning transfer in dealing with SSIs.

  4. Si-modified BHA bioceramics as a drug delivery system: Effect of modification method on structure and Rifampicin release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Sych

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The work is devoted to the investigation of two different methods for introduction of silicon into ceramics, based on biogenic hydroxyapatite (BHA, on the structure and properties. Thus, porous samples of Si-modified BHA-based ceramics containing 2 or 5 wt.% Si were prepared by using two different precursors, i.e. polymethylsiloxane polyhydrate and fine silica (Aerosil® 200 powder. After the modification with silicon a marked change in the structure of material was observed. The use of Aerosil® 200 permits preparation of a more uniform structure as compared to that obtained by using polymethylsiloxane polyhydrate. However, the latter promotes an increase in both the porosity of samples (from 43 to 62.3% and their solubility in saline (from 0.18 to 1.20 wt.%/day as compared to the results obtained after the modification with Aerosil® 200, where maximal porosity and solubility were 48.5% and 0.23 wt.%/day, respectively. At the same time, the modification of hydroxyapatite ceramics with silicon using silica makes it possible to prolong release of a drug (e.g. Rifampicin out of sample pores for the first 24 h as compared to the ceramics modified with polymethylsiloxane polyhydrate.

  5. Temporal change in biological community structure in the Fountain Creek basin, Colorado, 2001-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuellig, Robert E.; Bruce, James F.; Stogner, Sr., Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    In 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Colorado Springs City Engineering, began a study to better understand the relations between environmental characteristics and biological communities in the Fountain Creek basin in order to aide water-resource management and guide future monitoring activities. To accomplish this task, environmental (streamflow, habitat, and water chemistry) and biological (fish and macroinvertebrate) data were collected annually at 24 sites over a 6- or 8-year period (fish, 2003 to 2008; macroinvertebrates, 2001 to 2008). For this report, these data were first analyzed to determine the presence of temporal change in macroinvertebrate and fish community structure among years using nonparametric multivariate statistics. Where temporal change in the biological communities was found, these data were further analyzed using additional nonparametric multivariate techniques to determine which subset of selected streamflow, habitat, or water-chemistry variables best described site-specific changes in community structure relative to a gradient of urbanization. This study identified significant directional patterns of temporal change in macroinvertebrate and fish community structure at 15 of 24 sites in the Fountain Creek basin. At four of these sites, changes in environmental variables were significantly correlated with the concurrent temporal change identified in macroinvertebrate and fish community structure (Monument Creek above Woodmen Road at Colorado Springs, Colo.; Monument Creek at Bijou Street at Colorado Springs, Colo.; Bear Creek near Colorado Springs, Colo.; Fountain Creek at Security, Colo.). Combinations of environmental variables describing directional temporal change in the biota appeared to be site specific as no single variable dominated the results; however, substrate composition variables (percent substrate composition composed of sand, gravel, or cobble) collectively were present in 80 percent of the environmental

  6. Assessing the structure and temporal dynamics of seabird communities: the challenge of capturing marine ecosystem complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Rocío; Stowasser, Gabriele; McGill, Rona A R; Bearhop, Stuart; Phillips, Richard A

    2016-01-01

    Understanding interspecific interactions, and the influences of anthropogenic disturbance and environmental change on communities, are key challenges in ecology. Despite the pressing need to understand these fundamental drivers of community structure and dynamics, only 17% of ecological studies conducted over the past three decades have been at the community level. Here, we assess the trophic structure of the procellariiform community breeding at South Georgia, to identify the factors that determine foraging niches and possible temporal changes. We collected conventional diet data from 13 sympatric species between 1974 and 2002, and quantified intra- and inter-guild, and annual variation in diet between and within foraging habits. In addition, we tested the reliability of stable isotope analysis (SIA) of seabird feathers collected over a 13-year period, in relation to those of their potential prey, as a tool to assess community structure when diets are diverse and there is high spatial heterogeneity in environmental baselines. Our results using conventional diet data identified a four-guild community structure, distinguishing species that mainly feed on crustaceans; large fish and squid; a mixture of crustaceans, small fish and squid; or carrion. In total, Antarctic krill Euphausia superba represented 32%, and 14 other species a further 46% of the combined diet of all 13 predators, underlining the reliance of this community on relatively few types of prey. Annual variation in trophic segregation depended on relative prey availability; however, our data did not provide evidence of changes in guild structure associated with a suggested decline in Antarctic krill abundance over the past 40 years. Reflecting the differences in δ(15) N of potential prey (crustaceans vs. squid vs. fish and carrion), analysis of δ(15) N in chick feathers identified a three-guild community structure that was constant over a 13-year period, but lacked the trophic cluster representing

  7. Enhanced Community Structure Detection in Complex Networks with Partial Background Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhong-Yuan; Sun, Kai-Di; Wang, Si-Qi

    2013-11-01

    Community structure detection in complex networks is important since it can help better understand the network topology and how the network works. However, there is still not a clear and widely-accepted definition of community structure, and in practice, different models may give very different results of communities, making it hard to explain the results. In this paper, different from the traditional methodologies, we design an enhanced semi-supervised learning framework for community detection, which can effectively incorporate the available prior information to guide the detection process and can make the results more explainable. By logical inference, the prior information is more fully utilized. The experiments on both the synthetic and the real-world networks confirm the effectiveness of the framework.

  8. Biochar affects the structure rather than the total biomass of microbial communities in temperate soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Anders

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Biochar application is a promising strategy for sequestering carbon in agricultural soils and for improving degraded soils. Nonetheless, contradictory and unsettled issues remain. This study investigates whether biochar influences the soil microbial biomass and community structure using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA analysis. We monitored the effects of four different types of biochar on the soil microbial communities in three temperate soils of Austria over several months. A greenhouse experiment and two field experiments were conducted. The biochar application did not significantly increase or decrease the microbial biomass. Only the addition of vineyard pruning biochar pyrolysed at 400°C caused microbial biomass to increase in the greenhouse experiment. The biochar treatments however caused shifts in microbial communities (visualized by principal component analysis. We concluded that the shifts in the microbial community structure are an indirect rather than a direct effect and depend on soil conditions and nutrient status.

  9. Microbial Community Structure and Function in Peat Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luka Ausec

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many peatlands in Europe have been subjected to land reclamation and systematic drainage, which have substantially affected nutrient cycles in the soil. This work reviews published studies on microbial processes linked to carbon and nitrogen transformations in the soils of the Ljubljana marsh, a drained peatland positioned close to Ljubljana, the capital of Slovenia. This region is known for its dramatic diversity of animal and plant life, but below ground it hides diverse bacterial and archaeal communities that are highly responsive to environmental changes and make the Ljubljana marsh soils a good source of N2O and CO2, and a sink for CH4. Methanogenesis is highly restricted in these soils due to competition for electron donors with iron reducers. In addition, methane is efficiently removed by methanotrophs, which are highly active, especially in the soil layers exposed to the changing water table. Denitrification is limited by electron acceptors and in deeper soil layers also by carbon, which becomes more recalcitrant with depth. Nitrification involves bacterial and archaeal ammonia oxidisers with ammonia oxidation rates being among the highest in the world. Interestingly, ammonia-oxidising Thaumarchaeota in acidic bog soils thrive only on ammonia released through mineralisation of organic matter and are incapable of oxidising added mineral ammonia. The soils of the Ljubljana marsh are rich in bacterial laccase-like genes, which may encode enzymes involved in lignin degradation and are therefore interesting for bioexploitations. Future challenges involve designing studies that will reveal specific physiological functions of phenol oxidases and other enzymes involved in peat transformations and address relations between microbial diversity, function and ecosystem responses to anthropogenic disturbances.

  10. Microbial Community Structure of Subglacial Lake Whillans, West Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achberger, Amanda M; Christner, Brent C; Michaud, Alexander B; Priscu, John C; Skidmore, Mark L; Vick-Majors, Trista J

    2016-01-01

    Subglacial Lake Whillans (SLW) is located beneath ∼800 m of ice on the Whillans Ice Stream in West Antarctica and was sampled in January of 2013, providing the first opportunity to directly examine water and sediments from an Antarctic subglacial lake. To minimize the introduction of surface contaminants to SLW during its exploration, an access borehole was created using a microbiologically clean hot water drill designed to reduce the number and viability of microorganisms in the drilling water. Analysis of 16S rRNA genes (rDNA) amplified from samples of the drilling and borehole water allowed an evaluation of the efficacy of this approach and enabled a confident assessment of the SLW ecosystem inhabitants. Based on an analysis of 16S rDNA and rRNA (i.e., reverse-transcribed rRNA molecules) data, the SLW community was found to be bacterially dominated and compositionally distinct from the assemblages identified in the drill system. The abundance of bacteria (e.g., Candidatus Nitrotoga, Sideroxydans, Thiobacillus, and Albidiferax) and archaea (Candidatus Nitrosoarchaeum) related to chemolithoautotrophs was consistent with the oxidation of reduced iron, sulfur, and nitrogen compounds having important roles as pathways for primary production in this permanently dark ecosystem. Further, the prevalence of Methylobacter in surficial lake sediments combined with the detection of methanogenic taxa in the deepest sediment horizons analyzed (34-36 cm) supported the hypothesis that methane cycling occurs beneath the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. Large ratios of rRNA to rDNA were observed for several operational taxonomic units abundant in the water column and sediments (e.g., Albidiferax, Methylobacter, Candidatus Nitrotoga, Sideroxydans, and Smithella), suggesting a potentially active role for these taxa in the SLW ecosystem. Our findings are consistent with chemosynthetic microorganisms serving as the ecological foundation in this dark subsurface environment, providing new

  11. Linking geology and microbiology: inactive pockmarks affect sediment microbial community structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas H A Haverkamp

    Full Text Available Pockmarks are geological features that are found on the bottom of lakes and oceans all over the globe. Some are active, seeping oil or methane, while others are inactive. Active pockmarks are well studied since they harbor specialized microbial communities that proliferate on the seeping compounds. Such communities are not found in inactive pockmarks. Interestingly, inactive pockmarks are known to have different macrofaunal communities compared to the surrounding sediments. It is undetermined what the microbial composition of inactive pockmarks is and if it shows a similar pattern as the macrofauna. The Norwegian Oslofjord contains many inactive pockmarks and they are well suited to study the influence of these geological features on the microbial community in the sediment. Here we present a detailed analysis of the microbial communities found in three inactive pockmarks and two control samples at two core depth intervals. The communities were analyzed using high-throughput amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA V3 region. Microbial communities of surface pockmark sediments were indistinguishable from communities found in the surrounding seabed. In contrast, pockmark communities at 40 cm sediment depth had a significantly different community structure from normal sediments at the same depth. Statistical analysis of chemical variables indicated significant differences in the concentrations of total carbon and non-particulate organic carbon between 40 cm pockmarks and reference sample sediments. We discuss these results in comparison with the taxonomic classification of the OTUs identified in our samples. Our results indicate that microbial communities at the sediment surface are affected by the water column, while the deeper (40 cm sediment communities are affected by local conditions within the sediment.

  12. Linking geology and microbiology: inactive pockmarks affect sediment microbial community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverkamp, Thomas H A; Hammer, Øyvind; Jakobsen, Kjetill S

    2014-01-01

    Pockmarks are geological features that are found on the bottom of lakes and oceans all over the globe. Some are active, seeping oil or methane, while others are inactive. Active pockmarks are well studied since they harbor specialized microbial communities that proliferate on the seeping compounds. Such communities are not found in inactive pockmarks. Interestingly, inactive pockmarks are known to have different macrofaunal communities compared to the surrounding sediments. It is undetermined what the microbial composition of inactive pockmarks is and if it shows a similar pattern as the macrofauna. The Norwegian Oslofjord contains many inactive pockmarks and they are well suited to study the influence of these geological features on the microbial community in the sediment. Here we present a detailed analysis of the microbial communities found in three inactive pockmarks and two control samples at two core depth intervals. The communities were analyzed using high-throughput amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA V3 region. Microbial communities of surface pockmark sediments were indistinguishable from communities found in the surrounding seabed. In contrast, pockmark communities at 40 cm sediment depth had a significantly different community structure from normal sediments at the same depth. Statistical analysis of chemical variables indicated significant differences in the concentrations of total carbon and non-particulate organic carbon between 40 cm pockmarks and reference sample sediments. We discuss these results in comparison with the taxonomic classification of the OTUs identified in our samples. Our results indicate that microbial communities at the sediment surface are affected by the water column, while the deeper (40 cm) sediment communities are affected by local conditions within the sediment.

  13. Preparation and structural characterisation of novel and versatile amphiphilic octenyl succinic anhydride-modified hyaluronic acid derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eenschooten, Corinne Diane; Guillaumie, Fanny; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to prepare amphiphilic hyaluronic acid (HA) derivatives and to study the influence of a selection of reaction parameters on the degree of substitution (DS) of the derivatives. Octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA)–modified HA (OSA–HA) derivatives were prepared...... and structurally characterised by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR). The influence of four reaction parameters on the DS of the derivatives was studied by means of an experimental design. The results showed that the OSA/HA molar ratio, the buffer...

  14. Ecosystem-Wide Morphological Structure of Leaf-Litter Ant Communities along a Tropical Latitudinal Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rogério R.; Brandão, Carlos Roberto F.

    2014-01-01

    General principles that shape community structure can be described based on a functional trait approach grounded on predictive models; increased attention has been paid to factors accounting for the functional diversity of species assemblages and its association with species richness along environmental gradients. We analyze here the interaction between leaf-litter ant species richness, the local communities' morphological structure and fundamental niche within the context of a northeast-southeast latitudinal gradient in one of the world's most species-rich ecosystems, the Atlantic Forest, representing 2,700 km of tropical rainforest along almost 20o of latitude in eastern Brazil. Our results are consistent with an ecosystem-wide pattern in communities' structure, with relatively high species turnover but functionally analogous leaf-litter ant communities' organization. Our results suggest directional shifts in the morphological space along the environmental gradient from overdispersed to aggregated (from North to South), suggesting that primary productivity and environmental heterogeneity (altitude, temperature and precipitation in the case) determine the distribution of traits and regulate the assembly rules, shaping local leaf-litter ant communities. Contrary to the expected and most common pattern along latitudinal gradients, the Atlantic Forest leaf litter ant communities show an inverse pattern in richness, that is, richer communities in higher than in lower latitudes. The morphological specialization of communities showed more morphologically distinct communities at low latitudes and species redundancy at high latitudes. We claim that an inverse latitudinal gradient in primary productivity and environmental heterogeneity across the Atlantic forest may affect morphological diversity and species richness, enhancing species coexistence mechanisms, and producing thus the observed patterns. We suggest that a functional framework based on flexible enough traits

  15. History matters: Heterotrophic microbial community structure and function adapt to multiple stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feckler, Alexander; Goedkoop, Willem; Konschak, Marco; Bundschuh, Rebecca; Kenngott, Kilian G J; Schulz, Ralf; Zubrod, Jochen P; Bundschuh, Mirco

    2017-08-08

    Ecosystem functions in streams (e.g., microbially mediated leaf litter breakdown) are threatened globally by the predicted agricultural intensification and its expansion into pristine areas, which is associated with increasing use of fertilizers and pesticides. However, the ecological consequences may depend on the disturbance history of microbial communities. To test this, we assessed the effects of fungicides and nutrients (four levels each) on the structural and functional resilience of leaf-associated microbial communities with differing disturbance histories (pristine vs. previously disturbed) in a 2 × 4 × 4-factorial design (n = 6) over 21 days. Microbial leaf breakdown was assessed as a functional variable, whereas structural changes were characterized by the fungal community composition, species richness, biomass, and other factors. Leaf breakdown by the pristine microbial community was reduced by up to 30% upon fungicide exposure compared with controls, whereas the previously disturbed microbial community increased leaf breakdown by up to 85%. This significant difference in the functional response increased in magnitude with increasing nutrient concentrations. A pollution-induced community tolerance in the previously disturbed microbial community, which was dominated by a few species with high breakdown efficacies, may explain the maintained function under stress. Hence, the global pressure on pristine ecosystems by agricultural expansion is expected to cause a modification in the structure and function of heterotrophic microbial communities, with microbially mediated leaf litter breakdown likely becoming more stable over time as a consequence of fungal community adaptions. © 2017 The Authors Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Ecosystem-wide morphological structure of leaf-litter ant communities along a tropical latitudinal gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rogério R; Brandão, Carlos Roberto F

    2014-01-01

    General principles that shape community structure can be described based on a functional trait approach grounded on predictive models; increased attention has been paid to factors accounting for the functional diversity of species assemblages and its association with species richness along environmental gradients. We analyze here the interaction between leaf-litter ant species richness, the local communities' morphological structure and fundamental niche within the context of a northeast-southeast latitudinal gradient in one of the world's most species-rich ecosystems, the Atlantic Forest, representing 2,700 km of tropical rainforest along almost 20° of latitude in eastern Brazil. Our results are consistent with an ecosystem-wide pattern in communities' structure, with relatively high species turnover but functionally analogous leaf-litter ant communities' organization. Our results suggest directional shifts in the morphological space along the environmental gradient from overdispersed to aggregated (from North to South), suggesting that primary productivity and environmental heterogeneity (altitude, temperature and precipitation in the case) determine the distribution of traits and regulate the assembly rules, shaping local leaf-litter ant communities. Contrary to the expected and most common pattern along latitudinal gradients, the Atlantic Forest leaf litter ant communities show an inverse pattern in richness, that is, richer communities in higher than in lower latitudes. The morphological specialization of communities showed more morphologically distinct communities at low latitudes and species redundancy at high latitudes. We claim that an inverse latitudinal gradient in primary productivity and environmental heterogeneity across the Atlantic forest may affect morphological diversity and species richness, enhancing species coexistence mechanisms, and producing thus the observed patterns. We suggest that a functional framework based on flexible enough traits

  17. Ecosystem-wide morphological structure of leaf-litter ant communities along a tropical latitudinal gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério R Silva

    Full Text Available General principles that shape community structure can be described based on a functional trait approach grounded on predictive models; increased attention has been paid to factors accounting for the functional diversity of species assemblages and its association with species richness along environmental gradients. We analyze here the interaction between leaf-litter ant species richness, the local communities' morphological structure and fundamental niche within the context of a northeast-southeast latitudinal gradient in one of the world's most species-rich ecosystems, the Atlantic Forest, representing 2,700 km of tropical rainforest along almost 20° of latitude in eastern Brazil. Our results are consistent with an ecosystem-wide pattern in communities' structure, with relatively high species turnover but functionally analogous leaf-litter ant communities' organization. Our results suggest directional shifts in the morphological space along the environmental gradient from overdispersed to aggregated (from North to South, suggesting that primary productivity and environmental heterogeneity (altitude, temperature and precipitation in the case determine the distribution of traits and regulate the assembly rules, shaping local leaf-litter ant communities. Contrary to the expected and most common pattern along latitudinal gradients, the Atlantic Forest leaf litter ant communities show an inverse pattern in richness, that is, richer communities in higher than in lower latitudes. The morphological specialization of communities showed more morphologically distinct communities at low latitudes and species redundancy at high latitudes. We claim that an inverse latitudinal gradient in primary productivity and environmental heterogeneity across the Atlantic forest may affect morphological diversity and species richness, enhancing species coexistence mechanisms, and producing thus the observed patterns. We suggest that a functional framework based on

  18. Scale-dependence of processes structuring dung beetle metacommunities using functional diversity and community deconstruction approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Pedro Giovâni da; Hernández, Malva Isabel Medina

    2015-01-01

    Community structure is driven by mechanisms linked to environmental, spatial and temporal processes, which have been successfully addressed using metacommunity framework. The relative importance of processes shaping community structure can be identified using several different approaches. Two approaches that are increasingly being used are functional diversity and community deconstruction. Functional diversity is measured using various indices that incorporate distinct community attributes. Community deconstruction is a way to disentangle species responses to ecological processes by grouping species with similar traits. We used these two approaches to determine whether they are improvements over traditional measures (e.g., species composition, abundance, biomass) for identification of the main processes driving dung beetle (Scarabaeinae) community structure in a fragmented mainland-island landscape in southern Brazilian Atlantic Forest. We sampled five sites in each of four large forest areas, two on the mainland and two on the island. Sampling was performed in 2012 and 2013. We collected abundance and biomass data from 100 sampling points distributed over 20 sampling sites. We studied environmental, spatial and temporal effects on dung beetle community across three spatial scales, i.e., between sites, between areas and mainland-island. The γ-diversity based on species abundance was mainly attributed to β-diversity as a consequence of the increase in mean α- and β-diversity between areas. Variation partitioning on abundance, biomass and functional diversity showed scale-dependence of processes structuring dung beetle metacommunities. We identified two major groups of responses among 17 functional groups. In general, environmental filters were important at both local and regional scales. Spatial factors were important at the intermediate scale. Our study supports the notion of scale-dependence of environmental, spatial and temporal processes in the distribution

  19. Scale-dependence of processes structuring dung beetle metacommunities using functional diversity and community deconstruction approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Giovâni da Silva

    Full Text Available Community structure is driven by mechanisms linked to environmental, spatial and temporal processes, which have been successfully addressed using metacommunity framework. The relative importance of processes shaping community structure can be identified using several different approaches. Two approaches that are increasingly being used are functional diversity and community deconstruction. Functional diversity is measured using various indices that incorporate distinct community attributes. Community deconstruction is a way to disentangle species responses to ecological processes by grouping species with similar traits. We used these two approaches to determine whether they are improvements over traditional measures (e.g., species composition, abundance, biomass for identification of the main processes driving dung beetle (Scarabaeinae community structure in a fragmented mainland-island landscape in southern Brazilian Atlantic Forest. We sampled five sites in each of four large forest areas, two on the mainland and two on the island. Sampling was performed in 2012 and 2013. We collected abundance and biomass data from 100 sampling points distributed over 20 sampling sites. We studied environmental, spatial and temporal effects on dung beetle community across three spatial scales, i.e., between sites, between areas and mainland-island. The γ-diversity based on species abundance was mainly attributed to β-diversity as a consequence of the increase in mean α- and β-diversity between areas. Variation partitioning on abundance, biomass and functional diversity showed scale-dependence of processes structuring dung beetle metacommunities. We identified two major groups of responses among 17 functional groups. In general, environmental filters were important at both local and regional scales. Spatial factors were important at the intermediate scale. Our study supports the notion of scale-dependence of environmental, spatial and temporal processes in

  20. Tracking dynamics of plant biomass composting by changes in substrate structure, microbial community, and enzyme activity

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Hui; Tucker Melvin P; Baker John O; Harris Michelle; Luo Yonghua; Xu Qi; Himmel Michael E; Ding Shi-You

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Understanding the dynamics of the microbial communities that, along with their secreted enzymes, are involved in the natural process of biomass composting may hold the key to breaking the major bottleneck in biomass-to-biofuels conversion technology, which is the still-costly deconstruction of polymeric biomass carbohydrates to fermentable sugars. However, the complexity of both the structure of plant biomass and its counterpart microbial degradation communities makes it d...

  1. Community Structure and Activity Dynamics of Nitrifying Bacteria in a Phosphate-Removing Biofilm

    OpenAIRE

    Gieseke, Armin; Purkhold, Ulrike; Wagner, Michael; Amann, Rudolf; Schramm, Andreas

    2001-01-01

    The microbial community structure and activity dynamics of a phosphate-removing biofilm from a sequencing batch biofilm reactor were investigated with special focus on the nitrifying community. O2, NO2−, and NO3− profiles in the biofilm were measured with microsensors at various times during the nonaerated-aerated reactor cycle. In the aeration period, nitrification was oxygen limited and restricted to the first 200 μm at the biofilm surface. Additionally, a delayed onset of nitrification aft...

  2. Geographic distance and mountain ranges structure freshwater protist communities on a European scalе

    OpenAIRE

    Boenigk,Jens; Wodniok,Sabina; Bock,Christina; Beisser,Daniela; Hempel,Christopher; Grossmann,Lars; Lange,Anja; Jensen,Manfred

    2018-01-01

    Protists influence ecosystems by modulating microbial population size, diversity, metabolic outputs and gene flow. In this study we used eukaryotic ribosomal amplicon diversity from 218 European freshwater lakes sampled in August 2012 to assess the effect of mountain ranges as biogeographic barriers on spatial patterns and microbial community structure in European freshwaters. The diversity of microbial communities as reflected by amplicon clusters suggested that the eukaryotic microbial inve...

  3. Variations of Bacterial Community Structure and Composition in Mangrove Sediment at Different Depths in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas William Mendes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tropical mangroves are considered one of the most productive ecosystems of the world, being characterized as nurseries and food sources for fish and other animals. Microorganisms play important roles in these environments, and the study of bacterial communities is of paramount importance for a better comprehension of mangrove dynamics. This study focused on the structure and composition of bacterial communities in mangrove sediments at different depths and points, located in Southeastern Brazil. Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP was used to determine the community structure, and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing was used to characterize the community composition. Redundancy analysis of T-RFLP patterns revealed differences in bacterial community structure according to soil attributes and depth. The parameters K and depth presented significant correlation with general community structure. Most sequences were classified into the phylum Proteobacteria (88%, which presented differences according to the depth, where the classes Betaproteobacteria (21% and Deltaproteobacteria (16% were abundant at 10 cm and Epsilonproteobacteria (35% was abundant at 40 cm depth. Clear differences were observed in community composition as shown by the differential distribution of the phyla Firmicutes (1.13% and 3.8%, for 10 cm and 40 cm respectively, Chloroflexi (2.8% and 0.75%, and Acidobacteria (2.75% and 0.57% according to the depth. Bacterial diversity measurements indicated higher diversity in shallow samples. Taken together, our findings indicate that mangrove holds a diverse bacterial community, which is shaped by the variations found in the ecosystem, such as sediment properties and depth.

  4. Hierarchical structured Sm2O3 modified CuO nanoflowers as electrode materials for high performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaojuan; He, Mingqian; He, Ping; Liu, Hongtao; Bai, Hongmei; Chen, Jingchao; He, Shaoying; Zhang, Xingquan; Dong, Faqing; Chen, Yang

    2017-12-01

    By a simple and cost effective chemical precipitation-hydrothermal method, novel hierarchical structured Sm2O3 modified CuO nanoflowers are prepared and investigated as electrode materials for supercapacitors. The physical properties of prepared materials are characterized by XRD, FE-SEM, EDX and FTIR techniques. Furthermore, electrochemical performances of prepared materials are investigated by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge and electrochemical impedance spectrum in 1.0 M KOH electrolyte. The resulting Sm2O3 modified CuO based electrodes exhibit obviously enhanced capacitive properties owing to the unique nanostructures and strong synergistic effects. It is worth noting that the optimized SC-3 based electrode exhibits the best electrochemical performances in all prepared electrodes, including higher specific capacitance (383.4 F g-1 at 0.5 A g-1) and good rate capability (393.2 F g-1 and 246.3 F g-1 at 0.3 A g-1 and 3.0 A g-1, respectively), as well as excellent cycling stability (84.6% capacitance retention after 2000 cycles at 1.0 A g-1). The present results show that Sm2O3 is used as a promising modifier to change the morphology and improve electrochemical performances of CuO materials.

  5. Structural and cultural sources of community in American congregations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroope, Samuel; Baker, Joseph O

    2014-05-01

    Religious institutions are among the deepest reservoirs of social belonging in America, but what determines whether belonging is cultivated in these institutions? Previous research shows that individuals' social network composition is a primary predictor of feelings of belonging. However, less is known about how group characteristics condition the influence of social networks on belonging. We use data from the 2001 U.S. Congregational Life Survey and multilevel modeling to examine how organizational characteristics such as group size, in-group network density, and aggregate ideological uniformity moderate the effects of individual social networks on sense of belonging. Results indicate that both structural (network density, church size) and cultural (ideology) characteristics of groups significantly condition the effects of individual social networks on belonging. Smaller group size, network density, and ideological unity cultivate contexts that amplify the relationship between personal networks and belonging. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Structure of marine predator and prey communities along environmental gradients in a glaciated fjord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Martin; Arimitsu, Mayumi L.; Piatt, John F.

    2012-01-01

    Spatial patterns of marine predator communities are influenced to varying degrees by prey distribution and environmental gradients. We examined physical and biological attributes of an estuarine fjord with strong glacier influence to determine the factors that most influence the structure of predator and prey communities. Our results suggest that some species, such as walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma), black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla), and glaucous-winged gull (Larus glaucescens), were widely distributed across environmental gradients, indicating less specialization, whereas species such as capelin (Mallotus villosus), harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), and Kittlitz's murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris) appeared to have more specialized habitat requirements related to glacial influence. We found that upper trophic level communities were well correlated with their mid trophic level prey community, but strong physical gradients in photic depth, temperature, and nutrients played an important role in community structure as well. Mid-trophic level forage fish communities were correlated with the physical gradients more closely than upper trophic levels were, and they showed strong affinity to tidewater glaciers. Silica was closely correlated with the distribution of fish communities, the mechanisms of which deserve further study.

  7. Variability of prokaryotic community structure in a drinking water reservoir (Marathonas, Greece).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lymperopoulou, Despoina S; Kormas, Konstantinos Ar; Karagouni, Amalia D

    2012-01-01

    The structure of the Bacteria and Archaea community in a large drinking water reservoir (Marathonas, Greece; MR) was investigated in October 2007 and September 2008, using 16S rRNA gene clone libraries. The bacterial communities were more diverse than archaeal communities (Shannon diversity index H' 0.81-3.28 and 1.36-1.77, respectively). The overall bacterial community composition was comparable to bacterioplankton community described in other freshwater habitats. Within the Bacteria, Betaproteobacteria dominated, while representatives of Alpha-, Gamma- and Deltaproteobacteria also occurred. Other important phyla were Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes, while representatives of Acidobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Chloroflexi, Planctomycetes and Verrucomicrobia were also retrieved. Several phylotypes in Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were related to bacteria capable of cyanotoxin degradation and with aromatic compounds/iron oxidizers or polymer degraders. Euryarchaeota dominated (60.5%) the Archaea community mostly with phylotypes related to Methanobacteriales and Methanosarcinales. Among the Thaumarchaeota, the two most abundant phylotypes were affiliated (97% similarity) with the only cultivated mesophilic thaumarchaeote of marine origin, Nitrosopumilus maritimus. Temporal and spatial comparison of the prokaryotic community structure revealed that three of the most abundant prokaryotic phylotypes, belonging to Actinobacteria, were recovered from all sites both years, suggesting that these Actinobacteria could be important key players in MR ecosystem functioning.

  8. Mechanisms shaping size structure and functional diversity of phytoplankton communities in the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo-Trejos, Esteban; Brandt, Gunnar; Bruggeman, Jorn; Merico, Agostino

    2015-01-01

    The factors regulating phytoplankton community composition play a crucial role in structuring aquatic food webs. However, consensus is still lacking about the mechanisms underlying the observed biogeographical differences in cell size composition of phytoplankton communities. Here we use a trait-based model to disentangle these mechanisms in two contrasting regions of the Atlantic Ocean. In our model, the phytoplankton community can self-assemble based on a trade-off emerging from relationships between cell size and (1) nutrient uptake, (2) zooplankton grazing, and (3) phytoplankton sinking. Grazing ‘pushes’ the community towards larger cell sizes, whereas nutrient uptake and sinking ‘pull’ the community towards smaller cell sizes. We find that the stable environmental conditions of the tropics strongly balance these forces leading to persistently small cell sizes and reduced size diversity. In contrast, the seasonality of the temperate region causes the community to regularly reorganize via shifts in species composition and to exhibit, on average, bigger cell sizes and higher size diversity than in the tropics. Our results raise the importance of environmental variability as a key structuring mechanism of plankton communities in the ocean and call for a reassessment of the current understanding of phytoplankton diversity patterns across latitudinal gradients. PMID:25747280

  9. Predicting community structure in snakes on Eastern Nearctic islands using ecological neutral theory and phylogenetic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbrink, Frank T; McKelvy, Alexander D; Pyron, R Alexander; Myers, Edward A

    2015-11-22

    Predicting species presence and richness on islands is important for understanding the origins of communities and how likely it is that species will disperse and resist extinction. The equilibrium theory of island biogeography (ETIB) and, as a simple model of sampling abundances, the unified neutral theory of biodiversity (UNTB), predict that in situations where mainland to island migration is high, species-abundance relationships explain the presence of taxa on islands. Thus, more abundant mainland species should have a higher probability of occurring on adjacent islands. In contrast to UNTB, if certain groups have traits that permit them to disperse to islands better than other taxa, then phylogeny may be more predictive of which taxa will occur on islands. Taking surveys of 54 island snake communities in the Eastern Nearctic along with mainland communities that have abundance data for each species, we use phylogenetic assembly methods and UNTB estimates to predict island communities. Species richness is predicted by island area, whereas turnover from the mainland to island communities is random with respect to phylogeny. Community structure appears to be ecologically neutral and abundance on the mainland is the best predictor of presence on islands. With regard to young and proximate islands, where allopatric or cladogenetic speciation is not a factor, we find that simple neutral models following UNTB and ETIB predict the structure of island communities. © 2015 The Author(s).

  10. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles modified by salicylic acid and arginine: Structure, surface properties and photocatalytic decomposition of p-nitrophenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Lei [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Shanxi Province Key Laboratory of Higee-Oriented Chemical Engineering, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China); Feng, Yujie, E-mail: yujief@hit.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Liu, Youzhi; Wei, Bing; Guo, Jiaxin; Jiao, Weizhou [Shanxi Province Key Laboratory of Higee-Oriented Chemical Engineering, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China); Zhang, Zhaohan [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Zhang, Qiaoling, E-mail: zhangqiaoling@nuc.edu.cn [Shanxi Province Key Laboratory of Higee-Oriented Chemical Engineering, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China)

    2016-02-15

    Graphical abstract: A simple and versatile synthetic method to produce TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles surface-modified with various organic capping agents can be used for novel multifunctional photocatalysts as required for various applications in energy saving and environmental protection. - Highlights: • SA and Arg was modified through the method of dipping treatment-based on chemical adsorption in saturated solution. • Surface modified TiO{sub 2} applied in photodecomposition of nitroaromatic. • The photoreduction of nitroaromatic and photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation were enhanced by TiO{sub 2}–SA–Arg. • TiO{sub 2}–SA–Arg showed better lipophilic, dispersion and adsorption properties. - Abstract: In this study, titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles were surface-modified with salicylic acid (SA) and arginine (Arg) using an environmentally friendly and convenient method, and the bonding structure, surface properties and degradation efficiency of p-nitrophenol (PNP) were investigated. X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), water contact angle (WCA) measurements, ζ-potentiometric analysis, UV/visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV–vis DRS), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were performed to evaluate the modification effect. The degradation rates were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results show that bidentate or bridging bonds are most likely formed between SA/Arg and TiO{sub 2} surface. Surface modification with SA, Arg, or both can improve the lipophilic properties and decrease the zeta potential, and also result in a red shift of the absorption wavelength. TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles modified by Arg or both SA and Arg show a large specific surface area and pore volume. Further, degradation

  11. The community seismic network and quake-catcher network: enabling structural health monitoring through instrumentation by community participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Monica D.; Heaton, Thomas H.; Cheng, Ming-Hei

    2013-04-01

    A new type of seismic network is in development that takes advantage of community volunteers to install low-cost accelerometers in houses and buildings. The Community Seismic Network and Quake-Catcher Network are examples of this, in which observational-based structural monitoring is carried out using records from one to tens of stations in a single building. We have deployed about one hundred accelerometers in a number of buildings ranging between five and 23 stories in the Los Angeles region. In addition to a USB-connected device which connects to the host's computer, we have developed a stand-alone sensor-plug-computer device that directly connects to the internet via Ethernet or wifi. In the case of the Community Seismic Network, the sensors report both continuous data and anomalies in local acceleration to a cloud computing service consisting of data centers geographically distributed across the continent. Visualization models of the instrumented buildings' dynamic linear response have been constructed using Google SketchUp and an associated plug-in to matlab with recorded shaking data. When data are available from only one to a very limited number of accelerometers in high rises, the buildings are represented as simple shear beam or prismatic Timoshenko beam models with soil-structure interaction. Small-magnitude earthquake records are used to identify the first set of horizontal vibrational frequencies. These frequencies are then used to compute the response on every floor of the building, constrained by the observed data. These tools are resulting in networking standards that will enable data sharing among entire communities, facility managers, and emergency response groups.

  12. Microbial community functional structures in wastewater treatment plants as characterized by GeoChip.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Biological WWTPs must be functionally stable to continuously and steadily remove contaminants which rely upon the activity of complex microbial communities. However, knowledge is still lacking in regard to microbial community functional structures and their linkages to environmental variables. AIMS: To investigate microbial community functional structures of activated sludge in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs and to understand the effects of environmental factors on their structure. METHODS: 12 activated sludge samples were collected from four WWTPs in Beijing. A comprehensive functional gene array named GeoChip 4.2 was used to determine the microbial functional genes involved in a variety of biogeochemical processes such as carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous and sulfur cycles, metal resistance, antibiotic resistance and organic contaminant degradation. RESULTS: High similarities of the microbial community functional structures were found among activated sludge samples from the four WWTPs, as shown by both diversity indices and the overlapped genes. For individual gene category, such as egl, amyA, lip, nirS, nirK, nosZ, ureC, ppx, ppk, aprA, dsrA, sox and benAB, there were a number of microorganisms shared by all 12 samples. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA showed that the microbial functional patterns were highly correlated with water temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO, ammonia concentrations and loading rate of chemical oxygen demand (COD. Based on the variance partitioning analyses (VPA, a total of 53% of microbial community variation from GeoChip data can be explained by wastewater characteristics (25% and operational parameters (23%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study provided an overall picture of microbial community functional structures of activated sludge in WWTPs and discerned the linkages between microbial communities and environmental variables in WWTPs.

  13. Bacterial community structures are unique and resilient in full-scale bioenergy systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Jeffrey J; Knights, Dan; Garcia, Marcelo L; Scalfone, Nicholas B; Smith, Samual; Yarasheski, Kevin; Cummings, Theresa A; Beers, Allen R; Knight, Rob; Angenent, Largus T

    2011-03-08

    Anaerobic digestion is the most successful bioenergy technology worldwide with, at its core, undefined microbial communities that have poorly understood dynamics. Here, we investigated the relationships of bacterial community structure (>400,000 16S rRNA gene sequences for 112 samples) with function (i.e., bioreactor performance) and environment (i.e., operating conditions) in a yearlong monthly time series of nine full-scale bioreactor facilities treating brewery wastewater (>20,000 measurements). Each of the nine facilities had a unique community structure with an unprecedented level of stability. Using machine learning, we identified a small subset of operational taxonomic units (OTUs; 145 out of 4,962), which predicted the location of the facility of origin for almost every sample (96.4% accuracy). Of these 145 OTUs, syntrophic bacteria were systematically overrepresented, demonstrating that syntrophs rebounded following disturbances. This indicates that resilience, rather than dynamic competition, played an important role in maintaining the necessary syntrophic populations. In addition, we explained the observed phylogenetic differences between all samples on the basis of a subset of environmental gradients (using constrained ordination) and found stronger relationships between community structure and its function rather than its environment. These relationships were strongest for two performance variables--methanogenic activity and substrate removal efficiency--both of which were also affected by microbial ecology because these variables were correlated with community evenness (at any given time) and variability in phylogenetic structure (over time), respectively. Thus, we quantified relationships between community structure and function, which opens the door to engineer communities with superior functions.

  14. Bacterial Diversity and Community Structure in Two Bornean Nepenthes Species with Differences in Nitrogen Acquisition Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sickel, Wiebke; Grafe, T Ulmar; Meuche, Ivonne; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Keller, Alexander

    2016-05-01

    Carnivorous plants of the genus Nepenthes have been studied for over a century, but surprisingly little is known about associations with microorganisms. The two species Nepenthes rafflesiana and Nepenthes hemsleyana differ in their pitcher-mediated nutrient sources, sequestering nitrogen from arthropod prey and arthropods as well as bat faeces, respectively. We expected bacterial communities living in the pitchers to resemble this diet difference. Samples were taken from different parts of the pitchers (leaf, peristome, inside, outside, digestive fluid) of both species. Bacterial communities were determined using culture-independent high-throughput amplicon sequencing. Bacterial richness and community structure were similar in leaves, peristomes, inside and outside walls of both plant species. Regarding digestive fluids, bacterial richness was higher in N. hemsleyana than in N. rafflesiana. Additionally, digestive fluid communities were highly variable in structure, with strain-specific differences in community composition between replicates. Acidophilic taxa were mostly of low abundance, except the genus Acidocella, which strikingly reached extremely high levels in two N. rafflesiana fluids. In N. hemsleyana fluid, some taxa classified as vertebrate gut symbionts as well as saprophytes were enriched compared to N. rafflesiana, with saprophytes constituting potential competitors for nutrients. The high variation in community structure might be caused by a number of biotic and abiotic factors. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria were present in both study species, which might provide essential nutrients to the plant at times of low prey capture and/or rare encounters with bats.

  15. Differential Responses of Nitrate Reducer Community Size, Structure, and Activity to Tillage Systems▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chèneby, D.; Brauman, A.; Rabary, B.; Philippot, L.

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine how the size, structure, and activity of the nitrate reducer community were affected by adoption of a conservative tillage system as an alternative to conventional tillage. The experimental field, established in Madagascar in 1991, consists of plots subjected to conventional tillage or direct-seeding mulch-based cropping systems (DM), both amended with three different fertilization regimes. Comparisons of size, structure, and activity of the nitrate reducer community in samples collected from the top layer in 2005 and 2006 revealed that all characteristics of this functional community were affected by the tillage system, with increased nitrate reduction activity and numbers of nitrate reducers under DM. Nitrate reduction activity was also stimulated by combined organic and mineral fertilization but not by organic fertilization alone. In contrast, both negative and positive effects of combined organic and mineral fertilization on the size of the nitrate reducer community were observed. The size of the nitrate reducer community was a significant predictor of the nitrate reduction rates except in one treatment, which highlighted the inherent complexities in understanding the relationships the between size, diversity, and structure of functional microbial communities