WorldWideScience

Sample records for common plant species

  1. Quality control and TLC profile data on selected plant species commonly found in the Brazilian market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Braz

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of thin-layer chromatography (TLC is a commonplace practice and can be of significant help to different laboratories with quality control, especially those that work with plant extracts and phytotherapeutics. This study evaluated ten species of plants (Schinus terebinthifolius; Arctium lappa; Trichilia catigua; Camellia sinensis; Mikania glomerata; Croton echioides; Achyrocline satureioides; Heteropterys aphrodisiaca; Plantago major; Arctostaphylos uva-ursi that are commonly sold by compounding pharmacies, using TLC with reference substances and pharmacopoeic physical and chemical tests (loss on drying, level of extractives, and total ash content. The results showed that the ten species showed losses on drying consonant with the literature. The level of extractives for two species and total ash for five species were also consonant with the literature, and those of the other species were established in this study. The semipurified extracts of the ten species were assayed by TLC, and the analysis with the use of reference substances proved to be effective, in addition to being practical, simple, versatile, and economically viable.

  2. Quality control and TLC profile data on selected plant species commonly found in the Brazilian market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Braz

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of thin-layer chromatography (TLC is a commonplace practice and can be of significant help to different laboratories with quality control, especially those that work with plant extracts and phytotherapeutics. This study evaluated ten species of plants (Schinus terebinthifolius; Arctium lappa; Trichilia catigua; Camellia sinensis; Mikania glomerata; Croton echioides; Achyrocline satureioides; Heteropterys aphrodisiaca; Plantago major; Arctostaphylos uva-ursi that are commonly sold by compounding pharmacies, using TLC with reference substances and pharmacopoeic physical and chemical tests (loss on drying, level of extractives, and total ash content. The results showed that the ten species showed losses on drying consonant with the literature. The level of extractives for two species and total ash for five species were also consonant with the literature, and those of the other species were established in this study. The semipurified extracts of the ten species were assayed by TLC, and the analysis with the use of reference substances proved to be effective, in addition to being practical, simple, versatile, and economically viable.

  3. Drag forces of common plant species in temperate streams: consequences of morphology, velocity and biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaj Sand

    2008-01-01

    a variety of environmental conditions and plant traits influences distribution. Drag on the trailing canopy usually increased 15- to 35-fold for a 100-fold increase of biomass suggesting that an even distribution of plants at low density across the stream bed offers greater resistance to downstream flow......Swift flow in streams may physically influence the morphology and distribution of plants. I quantified drag as a function of velocity, biomass and their interaction on the trailing canopy of seven European stream species in an experimental flume and evaluated its importance for species distribution...... of drag with velocity did not differ systematically among inherently streamlined or non-streamlined species while increase of drag with biomass was smallest among non-streamlined shoots which provide greater mutual shelter. At low shoot density, inherently streamlined species usually experienced...

  4. Analysis of plant leaf metabolites reveals no common response to insect herbivory by Pieris rapae in three related host-plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riach, A C; Perera, M V L; Florance, H V; Penfield, S D; Hill, J K

    2015-05-01

    Studying the biochemical responses of different plant species to insect herbivory may help improve our understanding of the evolution of defensive metabolites found in host plants and their role in plant-herbivore interactions. Untargeted metabolic fingerprints measured as individual mass features were used to compare metabolite reactions in three Brassicales host-plant species (Cleome spinosa, Brassica oleracea, and Lunaria annua) to larval herbivore attack (Pieris rapae; Lepidoptera). Principal component analyses of metabolic fingerprints were able to distinguish among the three plant species and between uneaten control plants and plants that had been eaten. A large number of mass features (1186, 13% of mass features measured in control plants) were common to the three plant species. However, there were few similarities in the mass features that were induced (i.e. changed in abundance) following herbivory. Of the 87 and 68 induced mass features in B. oleracea and C. spinosa, respectively, there were only three that were induced in both plant species. By contrast, L. annua only had one mass feature induced by herbivory, and this was not induced in the other two plant species. The growth of the P. rapae larvae was poorer on the host plant L. annua than on B. oleracea and C. spinosa. The absence of common metabolites among the plants meant these induced responses could not be related to the performance of the herbivore. Thus, the response to herbivory by the same herbivore in these three host plants has evolved to be idiosyncratic in terms of the specific metabolites induced. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  5. Invasional meltdown in northern lakes: Common carp invasion favors non-native plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disturbances can lead to nonrandom changes in community composition due to interactions between the disturbance and the characteristics of species found in the community or available to colonize, producing both winners and losers of disturbance. When the disturbance is a biologic...

  6. Effect of Common Species of Florida Landscaping Plants on the Efficacy of Attractive Toxic Sugar Baits Against Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeger, Kelly E; Scott, Jodi M; Muller, Gunter C; Qualls, Whitney A; Xue, Rui-De

    2017-06-01

    Attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB) was applied to 5 different types of commonly found plants in landscaping of northeastern Florida. The ATSB applications were assessed for possible plant effects and preference against Aedes albopictus in semifield evaluations. Positive and negative controls consisted of plants sprayed with attractive sugar bait (no toxicant) and plants with nothing applied. Bioassays were conducted on stems with leaf clippings and on full plants to assess any difference in mosquito mortality on the different plants. Plants utilized in these evaluations were Indian hawthorne, Yaupon holly, Japanese privet, Loropetalum ruby, and podocarpus. In both assays, no significant difference was observed in the effect of ATSBs on adult female mosquitoes based on the type of plant. ATSB could be applied to common landscape plants for adult Ae. albopictus control.

  7. The impact of invasive plants on tidal-marsh vertebrate species: common reed (Phragmites australis) and smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) as case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Nordby, J. Cully

    2006-01-01

    Large areas of tidal marsh in the contiguous US and the Maritime Provinces of Canada are threatened by invasive plant species. Our understanding of the impact these invasions have on tidal-marsh vertebrates is sparse. In this paper, we focus on two successful invasive plant taxa that have spread outside their native range --common reed (Phragmites australis) and smooth cordgrass (Spartina a/terniflora). A cryptic haplotype of common reed has expanded its range in Atlantic Coast tidal marshes and smooth cordgrass, a native dominant plant of Atlantic Coast low-marsh habitat, has expanded its range and invaded intertidal-marsh habitats of the Pacific Coast. The invasions of common reed in Atlantic Coast tidal marshes and smooth cordgrass in Pacific Coast tidal marshes appear to have similar impacts. The structure and composition of these habitats has been altered and invasion and dominance by these two taxa can lead to profound changes in geomorphological processes, altering the vertical relief and potentially affecting invertebrate communities and the entire trophic structure of these systems. Few studies have documented impacts of invasive plant taxa on tidal-marsh vertebrate species in North America. However, habitat specialists that are already considered threatened or endangered are most likely to be affected. Extensive experimental studies are needed to examine the direct impact of invasive plant species on native vertebrate species. Careful monitoring of sites during the initial stages of plant invasion and tracking ecosystem changes through time are essential. Since tidal marshes are the foci for invasion by numerous species, we also need to understand the indirect impacts of invasion of these habitats on the vertebrate community. We also suggest the initiation of studies to determine if vertebrate species can compensate behaviorally for alterations in their habitat caused by invasive plant species, as well as the potential for adaptation via rapid evolution

  8. Altered precipitation patterns and simulated nitrogen deposition effects on phenology of common plant species in a Tibetan Plateau alpine meadow

    Science.gov (United States)

    The interactive effects of five seasonal precipitation distribution patterns and two levels of N deposition (ambient and doubled) on phenological traits of six dominant plant species were studied in an alpine meadow of the Tibetan Plateau for two consecutive years. Seasonal precipitation patterns i...

  9. Profiling of Accessible Chromatin Regions across Multiple Plant Species and Cell Types Reveals Common Gene Regulatory Principles and New Control Modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Kelsey A; Bajic, Marko; Kajala, Kaisa; Reynoso, Mauricio; Pauluzzi, Germain; West, Donnelly A; Zumstein, Kristina; Woodhouse, Margaret; Bubb, Kerry; Dorrity, Michael W; Queitsch, Christine; Bailey-Serres, Julia; Sinha, Neelima; Brady, Siobhan M; Deal, Roger B

    2018-01-01

    The transcriptional regulatory structure of plant genomes remains poorly defined relative to animals. It is unclear how many cis -regulatory elements exist, where these elements lie relative to promoters, and how these features are conserved across plant species. We employed the assay for transposase-accessible chromatin (ATAC-seq) in four plant species ( Arabidopsis thaliana , Medicago truncatula , Solanum lycopersicum , and Oryza sativa ) to delineate open chromatin regions and transcription factor (TF) binding sites across each genome. Despite 10-fold variation in intergenic space among species, the majority of open chromatin regions lie within 3 kb upstream of a transcription start site in all species. We find a common set of four TFs that appear to regulate conserved gene sets in the root tips of all four species, suggesting that TF-gene networks are generally conserved. Comparative ATAC-seq profiling of Arabidopsis root hair and non-hair cell types revealed extensive similarity as well as many cell-type-specific differences. Analyzing TF binding sites in differentially accessible regions identified a MYB-driven regulatory module unique to the hair cell, which appears to control both cell fate regulators and abiotic stress responses. Our analyses revealed common regulatory principles among species and shed light on the mechanisms producing cell-type-specific transcriptomes during development. © 2018 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  10. The importance of considering rainfall partitioning in afforestation initiatives in semiarid climates: A comparison of common planted tree species in Tehran, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghi, Seyed Mohammad Moein; Attarod, Pedram; Van Stan, John Toland; Pypker, Thomas Grant

    2016-01-01

    As plantations become increasingly important sources of wood and fiber in arid/semiarid places, they have also become increasingly criticized for their hydrological impacts. An examination and comparison of gross rainfall (GR) partitioning across commonly-planted tree species (Pinus eldarica, Cupressus arizonica, Robinia pseudoacacia, and Fraxinus rotundifolia) in semiarid regions has great value for watershed and forest managers interested in managing canopy hydrological processes for societal benefit. Therefore, we performed a field study examining GR partitioning into throughfall (TF), stemflow (SF), and rainfall interception (I) for these species in the semiarid Chitgar Forest Park, Tehran, Iran. An advantage to our study is that we explore the effects of forest structural differences in plantation forests experiencing similar climatic factors and storm conditions. As such, variability in GR partitioning due to different meteorological conditions is minimized, allowing comparison of structural attributes across plantations. Our results show that commonly-selected afforestation species experiencing the same climate produced differing stand structures that differentially partition GR into TF, SF, and I. P. eldarica might be the best of the four species to plant if the primary goal of afforestation is to limit erosion and stormwater runoff as it intercepted more rainfall than other species. However, the high SF generation from F. rotundifolia, and low GR necessary to initiate SF, could maximize retention of water in the soils since SF has been shown to infiltrate along root pathways and access groundwater. A consideration of GR partitioning should be considered when selecting a species for afforestation/reforestation in water-limited ecosystems. - Highlights: • Measured rain partitioning of four most common species used in semiarid afforestation • Species rain partitioning differences are important in a water management. • Recommendations provided to guide

  11. The importance of considering rainfall partitioning in afforestation initiatives in semiarid climates: A comparison of common planted tree species in Tehran, Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeghi, Seyed Mohammad Moein, E-mail: moeinsadeghi@ut.ac.ir [Department of Forestry and Forest Economics, University of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Attarod, Pedram [Department of Forestry and Forest Economics, University of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Van Stan, John Toland [Department of Geology and Geography, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, Georgia (United States); Pypker, Thomas Grant [Department of Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science, Thompson Rivers University, Kamloops (Canada)

    2016-10-15

    As plantations become increasingly important sources of wood and fiber in arid/semiarid places, they have also become increasingly criticized for their hydrological impacts. An examination and comparison of gross rainfall (GR) partitioning across commonly-planted tree species (Pinus eldarica, Cupressus arizonica, Robinia pseudoacacia, and Fraxinus rotundifolia) in semiarid regions has great value for watershed and forest managers interested in managing canopy hydrological processes for societal benefit. Therefore, we performed a field study examining GR partitioning into throughfall (TF), stemflow (SF), and rainfall interception (I) for these species in the semiarid Chitgar Forest Park, Tehran, Iran. An advantage to our study is that we explore the effects of forest structural differences in plantation forests experiencing similar climatic factors and storm conditions. As such, variability in GR partitioning due to different meteorological conditions is minimized, allowing comparison of structural attributes across plantations. Our results show that commonly-selected afforestation species experiencing the same climate produced differing stand structures that differentially partition GR into TF, SF, and I. P. eldarica might be the best of the four species to plant if the primary goal of afforestation is to limit erosion and stormwater runoff as it intercepted more rainfall than other species. However, the high SF generation from F. rotundifolia, and low GR necessary to initiate SF, could maximize retention of water in the soils since SF has been shown to infiltrate along root pathways and access groundwater. A consideration of GR partitioning should be considered when selecting a species for afforestation/reforestation in water-limited ecosystems. - Highlights: • Measured rain partitioning of four most common species used in semiarid afforestation • Species rain partitioning differences are important in a water management. • Recommendations provided to guide

  12. The role of above-ground competition and nitrogen vs. phosphorus enrichment in seedling survival of common European plant species of semi-natural grasslands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Ceulemans

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic activities have severely altered fluxes of nitrogen and phosphorus in ecosystems worldwide. In grasslands, subsequent negative effects are commonly attributed to competitive exclusion of plant species following increased above-ground biomass production. However, some studies have shown that this does not fully account for nutrient enrichment effects, questioning whether lowering competition by reducing grassland productivity through mowing or herbivory can mitigate the environmental impact of nutrient pollution. Furthermore, few studies so far discriminate between nitrogen and phosphorus pollution. We performed a full factorial experiment in greenhouse mesocosms combining nitrogen and phosphorus addition with two clipping regimes designed to relax above-ground competition. Next, we studied the survival and growth of seedlings of eight common European grassland species and found that five out of eight species showed higher survival under the clipping regime with the lowest above-ground competition. Phosphorus addition negatively affected seven plant species and nitrogen addition negatively affected four plant species. Importantly, the negative effects of nutrient addition and higher above-ground competition were independent of each other for all but one species. Our results suggest that at any given level of soil nutrients, relaxation of above-ground competition allows for higher seedling survival in grasslands. At the same time, even at low levels of above-ground competition, nutrient enrichment negatively affects survival as compared to nutrient-poor conditions. Therefore, although maintaining low above-ground competition appears essential for species' recruitment, for instance through mowing or herbivory, these management efforts are likely to be insufficient and we conclude that environmental policies aimed to reduce both excess nitrogen and particularly phosphorus inputs are also necessary.

  13. Plants assemble species specific bacterial communities from common core taxa in three arcto-alpine climate zones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, Manoj; Brader, Guenter; Sessitsch, Angela; Maki, Anita; van Elsas, Jan D.; Nissinen, Riitta

    2017-01-01

    Evidence for the pivotal role of plant-associated bacteria to plant health and productivity has accumulated rapidly in the last years. However, key questions related to what drives plant bacteriomes remain unanswered, among which is the impact of climate zones on plant-associated microbiota. This is

  14. The importance of considering rainfall partitioning in afforestation initiatives in semiarid climates: A comparison of common planted tree species in Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Seyed Mohammad Moein; Attarod, Pedram; Van Stan, John Toland; Pypker, Thomas Grant

    2016-10-15

    As plantations become increasingly important sources of wood and fiber in arid/semiarid places, they have also become increasingly criticized for their hydrological impacts. An examination and comparison of gross rainfall (GR) partitioning across commonly-planted tree species (Pinus eldarica, Cupressus arizonica, Robinia pseudoacacia, and Fraxinus rotundifolia) in semiarid regions has great value for watershed and forest managers interested in managing canopy hydrological processes for societal benefit. Therefore, we performed a field study examining GR partitioning into throughfall (TF), stemflow (SF), and rainfall interception (I) for these species in the semiarid Chitgar Forest Park, Tehran, Iran. An advantage to our study is that we explore the effects of forest structural differences in plantation forests experiencing similar climatic factors and storm conditions. As such, variability in GR partitioning due to different meteorological conditions is minimized, allowing comparison of structural attributes across plantations. Our results show that commonly-selected afforestation species experiencing the same climate produced differing stand structures that differentially partition GR into TF, SF, and I. P. eldarica might be the best of the four species to plant if the primary goal of afforestation is to limit erosion and stormwater runoff as it intercepted more rainfall than other species. However, the high SF generation from F. rotundifolia, and low GR necessary to initiate SF, could maximize retention of water in the soils since SF has been shown to infiltrate along root pathways and access groundwater. A consideration of GR partitioning should be considered when selecting a species for afforestation/reforestation in water-limited ecosystems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. [Effects of different soil types on the foliar δ13C values of common local plant species in karst rocky desertification area in central Guizhou Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xue-lian; Wang, Shi-jie; Luo, Xu-qiang

    2014-09-01

    By measuring the foliar δ13C values of common local plant species grown in different soil types in Wangjiazhai catchments, a typical karst desertification area in Qingzhen City, Central Guizhou, we studied the impact of soil type and rocky desertification grade on the foliar δ13C values. The results showed that the foliar δ13C values were more negative in yellow soil area than those in black calcareous area and there was no obvious difference in foliar δ13C values between these two soil types. The distribution interval of foliar δ13C values in yellow soil area was narrower than those in black calcareous area and the variation coefficient of foliar δ13C values in yellow soil area were smaller than those in black calcareous area. With increasing degree of karst rocky desertification, the foliar δ13C values of plant community in black calcareous area increased, whereas those in yellow soil area first increased and then decreased. The result of multiple comparison showed that the difference in foliar δ13C values of plant community among rocky desertification grade was not obvious in yellow soil area, but it was obvious in black calcareous area. Correlation analysis between the foliar δ13C values of plant species and the main environmental factors indicated that slope and soil thickness were the main factors which affected the foliar δ13C values of plants in yellow soil area and soil water contant was the main factor in black calcareous area. The impact of soil on the foliar δ13C values was realized by adjusting the soil moisture in study area.

  16. ANATOMIC INVESTIGATION OF HUNGARY'S COMMON SHRUB SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eszter ANTALFI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In Hungary a huge part of wooden plants are shrubs. Flora of hungarian forests is among the richest in Europe. Many plants can be classified as shrubs or trees as well, circumstances during their development define what they will become. The diverse world of shrubs and weeds delights the eye under 20-30 meter high trees. From these there are some well known which basically everybody recognises is lilac (Syringa vulgaris, elderberry (Sambucus nigra, dog-rose (Rosa canina, single-seeded hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna and common buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica. To get these species better known – and occasionally foreshadowing their wood industry usage in some way – it is expendient to familiarize ourselves with their microscopic structure and characteristics. Nowadays there are several imaging methods known, however for examining floral tissue the optical microscope is still the most common one to be used.

  17. Higher sterol content regulated by CYP51 with concomitant lower phospholipid content in membranes is a common strategy for aluminium tolerance in several plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagatsuma, Tadao; Khan, Md Shahadat Hossain; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Maejima, Eriko; Sekimoto, Hitoshi; Yokota, Takao; Nakano, Takeshi; Toyomasu, Tomonobu; Tawaraya, Keitaro; Koyama, Hiroyuki; Uemura, Matsuo; Ishikawa, Satoru; Ikka, Takashi; Ishikawa, Akifumi; Kawamura, Takeshi; Murakami, Satoshi; Ueki, Nozomi; Umetsu, Asami; Kannari, Takayuki

    2015-02-01

    Several studies have shown that differences in lipid composition and in the lipid biosynthetic pathway affect the aluminium (Al) tolerance of plants, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying these differences. Phospholipids create a negative charge at the surface of the plasma membrane and enhance Al sensitivity as a result of the accumulation of positively charged Al(3+) ions. The phospholipids will be balanced by other electrically neutral lipids, such as sterols. In the present research, Al tolerance was compared among pea (Pisum sativum) genotypes. Compared with Al-tolerant genotypes, the Al-sensitive genotype accumulated more Al in the root tip, had a less intact plasma membrane, and showed a lower expression level of PsCYP51, which encodes obtusifoliol-14α-demethylase (OBT 14DM), a key sterol biosynthetic enzyme. The ratio of phospholipids to sterols was higher in the sensitive genotype than in the tolerant genotypes, suggesting that the sterol biosynthetic pathway plays an important role in Al tolerance. Consistent with this idea, a transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana line with knocked-down AtCYP51 expression showed an Al-sensitive phenotype. Uniconazole-P, an inhibitor of OBT 14DM, suppressed the Al tolerance of Al-tolerant genotypes of maize (Zea mays), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), rice (Oryza sativa), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and triticale (×Triticosecale Wittmark cv. Currency). These results suggest that increased sterol content, regulated by CYP51, with concomitant lower phospholipid content in the root tip, results in lower negativity of the plasma membrane. This appears to be a common strategy for Al tolerance among several plant species. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  18. Contrasting root associated fungi of three common oak-woodland plant species based on molecular identification: host specificity or non-specific amplification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douhan, Greg W; Petersen, Carolyn; Bledsoe, Caroline S; Rizzo, David M

    2005-07-01

    An increasingly popular approach used to identify arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in planta is to amplify a portion of AM fungal small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU-rDNA) from whole root DNA extractions using the primer pair AM1-NS31, followed by cloning and sequencing. We used this approach to study the AM fungal community composition of three common oak-woodland plant species: a grass (Cynosurus echinatus), blue oak (Quercus douglasii), and a forb (Torilis arvensis). Significant diversity of AM fungi were found in the roots of C. echinatus, which is consistent with previous studies demonstrating a high degree of AM fungal diversity from the roots of various hosts. In contrast, clones from Q. douglasii and T. arvensis were primarily from non-AM fungi of diverse origins within the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. This work demonstrates that caution must be taken when using this molecular approach to determine in planta AM fungal diversity if non-sequence based methods such as terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, or temperature gradient gel electrophoresis are used.

  19. Head-group acylation of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol is a common stress response, but the acyl-galactose acyl composition varies with the plant species and applied stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head group acylation of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol is a plant lipid modification occurring during bacterial infection. Little is known about the range of stresses that induce this lipid modification, the molecular species induced, and the function of the modification. Lipidomic analysis using trip...

  20. Evaluation of Botanical Herbicides against Common Weed Species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to search for alternative weed control methods globally. The current study was conducted to test the inhibitory potential of essential oils extracted from eight locally available plants and three inert minerals against common weed species of coffee with emphasis on Bidens pilosa both under lath house and field conditions with ...

  1. Field Keys to Common Hawaiian Marine Animals and Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

    Presented are keys for identifying common Hawaiian marine algae, beach plants, reef corals, sea urchins, tidepool fishes, and sea cucumbers. Nearly all species considered can be distinguished by characteristics visible to the naked eye. Line drawings illustrate most plants and animals included, and a list of suggested readings follows each…

  2. Head-group acylation of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol is a common stress response, and the acyl-galactose acyl composition varies with the plant species and applied stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Hieu Sy; Roth, Mary R; Tamura, Pamela; Samarakoon, Thilani; Shiva, Sunitha; Honey, Samuel; Lowe, Kaleb; Schmelz, Eric A; Williams, Todd D; Welti, Ruth

    2014-04-01

    Formation of galactose-acylated monogalactosyldiacylglycerols has been shown to be induced by leaf homogenization, mechanical wounding, avirulent bacterial infection and thawing after snap-freezing. Here, lipidomic analysis using mass spectrometry showed that galactose-acylated monogalactosyldiacylglycerols, formed in wheat (Triticum aestivum) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) leaves upon wounding, have acyl-galactose profiles that differ from those of wounded Arabidopsis thaliana, indicating that different plant species accumulate different acyl-galactose components in response to the same stress. Additionally, the composition of the acyl-galactose component of Arabidopsis acMGDG (galactose-acylated monogalactosyldiacylglycerol) depends on the stress treatment. After sub-lethal freezing treatment, acMGDG contained mainly non-oxidized fatty acids esterified to galactose, whereas mostly oxidized fatty acids accumulated on galactose after wounding or bacterial infection. Compositional data are consistent with acMGDG being formed in vivo by transacylation with fatty acids from digalactosyldiacylglycerols. Oxophytodienoic acid, an oxidized fatty acid, was more concentrated on the galactosyl ring of acylated monogalactosyldiacylglycerols than in galactolipids in general. Also, oxidized fatty acid-containing acylated monogalactosyldiacylglycerols increased cumulatively when wounded Arabidopsis leaves were wounded again. These findings suggest that, in Arabidopsis, the pool of galactose-acylated monogalactosyldiacylglycerols may serve to sequester oxidized fatty acids during stress responses. © 2013 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  3. Volatile organic compound emission profiles of four common arctic plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel-Petersen, Ida; Schollert, Michelle; Nymand, Josephine

    2015-01-01

    The biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from plants impact atmosphere and climate. The species-specific emissions, and thereby the atmospheric impact, of many plant species are still unknown. Knowledge of BVOC emission from arctic plants is particularly limited. The vast area...... and relatively high leaf temperature give the Arctic potential for emissions that cannot be neglected. This field study aimed to elucidate the BVOC emission profiles for four common arctic plant species in their natural environment during the growing season. BVOCs were sampled from aboveground parts of Empetrum...... emitted the least BVOCs, dominated by sesquiterpenes (SQTs) and non-isoprenoid BVOCs. The Salix spp. emitted the most, dominated by isoprene. The emissions of B. nana were composed of about two-thirds non-isoprenoid BVOCs, with moderate amounts of monoterpenes (MTs) and SQTs. The total B. nana emissions...

  4. Teaching the Species Concept Using Hybrid Plants and Habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C. M.; Oldham, J. H.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a field exercise which links ecology and taxonomy in the teaching of the species concept. Two common hedgerow plants (red and white campions) are used as a pair of "species" that are normally distinct. Plants of intermediate character can be encountered, and the status of these plants is investigated. (Author/JN)

  5. Germination and early plant development of ten plant species ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten agronomic plant species were exposed to different concentrations of nano titanium dioxide (nTiO2) or nano cerium oxide (nCeO2) (0, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/L) to examine potential effects on germination and early seedling development. We modified a standard test protocol developed for soluble chemicals (OPPTS 850.4200) to determine if such an approach might be useful for screening engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) and whether there were differences in response across a range of commercially important plant species to two common metal oxide ENMs. Eight of 10 species responded to nTiO2, and 5 species responded to nCeO2. Overall, it appeared that early root growth may be a more sensitive indicator of potential effects from ENM exposure than germination. The observed effects did not always relate to the exposure concentration, indicating that mass-based concentration may not fully explain developmental effects of these two ENMs. The results suggest that nTiO2 and nCeO2 have different effects on early plant growth of agronomic species, which may alter the timing of specific developmental events during their life cycle. In addition, standard germination tests, which are commonly used for toxicity screening of new materials, may not detect the subtle but potentially more important changes associated with early growth and development in terrestrial plants. Engineered nanoparticles (ENMs) have been recognized as valuable components of new technologies and are current

  6. Plant species descriptions show signs of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Michael E; Antonovics, Janis

    2003-11-07

    It is well known that diseases can greatly influence the morphology of plants, but often the incidence of disease is either too rare or the symptoms too obvious for the 'abnormalities' to cause confusion in systematics. However, we have recently come across several misinterpretations of disease-induced traits that may have been perpetuated into modern species inventories. Anther-smut disease (caused by the fungus Microbotryum violaceum) is common in many members of the Caryophyllaceae and related plant families. This disease causes anthers of infected plants to be filled with dark-violet fungal spores rather than pollen. Otherwise, their vegetative morphology is within the normal range of healthy plants. Here, we present the results of a herbarium survey showing that a number of type specimens (on which the species name and original description are based) in the genus Silene from Asia are diseased with anther smut. The primary visible disease symptom, namely the dark-violet anthers, is incorporated into the original species descriptions and some of these descriptions have persisted unchanged into modern floras. This raises the question of whether diseased type specimens have erroneously been given unique species names.

  7. Intraspecific functional diversity of common species enhances community stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Connor M; McKinney, Shawn T; Loftin, Cynthia S

    2017-03-01

    Common species are fundamental to the structure and function of their communities and may enhance community stability through intraspecific functional diversity (iFD). We measured among-habitat and within-habitat iFD (i.e., among- and within-plant community types) of two common small mammal species using stable isotopes and functional trait dendrograms, determined whether iFD was related to short-term population stability and small mammal community stability, and tested whether spatially explicit trait filters helped explain observed patterns of iFD. Southern red-backed voles ( Myodes gapperi ) had greater iFD than deer mice ( Peromyscus maniculatus ), both among habitats, and within the plant community in which they were most abundant (their "primary habitat"). Peromyscus maniculatus populations across habitats differed significantly between years and declined 78% in deciduous forests, their primary habitat, as did the overall deciduous forest small mammal community. Myodes gapperi populations were stable across habitats and within coniferous forest, their primary habitat, as was the coniferous forest small mammal community. Generalized linear models representing internal trait filters (e.g., competition), which increase within-habitat type iFD, best explained variation in M. gapperi diet, while models representing internal filters and external filters (e.g., climate), which suppress within-habitat iFD, best explained P. maniculatus diet. This supports the finding that M. gapperi had higher iFD than P. maniculatus and is consistent with the theory that internal trait filters are associated with higher iFD than external filters. Common species with high iFD can impart a stabilizing influence on their communities, information that can be important for conserving biodiversity under environmental change.

  8. Intraspecific functional diversity of common species enhances community stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Connor M.; McKinney, Shawn T.; Loftin, Cynthia S.

    2017-01-01

    Common species are fundamental to the structure and function of their communities and may enhance community stability through intraspecific functional diversity (iFD). We measured among-habitat and within-habitat iFD (i.e., among- and within-plant community types) of two common small mammal species using stable isotopes and functional trait dendrograms, determined whether iFD was related to short-term population stability and small mammal community stability, and tested whether spatially explicit trait filters helped explain observed patterns of iFD. Southern red-backed voles (Myodes gapperi) had greater iFD than deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), both among habitats, and within the plant community in which they were most abundant (their “primary habitat”). Peromyscus maniculatus populations across habitats differed significantly between years and declined 78% in deciduous forests, their primary habitat, as did the overall deciduous forest small mammal community. Myodes gapperi populations were stable across habitats and within coniferous forest, their primary habitat, as was the coniferous forest small mammal community. Generalized linear models representing internal trait filters (e.g., competition), which increase within-habitat type iFD, best explained variation in M. gapperidiet, while models representing internal filters and external filters (e.g., climate), which suppress within-habitat iFD, best explained P. maniculatus diet. This supports the finding that M. gapperi had higher iFD than P. maniculatus and is consistent with the theory that internal trait filters are associated with higher iFD than external filters. Common species with high iFD can impart a stabilizing influence on their communities, information that can be important for conserving biodiversity under environmental change.

  9. Plant Species Sensitivity Distributions for ozone exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goethem, T.M.W.J. van; Azevedo, L.B.; Zelm, R. van; Hayes, F.; Ashmore, M.R.; Huijbregts, M.A.J.

    2013-01-01

    This study derived Species Sensitivity Distributions (SSD), representing a cumulative stressor-response distribution based on single-species sensitivity data, for ozone exposure on natural vegetation. SSDs were constructed for three species groups, i.e. trees, annual grassland and perennial grassland species, using species-specific exposure–response data. The SSDs were applied in two ways. First, critical levels were calculated for each species group and compared to current critical levels for ozone exposure. Second, spatially explicit estimates of the potentially affected fraction of plant species in Northwestern Europe were calculated, based on ambient ozone concentrations. We found that the SSD-based critical levels were lower than for the current critical levels for ozone exposure, with conventional critical levels for ozone relating to 8–20% affected plant species. Our study shows that the SSD concept can be successfully applied to both derive critical ozone levels and estimate the potentially affected species fraction of plant communities along specific ozone gradients. -- Highlights: ► Plant Species Sensitivity Distributions were derived for ozone exposure. ► Annual grassland species, as a species assemblage, tend to be most sensitive to ozone. ► Conventional critical levels for ozone relate to 8–20% affected plant species. ► The affected fraction of plant species for current ozone exposure in Northwestern Europe is estimated. -- Species Sensitivity Distributions offer opportunities in ozone risk assessment to both derive critical levels and estimate the affected fraction of a plant community

  10. Invasive plant species in hardwood tree plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochelle R. Beasley; Paula M. Pijut

    2010-01-01

    Invasive plants are species that can grow and spread aggressively, mature quickly, and invade an ecosystem causing economic and environmental damage. Invasive plants usually invade disturbed areas, but can also colonize small areas quickly, and may spread and dominate large areas in a few short years. Invasive plant species displace native or desirable forest...

  11. Do invasive plant species alter soil health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasive species may alter soil characteristics or interact with the soil microbial community to yield a competitive advantage. Our objectives were to determine: if invasive plant species alter soil properties important to soil health; and the long-term effects of invasive plant species on soil pro...

  12. The 'Human Mind' as a common denominator in plant domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbo, Shahal; Lev-Yadun, Simcha; Gopher, Avi

    2014-05-01

    The role of conscious versus unconscious selection is a central issue in plant domestication. While some authors hold that domesticated plants arose due to unconscious dynamics driven by selection pressures exerted by the ancient 'cultivation regime', others attribute an indispensable role to conscious and knowledge-based selection as an imperative component of Neolithic Near Eastern plant domestication. Recent experimental work demonstrated that, contrary to commonly held views, deep seed burial as part of the ancient cultivation regime cannot be considered as a general selection pressure underlying the increased seed size of domesticated legumes compared with their wild ancestors. This is a robust conclusion since, in three out of the eight legume species studied from different world regions, there was no association between larger seed size and better seedling emergence from depth. We concur with the authors that these legume crops were most likely under various and multiple (often interacting) selection pressures under domestication, thereby causing the observed parallel/convergent evolution of their larger grain size. However, it is puzzling that these authors did not mention the ever-present common denominator in plant domestication, i.e. conscious human decision-making. In our view, the human 'Mind' and the 'Science of the Concrete' à la Lévi-Strauss deserved to be discussed as an integral component of plant domestication.

  13. The myth of plant species saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas J. Stohlgren; David T. Barnett; Catherine S. Jarnevich; Curtis Flather; John Kartesz

    2008-01-01

    Plant species assemblages, communities or regional floras might be termed saturated when additional immigrant species are unsuccessful at establishing due to competitive exclusion or other inter-specific interactions, or when the immigration of species is off-set by extirpation of species. This is clearly not the case for state, regional or national floras in the USA...

  14. Trophic Ecology of Some Common Juvenile Fish Species in Mtwapa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The trophic status of common fish species in Mtwapa creek on the Kenyan coast was studied. Both the qualitative and quantitative spectra of the diets of these fish species were investigated. It was found that the eight most abundant fish species, Sardinella gibbosa, Pellona ditchella, Spratelloides delicatilus, Atherinomorous ...

  15. Season and plant species influence foraging efficiency of Nguni ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the seasonal and plant species patterns of short-term intake rate (STIR) by Nguni goats fed six common browse species in subhumid subtropical savannas. Six 2-year-old castrated Nguni goats weighing an average of 26 kg each were penned individually and maintained on a basal diet of ram, lamb ...

  16. The Invasive Plant Species Education Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Kevin; James, Krista; Carlson, Kitrina; D'Angelo, Jean

    2010-01-01

    To help high school students gain a solid understanding of invasive plant species, university faculty and students from the University of Wisconsin-Stout (UW-Stout) and a local high school teacher worked together to develop the Invasive Plant Species (IPS) Education Guide. The IPS Education Guide includes nine lessons that give students an…

  17. Endangered Species (Plants). LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niskern, Diana, Comp.

    This guide is intended for those who wish to study the literature dealing with various aspects of endangered plant species. This document includes the following sections, some of which are bibliographies: (1) "Introductions to the Topic"; (2) "Subject Headings" (for endangered species of plants used by the Library of Congress); (3) "General…

  18. Plant species richness enhances nitrogen retention in green roof plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Catherine; Schweinhart, Shelbye; Buffam, Ishi

    2016-10-01

    Vegetated (green) roofs have become common in many cities and are projected to continue to increase in coverage, but little is known about the ecological properties of these engineered ecosystems. In this study, we tested the biodiversity-ecosystem function hypothesis using commercially available green roof trays as replicated plots with varying levels of plant species richness (0, 1, 3, or 6 common green roof species per plot, using plants with different functional characteristics). We estimated accumulated plant biomass near the peak of the first full growing season (July 2013) and measured runoff volume after nearly every rain event from September 2012 to September 2013 (33 events) and runoff fluxes of inorganic nutrients ammonium, nitrate, and phosphate from a subset of 10 events. We found that (1) total plant biomass increased with increasing species richness, (2) green roof plots were effective at reducing storm runoff, with vegetation increasing water retention more than soil-like substrate alone, but there was no significant effect of plant species identity or richness on runoff volume, (3) green roof substrate was a significant source of phosphate, regardless of presence/absence of plants, and (4) dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN = nitrate + ammonium) runoff fluxes were different among plant species and decreased significantly with increasing plant species richness. The variation in N retention was positively related to variation in plant biomass. Notably, the increased biomass and N retention with species richness in this engineered ecosystem are similar to patterns observed in published studies from grasslands and other well-studied ecosystems. We suggest that more diverse plantings on vegetated roofs may enhance the retention capacity for reactive nitrogen. This is of importance for the sustained health of vegetated roof ecosystems, which over time often experience nitrogen limitation, and is also relevant for water quality in receiving waters

  19. Total mercury concentration in common fish species of Lake Victoria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total mercury (THg) concentration was analysed in muscles of common fish species of Lake Victoria in the eastern and southern parts of the lake using cold vapour Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric technique. Mercury concentration in all fish species was generally lower than the WHO maximum allowable ...

  20. Forest fires are a risk factor for plant species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živanović Stanimir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth, development and the prevalence area of plant species are determined by a variety of influences. Plants are increasingly exposed to the different stress factors. Fires in nature can completely destroy the whole forest complex habitats with great biological diversity of many species in a short period of time. This study deals with the effects of a fire, such as heat, to the plants. After the fire, the environment is being changed and some species in areas affected by the fire will appear only after the fire, some species that had existed before the fire, will be developed in accordance with the new conditions, and some species will disappear after the fire. The aim of the study was to assess the sustainability of the natural vegetation in fire conditions, which is important for natural regeneration and nursery production. Fire temperatures cause irreparable damage of the plant functions or of the plant organs. In the analysis of the plant species the frequency of the fire is often more important than the type and intensity of the fire. Regarding possible long fire season in Serbia, as well as the presented statistics data about the number of fires and burnt areas, it can be concluded that there is an evident risk of plant species of fire, which are more common in this region.

  1. Effectors of Filamentous Plant Pathogens: Commonalities amid Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschetti, Marina; Maqbool, Abbas; Jiménez-Dalmaroni, Maximiliano J; Pennington, Helen G; Kamoun, Sophien; Banfield, Mark J

    2017-06-01

    Fungi and oomycetes are filamentous microorganisms that include a diversity of highly developed pathogens of plants. These are sophisticated modulators of plant processes that secrete an arsenal of effector proteins to target multiple host cell compartments and enable parasitic infection. Genome sequencing revealed complex catalogues of effectors of filamentous pathogens, with some species harboring hundreds of effector genes. Although a large fraction of these effector genes encode secreted proteins with weak or no sequence similarity to known proteins, structural studies have revealed unexpected similarities amid the diversity. This article reviews progress in our understanding of effector structure and function in light of these new insights. We conclude that there is emerging evidence for multiple pathways of evolution of effectors of filamentous plant pathogens but that some families have probably expanded from a common ancestor by duplication and diversification. Conserved folds, such as the oomycete WY and the fungal MAX domains, are not predictive of the precise function of the effectors but serve as a chassis to support protein structural integrity while providing enough plasticity for the effectors to bind different host proteins and evolve unrelated activities inside host cells. Further effector evolution and diversification arise via short linear motifs, domain integration and duplications, and oligomerization. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  2. Can dispersal investment explain why tall plant species achieve longer dispersal distances than short plant species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Fiona J; Letten, Andrew D; Tamme, Riin; Edwards, Will; Moles, Angela T

    2018-01-01

    Tall plant species disperse further distances than do short species, within and across dispersal syndromes, yet the driver underpinning this relationship is unclear. The ability of taller plants to invest more in dispersal structures may explain the positive relationship between plant height and dispersal distance. Here, we quantify the cross-species relationships between presence of dispersal structures, dispersal investment plant height and dispersal distance. Plant height, dispersal syndrome and dispersal investment data were collated for 1613 species from the literature, with dispersal distance data collated for 114 species. We find that species with high dispersal investment disperse further than do species with low dispersal investment. Tall species have a greater probability of having dispersal structures on their seeds compared with short species. For species with dispersal structures on their seeds, plant height is very weakly related to dispersal investment. Our results provide the first global confirmation of the dispersal investment-distance hypothesis, and show dispersal investment can be used for predicting species dispersal distances. However, our results and those of previous studies indicate plant height is still the best proxy for estimating species dispersal distances due to it being such a readily available plant trait. © 2017 Landcare Research. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. The myth of plant species saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Barnett, David T.; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Flather, Curtis; Kartesz, John

    2008-01-01

    Plant species assemblages, communities or regional floras might be termed ‘saturated’ when additional immigrant species are unsuccessful at establishing due to competitive exclusion or other inter-specific interactions, or when the immigration of species is off-set by extirpation of species. This is clearly not the case for state, regional or national floras in the USA where colonization (i.e. invasion by exotic species) exceeds extirpation by roughly a 24 to 1 margin. We report an alarming temporal trend in plant invasions in the Pacific Northwest over the past 100 years whereby counties highest in native species richness appear increasingly invaded over time. Despite the possibility of some increased awareness and reporting of native and exotic plant species in recent decades, historical records show a significant, consistent long-term increase in exotic species (number and frequency) at county, state and regional scales in the Pacific Northwest. Here, as in other regions of the country, colonization rates by exotic species are high and extirpation rates are negligible. The rates of species accumulation in space in multi-scale vegetation plots may provide some clues to the mechanisms of the invasion process from local to national scales.

  4. Phytochemical studies on herbal plants commonly used for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The study aims at identifying and collecting herbal plants commonly used in milk processing and preservation by the Maasai community in Kajiado district and to determine the phytochemical and mineral composition. Methodology and Results: Twenty-three herbal plants were identified; three plants were selected ...

  5. Connecting infrared spectra with plant traits to identify species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitrago, Maria F.; Skidmore, Andrew K.; Groen, Thomas A.; Hecker, Christoph A.

    2018-05-01

    Plant traits are used to define species, but also to evaluate the health status of forests, plantations and crops. Conventional methods of measuring plant traits (e.g. wet chemistry), although accurate, are inefficient and costly when applied over large areas or with intensive sampling. Spectroscopic methods, as used in the food industry and mineralogy, are nowadays applied to identify plant traits, however, most studies analysed visible to near infrared, while infrared spectra of longer wavelengths have been little used for identifying the spectral differences between plant species. This study measured the infrared spectra (1.4-16.0 μm) on individual, fresh leaves of 19 species (from herbaceous to woody species), as well as 14 leaf traits for each leaf. The results describe at which wavelengths in the infrared the leaves' spectra can differentiate most effectively between these plant species. A Quadratic Discrimination Analysis (QDA) shows that using five bands in the SWIR or the LWIR is enough to accurately differentiate these species (Kappa: 0.93, 0.94 respectively), while the MWIR has a lower classification accuracy (Kappa: 0.84). This study also shows that in the infrared spectra of fresh leaves, the identified species-specific features are correlated with leaf traits as well as changes in their values. Spectral features in the SWIR (1.66, 1.89 and 2.00 μm) are common to all species and match the main features of pure cellulose and lignin spectra. The depth of these features varies with changes of cellulose and leaf water content and can be used to differentiate species in this region. In the MWIR and LWIR, the absorption spectra of leaves are formed by key species-specific traits including lignin, cellulose, water, nitrogen and leaf thickness. The connection found in this study between leaf traits, features and spectral signatures are novel tools to assist when identifying plant species by spectroscopy and remote sensing.

  6. The assessment of invasive alien plant species removal programs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yusuf Adam

    Abstract. The occupation of natural environments by invasive alien plant species (IAPs) are a growing threat to ecosystems. This has resulted in the creation of government-based initiatives to mitigate invasion, however, there has been little progress towards assessing these initiatives. Remote sensing is a commonly used ...

  7. The assessment of invasive alien plant species removal programs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The occupation of natural environments by invasive alien plant species (IAPs) are a growing threat to ecosystems. This has resulted in the creation of government-based initiatives to mitigate invasion, however, there has been little progress towards assessing these initiatives. Remote sensing is a commonly used tool in the ...

  8. Carbon and nitrogen in forest floor and mineral soil under six common European tree species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterdal, Lars; Schmidt, Inger K.; Callesen, Ingeborg

    2007-01-01

    The knowledge of tree species effects on soil C and N pools is scarce, particularly for European deciduous tree species. We studied forest floor and mineral soil carbon and nitrogen under six common European tree species in a common garden design replicated at six sites in Denmark. Three decades...... after planting the six tree species had different profiles in terms of litterfall, forest floor and mineral soil C and N attributes. Three groups were identified: (1) ash, maple and lime, (2) beech and oak, and (3) spruce. There were significant differences in forest floor and soil C and N contents...... and C/N ratios, also among the five deciduous tree species. The influence of tree species was most pronounced in the forest floor, where C and N contents increased in the order ash = lime = maple soil only in some of the sampled soil layers within 30...

  9. Intraspecific genetic variation and species coexistence in plant communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Bodil K; Damgaard, Christian F; Laroche, Fabien

    2016-01-01

    Many studies report that intraspecific genetic variation in plants can affect community composition and coexistence. However, less is known about which traits are responsible and the mechanisms by which variation in these traits affect the associated community. Focusing on plant-plant interactions, we review empirical studies exemplifying how intraspecific genetic variation in functional traits impacts plant coexistence. Intraspecific variation in chemical and architectural traits promotes species coexistence, by both increasing habitat heterogeneity and altering competitive hierarchies. Decomposing species interactions into interactions between genotypes shows that genotype × genotype interactions are often intransitive. The outcome of plant-plant interactions varies with local adaptation to the environment and with dominant neighbour genotypes, and some plants can recognize the genetic identity of neighbour plants if they have a common history of coexistence. Taken together, this reveals a very dynamic nature of coexistence. We outline how more traits mediating plant-plant interactions may be identified, and how future studies could use population genetic surveys of genotype distribution in nature and methods from trait-based ecology to better quantify the impact of intraspecific genetic variation on plant coexistence. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. Endangered species management and ecosystem restoration: finding the common ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L. Casazza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Management actions to protect endangered species and conserve ecosystem function may not always be in precise alignment. Efforts to recover the California Ridgway's Rail (Rallus obsoletus obsoletus; hereafter, California rail, a federally and state-listed species, and restoration of tidal marsh ecosystems in the San Francisco Bay estuary provide a prime example of habitat restoration that has conflicted with species conservation. On the brink of extinction from habitat loss and degradation, and non-native predators in the 1990s, California rail populations responded positively to introduction of a non-native plant, Atlantic cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora. California rail populations were in substantial decline when the non-native Spartina was initially introduced as part of efforts to recover tidal marshes. Subsequent hybridization with the native Pacific cordgrass (Spartina foliosa boosted California rail populations by providing greater cover and increased habitat area. The hybrid cordgrass (S. alterniflora à - S. foliosa readily invaded tidal mudflats and channels, and both crowded out native tidal marsh plants and increased sediment accretion in the marsh plain. This resulted in modification of tidal marsh geomorphology, hydrology, productivity, and species composition. Our results show that denser California rail populations occur in invasive Spartina than in native Spartina in San Francisco Bay. Herbicide treatment between 2005 and 2012 removed invasive Spartina from open intertidal mud and preserved foraging habitat for shorebirds. However, removal of invasive Spartina caused substantial decreases in California rail populations. Unknown facets of California rail ecology, undesirable interim stages of tidal marsh restoration, and competing management objectives among stakeholders resulted in management planning for endangered species or ecosystem restoration that favored one goal over the other. We have examined this perceived conflict

  11. Endangered species management and ecosystem restoration: Finding the common ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casazza, Michael L.; Overton, Cory T.; Bui, Thuy-Vy D.; Hull, Joshua M.; Albertson, Joy D.; Bloom, Valary K.; Bobzien, Steven; McBroom, Jennifer; Latta, Marilyn; Olofson, Peggy; Rohmer, Tobias M.; Schwarzbach, Steven E.; Strong, Donald R.; Grijalva, Erik; Wood, Julian K.; Skalos, Shannon; Takekawa, John Y.

    2016-01-01

    Management actions to protect endangered species and conserve ecosystem function may not always be in precise alignment. Efforts to recover the California Ridgway’s Rail (Rallus obsoletus obsoletus; hereafter, California rail), a federally and state-listed species, and restoration of tidal marsh ecosystems in the San Francisco Bay estuary provide a prime example of habitat restoration that has conflicted with species conservation. On the brink of extinction from habitat loss and degradation, and non-native predators in the 1990s, California rail populations responded positively to introduction of a non-native plant, Atlantic cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora). California rail populations were in substantial decline when the non-native Spartina was initially introduced as part of efforts to recover tidal marshes. Subsequent hybridization with the native Pacific cordgrass (Spartina foliosa) boosted California rail populations by providing greater cover and increased habitat area. The hybrid cordgrass (S. alterniflora × S. foliosa) readily invaded tidal mudflats and channels, and both crowded out native tidal marsh plants and increased sediment accretion in the marsh plain. This resulted in modification of tidal marsh geomorphology, hydrology, productivity, and species composition. Our results show that denser California rail populations occur in invasive Spartina than in native Spartina in San Francisco Bay. Herbicide treatment between 2005 and 2012 removed invasive Spartina from open intertidal mud and preserved foraging habitat for shorebirds. However, removal of invasive Spartina caused substantial decreases in California rail populations. Unknown facets of California rail ecology, undesirable interim stages of tidal marsh restoration, and competing management objectives among stakeholders resulted in management planning for endangered species or ecosystem restoration that favored one goal over the other. We have examined this perceived conflict and propose

  12. Ensemble habitat mapping of invasive plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, T.J.; Ma, P.; Kumar, S.; Rocca, M.; Morisette, J.T.; Jarnevich, C.S.; Benson, N.

    2010-01-01

    Ensemble species distribution models combine the strengths of several species environmental matching models, while minimizing the weakness of any one model. Ensemble models may be particularly useful in risk analysis of recently arrived, harmful invasive species because species may not yet have spread to all suitable habitats, leaving species-environment relationships difficult to determine. We tested five individual models (logistic regression, boosted regression trees, random forest, multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS), and maximum entropy model or Maxent) and ensemble modeling for selected nonnative plant species in Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks, Wyoming; Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks, California, and areas of interior Alaska. The models are based on field data provided by the park staffs, combined with topographic, climatic, and vegetation predictors derived from satellite data. For the four invasive plant species tested, ensemble models were the only models that ranked in the top three models for both field validation and test data. Ensemble models may be more robust than individual species-environment matching models for risk analysis. ?? 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  13. Common plant toxicology: A comparison of national and Southwest Ohio data trends on plant poisonings in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, Dan D.

    2011-01-01

    Data from the American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC) and the Cincinnati-based Drug and Poison Information Center (DPIC) were analyzed to determine the incidence and trends of human plant poisonings since the year 2000. Approximately 3.4% of the approximately 4.3 million annual calls to the AAPCC centers involved plants, with a higher fraction (4.5%) for pediatric exposures. Nearly 70% of plant exposures occurred in children under six. Only 8% of cases required treatment in a health-care facility, and only 0.1% (in 2008) were considered severe outcomes. The most prominent groups of plants involved in exposures are those containing oxalates, and the most common symptom is gastroenteritis. The top 12 identified plants (in descending order) nationally were Spathiphyllum species (peace lilly), Philodendron species (philodendron), Euphorbia pulcherrima (poinssettia), Ilex species (holly), Phytolacca americana (pokeweed), Toxicodendron radicans (poison ivy), Capsicum (pepper), Ficus (rubber tree, weeping fig), Crassula argentea (jade plant), Diffenbachia (dumb cane), Epipremnum areum (pothos) and Schlumbergera bridesii (Christmas cactus). Broad overlaps between the DPIC and the AAPCC incidence data were noted, with essentially the same plant species in each dataset. The nature of the various toxins, the symptomatology and potential treatments are discussed for the highest ranking plant species.

  14. 75 FR 28636 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Initiation of 5-Year Reviews of 34 Species in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants at 50 CFR 17.11 (for animals) and 17.12 (for plants) (List). We... following reasons: (1) The species is considered extinct; (2) the species is considered to be recovered; and... Animal Species and 18 Plant Species in California and Nevada Common name Scientific name Status Where...

  15. Genomic history of the origin and domestication of common bean unveils its closest sister species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendón-Anaya, Martha; Montero-Vargas, Josaphat M; Saburido-Álvarez, Soledad; Vlasova, Anna; Capella-Gutierrez, Salvador; Ordaz-Ortiz, José Juan; Aguilar, O Mario; Vianello-Brondani, Rosana P; Santalla, Marta; Delaye, Luis; Gabaldón, Toni; Gepts, Paul; Winkler, Robert; Guigó, Roderic; Delgado-Salinas, Alfonso; Herrera-Estrella, Alfredo

    2017-03-29

    Modern civilization depends on only a few plant species for its nourishment. These crops were derived via several thousands of years of human selection that transformed wild ancestors into high-yielding domesticated descendants. Among cultivated plants, common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the most important grain legume. Yet, our understanding of the origins and concurrent shaping of the genome of this crop plant is limited. We sequenced the genomes of 29 accessions representing 12 Phaseolus species. Single nucleotide polymorphism-based phylogenomic analyses, using both the nuclear and chloroplast genomes, allowed us to detect a speciation event, a finding further supported by metabolite profiling. In addition, we identified ~1200 protein coding genes (PCGs) and ~100 long non-coding RNAs with domestication-associated haplotypes. Finally, we describe asymmetric introgression events occurring among common bean subpopulations in Mesoamerica and across hemispheres. We uncover an unpredicted speciation event in the tropical Andes that gave rise to a sibling species, formerly considered the "wild ancestor" of P. vulgaris, which diverged before the split of the Mesoamerican and Andean P. vulgaris gene pools. Further, we identify haplotypes strongly associated with genes underlying the emergence of domestication traits. Our findings also reveal the capacity of a predominantly autogamous plant to outcross and fix loci from different populations, even from distant species, which led to the acquisition by domesticated beans of adaptive traits from wild relatives. The occurrence of such adaptive introgressions should be exploited to accelerate breeding programs in the near future.

  16. Plant species evaluated for new crop potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    Ninety-two plant species from various regions of the USA were screened for their energy-producing potential. Samples were analysed for oil, polyphenol, hydrocarbon and protein. Oil fractions of some species were analysed for classes of lipid constituents and yields of unsaponifiable matter and fatty acids were determined. Hydrocarbon fractions of some species were analysed for rubber, gutta and waxes. Average MW and MW distribution of rubber and gutta were determined. Complete analytical data for 16 species is presented. Large quantities of oil were obtained from Philadelphus coronarius, Cacalia muhlenbergii, Lindera benzoin and Koelreuteria paniculata. High yields of polyphenols came from Acer ginnala, Cornus obliqua and Salix caprea and maximum yields of hydrocarbon and protein were from Elymus virginicus and Lindera benzoin, respectively.

  17. The burrowing characteristics of three common earthworm species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, G.S.; Tabley, F.J.; Butler, R.C.; Fraser, P.M.

    2001-01-01

    The burrowing characteristics of 3 common earthworm species were studied using X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanning in large cylinders (24.1 cm diameter) packed with topsoil (0-25 cm) and subsoil (25-50 cm) to representative field bulk density values and sown with ryegrass. Replicated cylinders (n 3), kept under constant moisture and temperature conditions, were inoculated with mature species of Lumbricus rubellus, Aporrectodea caliginosa, or Octolasion cyaneum earthworms at rates similar to their population density in the field. A non-inoculated, unreplicated control was also included. The number, biomass, and activity of the 3 species were then examined. X-ray CT scanning of large-diameter soil cylinders offers an alternative method for obtaining information on the burrowing characteristics of earthworms (Jegou et al. 1999). As this method is non-destructive, repeat measurements can be made and the use of large cylinders minimises edge effects. The objectives of this study were to: (i) assess the burrowing characteristics of 3 earthworm species (under artificial conditions) through measurement of 2-D porosity using X-ray CT scanning, (ii) estimate the extent of burrow backfilling between sequential scans, and (iii) estimate the continuity of earthworm burrows with depth through hydraulic conductivity measurements. Copyright (2001) CSIRO Publishing

  18. Cryptosporidium species from common edible bivalves in Manila Bay, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagoso, Edison Jay A; Rivera, Windell L

    2017-06-15

    Manila Bay is one of the major propagation sites of edible bivalves in the Philippines. Studies have shown that bivalves might be contaminated with human pathogens like the protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium, one of the major causes of gastroenteritis in the world. In this study, Cryptosporidium from four species of edible bivalves were isolated using a combination of sucrose flotation and immunomagnetic separation. Using direct fluorescent antibody test, Cryptosporidium oocysts were found in 67 out of 144 samples collected. DNA sequence analysis of the 18S rRNA gene of the isolates detected C. parvum and C. hominis (major causes of human cryptosporidiosis) and C. meleagridis (causes infection in avian species). Analysis of the 60kDa glycoprotein gene further confirmed the genotypes of the Cryptosporidium isolates. This study is the first to provide baseline information on Cryptosporidium contamination of Manila Bay where bivalves are commonly cultured. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Aminomethylphosphonic acid accumulation in plant species treated with glyphosate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Krishna N; Rimando, Agnes M; Duke, Stephen O; Nandula, Vijay K

    2008-03-26

    Aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) is the most frequently detected metabolite of glyphosate in plants. The objective of this study was to determine if there is any correlation of metabolism of glyphosate to AMPA in different plant species and their natural level of resistance to glyphosate. Greenhouse studies were conducted to determine the glyphosate I 50 values (rate required to cause a 50% reduction in plant growth) and to quantify AMPA and shikimate concentrations in selected leguminous and nonleguminous species treated with glyphosate at respective I 50 rates. Coffee senna [ Cassia occidentalis (L.) Link] was the most sensitive ( I 50 = 75 g/ha) and hemp sesbania [ Sesbania herbacea (P.Mill.) McVaugh] was the most resistant ( I 50 = 456 g/ha) to glyphosate. Hemp sesbania was 6-fold and Illinois bundleflower [ Desmanthus illinoensis (Michx.) MacM. ex B.L.Robins. & Fern.] was 4-fold more resistant to glyphosate than coffee senna. Glyphosate was present in all plant species, and its concentration ranged from 0.308 to 38.7 microg/g of tissue. AMPA was present in all leguminous species studied except hemp sesbania. AMPA concentration ranged from 0.119 to 4.77 microg/g of tissue. Shikimate was present in all plant species treated with glyphosate, and levels ranged from 0.053 to 16.5 mg/g of tissue. Non-glyphosate-resistant (non-GR) soybean accumulated much higher shikimate than glyphosate-resistant (GR) soybean. Although some leguminous species were found to be more resistant to glyphosate than others, and there was considerable variation between species in the glyphosate to AMPA levels found, metabolism of glyphosate to AMPA did not appear to be a common factor in explaining natural resistance levels.

  20. Food Plants of 19 butterflies species (Lepidoptera from Loreto, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Vásquez Bardales

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the food plants utilized by 19 species of butterflies from Allpahuayo-Mishana Research Center and the Community of San Rafael, Loreto, Peru. We report 23 plant species and one hybrid of angiosperms used by the butterflies. Larval host plants were 21 species and five were adult nectar sources. Two species were both host plant and nectar source: Passiflora coccinea Aubl. and Passiflora edulis Sims. The most frequently used plant families were Solanaceae, Passifloraceae, Fabaceae and Aristolochiaceae.

  1. INVENTORY OF THE INVASIVE ALIE N PLANT SPECIES IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRI S UDARMIYATI T JITROSOEDIRDJO

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An inventory of the alien plant species in Indone sia based on the existing references and herbarium specimens concluded that 1936 alien plant species ar e found in Indonesia which belong to 187 families. Field studies should be done to get the complete figur es of alien plant species in Indonesia. Based on the existing figures of the plant species, the invasive alien plant species can be iden tified, followed by studies on the assessment of losses, biology, management and their possible utilizations. Alien plant species are imported to Indonesia for cultivation, collection of the botanical garden, as experimental plants or other curiosities. Aside from plants purposely imported, there are also introduced plant propagules conta-minating imported agricultural products. These alien plant species can be beneficial or have a potential of being invasive. The alien cultivated species consisted of 67% of the total number. More than half of the cultivated plants are ornamental plants. Some of th e species are naturalized or escaped from cultivation and become wild and invasive. Some other natura lized species, adapted well without any problems of invasion. There are 339 species or 17% of the species r ecorded as weeds. The highest record of weeds is found in the family of Poaceae (57 species, follo wed by Asteraceae (53 species and Cyperaceae (35 species. There are 6 families having more than 10 species of weeds: Amaranthaceae, Asteraceae, Cyperaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Poaceae, and Rubiaceae. Three families have more than 100 species: Asteraceae 162 species, Poaceae 120 species, and Papillionaceae 103 species. Five species of aquatic and 20 species of terrestrial plants considered as important alien plant species in Indonesia were identified and some of their distributions noted

  2. Controversy Associated With the Common Component of Most Transgenic Plants – Kanamycin Resistance Marker Gene

    OpenAIRE

    Jelenić, Srećko

    2003-01-01

    Plant genetic engineering is a powerful tool for producing crops resistant to pests, diseases and abiotic stress or crops with improved nutritional value or better quality products. Currently over 70 genetically modified (GM) crops have been approved for use in different countries. These cover a wide range of plant species with significant number of different modified traits. However, beside the technology used for their improvement, the common component of most GM crops is the neomycin phosp...

  3. Treatment of common ailments by plant-based remedies among the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present communication deals with the common diseases treated by plant based remedies such as abdominal pain and worms, asthma, cough and bronchitis, cold, flu, influenza, diabetes, diarrheoa, dysentery, digestive disorders, ear infections and eye complaints. 25 species belonging to 25 genera were used for ...

  4. Climate change reduces nectar secretion in two common Mediterranean plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takkis, Krista; Tscheulin, Thomas; Tsalkatis, Panagiotis; Petanidou, Theodora

    2015-09-15

    Global warming can lead to considerable impacts on natural plant communities, potentially inducing changes in plant physiology and the quantity and quality of floral rewards, especially nectar. Changes in nectar production can in turn strongly affect plant-pollinator interaction networks-pollinators may potentially benefit under moderate warming conditions, but suffer as resources reduce in availability as elevated temperatures become more extreme. Here, we studied the effect of elevated temperatures on nectar secretion of two Mediterranean Lamiaceae species-Ballota acetabulosa and Teucrium divaricatum. We measured nectar production (viz. volume per flower, sugar concentration per flower and sugar content per flower and per plant), number of open and empty flowers per plant, as well as biomass per flower under a range of temperatures selected ad hoc in a fully controlled climate chamber and under natural conditions outdoors. The average temperature in the climate chamber was increased every 3 days in 3 °C increments from 17.5 to 38.5 °C. Both study species showed a unimodal response of nectar production (volume per flower, sugar content per flower and per plant) to temperature. Optimal temperature for sugar content per flower was 25-26 °C for B. acetabulosa and 29-33 °C for T. divaricatum. According to our results, moderate climate warming predicted for the next few decades could benefit nectar secretion in T. divaricatum as long as the plants are not water stressed, but have a moderate negative effect on B. acetabulosa. Nevertheless, strong warming as predicted by climate change models for the end of the 21st century is expected to reduce nectar secretion in both species and can thus significantly reduce available resources for both wild bees and honeybees in Mediterranean systems. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  5. Effects of 'target' plant species body size on neighbourhood species richness and composition in old-field vegetation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon S Schamp

    Full Text Available Competition is generally regarded as an important force in organizing the structure of vegetation, and evidence from several experimental studies of species mixtures suggests that larger mature plant size elicits a competitive advantage. However, these findings are at odds with the fact that large and small plant species generally coexist, and relatively smaller species are more common in virtually all plant communities. Here, we use replicates of ten relatively large old-field plant species to explore the competitive impact of target individual size on their surrounding neighbourhoods compared to nearby neighbourhoods of the same size that are not centred by a large target individual. While target individuals of the largest of our test species, Centaurea jacea L., had a strong impact on neighbouring species, in general, target species size was a weak predictor of the number of other resident species growing within its immediate neighbourhood, as well as the number of resident species that were reproductive. Thus, the presence of a large competitor did not restrict the ability of neighbouring species to reproduce. Lastly, target species size did not have any impact on the species size structure of neighbouring species; i.e. they did not restrict smaller, supposedly poorer competitors, from growing and reproducing close by. Taken together, these results provide no support for a size-advantage in competition restricting local species richness or the ability of small species to coexist and successfully reproduce in the immediate neighbourhood of a large species.

  6. The bioactive potentials of two medicinal plants commonly used as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bioactive potentials of two medicinal plants commonly used as folklore remedies among some tribes in West Africa. ... Phytochemical compounds present in the extract of J. curcas include alkaloids, saponins, steroids and tannins, while those present in N. laevis extract includes alkaloids, flavonoids and tannins.

  7. Classic metapopulations are rare among common beetle species from a naturally fragmented landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Don A; Kirkpatrick, Jamie B; McQuillan, Peter B; Bonham, Kevin J

    2010-01-01

    1. The general importance of metacommunity and metapopulation theories is poorly understood because few studies have examined responses of the suite of species that occupy the same fragmented landscape. In this study, we examined the importance of spatial ecological theories using a large-scale, naturally fragmented landscape. 2. We measured the occurrence and abundance of 44 common beetle species in 31 natural rainforest fragments in Tasmania, Australia. We tested for an effect on beetle distribution of geographic variables (patch area, patch isolation and amount of surrounding habitat) and of environmental variables based on plant species, after first accounting for spatial autocorrelation using principal coordinates of neighbour matrices. The environmental variables described a productivity gradient and a post-fire succession from eucalypt-dominated forest to late-successional rainforest. 3. Few species had distributions consistent with a metapopulation. However, the amount of surrounding habitat and patch isolation influenced the occurrence or abundance of 30% of beetle species, implying that dispersal into or out of patches was an important process. 4. Three species showed a distribution that could arise by interactions with dominant competitors or predators with higher occurrence in small patches. 5. Environmental effects were more commonly observed than spatial effects. Twenty-three per cent of species showed evidence of habitat-driven, deterministic metapopulations. Furthermore, almost half of the species were influenced by the plant succession or productivity gradient, including effects at the within-patch, patch and regional scales. The beetle succession involved an increase in the frequency of many species, and the addition of new species, with little evidence of species turnover. Niche-related ecological theory such as the species-sorting metacommunity theory was therefore the most broadly applicable concept. 6. We conclude that classic and source

  8. Taxonomic perspective of plant species yielding vegetable oils used ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A search conducted to determine the plants yielding vegetable oils resulted in 78 plant species with potential use in cosmetics and skin care products. The taxonomic position of these plant species is described with a description of vegetable oils from these plants and their use in cosmetic and skin care products.

  9. Light dependency of VOC emissions from selected Mediterranean plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, S. M.; Harley, P.; Guenther, A.; Hewitt, C. N.

    The light, temperature and stomatal conductance dependencies of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from ten plant species commonly found in the Mediterranean region were studied using a fully controlled leaf cuvette in the laboratory. At standard conditions of temperature and light (30°C and 1000 μmol m -2 s -1 PAR), low emitting species ( Arbutus unedo, Pinus halepensis, Cistus incanus, Cistus salvifolius, Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus vulgaris) emitted between 0.1 and 5.0 μg (C) (total VOCs) g -1 dw h -1, a medium emitter ( Pinus pinea) emitted between 5 and 10 μg (C) g -1 dw h -1 and high emitters ( Cistus monspeliensis, Lavendula stoechas and Quercus sp.) emitted more than 10 μg (C) g -1 dw h -1. VOC emissions from all of the plant species investigated showed some degree of light dependency, which was distinguishable from temperature dependency. Emissions of all compounds from Quercus sp. were light dependent. Ocimene was one of several monoterpene compounds emitted by P. pinea and was strongly correlated to light. Only a fraction of monoterpene emissions from C. incanus exhibited apparent weak light dependency but emissions from this plant species were strongly correlated to temperature. Data presented here are consistent with past studies, which show that emissions are independent of stomatal conductance. These results may allow more accurate predictions of monoterpene emission fluxes from the Mediterranean region to be made.

  10. Plants on the move: plant-soil interactions in poleward shifting plant species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grunsven, van R.H.A.

    2008-01-01

    As a result of recent global climate change, areas that have previously been climatically unsuitable for species have now become suitable new habitats. Many plant-species are expanding their range polewards, colonizing these newly available areas. If these species are able to expand their range

  11. Networks of plants: how to measure similarity in vegetable species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivaldo, Gianna; Masi, Elisa; Pandolfi, Camilla; Mancuso, Stefano; Caldarelli, Guido

    2016-06-01

    Despite the common misconception of nearly static organisms, plants do interact continuously with the environment and with each other. It is fair to assume that during their evolution they developed particular features to overcome similar problems and to exploit possibilities from environment. In this paper we introduce various quantitative measures based on recent advancements in complex network theory that allow to measure the effective similarities of various species. By using this approach on the similarity in fruit-typology ecological traits we obtain a clear plant classification in a way similar to traditional taxonomic classification. This result is not trivial, since a similar analysis done on the basis of diaspore morphological properties do not provide any clear parameter to classify plants species. Complex network theory can then be used in order to determine which feature amongst many can be used to distinguish scope and possibly evolution of plants. Future uses of this approach range from functional classification to quantitative determination of plant communities in nature.

  12. 76 FR 30377 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Reviews of Species in California, Nevada...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-25

    ... Federal Regulations (CFR) at 50 CFR 17.11 (for animals) and 17.12 (for plants). Section 4(c)(2)(A) of the... CFR 424.11(d)): (A) The species is considered extinct; (B) The species is considered to be recovered... Information, 22 Animal Species and 31 Plant Species in California and Nevada Common name Scientific name...

  13. Anhydrobiosis and programmed cell death in plants: Commonalities and Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samer Singh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Anhydrobiosis is an adaptive strategy of certain organisms or specialised propagules to survive in the absence of water while programmed cell death (PCD is a finely tuned cellular process of the selective elimination of targeted cell during developmental programme and perturbed biotic and abiotic conditions. Particularly during water stress both the strategies serve single purpose i.e., survival indicating PCD may also function as an adaptive process under certain conditions. During stress conditions PCD cause targeted cells death in order to keep the homeostatic balance required for the organism survival, whereas anhydrobiosis suspends cellular metabolic functions mimicking a state similar to death until reestablishment of the favourable conditions. Anhydrobiosis is commonly observed among organisms that have ability to revive their metabolism on rehydration after removal of all or almost all cellular water without damage. This feature is widely represented in terrestrial cyanobacteria and bryophytes where it is very common in both vegetative and reproductive stages of life-cycle. In the course of evolution, with the development of advanced vascular system in higher plants, anhydrobiosis was gradually lost from the vegetative phase of life-cycle. Though it is retained in resurrection plants that primarily belong to thallophytes and a small group of vascular angiosperm, it can be mostly found restricted in orthodox seeds of higher plants. On the contrary, PCD is a common process in all eukaryotes from unicellular to multicellular organisms including higher plants and mammals. In this review we discuss physiological and biochemical commonalities and differences between anhydrobiosis and PCD.

  14. Changes in plant species richness induce functional shifts in soil nematode communities in experimental grassland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Eisenhauer

    Full Text Available Changes in plant diversity may induce distinct changes in soil food web structure and accompanying soil feedbacks to plants. However, knowledge of the long-term consequences of plant community simplification for soil animal food webs and functioning is scarce. Nematodes, the most abundant and diverse soil Metazoa, represent the complexity of soil food webs as they comprise all major trophic groups and allow calculation of a number of functional indices.We studied the functional composition of nematode communities three and five years after establishment of a grassland plant diversity experiment (Jena Experiment. In response to plant community simplification common nematode species disappeared and pronounced functional shifts in community structure occurred. The relevance of the fungal energy channel was higher in spring 2007 than in autumn 2005, particularly in species-rich plant assemblages. This resulted in a significant positive relationship between plant species richness and the ratio of fungal-to-bacterial feeders. Moreover, the density of predators increased significantly with plant diversity after five years, pointing to increased soil food web complexity in species-rich plant assemblages. Remarkably, in complex plant communities the nematode community shifted in favour of microbivores and predators, thereby reducing the relative abundance of plant feeders after five years.The results suggest that species-poor plant assemblages may suffer from nematode communities detrimental to plants, whereas species-rich plant assemblages support a higher proportion of microbivorous nematodes stimulating nutrient cycling and hence plant performance; i.e. effects of nematodes on plants may switch from negative to positive. Overall, food web complexity is likely to decrease in response to plant community simplification and results of this study suggest that this results mainly from the loss of common species which likely alter plant-nematode interactions.

  15. Changes in plant species richness induce functional shifts in soil nematode communities in experimental grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhauer, Nico; Migunova, Varvara D; Ackermann, Michael; Ruess, Liliane; Scheu, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Changes in plant diversity may induce distinct changes in soil food web structure and accompanying soil feedbacks to plants. However, knowledge of the long-term consequences of plant community simplification for soil animal food webs and functioning is scarce. Nematodes, the most abundant and diverse soil Metazoa, represent the complexity of soil food webs as they comprise all major trophic groups and allow calculation of a number of functional indices. We studied the functional composition of nematode communities three and five years after establishment of a grassland plant diversity experiment (Jena Experiment). In response to plant community simplification common nematode species disappeared and pronounced functional shifts in community structure occurred. The relevance of the fungal energy channel was higher in spring 2007 than in autumn 2005, particularly in species-rich plant assemblages. This resulted in a significant positive relationship between plant species richness and the ratio of fungal-to-bacterial feeders. Moreover, the density of predators increased significantly with plant diversity after five years, pointing to increased soil food web complexity in species-rich plant assemblages. Remarkably, in complex plant communities the nematode community shifted in favour of microbivores and predators, thereby reducing the relative abundance of plant feeders after five years. The results suggest that species-poor plant assemblages may suffer from nematode communities detrimental to plants, whereas species-rich plant assemblages support a higher proportion of microbivorous nematodes stimulating nutrient cycling and hence plant performance; i.e. effects of nematodes on plants may switch from negative to positive. Overall, food web complexity is likely to decrease in response to plant community simplification and results of this study suggest that this results mainly from the loss of common species which likely alter plant-nematode interactions.

  16. Common modelling approaches for training simulators for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-02-01

    Training simulators for nuclear power plant operating staff have gained increasing importance over the last twenty years. One of the recommendations of the 1983 IAEA Specialists' Meeting on Nuclear Power Plant Training Simulators in Helsinki was to organize a Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on some aspects of training simulators. The goal statement was: ''To establish and maintain a common approach to modelling for nuclear training simulators based on defined training requirements''. Before adapting this goal statement, the participants considered many alternatives for defining the common aspects of training simulator models, such as the programming language used, the nature of the simulator computer system, the size of the simulation computers, the scope of simulation. The participants agreed that it was the training requirements that defined the need for a simulator, the scope of models and hence the type of computer complex that was required, the criteria for fidelity and verification, and was therefore the most appropriate basis for the commonality of modelling approaches. It should be noted that the Co-ordinated Research Programme was restricted, for a variety of reasons, to consider only a few aspects of training simulators. This report reflects these limitations, and covers only the topics considered within the scope of the programme. The information in this document is intended as an aid for operating organizations to identify possible modelling approaches for training simulators for nuclear power plants. 33 refs

  17. A Quantitative Method to Screen Common Bean Plants for Resistance to Bean common mosaic necrosis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strausbaugh, C A; Myers, J R; Forster, R L; McClean, P E

    2003-11-01

    ABSTRACT A quantitative method to screen common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) plants for resistance to Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) is described. Four parameters were assessed in developing the quantitative method: symptoms associated with systemic virus movement, plant vigor, virus titer, and plant dry weight. Based on these parameters, two rating systems (V and VV rating) were established. Plants from 21 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a Sierra (susceptible) x Olathe (partially resistant) cross inoculated with the BCMNV-NL-3 K strain were used to evaluate this quantitative approach. In all, 11 RILs exhibited very susceptible reactions and 10 RILs expressed partially resistant reactions, thus fitting a 1:1 susceptible/partially resistant ratio (chi(2) = 0.048, P = 0.827) and suggesting that the response is mediated by a single gene. Using the classical qualitative approach based only on symptom expression, the RILs were difficult to separate into phenotypic groups because of a continuum of responses. By plotting mean percent reduction in either V (based on visual symptoms) or VV (based on visual symptoms and vigor) rating versus enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) absorbance values, RILs could be separated clearly into different phenotypic groups. The utility of this quantitative approach also was evaluated on plants from 12 cultivars or pure lines inoculated with one of three strains of BCMNV. Using the mean VV rating and ELISA absorbance values, significant differences were established not only in cultivar and pure line comparisons but also in virus strain comparisons. This quantitative system should be particularly useful for the evaluation of the independent action of bc genes, the discovery of new genes associated with partial resistance, and assessing virulence of virus strains.

  18. Plant species richness and abundance in residential yards across a tropical watershed: implications for urban sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina P. Vila-Ruiz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Green spaces within residential areas provide important contributions to the sustainability of urban systems. Therefore, studying the characteristics of these areas has become a research priority in cities worldwide. This project evaluated various aspects of the plant biodiversity of residential yards (i.e., front yards and back yards within the Río Piedras watershed in the San Juan metropolitan area of Puerto Rico. Our work included gathering information on vegetation composition and abundance of woody species (i.e., trees, shrubs, palms, ferns and large herbs (>2 m height, species origin (native vs. introduced, and species uses (ornamental, food, and medicinal plants. A total of 424 yards were surveyed within an area of 187,191 m². We found 383 woody species, with shrubs being the most abundant plant habitat. As expected, residential yards hosted a disproportionate amount of introduced species (69.5%. The most common shrub species were all non-native ornamentals, whereas the most common tree species included food trees as well as ornamental plants and two native species. Front yards hosted more ornamental species per unit area than backyards, while the latter had more food plants. The high amount of introduced species may present a challenge in terms of implementation of plant conservation initiatives if there is no clear definition of urban conservation goals. On the other hand, the high frequency of yards containing food plants may facilitate the development of residential initiatives that could provide future adaptive capacity to food shortages.

  19. Plant species dispersed by Galapagos tortoises surf the wave of habitat suitability under anthropogenic climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis-Soto, Diego; Blake, Stephen; Soultan, Alaaeldin; Gu?zou, Anne; Cabrera, Fredy; L?tters, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Native biodiversity on the Galapagos Archipelago is severely threatened by invasive alien species. On Santa Cruz Island, the abundance of introduced plant species is low in the arid lowlands of the Galapagos National Park, but increases with elevation into unprotected humid highlands. Two common alien plant species, guava (Psidium guajava) and passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) occur at higher elevations yet their seeds are dispersed into the lowlands by migrating Galapagos tortoises (Chelonoi...

  20. Determination of fungal pathogens of common weed species in the vicinity of Tokat, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadioğlu, I; Karamanli, N; Yanar, Y

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the fungal pathogens on Chenopodium album L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Convolvulus arvensis L., Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., Delphinium consolida L., Portulaca oleracea L., Rumex crispus L., Solanum nigrum L., Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers. and Xanthium strumarium L. which were common weed species of agricultural areas. Surveys were conducted in May-June and August-September in 2004-2005 growing seasons. During the surveys density and frequency of the above mentioned weed species were also determined and number of infected plants was counted in each sampling area. Infected weed samples were collected from each sampling point and brought to the laboratory in polyethylene bags and the pathogens were identified at genus or species level. As a result of two year surveys, ten fungal pathogens were determined on eight weed species. The most important fungal pathogens determined on common weed species were as follow; Peronospora farinosa (Fr.) Fr. on C. album, and Septoria convolvuli DC., Erysiphe convolvuli DC., and Puccinia punctiformis (Strauss) Roehrl. on C. arvensis. These fungal diseases were observed mainly on the weeds located at the borders of fields. Infection rates of these pathogens reached up to 21.2% in some of the survey areas. Further studies should be conducted to evaluate the efficacy of these pathogen under in vitro and in vivo conditions.

  1. Abundance distribution of common and rare plant species of Brazilian savannas along a seasonality gradient Distribuição de abundâncias de espécies de plantas comuns e raras de savanas brasileiras ao longo de um gradiente de estacionalidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Aurélio Silva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We examined the species abundance distribution (SAD of plant communities in: (1 a wet grassland, waterlogged throughout most of the year; (2 a seasonal savanna, with an annual dry season; and (3 a hyperseasonal savanna, with alternating drought and waterlogging over the year. We searched for differences in the abundance distributions of all species, as well as of the common and rare species. We tested whether the SADs fitted the lognormal, log-series, power fraction, and random assortment models. We found that environmental constraints may reduce the evenness of plant communities and change the SADs in savannas. We observed a lognormal abundance distribution in the wet grassland and a random abundance distribution in the hyperseasonal cerrado. The SAD of the seasonal savanna did not follow any model. The common species in the three communities were better fitted by the lognormal model. The rare species in the wet grassland and the hyperseasonal cerrado were better fitted by the random assortment model. The SAD of the rare species of the seasonal savanna did not follow any model. Seasonality seems to modify the lognormal distribution of the overall plant community, generating abundance distributions indistinguishable from random. However, differential community structuring between common and rare species may not be affected by seasonality. The different signatures of the abundance distributions of common and rare plants indicate that composite models are better predictors for SADs in savannas.Examinamos as distribuições de abundâncias de espécies (DAEs de comunidades de plantas em: (1 um campo úmido, alagado durante a maior parte do ano; (2 uma savana estacional, com uma estação seca anual; e (3 uma savana hiper-estacional, com uma estação seca e um alagamento alternantes durante o ano. Procuramos por diferenças na distribuição de abundância de todas as espécies, bem como das espécies comuns e raras. Testamos se as DAEs se

  2. Matgrass sward plant species benefit from soil organisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkman, E.P.; Raaijmakers, C.E.; Bakx-Schotman, J.M.T.; Hannula, S.E.; Kemmers, R.H.; Boer, de W.; Putten, van der W.H.

    2012-01-01

    Soil organisms are important in the structuring of plant communities. However, little is known about how to apply this knowledge to vegetation management. Here, we examined if soil organisms may promote plant species of characteristic habitats, and suppress plant species of disturbed habitats. We

  3. Commonly rare and rarely common: comparing population abundance of invasive and native aquatic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Gretchen J A; Vander Zanden, M Jake; Blum, Michael J; Clayton, Murray K; Hain, Ernie F; Hauxwell, Jennifer; Izzo, Marit; Kornis, Matthew S; McIntyre, Peter B; Mikulyuk, Alison; Nilsson, Erika; Olden, Julian D; Papeş, Monica; Sharma, Sapna

    2013-01-01

    Invasive species are leading drivers of environmental change. Their impacts are often linked to their population size, but surprisingly little is known about how frequently they achieve high abundances. A nearly universal pattern in ecology is that species are rare in most locations and abundant in a few, generating right-skewed abundance distributions. Here, we use abundance data from over 24,000 populations of 17 invasive and 104 native aquatic species to test whether invasive species differ from native counterparts in statistical patterns of abundance across multiple sites. Invasive species on average reached significantly higher densities than native species and exhibited significantly higher variance. However, invasive and native species did not differ in terms of coefficient of variation, skewness, or kurtosis. Abundance distributions of all species were highly right skewed (skewness>0), meaning both invasive and native species occurred at low densities in most locations where they were present. The average abundance of invasive and native species was 6% and 2%, respectively, of the maximum abundance observed within a taxonomic group. The biological significance of the differences between invasive and native species depends on species-specific relationships between abundance and impact. Recognition of cross-site heterogeneity in population densities brings a new dimension to invasive species management, and may help to refine optimal prevention, containment, control, and eradication strategies.

  4. Ecological implications and environment dependence of the seed germination of common species in cold deserts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, S.Y.; Tong, L.; Chi, L.Z.

    2016-01-01

    Vegetation is increasingly affected by climate change in cold deserts. Nonetheless, research is limited regarding the natural environmental demands of seed germination in such deserts. This study was conducted in Gurbantunggut Desert as a research base and 17 common species as subjects to investigate the moisture and temperature needs of seed germination in artificial settings, as well as the relationship between characteristics of seed germination and the local distribution of dune and shrubs. Results showed:(1) all tested species generally display low germination percentages that range between 2.9% and 79.6%. Winter snow melt dictates seed germination in cold deserts. Moreover, the subsequent spring rainfall can increase the survival rate of seedlings and significantly affect the process of seed germination. (2) seeds start to germinate only two days after snow melts at the average daily temperature (day/night) of 3.5 degree C (6.7 degree C/-0.5 degree C) and at a soil volumetric water content of 24.2%. Fifteen days after snow melt, all species germinate when the soil volumetric water content is 6.0% and the average daily temperature is 12.9 degree C (18.3 degree C/7.1 degree C). (3) The seed germination of the tested species can be divided into four patterns: rapid, transitional, slow, and low. Low-pattern plants mainly grow on upper dunes and are significantly associated with shrubs. Rapid- and slow-pattern plants distribute in middle and lower dunes. A few of these plants are significantly associated with shrubs. Transitional-pattern plants generally develop in the low land between hills and middle dunes. This study provides a reference for the actual environmental needs of seed germination in cold deserts and for the temperature and moisture requirements of this process in future experimental settings. (author)

  5. Endangered species management and ecosystem restoration: Finding the common ground

    OpenAIRE

    Casazza, ML; Overton, CT; Bui, TVD; Hull, JM; Albertson, JD; Bloom, VK; Bobzien, S; McBroom, J; Latta, M; Olofson, P; Rohmer, TM; Schwarzbach, S; Strong, DR; Grijalva, E; Wood, JK

    2016-01-01

    © 2016 by the author(s). Management actions to protect endangered species and conserve ecosystem function may not always be in precise alignment. Efforts to recover the California Ridgway’s Rail (Rallus obsoletus obsoletus; hereafter, California rail), a federally and state-listed species, and restoration of tidal marsh ecosystems in the San Francisco Bay estuary provide a prime example of habitat restoration that has conflicted with species conservation. On the brink of extinction from habit...

  6. Increased plant carbon translocation linked to overyielding in grassland species mixtures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerlinde B De Deyn

    Full Text Available Plant species richness and productivity often show a positive relationship, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood, especially at the plant species level. We examined how growing plants in species mixture influences intraspecific rates of short-term carbon (C- translocation, and determined whether such short-term responses are reflected in biomass yields. We grew monocultures and mixtures of six common C3 grassland plant species in outdoor mesocosms, applied a (13C-CO(2 pulse in situ to trace assimilated C through plants, into the soil, and back to the atmosphere, and quantified species-specific biomass. Pulse derived (13C enrichment was highest in the legumes Lotus corniculatus and Trifolium repens, and relocation (i.e. transport from the leaves to other plant parts of the recently assimilated (13C was most rapid in T. repens grown in 6-species mixtures. The grass Anthoxanthum odoratum also showed high levels of (13C enrichment in 6-species mixtures, while (13C enrichment was low in Lolium perenne, Plantago lanceolata and Achillea millefolium. Rates of C loss through respiration were highest in monocultures of T. repens and relatively low in species mixtures, while the proportion of (13C in the respired CO(2 was similar in monocultures and mixtures. The grass A. odoratum and legume T. repens were most promoted in 6-species mixtures, and together with L. corniculatus, caused the net biomass increase in 6-species mixtures. These plant species also had highest rates of (13C-label translocation, and for A. odoratum and T. repens this effect was greatest in plant individuals grown in species mixtures. Our study reveals that short-term plant C translocation can be accelerated in plant individuals of legume and C3 grass species when grown in mixtures, and that this is strongly positively related to overyielding. These results demonstrate a mechanistic coupling between changes in intraspecific plant carbon physiology and increased

  7. Common toxigenic Fusarium species in maize grain in Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of toxigenic species of Fusarium in maize samples collected in Ethiopia was investigated. The three toxigenic species of Fusarium most often associated with Ethiopian maize grain were Fusarium verticillioides [= F. moniliforme] (51.7%), Fusarium subglutinans (24.2%) and Fusarium graminearum (13.9%).

  8. Moose?tree interactions: rebrowsing is common across tree species

    OpenAIRE

    Mathisen, Karen Marie; Milner, Jos M.; Skarpe, Christina

    2017-01-01

    Background Plant strategies to resist herbivory include tolerance and avoidance. Tolerance strategies, such as rapid regrowth which increases the palatability of new shoots, can lead to positive feedback loops between plants and herbivores. An example of such a positive feedback occurs when moose (Alces alces) browse trees in boreal forests. We described the degree of change in tree morphology that accumulated over time in response to repeated browsing by moose, using an index of accumulated ...

  9. Heavy metal levels in commonly used traditional medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Said, S.; Zahir, E.

    2010-01-01

    In the present study a survey of 24 commonly used medicinal plants of Indian subcontinent origin was carried out to evaluate their levels of heavy metals by electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy. The results showed that the highest mean value for Cd (12.06 mu g.g/sup -1/), Cr (24.50 mu g.g/sup -1/), Cu (15.27 mu g.g/sup -1/), Pb (1.30 mu g.g/sup -1/), Fe (885.60 mu g.g/sup -1/), Mn (90.60 mu g.g/sup -1/), Ni (9.99 mu g.g/sup -1/) and Zn (77.15 mu g.g/sup -1/) were found in Lawsonia inermis, Murraya koenigii, Mentha spicata, Beta vulgaris Linn, Mentha spicata, Lagenaria sicerana standl, Lawsonia inermis, Emblica officinalis, respectively. The mean and maximum levels of Cd in plant samples were found higher than the recommended values of the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization and may constitute a health hazard for consumers. All other heavy metals in medicinal plants were found below the recommended tolerable limits. (author)

  10. VT Biodiversity Project - Plant and Animal Species Atlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This database contains town-level totals of documented species records for several plant and animal taxa including vascular plants, trees,...

  11. Pectinous cell wall thickenings formation - A common defense strategy of plants to cope with Pb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzesłowska, Magdalena; Rabęda, Irena; Basińska, Aneta; Lewandowski, Michał; Mellerowicz, Ewa J; Napieralska, Anna; Samardakiewicz, Sławomir; Woźny, Adam

    2016-07-01

    Lead, one of the most abundant and hazardous trace metals affecting living organisms, has been commonly detected in plant cell walls including some tolerant plants, mining ecotypes and hyperaccumulators. We have previously shown that in tip growing Funaria sp. protonemata cell wall is remodeled in response to lead by formation of thickenings rich in low-methylesterified pectins (pectin epitope JIM5 - JIM5-P) able to bind metal ions, which accumulate large amounts of Pb. Hence, it leads to the increase of cell wall capacity for Pb compartmentalization. Here we show that diverse plant species belonging to different phyla (Arabidopsis, hybrid aspen, star duckweed), form similar cell wall thickenings in response to Pb. These thickenings are formed in tip growing cells such as the root hairs, and in diffuse growing cells such as meristematic and root cap columella cells of root apices in hybrid aspen and Arabidopsis and in mesophyll cells in star duckweed fronds. Notably, all analyzed cell wall thickenings were abundant in JIM5-P and accumulated high amounts of Pb. In addition, the co-localization of JIM5-P and Pb commonly occurred in these cells. Hence, cell wall thickenings formed the extra compartment for Pb accumulation. In this way plant cells increased cell wall capacity for compartmentalization of this toxic metal, protecting protoplast from its toxicity. As cell wall thickenings occurred in diverse plant species and cell types differing in the type of growth we may conclude that pectinous cell wall thickenings formation is a widespread defense strategy of plants to cope with Pb. Moreover, detection of natural defense strategy, increasing plant cell walls capacity for metal accumulation, reveals a promising direction for enhancing plant efficiency in phytoremediation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evolutionary responses of native plant species to invasive plants: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oduor, Ayub M O

    2013-12-01

    Strong competition from invasive plant species often leads to declines in abundances and may, in certain cases, cause localized extinctions of native plant species. Nevertheless, studies have shown that certain populations of native plant species can co-exist with invasive plant species,suggesting the possibility of adaptive evolutionary responses of those populations to the invasive plants. Empirical inference of evolutionary responses of the native plant species to invasive plants has involved experiments comparing two conspecific groups of native plants for differences in expression of growth/reproductive traits: populations that have experienced competition from the invasive plant species (i.e. experienced natives) versus populations with no known history of interactions with the invasive plant species (i.e. naıve natives). Here, I employ a meta-analysis to obtain a general pattern of inferred evolutionary responses of native plant species from 53 such studies. In general, the experienced natives had significantly higher growth/reproductive performances than naıve natives, when grown with or without competition from invasive plants.While the current results indicate that certain populations of native plant species could potentially adapt evolutionarily to invasive plant species, the ecological and evolutionary mechanisms that probably underlie such evolutionary responses remain unexplored and should be the focus of future studies.

  13. Phytophthora species, new threats to the plant health in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Ik-Hwa; Choi, Woobong

    2014-12-01

    Given the lack of a resistant genetic pool in host plants, the introduction of exotic invasive pathogens can result in epidemics that affect a specific ecosystem and economy. Plant quarantine, which is designed to protect endemic plant resources, is a highly invaluable safeguard that should keep biosecurity with increasing international trade and global transportation. A total of 34 species of plant pathogens including Phytophthora infestans were documented as introduced from other countries into Korea from 1900 to 2010. The genus Phytophthora, classified in oomycetes, includes more than 120 species that are mostly recognized worldwide as highly invasive plant pathogens. After 2000, over 50 new species of Phytophthora were identified internationally as plant pathogens occurring in crops and forest trees. In Korea, Phytophthora is also one of the most serious plant pathogens. To date, 22 species (about one-fifth of known species) of the genus have been identified and reported as plant pathogens in the country. The likelihood of new exotic Phytophthora species being introduced into Korea continues to increase, thus necessitating intensive plant quarantine inspections. As new potential threats to plant health in Korea, six Phytophthora species, namely, P. alni, P. inundata, P. kernoviae, P. pinifolia, P. quercina, and P. ramorum, are discussed in this review with focus on history, disease, biology, management, and plant quarantine issues.

  14. Phytophthora Species, New Threats to the Plant Health in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ik-Hwa Hyun

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the lack of a resistant genetic pool in host plants, the introduction of exotic invasive pathogens can result in epidemics that affect a specific ecosystem and economy. Plant quarantine, which is designed to protect endemic plant resources, is a highly invaluable safeguard that should keep biosecurity with increasing international trade and global transportation. A total of 34 species of plant pathogens including Phytophthora infestans were documented as introduced from other countries into Korea from 1900 to 2010. The genus Phytophthora, classified in oomycetes, includes more than 120 species that are mostly recognized worldwide as highly invasive plant pathogens. After 2000, over 50 new species of Phytophthora were identified internationally as plant pathogens occurring in crops and forest trees. In Korea, Phytophthora is also one of the most serious plant pathogens. To date, 22 species (about one-fifth of known species of the genus have been identified and reported as plant pathogens in the country. The likelihood of new exotic Phytophthora species being introduced into Korea continues to increase, thus necessitating intensive plant quarantine inspections. As new potential threats to plant health in Korea, six Phytophthora species, namely, P. alni, P. inundata, P. kernoviae, P. pinifolia, P. quercina, and P. ramorum, are discussed in this review with focus on history, disease, biology, management, and plant quarantine issues.

  15. What determines plant species diversity in Central Africa?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Proosdij, van Andreas S.J.

    2017-01-01

    Planet Earth hosts an incredible biological diversity. Estimated numbers of species occurring on Earth range from 5 to 11 million eukaryotic species including 400,000-450,000 species of plants. Much of this biodiversity remains poorly known and many species have not yet been named or even been

  16. Stochastic species turnover and stable coexistence in a species-rich, fire-prone plant community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfried Thuiller

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanisms that maintain diversity is important for managing ecosystems for species persistence. Here we used a long-term data set to understand mechanisms of coexistence at the local and regional scales in the Cape Floristic Region, a global hotspot of plant diversity. We used a dataset comprising 81 monitoring sites, sampled in 1966 and again in 1996, and containing 422 species for which growth form, regeneration mode, dispersal distance and abundances at both the local (site and meta-community scales are known. We found that species presence and abundance were stable at the meta-community scale over the 30 year period but highly unstable at the local scale, and were not influenced by species' biological attributes. Moreover, rare species were no more likely to go extinct at the local scale than common species, and that alpha diversity in local communities was strongly influenced by habitat. We conclude that stochastic environmental fluctuations associated with recurrent fire buffer populations from extinction, thereby ensuring stable coexistence at the meta-community scale by creating a "neutral-like" pattern maintained by niche-differentiation.

  17. RAPD study on some common species of Porphyra in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Mei; Wang, Su-Juan; Li, Yao; Shen, Da-Leng; Zeng, Cheng-Kui

    1998-03-01

    RAPD analysis of seven samples of five Porphyra species, P haitanensis (three samples of cultured population), P. katadai var. hemiphylla, P. oligospermatangia, P. suborbiculata and P. yezoensis, showed the closest relationship existing among the three cultured populations of P. haitanensis. The genetic distance between P. haitanensis and P. oligospermatangia was the same as that between P. haitanensis and P. suborbiculata, both were 0.9. The genetic distances, among the other species of Porphyra ranged from 0.7 to 0.8. UPGMA analysis showed P. suborbiculata and P. yezoensis belong to another lineage. Results of this study suggests that RAPD analysis is effective at population level.

  18. Herbivory and dominance shifts among exotic and congeneric native plant species during plant community establishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelkes, Tim; Meisner, Annelein; Morriën, Elly

    2016-01-01

    exotic plant species due to reduced enemy exposure, few studies have actually analyzed the ecological consequences of this situation in the field. Here, we examined how exposure to aboveground herbivores influences shifts in dominance among exotic and phylogenetically related native plant species...... in a riparian ecosystem during early establishment of invaded communities. We planted ten plant communities each consisting of three individuals of each of six exotic plant species as well as six phylogenetically related natives. Exotic plant species were selected based on a rapid recent increase in regional...

  19. Regional climate model downscaling may improve the prediction of alien plant species distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuyan; Liang, Xin-Zhong; Gao, Wei; Stohlgren, Thomas J.

    2014-12-01

    Distributions of invasive species are commonly predicted with species distribution models that build upon the statistical relationships between observed species presence data and climate data. We used field observations, climate station data, and Maximum Entropy species distribution models for 13 invasive plant species in the United States, and then compared the models with inputs from a General Circulation Model (hereafter GCM-based models) and a downscaled Regional Climate Model (hereafter, RCM-based models).We also compared species distributions based on either GCM-based or RCM-based models for the present (1990-1999) to the future (2046-2055). RCM-based species distribution models replicated observed distributions remarkably better than GCM-based models for all invasive species under the current climate. This was shown for the presence locations of the species, and by using four common statistical metrics to compare modeled distributions. For two widespread invasive taxa ( Bromus tectorum or cheatgrass, and Tamarix spp. or tamarisk), GCM-based models failed miserably to reproduce observed species distributions. In contrast, RCM-based species distribution models closely matched observations. Future species distributions may be significantly affected by using GCM-based inputs. Because invasive plants species often show high resilience and low rates of local extinction, RCM-based species distribution models may perform better than GCM-based species distribution models for planning containment programs for invasive species.

  20. Susceptibility of common alder (Alnus glutinosa) seeds and seedlings to Phytophthora alni and other Phytophthora species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haque, M. M.; Diez, J. J.

    2012-11-01

    Phytophthora alni is a highly destructive host specific pathogen to alders (Alnus spp.) spreading all over Europe. Recently this pathogen has been reported to cause diseases in common alder (Alnus glutinosa) in Spain. Seeds and seedlings of A. glutinosa were tested in vitro for their susceptibility to alder Phytophthora and other Phytophthora species. Isolates of P. alni ssp. alni, P. cinnamomi, P. citrophthora, P. nicotianae and P. palmivora were used in the experiments. Seeds and seedlings were inoculated with a zoospore suspension and uniform mycelial blocks of agar of the Phytophthora species. Susceptibility was calculated in terms of pathogen virulence on seed germination and seedling mortality 42 and 67 days after inoculation respectively. Seed germination and seedling mortality rates varied differently among the isolates used. Results implied that common alder and its seeds and seedlings are at risk to be infected by P. alni. In addition, other Phytophthora species are able to infect this kind of material showing their relative host non-specificity. This is one important finding concerning alder regeneration in infected areas, and the possibility of disease spread on this plant material. (Author) 42 refs.

  1. Campylobacter hyointestinalis subsp hyointestinalis, a common Campylobacter species in reindeer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanninen, M.L.; Sarelli, L.; Sukura, A.

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To study the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in the faecal material of reindeer, and to identify the isolates by means of a polyphasic approach. In addition, to study the genetic diversity of Camp. hyointestinalis subsp. hyointestinalis reindeer isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis...... slaughterhouses. Samples were cultured by methods suitable for isolation of fastidious Campylobacter species. Of all samples, 6% (24/399) were Campylobacter-positive. Phenotypic characteristics, SDS-PAGE protein patterns, dot blot DNA-DNA hybridization, 23S rDNA restriction fragment polymorphism analysis and PFGE...... identified the isolates as Camp. hyointestinalis subsp. kyointestinalis. Conclusions: Campylobacter hyointestinalis subsp. hyointestinalis was the only Campylobacter species isolated from reindeer in this study. The isolates showed high genomic diversity in PFGE with the restriction enzymes SmaI and Kpn...

  2. Invasive exotic plant species in Sierra Nevada ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carla M. D' Antonio; Eric L. Berlow; Karen L. Haubensak

    2004-01-01

    The Sierra Nevada is a topographically and floristically diverse region of the western United States. While it comprises only a fifth of the total land area of California, half of the native plant species in the state occur within the range. In addition, more than 400 plant species are endemic to the Sierra Nevada and many of these are listed as threatened or have...

  3. Research Note Herbaceous plant species richness and composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the relationship between grazing veld condition and herbaceous plant species richness in the moist Midlands Mistbelt Grassland in KwaZulu-Natal. The observed herbaceous plant species richness and composition of 12 sample plots (50 m x 50 m) was determined in three study sites using quadrat ...

  4. Evaluation of allelopathic potential of selected plant species on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phytotoxicity of shoot leachates of selected plant species was assessed on germination, and on shootcut and seedling bioassays of Parthenium hysterophorus. Shoot leachates of selected plant species were effective in inhibiting germination of Parthenium seeds, with Azardirachta indica the most effective.

  5. The descriptive capacity of ecological plant species groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witte, J.P.M.

    2002-01-01

    In this article we question whether ecological species groups are appropriate for describing the plant cover of the Netherlands with the aid of a national database containing distribution data of indigenous plant species on a kilometre square basis. To answer the question, a comparison is made with

  6. Escherichia coli common pilus (ECP) targets arabinosyl residues in plant cell walls to mediate adhesion to fresh produce plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossez, Yannick; Holmes, Ashleigh; Lodberg-Pedersen, Henriette; Birse, Louise; Marshall, Jacqueline; Willats, William G T; Toth, Ian K; Holden, Nicola J

    2014-12-05

    Outbreaks of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli are often associated with fresh produce. However, the molecular basis to adherence is unknown beyond ionic lipid-flagellum interactions in plant cell membranes. We demonstrate that arabinans present in different constituents of plant cell walls are targeted for adherence by E. coli common pilus (ECP; or meningitis-associated and temperature-regulated (Mat) fimbriae) for E. coli serotypes O157:H7 and O18:K1:H7. l-Arabinose is a common constituent of plant cell wall that is rarely found in other organisms, whereas ECP is widespread in E. coli and other environmental enteric species. ECP bound to oligosaccharides of at least arabinotriose or longer in a glycan array, plant cell wall pectic polysaccharides, and plant glycoproteins. Recognition overlapped with the antibody LM13, which binds arabinanase-sensitive pectic epitopes, and showed a preferential affinity for (1→5)-α-linked l-arabinosyl residues and longer chains of arabinan as demonstrated with the use of arabinan-degrading enzymes. Functional adherence in planta was mediated by the adhesin EcpD in combination with the structural subunit, EcpA, and expression was demonstrated with an ecpR-GFP fusion and ECP antibodies. Spinach was found to be enriched for ECP/LM13 targets compared with lettuce. Specific recognition of arabinosyl residues may help explain the persistence of E. coli in the wider environment and association of verotoxigenic E. coli with some fresh produce plants by exploitation of a glycan found only in plant, not animal, cells. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. The effects of experimentally supplied lead nitrate on three common Mediterranean moss species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogolludo, Jennifer; Estébanez, Belén; Medina, Nagore G

    2017-12-01

    We assess here, through an experimental simulation using lead nitrate, the response to lead deposition of three common Mediterranean bryophyte species in the family Pottiaceae. Five concentrations of lead nitrate (from 0 to 10 -3  M) were sprayed for 4 months on plants belonging to Tortula muralis (reported as toxitolerant), Syntrichia ruralis (medium-tolerant), and Tortula subulata (less tolerant). The three species showed a remarkably high tolerance to lead nitrate, with a low incidence of damage even at concentrations as high as 10 -4  M. The maximum concentration (10 -3  M), although resulting eventually in serious damages in the gametophyte of the three species (high mortality rates in S. ruralis and T. subulata, or a significant percentage of damaged tissue in T. muralis), did not prevent the production of sporophytes in the two species with fertile samples (T. muralis and T. subulata). Growth parameters show limited value as bioindicators of lead deposition, as they only show clear effects at very high concentrations. Besides, we identified the existence of a lead exclusion strategy mediated by mucilage using histochemical analyses and scanning electron microscopy combined with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. This mechanism can hamper the usefulness of these mosses in quantitative estimation of lead deposition.

  8. Fuel breaks affect nonnative species abundance in Californian plant communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle E Merriam; Jon E. Keeley; Jan L. Beyers

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the abundance of nonnative plants on fuel breaks and in adjacent untreated areas to determine if fuel treatments promote the invasion of nonnative plant species. Understanding the relationship between fuel treatments and nonnative plants is becoming increasingly important as federal and state agencies are currently implementing large fuel treatment...

  9. Life styles of Colletotrichum species and implications for plant biosecurity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, Dilani D. De; Crous, Pedro W.; Ades, Peter Kevin; Hyde, Kevin D.; Taylor, Paul W. J.

    Colletotrichum is a genus of major plant pathogens causing anthracnose diseases in many plant crops worldwide. The genus comprises a highly diverse group of pathogens that infect a wide range of plant hosts. The life styles of Colletotrichum species can be broadly categorised as necrotrophic,

  10. Rapid plant evolution in the presence of an introduced species alters community composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David Solance; Lau, Matthew K; Jacobs, Ryan; Monroy, Jenna A; Shuster, Stephen M; Whitham, Thomas G

    2015-10-01

    Because introduced species may strongly interact with native species and thus affect their fitness, it is important to examine how these interactions can cascade to have ecological and evolutionary consequences for whole communities. Here, we examine the interactions among introduced Rocky Mountain elk, Cervus canadensis nelsoni, a common native plant, Solidago velutina, and the diverse plant-associated community of arthropods. While introduced species are recognized as one of the biggest threats to native ecosystems, relatively few studies have investigated an evolutionary mechanism by which introduced species alter native communities. Here, we use a common garden design that addresses and supports two hypotheses. First, native S. velutina has rapidly evolved in the presence of introduced elk. We found that plants originating from sites with introduced elk flowered nearly 3 weeks before plants originating from sites without elk. Second, evolution of S. velutina results in a change to the plant-associated arthropod community. We found that plants originating from sites with introduced elk supported an arthropod community that had ~35 % fewer total individuals and a different species composition. Our results show that the impacts of introduced species can have both ecological and evolutionary consequences for strongly interacting species that subsequently cascade to affect a much larger community. Such evolutionary consequences are likely to be long-term and difficult to remediate.

  11. Topography- and management-mediated resource gradients maintain rare and common plant diversity around paddy terraces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uematsu, Yuta; Ushimaru, Atushi

    2013-09-01

    Examining the causes of interspecific differences in susceptibility to bidirectional land-use changes (land abandonment and use-intensification) is important for understanding the mechanisms of global biodiversity loss in agricultural landscapes. We tested the hypothesis that rare (endangered) plant species prefer wet and oligotrophic areas within topography- and management-mediated resource (soil water content, nutrient, and aboveground biomass) gradients, making them more susceptible to both abandonment and use-intensification of agricultural lands. We demonstrated that topography and management practices generated resource gradients in seminatural grasslands around traditional paddy terraces. Terraced topography and management practices produced a soil moisture gradient within levees and a nutrient gradient within paddy terraces. Both total and rare species diversity increased with soil water content. Total species diversity increased in more eutrophied areas with low aboveground biomass, whereas rare species diversity was high under oligotrophic conditions. Rare and common species were differentially distributed along the human-induced nutrient gradient, with rare species preferring wet, nutrient-poor environments in the agricultural landscapes studied. We suggest that conservation efforts should concentrate on wet, nutrient-poor areas within such landscapes, which can be located easily using land-use and topography maps. This strategy would reduce the costs of finding and conserving rare grassland species in a given agricultural landscape.

  12. Clonal growth and plant species abundance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Herben, Tomáš; Nováková, Z.; Klimešová, Jitka

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 114, č. 2 (2014), s. 377-388 ISSN 0305-7364 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/09/0963 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : clonal plants * frequency * plant communities of Central Europe Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.654, year: 2014

  13. Distribution patterns of rare earth elements in various plant species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyttenbach, A.; Tobler, L.; Furrer, V. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    The elements La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Yb and Lu have been determined in 6 different plant species by neutron activation analysis. When the concentrations of each species were normalized to Norway spruce, smooth curves were obtained which revealed systematic inter-species differences. (author) 3 figs., 4 refs.

  14. Commonness of Amazonian palm (Arecaceae) species: Cross-scale links and potential determinants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Thea; Svenning, J.-C.; Grández, César

    2009-01-01

    was positively related to topographic niche breadth. Stem height correlated with continental range size and was the only species life-history trait related to any commonness measure. Distance from the study area to a species' range centre did not influence any of the commonness measures. The factors determining....... Our results point towards topographic niche breadth at the smaller scales and stem height, possibly reflecting species' dispersal potential, at the continental scale as important determinants of commonness....

  15. Similar local and landscape processes affect both a common and a rare newt species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Denoël

    Full Text Available Although rare species are often the focus of conservation measures, more common species may experience similar decline and suffer from the same threatening processes. We tested this hypothesis by examining, through an information-theoretic approach, the importance of ecological processes at multiple scales in the great crested newt Triturus cristatus, regionally endangered and protected in Europe, and the more common smooth newt, Lissotriton vulgaris. Both species were similarly affected by the same processes, i.e. suitability of aquatic and terrestrial components of their habitat at different scales, connectivity among breeding sites, and the presence of introduced fish. T. cristatus depended more on water depth and aquatic vegetation than L. vulgaris. The results show that environmental pressures threaten both common and rare species, and therefore the more widespread species should not be neglected in conservation programs. Because environmental trends are leading to a deterioration of aquatic and terrestrial habitat features required by newt populations, populations of the common species may follow the fate of the rarest species. This could have substantial conservation implications because of the numerical importance of common species in ecosystems and because commonness could be a transient state moving towards rarity. On the other hand, in agreement with the umbrella species concept, targeting conservation efforts on the most demanding species would also protect part of the populations of the most common species.

  16. Similar local and landscape processes affect both a common and a rare newt species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denoël, Mathieu; Perez, Amélie; Cornet, Yves; Ficetola, Gentile Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Although rare species are often the focus of conservation measures, more common species may experience similar decline and suffer from the same threatening processes. We tested this hypothesis by examining, through an information-theoretic approach, the importance of ecological processes at multiple scales in the great crested newt Triturus cristatus, regionally endangered and protected in Europe, and the more common smooth newt, Lissotriton vulgaris. Both species were similarly affected by the same processes, i.e. suitability of aquatic and terrestrial components of their habitat at different scales, connectivity among breeding sites, and the presence of introduced fish. T. cristatus depended more on water depth and aquatic vegetation than L. vulgaris. The results show that environmental pressures threaten both common and rare species, and therefore the more widespread species should not be neglected in conservation programs. Because environmental trends are leading to a deterioration of aquatic and terrestrial habitat features required by newt populations, populations of the common species may follow the fate of the rarest species. This could have substantial conservation implications because of the numerical importance of common species in ecosystems and because commonness could be a transient state moving towards rarity. On the other hand, in agreement with the umbrella species concept, targeting conservation efforts on the most demanding species would also protect part of the populations of the most common species.

  17. Intraspecific morphological and genetic variation of common species predicts ranges of threatened ones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Trevon L.; Thomassen, Henri A.; Peralvo, Manuel; Buermann, Wolfgang; Milá, Borja; Kieswetter, Charles M.; Jarrín-V, Pablo; Devitt, Susan E. Cameron; Mason, Eliza; Schweizer, Rena M.; Schlunegger, Jasmin; Chan, Janice; Wang, Ophelia; Schneider, Christopher J.; Pollinger, John P.; Saatchi, Sassan; Graham, Catherine H.; Wayne, Robert K.; Smith, Thomas B.

    2013-01-01

    Predicting where threatened species occur is useful for making informed conservation decisions. However, because they are usually rare, surveying threatened species is often expensive and time intensive. Here, we show how regions where common species exhibit high genetic and morphological divergence among populations can be used to predict the occurrence of species of conservation concern. Intraspecific variation of common species of birds, bats and frogs from Ecuador were found to be a significantly better predictor for the occurrence of threatened species than suites of environmental variables or the occurrence of amphibians and birds. Fully 93 per cent of the threatened species analysed had their range adequately represented by the geographical distribution of the morphological and genetic variation found in seven common species. Both higher numbers of threatened species and greater genetic and morphological variation of common species occurred along elevation gradients. Higher levels of intraspecific divergence may be the result of disruptive selection and/or introgression along gradients. We suggest that collecting data on genetic and morphological variation in common species can be a cost effective tool for conservation planning, and that future biodiversity inventories include surveying genetic and morphological data of common species whenever feasible. PMID:23595273

  18. Phytotoxic studies of medicinal plant species of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilani, S.A.; Adnan, M.; Kikuchi, A.; Fujii, Y.; Shinwari, Z.K.; Kazuo, N.; Watanabe, K.N.

    2010-01-01

    Allelopathic screening of 81 medicinal plant species, collected from North West Frontier Province (NWFP) Pakistan, was carried out to identify significantly higher allelopathic species for future phyto chemical analyses. For this purpose, sandwich method was used to test allelopathic potentials of leaf leachates of these plant species against lettuce seeds (Lactuca sativa L.). Two different concentrations of 10 mg and 50 mg of leaf leachates were used in the study. The radicle and hypocotyl growths were measured and compared with control treatments. It was observed that an endemic species Seriphidium kurramense, Andrachne cordifolia and Rhazya stricta were the stronger phyto toxic plants as compared to the other test species. Based on the current screening, three potential medicinal plants are recommended for future bioassay guided isolation of allelochemicals and for genetic diversity studies. It would also be interesting to see correlation between genetic markers and isolated allelochemicals. (author)

  19. Identification of Compounds with Efficacy against Malaria Parasites from Common North American Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Shengxin; Risinger, April L; Nair, Shalini; Peng, Jiangnan; Anderson, Timothy J C; Du, Lin; Powell, Douglas R; Mooberry, Susan L; Cichewicz, Robert H

    2016-03-25

    Some of the most valuable antimalarial compounds, including quinine and artemisinin, originated from plants. While these drugs have served important roles over many years for the treatment of malaria, drug resistance has become a widespread problem. Therefore, a critical need exists to identify new compounds that have efficacy against drug-resistant malaria strains. In the current study, extracts prepared from plants readily obtained from local sources were screened for activity against Plasmodium falciparum. Bioassay-guided fractionation was used to identify 18 compounds from five plant species. These compounds included eight lupane triterpenes (1-8), four kaempferol 3-O-rhamnosides (10-13), four kaempferol 3-O-glucosides (14-17), and the known compounds amentoflavone and knipholone. These compounds were tested for their efficacy against multi-drug-resistant malaria parasites and counterscreened against HeLa cells to measure their antimalarial selectivity. Most notably, one of the new lupane triterpenes (3) isolated from the supercritical extract of Buxus sempervirens, the common boxwood, showed activity against both drug-sensitive and -resistant malaria strains at a concentration that was 75-fold more selective for the drug-resistant malaria parasites as compared to HeLa cells. This study demonstrates that new antimalarial compounds with efficacy against drug-resistant strains can be identified from native and introduced plant species in the United States, which traditionally have received scant investigation compared to more heavily explored tropical and semitropical botanical resources from around the world.

  20. Plant species used in dental diseases: ethnopharmacology aspects and antimicrobial activity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Denise R P; Amaral, Flavia MaM; Maciel, Márcia C G; Nascimento, Flávia R F; Libério, Silvana A; Rodrigues, Vandílson P

    2014-09-29

    Ethnopharmacological surveys show that several plant species are used empirically by the population, in oral diseases. However, it is necessary to check the properties of these plant species. To evaluate in vitro antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans from plant species selected in a previous ethnopharmacology study. An ethnopharmacological survey was conducted with users of a dental clinic school services, located in Sao Luis, Maranhão, Brazil, aiming to identify plant species used in oral diseases treatment. From the ethnopharmacological survey, species were selected for in vitro antimicrobial activity evaluation against Streptococcus mutans, by agar diffusion method and determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). Two hundred and seventy one people participated in the research: 55.7% reported the use of plants for medicinal purposes, 29.5% of which have knowledge and/or use plants for some type of oral disease. Thirty four species belonging to 24 (twenty four) botanical families were reported, being Aloe vera L., Anacardium occidentale L., Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Chenopodium ambrosioides L. and Punica granatum L. the most cited. The most commonly reported indications were healing after tooth extraction, followed by toothache, inflammation and bleeding gums., The determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) demonstrated that Punica granatum L., Psidium guajava L. and Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi showed similar activity to 0.12% chlorhexidine, used as positive control. That result is important to follow up the study of these species in the search for new anticariogenic agents originated by plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparing bee species responses to chemical mixtures: Common response patterns?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Robinson

    Full Text Available Pollinators in agricultural landscapes can be exposed to mixtures of pesticides and environmental pollutants. Existing mixture toxicity modelling approaches, such as the models of concentration addition and independent action and the mechanistic DEBtox framework have been previously shown as valuable tools for understanding and ultimately predicting joint toxicity. Here we apply these mixture models to investigate the potential to interpret the effects of semi-chronic binary mixture exposure for three bee species: Apis mellifera, Bombus terrestris and Osmia bicornis within potentiation and mixture toxicity experiments. In the potentiation studies, the effect of the insecticide dimethoate with added propiconazole fungicide and neonicotinoid insecticide clothianidin with added tau-fluvalinate pyrethroid acaricide showed no difference in toxicity compared to the single chemical alone. Clothianidin toxicity showed a small scale, but temporally conserved increase in exposure conducted in the presence of propiconazole, particularly for B. terrestris and O. bicornis, the latter showing a near three-fold increase in clothianidin toxicity in the presence of propiconazole. In the mixture toxicity studies, the dominant response patterns were of additivity, however, binary mixtures of clothianidin and dimethoate in A. mellifera, B. terrestris and male O. bicornis there was evidence of a predominant antagonistic interaction. Given the ubiquitous nature of exposures to multiple chemicals, there is an urgent need to consider mixture effects in pollinator risk assessments. Our analyses suggest that current models, particularly those that utilise time-series data, such as DEBtox, can be used to identify additivity as the dominant response pattern and also those examples of interactions, even when small-scale, that may need to be taken into account during risk assessment.

  2. Allelopathy of plant species of pharmaceutical importance to cultivated species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álisson Sobrinho Maranho

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify possible allelopathic effects of leaf aqueous extracts of Baccharis dracunculifolia DC., Pilocarpus pennatifolius Lem., Cyperus rotundus L., Morus rubra L., Casearia sylvestris Sw., and Plectranthus barbatus Andr. on the germination and initial growth of Lactuca sativa L., Brassica oleracea L. cv. capitata, B. oleracea L. cv. italica, B. pekinenses L., B. campestris L., Lycopersicum esculentum Miller, and Eruca sativa L. To obtain the aqueous extracts, leaves previously dried at a 1g.10mL-1 concentration were used, diluted in six solutions (10, 30, 50, 70, 90, and 100% and compared to control, distilled water, with five replications of 10 seeds for all vegetable species. The aqueous extracts of all species showed allelopathic potential for germination of seeds, the germination speed index, and the initial growth of shoots and roots of vegetable crops. The aqueous extracts of C. rotundus and P. barbatus promoted lower and higher allelopathic effects, respectively, and the vegetal structure mostly affected by the extracts was the primary root. The results indicate the existence of allelopathic potential in the species tested, so there’s a need for adopting care procedures when cultivating vegetables with them.

  3. Common Cause Failure Analysis for the Digital Plant Protection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagn, Hyun Gook; Jang, Seung Cheol

    2005-01-01

    Safety-critical systems such as nuclear power plants adopt the multiple-redundancy design in order to reduce the risk from the single component failure. The digitalized safety-signal generation system is also designed based on the multiple-redundancy strategy which consists of more redundant components. The level of the redundant design of digital systems is usually higher than those of conventional mechanical systems. This higher redundancy would clearly reduce the risk from the single failure of components, but raise the importance of the common cause failure (CCF) analysis. This research aims to develop the practical and realistic method for modeling the CCF in digital safety-critical systems. We propose a simple and practical framework for assessing the CCF probability of digital equipment. Higher level of redundancy causes the difficulty of CCF analysis because it results in impractically large number of CCF events in the fault tree model when we use conventional CCF modeling methods. We apply the simplified alpha-factor (SAF) method to the digital system CCF analysis. The precedent study has shown that SAF method is quite realistic but simple when we consider carefully system success criteria. The first step for using the SAF method is the analysis of target system for determining the function failure cases. That is, the success criteria of the system could be derived from the target system's function and configuration. Based on this analysis, we can calculate the probability of single CCF event which represents the CCF events resulting in the system failure. In addition to the application of SAF method, in order to accommodate the other characteristics of digital technology, we develop a simple concept and several equations for practical use

  4. Controversy Associated With the Common Component of Most Transgenic Plants – Kanamycin Resistance Marker Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srećko Jelenić

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant genetic engineering is a powerful tool for producing crops resistant to pests, diseases and abiotic stress or crops with improved nutritional value or better quality products. Currently over 70 genetically modified (GM crops have been approved for use in different countries. These cover a wide range of plant species with significant number of different modified traits. However, beside the technology used for their improvement, the common component of most GM crops is the neomycin phosphotransferase II gene (nptII, which confers resistance to the antibiotics kanamycin and neomycin. The nptII gene is present in GM crops as a marker gene to select transformed plant cells during the first steps of the transformation process. The use of antibiotic-resistance genes is subject to controversy and intense debate, because of the likelihood that clinical therapy could be compromised due to inactivation of the oral dose of the antibiotic from consumption of food derived from the transgenic plant, and because of the risk of gene transfer from plants to gut and soil microorganisms or to consumer’s cells. The present article discusses these possibilities in the light of current scientific knowledge.

  5. Larvicidal activity of six Nigerian plant species against Anopheles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the larvicidal activity of extracts from six Nigerian plant species (Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides, Piper guineense, Nicotianat abacum, Erythrophleum suaveoleus, Jatropha curcas and Petiveria alliacea) against laboratory-bred Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti larvae. Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides ...

  6. Species composition, Plant Community structure and Natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    objective of this work was to study the vegetation structure, composition and Natural ... Vegetation classification was performed using PC - ORD for windows version 5.0. Five communities were recognized. Results showed that a total of 157 plant ..... Vegetation types and forest fire management in Ethiopia In: MOA & GTZ.

  7. Thermal Hyperspectral Remote Sensing for Plant Species and Stress Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlerf, M.; Rock, G.; Ullah, S.; Gerhards, M.; Udelhoven, T.; Skidmore, A. K.

    2014-12-01

    Thermal infrared (TIR) spectroscopy offers a novel opportunity for measuring emissivity spectra of natural surfaces. Emissivity spectra are not directly measured, they first have to be retrieved from the raw measurements. Once retrieved, the spectra can be used, for example, to discriminate plant species or to detect plant stress. Knowledge of plant species distribution is essential for the sustainable management of ecosystems. Remote sensing of plant species has so far mostly been limited to data in the visible and near-infrared where, however, different species often reveal similar reflectance curves. Da Luz and Crowley showed in a recent paper that in the TIR plants indeed have distinct spectral features. Also with a certain species, subtle changes of emissivity in certain wavebands may occur, when biochemical compounds change due to osmotic adjustment induced by water stress. Here we show, that i) emissive imaging spectroscopy allows for reliable and accurate retrieval of plant emissivity spectra, ii) emissivity spectra are well suited to discriminate plant species, iii) a reduction in stomatal conductance (caused by stress) changes the thermal infrared signal. For 13 plant species in the laboratory and for 8 plant species in a field setup emissivity spectra were retrieved. A comparison shows, that for most species the shapes of the emissivity curves agree quite well, but that clear offsets between the two types of spectra exist. Discrimination analysis revealed that based on the lab spectra, 13 species could be distinguished with an average overall classification accuracy of 92% using the 6 best spectral bands. For the field spectra (8 species), a similar high OAA of 89% was achieved. Species discrimination is likely to be possible due to variations in the composition of the superficial epidermal layer of plant leaves and in internal chemical concentrations producing unique emissivity features. However, to date, which spectral feature is responsible for which

  8. Widespread plant species: Natives versus aliens in our changing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, T.J.; Pysek, P.; Kartesz, J.; Nishino, M.; Pauchard, A.; Winter, M.; Pino, J.; Richardson, D.M.; Wilson, J.R.U.; Murray, B.R.; Phillips, M.L.; Ming-yang, L.; Celesti-Grapow, L.; Font, X.

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of the level of invasion for a region are traditionally based on relative numbers of native and alien species. However, alien species differ dramatically in the size of their invasive ranges. Here we present the first study to quantify the level of invasion for several regions of the world in terms of the most widely distributed plant species (natives vs. aliens). Aliens accounted for 51.3% of the 120 most widely distributed plant species in North America, 43.3% in New South Wales (Australia), 34.2% in Chile, 29.7% in Argentina, and 22.5% in the Republic of South Africa. However, Europe had only 1% of alien species among the most widespread species of the flora. Across regions, alien species relative to native species were either as well-distributed (10 comparisons) or more widely distributed (5 comparisons). These striking patterns highlight the profound contribution that widespread invasive alien plants make to floristic dominance patterns across different regions. Many of the most widespread species are alien plants, and, in particular, Europe and Asia appear as major contributors to the homogenization of the floras in the Americas. We recommend that spatial extent of invasion should be explicitly incorporated in assessments of invasibility, globalization, and risk assessments. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  9. Widespread plant species: natives vs. aliens in our changing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Pyšek, Petr; Kartesz, John; Nishino, Misako; Pauchard, Aníbal; Winter, Marten; Pino, Joan; Richardson, David M.; Wilson, John R.U.; Murray, Brad R.; Phillips, Megan L.; Ming-yang, Li; Celesti-Grapow, Laura; Font, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of the level of invasion for a region are traditionally based on relative numbers of native and alien species. However, alien species differ dramatically in the size of their invasive ranges. Here we present the first study to quantify the level of invasion for several regions of the world in terms of the most widely distributed plant species (natives vs. aliens). Aliens accounted for 51.3% of the 120 most widely distributed plant species in North America, 43.3% in New South Wales (Australia), 34.2% in Chile, 29.7% in Argentina, and 22.5% in the Republic of South Africa. However, Europe had only 1% of alien species among the most widespread species of the flora. Across regions, alien species relative to native species were either as well-distributed (10 comparisons) or more widely distributed (5 comparisons). These striking patterns highlight the profound contribution that widespread invasive alien plants make to floristic dominance patterns across different regions. Many of the most widespread species are alien plants, and, in particular, Europe and Asia appear as major contributors to the homogenization of the floras in the Americas. We recommend that spatial extent of invasion should be explicitly incorporated in assessments of invasibility, globalization, and risk assessments.

  10. Human population, grasshopper and plant species richness in European countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steck, Claude E.; Pautasso, Marco

    2008-11-01

    Surprisingly, several studies over large scales have reported a positive spatial correlation of people and biodiversity. This pattern has important implications for conservation and has been documented for well studied taxa such as plants, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. However, it is unknown whether the pattern applies also to invertebrates other than butterflies and more work is needed to establish whether the species-people relationship is explained by both variables correlating with other environmental factors. We studied whether grasshopper species richness (Orthoptera, suborder Caelifera) is related to human population size in European countries. As expected, the number of Caelifera species increases significantly with increasing human population size. But this is not the case when controlling for country area, latitude and number of plant species. Variations in Caelifera species richness are primarily associated with variations in plant species richness. Caelifera species richness also increases with decreasing mean annual precipitation, Gross Domestic Product per capita (used as an indicator for economic development) and net fertility rate of the human population. Our analysis confirms the hypothesis that the broad-scale human population-biodiversity correlations can be explained by concurrent variations in factors other than human population size such as plant species richness, environmental productivity, or habitat heterogeneity. Nonetheless, more populated countries in Europe still have more Caelifera species than less populated countries and this poses a particular challenge for conservation.

  11. Species distribution modelling for plant communities: Stacked single species or multivariate modelling approaches?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emilie B. Henderson; Janet L. Ohmann; Matthew J. Gregory; Heather M. Roberts; Harold S.J. Zald

    2014-01-01

    Landscape management and conservation planning require maps of vegetation composition and structure over large regions. Species distribution models (SDMs) are often used for individual species, but projects mapping multiple species are rarer. We compare maps of plant community composition assembled by stacking results from many SDMs with multivariate maps constructed...

  12. Nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species in plant biotic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheler, Claudia; Durner, Jörg; Astier, Jeremy

    2013-08-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important signaling molecules in plants. Recent progress has been made in defining their role during plant biotic interactions. Over the last decade, their function in disease resistance has been highlighted and focused a lot of investigations. Moreover, NO and ROS have recently emerged as important players of defense responses after herbivore attacks. Besides their role in plant adaptive response development, NO and ROS have been demonstrated to be involved in symbiotic interactions between plants and microorganisms. Here we review recent data concerning these three sides of NO and ROS functions in plant biotic interactions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Plant Species Recovery on a Compacted Skid Road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beyza Sat Gungor

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was executed to determine the plant species of herbaceous cover in a skid road subjected to soil compaction due to timber skidding in a beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky. stand. Our previous studies have shown that ground based timber skidding destroys the soils extremely, and degradations on ecosystem because of the timber skidding limit recovery and growth of plant cover on skid roads. However, some plant species show healthy habitat, recovery and they can survive after the extreme degradation in study area. We evaluated composition of these plant species and their cover-abundance scales in 100 m x 3 m transect. 15 plant species were determined belongs to 12 plant families and Liliaceae was the highest representative plant family. Smilax aspera L., Epimedium pubigerum (DC. Moren et Decaisne, Carex distachya Desf. var. distachya Desf., Pteridium aquilinum (L. Kuhn., Trachystemon orientalis (L. G. Don, Hedera helix L. have the highest coverabundance scale overall of determined species on compacted skid road.

  14. Plant species richness regulates soil respiration through changes in productivity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tavares Correa Dias, A.; van Ruijven, J.; Berendse, F.

    2010-01-01

    Soil respiration is an important pathway of the C cycle. However, it is still poorly understood how changes in plant community diversity can affect this ecosystem process. Here we used a long-term experiment consisting of a gradient of grassland plant species richness to test for effects of

  15. Plant species richness regulates soil respiration through changes in productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dias, A.A.; Ruijven, van J.; Berendse, F.

    2010-01-01

    Soil respiration is an important pathway of the C cycle. However, it is still poorly understood how changes in plant community diversity can affect this ecosystem process. Here we used a long-term experiment consisting of a gradient of grassland plant species richness to test for effects of

  16. Eco-taxonomic distribution of plant species around motor mechanic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of plant species and their families present in auto mechanic workshops in Benin City and Asaba was carried out. The frequency of occurrence of plants in the sites visited was used to determine prevalence. Peperomia pellucida occurred most in all the sites visited with a 55% frequency. The high rate of occurrence ...

  17. Antimicrobial activity of some endemic plant species from Turkey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six plant extracts obtained from different parts such as the leaves, flowers and seeds of four species of the endemic plants in Turkey were tested on a total of 14 microorganisms, 10 of which were bacterial strains and 4 yeast strains. Verbascum eriocarpum (flower) extract was found to be effective against Staphylococcus ...

  18. Plant species responses to oil degradation and toxicity reduction in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant species responses to oil degradation and toxicity reduction in soil. ... Abstract. A field project located at the Botanical garden of the University of Port Harcourt was designed to evaluate changes in contaminants concentration and toxicity during phytoremediation. Vegetated plots were established by planting different ...

  19. ecotaxonomic baseline evaluation of the plant species in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    representative plant species of important ethnobotanical values were recorded on the vegetation study of the site. This corroborate with the fact that ethnobotany is increasingly becoming an important aspect of plant research emanating from the global drive towards the documentation of customary use, the need for.

  20. Assessing The Ecological Status Of Woody Plant Species At Eroded ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Woody plant species up to 0.10 m and above in height growing in and within 0.5 m from the edges of ten gully erosion areas of Abia and Imo states of Nigeria were enumerated in January and July 2000 through July 2003. Questionnaires were served to find the causal factors of each gully. The plants were enumerated and ...

  1. Spatial heterogeneity influences native and nonnative plant species richness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Stohlgren, Thomas J; Chong, Geneva W

    2006-12-01

    Spatial heterogeneity may have differential effects on the distribution of native and nonnative plant species richness. We examined the effects of spatial heterogeneity on native and nonnative plant species richness distributions in the central part of Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, USA. Spatial heterogeneity around vegetation plots was characterized using landscape metrics, environmental/topographic variables (slope, aspect, elevation, and distance from stream or river), and soil variables (nitrogen, clay, and sand). The landscape metrics represented five components of landscape heterogeneity and were measured at four spatial extents (within varying radii of 120, 240, 480, and 960 m) using the FRAGSTATS landscape pattern analysis program. Akaike's Information Criterion adjusted for small sample size (AICc) was used to select the best models from a set of multiple linear regression models developed for native and nonnative plant species richness at four spatial extents and three levels of ecological hierarchy (i.e., landscape, land cover, and community). Both native and nonnative plant species richness were positively correlated with edge density, Simpson's diversity index and interspersion/juxtaposition index, and were negatively correlated with mean patch size. The amount of variation explained at four spatial extents and three hierarchical levels ranged from 30% to 70%. At the landscape level, the best models explained 43% of the variation in native plant species richness and 70% of the variation in nonnative plant species richness (240-m extent). In general, the amount of variation explained was always higher for nonnative plant species richness, and the inclusion of landscape metrics always significantly improved the models. The best models explained 66% of the variation in nonnative plant species richness for both the conifer land cover type and lodgepole pine community. The relative influence of the components of spatial heterogeneity differed for

  2. Commonness and rarity of species: Does species' rank influence contribution to ecosystem function?

    OpenAIRE

    Meha Jain; Case Prager; Dan Flynn; Caroline Devan; Georgia Hart; Farshid Ahrestani; Dan Bunker; Matt Palmer; Sean Smukler; Jason Sircely; Shahid Naeem

    2010-01-01

    Across the globe, biodiversity loss is occurring at an unprecedented rate. Rare species are especially susceptible to extinction, given that they typically have small population sizes and restricted geographic ranges, are less adaptable to disturbances, and are greater habitat specialists. However, while rare species may be prone to extinction, it remains unclear whether the loss of rare species is important to ecosystem function. In addition, it is important to consider the way in which rari...

  3. World-wide every fifth vascular plant species is or was used as medicinal or aromatic plant

    OpenAIRE

    Wittig, Rüdiger; Dingermann, Theo; Sieglstetter, Robert; Xie, Yingzhong; Thiombiano, Adjima; Hahn, Karen

    2015-01-01

    It is common knowledge that plants have been the world-wide most important source of medicines and that they still play this role in developing countries. However, up to now, complete lists of medicinal and aromatic plants (MAP) exist for comparatively few countries. A review of all lists know to the authors reveals the following results: A total of 20.7 % of the plant species analyzed by either publications or own research are or were used as MAP. However, regarding single countries, the dif...

  4. Phylogenetic exploration of commonly used medicinal plants in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yessoufou, Kowiyou; Daru, Barnabas H; Muasya, Abraham Muthama

    2015-03-01

    The rapid growth rate of human population, along with the public health crisis encountered in many regions, particularly in developing world, creates an urgent need for the discovery of alternative drugs. Because medicinal plants are not distributed randomly across lineages, it has been suggested that phylogeny along with traditional knowledge of plant uses can guide the identification of new medicinally useful plants. In this study, we combined different statistical approaches to test for phylogenetic signal in 33 categories of plant uses in South Africa. Depending on the null models considered, we found evidence for signal in up to 45% of plant use categories, indicating the need for multiple tests combination to maximize the chance of discovering new medicinal plants when applying a phylogenetic comparative approach. Furthermore, although there was no signal in the diversity of medicinal uses-that is, total number of medicinal uses recorded for each plant-our results indicate that taxa that are evolutionarily closely related have significantly more uses than those that are evolutionarily isolated. Our study therefore provides additional support to the body of the literature that advocates for the inclusion of phylogeny in bioscreening medicinal flora for the discovery of alternative medicines. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Common cause failure rate estimates for diesel generators in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steverson, J.A.; Atwood, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    Common cause fault rates for diesel generators in nuclear power plants are estimated, using Licensee Event Reports for the years 1976 through 1978. The binomial failure rate method, used for obtaining the estimates, is briefly explained. Issues discussed include correct classification of common cause events, grouping of the events into homogeneous data subsets, and dealing with plant-to-plant variation

  6. Factors determining plant species richness in Alaskan artic tundra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welle, van der M.E.W.; Vermeulen, P.J.; Shaver, G.R.; Berendse, F.

    2003-01-01

    We studied the relationship between plant N:P ratio, soil characteristics and species richness in wet sedge and tussock tundra in northern Alaska at seven sites. We also collected data on soil characteristics, above-ground biomass, species richness and composition. The N:P ratio of the vegetation

  7. Removal of the pharmaceuticals ibuprofen and iohexol by four wetland plant species in hydroponic culture: plant uptake and microbial degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Lv, Tao; Carvalho, Pedro N; Arias, Carlos A; Chen, Zhanghe; Brix, Hans

    2016-02-01

    We aimed at assessing the effects of four wetland plant species commonly used in constructed wetland systems: Typha, Phragmites, Iris and Juncus for removing ibuprofen (IBU) and iohexol (IOH) from spiked culture solution and exploring the mechanisms responsible for the removal. IBU was nearly completely removed by all plant species during the 24-day experiment, whereas the IOH removal varied between 13 and 80 %. Typha and Phragmites were the most efficient in removing IBU and IOH, respectively, with first-order removal rate constants of 0.38 and 0.06 day(-1), respectively. The pharmaceuticals were taken up by the roots and translocated to the aerial tissues. However, at the end of the experiment, plant accumulation constituted only up to 1.1 and 5.7 % of the amount of IBU and IOH spiked initially. The data suggest that the plants mainly function by facilitating pharmaceutical degradation in the rhizosphere through release of root exudates.

  8. Rapid plant identification using species- and group-specific primers targeting chloroplast DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna Wallinger

    Full Text Available Plant identification is challenging when no morphologically assignable parts are available. There is a lack of broadly applicable methods for identifying plants in this situation, for example when roots grow in mixture and for decayed or semi-digested plant material. These difficulties have also impeded the progress made in ecological disciplines such as soil- and trophic ecology. Here, a PCR-based approach is presented which allows identifying a variety of plant taxa commonly occurring in Central European agricultural land. Based on the trnT-F cpDNA region, PCR assays were developed to identify two plant families (Poaceae and Apiaceae, the genera Trifolium and Plantago, and nine plant species: Achillea millefolium, Fagopyrum esculentum, Lolium perenne, Lupinus angustifolius, Phaseolus coccineus, Sinapis alba, Taraxacum officinale, Triticum aestivum, and Zea mays. These assays allowed identification of plants based on size-specific amplicons ranging from 116 bp to 381 bp. Their specificity and sensitivity was consistently high, enabling the detection of small amounts of plant DNA, for example, in decaying plant material and in the intestine or faeces of herbivores. To increase the efficacy of identifying plant species from large number of samples, specific primers were combined in multiplex PCRs, allowing screening for multiple species within a single reaction. The molecular assays outlined here will be applicable manifold, such as for root- and leaf litter identification, botanical trace evidence, and the analysis of herbivory.

  9. Mycorrhizal status helps explain invasion success of alien plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Andreas; Hempel, Stefan; Klotz, Stefan; Moora, Mari; Pyšek, Petr; Rillig, Matthias C; Zobel, Martin; Kühn, Ingolf

    2017-01-01

    It is still debated whether alien plants benefit from being mycorrhizal, or if engaging in the symbiosis constrains their establishment and spread in new regions. We analyzed the association between mycorrhizal status of alien plant species in Germany and their invasion success. We compared whether the representation of species with different mycorrhizal status (obligate, facultative, or non-mycorrhizal) differed at several stages of the invasion process. We used generalized linear models to explain the occupied geographical range of alien plants, incorporating interactions of mycorrhizal status with plant traits related to morphology, reproduction, and life-history. Non-naturalized aliens did not differ from naturalized aliens in the relative frequency of different mycorrhizal status categories. Mycorrhizal status significantly explained the occupied range of alien plants; with facultative mycorrhizal species inhabiting a larger range than non-mycorrhizal aliens and obligate mycorrhizal plant species taking an intermediate position. Aliens with storage organs, shoot metamorphoses, or specialized structures promoting vegetative dispersal occupied a larger range when being facultative mycorrhizal. We conclude that being mycorrhizal is important for the persistence of aliens in Germany and constitutes an advantage compared to being non-mycorrhizal. Being facultative mycorrhizal seems to be especially advantageous for successful spread, as the flexibility of this mycorrhizal status may enable plants to use a broader set of ecological strategies. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  10. Drought tolerance in wild plant populations: the case of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés J Cortés

    Full Text Available Reliable estimations of drought tolerance in wild plant populations have proved to be challenging and more accessible alternatives are desirable. With that in mind, an ecological diversity study was conducted based on the geographical origin of 104 wild common bean accessions to estimate drought tolerance in their natural habitats. Our wild population sample covered a range of mesic to very dry habitats from Mexico to Argentina. Two potential evapotranspiration models that considered the effects of temperature and radiation were coupled with the precipitation regimes of the last fifty years for each collection site based on geographical information system analysis. We found that wild accessions were distributed among different precipitation regimes following a latitudinal gradient and that habitat ecological diversity of the collection sites was associated with natural sub-populations. We also detected a broader geographic distribution of wild beans across ecologies compared to cultivated common beans in a reference collection of 297 cultivars. Habitat drought stress index based on the Thornthwaite potential evapotranspiration model was equivalent to the Hamon estimator. Both ecological drought stress indexes would be useful together with population structure for the genealogical analysis of gene families in common bean, for genome-wide genetic-environmental associations, and for postulating the evolutionary history and diversification processes that have occurred for the species. Finally, we propose that wild common bean should be taken into account to exploit variation for drought tolerance in cultivated common bean which is generally considered susceptible as a crop to drought stress.

  11. Regeneration and growth rates of allofragments in four common stream plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Tenna; Madsen, Tom Vindbæk; Sennels, R. S. H.

    2009-01-01

    Colonisation by stream plants occurs to a large extent from simple stem fragments. Allofragments are stem fragments formed by mechanical breakage. We studied regeneration, colonisation, and growth rates in four common stream plants: Elodea canadensis Michx., Myriophyllum spicatum L., Potamogeton...

  12. Mercury uptake and accumulation by four species of aquatic plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, Kathleen [Department of Biology, Russell Sage College, 45 Ferry Street, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)]. E-mail: skinnk@sage.edu; Wright, Nicole [NEIWPCC-NYSDEC, 625 Broadway, 4th Floor, Albany, NY 12233-3502 (United States)]. E-mail: ndwright@gw.dec.state.ny.us; Porter-Goff, Emily [Department of Biology, Russell Sage College, 45 Ferry Street, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)

    2007-01-15

    The effectiveness of four aquatic plants including water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes), water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes), zebra rush (Scirpus tabernaemontani) and taro (Colocasia esculenta) were evaluated for their capabilities in removing mercury from water. The plants were exposed to concentrations of 0 mg/L, 0.5 mg/L or 2 mg/L of mercury for 30 days. Assays were conducted using both Microtox[reg] (water) and cold vapor Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) (roots and water). The Microtox[reg] results indicated that the mercury induced acute toxicity had been removed from the water. AAS confirmed an increase of mercury within the plant root tissue and a corresponding decrease of mercury in the water. All species of plants appeared to reduce mercury concentrations in the water via root uptake and accumulation. Water lettuce and water hyacinth appeared to be the most effective, followed by taro and zebra rush, respectively. - Four species of aquatic plants reduced mercury in water.

  13. INVASIVE ALIEN PLANT SPECIES USED FOR THE TREATMENT OF VARIOUS DISEASES IN LIMPOPO PROVINCE, SOUTH AFRICA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maema, Lesibana Peter; Potgieter, Martin; Mahlo, Salome Mamokone

    2016-01-01

    Invasive alien plant species (IAPs) are plants that have migrated from one geographical region to non-native region either intentional or unintentional. The general view of IAPs in environment is regarded as destructive to the ecosystem and they pose threat to native vegetation and species. However, some of these IAPS are utilized by local inhabitants as a substitute for scarce indigenous plants. The aim of the study is to conduct ethnobotanical survey on medicinal usage of invasive plant species in Waterberg District, Limpopo Province, South Africa. An ethnobotanical survey on invasive plant species was conducted to distinguish species used for the treatment of various ailments in the Waterberg, District in the area dominated by Bapedi traditional healers. About thirty Bapedi traditional healers (30) were randomly selected via the snowball method. A guided field work by traditional healers and a semi-structured questionnaire was used to gather information from the traditional healers. The questionnaire was designed to gather information on the local name of plants, plant parts used and methods of preparation which is administered by the traditional healers. The study revealed that Schinus molle L., Catharanthus roseus (L.), Datura stramonium L., Opuntia stricta (Haw.) Haw., Opuntia ficus- indica, Sambucus canadensis L., Ricinus communis L., Melia azedarch L., Argemone ochroleuca and Eriobotrya japónica are used for treatment of various diseases such as chest complaint, blood purification, asthma, hypertension and infertility. The most plant parts that were used are 57.6% leaves, followed by 33.3% roots, and whole plant, seeds and bark at 3% each. Noticeably, most of these plants are cultivated (38%), followed by 28% that are common to the study area, 20% abundant, 12% wild, and 3% occasionally. Schinus molle is the most frequently used plant species for the treatment of various ailments in the study area. National Environmental Management Biodiversity Act (NEMBA

  14. Infection of Melanoplus sanguinipes Grasshoppers following Ingestion of Rangeland Plant Species Harboring Vesicular Stomatitis Virus▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drolet, Barbara S.; Stuart, Melissa A.; Derner, Justin D.

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of the many mechanisms of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) transmission is critical for understanding of the epidemiology of sporadic disease outbreaks in the western United States. Migratory grasshoppers [Melanoplus sanguinipes (Fabricius)] have been implicated as reservoirs and mechanical vectors of VSV. The grasshopper-cattle-grasshopper transmission cycle is based on the assumptions that (i) virus shed from clinically infected animals would contaminate pasture plants and remain infectious on plant surfaces and (ii) grasshoppers would become infected by eating the virus-contaminated plants. Our objectives were to determine the stability of VSV on common plant species of U.S. Northern Plains rangelands and to assess the potential of these plant species as a source of virus for grasshoppers. Fourteen plant species were exposed to VSV and assayed for infectious virus over time (0 to 24 h). The frequency of viable virus recovery at 24 h postexposure was as high as 73%. The two most common plant species in Northern Plains rangelands (western wheatgrass [Pascopyrum smithii] and needle and thread [Hesperostipa comata]) were fed to groups of grasshoppers. At 3 weeks postfeeding, the grasshopper infection rate was 44 to 50%. Exposure of VSV to a commonly used grasshopper pesticide resulted in complete viral inactivation. This is the first report demonstrating the stability of VSV on rangeland plant surfaces, and it suggests that a significant window of opportunity exists for grasshoppers to ingest VSV from contaminated plants. The use of grasshopper pesticides on pastures would decrease the incidence of a virus-amplifying mechanical vector and might also decontaminate pastures, thereby decreasing the inter- and intraherd spread of VSV. PMID:19286779

  15. Infection of Melanoplus sanguinipes grasshoppers following ingestion of rangeland plant species harboring vesicular stomatitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drolet, Barbara S; Stuart, Melissa A; Derner, Justin D

    2009-05-01

    Knowledge of the many mechanisms of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) transmission is critical for understanding of the epidemiology of sporadic disease outbreaks in the western United States. Migratory grasshoppers [Melanoplus sanguinipes (Fabricius)] have been implicated as reservoirs and mechanical vectors of VSV. The grasshopper-cattle-grasshopper transmission cycle is based on the assumptions that (i) virus shed from clinically infected animals would contaminate pasture plants and remain infectious on plant surfaces and (ii) grasshoppers would become infected by eating the virus-contaminated plants. Our objectives were to determine the stability of VSV on common plant species of U.S. Northern Plains rangelands and to assess the potential of these plant species as a source of virus for grasshoppers. Fourteen plant species were exposed to VSV and assayed for infectious virus over time (0 to 24 h). The frequency of viable virus recovery at 24 h postexposure was as high as 73%. The two most common plant species in Northern Plains rangelands (western wheatgrass [Pascopyrum smithii] and needle and thread [Hesperostipa comata]) were fed to groups of grasshoppers. At 3 weeks postfeeding, the grasshopper infection rate was 44 to 50%. Exposure of VSV to a commonly used grasshopper pesticide resulted in complete viral inactivation. This is the first report demonstrating the stability of VSV on rangeland plant surfaces, and it suggests that a significant window of opportunity exists for grasshoppers to ingest VSV from contaminated plants. The use of grasshopper pesticides on pastures would decrease the incidence of a virus-amplifying mechanical vector and might also decontaminate pastures, thereby decreasing the inter- and intraherd spread of VSV.

  16. Effects of experimental snowmelt and rain on dispersal of six plant species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarneel, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Water flows affect dispersal of propagules of many plant species, and rivers and streams are therefore very important dispersal vectors. However, small water flows such as trough rain and snowmelt are much more common, but their effects on dispersal are barely studied. The importance of this form of

  17. Phytochemical studies on herbal plants commonly used for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-01-31

    Jan 31, 2014 ... most phytochemicals followed by methanol and lastly petroleum ether. Distilled water yields ranged from 11.3-. 12.3%, methanol yields ranged 8.4-10.53%, whereas ether yields ranged 5.6-7.6%. This therefore may provide a basis of exploitation and possible use of these herbal plants in food industry as ...

  18. Plants and animals share functionally common bacterial virulence factors

    OpenAIRE

    Rahme, Laurence G.; Ausubel, Frederick M.; Cao, Hui; Drenkard, Eliana; Goumnerov, Boyan C.; Lau, Gee W.; Mahajan-Miklos, Shalina; Plotnikova, Julia; Tan, Man-Wah; Tsongalis, John; Walendziewicz, Cynthia L.; Tompkins, Ronald G.

    2000-01-01

    By exploiting the ability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to infect a variety of vertebrate and nonvertebrate hosts, we have developed model systems that use plants and nematodes as adjuncts to mammalian models to help elucidate the molecular basis of P. aeruginosa pathogenesis. Our studies reveal a remarkable degree of conservation in the virulence mechanisms used by P. aeruginosa to infect hosts of divergent evolutionary origins.

  19. Common plants of medicinal values in kolams of Adilabad district ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    specimens were collected in their natural form and identified. Additional information was collected on socio-economic aspects, health profile and other cultural aspects. RESULTS. Table 1 shows the distance of the villages from the nearest Primary Health Care (PHC). The herbal specialist Delak collects medicinal plants.

  20. Generalist Bee Species on Brazilian Bee-Plant Interaction Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid de Matos Peixoto Kleinert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Determining bee and plant interactions has an important role on understanding general biology of bee species as well as the potential pollinating relationship between them. Bee surveys have been conducted in Brazil since the end of the 1960s. Most of them applied standardized methods and had identified the plant species where the bees were collected. To analyze the most generalist bees on Brazilian surveys, we built a matrix of bee-plant interactions. We estimated the most generalist bees determining the three bee species of each surveyed locality that presented the highest number of interactions. We found 47 localities and 39 species of bees. Most of them belong to Apidae (31 species and Halictidae (6 families and to Meliponini (14 and Xylocopini (6 tribes. However, most of the surveys presented Apis mellifera and/or Trigona spinipes as the most generalist species. Apis mellifera is an exotic bee species and Trigona spinipes, a native species, is also widespread and presents broad diet breath and high number of individuals per colony.

  1. Stoichiometric homeostasis predicts plant species dominance, temporal stability, and responses to global change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qiang; Wilcox, Kevin; La Pierre, Kimberly; Knapp, Alan K; Han, Xingguo; Smith, Melinda D

    2015-09-01

    Why some species are consistently more abundant than others, and predicting how species will respond to global change, are fundamental questions in ecology. Long-term observations indicate that plant species with high stoichiometric homeostasis for nitrogen (HN), i.e., the ability to decouple foliar N levels from variation in soil N availability, were more common and stable through time than low-HN species in a central U.S. grassland. However, with nine years of nitrogen addition, species with high H(N) decreased in abundance, while those with low H(N) increased in abundance. In contrast, in climate change experiments simulating a range of forecast hydrologic changes, e.g., extreme drought (two years), increased rainfall variability (14 years), and chronic increases in rainfall (21 years), plant species with the highest H(N) were least responsive to changes in soil water availability. These results suggest that H(N) may be predictive of plant species success and stability, and how plant species and ecosystems will respond to global-change-driven alterations in resource availability.

  2. Plant-soil interactions in the expansion and native range of a poleward shifting plant species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grunsven, van R.H.A.; Putten, van der W.H.; Bezemer, T.M.; Berendse, F.; Veenendaal, E.M.

    2010-01-01

    Climate warming causes range shifts of many species toward higher latitudes and altitudes. However, range shifts of host species do not necessarily proceed at the same rates as those of their enemies and symbionts. Here, we examined how a range shifting plant species performs in soil from its

  3. Seasonal stomatal behavior of a common desert shrub and the influence of plant neighbors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropp, Heather; Ogle, Kiona

    2015-02-01

    Stomata simultaneously regulate plant carbon gain and water loss, and patterns of stomatal conductance (g(s)) provide insight into water use strategies. In arid systems, g(s) varies seasonally based on factors such as water availability and temperature. Moreover, the presence and species identity of neighboring plants likely affects g(s) of the focal plant by altering available soil water and microclimate conditions. We investigated stomatal behavior in Larrea tridentata, a drought-tolerant, evergreen shrub occurring throughout the arid southwestern United States. We measured g(s) in Larrea over multiple seasons in the presence of neighbors representing different woody species. The data were analyzed in the context of a commonly used phenomenological model that relates g(s) to vapor pressure deficit (D) to understand spatial and temporal differences in stomatal behavior. We found that g(s) in Larrea was affected by neighborhood association, and these effects varied seasonally. The greatest effect of neighborhood association on g(s) occurred during the winter period, where Larrea growing alone (without neighbors) had higher g(s) compared to Larrea growing with neighbors. Larrea's stomatal sensitivity to D and reference conductance (i.e., g(s) at D = 1 kPa) also differed significantly among different neighbor associations. Random effects indicated reference g(s) varied over short time scales (daily), while stomatal sensitivity showed little daily or seasonal variation, but was notably affected by neighbor associations such that neighboring species, especially trees, reduced Larrea's sensitivity to D. Overall, seasonal dynamics and neighborhood conditions appear critical to understanding temporal and spatial variation in Larrea's physiological behavior.

  4. A nuclear DNA-based species determination and DNA quantification assay for common poultry species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, J; Satkoski, J; Premasuthan, A; Kanthaswamy, S

    2014-12-01

    DNA testing for food authentication and quality control requires sensitive species-specific quantification of nuclear DNA from complex and unknown biological sources. We have developed a multiplex assay based on TaqMan® real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) for species-specific detection and quantification of chicken (Gallus gallus), duck (Anas platyrhynchos), and turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) nuclear DNA. The multiplex assay is able to accurately detect very low quantities of species-specific DNA from single or multispecies sample mixtures; its minimum effective quantification range is 5 to 50 pg of starting DNA material. In addition to its use in food fraudulence cases, we have validated the assay using simulated forensic sample conditions to demonstrate its utility in forensic investigations. Despite treatment with potent inhibitors such as hematin and humic acid, and degradation of template DNA by DNase, the assay was still able to robustly detect and quantify DNA from each of the three poultry species in mixed samples. The efficient species determination and accurate DNA quantification will help reduce fraudulent food labeling and facilitate downstream DNA analysis for genetic identification and traceability.

  5. Responses of Sap Flux Density to Changing Atmospheric Humidity in Three Common Street Tree Species in Bangkok, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantana Tor-ngern

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Efficient water management in urban landscape is imperative under the projected increases in drought stress under future climate. Because different tree species have different stomatal regulations to prevent water loss under water limitation, comparative study of species-specific responses of water use to changing weather conditions will benefit selective planting of urban trees for sustainable urban greening management. Here, we performed a simple and short-term investigation of water use characteristics of three common street tree species in Bangkok, a major city in Southeast Asia. Species included Pterocarpus indicus (Pi, Swietenia macrophylla (Sm and Lagerstroemia speciosa (Ls. We used self-constructed heat dissipation probes to track water uptake rates, expressed as sap flux density (JS, in stems of potted trees and examined their diurnal variations with changing atmospheric humidity, represented by vapor pressure deficit (D. The results implied that two of the three species: Pi and Sm, may be selected for planting because their Js was less sensitive to changing D compared to Ls. The sap flux density of Ls increased more rapidly with rising D, implying higher sensitivity to drought in Ls, compared to the other two species. Nevertheless, further study on large trees and under longer period of investigation, covering both dry and wet seasons, is required to confirm this finding.

  6. Metalaxyl toxicity, uptake, and distribution in several ornamental plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, P C; Whitwell, T; Klaine, S J

    2001-01-01

    Phytoremediation depends on the ability of plants to tolerate and assimilate contaminants. This research characterized the interaction between several ornamental plant species and the fungicidal active ingredient, metalaxyl [N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-N-(methoxyacetyl)alanine methyl ester]. Species evaluated included sweetflag (Acorus gramineus Sol. ex Aiton), canna (Canna hybrida L. 'Yellow King Humbert'), parrotfeather [Myriophyllum aquaticum (Vell.) Verdc.], and pickerelweed (Pontederia cordata L.). Metalaxyl tolerance levels for each species were determined by exposing plants for 7 d to solutions containing 0, 5, 10, 25, 50, 75, or 100 mg metalaxyl L-1 aqueous nutrient media. Response endpoints included fresh mass production after 7 d exposure and 7 d post-exposure and quantum efficiency using dark-adapted (Fv/Fm) and light-adapted (fluorescence yields) plants. Metalaxyl uptake and distribution within the plant was determined by growing plants in aqueous nutrient media containing 1.18 x 10(6) Bq L-1 [14C]metalaxyl (0.909 mg L-1) for 1, 3, 5, or 7 d. Plant tissues were combusted and analyzed by liquid scintillation counting. Metalaxyl had no effects on the endpoints measured, except for fresh mass production of sweetflag at the 75 and 100 mg L-1 treatment levels. However, leaf necrosis was apparent in most species after 5 d exposure to concentrations greater than 25 mg L-1. Metalaxyl removal from the spiked nutrient media ranged from 15 to 60% during the 7-d exposure period. The majority of metalaxyl removed from the solution was detected within individual plants. In nearly all cases, activity from the radiolabeled pesticide accumulated in the leaves. Uptake of metalaxyl was correlated with water uptake throughout the 7 d. These results suggest that all species examined may be good candidates for incorporation into a phytoremediation scheme for metalaxyl.

  7. Mutagenic screening of some commonly used medicinal plants in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akintonwa, Alade; Awodele, Olufunsho; Afolayan, Gbenga; Coker, Herbert A B

    2009-09-25

    The uses of medicinal plants have always been part of human culture. The World Health Organization estimates that up to 80% of the world's population relies on traditional medicinal system for some aspect of primary health care. However, there are few reports on the toxicological properties of most medicinal plants especially, their mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Therefore, this research is to determine the mutagenic potentials of Morinda lucida [Oruwo (Root)], Azadirachta indica [Dongoyaro (Leaf)], Terapluera tetraptera [Aridan (Fruit)], Plumbago zeylanica [Inabiri (Root)], Xylopia aethiopica [Erunje (Fruit)], Newbouldia laevis [Akoko (Leaf)], Alstonia boonei [Ahun (Bark)], Enantia chlorantha [Awopa (Bark)], and Rauvolfia vomitoria [Asofeyeje (Root)] using the Allium cepa Linn. model and the modified Ames assay. Allium cepa model was used to determine the mean root length, mitotic index and chromosomal aberrations effects of these plants on onion bulbs using 0.1, 1, 5 and 10mg/ml concentration of the plant extracts. The modified Ames test which is a modification of the standard Ames test as described by Ames et al. [Ames, B.N., McCann, J., Yamasaki, E., 1975. Methods for detecting carcinogens and mutagens with the Salmonella/mammalian microsome mutagenicity test. Mutation Research 31, 347-364] was done using Escherichia coli (0157:H7) that has the phenotypic characteristics of glucose and lactose fermentation, motile, urease negative, indole positive and citrate negative. The results obtained from Allium cepa assay showed increasing root growth inhibition with increased concentration, decreasing mitotic index with increased concentration and chromosomal aberrations. The modified Ames test showed an alteration in the biochemical characteristics of Escherichia coli (0157:H7) for all plants except Rauvolfia vomitoria and Plumbago zeylanica. Three of the medicinal plants altered at least three of the normal biochemical characteristics thus demonstrating mutagenic

  8. Floristic summary of plant species in the air pollution literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J P

    1996-01-01

    A floristic summary and analysis was performed on a list of the plant species that have been studied for the effects of gaseous and chemical air pollutants on vegetation in order to compare the species with the flora of North America north of Mexico. The scientific names of 2081 vascular plant species were extracted from almost 4000 journal articles stored in two large literature databases on the effects of air pollutants on plants. Three quarters of the plant species studied occur in North America, but this was only 7% of the total North American flora. Sixteen percent and 56% of all North American genera and families have been studied. The most studied genus is Pinus with 70% of the North American species studied, and the most studied family is the grass family, with 12% of the species studied. Although Pinus is ranked 86th in the North American flora, the grass family is ranked third, indicating that representation at the family level is better than at the genus level. All of the top ten families in North America are represented in the top 20 families in the air pollution effects literature, but only one genus (Lupinus) in the top ten genera in North America is represented in the top thirteen genera in the air pollution literature.

  9. Comparative cross-species alternative splicing in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ner-Gaon, Hadas; Leviatan, Noam; Rubin, Eitan; Fluhr, Robert

    2007-07-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) can add significantly to genome complexity. Plants are thought to exhibit less AS than animals. An algorithm, based on expressed sequence tag (EST) pairs gapped alignment, was developed that takes advantage of the relatively small intron and exon size in plants and directly compares pairs of ESTs to search for AS. EST pairs gapped alignment was first evaluated in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), rice (Oryza sativa), and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) for which annotated genome sequence is available and was shown to accurately predict splicing events. The method was then applied to 11 plant species that include 17 cultivars for which enough ESTs are available. The results show a large, 3.7-fold difference in AS rates between plant species with Arabidopsis and rice in the lower range and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) in the upper range. Hence, compared to higher animals, plants show a much greater degree of variety in their AS rates and in some plant species the rates of animal and plant AS are comparable although the distribution of AS types may differ. In eudicots but not monocots, a correlation between genome size and AS rates was detected, implying that in eudicots the mechanisms that lead to larger genomes are a driving force for the evolution of AS.

  10. Resource heterogeneity, soil fertility, and species diversity: effects of clonal species on plant communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilts, J Alexander; Mittelbach, Gary G; Reynolds, Heather L; Gross, Katherine L

    2011-05-01

    Spatial heterogeneity in soil resources is widely thought to promote plant species coexistence, and this mechanism figures prominently in resource-ratio models of competition. However, most experimental studies have found that nutrient enhancements depress diversity regardless of whether nutrients are uniformly or heterogeneously applied. This mismatch between theory and empirical pattern is potentially due to an interaction between plant size and the scale of resource heterogeneity. Clonal plants that spread vegetatively via rhizomes or stolons can grow large and may integrate across resource patches, thus reducing the positive effect of small-scale resource heterogeneity on plant species richness. Many rhizomatous clonal species respond strongly to increased soil fertility, and they have been hypothesized to drive the descending arm of the hump-shaped productivity-diversity relationship in grasslands. We tested whether clonals reduce species richness in a grassland community by manipulating nutrient heterogeneity, soil fertility, and the presence of rhizomatous clonal species in a 6-year field experiment. We found strong and consistent negative effects of clonals on species richness. These effects were greatest at high fertility and when soil resources were applied at a scale at which rhizomatous clonals could integrate across resource patches. Thus, we find support for the hypothesis that plant size and resource heterogeneity interact to determine species diversity.

  11. Mosquito larvicidal potential of four common medicinal plants of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Rawani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Mosquitoes transmit serious human health diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. Plants may be sources of alternative mosquito control agents. The present study was carried out to assess the role of larvicidal activities of the crude extracts of four plants viz. Alternanthera sessilis L. (Amaranthaceae, Trema orientalis L. (Cannabaceae, Gardenia carinata Smith. (Rubiaceae and Ruellia tuberosa L. (Acanthaceae against Culex quinquefasciatus Say in laboratory bioassay. Methods: Selective concentrations (0.5, 1 and 1.5% of crude extract of all four plant leaves were tested against I st to IV th instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus. Log probit analysis (at 95% confidence level revealed the LC 50 values. Preliminary qualitative phytochemical analyses of crude extracts were also done. The lethal concentrations (% of crude extracts at 24 h against III rd instar larvae were also studied on non-target organisms. Result: In a 72 h bioassay experiment with crude extract, the highest mortality was recorded in 1.5 per cent extract. A. sessilis showed the highest mortality (76.7 % at 1.5 per cent crude extract against II nd instar larvae having LC 50 value of 0.35 per cent, followed by R. tuberosa (LC 50 =1.84%, G. carinata (LC 50 = 2.11 and T. orientalis (LC 50 = 2.95%. The regression equation showed a dose-dependent mortality, as the rate of mortality (Y was positively correlated with the concentration (X. Phytochemical analysis of the crude extract showed the presence of many bioactive phytochemicals such as steroids, alkaloids, terpenes, saponins, etc. No changes in the swimming behaviour and survivality of non-target organism were noticed at the studied concentrations. Interpretation & conclusions: Crude extract of the four selected plants showed larvicidal activity against Cx. quinquefasciatus. The extracts at the studied concentrations did not produce any harmful effect on non-target organisms.

  12. Biotic interactions overrule plant responses to climate, depending on the species' biogeography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welk, Astrid; Welk, Erik; Bruelheide, Helge

    2014-01-01

    This study presents an experimental approach to assess the relative importance of climatic and biotic factors as determinants of species' geographical distributions. We asked to what extent responses of grassland plant species to biotic interactions vary with climate, and to what degree this variation depends on the species' biogeography. Using a gradient from oceanic to continental climate represented by nine common garden transplant sites in Germany, we experimentally tested whether congeneric grassland species of different geographic distribution (oceanic vs. continental plant range type) responded differently to combinations of climate, competition and mollusc herbivory. We found the relative importance of biotic interactions and climate to vary between the different components of plant performance. While survival and plant height increased with precipitation, temperature had no effect on plant performance. Additionally, species with continental plant range type increased their growth in more benign climatic conditions, while those with oceanic range type were largely unable to take a similar advantage of better climatic conditions. Competition generally caused strong reductions of aboveground biomass and growth. In contrast, herbivory had minor effects on survival and growth. Against expectation, these negative effects of competition and herbivory were not mitigated under more stressful continental climate conditions. In conclusion we suggest variation in relative importance of climate and biotic interactions on broader scales, mediated via species-specific sensitivities and factor-specific response patterns. Our results have important implications for species distribution models, as they emphasize the large-scale impact of biotic interactions on plant distribution patterns and the necessity to take plant range types into account.

  13. Mineral composition of the plant species of the Hypercum family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marichkova, L.; K ostarova, O.

    1985-01-01

    Using the neutron activation analysis totally 18 macro and microelements in the epigeous parts of some species of the Hypercum family as well as their 10% water extracts were determined. The elements Mn, Ni, Sr were analyzed in epigeous parts of the plants by X-ray fluorescence analysis. The quantities found out in the extracts were in the order lower than that in the epigeous parts of the plants exept iron where the concentration in the extracts is two order lower than that in epigeous. The elements Ce, Cd, Se and Sb were not found in 10% water plant extracts. Toxic elements such as As and Hg were not found in the epigeous parts of the plants in the examined species

  14. Neutral molecular markers support common origin of aluminium tolerance in three congeneric grass species growing in acidic soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Roberto; Figueiras, Ana M; Gallego, F Javier; Benavente, Elena; Manzaneda, Antonio J; Benito, César

    2017-11-01

    Aluminium (Al) toxicity is the main abiotic stress limiting plant productivity in acidic soils that are widely distributed among arable lands. Plant species differ in the level of Al resistance showing intraspecific and interspecific variation in many crop species. However, the origin of Al-tolerance is not well known. Three annual species, difficult to distinguish phenotypically and that were until recently misinterpreted as a single complex species under Brachypodium distachyon , have been recently separated into three distinct species: the diploids B. distachyon (2 n = 10) and B. stacei (2 n = 20), and B. hybridum (2 n = 30), the allotetraploid derived from the two diploid species. The aims of this work were to know the origin of Al-tolerance in acidic soil conditions within these three Brachypodium species and to develop new DNA markers for species discrimination. Two multiplex SSR-PCRs allowed to genotype a group of 94 accessions for 17 pentanucleotide microsatellite (SSRs) loci. The variability for 139 inter-microsatellite (ISSRs) markers was also examined. The genetic relationships obtained using those neutral molecular markers (SSRs and ISSRs) support that all Al-tolerant allotetraploid accessions of B. hybridum have a common origin that is related with both geographic location and acidic soils. The possibility that the adaptation to acidic soils caused the isolation of the tolerant B. hybridum populations from the others is discussed. We finally describe a new, easy, DNA barcoding method based in the upstream-intron 1 region of the ALMT1 gene, a tool that is 100 % effective to distinguish among these three Brachypodium species.

  15. On the current status of Indian Peafowl Pavo cristatus (Aves: Galliformes: Phasianidae: keeping the common species common

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ramesh

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available It is ironic that while all efforts to save the Tiger (Panthera tigris are underway, another species of national importance, the Indian Peafowl, (Pavo cristatus is still to receive adequate attention. Illegal trade for train-feathers and mass mortality due to indiscriminate application of pesticides and herbicides in crop-fields are major causes of the recent decline in peafowl numbers. Though there has been increasing concern over the declining peafowl population, it is difficult to arrive at a realistic plan unless the current population size, the rate of decline and the causes of decline are scientifically quantified. Considering the need for conservation initiatives for peafowl, one must look beyond the ‘fire-fighting approach’ towards ‘keeping the common species common’ in order to be efficient with conservation investments and instill greater public participation.

  16. Invasive vascular plant species of limnocrenic karst springs in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spałek, Krzysztof

    2015-04-01

    Natural water reservoirs are very valuable floristic sites in Poland. Among them, the most important for preservation of biodiversity of flora are limnocrenic karst springs. The long-term process of human pressure on habitats of this type caused disturbance of their biological balance. Changes in the water regime, industrial development and chemisation of agriculture, especially in the period of last two hundred years, led to systematic disappearance of localities of many plant species connected with rare habitats and also to appear numerous invasive plant species. They are: Acorus calamus, Echinocystis lobata, Elodea canadensis, Erechtites hieraciifolia, Impatiens glandulifera, Solidago canadensis, S. gigantea and S. graminifolia. Fielworks were conducted in 2010-2014.

  17. Desempenho do feijoeiro consorciado com espécies de braquiária em função de doses de fluazifop-p-butil The effect of fluazifop-p-butyl doses on the performance of the common bean plant intercropped with brachiaria species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J. Carvalho

    2012-06-01

    treatments were set up in a factorial design, involving two species of grass (Brachiaria brizantha and B. decumbens, six doses of fluazifop-p-butyl (0, 7.81, 15.62, 31.25, 62.50, and 125.00 g ha-1, plus the monoculture of both cultures. The common bean plant was planted at 0.5 m between rows, with the brachiaria seeds being sown in the same row of the bean plant. In the intercropping systems, in addition to fluazifop-p-butyl, fomesafen (125 g ha-1 and bentazon (336 g ha-1 were used. A mixture of fomesafen (125 g ha-1 and fluazifop-p-butyl (100 g ha-1 was applied to the monoculture bean. The final plant stand and the bean yield were evaluated with the primary components. Data were submitted to analysis of variance; the effects of the brachiaria species and the crop were studied by the F test and the effects of the fluazifop-p-butyl doses, by regression analysis. It was concluded that B. decumbens is more competitive with the beans than B. brizantha. In the dry season, the use of 7.81g ha-1 of fluazifop-p-butyl in the intercropping with B. decumbens provides a bean yield equivalent to that of the monoculture. Intercropping with B. brizantha does not require the use of herbicide. In the rainy season, regardless of the brachiaria species, 31.25 g ha-1 of fluazifop-p-butyl must be applied.

  18. Presence of three mycorrhizal genes in the common ancestor of land plants suggests a key role of mycorrhizas in the colonization of land by plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Yeun, Li Huey; Xue, Jia-Yu; Liu, Yang; Ané, Jean-Michel; Qiu, Yin-Long

    2010-04-01

    *The colonization of land by plants fundamentally altered environmental conditions on earth. Plant-mycorrhizal fungus symbiosis likely played a key role in this process by assisting plants to absorb water and nutrients from soil. *Here, in a diverse set of land plants, we investigated the evolutionary histories and functional conservation of three genes required for mycorrhiza formation in legumes and rice (Oryza sativa), DMI1, DMI3 and IPD3. *The genes were isolated from nearly all major plant lineages. Phylogenetic analyses showed that they had been vertically inherited since the origin of land plants. Further, cross-species mutant rescue experiments demonstrated that DMI3 genes from liverworts and hornworts could rescue Medicago truncatula dmi3 mutants for mycorrhiza formation. Yeast two-hybrid assays also showed that bryophyte DMI3 proteins could bind to downstream-acting M. trunculata IPD3 protein. Finally, molecular evolutionary analyses revealed that these genes were under purifying selection for maintenance of their ancestral functions in all mycorrhizal plant lineages. *These results indicate that the mycorrhizal genes were present in the common ancestor of land plants, and that their functions were largely conserved during land plant evolution. The evidence presented here strongly suggests that plant-mycorrhizal fungus symbiosis was one of the key processes that contributed to the origin of land flora.

  19. Soil carbon accumulation and nitrogen retention traits of four tree species grown in common gardens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurmesa, Geshere Abdisa; Schmidt, Inger Kappel; Gundersen, Per

    2013-01-01

    explored. Effects of four tree species on soil C and N stocks and soil water nitrate concentration below the root zone were evaluated in a common garden design replicated at eight sites in Denmark. The tree species were beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), oak (Quercus robur L.), larch (Larix leptolepis Kaempf......Tree species effects on soil carbon (C) accumulation are uncertain, especially with respect to the mineral soil C, and the consistency of such effects across soil types is not known. The interaction between C accumulation and nitrogen (N) retention among common tree species has also been little......), and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L) Karst.). After four decades, there were significant differences in forest floor C stocks among all four species, and C stocks increased consistently in the order oak soil texture gradient of the sites. Forest floor N stocks only...

  20. Asymmetric consequences of host plant occupation on the competition between the whiteflies Bemisia tabaci cryptic species MEAM1 and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Gui-Fen; Lövei, Gabor L; Hu, Man

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The two common whitefly species, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) MEAM1 and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood), often co-occur on their host plants. The effect of host plant occupation by one species on later-arriving conspecific individuals or on the other competing species was examined...

  1. Differences in carbon source utilisation by orchid mycorrhizal fungi from common and endangered species of Caladenia (Orchidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, S; Morrison, P D; Coates, F; Lawrie, A C

    2017-02-01

    Terrestrial orchids depend on orchid mycorrhizal fungi (OMF) as symbionts for their survival, growth and nutrition. The ability of OMF from endangered orchid species to compete for available resources with OMF from common species may affect the distribution, abundance and therefore conservation status of their orchid hosts. Eight symbiotically effective OMF from endangered and more common Caladenia species were tested for their ability to utilise complex insoluble and simple soluble carbon sources produced during litter degradation by growth with different carbon sources in liquid medium to measure the degree of OMF variation with host conservation status or taxonomy. On simple carbon sources, fungal growth was assessed by biomass. On insoluble substrates, ergosterol content was assessed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). The OMF grew on all natural materials and complex carbon sources, but produced the greatest biomass on xylan and starch and the least on bark and chitin. On simple carbon sources, the greatest OMF biomass was measured on most hexoses and disaccharides and the least on galactose and arabinose. Only some OMF used sucrose, the most common sugar in green plants, with possible implications for symbiosis. OMF from common orchids produced more ergosterol and biomass than those from endangered orchids in the Dilatata and Reticulata groups but not in the Patersonii and Finger orchids. This suggests that differences in carbon source utilisation may contribute to differences in the distribution of some orchids, if these differences are retained on site.

  2. Extraction and antioxidant activities of two species Origanum plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antioxidant of ethanolic extract of two species of Origanum and essential oil of plant Origanum vulgare were investigated and also the total phenolic and flavonoid content measured. The radical scavenging activity was measured using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. Total phenolic and flavonoid ...

  3. Plant species diversity in a changing agricultural landscape: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Makerere University, P.O. Box 7062 Kampala, Uganda. Abstract. Plant diversity in Kaweri Coffee Plantation was inventoried in January 2002. The aim was to document the species in the area before establishment of a coffee plantation and to create a database for monitoring changes in the ecosystem. International Forestry ...

  4. The effect of plant species on soil nitrogen mineralization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krift, van der A.J.; Berendse, F.

    2001-01-01

    1. To ascertain the influence of different plant species on nitrogen (N) cycling, we performed a long-term garden experiment with six grasses and five dicots with different potential growth rates, that are adapted to habitats with different nutrient supplies. We measured in situ N mineralization and

  5. Widespread plant species: natives versus aliens in our changing world

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stohlgren, T. J.; Pyšek, Petr; Kartesz, J.; Nishino, M.; Pauchard, A.; Winter, M.; Pino, J.; Richardson, D. M.; Wilson, J. R. U.; Murray, B. R.; Phillips, M. L.; Ming-yang, L.; Celesti-Grapow, L.; Font, X.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 9 (2011), s. 1931-1944 ISSN 1387-3547 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : plant invasions * species distribution * Old and New World Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.896, year: 2011

  6. Relationships between Plant Biomass and Species Richness under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted in a montane grassland of Kokosa District, West Arsi Zone of Oromia Region, southern Ethiopia. The objective of the study was to investigate the relationships between aboveground plant biomass and species richness in three farming systems and four grazing management systems. A total of 180 ...

  7. Regional Assessment of Ozone Sensitive Tree Species Using Bioindicator Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Coulston; Gretchen C. Smith; William D. Smith

    2003-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone occurs at phytotoxic levels in the northeastern and mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. Quantifying possible regional-scale impacts of ambient ozone on forest tree species is difficult and is confounded by other factors, such as moisture and light, which influence the uptake of ozone by plants. Biomonitoring provides an approach to document...

  8. Rare and Endangered Geophyte Plant Species in Serpentine of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naim Berisha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Our study documents information on rarity, geographical distribution, taxonomy and conservation status of 11 geophyte species in serpentine soils of Kosovo, already included in the Red Book of Vascular Flora of Kosovo. Kosovo’s serpentine vegetation represents a diversity that yet has not been sufficiently explored. Large serpentine complexes are found in the northern Kosovo but also southern part of the country is rich in serpentines, therefore in endemics. Serpentine rocks and soils are characterized by low level of principal plant nutrients (N, P, K, Ca and exceptionally high levels of Mg and Fe. Serpentines play particular importance for flora of the country due to their richness in endemic plant species. The following 11 plant species have been studied: Aristolochia merxmuelleri, Colchicum hungaricum, Crocus flavus, Crocus kosaninii, Epimedium alpinum, Gentiana punctata, Gladiolus illyricus, Lilium albanicum, Paeonia peregrina, Tulipa gesneriana and Tulipa kosovarica. Five out of eleven studied geophytes fall within Critically Endangered IUCN based threat category and five out of eleven are local endemics. Aristolochia merxmuelleri and Tulipa kosovarica are steno-endemic plant species that are found exclusively in serpentine soils. Information in our database should prove to be valuable to efforts in ecology, floristics, biosystematics, conservation and land management.

  9. Seasonal nutrient fluctuation in selected plant species in the Kalahari

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Ca:P ratio of the plant species that were sampled in the present study fell outside the range that is considered to be healthy for ruminants in all instances, with calcium in excess. Keywords: calcium, Kalahari, nitrogen content, nutritional value, phosphorus, seasonal variation. African Journal of Range & Forage Science ...

  10. Status and Woody Plant Species Diversity in Tara Gedam Forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result revealed that a total of forty one different species of woody plants were identified in Tara Gedam forest. Olea europaea was the dominant one with recorded value of 598. Allophylus abyssinicus and Albizia schimperiana ranked the second and third in dominance with 556 and 474 numbers respectively. Acanthus ...

  11. Sparse Distribution Pattern Of Some Plant Species In Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mountain forests play major roles in biodiversity; containing many endemics and species of conservation concern. The diversity and distribution patterns of plants in mountain ecosystems are influenced by various environmental and anthropogenic factors that exhibit heterogeneity over space and time. This study analysed ...

  12. Ecotaxonmic baseline evaluation of the plant species in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The survey of the flora composition of an ecosystem is important in several environmental baseline studies. An ecotaxonomic assessment was carried out in Ase-Ndoni proposed Rivgas Refinery project site in other to find out the plant species of medicinal and other economic values. The investigation was carried out to ...

  13. Plant roots and spectroscopic methods - analyzing species, biomass and vitality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rewald, Boris; Meinen, Catharina

    2013-01-01

    In order to understand plant functioning, plant community composition, and terrestrial biogeochemistry, it is decisive to study standing root biomass, (fine) root dynamics, and interactions belowground. While most plant taxa can be identified by visual criteria aboveground, roots show less distinctive features. Furthermore, root systems of neighboring plants are rarely spatially segregated; thus, most soil horizons and samples hold roots of more than one species necessitating root sorting according to taxa. In the last decades, various approaches, ranging from anatomical and morphological analyses to differences in chemical composition and DNA sequencing were applied to discern species' identity and biomass belowground. Among those methods, a variety of spectroscopic methods was used to detect differences in the chemical composition of roots. In this review, spectroscopic methods used to study root systems of herbaceous and woody species in excised samples or in situ will be discussed. In detail, techniques will be reviewed according to their usability to discern root taxa, to determine root vitality, and to quantify root biomass non-destructively or in soil cores holding mixtures of plant roots. In addition, spectroscopic methods which may be able to play an increasing role in future studies on root biomass and related traits are highlighted.

  14. Impact of Bee Species and Plant Density on Alfalfa Pollination and Potential for Gene Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanne Brunet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In outcrossing crops like alfalfa, various bee species can contribute to pollination and gene flow in seed production fields. With the increasing use of transgenic crops, it becomes important to determine the role of these distinct pollinators on alfalfa pollination and gene flow. The current study examines the relative contribution of honeybees, three bumble bee species, and three solitary bee species to pollination and gene flow in alfalfa. Two wild solitary bee species and one wild bumble bee species were best at tripping flowers, while the two managed pollinators commonly used in alfalfa seed production, honeybees and leaf cutting bees, had the lowest tripping rate. Honeybees had the greatest potential for gene flow and risk of transgene escape relative to the other pollinators. For honeybees, gene flow and risk of transgene escape were not affected by plant density although for the three bumble bee species gene flow and risk of transgene escape were the greatest in high-density fields.

  15. The Use of Common Weeds and Garden Plants for Teaching Internal Plant Structure in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, June R.

    1972-01-01

    Literature suitable for teaching internal plant structure in Nigerian schools is scarce. Author provides list of plants which could be used by teachers in Nigeria for teaching plant anatomy. All plants described are available in abundance in the Nigerian climate. (PS)

  16. Plant-soil feedback of native and range-expanding plant species is insensitive to temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Grunsven, R.H.A.; Van der Putten, W.H.; Bezemer, T.M.; Veenendaal, E.M.

    2010-01-01

    Temperature change affects many aboveground and belowground ecosystem processes. Here we investigate the effect of a 5°C temperature increase on plant–soil feedback. We compare plant species from a temperate climate region with immigrant plants that originate from warmer regions and have recently

  17. Plant-soil feedback of native and range expanding plant species is insensitive to temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grunsven, van R.H.A.; Veenendaal, E.M.; Bezemer, T.M.; Putten, van der W.H.

    2010-01-01

    Temperature change affects many aboveground and belowground ecosystem processes. Here we investigate the effect of a 5°C temperature increase on plant–soil feedback. We compare plant species from a temperate climate region with immigrant plants that originate from warmer regions and have recently

  18. Plant species dispersed by Galapagos tortoises surf the wave of habitat suitability under anthropogenic climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis-Soto, Diego; Blake, Stephen; Soultan, Alaaeldin; Guézou, Anne; Cabrera, Fredy; Lötters, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Native biodiversity on the Galapagos Archipelago is severely threatened by invasive alien species. On Santa Cruz Island, the abundance of introduced plant species is low in the arid lowlands of the Galapagos National Park, but increases with elevation into unprotected humid highlands. Two common alien plant species, guava (Psidium guajava) and passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) occur at higher elevations yet their seeds are dispersed into the lowlands by migrating Galapagos tortoises (Chelonoidis spp.). Tortoises transport large quantities of seeds over long distances into environments in which they have little or no chance of germination and survival under current climate conditions. However, climate change is projected to modify environmental conditions on Galapagos with unknown consequences for the distribution of native and introduced biodiversity. We quantified seed dispersal of guava and passion fruit in tortoise dung piles and the distribution of adult plants along two elevation gradients on Santa Cruz to assess current levels of 'wasted' seed dispersal. We computed species distribution models for both taxa under current and predicted future climate conditions. Assuming that tortoise migratory behaviour continues, current levels of "wasted" seed dispersal in lowlands were projected to decline dramatically in the future for guava but not for passion fruit. Tortoises will facilitate rapid range expansion for guava into lowland areas within the Galapagos National Park where this species is currently absent. Coupled with putative reduction in arid habitat for native species caused by climate change, tortoise driven guava invasion will pose a serious threat to local plant communities.

  19. Plant species dispersed by Galapagos tortoises surf the wave of habitat suitability under anthropogenic climate change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Ellis-Soto

    Full Text Available Native biodiversity on the Galapagos Archipelago is severely threatened by invasive alien species. On Santa Cruz Island, the abundance of introduced plant species is low in the arid lowlands of the Galapagos National Park, but increases with elevation into unprotected humid highlands. Two common alien plant species, guava (Psidium guajava and passion fruit (Passiflora edulis occur at higher elevations yet their seeds are dispersed into the lowlands by migrating Galapagos tortoises (Chelonoidis spp.. Tortoises transport large quantities of seeds over long distances into environments in which they have little or no chance of germination and survival under current climate conditions. However, climate change is projected to modify environmental conditions on Galapagos with unknown consequences for the distribution of native and introduced biodiversity. We quantified seed dispersal of guava and passion fruit in tortoise dung piles and the distribution of adult plants along two elevation gradients on Santa Cruz to assess current levels of 'wasted' seed dispersal. We computed species distribution models for both taxa under current and predicted future climate conditions. Assuming that tortoise migratory behaviour continues, current levels of "wasted" seed dispersal in lowlands were projected to decline dramatically in the future for guava but not for passion fruit. Tortoises will facilitate rapid range expansion for guava into lowland areas within the Galapagos National Park where this species is currently absent. Coupled with putative reduction in arid habitat for native species caused by climate change, tortoise driven guava invasion will pose a serious threat to local plant communities.

  20. Are trade-offs among species' ecological interactions scale dependent? A test using pitcher-plant inquiline species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneitel, Jamie M

    2012-01-01

    Trade-offs among species' ecological interactions is a pervasive explanation for species coexistence. The traits associated with trade-offs are typically measured to mechanistically explain species coexistence at a single spatial scale. However, species potentially interact at multiple scales and this may be reflected in the traits among coexisting species. I quantified species' ecological traits associated with the trade-offs expected at both local (competitive ability and predator tolerance) and regional (competitive ability and colonization rate) community scales. The most common species (four protozoa and a rotifer) from the middle trophic level of a pitcher plant (Sarracenia purpurea) inquiline community were used to link species traits to previously observed patterns of species diversity and abundance. Traits associated with trade-offs (competitive ability, predator tolerance, and colonization rate) and other ecological traits (size, growth rate, and carrying capacity) were measured for each of the focal species. Traits were correlated with one another with a negative relationship indicative of a trade-off. Protozoan and rotifer species exhibited a negative relationship between competitive ability and predator tolerance, indicative of coexistence at the local community scale. There was no relationship between competitive ability and colonization rate. Size, growth rate, and carrying capacity were correlated with each other and the trade-off traits: Size was related to both competitive ability and predator tolerance, but growth rate and carrying capacity were correlated with predator tolerance. When partial correlations were conducted controlling for size, growth rate and carrying capacity, the trade-offs largely disappeared. These results imply that body size is the trait that provides the basis for ecological interactions and trade-offs. Altogether, this study showed that the examination of species' traits in the context of coexistence at different scales

  1. Are trade-offs among species' ecological interactions scale dependent? A test using pitcher-plant inquiline species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie M Kneitel

    Full Text Available Trade-offs among species' ecological interactions is a pervasive explanation for species coexistence. The traits associated with trade-offs are typically measured to mechanistically explain species coexistence at a single spatial scale. However, species potentially interact at multiple scales and this may be reflected in the traits among coexisting species. I quantified species' ecological traits associated with the trade-offs expected at both local (competitive ability and predator tolerance and regional (competitive ability and colonization rate community scales. The most common species (four protozoa and a rotifer from the middle trophic level of a pitcher plant (Sarracenia purpurea inquiline community were used to link species traits to previously observed patterns of species diversity and abundance. Traits associated with trade-offs (competitive ability, predator tolerance, and colonization rate and other ecological traits (size, growth rate, and carrying capacity were measured for each of the focal species. Traits were correlated with one another with a negative relationship indicative of a trade-off. Protozoan and rotifer species exhibited a negative relationship between competitive ability and predator tolerance, indicative of coexistence at the local community scale. There was no relationship between competitive ability and colonization rate. Size, growth rate, and carrying capacity were correlated with each other and the trade-off traits: Size was related to both competitive ability and predator tolerance, but growth rate and carrying capacity were correlated with predator tolerance. When partial correlations were conducted controlling for size, growth rate and carrying capacity, the trade-offs largely disappeared. These results imply that body size is the trait that provides the basis for ecological interactions and trade-offs. Altogether, this study showed that the examination of species' traits in the context of coexistence at

  2. To be or not to be - common and endangered arable weed species in the face of Global Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rühl, Anna Theresa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Arable weeds are one of the most endangered species groups in Europe. Modern agriculture and intensive land use management with the application of herbicides and fertilisers, enhanced seed cleaning, simplified crop rotations and abandonment of marginal arable sites are the main causes for the continuous decline of arable weeds. However, besides these changes in land use also global climate change may challenge the adaptability of arable weeds. Most scientists agree that the frequency of extreme meteorological conditions will increase in the future. As a consequence, plants of Central Europe will be subject to higher temperatures and reduced water supply due to longer intervals without precipitation during the growing season. We exposed seeds of five common and five endangered arable weed species to different temperatures and water potentials to study i how this plant group responds to higher temperatures and lower moisture during germination in general and ii whether there is a significant difference between common and endangered species in this respect.

  3. Ecological Performances of Plant Species of Halophilous Hydromorphic Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Speranza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Coastal wetlands are very special environments, characterized by soils permanently or seasonally saturated by salt or brackish water. They host microorganisms and plants able to adapt to anoxic conditions. This paper proposes a review of recent scientific papers dealing with the study of coastal wetlands from different points of view. Some studies examine the species composition and the pattern of the spatial distribution of plant communities, depending on the depth of the salt water table, as well as on other related factors. A significant number of studies analyse instead the coastal wetlands in their ability for the phytoremediation (phytostabilisation and/or phytoextraction and highlight the importance of interactions between the rhizosphere of the halophytes and the physical environment. Finally, more recent studies consider the plant species of the coastal wetlands as a source of useful products (food, feed, oils and expose the results of promising researches on their cultivation.

  4. Common species link global ecosystems to climate change: dynamical evidence in the planktonic fossil record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannisdal, Bjarte; Haaga, Kristian Agasøster; Reitan, Trond; Diego, David; Liow, Lee Hsiang

    2017-07-12

    Common species shape the world around us, and changes in their commonness signify large-scale shifts in ecosystem structure and function. However, our understanding of long-term ecosystem response to environmental forcing in the deep past is centred on species richness, neglecting the disproportional impact of common species. Here, we use common and widespread species of planktonic foraminifera in deep-sea sediments to track changes in observed global occupancy (proportion of sampled sites at which a species is present and observed) through the turbulent climatic history of the last 65 Myr. Our approach is sensitive to relative changes in global abundance of the species set and robust to factors that bias richness estimators. Using three independent methods for detecting causality, we show that the observed global occupancy of planktonic foraminifera has been dynamically coupled to past oceanographic changes captured in deep-ocean temperature reconstructions. The causal inference does not imply a direct mechanism, but is consistent with an indirect, time-delayed causal linkage. Given the strong quantitative evidence that a dynamical coupling exists, we hypothesize that mixotrophy (symbiont hosting) may be an ecological factor linking the global abundance of planktonic foraminifera to long-term climate changes via the relative extent of oligotrophic oceans. © 2017 The Authors.

  5. Plant species richness and ecosystem multifunctionality in global drylands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestre, Fernando T.; Quero, Jose L.; Gotelli, Nicholas J.; Escudero, Adrian; Ochoa, Victoria; Delgado-Baquerizo, Manuel; Garcia-Gomez, Miguel; Bowker, Matthew A.; Soliveres, Santiago; Escolar, Cristina; Garcia-Palacios, Pablo; Berdugo, Miguel; Valencia, Enrique; Gozalo, Beatriz; Gallardo, Antonio; Aguilera, Lorgio; Arredondo, Tulio; Blones, Julio; Boeken, Bertrand; Bran, Donaldo; Conceicao, Abel A.; Cabrera, Omar; Chaieb, Mohamed; Derak, Mchich; Eldridge, David J.; Espinosa, Carlos I.; Florentino, Adriana; Gaitan, Juan; Gatica, M. Gabriel; Ghiloufi, Wahida; Gomez-Gonzalez, Susana; Gutie, Julio R.; Hernandez, Rosa M.; Huang, Xuewen; Huber-Sannwald, Elisabeth; Jankju, Mohammad; Miriti, Maria; Monerris, Jorge; Mau, Rebecca L.; Morici, Ernesto; Naseri, Kamal; Ospina, Abelardo; Polo, Vicente; Prina, Anibal; Pucheta, Eduardo; Ramirez-Collantes, David A.; Romao, Roberto; Tighe, Matthew; Torres-Diaz, Cristian; Val, James; Veiga, Jose P.; Wang, Deli; Zaady, Eli

    2012-01-01

    Experiments suggest that biodiversity enhances the ability of ecosystems to maintain multiple functions, such as carbon storage, productivity, and the buildup of nutrient pools (multifunctionality). However, the relationship between biodiversity and multifunctionality has never been assessed globally in natural ecosystems. We report here on a global empirical study relating plant species richness and abiotic factors to multifunctionality in drylands, which collectively cover 41% of Earth's land surface and support over 38% of the human population. Multifunctionality was positively and significantly related to species richness. The best-fitting models accounted for over 55% of the variation in multifunctionality and always included species richness as a predictor variable. Our results suggest that the preservation of plant biodiversity is crucial to buffer negative effects of climate change and desertification in drylands.

  6. Archaeal rhizosphere communities differ between the native and invasive lines of the wetland plant phragmites australis (common reed) in a Chesapeake Bay subestuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phragmites australis, a common wetland plant species worldwide, is best known in North America as persistent invasive species. Only in recent decades was a native line, Phragmites australis subsp. americanus, confirmed in North American wetlands. This study investigated whether the two lines suppo...

  7. The Role of Different Agricultural Plant Species in Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiala, P.; Miller, D.; Shivers, S.; Pusede, S.; Roberts, D. A.

    2017-12-01

    The goal of this research project is to use remote sensing data to study the relationship between different plant species and the pollutants in the air. It is known that chemical reactions within plants serve as both sources and sinks for different types of Volatile Organic Compounds. However, the species-specific relationships have not been well studied. Through the better characterization of this relationship, certain aspects of air pollution may be more effectively managed. For this project, I used Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data and trace gas measurements from instruments on board the NASA DC-8 to assess the relationship between different plant species and the pollutants in the air. I used measurements primarily from the agricultural land surrounding Bakersfield, CA. I created a map of the crop species in this area using Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (MESMA) on the AVIRIS imagery, and matched this to trace gas measurements taken on the DC-8. I used a Hysplit matrix trajectory to account for the air transport over the vegetation and up to contact with the plane. Finally, I identified correlations between the plant types and the concentration of the pollutants. The results showed that there were significant relationships between specific species and pollutants, with lemons and grapes contributing to enhanced pollution, and tree nuts reducing pollution. Specifically, almonds produced significantly lower levels of O3 , NO, and NO2. Lemons and grapes had high O3 levels, and lemons had high levels of isoprene. In total, these data show that it may be possible to mitigate airborne pollution via selective planting; however, the overall environmental effects are much more complicated and must be analyzed further.

  8. Systemic movement of Agrobacterium tumefaciens in several plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubero, J; Lastra, B; Salcedo, C I; Piquer, J; López, M M

    2006-08-01

    The systemic movement of Agrobacterium spp. inside plants of different species was studied to determine the most valuable diagnostic methodology for their detection. Pathogenic agrobacteria were detected by isolation and PCR in tissue away from primary tumours in tomato plants grown in the presence of Agrobacterium spp. Moreover, this bacterium was also able to induce secondary tumours beyond the inoculation site. In addition, the capacity of agrobacteria to translocate and induce secondary tumours was analysed in rose, grapevine, chrysanthemum, cherry and peach x almond hybrid GF677. No differences among strains of Agrobacterium spp. were detected in secondary tumour development, although some of them induced a significantly higher number of primary tumours in some species. Movement of inoculated pathogenic cells of four strains was also demonstrated in symptomless portions of the plant stems by isolation and PCR. Finally, pathogenic agrobacteria were detected in root, crown and stem portions of naturally infected walnuts. In all assays, PCR was the most efficient technique for detecting the movement of Agrobacterium spp. within the plants. Migration of agrobacteria inside plants is a complex phenomenon and more extensive than previously reported. Therefore, efficient and sensitive detection methods such as PCR must be used to select clean plants to avoid latent infections of Agrobacterium spp. The results show that migration of Agrobacterium spp. could be relatively frequent in several cultivated fruit trees, and systemic infections should be taken into account when designing strategies for controlling crown gall disease.

  9. Reduced plant-soil feedback of plant species expanding their range as compared to natives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grunsven, van R.H.A.; Putten, van der W.H.; Bezemer, T.M.; Tamis, W.L.M.; Berendse, F.; Veenendaal, E.M.

    2007-01-01

    1. As a result of global warming, species may spread into previously cool regions. Species that disperse faster than their natural enemies may become released from top-down control. We investigated whether plants originating from southern Europe and recently established in north-western Europe

  10. Alien Plant Species Mountain Endemic Tree Species in Gunung Gede Pangrango National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Utomo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Up to now, montane rain forest of Gunung Gede-Pangrango National Park, faces problem in the form of invasion of exotic plant species into the area.  Location of the area that borders with various land uses, such as Botanical Garden and agricultural land, make it very susceptible toward invasion of plant species from outside the area.  The collapse of large trees which normally constitute a mechanism of natural regeneration, was in fact stimulating the development of exotic species, particularly those which were invasive, inside the area. The objective of this research was to test the competitive ability of endemic species, which in this case was represented by Cleystocalyx operculata and Mischocarpus pentapetalus, toward exotic plant species, represented by Austroeupatoriun inulaefolium and Passiflora ligularis, during 5 months of study.  Growth rate of exotic plant species, as well as the dry weight biomass, were larger than those of endemic species.  Indirect estimation of competitive ability showed that competitive ability (β of endemic species were 4-5 times less, namely 0.0274 (for C. operculata and 0.0251 (for M. pentapetalus; as compared with those of exotic species, namely 0.125 (for P. ligularis and 0.1104 (for A. inulaefolium.  Direct test also proved that competitive ability (β of endemic species was lower than that of exotic species, as shown by relative crowding value   Estimation of future competitive ability, using diagram of input/ output ratio, showed also the disability of endemic species to compete with exotic species, where position of input/output ratio points were parallel with equilibrium line y=x. Considering those facts, there is urgent need for controlling these invasive exotic species inside the National Park area to maintain the sustainability of biodiversity and regeneration of endemic species in montane rain forest of Gunung Gede–Pangrango National Park.    Keywords: endemic, exotic, invasion

  11. Poisonous plants in New Zealand: a review of those that are most commonly enquired about to the National Poisons Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, Robin J; Beasley, D Michael G; Lambie, Bruce S; Wilkins, Gerard T; Schep, Leo J

    2012-12-14

    New Zealand has a number of plants, both native and introduced, contact with which can lead to poisoning. The New Zealand National Poisons Centre (NZNPC) frequently receives enquiries regarding exposures to poisonous plants. Poisonous plants can cause harm following inadvertent ingestion, via skin contact, eye exposures or inhalation of sawdust or smoked plant matter. The purpose of this article is to determine the 15 most common poisonous plant enquiries to the NZNPC and provide a review of current literature, discussing the symptoms that might arise upon exposure to these poisonous plants and the recommended medical management of such poisonings. Call data from the NZNPC telephone collection databases regarding human plant exposures between 2003 and 2010 were analysed retrospectively. The most common plants causing human poisoning were selected as the basis for this review. An extensive literature review was also performed by systematically searching OVID MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science, Scopus and Google Scholar. Further information was obtained from book chapters, relevant news reports and web material. For the years 2003-2010 inclusive, a total of 256,969 enquiries were received by the NZNPC. Of these enquiries, 11,049 involved exposures to plants and fungi. The most common poisonous plant enquiries, in decreasing order of frequency, were: black nightshade (Solanum nigrum), arum lily (Zantedeschia aethiopica), kowhai (Sophora spp.), euphorbia (Euphorbia spp.), peace lily (Spathiphyllum spp.), agapanthus (Agapanthus spp.), stinking iris (Iris foetidissima), rhubarb (Rheum rhabarbarum), taro (Colocasia esculentum), oleander (Nerium oleander), daffodil (Narcissus spp.), hemlock (Conium maculatum), karaka (Corynocarpus laevigatus), foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) and ongaonga/New Zealand tree nettle (Urtica ferox). The combined total of enquiries for these 15 species was 2754 calls (representing approximately 25% of all enquiries regarding plant exposures). The signs

  12. Ectomycorrhizal fungal communities of native and non-native Pinus and Quercus species in a common garden of 35-year-old trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trocha, Lidia K; Kałucka, Izabela; Stasińska, Małgorzata; Nowak, Witold; Dabert, Mirosława; Leski, Tomasz; Rudawska, Maria; Oleksyn, Jacek

    2012-02-01

    Non-native tree species have been widely planted or have become naturalized in most forested landscapes. It is not clear if native trees species collectively differ in ectomycorrhizal fungal (EMF) diversity and communities from that of non-native tree species. Alternatively, EMF species community similarity may be more determined by host plant phylogeny than by whether the plant is native or non-native. We examined these unknowns by comparing two genera, native and non-native Quercus robur and Quercus rubra and native and non-native Pinus sylvestris and Pinus nigra in a 35-year-old common garden in Poland. Using molecular and morphological approaches, we identified EMF species from ectomycorrhizal root tips and sporocarps collected in the monoculture tree plots. A total of 69 EMF species were found, with 38 species collected only as sporocarps, 18 only as ectomycorrhizas, and 13 both as ectomycorrhizas and sporocarps. The EMF species observed were all native and commonly associated with a Holarctic range in distribution. We found that native Q. robur had ca. 120% higher total EMF species richness than the non-native Q. rubra, while native P. sylvestris had ca. 25% lower total EMF species richness than non-native P. nigra. Thus, across genera, there was no evidence that native species have higher EMF species diversity than exotic species. In addition, we found a higher similarity in EMF communities between the two Pinus species than between the two Quercus species. These results support the naturalization of non-native trees by means of mutualistic associations with cosmopolitan and novel fungi.

  13. Mercury uptake and accumulation by four species of aquatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Kathleen; Wright, Nicole; Porter-Goff, Emily

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of four aquatic plants including water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes), water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes), zebra rush (Scirpus tabernaemontani) and taro (Colocasia esculenta) were evaluated for their capabilities in removing mercury from water. The plants were exposed to concentrations of 0 mg/L, 0.5 mg/L or 2 mg/L of mercury for 30 days. Assays were conducted using both Microtox (water) and cold vapor Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) (roots and water). The Microtox results indicated that the mercury induced acute toxicity had been removed from the water. AAS confirmed an increase of mercury within the plant root tissue and a corresponding decrease of mercury in the water. All species of plants appeared to reduce mercury concentrations in the water via root uptake and accumulation. Water lettuce and water hyacinth appeared to be the most effective, followed by taro and zebra rush, respectively.

  14. Flanking regions of monomorphic microsatellite loci provide a new source of data for plant species-level phylogenetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chatrou, L.W.; Escribano, M.P.; Viruel, M.A.; Maas, J.W.; Richardson, J.E.; Hormaza, J.I.

    2009-01-01

    Well-resolved phylogenetic trees are essential for us to understand evolutionary processes at the level of species. The degree of species-level resolution in the plant phylogenetic literature is poor, however, largely due to the dearth of sufficiently variable molecular markers. Unlike the common

  15. Patterns of plant species diversity during succession under different disturbance regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denslow, Julie Sloan

    1980-07-01

    I suggest that between-community variations in diversity patterns during succession in plant communities are due to the effects of selection on life history strategies under different disturbance regimes. Natural disturbances to plant communities are simultaneously a source of mortality for some individuals and a source of establishment sites for others. The plant community consists of a mosaic of disturbance patches (gaps) of different environmental conditions. The composition of the mosaic is described by the size-frequency distribution of the gaps and is dependent on the rates and scales of disturbance. The life-history strategies of plant species dependent on some form of disturbance for establishment of propagules should reflect this size-frequency distribution of disturbance patches. An extension of island biogeographic theory to encompass relative habitat area predicts that a community should be most rich in species adapted to growth and establishment in the spatially most common patch types. Changes in species diversity during succession following large scale disturbance reflect the prevalent life history patterns under historically common disturbance regimes. Communities in which the greatest patch area is in large-scale clearings (e.g. following fire) are most diverse in species establishing seedlings in xeric, high light conditions. Species diversity decreases during succession. Communities in which such large patches are rare are characterized by a large number of species that reach the canopy through small gaps and realtively few which regenerate in the large clearings. Diversity increases during succession following a large scale disturbance.Evidence from communities characterized by different disturbance regimes is summarized from the literature. This hypothesis provides an evolutionary mechanism with which to examine the changes in plant community structure during succession. Diversity peaks occurring at "intermediate levels" of disturbance as

  16. Plant species classification using deep convolutional neural network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrmann, Mads; Karstoft, Henrik; Midtiby, Henrik Skov

    2016-01-01

    Information on which weed species are present within agricultural fields is important for site specific weed management. This paper presents a method that is capable of recognising plant species in colour images by using a convolutional neural network. The network is built from scratch trained...... and tested on a total of 10,413 images containing 22 weed and crop species at early growth stages. These images originate from six different data sets, which have variations with respect to lighting, resolution, and soil type. This includes images taken under controlled conditions with regard to camera...... stabilisation and illumination, and images shot with hand-held mobile phones in fields with changing lighting conditions and different soil types. For these 22 species, the network is able to achieve a classification accuracy of 86.2%....

  17. [Study on TLC identification of Dida commonly used in Tibetan medicine from different species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Zhong, Guo-Yue; Wu, Xiao-Yun; Luo, Wei-Zao; Gu, Dan-Dan

    2013-03-01

    To establish a method of TLC identification for Dida commonly used in Tibetan medicine from different species. With silica gel G as the stationary phase, and chloroform-methanol (40: 1) as mobile phase, oleanolic acid from different species of Dida was separated and identified. Oleanolic acid was detected in 70 kinds of Dida derived from the Gentianaceae Swertia, Halenia, Gentianopsis, Lomatogonium, and Saxifragaceae saxifrage, except for the saxifrage, there are some differences among different genera or subjection. This TLC method can be used for identification of oleanolic acid in Dida from different species except saxifrage.

  18. Uptake and Bioaccumulation of Pentachlorophenol by Emergent Wetland Plant Phragmites australis (Common Reed) in Cadmium Co-contaminated Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hechmi, Nejla; Ben Aissa, Nadhira; Abdenaceur, Hassen; Jedidi, Naceur

    2015-01-01

    Despite many studies on phytoremediation of soils contaminated with either heavy metals or organics, little information is available on the effectiveness of phytoremediation of co-occurring metal and organic pollutants especially by using wetland species. Phragmites australis is a common wetland plant and its potential for phytoremediation of cadmium pentachlorophenol (Cd-PCP) co-contaminated soil was investigated. A greenhouse study was executed to elucidate the effects of Cd (0, 10, and 20 mg kg(-1)) without or with PCP (0, 50, and 250 mg kg(-1)) on the growth of the wetland plant P. australis and its uptake, accumulation and removal of pollutant from soils. After 75 days, plant biomass was significantly influenced by interaction of Cd and PCP and the effect of Cd on plant growth being stronger than that of PCP. Coexistence of PCP at low level lessened Cd toxicity to plants, resulting in improved plant growth and increased Cd accumulation in plant tissues. The dissipation of PCP in soils was significantly influenced by interactions of Cd, PCP and plant presence or absence. As an evaluation of soil biological activities after remediation soil enzyme was measured.

  19. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants commonly used by Kani tribals in Tirunelveli hills of Western Ghats, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyanar, Muniappan; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2011-04-12

    For thousands of years, medicinal plants have played an important role throughout the world in treating and preventing a variety of diseases. Kani tribal people in Tirunelveli hills still depend on medicinal plants and most of them have a general knowledge of medicinal plants which are used for first aid remedies, to treat cough, cold, fever, headache, poisonous bites and some simple ailments. The present study was initiated with an aim to identify traditional healers who are practicing herbal medicine among the Kani tribals in Tirunelveli hills of Western Ghats, India and quantitatively document their indigenous knowledge on the utilization of medicinal plants particularly most common ethnomedicinal plants. Field study was carried out over a period of 4 years in Tirunelveli hills. The ethnomedicinal information was collected through interviews among the Kani traditional healers. The collected data were analyzed through use value (UV), informant consensus factor (F(ic)), fidelity level (FL) and relative importance (RI). A total of 90 species of plants distributed in 83 genera belonging to 52 families were identified as commonly used ethnomedicinal plants by the Kani traditional healers in Tirunelveli hills for the treatment of 65 types of ailments. These ailments were categorized into 15 ailment categories based on the body systems treated. Leaves were the most frequently used plant parts and most of the medicines were prepared in the form of paste and administered orally. F(ic) values of the present study indicated that there was a high agreement in the use of plants in the treatment of jaundice and diabetes among the users. Dermatological infections/diseases and gastro-intestinal disorders had highest use-reports and 29 species of plants had the highest fidelity level of 100%. The most important species according to their use value were Gymneme sylvestre (2.00), Melia azedarach, Murraya koenigii, Syzygium cumini and Terminalia chebula (1.83). As a result of the

  20. Seed longevity and germination characteristics of six fen plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatár, S

    2010-01-01

    Fens are among the most threatened habitats in Europe as their area has decreased considerably in the last centuries. For successful management and restoration conservationists need detailed knowledge about seed bank formation and seed longevity of plants, as these features are closely related to successional and vegetation dynamical processes. I analysed seed longevity and the germination characteristics of six fen plant species by seed burial experiments. Based on seed weight, seed bank was expected for long-term persistent for the light-seeded Schoenus nigricans, Carex appropinquata, C. pseudocyperus, C. davalliana and Peucedanum palustre and also that for the medium-seeded Cicuta virosa. It was proved that, the latter two species have short-term persistent seed banks, while Carex pseudocyperus has a transient seed bank, therefore these species may only have a limited role in restoration from seed banks. It was found that Schoenus nigricans, Carex appropinquata and C. davalliana have persistent seed banks, because some of their four-year-old seeds have emerged. Fresh seeds had low germination rate in all studied species and majority of seeds emerged after winter, except for Carex pseudocyperus. After the germination peak in spring, the majority of the ungerminated seeds of Schoenus nigricans, Peucedanum palustre, Carex appropinquata, C. davalliana and Cicuta virosa entered a secondary dormancy phase that was broken in autumn. I found the seasonal emergence of the latter three species highly similar.

  1. How to conserve threatened Chinese plant species with extremely small populations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Volis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese flora occupies a unique position in global plant diversity, but is severely threatened. Although biodiversity conservation in China has made significant progress over the past decades, many wild plant species have extremely small population sizes and therefore are in extreme danger of extinction. The concept of plant species with extremely small populations (PSESPs, recently adopted and widely accepted in China, lacks a detailed description of the methodology appropriate for conserving PSESPs. Strategies for seed sampling, reintroduction, protecting PSESP locations, managing interactions with the local human population, and other conservation aspects can substantially differ from those commonly applied to non-PSESPs. The present review is an attempt to provide a detailed conservation methodology with realistic and easy-to-follow guidelines for PSESPs in China.

  2. Unveiling common responses of Medicago truncatula to appropriate and inappropriate rust species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carlota eVaz Patto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the nature of effective defense mechanisms in legumes to pathogens of remotely related plant species. Some rust species are among pathogens with broad host range causing dramatic losses in various crop plants. To understand and compare the different host and nonhost resistance responses of legume species against rusts, we characterized the reaction of the model legume Medicago truncatula to one appropriate (Uromyces striatus and two inappropriate (U. viciae-fabae and U. lupinicolus rusts. We found that similar pre and post-haustorial mechanisms of resistance appear to be operative in M. truncatula against appropriate and inappropriate rust fungus. The appropriate U. striatus germinated better on M. truncatula accessions then the inappropriate U. viciae-fabae and U. lupinicolus, but once germinated, germ tubes of the three rusts had a similar level of success in finding stomata and forming an appressoria over a stoma. However responses to different inappropriate rust species also showed some specificity, suggesting a combination of non specific and specific responses underlying this legume nonhost resistance to rust fungi. Further genetic and expression analysis studies will contribute to the development of the necessary molecular tools to use the present information on host and nonhost resistance mechanisms to breed for broad-spectrum resistance to rust in legume species.

  3. Sesquiterpene lactones and monoterpene glucosides from plant species Picris echoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILUTIN STEFANOVIC

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the constituents of the aerial parts of domestic plant species Picris echoides afforded the sesquiterpene lactones, i.e., guaianolides jacquilenin (1, 11-epi-jacquilenin (2, achillin (3 and eudesmanolide telekin (4. The chemical indentification of the two monoterpene glucosides (–-cis-chrysanthenol-b-D-glucopyranoside (5 and its 6’-acetate 6 is also repoted. The guaianolide achillin (3 and the two monoterpene glucosides 5 and 6 were isolated for the first time from this plant species. Isolation was achieved by column chromatography and the structures were established mainly by the interpretation of their physical and spectral data, which were in agreement with those in the literature.

  4. Are Lotus species good models for studying iron accumulation in common beans?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlowska, Elzbieta; Laszcyca, Katarzyna Malgorzata; Urbanski, Dorian Fabian

    show that the iron distribution in L. filicaulis seeds is similar to that  in common beans, while the seeds of L. japonicus show a different pattern of iron accumulation. RILs from a cross between these two species are being studied in order to find genes that are important for seed iron distribution...

  5. Heat dosage and oviposition depth influence egg mortality of two common rangeland grasshopper species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangeland fire is a common naturally occurring event and management tool, with the amount and structure of biomass controlling transfer of heat belowground. Temperatures grasshopper eggs are exposed to during rangeland fires are mediated by species specific oviposition traits. This experiment examin...

  6. The effect of increasing sediment accretion on the seedlings of three common Thai mangrove species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thampanya, U.; Vermaat, J.E.; Terrados, J.T.

    2002-01-01

    Three to four-month-old seedlings of three common Thai mangrove species (Avicennia officinalis L., Rhizophora mucronata Lamk and Sonneratia caseolaris (L.) Engler) were experimentally buried using six sediment accretion levels (0, 4, 8, 16, 24 and 32 cm) in a randomized block design. Avicennia was

  7. Drivers of vegetative dormancy across herbaceous perennial plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shefferson, Richard P; Kull, Tiiu; Hutchings, Michael J; Selosse, Marc-André; Jacquemyn, Hans; Kellett, Kimberly M; Menges, Eric S; Primack, Richard B; Tuomi, Juha; Alahuhta, Kirsi; Hurskainen, Sonja; Alexander, Helen M; Anderson, Derek S; Brys, Rein; Brzosko, Emilia; Dostálik, Slavomir; Gregg, Katharine; Ipser, Zdeněk; Jäkäläniemi, Anne; Jersáková, Jana; Dean Kettle, W; McCormick, Melissa K; Mendoza, Ana; Miller, Michael T; Moen, Asbjørn; Øien, Dag-Inge; Püttsepp, Ülle; Roy, Mélanie; Sather, Nancy; Sletvold, Nina; Štípková, Zuzana; Tali, Kadri; Warren, Robert J; Whigham, Dennis F

    2018-03-25

    Vegetative dormancy, that is the temporary absence of aboveground growth for ≥ 1 year, is paradoxical, because plants cannot photosynthesise or flower during dormant periods. We test ecological and evolutionary hypotheses for its widespread persistence. We show that dormancy has evolved numerous times. Most species displaying dormancy exhibit life-history costs of sprouting, and of dormancy. Short-lived and mycoheterotrophic species have higher proportions of dormant plants than long-lived species and species with other nutritional modes. Foliage loss is associated with higher future dormancy levels, suggesting that carbon limitation promotes dormancy. Maximum dormancy duration is shorter under higher precipitation and at higher latitudes, the latter suggesting an important role for competition or herbivory. Study length affects estimates of some demographic parameters. Our results identify life historical and environmental drivers of dormancy. We also highlight the evolutionary importance of the little understood costs of sprouting and growth, latitudinal stress gradients and mixed nutritional modes. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  8. ANTIFUNGAL POTENTIAL OF PLANT SPECIES FROM BRAZILIAN CAATINGA AGAINST DERMATOPHYTES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasi-Garbin, Renata Perugini; Demitto, Fernanda de Oliveira; Amaral, Renata Claro Ribeiro do; Ferreira, Magda Rhayanny Assunção; Soares, Luiz Alberto Lira; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivalet; Baeza, Lilian Cristiane; Yamada-Ogatta, Sueli Fumie

    2016-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex, or Trichophyton spp. are the main etiologic agents of dermatophytosis, whose treatment is limited by the high cost of antifungal treatments, their various side effects, and the emergence of resistance amongst these species. This study evaluated the in vitro antidermatophytic activity of 23 crude extracts from nine plant species of semiarid vegetation (caatinga) found in Brazil. The extracts were tested at concentrations ranging from 1.95 to 1,000.0 mg/mL by broth microdilution assay against the reference strains T. rubrum ATCC 28189 and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481, and 33 clinical isolates of dermatophytes. All plants showed a fungicidal effect against both fungal species, with MIC/MFC values of the active extracts ranging from 15.6 to 250.0 µg/mL. Selected extracts of Eugenia uniflora (AcE), Libidibia ferrea (AE), and Persea americana (AcE) also exhibited a fungicidal effect against all clinical isolates of T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes complex. This is the first report of the antifungal activity of Schinus terebinthifolius, Piptadenia colubrina, Parapiptadenia rigida, Mimosa ophthalmocentra, and Persea americana against both dermatophyte species.

  9. ANTIFUNGAL POTENTIAL OF PLANT SPECIES FROM BRAZILIAN CAATINGA AGAINST DERMATOPHYTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Perugini BIASI-GARBIN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex, or Trichophyton spp. are the main etiologic agents of dermatophytosis, whose treatment is limited by the high cost of antifungal treatments, their various side effects, and the emergence of resistance amongst these species. This study evaluated the in vitro antidermatophytic activity of 23 crude extracts from nine plant species of semiarid vegetation (caatinga found in Brazil. The extracts were tested at concentrations ranging from 1.95 to 1,000.0 mg/mL by broth microdilution assay against the reference strains T. rubrum ATCC 28189 and T. mentagrophytesATCC 11481, and 33 clinical isolates of dermatophytes. All plants showed a fungicidal effect against both fungal species, with MIC/MFC values of the active extracts ranging from 15.6 to 250.0 µg/mL. Selected extracts of Eugenia uniflora (AcE, Libidibia ferrea (AE, and Persea americana (AcE also exhibited a fungicidal effect against all clinical isolates of T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes complex. This is the first report of the antifungal activity of Schinus terebinthifolius, Piptadenia colubrina, Parapiptadenia rigida, Mimosa ophthalmocentra, and Persea americana against both dermatophyte species.

  10. Soil respiration and rates of soil carbon turnover differ among six common European tree species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterdal, Lars; Elberling, Bo; Christiansen, Jesper Riis

    2012-01-01

    moisture. Carbon turnover rates based on the ratio between R h and C stock were significantly higher in ash than in all other species except maple, and maple also had higher C turnover than spruce. A similar influence of tree species on C turnover was indicated by the litterfall C to forest floor C ratio...... and by foliar mass loss; rates of C turnover increased in the order sprucesignificant differences between several of the species. Mineral soil C turnover during laboratory incubation was highest for ash, maple and oak, and significantly lower for spruce. The indices of soil C...... turnover indices that integrated the forest floor. The results suggests that specific traits of Norway spruce and these five common broadleaf forest species should be taken into account in the modelling of soil C stock dynamics over decades....

  11. Evaluating Hypotheses of Plant Species Invasions on Mediterranean Islands: Inverse Patterns between Alien and Endemic Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Bjarnason

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Invasive alien species cause major changes to ecosystem functioning and patterns of biodiversity, and the main factors involved in invasion success remain contested. Using the Mediterranean island of Crete, Greece as a case study, we suggest a framework for analyzing spatial data of alien species distributions, based on environmental predictors, aiming to gain an understanding of their spatial patterns and spread. Mediterranean islands are under strong ecological pressure from invading species due to their restricted size and increased human impact. Four hypotheses of invasibility, the “propagule pressure hypothesis” (H1, “biotic resistance hypothesis vs. acceptance hypothesis” (H2, “disturbance-mediated hypothesis” (H3, and “environmental heterogeneity hypothesis” (H4 were tested. Using data from alien, native, and endemic vascular plant species, the propagule pressure, biotic resistance vs. acceptance, disturbance-mediated, and environmental heterogeneity hypotheses were tested with Generalized Additive Modeling (GAM of 39 models. Based on model selection, the optimal model includes the positive covariates of native species richness, the negative covariates of endemic species richness, and land area. Variance partitioning between the four hypotheses indicated that the biotic resistance vs. acceptance hypothesis explained the vast majority of the total variance. These results show that areas of high species richness have greater invasibility and support the acceptance hypothesis and “rich-get-richer” distribution of alien species. The negative correlation between alien and endemic species appears to be predominantly driven by altitude, with fewer alien and more endemic species at greater altitudes, and habitat richness. The negative relationship between alien and endemic species richness provides potential for understanding patterns of endemic and alien species on islands, contributing to more effective conservation

  12. Species diversity of plant communities from territories with natural origin radionuclides contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneva, A.V.; Belykh, E.S.; Maystrenko, T.A.; Grusdev, B.I.; Zainullin, V.G.; Vakhrusheva, O.M. [Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division of RAS, Syktyvkar, 167982 (Russian Federation); Oughton, D. [Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, NO-1432 Aas (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    Since plants dominate every landscape, the impact of any environmental stressor on plants can directly affect the structure and function of an ecosystem, resulting in decreased primary productivity and degradation of wildlife habitat. The investigation goal of the present research was to study how vascular plant species' composition at a former radium mining site could be related to i) soil contamination with heavy metals and uranium and thorium decay chain radionuclides and ii) soil agrochemical properties. Between the 1930's and 1950's, the commercial extraction of radium, storage of the uranium mill tailings and radium production wastes, together with deactivation of the site with a mixture of sand and gravel completely destroyed plant communities in the vicinity of Vodny settlement (Komi Republic, Russia). The plant cover recovery started more than 60 years ago, and resulted in overgrowing with common grassland plant species. Three meadow sites were investigated, one with low contamination (on the territory of former radium production plant), one with high contamination (waste storage cell) and a reference sites out of the radiochemical plant zone of influence, but with similar natural conditions. Geo-botanical descriptions revealed 134 vascular plant species from 34 families in the meadow communities studied. The greatest richness was seen for Poaceae, Asteraceae, Rosaceae and Fabaceae families; others had 1-5 species. The highest richness in diversity was seen at reference sites with 95 vascular plant species. 87 species were registered on low contaminated sites and 75 species on high contaminated. Perennial herbs were the dominant life form on all the studied meadow communities. Arboreal species expansion in vegetation was noted at both experimental and reference sites. Shannon index calculations indicated a significant (p<0.05) decrease in species diversity on sample areas of the highly contaminated radioactive waste storage cell. Mean values

  13. Review-An overview of Pistacia integerrima a medicinal plant species: Ethnobotany, biological activities and phytochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Yamin; Zia, Muhammad; Qayyum, Abdul

    2015-05-01

    Pistacia integerrima with a common name crab's claw is an ethnobotanically important tree native to Asia. Traditionally plant parts particularly its galls have been utilized for treatment of cough, asthma, dysentery, liver disorders and for snake bite. Plant mainly contains alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins and sterols in different parts including leaf, stem, bark, galls and fruit. A number of terpenoids, sterols and phenolic compounds have been isolated from Pistacia integerrima extracts. Plant has many biological activities including anti-microbial, antioxidant, analgesic, cytotoxicity and phytotoxicity due to its chemical constituents. This review covers its traditional ethnomedicinal uses along with progresses in biological and phytochemical evaluation of this medicinally important plant species and aims to serve as foundation for further exploration and utilization.

  14. Climate and soil attributes determine plant species turnover in global drylands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestre, Fernando T.; Gotelli, Nicholas J.; Quero, José L.; Delgado-Baquerizo, Manuel; Bowker, Matthew A.; Eldridge, David J.; Ochoa, Victoria; Gozalo, Beatriz; Valencia, Enrique; Berdugo, Miguel; Escolar, Cristina; García-Gómez, Miguel; Escudero, Adrián; Prina, Aníbal; Alfonso, Graciela; Arredondo, Tulio; Bran, Donaldo; Cabrera, Omar; Cea, Alex; Chaieb, Mohamed; Contreras, Jorge; Derak, Mchich; Espinosa, Carlos I.; Florentino, Adriana; Gaitán, Juan; Muro, Victoria García; Ghiloufi, Wahida; Gómez-González, Susana; Gutiérrez, Julio R.; Hernández, Rosa M.; Huber-Sannwald, Elisabeth; Jankju, Mohammad; Mau, Rebecca L.; Hughes, Frederic Mendes; Miriti, Maria; Monerris, Jorge; Muchane, Muchai; Naseri, Kamal; Pucheta, Eduardo; Ramírez-Collantes, David A.; Raveh, Eran; Romão, Roberto L.; Torres-Díaz, Cristian; Val, James; Veiga, José Pablo; Wang, Deli; Yuan, Xia; Zaady, Eli

    2015-01-01

    Aim Geographic, climatic, and soil factors are major drivers of plant beta diversity, but their importance for dryland plant communities is poorly known. This study aims to: i) characterize patterns of beta diversity in global drylands, ii) detect common environmental drivers of beta diversity, and iii) test for thresholds in environmental conditions driving potential shifts in plant species composition. Location 224 sites in diverse dryland plant communities from 22 geographical regions in six continents. Methods Beta diversity was quantified with four complementary measures: the percentage of singletons (species occurring at only one site), Whittake’s beta diversity (β(W)), a directional beta diversity metric based on the correlation in species occurrences among spatially contiguous sites (β(R2)), and a multivariate abundance-based metric (β(MV)). We used linear modelling to quantify the relationships between these metrics of beta diversity and geographic, climatic, and soil variables. Results Soil fertility and variability in temperature and rainfall, and to a lesser extent latitude, were the most important environmental predictors of beta diversity. Metrics related to species identity (percentage of singletons and β(W)) were most sensitive to soil fertility, whereas those metrics related to environmental gradients and abundance ((β(R2)) and β(MV)) were more associated with climate variability. Interactions among soil variables, climatic factors, and plant cover were not important determinants of beta diversity. Sites receiving less than 178 mm of annual rainfall differed sharply in species composition from more mesic sites (> 200 mm). Main conclusions Soil fertility and variability in temperature and rainfall are the most important environmental predictors of variation in plant beta diversity in global drylands. Our results suggest that those sites annually receiving ~ 178 mm of rainfall will be especially sensitive to future climate changes. These

  15. Alkaloid concentration of the invasive plant species Ulex europaeus in relation to geographic origin and herbivory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornoy, Benjamin; Atlan, Anne; Tarayre, Michèle; Dugravot, Sébastien; Wink, Michael

    2012-11-01

    In the study of plant defense evolution, invasive plant species can be very insightful because they are often introduced without their enemies, and traits linked to defense can be released from selective pressures and evolve. Further, studying plant defense evolution in invasive species is important for biological control and use of these species. In this study, we investigated the evolution of the defensive chemicals quinolizidine alkaloids (QAs) in the invasive species gorse, Ulex europaeus. Using a common garden experiment, our goals were to characterize the role of QAs relative to specialist enemies of gorse and to investigate if QA concentration evolved in invaded regions, where gorse was introduced without these enemies. Our results showed that pod infestation rate by the seed predator Exapion ulicis and infestation by the rust pathogen Uromyces genistae-tinctoriae were negatively correlated to concentration of the QA lupanine. Quinolizidine alkaloid concentration was very variable between individuals, both within and among populations, but it was not different between native and invaded regions, suggesting that no evolution of decreased resistance occurred after gorse lost its enemies. Our study also suggests that QA concentrations are traits integrated into seed predation avoidance strategies of gorse, with plants that mass-fruit in spring but do not escape pod infestation in time being richer in QAs.

  16. Smart Sensor for Real-Time Quantification of Common Symptoms Present in Unhealthy Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus R. Millan-Almaraz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant responses to physiological function disorders are called symptoms and they are caused principally by pathogens and nutritional deficiencies. Plant symptoms are commonly used as indicators of the health and nutrition status of plants. Nowadays, the most popular method to quantify plant symptoms is based on visual estimations, consisting on evaluations that raters give based on their observation of plant symptoms; however, this method is inaccurate and imprecise because of its obvious subjectivity. Computational Vision has been employed in plant symptom quantification because of its accuracy and precision. Nevertheless, the systems developed so far lack in-situ, real-time and multi-symptom analysis. There exist methods to obtain information about the health and nutritional status of plants based on reflectance and chlorophyll fluorescence, but they use expensive equipment and are frequently destructive. Therefore, systems able of quantifying plant symptoms overcoming the aforementioned disadvantages that can serve as indicators of health and nutrition in plants are desirable. This paper reports an FPGA-based smart sensor able to perform non-destructive, real-time and in-situ analysis of leaf images to quantify multiple symptoms presented by diseased and malnourished plants; this system can serve as indicator of the health and nutrition in plants. The effectiveness of the proposed smart-sensor was successfully tested by analyzing diseased and malnourished plants.

  17. Niche differentiation of two sympatric species of Microdochium colonizing the roots of common reed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirsel Stefan GR

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fungal endophyte communities are often comprised of many species colonizing the same host. However, little is known about the causes of this diversity. On the one hand, the apparent coexistence of closely related species may be explained by the traditional niche differentiation hypothesis, which suggests that abiotic and/or biotic factors mediate partitioning. For endophytes, such factors are difficult to identify, and are therefore in most cases unknown. On the other hand, there is the neutral hypothesis, which suggests that stochastic factors may explain high species diversity. There is a need to investigate to what extent each of these hypotheses may apply to endophytes. Results The niche partitioning of two closely related fungal endophytes, Microdochium bolleyi and M. phragmitis, colonizing Phragmites australis, was investigated. The occurrences of each species were assessed using specific nested-PCR assays for 251 field samples of common reed from Lake Constance, Germany. These analyses revealed niche preferences for both fungi. From three niche factors assessed, i.e. host habitat, host organ and season, host habitat significantly differentiated the two species. M. bolleyi preferred dry habitats, whereas M. phragmitis prevailed in flooded habitats. In contrast, both species exhibited a significant preference for the same host organ, i.e. roots. Likewise the third factor, season, did not significantly distinguish the two species. Differences in carbon utilization and growth temperature could not conclusively explain the niches. The inclusion of three unrelated species of Ascomycota, which also colonize P. australis at the same locations, indicated spatio-temporal niche partitioning between all fungi. None of the species exhibited the same preferences for all three factors, i.e. host habitat, host organ, and time of the season. Conclusions The fungal species colonizing common reed investigated in this study seem to

  18. Simultaneous detection of four common oral Candida species from blood samples by the fluorescence polarization assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuhong; Geng, Wei; Wang, Peihuan; Xi, Lanlan; Wang, Zhaoling; Wu, Gaoyi; Wang, Chunling

    2015-03-01

    The genus Candida is both the commensal microbe and the opportunistic pathogen, containing approximately 200 species inhabiting in oral cavity of 53 % of the general population. Candida species can cause the diseases from local mucosal infections to systemic mycoses, even life-threatening infections in immunocompromised individuals. The timely differentiation of Candida species is important for the guidance of clinical medication. Four common Candida species in Chinese population (Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei) were chosen as the targets to develop the rapid screening method in this work. Combined with amplification by asymmetric PCR, this parallel fluorescence polarization (FP) immunoassay is carried out in homogeneous solution phase. The limit of detection of the assay was shown to be 50 copies/mL in blood samples. The evaluation in multicenter manner showed excellent reproducibility and stability. The comparison between DNA sequencing and the FP immunoassay indicated that there was no significant difference between these methods. This molecular strategy-based method is simple, rapid, and feasible for identifying common Candida species and thereby holding great potential in the application of clinical laboratories.

  19. Effect of different nitrogen sources on plant characteristics and yield of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Luqueño, F; Reyes-Varela, V; Martínez-Suárez, C; Salomón-Hernández, G; Yáñez-Meneses, J; Ceballos-Ramírez, J M; Dendooven, L

    2010-01-01

    Wastewater sludge can be used to fertilize crops, especially after vermicomposting (composting with earthworms to reduce pathogens). How wastewater sludge or vermicompost affects bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) growth is still largely unknown. In this study the effect of different forms of N fertilizer on common bean plant characteristics and yield were investigated in a Typic Fragiudepts (sandy loam) soil under greenhouse conditions. Beans were fertilized with wastewater sludge, or wastewater sludge vermicompost, or urea, or grown in unamended soil, while plant characteristics and yield were monitored (the unamended soil had no fertilization). Yields of common bean plants cultivated in unamended soil or soil amended with urea were lower than those cultivated in wastewater sludge-amended soil. Application of vermicompost further improved plant development and increased yield compared with beans cultivated in wastewater amended soil. It was found that application of organic waste products improved growth and yield of bean plants compared to those amended with inorganic fertilizer.

  20. Attenuation of the jasmonate burst, plant defensive traits, and resistance to specialist monarch caterpillars on shaded common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Anurag A; Kearney, Emily E; Hastings, Amy P; Ramsey, Trey E

    2012-07-01

    Plant responses to herbivory and light competition are often in opposing directions, posing a potential conflict for plants experiencing both stresses. For sun-adapted species, growing in shade typically makes plants more constitutively susceptible to herbivores via reduced structural and chemical resistance traits. Nonetheless, the impact of light environment on induced resistance has been less well-studied, especially in field experiments that link physiological mechanisms to ecological outcomes. Accordingly, we studied induced resistance of common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca, a sun-adapted plant), and linked hormonal responses, resistance traits, and performance of specialist monarch caterpillars (Danaus plexippus) in varying light environments. In natural populations, plants growing under forest-edge shade showed reduced levels of resistance traits (lower leaf toughness, cardenolides, and trichomes) and enhanced light-capture traits (higher specific leaf area, larger leaves, and lower carbon-to-nitrogen ratio) compared to paired plants in full sun. In a field experiment repeated over two years, only milkweeds growing in full sun exhibited induced resistance to monarchs, whereas plants growing in shade were constitutively more susceptible and did not induce resistance. In a more controlled field experiment, plant hormones were higher in the sun (jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, abscisic acid, indole acidic acid) and were induced by herbivory (jasmonic acid and abscisic acid). In particular, the jasmonate burst following herbivory was halved in plants raised in shaded habitats, and this correspondingly reduced latex induction (but not cardenolide induction). Thus, we provide a mechanistic basis for the attenuation of induced plant resistance in low resource environments. Additionally, there appears to be specificity in these interactions, with light-mediated impacts on jasmonate-induction being stronger for latex exudation than cardenolides.

  1. The Alpine Cushion Plant Silene acaulis as Foundation Species: A Bug’s-Eye View to Facilitation and Microclimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenda, Olivia; Reid, Anya; Lortie, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Alpine ecosystems are important globally with high levels of endemic and rare species. Given that they will be highly impacted by climate change, understanding biotic factors that maintain diversity is critical. Silene acaulis is a common alpine nurse plant shown to positively influence the diversity and abundance of organisms–predominantly other plant species. The hypothesis that cushion or nurse plants in general are important to multiple trophic levels has been proposed but rarely tested. Alpine arthropod diversity is also largely understudied worldwide, and the plant-arthropod interactions reported are mostly negative, that is,. herbivory. Plant and arthropod diversity and abundance were sampled on S. acaulis and at paired adjacent microsites with other non-cushion forming vegetation present on Whistler Mountain, B.C., Canada to examine the relative trophic effects of cushion plants. Plant species richness and abundance but not Simpson’s diversity index was higher on cushion microsites relative to other vegetation. Arthropod richness, abundance, and diversity were all higher on cushion microsites relative to other vegetated sites. On a microclimatic scale, S. acaulis ameliorated stressful conditions for plants and invertebrates living inside it, but the highest levels of arthropod diversity were observed on cushions with tall plant growth. Hence, alpine cushion plants can be foundation species not only for other plant species but other trophic levels, and these impacts are expressed through both direct and indirect effects associated with altered environmental conditions and localized productivity. Whilst this case study tests a limited subset of the membership of alpine animal communities, it clearly demonstrates that cushion-forming plant species are an important consideration in understanding resilience to global changes for many organisms in addition to other plants. PMID:22655035

  2. The alpine cushion plant Silene acaulis as foundation species: a bug's-eye view to facilitation and microclimate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenda, Olivia; Reid, Anya; Lortie, Christopher J

    2012-01-01

    Alpine ecosystems are important globally with high levels of endemic and rare species. Given that they will be highly impacted by climate change, understanding biotic factors that maintain diversity is critical. Silene acaulis is a common alpine nurse plant shown to positively influence the diversity and abundance of organisms--predominantly other plant species. The hypothesis that cushion or nurse plants in general are important to multiple trophic levels has been proposed but rarely tested. Alpine arthropod diversity is also largely understudied worldwide, and the plant-arthropod interactions reported are mostly negative, that is,. herbivory. Plant and arthropod diversity and abundance were sampled on S. acaulis and at paired adjacent microsites with other non-cushion forming vegetation present on Whistler Mountain, B.C., Canada to examine the relative trophic effects of cushion plants. Plant species richness and abundance but not Simpson's diversity index was higher on cushion microsites relative to other vegetation. Arthropod richness, abundance, and diversity were all higher on cushion microsites relative to other vegetated sites. On a microclimatic scale, S. acaulis ameliorated stressful conditions for plants and invertebrates living inside it, but the highest levels of arthropod diversity were observed on cushions with tall plant growth. Hence, alpine cushion plants can be foundation species not only for other plant species but other trophic levels, and these impacts are expressed through both direct and indirect effects associated with altered environmental conditions and localized productivity. Whilst this case study tests a limited subset of the membership of alpine animal communities, it clearly demonstrates that cushion-forming plant species are an important consideration in understanding resilience to global changes for many organisms in addition to other plants.

  3. The alpine cushion plant Silene acaulis as foundation species: a bug's-eye view to facilitation and microclimate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Molenda

    Full Text Available Alpine ecosystems are important globally with high levels of endemic and rare species. Given that they will be highly impacted by climate change, understanding biotic factors that maintain diversity is critical. Silene acaulis is a common alpine nurse plant shown to positively influence the diversity and abundance of organisms--predominantly other plant species. The hypothesis that cushion or nurse plants in general are important to multiple trophic levels has been proposed but rarely tested. Alpine arthropod diversity is also largely understudied worldwide, and the plant-arthropod interactions reported are mostly negative, that is,. herbivory. Plant and arthropod diversity and abundance were sampled on S. acaulis and at paired adjacent microsites with other non-cushion forming vegetation present on Whistler Mountain, B.C., Canada to examine the relative trophic effects of cushion plants. Plant species richness and abundance but not Simpson's diversity index was higher on cushion microsites relative to other vegetation. Arthropod richness, abundance, and diversity were all higher on cushion microsites relative to other vegetated sites. On a microclimatic scale, S. acaulis ameliorated stressful conditions for plants and invertebrates living inside it, but the highest levels of arthropod diversity were observed on cushions with tall plant growth. Hence, alpine cushion plants can be foundation species not only for other plant species but other trophic levels, and these impacts are expressed through both direct and indirect effects associated with altered environmental conditions and localized productivity. Whilst this case study tests a limited subset of the membership of alpine animal communities, it clearly demonstrates that cushion-forming plant species are an important consideration in understanding resilience to global changes for many organisms in addition to other plants.

  4. Convergent Evolution of Pathogen Effectors toward Reactive Oxygen Species Signaling Networks in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam-Soo Jwa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbial pathogens have evolved protein effectors to promote virulence and cause disease in host plants. Pathogen effectors delivered into plant cells suppress plant immune responses and modulate host metabolism to support the infection processes of pathogens. Reactive oxygen species (ROS act as cellular signaling molecules to trigger plant immune responses, such as pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI and effector-triggered immunity. In this review, we discuss recent insights into the molecular functions of pathogen effectors that target multiple steps in the ROS signaling pathway in plants. The perception of PAMPs by pattern recognition receptors leads to the rapid and strong production of ROS through activation of NADPH oxidase Respiratory Burst Oxidase Homologs (RBOHs as well as peroxidases. Specific pathogen effectors directly or indirectly interact with plant nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat receptors to induce ROS production and the hypersensitive response in plant cells. By contrast, virulent pathogens possess effectors capable of suppressing plant ROS bursts in different ways during infection. PAMP-triggered ROS bursts are suppressed by pathogen effectors that target mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades. Moreover, pathogen effectors target vesicle trafficking or metabolic priming, leading to the suppression of ROS production. Secreted pathogen effectors block the metabolic coenzyme NADP-malic enzyme, inhibiting the transfer of electrons to the NADPH oxidases (RBOHs responsible for ROS generation. Collectively, pathogen effectors may have evolved to converge on a common host protein network to suppress the common plant immune system, including the ROS burst and cell death response in plants.

  5. Species-specific identification from incomplete sampling: applying DNA barcodes to monitoring invasive solanum plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Fan, Xiaohong; Zhu, Shuifang; Zhao, Hong; Fu, Lianzhong

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive sampling is crucial to DNA barcoding, but it is rarely performed because materials are usually unavailable. In practice, only a few rather than all species of a genus are required to be identified. Thus identification of a given species using a limited sample is of great importance in current application of DNA barcodes. Here, we selected 70 individuals representing 48 species from each major lineage of Solanum, one of the most species-rich genera of seed plants, to explore whether DNA barcodes can provide reliable specific-species discrimination in the context of incomplete sampling. Chloroplast genes ndhF and trnS-trnG and the nuclear gene waxy, the commonly used markers in Solanum phylogeny, were selected as the supplementary barcodes. The tree-building and modified barcode gap methods were employed to assess species resolution. The results showed that four Solanum species of quarantine concern could be successfully identified through the two-step barcoding sampling strategy. In addition, discrepancies between nuclear and cpDNA barcodes in some samples demonstrated the ability to discriminate hybrid species, and highlights the necessity of using barcode regions with different modes of inheritance. We conclude that efficient phylogenetic markers are good candidates as the supplementary barcodes in a given taxonomic group. Critically, we hypothesized that a specific-species could be identified from a phylogenetic framework using incomplete sampling-through this, DNA barcoding will greatly benefit the current fields of its application.

  6. Invasive plant species: Inventory, mapping, and monitoring - A national strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludke, J. Larry; D'Erchia, Frank; Coffelt, Jan; Hanson, Leanne

    2002-01-01

    America is under siege by invasive species of plants and animals, and by diseases. The current environmental, economic, and health-related costs of invasive species could exceed $138 billion per year-more than all other natural disasters combined. Notorious examples include West Nile virus, Dutch elm disease, chestnut blight, and purple loose- strife in the Northeast; kudzu, Brazilian peppertree, water hyacinth, nutria, and fire ants in the Southeast; zebra mussels, leafy spurge, and Asian long-horn beetles in the Midwest; salt cedar, Russian olive, and Africanized bees in the Southwest; yellow star thistle, European wild oats, oak wilt disease, Asian clams, and white pine blister rust in California; cheatgrass, various knapweeds, and thistles in the Great Basin; whirling disease of salmonids in the Northwest; hundreds of invasive species from microbes to mammals in Hawaii; and the brown tree snake in Guam. Thousands of species from other countries are introduced intentionally or accidentally into the United States each year. Based on past experience, 10-15 percent can be expected to establish free-living populations and about 1 percent can be expected to cause significant impacts to ecosystems, native species, economic productivity, and (or) human health.

  7. What are the most crucial soil factors for predicting the distribution of alpine plant species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, A.; Pinto-Figueroa, E.; Yashiro, E.; Guisan, A.

    2017-12-01

    Nowadays the use of species distribution models (SDM) is common to predict in space and time the distribution of organisms living in the critical zone. The realized environmental niche concept behind the development of SDM imply that many environmental factors must be accounted for simultaneously to predict species distributions. Climatic and topographic factors are often primary included, whereas soil factors are frequently neglected, mainly due to the paucity of soil information available spatially and temporally. Furthermore, among existing studies, most included soil pH only, or few other soil parameters. In this study we aimed at identifying what are the most crucial soil factors for explaining alpine plant distributions and, among those identified, which ones further improve the predictive power of plant SDMs. To test the relative importance of the soil factors, we performed plant SDMs using as predictors 52 measured soil properties of various types such as organic/inorganic compounds, chemical/physical properties, water related variables, mineral composition or grain size distribution. We added them separately to a standard set of topo-climatic predictors (temperature, slope, solar radiation and topographic position). We used ensemble forecasting techniques combining together several predictive algorithms to model the distribution of 116 plant species over 250 sites in the Swiss Alps. We recorded the variable importance for each model and compared the quality of the models including different soil proprieties (one at a time) as predictors to models having only topo-climatic variables as predictors. Results show that 46% of the soil proprieties tested become the second most important variable, after air temperature, to explain spatial distribution of alpine plants species. Moreover, we also assessed that addition of certain soil factors, such as bulk soil water density, could improve over 80% the quality of some plant species models. We confirm that soil p

  8. Use of Wild Relatives and Closely Related Species to Adapt Common Bean to Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Kelly

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is an important legume crop worldwide. However, abiotic and biotic stress limits bean yields to <600 kg ha−1 in low-income countries. Current low yields result in food insecurity, while demands for increased yields to match the rate of population growth combined with the threat of climate change are significant. Novel and significant advances in genetic improvement using untapped genetic diversity available in crop wild relatives and closely related species must be further explored. A meeting was organized by the Global Crop Diversity Trust to consider strategies for common bean improvement. This review resulted from that meeting and considers our current understanding of the genetic resources available for common bean improvement and the progress that has been achieved thus far through introgression of genetic diversity from wild relatives of common bean, and from closely related species, including: P. acutifolius, P. coccineus, P. costaricensis and P. dumosus. Newly developed genomic tools and their potential applications are presented. A broad outline of research for use of these genetic resources for common bean improvement in a ten-year multi-disciplinary effort is presented.

  9. Hydroperiod regime controls the organization of plant species in wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foti, Romano; del Jesus, Manuel; Rinaldo, Andrea; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2012-11-27

    With urban, agricultural, and industrial needs growing throughout the past decades, wetland ecosystems have experienced profound changes. Most critically, the biodiversity of wetlands is intimately linked to its hydrologic dynamics, which in turn are being drastically altered by ongoing climate changes. Hydroperiod regimes, e.g., percentage of time a site is inundated, exert critical control in the creation of niches for different plant species in wetlands. However, the spatial signatures of the organization of plant species in wetlands and how the different drivers interact to yield such signatures are unknown. Focusing on Everglades National Park (ENP) in Florida, we show here that cluster sizes of each species follow a power law probability distribution and that such clusters have well-defined fractal characteristics. Moreover, we individuate and model those signatures via the interplay between global forcings arising from the hydroperiod regime and local controls exerted by neighboring vegetation. With power law clustering often associated with systems near critical transitions, our findings are highly relevant for the management of wetland ecosystems. In addition, our results show that changes in climate and land management have a quantifiable predictable impact on the type of vegetation and its spatial organization in wetlands.

  10. A common new species of Inocybe in the Pacific Northwest with a diagnostic PDAB reaction

    KAUST Repository

    Matheny, P. B.

    2012-09-06

    A species of Inocybe common in Washington, Oregon and British Columbia is documented and described as new. The species, I. chondroderma, is characterized by these features: pileus with a fulvous disk and ochraceous to chamois margin, presence of a cortina, densely mycelioid stipe base, smooth spores and fall phenology. The most reliable and distinctive feature of the species is a blue-green or turquoise reaction in response to application of a solution of p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde (PDAB), indicating the presence of what is most likely an indole alkaloid. PDAB use provides a quick and diagnostic character easily implemented in a laboratory setting. ITS sequences from recent collections of I. chondroderma and from materials collected in the 1940s in Washington and Oregon fully match numerous mislabeled sequences from specimens in British Columbia and Oregon. The species is most closely related to an unclarified taxon from Colorado and Japan (I. cf. chondroderma) and a rare European species, I. subnudipes. Nine different species names in Inocybe and one in Hebeloma attributed to I. chondroderma based on GenBank BLASTN searches of the ITS locus match with 99–100% similarity, reinforcing concerns about taxonomic inaccuracies in public DNA sequence databases. A complete morphological description, illustrations and phylogenetic assessment are provided.

  11. Physiological and biochemical characterization of Azospirillum brasilense strains commonly used as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Salvo, Luciana P; Silva, Esdras; Teixeira, Kátia R S; Cote, Rosalba Esquivel; Pereyra, M Alejandra; García de Salamone, Inés E

    2014-12-01

    Azospirillum is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) genus vastly studied and utilized as agriculture inoculants. Isolation of new strains under different environmental conditions allows the access to the genetic diversity and improves the success of inoculation procedures. Historically, the isolation of this genus has been performed by the use of some traditional culture media. In this work we characterized the physiology and biochemistry of five different A. brasilense strains, commonly used as cereal inoculants. The aim of this work is to contribute to pose into revision some concepts concerning the most used protocols to isolate and characterize this bacterium. We characterized their growth in different traditional and non-traditional culture media, evaluated some PGPR mechanisms and characterized their profiles of fatty acid methyl esters and carbon-source utilization. This work shows, for the first time, differences in both profiles, and ACC deaminase activity of A. brasilense strains. Also, we show unexpected results obtained in some of the evaluated culture media. Results obtained here and an exhaustive knowledge revision revealed that it is not appropriate to conclude about bacterial species without analyzing several strains. Also, it is necessary to continue developing studies and laboratory techniques to improve the isolation and characterization protocols. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Natural selection and family X location interaction in the common (dry bean plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Henrique Pirola

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural selection takes place while advancing generations of segregant populations of self pollinating species by the population (bulk method. There is evidence that it maintains the individuals with greater grain yield. The question arises whether natural selection preserves the individuals which are more adapted only to the environment where the generation advance occurred, that is, if it contributes to increasing the genotype x environment interaction in the family assessment. This study was carried out to check this hypothesis in the common bean plant using families derived from a segregating population from a cross between the Carioca MG x ESAL 686 cultivars. The segregating populations increase in homozygosity was obtained by the population (bulk method until the F14 generation, in three distinct locations in Minas Gerais state: Lavras, Lambari and Patos de Minas. Forty-seven F14:15 families were randomly taken from the population in each location and later multiplied to obtain F14:16 families. These families were jointly assessed with three controls using a triple 12 x 12 lattice design in the three locations of generation advance in the wet season of 1998/1999. All the estimated parameters showed that while advancing segregant populations by the population (bulk method, natural selection acted to preserve the individuals which are more adapted to the environment in which they were advanced.

  13. The polyphenolic content of common lamiaceae species available as herbal tea products in Romanian pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprotosoaie, Ana Clara; Răileanu, Elena; Trifan, Adriana; Cioanca, Oana

    2013-01-01

    The plants belonging to Lamiaceae family are widely used in medicine, cosmetic and food industry. Besides volatile oils, the main constituents of these plants are polyphenols. These compounds are secondary metabolites with multiple biological activities useful in the prevention and treatment of many disorders. To determine the flavonoids. hydroxycinnamic acids and total polyphenols content in several aromatic Lamiaceae plants available in Romanian pharmacies as herbal tea products: Melissa officinalis, Lavandula officinalis, Rosmarinus officinalis, Mentha piperita, Thymus vulgaris and Salvia pratensis. The quantitative determination of different types of polyphenols was performed in ethanolic extracts 70% and 50%, respectively, of each sample, using spectrophotometric methods. The total polyphenols levels in the investigated products ranged between 3.10% and 6.51% (expressed as g GAE/100 g dry weight), the largest amount being identified in Melissa officinalis (6.51%). The samples of Salvia pratensis and Mentha piperita were the richest in flavonoid derivatives expressed as g rutin/100 g dry weight (1.83% and 1.53%, respectively), the optimal extraction being with 70% ethanol. The highest content in hydroxycinnamic acids expressed as g rosmarinic acid/100 g dry weight was found in Melissa officinalis sample (4.15%). There is a wide variability of polyphenolic content not only by species, but also depending on the polyphenols type or solvent used for extraction. The best extraction rate of total polyphenols in the investigated Lamiaceae species was obtained with 50% ethanol.

  14. Geographic parthenogenesis and plant-enemy interactions in the common dandelion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Many species with sexual and asexual variants show a pattern of geographic parthenogenesis where asexuals have broader and higher-latitude distribution than sexuals. Because sexual reproduction is often considered a costly evolutionary strategy that is advantageous in the face of selection by coevolving pests and pathogens, one possible explanation for geographic parthenogenesis is that populations at higher latitudes are exposed to fewer pests and pathogens. We tested this hypothesis in the common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), a species with well-established geographic parthenogenesis, by screening prevalence and effects of several specialized pests and pathogens in natural dandelion populations. Results We did a population survey of 18 dandelion populations along a geographic transect that ranged from the area where sexual and asexual dandelions co-occur northward into the area where only asexuals occur. In addition we used four southern and four northern populations in a 8x8 cross-inoculation greenhouse experiment in which plants were exposed experimentally to each other’s natural field soil microbial communities. The cross-inoculation experiment indicated a higher pathogenicity of soil microbial communities from the southern, mostly sexual, populations compared to soil microbial communities from the northern asexual populations. Northern dandelion populations also showed reduced infestation by a specialized seed-eating weevil. A similar trend of reduced rust fungus infection in northern populations was observed but this trend was not statistically significant. Conclusions The prevalence of pests and pathogens decreased along the south-to-north axis of geographic parthenogenesis. This highlights the potential of biotic interactions in shaping patterns of geographic parthenogenesis. PMID:23356700

  15. Geographic parthenogenesis and plant-enemy interactions in the common dandelion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verhoeven Koen JF

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many species with sexual and asexual variants show a pattern of geographic parthenogenesis where asexuals have broader and higher-latitude distribution than sexuals. Because sexual reproduction is often considered a costly evolutionary strategy that is advantageous in the face of selection by coevolving pests and pathogens, one possible explanation for geographic parthenogenesis is that populations at higher latitudes are exposed to fewer pests and pathogens. We tested this hypothesis in the common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale, a species with well-established geographic parthenogenesis, by screening prevalence and effects of several specialized pests and pathogens in natural dandelion populations. Results We did a population survey of 18 dandelion populations along a geographic transect that ranged from the area where sexual and asexual dandelions co-occur northward into the area where only asexuals occur. In addition we used four southern and four northern populations in a 8x8 cross-inoculation greenhouse experiment in which plants were exposed experimentally to each other’s natural field soil microbial communities. The cross-inoculation experiment indicated a higher pathogenicity of soil microbial communities from the southern, mostly sexual, populations compared to soil microbial communities from the northern asexual populations. Northern dandelion populations also showed reduced infestation by a specialized seed-eating weevil. A similar trend of reduced rust fungus infection in northern populations was observed but this trend was not statistically significant. Conclusions The prevalence of pests and pathogens decreased along the south-to-north axis of geographic parthenogenesis. This highlights the potential of biotic interactions in shaping patterns of geographic parthenogenesis.

  16. Geographic parthenogenesis and plant-enemy interactions in the common dandelion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Koen J F; Biere, Arjen

    2013-01-28

    Many species with sexual and asexual variants show a pattern of geographic parthenogenesis where asexuals have broader and higher-latitude distribution than sexuals. Because sexual reproduction is often considered a costly evolutionary strategy that is advantageous in the face of selection by coevolving pests and pathogens, one possible explanation for geographic parthenogenesis is that populations at higher latitudes are exposed to fewer pests and pathogens. We tested this hypothesis in the common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), a species with well-established geographic parthenogenesis, by screening prevalence and effects of several specialized pests and pathogens in natural dandelion populations. We did a population survey of 18 dandelion populations along a geographic transect that ranged from the area where sexual and asexual dandelions co-occur northward into the area where only asexuals occur. In addition we used four southern and four northern populations in a 8x8 cross-inoculation greenhouse experiment in which plants were exposed experimentally to each other's natural field soil microbial communities. The cross-inoculation experiment indicated a higher pathogenicity of soil microbial communities from the southern, mostly sexual, populations compared to soil microbial communities from the northern asexual populations. Northern dandelion populations also showed reduced infestation by a specialized seed-eating weevil. A similar trend of reduced rust fungus infection in northern populations was observed but this trend was not statistically significant. The prevalence of pests and pathogens decreased along the south-to-north axis of geographic parthenogenesis. This highlights the potential of biotic interactions in shaping patterns of geographic parthenogenesis.

  17. The most common insect pollinator species on sesame crop (Sesamum indicum L. in Ismailia Governorate, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Kamel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A survey of insect pollinators associated with sesame, Sesamun indicum L. (Pedaliaceae was conducted at the Agriculture Research Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Suez Canal during the growing seasons of 2011 and 2012. All different insect pollinators which found on the experimental site were collected for identification. Sampling was done once a week and three times a day. Three methods were used to collect and identify insects from the sesame plants (a sweep net, pitfall traps, digital camera and eye observation. A total of 29 insect species were collected and properly identified during the survey. Insect pollinators which recorded on the plants were divided into four groups, 18 belonged to Hymenoptera, 7 to Diptera, 3 to Lepidoptera and one to Coleoptera. Results revealed that Honybee, Apis mellifera was the most dominant species in the 2011 season and the second one in the 2012 season. Whereas small carpenter bee, Ceratina tarsata was the most dominant species in the 2012 season and the second one in the 2011 season. The percentage of Hymenoptera was higher in the two studied seasons by 90.94% and 89.59%, followed by Diptera by 3.93% and 5.38%, then Lepidoptera by 3.58% and 3.62, and in the last Coleoptera by 1.53% and 1.39%, respectively.

  18. Fungal nutrient allocation in common mycorrhizal networks is regulated by the carbon source strength of individual host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellbaum, Carl R; Mensah, Jerry A; Cloos, Adam J; Strahan, Gary E; Pfeffer, Philip E; Kiers, E Toby; Bücking, Heike

    2014-07-01

    Common mycorrhizal networks (CMNs) of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in the soil simultaneously provide multiple host plants with nutrients, but the mechanisms by which the nutrient transport to individual host plants within one CMN is controlled are unknown. Using radioactive and stable isotopes, we followed the transport of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) in the CMNs of two fungal species to plants that differed in their carbon (C) source strength, and correlated the transport to the expression of mycorrhiza-inducible plant P (MtPt4) and ammonium (1723.m00046) transporters in mycorrhizal roots. AM fungi discriminated between host plants that shared a CMN and preferentially allocated nutrients to high-quality (nonshaded) hosts. However, the fungus also supplied low-quality (shaded) hosts with nutrients and maintained a high colonization rate in these plants. Fungal P transport was correlated to the expression of MtPt4. The expression of the putative ammonium transporter 1723.m00046 was dependent on the fungal nutrient supply and was induced when the CMN had access to N. Biological market theory has emerged as a tool with which the strategic investment of competing partners in trading networks can be studied. Our work demonstrates how fungal partners are able to retain bargaining power, despite being obligately dependent on their hosts. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. Planting intensity, residence time, and species traits determine invasion success of alien woody species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pyšek, Petr; Křivánek, Martin; Jarošík, Vojtěch

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 10 (2009), s. 2734-2744 ISSN 0012-9658 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/05/0323; GA MŠk LC06073 Grant - others:Evropská komise(XE) GOCE-CT-2003-506675 ALARM Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : woody species * invasion * planting Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 4.411, year: 2009

  20. Multiple phenological responses to climate change among 42 plant species in Xi'an, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Junhu; Wang, Huanjiong; Ge, Quansheng

    2013-09-01

    Phenological data of 42 woody plants in a temperate deciduous forest from the Chinese Phenological Observation Network (CPON) and the corresponding meteorological data from 1963 to 2011 in Xi'an, Shaanxi Province, China were collected and analyzed. The first leaf date (FLD), leaf coloring date (LCD) and first flower date (FFD) are revealed as strong biological signals of climatic change. The FLD, LCD and FFD of most species are sensitive to average temperature during a certain period before phenophase onset. Regional precipitation also has a significant impact on phenophases of about half of the species investigated. Affected by climate change, the FLD and FFD of these species have advanced by 5.54 days and 10.20 days on average during 2003-2011 compared with the period 1963-1996, respectively. Meanwhile, the LCD has delayed by 10.59 days, and growing season length has extended 16.13 days. Diverse responses of phenology commonly exist among different species and functional groups during the study period. Especially for FFD, the deviations between the above two periods ranged from -20.68 to -2.79 days; biotic pollination species showed a significantly greater advance than abiotic pollination species. These results were conducive to the understanding of possible changes in both the structure of plant communities and interspecific relationships in the context of climate change.

  1. Tadpoles of three common anuran species from Thailand do not prey on mosquito larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weterings, Robbie

    2015-12-01

    Tadpoles are often considered to be predators of mosquito larvae and are therefore beneficial for the control of certain disease vectors. Nevertheless, only a few species have actually been recorded to prey on mosquito larvae. The mosquito larvae predation rates of tadpoles of three common Thai anuran species (Bufo melanostictus, Kaloula pulchra and Hylarana raniceps) were experimentally tested. Tadpoles in varying developmental stages were used to assess a size/age effect on the predation rate. In addition, different instars of Culex quinquefasciatus were used in order to assess a prey size effect on the predation rates. All three species failed to show any evidence of mosquito larvae predation. Neither small nor large tadpoles fed on mosquito larvae. Prey size also did not affect predation. Although tadpoles do not feed on mosquito larvae, there may be other direct or indirect inter-specific interactions that adversely impact the development of larvae in shared habitats with tadpoles. © 2015 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  2. On streamlining the Ukrainian names of plants. Information 5. Species names for pome fruit crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. М. Меженський

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To analyse the modern classification and nomenclature of species of pome fruit crops which varieties are listed in the State Register of Plants Varieties Suitable for Dissemination in Ukraine, and improve terminological system of the Ukrainian names of both species and garden crops. Results. Fruit cultivars and most apple clonal rootstocks belong to Malus pumila, and ornamental cultivars belong to Malus gloriosa. The most common scientific name of the cultivated apple, especially among horticulturists, is Malus domestica, although according to the principle of priority the name Malus pumila should have the advantage. As far as Nomenclature Committee for Vascular Plants has rejected the proposal to conserve the name Malus domestica, Malus pumila is correct name for the cultivated apple. The use of synonymic name Malus domestica should be avoided in both scientific and scientific-popular papers for stability of nomenclature. Pear cultivars listed in the State Register of Plants Varieties Suitable for Dissemination in Ukraine are presented by Pyrus communis, and pear rootstocks – by Cydonia oblonga. Fruit cultivars of the latter belong to separate fruit crop named quince. An apple-quince hybrid was registered as universal clonal rootstock for pome fruit crops. The State Register of Plants Varieties Suitable for Dissemination in Ukraine also contains nonconventional fruit crops such as Chaenomeles and hawthorn that consist of some species and nothospecies. Conclusions. In scientific publications one should stop the use of synonymic name Malus domestica in favour of the correct name for cultivated apple Malus pumila. Apple, pears and Chaenomeles cultivars listed in the State Register of Plants Varieties Suitable for Dissemination in Ukraine have a complex multispecies origin whereas quince, hawthorn and pear roostock cultivars systematically are monospecies. A universal roootstock of pome fruit crops is Cydolus, or apple-quince, that resulted

  3. Variation within and between Frankliniella Thrips Species in Host Plant Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baez, Ignacio; Reitz, Stuart R.; Funderburk, Joseph E.; Olson, Steve M.

    2011-01-01

    Anthophilous flower thrips in the genus Frankliniella (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) exploit ephemeral plant resources and therefore must be capable of successfully locating appropriate hosts on a repeated basis, yet little is known of interspecific and intraspecific variation in responses to host plant type and nutritional quality. Field trials were conducted over two seasons to determine if the abundance of males and females of three common Frankliniella species, F. occidentalis (Pergande), F. tritici (Fitch) and F. bispinosa (Morgan), their larvae, and a key predator, Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) were affected by host plant type and plant nutritional quality. Two host plants, pepper, Capsicum annuum L. (Solanales: Solanaceae) and tomato, Solanum lycopersicum L. that vary in suitability for these species were examined, and their nutritional quality was manipulated by applying three levels of nitrogen fertilization (101 kg/ha, 202 kg/ha, 404 kg/ha). F. occidentalis females were more abundant in pepper than in tomato, but males did not show a differential response. Both sexes of F. tritici and F. bispinosa were more abundant in tomato than in pepper. Larval thrips were more abundant in pepper than in tomato. Likewise, O. insidiosus females and nymphs were more abundant in pepper than in tomato. Only F. occidentalis females showed a distinct response to nitrogen fertilization, with abundance increasing with fertilization. These results show that host plant utilization patterns vary among Frankliniella spp. and should not be generalized from results of the intensively studied F. occidentalis. Given the different pest status of these species and their differential abundance in pepper and tomato, it is critical that scouting programs include species identifications for proper management. PMID:21539418

  4. Design and Validation of Real-Time PCR: Quantitative Diagnosis of Common Leishmania Species in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekri Soofi Abadi, Maryam; Dabiri, Shahriar; Fotouhi Ardakani, Reza; Fani Malaki, Lina; Amirpoor Rostami, Sahar; Ziasistani, Mahsa; Dabiri, Donya

    2016-07-01

    Design and validation of Real-time PCR on the protected gene region ITS2 to quantify the parasite load in common leishmania (L) species. Probe and primer were designed from the ITS2 region between the rRNA genes with minimum gene variation in three common leishmania species followed by a Real-time PCR using the Taq man probe method in the form of absolute quantification. A series of different concentrations of leishmania were analyzed. After the purified PCR product was successfully placed in a PTG19-T plasmid vector, specialized ITS2 region was cloned in this plasmid. In the last phase, the cloned gene was transferred to the Ecoli.Top10F bacteria. The standard plasmid was provided in 10(7) to 10(1) copies/rxn concentrations. The specification and clinical sensitivity of the data was analyzed using inter and intra scales. The probe and primer were designed using three species, including L. infantum, L. major, and L.tropica. Seven concentrations of purified parasite in culture media showed that the selected region for quantifying the parasite is suitable. Clinical and analytical specificity and sensitivity were both 100%, respectively. The Taq man method for the ITS2 region in leishmania is one the most sensitive diagnostic test for identifying the parasite load and is suggested as a tool for fast identification and quantification of species.

  5. Monitoring the effects of atmospheric ethylene near polyethylene manufacturing plants with two sensitive plant species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonneijck, A.E.G.; Berge, W.F. ten; Jansen, B.P.

    2003-01-01

    Atmospheric ethylene from polyethylene manufacturing plants adversely affected the number of flowers and growth of field-grown marigold and petunia. - Data of a multi-year (1977-1983) biomonitoring programme with marigold and petunia around polyethylene manufacturing plants was analysed to assess plant responses to atmospheric ethylene and to determine the area at risk for the phytotoxic effects of this pollutant. In both species, flower formation and growth were severely reduced close to the emission sources and plant performance improved with increasing distance. Plants exposed near the border of the research area had more flowers than the unexposed control while their growth was normal. Measurements of ethylene concentrations at a border site revealed that the growing season mean was 61.5 μg m -3 in 1982 and 15.6 μg m -3 in 1983. In terms of number of flowers, petunia was more sensitive than marigold and adverse effects were observed within ca. 400 m distance from the sources for marigold and within ca. 460 m for petunia. The area at risk (ca. 870 m) for ethylene-induced growth reduction was also limited to the industrial zone. Plants were more sensitive to ethylene in terms of growth reduction than in terms of inhibition of flowering. In the Netherlands, maximum permissible levels of ethylene are currently based on information from laboratory and greenhouse studies. Our results indicate that these levels are rather conservative in protecting field-grown plants against ethylene-induced injury near polyethylene manufacturing plants

  6. Herbicides: an unexpected ally for native plants in the war against invasive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrea Watts; Tim Harrington; Dave Peter

    2015-01-01

    Herbicides are primarily used for protecting agricultural crops from weeds and controlling vegetation competition in newly planted forest stands. Yet for over 40 years, they have also proven useful in controlling invasive plant species in natural areas. Nonnative invasive plant species, if not controlled, can displace native species and disrupt an ecosystem by changing...

  7. 45 CFR 670.25 - Designation of specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... native mammals, birds, and plants. 670.25 Section 670.25 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public... Protected Species of Mammals, Birds, and Plants § 670.25 Designation of specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants. The following species has been designated as Specially Protected...

  8. A study on possible use of Urtica dioica (common nettle) plants as uranium (234U, 238U) contamination bioindicator near phosphogypsum stockpile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olszewski, Grzegorz; Borylo, Alicja; Skwarzec, Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine uranium concentrations in common nettle (Urtica dioica) plants and corresponding soils samples which were collected from the area of phosphogypsum stockpile in Wislinka (northern Poland). The uranium concentrations in roots depended on its concentrations in soils. Calculated BCF and TF values showed that soils characteristics and air deposition affect uranium absorption and that different uranium species have different affinities to U. dioica plants. The values of 234 U/ 238 U activity ratio indicate natural origin of these radioisotopes in analyzed plants. Uranium concentration in plants roots is negatively weakly correlated with distance from phosphogypsum stockpile. (author)

  9. A study on possible use of Urtica dioica (common nettle) plants as uranium (234U, 238U) contamination bioindicator near phosphogypsum stockpile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski, Grzegorz; Boryło, Alicja; Skwarzec, Bogdan

    The aim of this study was to determine uranium concentrations in common nettle ( Urtica dioica ) plants and corresponding soils samples which were collected from the area of phosphogypsum stockpile in Wiślinka (northern Poland). The uranium concentrations in roots depended on its concentrations in soils. Calculated BCF and TF values showed that soils characteristics and air deposition affect uranium absorption and that different uranium species have different affinities to U . dioica plants. The values of 234 U/ 238 U activity ratio indicate natural origin of these radioisotopes in analyzed plants. Uranium concentration in plants roots is negatively weakly correlated with distance from phosphogypsum stockpile.

  10. Twinflower (Linnaea borealis L. – plant species of potential medicinal properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiem Barbara

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Twinflower (Linnaea borealis L. is a widespread circumboreal plant species belonging to Linnaeaceae family (previously Caprifoliaceae. L. borealis commonly grows in taiga and tundra. In some countries in Europe, including Poland, twinflower is protected as a glacial relict. Chemical composition of this species is not well known, however in folk medicine of Scandinavian countries, L. borealis has a long tradition as a cure for skin diseases and rheumatism. It is suggested that twinflower has potential medicinal properties. The new study on lead secondary metabolites responsible for biological activity are necessary. This short review summarizes very sparse knowledge on twinflower: its biology, distribution, conservation status, chemical constituents, and describes the role of this plant in folk tradition of Scandinavian countries.

  11. Plant-microbe and plant-insect interactions meet common grounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenk, P.; McGrath, K.C.; Lorito, M.; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Plant–microbe and plant–insect interactions are of global importance for agriculture and of high interest to many plant scientists, microbiologists and entomologists. Traditionally, plant–microbe and plant–insect interactions have been looked at as two separate issues, but in recent years it has

  12. Introduction of Medicinal Plants Species with the Most Traditional Usage in Alamut Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahvazi, Maryam; Khalighi-Sigaroodi, Farahnaz; Charkhchiyan, Mohammad Mahdi; Mojab, Faraz; Mozaffarian, Vali-Allah; Zakeri, Hamideh

    2012-01-01

    The ethnobotany of the medicinal plants of Alamut region is important in understanding the cultures and traditions of Alamut people. This study documents 16 medicinal plant species, most commonly used by the indigenous people of Alamut region (Ghazvin Province), northwest, Iran. The botanical name, family name, vernacular name, part used, and the application of the plants have been provided in this paper. Alamut region was divided into different villages with the aid of maps. We recorded traditional knowledge and use of medicinal plants from herbal practitioners and village seniors in Alamut. The plants were gathered from different sites. The fully dried specimens were then mounted on herbarium sheets. We found 16 medicinal plants belonging to 11 families which were traditionally used in Alamut. Finally, we describe traditional usages by the native people in the Alamut region. The obtained results were compared with data on the herb’s clinical effects. A set of voucher specimens were deposited to the Institute of Medicinal Plants Herbarium (IMPH). PMID:24250441

  13. Plant ecological groups and soil properties of common hazel (Corylus avellana L. stand in Safagashteh forest, north of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pourbabaei Hassan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In Safragashteh forest of Fuman in north of Iran, there is a hazel stand, which has grown naturally. The aim of this research was to evaluate the plant communities and soil characteristics in the area. This study included 50 ha of hazel protected area. A selective sampling method was utilized to record 30 400 m2 for tree and shrub layers, and sub-plots of 100 m2 for herbaceous species. Soil samples were collected at the 30 plots. We found three ecological species groups in the study area. Corylus avellana and Epimedium pinnatum in first group, Fagus orientalis, Asperula odorata, Euphorbia amygdaloides, Carex sp., Fragaria vesca and Viola sylvestris in second group, and Crataegus microphylla, Ilex spinigera, Primula heterochroma, Sedum stoloniferum and Vicia crocea in thirth group were the indicator species. Sand percent was significantly highest in Corylus avellana group, while clay, nutrients elements, pH and SP were significantly highest in the other groups. Biodiversity indices in Corylus avellana group were significantly less than other stands. We recommend to provide comprehensive conservation and management programs in order to protect of common hazel, associated plant species, and to prevent of human activities such as recreational use and livestock.

  14. Redefining common endophytes and plant pathogens in Neofabraea, Pezicula, and related genera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Chen; Verkley, Gerard J.M.; Sun, Guangyu; Groenewald, Johannes Z.; Crous, Pedro W.

    2016-01-01

    Species in Neofabraea, Pezicula, and related genera have been reported as saprobes, plant pathogens or endophytes from a wide range of hosts. The asexual morphs of Neofabraea and Pezicula had been placed in Cryptosporiopsis, now a synonym of Pezicula, while Neofabraea was also linked to Phlyctema.

  15. Problems associated with the use of common names in the identification of poisonous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiTomaso, J M

    1993-10-01

    Barriers in communication among professional botanists, physicians and the general populous developed from a disparity in the use of botanical nomenclature. Universally accepted scientific names from plants affords a common ground of understanding among botanists throughout the world. A general phobia with unfamiliar latinized scientific nomenclature has proliferated the use of common or trivial names. These names, however, can vary with geographic region, language, or individual preference often and thus, can lead to misidentification or a delay in the proper identification of a toxic plant.

  16. Discriminant WSRC for Large-Scale Plant Species Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanwen Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In sparse representation based classification (SRC and weighted SRC (WSRC, it is time-consuming to solve the global sparse representation problem. A discriminant WSRC (DWSRC is proposed for large-scale plant species recognition, including two stages. Firstly, several subdictionaries are constructed by dividing the dataset into several similar classes, and a subdictionary is chosen by the maximum similarity between the test sample and the typical sample of each similar class. Secondly, the weighted sparse representation of the test image is calculated with respect to the chosen subdictionary, and then the leaf category is assigned through the minimum reconstruction error. Different from the traditional SRC and its improved approaches, we sparsely represent the test sample on a subdictionary whose base elements are the training samples of the selected similar class, instead of using the generic overcomplete dictionary on the entire training samples. Thus, the complexity to solving the sparse representation problem is reduced. Moreover, DWSRC is adapted to newly added leaf species without rebuilding the dictionary. Experimental results on the ICL plant leaf database show that the method has low computational complexity and high recognition rate and can be clearly interpreted.

  17. Effect of plant species on nitrogen recovery in aquaponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhen; Lee, Jae Woo; Chandran, Kartik; Kim, Sungpyo; Brotto, Ariane Coelho; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen transformations in aquaponics with different edible plant species, i.e., tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and pak choi (Brassica campestris L. subsp. chinensis) were systematically examined and compared. Results showed that nitrogen utilization efficiencies (NUE) of tomato- and pak choi-based aquaponic systems were 41.3% and 34.4%, respectively. The abundance of nitrifying bacteria in tomato-based aquaponics was 4.2-folds higher than that in pak choi-based aquaponics, primarily due to its higher root surface area. In addition, tomato-based aquaponics had better water quality than that of pak choi-based aquaponics. About 1.5-1.9% of nitrogen input were emitted to atmosphere as nitrous oxide (N2O) in tomato- and pak choi-based aquaponic systems, respectively, suggesting that aquaponics is a potential anthropogenic source of N2O emission. Overall, this is the first intensive study that examined the role plant species played in aquaponics, which could provide new strategy in designing and operating an aquaponic system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Biological invasions: economic and environmental costs of alien plant, animal, and microbe species

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pimentel, David

    2011-01-01

    ...: Economic and Environmental Costs of Alien Plant, Animal, and Microbe Species, this reference discusses how non-native species invade new ecosystems and the subsequent economic and environmental effects of these species...

  19. Defense-in-depth for common cause failure of nuclear power plant safety system software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Lu

    2012-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the development of digital I and C system in nuclear power plant, and analyses the viewpoints of NRC and other nuclear safety authorities on Software Common Cause Failure (SWCCF). In view of the SWCCF issue introduced by the digitized platform adopted in nuclear power plant safety system, this paper illustrated a diversified defence strategy for computer software and hardware. A diversified defence-in-depth solution is provided for digital safety system of nuclear power plant. Meanwhile, analysis on problems may be faced during application of nuclear safety license are analyzed, and direction of future nuclear safety I and C system development are put forward. (author)

  20. Induction of defense responses in common bean plants by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Fattah, G M; El-Haddad, S A; Hafez, E E; Rashad, Y M

    2011-05-20

    Interaction between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi as a bio-agent and Rhizoctonia root rot disease of common bean plant was investigated in this study under natural conditions in pot experiment. A mixture of Egyptian formulated AM (Multi-VAM) in suspension form (1 × 10(6) unit L(-1) in concentration) was used at dilution of 5 ml L(-1) water. The results demonstrated that colonization of bean plants with AM fungi significantly increased growth parameters, yield parameters and mineral nutrient concentrations and reduced the negative effects on these parameters as well as both disease severity and disease incidence. Different physical and biochemical mechanisms have been shown to play a role in enhancement of plant resistance against Rhizoctonia solani, namely, improved plant nutrition, improved plant growth, increase in cell wall thickening, cytoplasmic granulation, and accumulation of some antimicrobial substances (phenolic compounds and defense related enzymes). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Duck productivity in restored species-rich native and species-poor non-native plantings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan D Haffele

    Full Text Available Conservation efforts to increase duck production have led the United States Fish and Wildlife Service to restore grasslands with multi-species (3-5 mixtures of introduced cool season vegetation often termed dense nesting cover (DNC. The effectiveness of DNC to increase duck production has been variable, and maintenance of the cover type is expensive. In an effort to decrease the financial and ecological costs (increased carbon emissions from plowing and reseeding of maintaining DNC and provide a long-term, resilient cover that will support a diversity of grassland fauna, restoration of multi-species (16-32 plantings of native plants has been explored. We investigated the vegetation characteristics, nesting density and nest survival between the 2 aforementioned cover types in the Prairie Pothole Region of North Dakota, USA from 2010-2011 to see if restored-native plantings provide similar benefits to nesting hens as DNC. We searched 14 fields (7 DNC, 271 ha; and 7 restored native, 230 ha locating 3384 nests (1215 in restored-native vegetation and 2169 in DNC in 2010-2011. Nest survival was similar between cover types in 2010, while DNC had greater survival than native plantings in 2011. Densities of nests adjusted for detection probability were not different between cover types in either year. We found no structural difference in vegetation between cover types in 2010; however, a difference was detected during the late sampling period in 2011 with DNC having deeper litter and taller vegetation. Our results indicate restored-native plantings are able to support similar nesting density as DNC; however, nest survival is more stable between years in DNC. It appears the annual variation in security between cover types goes undetected by hens as hens selected cover types at similar levels both years.

  2. Duck productivity in restored species-rich native and species-poor non-native plantings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffele, Ryan D; Eichholz, Michael W; Dixon, Cami S

    2013-01-01

    Conservation efforts to increase duck production have led the United States Fish and Wildlife Service to restore grasslands with multi-species (3-5) mixtures of introduced cool season vegetation often termed dense nesting cover (DNC). The effectiveness of DNC to increase duck production has been variable, and maintenance of the cover type is expensive. In an effort to decrease the financial and ecological costs (increased carbon emissions from plowing and reseeding) of maintaining DNC and provide a long-term, resilient cover that will support a diversity of grassland fauna, restoration of multi-species (16-32) plantings of native plants has been explored. We investigated the vegetation characteristics, nesting density and nest survival between the 2 aforementioned cover types in the Prairie Pothole Region of North Dakota, USA from 2010-2011 to see if restored-native plantings provide similar benefits to nesting hens as DNC. We searched 14 fields (7 DNC, 271 ha; and 7 restored native, 230 ha) locating 3384 nests (1215 in restored-native vegetation and 2169 in DNC) in 2010-2011. Nest survival was similar between cover types in 2010, while DNC had greater survival than native plantings in 2011. Densities of nests adjusted for detection probability were not different between cover types in either year. We found no structural difference in vegetation between cover types in 2010; however, a difference was detected during the late sampling period in 2011 with DNC having deeper litter and taller vegetation. Our results indicate restored-native plantings are able to support similar nesting density as DNC; however, nest survival is more stable between years in DNC. It appears the annual variation in security between cover types goes undetected by hens as hens selected cover types at similar levels both years.

  3. Detection of Ophiocordyceps sinensis and Its Common Adulterates Using Species-Specific Primers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Wang, Xiao-yue; Gao, Zi-tong; Han, Jian-ping; Xiang, Li

    2017-01-01

    Ophiocordyceps sinensis is a fungus that infects Hepialidae caterpillars, mummifying the larvae and producing characteristic fruiting bodies (stromata) that are processed into one of the most valued traditional Chinese medicines (TCM). The product commands a very high price due to a high demand but a very limited supply. Adulteration with other fungi is a common problem and there is a need to test preparation for the presence of the correct fungus. In the current study, a PCR-based approach for the identification of O. sinensis based on a segment of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was developed. The segments is 146-bp in size and is likely to be amplified even in materials where processing led to DNA fragmentation. Primer development was based on the alignment of sequence data generated from a total of 89 samples of O. sinensis and potential adulterants as well as sequences date from 41 Ophiocordyceps species and 26 Cordyceps species available in GenBank. Tests with primer pair, DCF4/DCR4, demonstrated generation of an amplicon from DNA extracted from O. sinensis stromata, but not from extracts derived from adulterants. Species-specific primer pairs were also developed and tested for detection of the common adulterants, Cordyceps gunnii, Cordyceps cicadae, Cordyceps militaris, Cordyceps liangshanensis and Ophiocordyceps nutans. The collection of primers developed in the present study will be useful for the authentication of preparation claiming to only contain O. sinensis and for the detection of fungi used as adulterants in these preparations. PMID:28680424

  4. Metal contents in common edible fish species and evaluation of potential health risks to consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naglaa Farag Soliman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To conduct a health risk assessment of some heavy metals attributed to consumption of common edible fish species available for consumers. Methods: Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn were determined in muscles, gills, livers, bones and skins of six common edible fish species, namely Oreochromis niloticus, Mugil cephalus, Sardinella aurita, Mullus barbatus, Boops boops, Pagrus pagrus. Concentrations of heavy metals were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer and expressed as µg/g of wet tissue. Results: Results showed that iron and zinc were the most abundant among all fish tissues under investigation. The data obtained in the present work were compared well with the counterpart data reported internationally. The estimated values of all metals in muscles of fish in this study were below the permissible limits. Moreover, the potential health risks of metals to human via consumption of seafood were assessed by estimating daily intake and target heath quotient. Generally, risk values for the measured metals do not pose unacceptable risks at mean ingestion rate for muscles. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the investigated metals in edible parts of the examined species have no health problems for consumers.

  5. Detection of Ophiocordyceps sinensis and Its Common Adulterates Using Species-Specific Primers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ophiocordyceps sinensis is a fungus that infects Hepialidae caterpillars, mummifying the larvae and producing characteristic fruiting bodies (stromata that are processed into one of the most valued traditional Chinese medicines (TCM. The product commands a very high price due to a high demand but a very limited supply. Adulteration with other fungi is a common problem and there is a need to test preparation for the presence of the correct fungus. In the current study, a PCR-based approach for the identification of O. sinensis based on a segment of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS region was developed. The segments is 146-bp in size and is likely to be amplified even in materials where processing led to DNA fragmentation. Primer development was based on the alignment of sequence data generated from a total of 89 samples of O. sinensis and potential adulterants as well as sequences date from 41 Ophiocordyceps species and 26 Cordyceps species available in GenBank. Tests with primer pair, DCF4/DCR4, demonstrated generation of an amplicon from DNA extracted from O. sinensis stromata, but not from extracts derived from adulterants. Species-specific primer pairs were also developed and tested for detection of the common adulterants, Cordyceps gunnii, Cordyceps cicadae, Cordyceps militaris, Cordyceps liangshanensis and Ophiocordyceps nutans. The collection of primers developed in the present study will be useful for the authentication of preparation claiming to only contain O. sinensis and for the detection of fungi used as adulterants in these preparations.

  6. Historic land use influences contemporary establishment of invasive plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattingly, W Brett; Orrock, John L

    2013-08-01

    The legacy of agricultural land use can have widespread and persistent effects on contemporary landscapes. Although agriculture can lead to persistent changes in soil characteristics and plant communities, it remains unclear whether historic agricultural land use can alter the likelihood of contemporary biological invasions. To understand how agricultural land-use history might interact with well-known drivers of invasion, we conducted factorial manipulations of soil disturbance and resource additions within non-agricultural remnant sites and post-agricultural sites invaded by two non-native Lespedeza species. Our results reveal that variation in invader success can depend on the interplay of historic land use and contemporary processes: for both Lespedeza species, establishment was greater in remnant sites, but soil disturbance enhanced establishment irrespective of land-use history, demonstrating that contemporary processes can help to overcome legacy constraints on invader success. In contrast, additions of resources known to facilitate seedling recruitment (N and water) reduced invader establishment in post-agricultural but not in remnant sites, providing evidence that interactions between historic and contemporary processes can also limit invader success. Our findings thus illustrate that a consideration of historic land use may help to clarify the often contingent responses of invasive plants to known determinants of invasibility. Moreover, in finding significantly greater soil compaction at post-agricultural sites, our study provides a putative mechanism for historic land-use effects on contemporary invasive plant establishment. Our work suggests that an understanding of invasion dynamics requires knowledge of anthropogenic events that often occur decades before the introduction of invasive propagules.

  7. Plant species used in traditional smallholder dairy processing in East Shoa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Hailemariam; Lemma, A

    2011-04-01

    Plant species used in traditional dairy processing were studied in three districts (Bosset, Ada, and Gimbichu) in Eastern Shoa, Ethiopia, from October 2007 to March 2008. A total of 300 smallholders were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires, and three focus group discussions were conducted, followed by plants specimen collection and identification. A total of 36 plant species, falling under 24 plant families, were identified. Nearly half of the identified plant species had more than one use types. Eleven plant species were/are used for washing (scrubbing) dairy utensils, ten plant species for smoking dairy utensils, 12 plant species in butter making, 15 plant species in ghee making, and five plant species for packaging (wrapping) butter and cheese. The plant species that had the highest overall citations from each use category were Ocimum hardiense, Olea europaea subspecies africana, Trachyspermum copticum, Curcuma longa, and Croton macrostachyus. The plant species used in the three study districts, representing different agro ecologies, showed some similarities, but levels of uses differed significantly (P < 0.05). Higher informant citations might indicate their better efficacy, however need to be further investigated to determine their effects on milk and milk product quality and to make sure that they are innocuous to human and animal health. Finally, as the present study tried to document natural products used in traditional dairy processing, it could be considered as part of the global efforts aimed at promoting organic food production.

  8. [Biomass allometric equations of nine common tree species in an evergreen broadleaved forest of subtropical China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Shu-di; Ren, Yin; Weng, Xian; Ding, Hong-feng; Luo, Yun-jian

    2015-02-01

    Biomass allometric equation (BAE) considered as a simple and reliable method in the estimation of forest biomass and carbon was used widely. In China, numerous studies focused on the BAEs for coniferous forest and pure broadleaved forest, and generalized BAEs were frequently used to estimate the biomass and carbon of mixed broadleaved forest, although they could induce large uncertainty in the estimates. In this study, we developed the species-specific and generalized BAEs using biomass measurement for 9 common broadleaved trees (Castanopsis fargesii, C. lamontii, C. tibetana, Lithocarpus glaber, Sloanea sinensis, Daphniphyllum oldhami, Alniphyllum fortunei, Manglietia yuyuanensis, and Engelhardtia fenzlii) of subtropical evergreen broadleaved forest, and compared differences in species-specific and generalized BAEs. The results showed that D (diameter at breast height) was a better independent variable in estimating the biomass of branch, leaf, root, aboveground section and total tree than a combined variable (D2 H) of D and H (tree height) , but D2H was better than D in estimating stem biomass. R2 (coefficient of determination) values of BAEs for 6 species decreased when adding H as the second independent variable into D- only BAEs, where R2 value for S. sinensis decreased by 5.6%. Compared with generalized D- and D2H-based BAEs, standard errors of estimate (SEE) of BAEs for 8 tree species decreased, and similar decreasing trend was observed for different components, where SEEs of the branch decreased by 13.0% and 20.3%. Therefore, the biomass carbon storage and its dynamic estimates were influenced largely by tree species and model types. In order to improve the accuracy of the estimates of biomass and carbon, we should consider the differences in tree species and model types.

  9. Efficacy of the core DNA barcodes in identifying processed and poorly conserved plant materials commonly used in South African traditional medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ledile Mankga

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants cover a broad range of taxa, which may be phylogenetically less related but morphologically very similar. Such morphological similarity between species may lead to misidentification and inappropriate use. Also the substitution of a medicinal plant by a cheaper alternative (e.g. other non-medicinal plant species, either due to misidentification, or deliberately to cheat consumers, is an issue of growing concern. In this study, we used DNA barcoding to identify commonly used medicinal plants in South Africa. Using the core plant barcodes, matK and rbcLa, obtained from processed and poorly conserved materials sold at the muthi traditional medicine market, we tested efficacy of the barcodes in species discrimination. Based on genetic divergence, PCR amplification efficiency and BLAST algorithm, we revealed varied discriminatory potentials for the DNA barcodes. In general, the barcodes exhibited high discriminatory power, indicating their effectiveness in verifying the identity of the most common plant species traded in South African medicinal markets. BLAST algorithm successfully matched 61% of the queries against a reference database, suggesting that most of the information supplied by sellers at traditional medicinal markets in South Africa is correct. Our findings reinforce the utility of DNA barcoding technique in limiting false identification that can harm public health.

  10. Cover Image Identification of Plant Species for Crop Pollinator Habitat Enhancement in the Northern Prairies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Bizecki Robson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Wild pollinators have a positive impact on the productivity of insect-pollinated crops. Consequently, landowners are being encouraged to maintain and grow wildflower patches to provide habitat for important pollinators. Research on plant-pollinator interaction matrices indicates that a small number of “core” plants provide a disproportionately high amount of pollen and nectar to insects. This matrix data can be used to help design wildflower plantings that provide optimal resources for desirable pollinators. Existing interaction matrices from three tall grass prairie preserves in the northern prairies were used to identify core plant species that are visited by wild pollinators of a common insect-pollinated crop, namely canola (Brassica napus L.. The wildflower preferences of each insect taxon were determined using quantitative insect visitation and floral abundance data. Phenology data were used to calculate the degree of floral synchrony between the wildflowers and canola. Using this information I ranked the 41 wildflowers that share insect visitors with canola according to how useful they are for providing pollinators with forage before and after canola flowers. The top five species were smooth blue aster (Symphyotrichum laeve (L. A. & D. Löve, stiff goldenrod (Solidago rigida L., wild bergamot (Monarda fistulosa L., purple prairie-clover (Dalea purpurea Vent. and Lindley’s aster (Symphyotrichum ciliolatum (Lindl. A. & D. Löve. By identifying the most important wild insects for crop pollination, and determining when there will be “pollen and nectar gaps”, appropriate plant species can be selected for companion plantings to increase pollinator populations and crop production.

  11. [Spatial distribution pattern and allometric growth of three common species on moving sand dunes in Horqin Sandy Land, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Mei-yu; Li, Xue-hua; Oh, Choong-hyeon; Park, Hong-chul; Miao, Chun-ping; Han, Xu

    2015-10-01

    Research on fine scale pattern and characteristics of allometric growth could contribute to better understanding plants' adaptation in moving sandy dunes. The abundance, height and biomass of 3 species Agriophilum aquarrosum, Corispermum candelabrum and Setaria viridis in twenty-eight 1 m x 1 m quadrats of Horqin Sandy Land were identified, mapped and described. The nearest neighbor method and O-ring O(r) function analysis were applied to analyze the spatial patterns. The results showed that the individual spatial pattern was mainly aggregated in 1 m x 1 m quadrat at community level but mainly random at population level. At 0-50 cm individual distance scale, both intraspecific and interspecific relationship were facilitation and aggregated distribution occurred at some scales and varied with increasing plant abundance in 1 m x 1 m quadrat. In 0-40 cm, the aggregated distribution of S. viridis and A. aquarrosum increased obviously; in 10-20 cm, both intraspecific and interspecific aggregation increased; in 10-30 cm, the occurrence possibility of positive correlations between S. viridis and A. aquarrosum, S. viridis and C. candelabrum all increased; in 40-50 cm, the possibility of positive correlations between A. squarrosum and S. viridis, A. squarrosum and C. candelabrum all increased. Research on the three species components indicated that the growth rate of above-ground was faster than that of underground. S. viridis had the highest ratio of under-ground biomass to above-ground biomass but its nutritional organs' biomass ratio was medium. C. candelabrum allocated more biomass to propagative organs and stem, but A. squarrosum allocated more biomass to nutritional organs. Based on the spatial distribution and allometric characteristics, the three common species in moving sand dunes preferred r strategy in their life history.

  12. How common is ecological speciation in plant-feeding insects? A 'Higher' Nematinae perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyman Tommi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ecological speciation is a process in which a transiently resource-polymorphic species divides into two specialized sister lineages as a result of divergent selection pressures caused by the use of multiple niches or environments. Ecology-based speciation has been studied intensively in plant-feeding insects, in which both sympatric and allopatric shifts onto novel host plants could speed up diversification. However, while numerous examples of species pairs likely to have originated by resource shifts have been found, the overall importance of ecological speciation in relation to other, non-ecological speciation modes remains unknown. Here, we apply phylogenetic information on sawflies belonging to the 'Higher' Nematinae (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae to infer the frequency of niche shifts in relation to speciation events. Results Phylogenetic trees reconstructed on the basis of DNA sequence data show that the diversification of higher nematines has involved frequent shifts in larval feeding habits and in the use of plant taxa. However, the inferred number of resource shifts is considerably lower than the number of past speciation events, indicating that the majority of divergences have occurred by non-ecological allopatric speciation; based on a time-corrected analysis of sister species, we estimate that a maximum of c. 20% of lineage splits have been triggered by a change in resource use. In addition, we find that postspeciational changes in geographic distributions have led to broad sympatry in many species having identical host-plant ranges. Conclusion Our analysis indicates that the importance of niche shifts for the diversification of herbivorous insects is at present implicitly and explicitly overestimated. In the case of the Higher Nematinae, employing a time correction for sister-species comparisons lowered the proportion of apparent ecology-based speciation events from c. 50-60% to around 20%, but such corrections are

  13. Plant species introduced by foreigners according to folk tradition in Norway and some other European countries: xenophobic tales or not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alm, Torbjørn

    2015-10-05

    In their quest to understand and interpret nature, people have frequently sought religious or divine origins for plant species and their characteristics. Less often, historical events or persons are involved. This study comprises eleven cases of the latter kind, all claiming that plant species have been introduced by foreigners or at least from foreign lands. Based on literature data and a few cases recorded during my own ethnobotanical field work, eleven European examples of pseudo-historical plant origins are presented here, including Cakile maritima, Cicuta virosa, Lathyrus japonicus, Leymus arenarius, Primula vulgaris, and Scopolia carniolica in Norway, Heracleum mantegazzianum and/or H. persicum in Denmark, Phoenix dactylifera and P. theophrastii in Greece, and Jacobaea vulgaris in Scotland. The only common trait in these stories is that foreigner or at least foreign lands are claimed as sources of the plant species. In most cases, the "historical" explanations given in folk tradition are demonstrably at odds with reality. In those cases that involve poisonous or potentially harmful species (Cicuta virosa, Heracleum mantegazzianum and/or H. persicum, Jacobaea vulgaris), or the "useless" Phoenix theophrastii, with its inedible fruits, the stories may be interpreted as xenophobic, blaming foreigners for introducing dangerous or worthless species. The remaining examples merely suggest a search for exotic and seemingly rational, if erroneous, origins for plant species and stands that people considered strange and unusual. The spreading vectors assumed in folk tradition are correct and well documented, e.g. ship cargos (including goods and packing materials), which are responsible for introducing ballast plants and other anthropochores, and wartime activities, introducing a broad range of species (polemochores). They do not, however, apply to the species included in this study, which are either indigenous plants or introduced ornamentals. The foreigners appearing

  14. Species composition of alien plants in the built-up area of Beijing

    OpenAIRE

    Juanjuan Zhao; Zhiyun Ouyang; Hua Zheng; Weihua Xu; Xiaoke Wang; Yongming Ni

    2010-01-01

    The widely-used practice of planting alien plant species has become a major concern in Chinese urban management. It is imperative to investigate the composition of alien plant species in urban areas forplant diversity protection and green space management. In this study, we investigated 1050 tree plots, 797 shrub plots and 2,228 herbaceous plots based on stratified random selection, within the fifth ring road area of Beijing. The results revealed the following: (1) There were 324 plant specie...

  15. Plant species composition alters the sign and strength of an emergent multi-predator effect by modifying predator foraging behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Wilby

    Full Text Available The prediction of pest-control functioning by multi-predator communities is hindered by the non-additive nature of species functioning. Such non-additivity, commonly termed an emergent multi-predator effect, is known to be affected by elements of the ecological context, such as the structure and composition of vegetation, in addition to the traits of the predators themselves. Here we report mesocosm experiments designed to test the influence of plant density and species composition (wheat monoculture or wheat and faba bean polyculture on the emergence of multi-predator effects between Adalia bipunctata and Chrysoperla carnea, in their suppression of populations of the aphid Metopolophium dirhodum. The mesocosm experiments were followed by a series of behavioural observations designed to identify how interactions among predators are modified by plant species composition and whether these effects are consistent with the observed influence of plant species composition on aphid population suppression. Although plant density was shown to have no influence on the multi-predator effect on aphid population growth, plant composition had a marked effect. In wheat monoculture, Adalia and Chrysoperla mixed treatments caused greater suppression of M. dirhodum populations than expected. However this positive emergent effect was reversed to a negative multi-predator effect in wheat and faba bean polyculture. The behavioural observations revealed that although dominant individuals did not respond to the presence of faba bean plants, the behaviour of sub-dominants was affected markedly, consistent with their foraging for extra-floral nectar produced by the faba bean. This interaction between plant composition and predator community composition on the foraging behaviour of sub-dominants is thought to underlie the observed effect of plant composition on the multi-predator effect. Thus, the emergence of multi-predator effects is shown to be strongly influenced by

  16. Plant species composition alters the sign and strength of an emergent multi-predator effect by modifying predator foraging behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilby, Andrew; Anglin, Linda Anderson; Nesbit, Christopher M

    2013-01-01

    The prediction of pest-control functioning by multi-predator communities is hindered by the non-additive nature of species functioning. Such non-additivity, commonly termed an emergent multi-predator effect, is known to be affected by elements of the ecological context, such as the structure and composition of vegetation, in addition to the traits of the predators themselves. Here we report mesocosm experiments designed to test the influence of plant density and species composition (wheat monoculture or wheat and faba bean polyculture) on the emergence of multi-predator effects between Adalia bipunctata and Chrysoperla carnea, in their suppression of populations of the aphid Metopolophium dirhodum. The mesocosm experiments were followed by a series of behavioural observations designed to identify how interactions among predators are modified by plant species composition and whether these effects are consistent with the observed influence of plant species composition on aphid population suppression. Although plant density was shown to have no influence on the multi-predator effect on aphid population growth, plant composition had a marked effect. In wheat monoculture, Adalia and Chrysoperla mixed treatments caused greater suppression of M. dirhodum populations than expected. However this positive emergent effect was reversed to a negative multi-predator effect in wheat and faba bean polyculture. The behavioural observations revealed that although dominant individuals did not respond to the presence of faba bean plants, the behaviour of sub-dominants was affected markedly, consistent with their foraging for extra-floral nectar produced by the faba bean. This interaction between plant composition and predator community composition on the foraging behaviour of sub-dominants is thought to underlie the observed effect of plant composition on the multi-predator effect. Thus, the emergence of multi-predator effects is shown to be strongly influenced by plant species

  17. Ericoid mycorrhizal fungi are common root associates of a Mediterranean ectomycorrhizal plant (Quercus ilex).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergero, R; Perotto, S; Girlanda, M; Vidano, G; Luppi, A M

    2000-10-01

    Mycorrhiza samples of neighbouring Quercus ilex and Erica arborea plants collected in a postcutting habitat were processed to see whether plants differing in mycorrhizal status harbour the same root endophytes. Three experiments were performed in parallel: (i) isolation, identification and molecular characterization of fungi from surface-sterilized roots of both plant species; (ii) re-inoculation of fungal isolates on axenic E. arborea and Q. ilex seedlings; (iii) direct inoculation of field-collected Q. ilex ectomycorrhizas onto E. arborea seedlings. About 70 and 150 fungal isolates were obtained from roots of Q. ilex and E. arborea, respectively. Among them, Oidiodendron species and five cultural morphotypes of sterile isolates formed typical ericoid mycorrhizas on E. arborea in vitro. Fungi with such mycorrhizal ability were derived from both host plants. Isolates belonging to one of these morphotypes (sd9) also exhibited an unusual pattern of colonization, with an additional extracellular hyphal net. Ericoid mycorrhizas were also readily obtained by direct inoculation of E. arborea seedlings with Q. ilex ectomycorrhizal tips. Polymerase chain-restriction fragment length polymorphism and random amplified polymorphic DNA analyses of the shared sterile morphotypes demonstrate, in the case of sd9, the occurrence of the same genet on the two host plants. These results indicate that ericoid mycorrhizal fungi associate with ectomycorrhizal roots, and the ecological significance of this finding is discussed.

  18. Plant compartment and biogeography affect microbiome composition in cultivated and native Agave species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman-Derr, Devin; Desgarennes, Damaris; Fonseca-Garcia, Citlali; Gross, Stephen; Clingenpeel, Scott; Woyke, Tanja; North, Gretchen; Visel, Axel; Partida-Martinez, Laila P; Tringe, Susannah G

    2016-01-01

    Desert plants are hypothesized to survive the environmental stress inherent to these regions in part thanks to symbioses with microorganisms, and yet these microbial species, the communities they form, and the forces that influence them are poorly understood. Here we report the first comprehensive investigation of the microbial communities associated with species of Agave, which are native to semiarid and arid regions of Central and North America and are emerging as biofuel feedstocks. We examined prokaryotic and fungal communities in the rhizosphere, phyllosphere, leaf and root endosphere, as well as proximal and distal soil samples from cultivated and native agaves, through Illumina amplicon sequencing. Phylogenetic profiling revealed that the composition of prokaryotic communities was primarily determined by the plant compartment, whereas the composition of fungal communities was mainly influenced by the biogeography of the host species. Cultivated A. tequilana exhibited lower levels of prokaryotic diversity compared with native agaves, although no differences in microbial diversity were found in the endosphere. Agaves shared core prokaryotic and fungal taxa known to promote plant growth and confer tolerance to abiotic stress, which suggests common principles underpinning Agave-microbe interactions. No claim to US Government works. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. Using common mycorrhizal networks for controlled inoculation of Quercus spp. with Tuber melanosporum: the nurse plant method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Guillermo; Palfner, Götz; Chávez, Daniel; Suz, Laura M; Machuca, Angela; Honrubia, Mario

    2013-07-01

    The high cost and restricted availability of black truffle spore inoculum for controlled mycorrhiza formation of host trees produced for truffle orchards worldwide encourage the search for more efficient and sustainable inoculation methods that can be applied globally. In this study, we evaluated the potential of the nurse plant method for the controlled inoculation of Quercus cerris and Quercus robur with Tuber melanosporum by mycorrhizal networks in pot cultures. Pine bark compost, adjusted to pH 7.8 by liming, was used as substrate for all assays. Initially, Q. robur seedlings were inoculated with truffle spores and cultured for 12 months. After this period, the plants presenting 74 % mycorrhizal fine roots were transferred to larger containers. Nurse plants were used for two treatments of two different nursling species: five sterilized acorns or five 45-day-old, axenically grown Q. robur or Q. cerris seedlings, planted in containers around the nurse plant. After 6 months, colonized nursling plant root tips showed that mycorrhiza formation by T. melanosporum was higher than 45 % in the seedlings tested, with the most successful nursling combination being Q. cerris seedlings, reaching 81 % colonization. Bulk identification of T. melanosporum mycorrhizae was based on morphological and anatomical features and confirmed by sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal DNA of selected root tips. Our results show that the nurse plant method yields attractive rates of mycorrhiza formation by the Périgord black truffle and suggest that establishing and maintaining common mycorrhizal networks in pot cultures enables sustained use of the initial spore inoculum.

  20. Cross-Cultural Analysis of Medicinal Plants commonly used in Ethnoveterinary Practices at South Waziristan Agency and Bajaur Agency, Federally Administrated Tribal Areas (FATA), Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Muhammad Abdul; Adnan, Muhammad; Khan, Amir Hasan; Sufyan, Muhammad; Khan, Shahid Niaz

    2018-01-10

    In remote areas, medicinal plants have an imperative role in curing various livestock's ailments. In Pakistan, people residing in remote areas including South Waziristan Agency and Bajaur Agency depend on traditional herbal remedies for treating their domestic animals. Medicinal plants are an important part of the medical system in these Agencies. The prime goal of the current study is to explore the ethnoveterinary practices in the two regions and discuss cross-cultural consensus on the use of medicinal plants. In this study, we have given detailed description on the ethnoveterinary usage of certain medicinal plants and their recipes. Moreover, we have also elaborated the ethnoveterinary potential of certain plants in relation to their ethnomedicinal, pharmacological and phytochemicals reports. Fieldwork comprised of two fields surveys conducted at South Waziristan Agency and Bajaur Agency. A total of 75 informants from South Waziristan Agency and 80 informants from Bajaur Agency were interviewed with the help of semi-structured questionnaires. Use reports (URs) were recorded for all the documented taxa. Data were quantitatively analyzed by using informant consensus factor (F ic ) index in order to find out information homogeneity provided by the informants. To analyze the cross-cultural consensus, the recorded data were tabulated as well as shown by Venn diagram. Overall, 94 medicinal plant taxa were recorded in the comparative analysis. Out of these, most of the plants species (72 species) were used at Bajaur Agency than South Waziristan Agency (37 species). Cross-cultural analysis showed that only 15 medicinal plants were used in common by the indigenous communities in both Agencies, which indicates a low interregional consensus with regard to the ethnoveterinary practices of medicinal plants. Apiaceae was the dominant family in both regions by representing maximum number of plant species (11 species). Gastro intestinal complexities were common in both regions

  1. Plant development: cell movement relative to each other is both common and very important.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev-Yadun, Simcha

    2015-01-01

    The common view that "plant cells cannot move relative to each other" is incorrect. Relative movement of plant cells relative to each other is expressed during fiber elongation, growth of arms of branched sclereids, intrusive growth of the tips of fusiform initials in the cambium, the increase in diameter of vessel members, growth in length of vessel-member elements in the secondary xylem of the few monocotyledons that express secondary growth, growth of laticifers, formation of tylosis, dilatation in the bark via parenchyma cell expansion, and growth of pollen tubes in the style. In all these cases, part of the plant cell remains in its original position, while other parts of the cell grow to the new locations, moving significantly relative to other cells. Not considering these movements will cause a delay in studying and understanding many aspects of differentiation of plant cells and tissues.

  2. On the relationship between bird and woody plant species diversity in the Uttara Kannada district of south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, R J; Joshi, N V; Gadgil, M

    1992-06-15

    Bird species richness is inversely related to woody plant species diversity and vertical stratification in the natural vegetation of Uttara Kannada, the district with the largest contiguous tract of humid tropical forest in peninsular India. This inverse relationship may be explained by the fact that although the peninsular Indian evergreen forests are rich in woody plant species when compared with the drier vegetation, they harbor an impoverished bird fauna due to their smaller overall extent and greater isolation. Much of this impoverishment is accounted for by the absence of many species of understory timaliids characteristic of the humid evergreen forests of the Eastern Himalayas and Southeast Asia. The plantations of Uttara Kannada largely derive their bird fauna from the drier vegetation and exhibit the commoner trend of a positive correlation between bird species richness and vertical stratification of the vegetation.

  3. Endangered and threatened plant species of the Nevada Test Site, Ash Meadows, and central-southern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beatley, J.C.

    1977-07-01

    Three plant species included among the Nevada Threatened or Endangered Flora of the Federal Register list of July 1, 1975, were omitted from the recent reports dealing with these groups of plants in central-southern Nevada. Two of the species, Ephedra funerea and Mirabilis pudica, were not included because they are both widely distributed and locally common in southern Nevada and were understood (unofficially) to be no longer considered candidates for either an Endangered or Threatened status. The third species, Machaeranthera ammophila, is now included with M. arida, an uncommon species of central and eastern Mojave Desert of southern California (to southern Nevada, Arizona, and Sonora), and is therefore no longer a candidate for the status of Threatened Species in Nevada.

  4. Effects of Litter on Seedling Emergence and Seed Persistence of Three Common Species on the Loess Plateau in Northwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Hu, Xiaowen; Baskin, Jerry M; Baskin, Carol C; Wang, Yanrong

    2017-01-01

    Litter accumulation resulting from land use change (enclosure) is one of the key variables influencing seedling recruitment and consequently the regeneration of plant populations and seed persistence in the soil seed bank. A better understanding of the effects of litter on seed germination and seedling emergence is crucial for developing a new set of indicators for grassland ecosystem health and for grassland management policy. We investigated the effects of seed position in litter and amount of litter covering the seed on seedling emergence and seed persistence of three common species on the Loess Plateau in northwestern China. Seed position beneath the litter layer provided a suitable environment for seedling emergence of the three species. A moderate amount of litter (160 g/m 2 ) was beneficial for seedling emergence of the small-seeded species Stipa bungeana and Lespedeza davurica from seeds from beneath the litter layer. The large-seeded species Setaria glauca was more tolerant of a high amount of litter (240 g/m 2 ) than the two small-seeded species. Seed persistence in the soil differed among the three species and also was affected by seed position in litter and amount of litter cover. The proportion of viable seeds of Stipa bungeana and Setaria glauca on top of the litter layer increased with an increase in amount of litter. Seedling emergence and seed persistence varied significantly among species, amount of litter and seed position in litter. A moderate amount of litter and seeds positioned beneath the litter layer were better for seedling recruitment than for those on top of the litter layer. A high amount of litter was more favorable for persistence of seeds positioned on top of the litter than for those beneath the litter. Our study showed that maintaining litter amount between 80 and 160 g/m 2 is optimal for S. bungeana dominated grassland on the Loess Plateau. We suggest that litter amount can serve as a guide for monitoring and managing grassland

  5. Magnetic Dinner Salads: The Role of Biogenic Magnetite in Cryopreservation for Common Food Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffee, T. M.; Kirschvink, J. L.; Kobayashi, A. K.

    2015-12-01

    Biogenically-precipitated magnetite has been found in organisms ranging from Bacteria, single-celled protists, and many of the animal phyla, where its major function is navigation and magnetoreception. To date there is but a single report of biogenic magnetite in plants (essentially, magnetoferritin), and that is in common grass (Festuca species, from Gajdardziska-Josifovska et. al. doi:10.1127/0935-1221/2001/0013/0863). Recent developments in cryopreservation suggest that ~ 1 mT, ~ 10 Hz oscillating magnetic fields can drastically reduce ice nucleation during freezing, promote supercooling, and minimize cellular damage in living tissues (e.g., Kaku et al., doi: 10.1016/j.cryobiol.2012.02.001). Kobayashi & Kirschvink (2014, doi:10.1016/j.cryobiol.2013.12.002) suggest that biogenic magnetite crystals could be the nucleating site for damaging ice crystals, and that they would be driven magneto-mechanically to rotate in those oscillating fields which could inhibit the ice crystal nucleation process. This prompted our investigation into the magnetite content of ordinary fruit and vegetable food products, as knowledge of the natural levels of biogenic magnetite in the human food supply could guide the selection of which foods might work for this type of cryopreservation. Our study involved a range of common foods including avocados, bananas, garlic, and apples. Samples were prepared in a clean lab environment kept free of contaminant particles, and subjected to a variety of standard rock-magnetic tests including IRM and ARM acquisition, and the corresponding Af demagnetization, on a standard 2G™ SRM. Results are consistent with moderately interacting single-domain magnetite (see figure), with moderate inter-particle interaction effects. Typical magnetite concentrations in these samples are in the range of .1 to 1 ng/g for room temperature samples, increasing to the range of 1-10 ng/g when measured frozen (to inhibit thermal rotation of small particles and clumps). If

  6. Species Authentication of Common Meat Based on PCR Analysis of the Mitochondrial COI Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhenyu; Qiao, Jiao; Yang, Siran; Hu, Shen; Zuo, Jingjing; Zhu, Weifeng; Huang, Chunhong

    2015-07-01

    Adulteration of meat products and costly animal-derived commodities with their inferior/cheaper counterparts is a grievous global problem. Species authentication is still technical challenging, especially to those deep processed products. The present study described the design of seven sets of species-specific primer based on a high heterozygous region of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. These primers were proven to have high species specificity and no cross-reactions and unexpected products to different DNA source. Multiplex PCR assay was achieved for rapid and economical identification of four commonly consumed meats (pork, beef, chicken, and mutton). The conventional PCR assay was sensitive down to 0.001 ng of DNA template in the reactant. The developed method was also powerful in detecting as low as 0.1-mg adulterated pork (0.05 % in wt/wt) in an artificial counterfeited mutton. Validation test showed that the assay is specific, reproducible, and robust in commercial deep processed meats, leatherware, and feather commodities. This proposed method will be greatly beneficial to the consumers, food industry, leather, and feather commodity manufacture.

  7. Screening of common Plantago species in Hungary for bioactive molecules and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonda, S; Tóth, L; Parizsa, P; Nyitrai, M; Vasas, G

    2010-01-01

    Five species of Plantago genus, namely P. lanceolata, P. major, P. media, P. altissima and P. maritima were screened for iridoid content (CE-MEKC), total caffeoyl phenylethanoid glycoside (CPG) content and antioxidant activity (CUPRAC assay). The five species could be distinguished by TLC pattern analysis in a single run in a system commonly used for quality management of P. lanceolata leaves, as shown by cluster analysis of major bands; with the exception, that P. altissima and P. lanceolata did not show enough pattern difference to be fully separated. P. maritima was shown to have the highest antioxidant capacity (0.42 μmol ascorbic acid equivalent (AAE)/g DW), and the highest level of CPGs (4.29%). P. altissima was shown to be chemically indistinguishable from P. lanceolata with repsect to iridoid content (aucubin 0.55 ± 0.04%, 0.68 ± 0.23%, catalpol 0.66 ± 0.13% and 0.89 ± 0.22%, respectively), CPG content (2.40 ± 0.38% and 2.54 ± 0.56%, respectively) and antioxidant capacity (0.2206 ± 0.0290 and 0.2428 ± 0.0191 μmol AAEAC/g DW). The presented data show the potency of medicinal use of Hungarian wild populations of the studied five species, especially in the case of P. maritima, and that P. altissima can be a potential replacement of P. lanceolata in herbal mixtures.

  8. Important variations in parvalbumin content in common fish species: a factor possibly contributing to variable allergenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, A; Scheuermann, T; Hilger, C; Hentges, F

    2010-01-01

    Although 95% of fish-allergic patients are sensitized to the major fish allergen parvalbumin, clinical reactions to different fish species vary considerably in symptoms, intensity and frequency in allergic subjects. This study aimed at the quantification of parvalbumin levels in salmon, trout, cod, carp, mackerel, herring, redfish and tuna. Fish muscle extracts were separated by SDS-PAGE and parvalbumin content was estimated by densitometric band quantification. Individual antisera were raised in BALB/c mice against parvalbumins purified from seven fish species. Parvalbumin content was quantified in fish (raw/processed) and skin prick test (SPT) solutions by ELISA using the corresponding anti-serum for detection and the purified parvalbumins as standards. Using SDS-PAGE scanning, parvalbumin contents were 2 mg for cod, carp, redfish and herring. Using ELISA, parvalbumin content ranged from 2.5 mg per gram raw muscle for carp, herring and redfish. The parvalbumin content of processed samples (cooked/commercial) was 20-60% lower. Allergen content in SPT samples ranged from 20 to 70 μg parvalbumin/ml of extract. No parvalbumin was found in tuna SPT solution. The parvalbumin content of most commonly consumed fish species varies considerably. Differences range from severalfold to one hundredfold. This has to be taken into account when designing food challenge tests and advising fish-allergic patients. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Multiplex PCR for identifying common dust mites species (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae and Blomia tropicalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thet-Em, Thatsanee; Tungtrongchitr, Anchalee; Tiewcharoen, Supathra; Malainual, Nat

    2012-09-01

    Dust mites are known to be an important source of inhalant allergens causing allergic rhinitis and asthma worldwide. The sizes of dust mite populations in patients' houses are useful to monitor the risk of allergen exposure. However, mite identification using the conventional microscopic technique requires specific expertise and is time consuming; therefore a molecular technique has been developed in order to solve these drawbacks. To develop a multiplex PCR assay for identifying the three common dust mite species in Thailand, namely Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp), D. farinae (Df) and Blomia tropicalis (Bt), and to evaluate the efficacy of the technique. Pairs of primers were designed and tested in either singleplex PCR or multiplex PCR. The multiplex PCR technique was also optimized in order to obtain specific products. The reaction mixture contained 5 pmole of individual primers, 10 mM dNTP, 5 units Taq DNA polymerase and genomic DNA (gDNA). The reaction was run for 25 cycles at 94 degrees C for 20 seconds, 58 degrees C for 20 seconds and 72 degrees C for 30 seconds. The PCR products were analyzed by 1.5% agarose gel electrophoresis with GelRed fluorescence dye. The optimized multiplex technique was also tested with 30 house dust samples and dust samples spiked with DNA from other insect and mite species. Three PCR products were obtained with the relevant gDNA templates as expected; 143 bp for DF, 221 bp for DP and 318 bp for BT, respectively. The detection limit of the tests was found to be as low 1 ng of gDNA, whereas mixed gDNA species confirmed the 100% specificity of this assay. The total duration from the preparation of the PCR reaction mixture until the analysis by agarose gel electrophoresis was approximately 2 hours. No amplified product was obtained from mites and insects of other species. The multiplex PCR was successfully developed for identifying 3 common dust mite species. This technique can be helpful, not only for non-acarologist personnel

  10. Soil fertility increases with plant species diversity in a long-term biodiversity experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybzinski, Ray; Fargione, Joseph E; Zak, Donald R; Fornara, Dario; Tilman, David

    2008-11-01

    Most explanations for the positive effect of plant species diversity on productivity have focused on the efficiency of resource use, implicitly assuming that resource supply is constant. To test this assumption, we grew seedlings of Echinacea purpurea in soil collected beneath 10-year-old, experimental plant communities containing one, two, four, eight, or 16 native grassland species. The results of this greenhouse bioassay challenge the assumption of constant resource supply; we found that bioassay seedlings grown in soil collected from experimental communities containing 16 plant species produced 70% more biomass than seedlings grown in soil collected beneath monocultures. This increase was likely attributable to greater soil N availability, which had increased in higher diversity communities over the 10-year-duration of the experiment. In a distinction akin to the selection/complementarity partition commonly made in studies of diversity and productivity, we further determined whether the additive effects of functional groups or the interactive effects of functional groups explained the increase in fertility with diversity. The increase in bioassay seedling biomass with diversity was largely explained by a concomitant increase in N-fixer, C4 grass, forb, and C3 grass biomass with diversity, suggesting that the additive effects of these four functional groups at higher diversity contributed to enhance N availability and retention. Nevertheless, diversity still explained a significant amount of the residual variation in bioassay seedling biomass after functional group biomass was included in a multiple regression, suggesting that interactions also increased fertility in diverse communities. Our results suggest a mechanism, the fertility effect, by which increased plant species diversity may increase community productivity over time by increasing the supply of nutrients via both greater inputs and greater retention.

  11. Microhabitat Selection by Three Common Bird Species of Montane Farmlands in Northern Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiakiris, Rigas; Stara, Kalliopi; Pantis, John; Sgardelis, Stefanos

    2009-11-01

    Common farmland birds are declining throughout Europe; however, marginal farmlands that escaped intensification or land abandonment remain a haven for farmland species in some Mediterranean mountains. The purpose of this study is to identify the most important anthropogenic microhabitat characteristics for Red-Backed Shrike ( Lanius collurio), Corn Bunting ( Miliaria calandra) and Common Whitethroat ( Sylvia communis) in three such areas within the newly established Northern Pindos National Park. We compare land use structural and physiognomic characteristics of the habitat within 133 plots containing birds paired with randomly selected “non-bird” plots. Using logistic regression and classification-tree models we identify the specific habitat requirements for each of the three birds. The three species show a preference for agricultural mosaics dominated by rangelands with scattered shrub or short trees mixed with arable land. Areas with dikes and dirt roads are preferred by all three species, while the presence of fences and periodically burned bushes and hedges are of particular importance for Red-Backed Shrike. Across the gradient of vegetation density and height, M. calandra is mostly found in grasslands with few dwarf shrubs and short trees, S. communis in places with more dense and tall vegetation of shrub, trees and hedges, and L. collurio, being a typical bird of ecotones, occurs in both habitats and in intermediate situations. In all cases those requirements are associated with habitat features maintained either directly or indirectly by the traditional agricultural activities in the area and particularly by the long established extensive controlled grazing that prevent shrub expansion.

  12. Experimental Cross-Species Infection of Common Marmosets by Titi Monkey Adenovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Eunice C.; Liu, Maria; Brasky, Kathleen M.; Lanford, Robert E.; Kelly, Kristi R.; Bales, Karen L.; Schnurr, David P.; Canfield, Don R.; Patterson, Jean L.; Chiu, Charles Y.

    2013-01-01

    Adenoviruses are DNA viruses that infect a number of vertebrate hosts and are associated with both sporadic and epidemic disease in humans. We previously identified a novel adenovirus, titi monkey adenovirus (TMAdV), as the cause of a fulminant pneumonia outbreak in a colony of titi monkeys (Callicebus cupreus) at a national primate center in 2009. Serological evidence of infection by TMAdV was also found in a human researcher at the facility and household family member, raising concerns for potential cross-species transmission of the virus. Here we present experimental evidence of cross-species TMAdV infection in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). Nasal inoculation of a cell cultured-adapted TMAdV strain into three marmosets produced an acute, mild respiratory illness characterized by low-grade fever, reduced activity, anorexia, and sneezing. An increase in virus-specific neutralization antibody titers accompanied the development of clinical signs. Although serially collected nasal swabs were positive for TMAdV for at least 8 days, all 3 infected marmosets spontaneously recovered by day 12 post-inoculation, and persistence of the virus in tissues could not be established. Thus, the pathogenesis of experimental inoculation of TMAdV in common marmosets resembled the mild, self-limiting respiratory infection typically seen in immunocompetent human hosts rather than the rapidly progressive, fatal pneumonia observed in 19 of 23 titi monkeys during the prior 2009 outbreak. These findings further establish the potential for adenovirus cross-species transmission and provide the basis for development of a monkey model useful for assessing the zoonotic potential of adenoviruses. PMID:23894316

  13. Experimental cross-species infection of common marmosets by titi monkey adenovirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guixia Yu

    Full Text Available Adenoviruses are DNA viruses that infect a number of vertebrate hosts and are associated with both sporadic and epidemic disease in humans. We previously identified a novel adenovirus, titi monkey adenovirus (TMAdV, as the cause of a fulminant pneumonia outbreak in a colony of titi monkeys (Callicebus cupreus at a national primate center in 2009. Serological evidence of infection by TMAdV was also found in a human researcher at the facility and household family member, raising concerns for potential cross-species transmission of the virus. Here we present experimental evidence of cross-species TMAdV infection in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus. Nasal inoculation of a cell cultured-adapted TMAdV strain into three marmosets produced an acute, mild respiratory illness characterized by low-grade fever, reduced activity, anorexia, and sneezing. An increase in virus-specific neutralization antibody titers accompanied the development of clinical signs. Although serially collected nasal swabs were positive for TMAdV for at least 8 days, all 3 infected marmosets spontaneously recovered by day 12 post-inoculation, and persistence of the virus in tissues could not be established. Thus, the pathogenesis of experimental inoculation of TMAdV in common marmosets resembled the mild, self-limiting respiratory infection typically seen in immunocompetent human hosts rather than the rapidly progressive, fatal pneumonia observed in 19 of 23 titi monkeys during the prior 2009 outbreak. These findings further establish the potential for adenovirus cross-species transmission and provide the basis for development of a monkey model useful for assessing the zoonotic potential of adenoviruses.

  14. Pollen production in selected species of anemophilous plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Piotrowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the study, structural features of flowers of the following allergenic plant species were analysed: Betula verrucosa, Secale cereale, Rumex acetosella, Plantago major and Artemisia vulgaris. Pollen production was established by calculating the number of pollen grains produced by the stamen, flower and inflorescence. The dates of occurrence and pollen grains concentration in the air of Lublin were determined. A positive correlation was found between the length of anthers and the number of pollen grains produced. The largest number of pollen grains per anther is produced by Secale cereale (22 360, whereas the smallest one by Plantago major (5 870. The other species produced intermediate numbers of pollen grains in the anther: Betula verrucosa - 11 160, Rumex acetosella - 10 850, Artemisia vulgaris - 9 580. The birch pollen season in Lublin lasts about a month, and pollen of this taxon reaches the highest airborne concentrations among the studied taxa. Low values of pollen concentrations are characteristic for rye and plantain, whereas slightly higher values are recorded for sorrel pollen. Mugwort pollen reaches high concentrations which are noted at the beginning of August.

  15. Wild Plant Species with Extremely Small Populations Require Conservation and Reintroduction in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai Ren; Qianmei Zhang; Hongfang Lu; Hongxiao Liu; Qinfeng Guo; Jun Wang; Shuguang Jian; Hai’ou Bao

    2012-01-01

    China is exceptionally rich in biodiversity, with more than 30000 vascular plant species that include many endemic genera, species of ancient origin, and cultivated plants (Yang et al. 2005). Because of rapid economic development, population growth, pollution, and continuing resource exploitation, China’s plant diversity faces severe threats. According to the Chinese...

  16. Cosmopolitan Species As Models for Ecophysiological Responses to Global Change: The Common Reed Phragmites australis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Eller

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Phragmites australis is a cosmopolitan grass and often the dominant species in the ecosystems it inhabits. Due to high intraspecific diversity and phenotypic plasticity, P. australis has an extensive ecological amplitude and a great capacity to acclimate to adverse environmental conditions; it can therefore offer valuable insights into plant responses to global change. Here we review the ecology and ecophysiology of prominent P. australis lineages and their responses to multiple forms of global change. Key findings of our review are that: (1 P. australis lineages are well-adapted to regions of their phylogeographic origin and therefore respond differently to changes in climatic conditions such as temperature or atmospheric CO2; (2 each lineage consists of populations that may occur in geographically different habitats and contain multiple genotypes; (3 the phenotypic plasticity of functional and fitness-related traits of a genotype determine the responses to global change factors; (4 genotypes with high plasticity to environmental drivers may acclimate or even vastly expand their ranges, genotypes of medium plasticity must acclimate or experience range-shifts, and those with low plasticity may face local extinction; (5 responses to ancillary types of global change, like shifting levels of soil salinity, flooding, and drought, are not consistent within lineages and depend on adaptation of individual genotypes. These patterns suggest that the diverse lineages of P. australis will undergo intense selective pressure in the face of global change such that the distributions and interactions of co-occurring lineages, as well as those of genotypes within-lineages, are very likely to be altered. We propose that the strong latitudinal clines within and between P. australis lineages can be a useful tool for predicting plant responses to climate change in general and present a conceptual framework for using P. australis lineages to predict plant responses

  17. Herbarium specimens show patterns of fruiting phenology in native and invasive plant species across New England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallinat, Amanda S; Russo, Luca; Melaas, Eli K; Willis, Charles G; Primack, Richard B

    2018-01-01

    Patterns of fruiting phenology in temperate ecosystems are poorly understood, despite the ecological importance of fruiting for animal nutrition and seed dispersal. Herbarium specimens represent an under-utilized resource for investigating geographical and climatic factors affecting fruiting times within species, patterns in fruiting times among species, and differences between native and non-native invasive species. We examined over 15,000 herbarium specimens, collected and housed across New England, and found 3159 specimens with ripe fruits, collected from 1849-2013. We examined patterns in fruiting phenology among 37 native and 18 invasive woody plant species common to New England. We compared fruiting dates between native and invasive species, and analyzed how fruiting phenology varies with temperature, space, and time. Spring temperature and year explained a small but significant amount of the variation in fruiting dates. Accounting for the moderate phylogenetic signal in fruiting phenology, invasive species fruited 26 days later on average than native species, with significantly greater standard deviations. Herbarium specimens can be used to detect patterns in fruiting times among species. However, the amount of intraspecific variation in fruiting times explained by temporal, geographic, and climatic predictors is small, due to a combination of low temporal resolution of fruiting specimens and the protracted nature of fruiting. Later fruiting times in invasive species, combined with delays in autumn bird migrations in New England, may increase the likelihood that migratory birds will consume and disperse invasive seeds in New England later into the year. © 2018 Botanical Society of America.

  18. Host plant use among closely related Anaea butterfly species (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Charaxinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QUEIROZ J. M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a great number of Charaxinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae species in the tropics whose larvae feed on several plant families. However the genus Anaea is almost always associated with Croton species (Euphorbiaceae. This work describes patterns of host plant use by immature and adult abundance on different vertical strata of sympatric Anaea species in a forest of Southeastern Brazil. Quantitative samples of leaves were taken in April/1999 and May/2000 to collect eggs and larvae of four Anaea species on C.alchorneicarpus, C. floribundus and C. salutaris in a semideciduous forest. Sampled leaves were divided into three classes of plant phenological stage: saplings, shrubs and trees. The results showed that the butterfly species are segregating in host plant use on two scales: host plant species and plant phenological stages. C. alchorneicarpus was used by only one Anaea species, whereas C. floribundus was used by three species and C. salutaris by four Anaea species. There was one Anaea species concentrated on sapling, another on sapling/shrub and two others on shrub/tree leaves. Adults of Anaea were more frequent at canopy traps but there were no differences among species caught in traps at different vertical positions. This work supplements early studies on host plant use among Charaxinae species and it describes how a guild of closely related butterfly species may be organized in a complex tropical habitat.

  19. Shared weapons of blood- and plant-feeding insects: Surprising commonalities for manipulating hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiguet, Antoine; Dubreuil, Géraldine; Harris, Marion O; Appel, Heidi M; Schultz, Jack C; Pereira, Marcos H; Giron, David

    2016-01-01

    Insects that reprogram host plants during colonization remind us that the insect side of plant-insect story is just as interesting as the plant side. Insect effectors secreted by the salivary glands play an important role in plant reprogramming. Recent discoveries point to large numbers of salivary effectors being produced by a single herbivore species. Since genetic and functional characterization of effectors is an arduous task, narrowing the field of candidates is useful. We present ideas about types and functions of effectors from research on blood-feeding parasites and their mammalian hosts. Because of their importance for human health, blood-feeding parasites have more tools from genomics and other - omics than plant-feeding parasites. Four themes have emerged: (1) mechanical damage resulting from attack by blood-feeding parasites triggers "early danger signals" in mammalian hosts, which are mediated by eATP, calcium, and hydrogen peroxide, (2) mammalian hosts need to modulate their immune responses to the three "early danger signals" and use apyrases, calreticulins, and peroxiredoxins, respectively, to achieve this, (3) blood-feeding parasites, like their mammalian hosts, rely on some of the same "early danger signals" and modulate their immune responses using the same proteins, and (4) blood-feeding parasites deploy apyrases, calreticulins, and peroxiredoxins in their saliva to manipulate the "danger signals" of their mammalian hosts. We review emerging evidence that plant-feeding insects also interfere with "early danger signals" of their hosts by deploying apyrases, calreticulins and peroxiredoxins in saliva. Given emerging links between these molecules, and plant growth and defense, we propose that these effectors interfere with phytohormone signaling, and therefore have a special importance for gall-inducing and leaf-mining insects, which manipulate host-plants to create better food and shelter. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Testing a growth efficiency hypothesis with continental-scale phenological variations of common and cloned plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Liang; Schwartz, Mark D

    2014-10-01

    Variation in the timing of plant phenology caused by phenotypic plasticity is a sensitive measure of how organisms respond to weather and climate variability. Although continental-scale gradients in climate and consequential patterns in plant phenology are well recognized, the contribution of underlying genotypic difference to the geography of phenology is less well understood. We hypothesize that different temperate plant genotypes require varying amount of heat energy for resuming annual growth and reproduction as a result of adaptation and other ecological and evolutionary processes along climatic gradients. In particular, at least for some species, the growing degree days (GDD) needed to trigger the same spring phenology events (e.g., budburst and flower bloom) may be less for individuals originated from colder climates than those from warmer climates. This variable intrinsic heat energy requirement in plants can be characterized by the term growth efficiency and is quantitatively reflected in the timing of phenophases-earlier timing indicates higher efficiency (i.e., less heat energy needed to trigger phenophase transitions) and vice versa compared to a standard reference (i.e., either a uniform climate or a uniform genotype). In this study, we tested our hypothesis by comparing variations of budburst and bloom timing of two widely documented plants from the USA National Phenology Network (i.e., red maple-Acer rubrum and forsythia-Forsythia spp.) with cloned indicator plants (lilac-Syringa x chinensis 'Red Rothomagensis') at multiple eastern US sites. Our results indicate that across the accumulated temperature gradient, the two non-clonal plants showed significantly more gradual changes than the cloned plants, manifested by earlier phenology in colder climates and later phenology in warmer climates relative to the baseline clone phenological response. This finding provides initial evidence supporting the growth efficiency hypothesis, and suggests more work is

  1. A DNA barcoding approach to identify plant species in multiflower honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, I; Galimberti, A; Caridi, L; Scaccabarozzi, D; De Mattia, F; Casiraghi, M; Labra, M

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the ability of DNA barcoding to identify the plant origins of processed honey. Four multifloral honeys produced at different sites in a floristically rich area in the northern Italian Alps were examined by using the rbcL and trnH-psbA plastid regions as barcode markers. An extensive reference database of barcode sequences was generated for the local flora to determine the taxonomic composition of honey. Thirty-nine plant species were identified in the four honey samples, each of which originated from a mix of common plants belonging to Castanea, Quercus, Fagus and several herbaceous taxa. Interestingly, at least one endemic plant was found in all four honey samples, providing a clear signature for the geographic identity of these products. DNA of the toxic plant Atropa belladonna was detected in one sample, illustrating the usefulness of DNA barcoding for evaluating the safety of honey. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Complementary treatment of the common cold and flu with medicinal plants--results from two samples of pharmacy customers in Estonia.

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    Ain Raal

    Full Text Available The aim of the current survey was to investigate the complementary self-treatment of the common cold and flu with medicinal plants among pharmacy customers in Estonia. A multiple-choice questionnaire listing 10 plants and posing questions on the perceived characteristics of cold and flu, the effectiveness of plants, help-seeking behaviour, self-treatment and sources of information, was distributed to a sample of participants in two medium size pharmacies. The participants were pharmacy customers: 150 in Tallinn (mostly Russian speaking and 150 in Kuressaare (mostly Estonian speaking. The mean number of plants used by participants was 4.1. Of the respondents, 69% self-treated the common cold and flu and 28% consulted with a general practitioner. In general, medicinal plants were considered effective in the treatment of the above-mentioned illnesses and 56% of the respondents had used exclusively medicinal plants or their combination with OTC medicines and other means of folk medicine for treatment. The use of medicinal plants increased with age and was more frequent among female than male respondents. Among Estonian-speaking customers lime flowers, blackcurrant and camomile were more frequently used, and among Russian speaking customers raspberry and lemon fruits. Regardless of some statistically significant differences in preferred species among different age, education, sex and nationality groups, the general attitude towards medicinal plants for self-treatment of the common cold and flu in Estonia was very favourable.

  3. Complementary treatment of the common cold and flu with medicinal plants--results from two samples of pharmacy customers in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raal, Ain; Volmer, Daisy; Sõukand, Renata; Hratkevitš, Sofia; Kalle, Raivo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current survey was to investigate the complementary self-treatment of the common cold and flu with medicinal plants among pharmacy customers in Estonia. A multiple-choice questionnaire listing 10 plants and posing questions on the perceived characteristics of cold and flu, the effectiveness of plants, help-seeking behaviour, self-treatment and sources of information, was distributed to a sample of participants in two medium size pharmacies. The participants were pharmacy customers: 150 in Tallinn (mostly Russian speaking) and 150 in Kuressaare (mostly Estonian speaking). The mean number of plants used by participants was 4.1. Of the respondents, 69% self-treated the common cold and flu and 28% consulted with a general practitioner. In general, medicinal plants were considered effective in the treatment of the above-mentioned illnesses and 56% of the respondents had used exclusively medicinal plants or their combination with OTC medicines and other means of folk medicine for treatment. The use of medicinal plants increased with age and was more frequent among female than male respondents. Among Estonian-speaking customers lime flowers, blackcurrant and camomile were more frequently used, and among Russian speaking customers raspberry and lemon fruits. Regardless of some statistically significant differences in preferred species among different age, education, sex and nationality groups, the general attitude towards medicinal plants for self-treatment of the common cold and flu in Estonia was very favourable.

  4. A new Legionella species, Legionella feeleii species nova, causes Pontiac fever in an automobile plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herwaldt, L A; Gorman, G W; McGrath, T; Toma, S; Brake, B; Hightower, A W; Jones, J; Reingold, A L; Boxer, P A; Tang, P W

    1984-03-01

    From 15 to 21 August 1981, Pontiac fever affected 317 automobile assembly plant workers. Results of serologic tests were negative for Mycoplasma, Chlamydia, respiratory tract viruses, and previously described legionellae. A gram-negative, rod-shaped organism (WO-44C) that did not grow on blood agar, required L-cysteine for growth, and contained large amounts of branched-chain fatty acids was isolated from a water-based coolant. The organism did not react with antisera against other legionellae, and on DNA hybridization the organism was less than 10% related to other Legionella species. Geometric mean titers found by indirect fluorescent antibody testing to WO-44C were significantly higher in ill employees than in controls (p = 0.0001). Attack rates by department decreased linearly with the department's distance from the implicated coolant system. The etiologic agent apparently was a new Legionella species; we propose the name Legionella feeleii species nova (AATC 35072). This is the first outbreak of nonpneumonic legionellosis in which the etiologic agent is not L. pneumophila, serogroup 1.

  5. Plant trait-species abundance relationships vary with environmental properties in subtropical forests in eastern china.

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    En-Rong Yan

    Full Text Available Understanding how plant trait-species abundance relationships change with a range of single and multivariate environmental properties is crucial for explaining species abundance and rarity. In this study, the abundance of 94 woody plant species was examined and related to 15 plant leaf and wood traits at both local and landscape scales involving 31 plots in subtropical forests in eastern China. Further, plant trait-species abundance relationships were related to a range of single and multivariate (PCA axes environmental properties such as air humidity, soil moisture content, soil temperature, soil pH, and soil organic matter, nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P contents. At the landscape scale, plant maximum height, and twig and stem wood densities were positively correlated, whereas mean leaf area (MLA, leaf N concentration (LN, and total leaf area per twig size (TLA were negatively correlated with species abundance. At the plot scale, plant maximum height, leaf and twig dry matter contents, twig and stem wood densities were positively correlated, but MLA, specific leaf area, LN, leaf P concentration and TLA were negatively correlated with species abundance. Plant trait-species abundance relationships shifted over the range of seven single environmental properties and along multivariate environmental axes in a similar way. In conclusion, strong relationships between plant traits and species abundance existed among and within communities. Significant shifts in plant trait-species abundance relationships in a range of environmental properties suggest strong environmental filtering processes that influence species abundance and rarity in the studied subtropical forests.

  6. Alien plant species list and distribution for Camdeboo National Park, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mmoto L. Masubelele

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Protected areas globally are threatened by the potential negative impacts that invasive alien plants pose, and Camdeboo National Park (CNP, South Africa, is no exception. Alien plants have been recorded in the CNP since 1981, before it was proclaimed a national park by South African National Parks in 2005. This is the first publication of a list of alien plants in and around the CNP. Distribution maps of some of the first recorded alien plant species are also presented and discussed. To date, 39 species of alien plants have been recorded, of which 13 are invasive and one is a transformer weed. The majority of alien plant species in the park are herbaceous (39% and succulent (24% species. The most widespread alien plant species in the CNP are Atriplex inflata (= A. lindleyi subsp. inflata, Salsola tragus (= S. australis and cacti species, especially Opuntia ficus-indica. Eradication and control measures that have been used for specific problematic alien plant species are described. Conservation implications: This article represents the first step in managing invasive alien plants and includes the collation of a species list and basic information on their distribution in and around the protected area. This is important for enabling effective monitoring of both new introductions and the distribution of species already present. We present the first species list and distribution information for Camdeboo National Park.

  7. Contrasting structures of plant-mite networks compounded by phytophagous and predatory mite species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Walter Santos; Daud, Rodrigo Damasco

    2018-04-01

    Differences in the feeding habits between phytophagous and predatory species can determine distinct ecological interactions between mites and their host plants. Herein, plant-mite networks were constructed using available literature on plant-dwelling mites from Brazilian natural vegetation in order to contrast phytophagous and predatory mite networks. The structural patterns of plant-mite networks were described through network specialization (connectance) and modularity. A total of 187 mite species, 65 host plant species and 646 interactions were recorded in 14 plant-mite networks. Phytophagous networks included 96 mite species, 61 host plants and 277 interactions, whereas predatory networks contained 91 mite species, 54 host plants and 369 interactions. No differences in the species richness of mites and host plants were observed between phytophagous and predatory networks. However, plant-mite networks composed of phytophagous mites showed lower connectance and higher modularity when compared to the predatory mite networks. The present results corroborate the hypothesis that trophic networks are more specialized than commensalistic networks, given that the phytophagous species must deal with plant defenses, in contrast to predatory mites which only inhabit and forage for resources on plants.

  8. Seismically induced common cause failures in PSA of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravindra, M.K.; Johnson, J.J.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, a research project on the seismically induced common cause failures in nuclear power plants performed for Toshiba Corp. is described. The objective of this research was to develop the procedure for estimating the common cause failure probabilities of different nuclear power plant components using the combination of seismic experience data, the review of sources of dependency, sensitivity studies and engineering judgement. The research project consisted of three tasks: the investigation of damage instances in past earthquakes, the analysis of multiple failures and their root causes, and the development of the methodology for assessing seismically induced common cause failures. The details of these tasks are explained. In this paper, the works carried out in the third task are described. A methodology for treating common cause failures and the correlation between component failures is formulated; it highlights the modeling of event trees taking into account common cause failures and the development of fault trees considering the correlation between component failures. The overview of seismic PSA, the quantification methods for dependent failures and Latin Hypercube sampling method are described. (K.I.)

  9. Applying morphometrics to early land plant systematics: a new Leclercqia (Lycopsida) species from Washington State, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benca, Jeffrey P; Carlisle, Maureen H; Bergen, Silas; Strömberg, Caroline A E

    2014-03-01

    Early land plant fossils can be challenging to interpret due to their morphological simplicity and often fragmentary nature. Morphometric techniques using commonly preserved characters might increase diagnostic value of such material. To evaluate the utility of morphometrics in assessing morphospecies boundaries in the Devonian, we compared degrees of variation within the cosmopolitan lycopsid genus Leclercqia with that of living relatives (Lycopodium-Spinulum spp.) Of particular interest was determining whether a new morphotype of Leclercqia from the Middle Devonian Chilliwack flora of Washington State fell within or outside the range of variation of previously described species. Morphological variation of Leclercqia was assessed across the geographic range of the genus using six vegetative and three reproductive characters. The new morphotype and two previously described species (L. complexa, L. andrewsii) were compared using linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Extant Lycopodium-Spinulum species and variants were similarly analyzed to assess inter- vs. intraspecific variation in living lycopsids. The LDA comparisons of Lycopodium-Spinulum yielded notable morphological disparity between species but substantial overlap between intraspecific variants. Among the fossils, LDA separates the new morphotype, Leclercqia complexa, and L. andrewsii to a similar degree as Lycopodium and Spinulum species. Based on these results and further study, we describe a new species of Leclercqia: Leclercqia scolopendra Benca et Strömberg sp. nov. Morphometric analyses can aid in informing taxonomic assignment of fragmentary early land plant fossils using readily preserved features, even in the absence of reproductive structures. Applications of this approach to the Chilliwack flora suggest Leclercqia displayed greater morphological variation, taxonomic diversity, and biogeographic extent than previously thought.

  10. Changes in semi-arid plant species associations along a livestock grazing gradient.

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    Hugo Saiz

    Full Text Available In semi-arid ecosystems, vegetation is heterogeneously distributed, with plant species often associating in patches. These associations between species are not constant, but depend on the particular response of each species to environmental factors. Here, we investigated how plant species associations change in response to livestock grazing in a semi-arid ecosystem, Cabo de Gata-Níjar Natural Park in South East Spain. We established linear point-intercept transects at four sites with different grazing intensity, and recorded all species at each point. We investigated plant associations by comparing the number of times that each pair of species occurred at the same spatial point (co-occurrences, with the expected number of times based on species abundances. We also assessed associations for each shrub and grass species by considering all their pairs of associations and for the whole plant community by considering all pairs of associations on each site. At all sites, the plant community had a negative pattern of association, with fewer co-occurrences than expected. Negative association in the plant community increased at maximum grazing intensity. Most species associated as expected, particularly grass species, and positive associations were most important at intermediate grazing intensities. No species changed its type of association along the grazing gradient. We conclude that in the present plant community, grazing-resistant species compete among themselves and segregate in space. Some shrub species act as refuges for grazing-sensitive species that benefit from being spatially associated with shrub species, particularly at intermediate grazing intensities where positive associations were highest. At high grazing intensity, these shrubs can no longer persist and positive associations decrease due to the disappearance of refuges. Spatial associations between plant species and their response to grazing help identify the factors that organize

  11. Common garden comparison of the leaf-out phenology of woody species from different native climates, combined with herbarium records, forecasts long-term change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohner, Constantin M; Renner, Susanne S

    2014-08-01

    A well-timed phenology is essential for plant growth and reproduction, but species-specific phenological strategies are still poorly understood. Here, we use a common garden approach to compare biannual leaf-out data for 495 woody species growing outdoors in Munich, 90% of them not native to that climate regime. For three species, data were augmented by herbarium dates for 140-year-long time series. We further meta-analysed 107 temperate-zone woody species in which leaf-out cues have been studied, half of them also monitored here. Southern climate-adapted species flushed significantly later than natives, and photoperiod- and chilling- sensitive species all flushed late. The herbarium method revealed the extent of species-specific climate tracking. Our results forecast that: (1) a northward expansion of southern species due to climate warming will increase the number of late flushers in the north, counteracting documented and expected flushing time advances; and (2) photoperiod- and chilling-sensitive woody species cannot rapidly track climate warming. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  12. Electrochemical Determination of the Antioxidant Potential of Some Less Common Fruit Species

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    Boris Krska

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Various berries and fruit types of less common fruit species are known to contain antioxidants. Consumption of high amounts of antioxidant flavonoids, which display a variety of biological properties, including antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory activity, may have a positive impact on human health, particularly for the prevention of cancer and other inflammatory diseases. In these studies, based on the hypothesis that the fruit extract with the highest content would possess significantly higher health benefits, flavonoid-rich extracts were obtained from some less common fruit species – Blue Honeysuckles (Lonicera Kamtschatica and Lonicera edulis, Turcz. ex. Freyn, Saskatoon berry (Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt. and Chinese Hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida BUNGE – grown from germplasm held at the Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry in Brno, Czech Republic and then characterized in terms of biological value based on the results from a relative antioxidant capacity assessment. The antioxidant content evaluation was based on the total flavonoid amount, determined by liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ED. A DPPH• test was applied as a reference. The antioxidant content measured in Chinese Hawthorn fruit extract identified it as a potent source of flavonoid antioxidants, with a content 9-fold higher than that seen in Amelanchier fruit. The multifunctional HPLC-ED array method coupled with a DPPH• reference appears to be the optimal analytical progress, accurately reflecting the nutritivetherapeutic properties of a fruit.

  13. Alien and invasive species in plant communities of the Vistula and Brennica rivers gravel bars (Western Carpathians, Poland

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    Wilczek Zbigniew

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Gravel bars are the initial habitats, inseparably connected to the mountain streams. On the one hand, they are an unstable substrate, influenced by the overflows and high waters; however, they are also exposed to strong sunlight and heat. This situation determines specific vegetation which, due to dynamic changes in the habitat, has a pioneer character. What is more, gravel bars are areas where many river migratory species and many random species appear. Among them, there are also synanthropic species. In years 2011-2012, floristic and phytosociological studies were conducted in the Silesian Beskids. The goal of these studies was to recognize the vegetation of the gravel bars of the Vistula and the Brennica rivers - from their springs in the Silesian Beskids to the point where the Brennica River flows into the Vistula River in the Silesian Foothills. The studied section of the two rivers is regulated. Particular attention was paid to the synanthropic species that pose a threat to the native flora. In 9 recognized types of plant communities, 293 vascular plant species were recognized. More than 15% of the flora were alien species (45 and 22 of them were considered to be invasive. The most common invasive species that were spotted included: Impatiens glandulifera, Heracleum mantegazzianum and Reynoutria japonica. Plant communities with the biggest number and share of alien species were Plantago major-Barbarea vulgaris community and Phalaridetum arundinaceae.

  14. Metabolite analysis of Mycobacterium species under aerobic and hypoxic conditions reveals common metabolic traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapal, Margit; Wheeler, Paul R; Fraser, Paul D

    2016-08-01

    A metabolite profiling approach has been implemented to elucidate metabolic adaptation at set culture conditions in five Mycobacterium species (two fast- and three slow-growing) with the potential to act as model organisms for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Analysis has been performed over designated growth phases and under representative environments (nutrient and oxygen depletion) experienced by Mtb during infection. The procedure was useful in determining a range of metabolites (60-120 compounds) covering nucleotides, amino acids, organic acids, saccharides, fatty acids, glycerols, -esters, -phosphates and isoprenoids. Among these classes of compounds, key biomarker metabolites, which can act as indicators of pathway/process activity, were identified. In numerous cases, common metabolite traits were observed for all five species across the experimental conditions (e.g. uracil indicating DNA repair). Amino acid content, especially glutamic acid, highlighted the different properties between the fast- and slow-growing mycobacteria studied (e.g. nitrogen assimilation). The greatest similarities in metabolite composition between fast- and slow-growing mycobacteria were apparent under hypoxic conditions. A comparison to previously reported transcriptomic data revealed a strong correlation between changes in transcription and metabolite content. Collectively, these data validate the changes in the transcription at the metabolite level, suggesting transcription exists as one of the predominant modes of cellular regulation in Mycobacterium. Sectors with restricted correlation between metabolites and transcription (e.g. hypoxic cultivation) warrant further study to elucidate and exploit post-transcriptional modes of regulation. The strong correlation between the laboratory conditions used and data derived from in vivo conditions, indicate that the approach applied is a valuable addition to our understanding of cell regulation in these Mycobacterium species.

  15. A new indoor allergen from a common non-flowering plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, I G; Johansson, S G; Zetterström, O

    1987-11-01

    Ficus benjamina or weeping fig (w-fig) is one of the most common indoor non-flowering green plants in northern Europe. We have previously reported that occupational exposure to w-fig in plant keepers, both atopic and non-atopic, gives rise to IgE-mediated allergy with airway symptoms. About one-fourth of the plant keepers had become sensitized. We now report a study of sensitization in non-occupationally exposed persons comprising 395 patients, consecutively referred for allergological investigation, and 107 employees from two offices decorated with an abundance of w-figs. Of the patients, 56% were found to be atopic and more than half of them reported exposure to w-fig. Sensitization, as judged by a positive skin prick test and positive RAST, was found in 13 of the patients and in three of the employees. All of them suffered from rhinitis and/or asthma and were atopics and sensitized to one or several common allergens. We conclude that sensitization to w-fig is not uncommon and that in Sweden it is of the same magnitude as sensitization to the most common mould, Cladosporium herbarum. The risk that subjects with a genuine atopic constitution exposed to w-fig will become sensitized is about 6%. In approximately half of the patients the sensitization was considered to be clinically important.

  16. Species-specific effects of woody litter on seedling emergence and growth of herbaceous plants.

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    Kadri Koorem

    Full Text Available The effect of litter on seedling establishment can influence species richness in plant communities. The effect of litter depends on amount, and also on litter type, but relatively little is known about the species-specific effects of litter. We conducted a factorial greenhouse experiment to examine the effect of litter type, using two woody species that commonly co-occur in boreonemoral forest--evergreen spruce (Picea abies, deciduous hazel (Corylus avellana, and a mixture of the two species--and litter amount--shallow (4 mm, deep (12 mm and leachate--on seedling emergence and biomass of three understorey species. The effect of litter amount on seedling emergence was highly dependent on litter type; while spruce needle litter had a significant negative effect that increased with depth, seedling emergence in the presence of hazel broadleaf litter did not differ from control pots containing no litter. Mixed litter of both species also had a negative effect on seedling emergence that was intermediate compared to the single-species treatments. Spruce litter had a marginally positive (shallow or neutral effect (deep on seedling biomass, while hazel and mixed litter treatments had significant positive effects on biomass that increased with depth. We found non-additive effects of litter mixtures on seedling biomass indicating that high quality hazel litter can reduce the negative effects of spruce. Hazel litter does not inhibit seedling emergence; it increases seedling growth, and creates better conditions for seedling growth in mixtures by reducing the suppressive effect of spruce litter, having a positive effect on understorey species richness.

  17. Reciprocal effects of litter from exotic and congeneric native plant species via soil nutrients.

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    Annelein Meisner

    Full Text Available Invasive exotic plant species are often expected to benefit exclusively from legacy effects of their litter inputs on soil processes and nutrient availability. However, there are relatively few experimental tests determining how litter of exotic plants affects their own growth conditions compared to congeneric native plant species. Here, we test how the legacy of litter from three exotic plant species affects their own performance in comparison to their congeneric natives that co-occur in the invaded habitat. We also analyzed litter effects on soil processes. In all three comparisons, soil with litter from exotic plant species had the highest respiration rates. In two out of the three exotic-native species comparisons, soil with litter from exotic plant species had higher inorganic nitrogen concentrations than their native congener, which was likely due to higher initial litter quality of the exotics. When litter from an exotic plant species had a positive effect on itself, it also had a positive effect on its native congener. We conclude that exotic plant species develop a legacy effect in soil from the invaded range through their litter inputs. This litter legacy effect results in altered soil processes that can promote both the exotic plant species and their native congener.

  18. Regional patterns and controlling factors in plant species composition and diversity in Canadian lowland coastal bogs and laggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Howie

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Inventories of natural assemblages of plant species are critical when planning ecological restoration of bogs. However, little is known about the regional variation in plant communities at the margins (laggs of bogs, even though they are an integral element of raised bog ecosystems. Therefore, we investigated the regional patterns in the plant communities of bogs and laggs, and the factors that control them, for thirteen bogs in coastal British Columbia, Canada. Species richness was significantly higher in the bogs and laggs of the cooler, wetter Pacific Oceanic wetland region. Beta Diversity analyses showed that bogs in the Pacific Oceanic wetland region often shared species with their respective laggs, whereas half of the laggs in the warmer, drier Pacific Temperate wetland region had no species in common with the adjacent bogs and were thus more ecologically distinct from the bog. Primary climatic variables, such as mean annual precipitation, mean annual temperature and latitude, as well as climate-influenced variables, such as pH, peat depth, and Na+ concentrations were the main correlates of plant species composition in the studied bogs. Site-specific factors, particularly depth to water table, and fraction of inorganic material in peat samples, were as strongly related to lagg plant communities as climate, while hydrochemistry appeared to have less influence.

  19. Rare earth elements (REEs): effects on germination and growth of selected crop and native plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Philippe J; Carpenter, David; Boutin, Céline; Allison, Jane E

    2014-02-01

    The phytotoxicity of rare earth elements (REEs) is still poorly understood. The exposure-response relationships of three native Canadian plant species (common milkweed, Asclepias syriaca L., showy ticktrefoil, Desmodium canadense (L.) DC. and switchgrass, Panicum virgatum L.) and two commonly used crop species (radish, Raphanus sativus L., and tomato, Solanum lycopersicum L.) to the REEs lanthanum (La), yttrium (Y) and cerium (Ce) were tested. In separate experiments, seven to eight doses of each element were added to the soil prior to sowing seeds. Effects of REE dose on germination were established through measures of total percent germination and speed of germination; effects on growth were established through determination of above ground biomass. Ce was also tested at two pH levels and plant tissue analysis was conducted on pooled samples. Effects on germination were mostly observed with Ce at low pH. However, effects on growth were more pronounced, with detectable inhibition concentrations causing 10% and 25% reductions in biomass for the two native forb species (A. syriaca and D. canadense) with all REEs and on all species tested with Ce in both soil pH treatments. Concentration of Ce in aboveground biomass was lower than root Ce content, and followed the dose-response trend. From values measured in natural soils around the world, our results continue to support the notion that REEs are of limited toxicity and not considered extremely hazardous to the environment. However, in areas where REE contamination is likely, the slow accumulation of these elements in the environment could become problematic. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Fifteen year phenological plant species and meteorological trends in central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlandi, F.; Bonofiglio, T.; Ruga, L.; Romano, B.; Fornaciari, M.

    2012-04-01

    The present study was carried out in a phenological garden located near Perugia, central Italy, which contains vegetative clones of plant species, common to several international phenological gardens such as: Cornus sanguinea L.; Corylus avellana L.; Ligustrum vulgare L.; Robinia pseudoacacia L.; Salix acutifolia Willd.; Sambucus nigra L. The vegetative plant growth monitoring was realized week by week using common international keys: V3) bud break and leaf unfolding; V5) young unfolded leaf; V7) adult leaves; V8) beginning of leaf colouring. The phenological dates thus obtained provide a model of development for the different species in relationship to the fifteen-year period of observation (1997-2011). By a meteorological point of view the principal temperature and rain trends were studied showing as the highest anomalies during the study period were those recorded during the first months of the year (January and February). The phenological data evidenced a double trend behaviour considering the two central phases (V5-V7) in comparison to the other ones (V3-V8). In general, a quite invariance in the manifestation of the open bud phase and a contemporary advance of the young open leaves phase particularly from 2006 was recorded, with a shortening of the leaf opening period probably due to more rapid spring temperature increase in the last years. The delay tendency of V7 phase in particular evidenced the presence of growing leaves till summer weeks monitoring young leaves for a long time On the contrary, the V8 (autumn leaf colouring) phase tend to remain constant, with the exception of some species such as Corylus and Cornus which showed variations of this phase, showing as the signal for leaf colouring in fall is quite ambiguous and less evident. The lowest correlations between annual vegetative phases and temperature variations were manifested above all by two species (Sambucus nigra L. and Robinia pseudoacacia L.) for which the first leaf development phases

  1. Real-Time PCR Quantification of Chloroplast DNA Supports DNA Barcoding of Plant Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikkawa, Hitomi S; Tsuge, Kouichiro; Sugita, Ritsuko

    2016-03-01

    Species identification from extracted DNA is sometimes needed for botanical samples. DNA quantification is required for an accurate and effective examination. If a quantitative assay provides unreliable estimates, a higher quantity of DNA than the estimated amount may be used in additional analyses to avoid failure to analyze samples from which extracting DNA is difficult. Compared with conventional methods, real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) requires a low amount of DNA and enables quantification of dilute DNA solutions accurately. The aim of this study was to develop a qPCR assay for quantification of chloroplast DNA from taxonomically diverse plant species. An absolute quantification method was developed using primers targeting the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit (rbcL) gene using SYBR Green I-based qPCR. The calibration curve was generated using the PCR amplicon as the template. DNA extracts from representatives of 13 plant families common in Japan. This demonstrates that qPCR analysis is an effective method for quantification of DNA from plant samples. The results of qPCR assist in the decision-making will determine the success or failure of DNA analysis, indicating the possibility of optimization of the procedure for downstream reactions.

  2. DNA barcoding of selected UAE medicinal plant species: a comparative assessment of herbarium and fresh samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enan, Mohamed Rizk; Palakkott, Abdul Rasheed; Ksiksi, Taoufik Saleh

    2017-01-01

    It is commonly difficult to extract and amplify DNA from herbarium samples as they are old and preserved using different compounds. In addition, such samples are subjected to the accumulation of intrinsically produced plant substances over long periods (up to hundreds of years). DNA extraction from desert flora may pause added difficulties as many contain high levels of secondary metabolites. Herbarium samples from the Biology Department (UAE University) plant collection and fresh plant samples, collected from around Al-Ain (UAE), were used in this study. The three barcode loci for the coding genes matK, rbcL and rpoC1-were amplified. Our results showed that T. terresteris , H. robustum , T. pentandrus and Z. qatarense were amplified using all three primers for both fresh and herbaium samples. Both fresh and herbarium samples of C. comosum , however, were not amplified at all, using the three primers. Herbarium samples from A. javanica , C. imbricatum , T. aucherana and Z. simplex were not amplified with any of the three primers. For fresh samples 90, 90 and 80% of the samples were amplified using matK, rbcL and rpoC1, respectively. In short, fresh samples were significantly better amplified than those from herbarium sources, using the three primers. Both fresh and herbarium samples from one species ( C. comosum ), however, were not successfully amplified. It is also concluded that the rbcL regions showed real potentials to distinguish the UAE species under investigation into the appropriate family and genus.

  3. How does resprouting response differ among three species of savanna trees and in relation to plant size?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klécia Gili Massi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cerrado tree species can survive fire by resprouting. Generally, large and less damaged plants produce new branches and leaves from stem buds (aerial, whereas small and highly injured individuals would resprout from the stem base or from underground organs (basal. We compared the three most common Cerrado woody plant species in a savanna area of the IBGE Ecological Reserve, Brasília, Brazil, aiming to verify if the resprouting strategy (aerial or basal differed between species and if that was related to plant size. Guapira noxia had small-sized plants, a higher percentage of trunk charred and more individuals with basal resprouting, while Eriotheca pubescens had large-sized plants with a greater intensity of aerial resprouting, Basal resprouting was associated with disturbance severity for Dalbergia miscolobium, while plant size was associated with aerial resprouting for E. pubescens. None of variables explained the variation in resprouting of G. noxia. The results showed that the post-fire regeneration strategy varied according to the species, confirming other studies of post-fire resprouting.

  4. Plant species occurrence patterns in Eurasian grasslands reflect adaptation to nutrient ratios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roeling, Ineke S.; Ozinga, Wim A.; Dijk, van Jerry; Eppinga, Maarten B.; Wassen, Martin J.

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies of Eurasian grasslands have suggested that nutrient ratios, rather than absolute nutrient availabilities and associated productivity, may be driving plant species richness patterns. However, the underlying assumption that species occupy distinct niches along nutrient ratio gradients

  5. Performance of dryland and wetland plant species on extensive green roofs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIvor, J Scott; Ranalli, Melissa A; Lundholm, Jeremy T

    2011-04-01

    Green roofs are constructed ecosystems where plants perform valuable services, ameliorating the urban environment through roof temperature reductions and stormwater interception. Plant species differ in functional characteristics that alter ecosystem properties. Plant performance research on extensive green roofs has so far indicated that species adapted to dry conditions perform optimally. However, in moist, humid climates, species typical of wetter soils might have advantages over dryland species. In this study, survival, growth and the performance of thermal and stormwater capture functions of three pairs of dryland and wetland plant species were quantified using an extensive modular green roof system. Seedlings of all six species were germinated in a greenhouse and planted into green roof modules with 6 cm of growing medium. There were 34 treatments consisting of each species in monoculture and all combinations of wet- and dryland species in a randomized block design. Performance measures were survival, vegetation cover and roof surface temperature recorded for each module over two growing seasons, water loss (an estimate of evapotranspiration) in 2007, and albedo and water capture in 2008. Over two seasons, dryland plants performed better than wetland plants, and increasing the number of dryland species in mixtures tended to improve functioning, although there was no clear effect of species or habitat group diversity. All species had survival rates >75 % after the first winter; however, dryland species had much greater cover, an important indicator of green roof performance. Sibbaldiopsis tridentata was the top performing species in monoculture, and was included in the best treatments. Although dryland species outperformed wetland species, planting extensive green roofs with both groups decreased performance only slightly, while increasing diversity and possibly habitat value. This study provides further evidence that plant composition and diversity can

  6. Search for antifungal and anticancer compounds from native plant species of Cerrado and Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzani, V da S; Young, M C; Furlan, M; Cavalheiro, A J; Araújo, A R; Silva, D H; Lopes, M N

    1999-01-01

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation of several bioactive extracts obtained from Cerrado and Atlantic Forest plant species led to the isolation of potent DNA-damaging piperidine 1-5 and guanidine alkaloids 6-9 from Cassia leptophylla and Pterogyne nitens respectively, two common Leguminosae from Atlantic Forest. By means of biotechnological approach on Maytenus aquifolium, a species from Cerrado, moderate DNA-damaging sesquiterpene pyridine alkaloid 10-11 was isolated. Bioassay-guided fractionation on Casearia sylvestris, a medicinal plant species found in Cerrado and Atlantic Forest, led to the isolation of clerodane diterpenes 12-13 which showed effect on DNA. In addition, we have reported several interesting potent antifungal iridoids: 1 beta-hydroxy-dihydrocornin (14), 1 alpha-hydroxy-dihydrocornin (15), alpha-gardiol (16), beta-gardiol (17), plumericin (18), isoplumericin (19), 11-O-trans-caffeoylteucrein (20); ester derivative: 2-methyl-4-hydroxy-butyl-caffeoate (21), amide N-[7-(3',4'-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2Z, 4Z-heptadienoyl] pyrrolidine (22) and triterpene viburgenin (23).

  7. Oviposition inhibitor in umbelliferous medicinal plants for the common yellow swallowtail (Papilio machaon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morino, Chisato; Morita, Yusuke; Minami, Kazuki; Nishidono, Yuto; Nakashima, Yoshitaka; Ozawa, Rika; Takabayashi, Junji; Ono, Naoaki; Kanaya, Shigehiko; Tamura, Takayuki; Tezuka, Yasuhiro; Tanaka, Ken

    2018-01-01

    Umbelliferous medicinal plants, such as Angelica acutiloba Kitagawa and Angelica dahurica Bentham et Hooker filius ex Franchet et Savatier, account for a large percentage of crude drug consumption in Japan. The most serious problem in the cultivation of umbelliferous medicinal plants is the feeding damage caused by the common yellow swallowtail (Papilio machaon hippocrates C. & R. Felder, 1864). When we compared the numbers of eggs laid by P. machaon on six umbelliferous medicinal plants, the eggs on A. acutiloba, A. dahurica, and Glehnia littoralis Fr. Schmidt ex Miquel were the most numerous, those on Saposhnikovia divaricata Schischkin and Cnidium officinale Makino were rare, and Bupleurum falcatum Linné was not oviposited at all. To identify oviposition inhibitors for P. machaon in B. falcatum, S. divaricata, and C. officinale, the volatile chemical constituents of these umbelliferous medicinal plants were compared with GC-MS. We carried out multivariate analysis of gas chromatographic data and concluded that germacrene D, α-humulene, and trans-caryophyllene play important roles in protecting plants from oviposition by P. machaon. Their oviposition repellent activity was confirmed by the fact that the number of eggs laid on the leaves around a repellent device containing a mixture of germacrene D, α-humulene, and trans-caryophyllene was reduced by 40% compared to a control.

  8. Plant species visited by the Horned Sungem Heliactin bilophus (Aves, Trochilidae at Chapada dos Veadeiros, during the rainy season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Baruffaldi Ghiringhello

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The feeding habits of the Horned Sungem remain little known. This study aimed to identify the plant species most often visited by H. bilophus with feeding purposes (consumption of nectar during the rainy season at Chapada dos Veadeiros National Park, Goiás. Observations were made during two rainy seasons (January 2006 and February 2008. The methodology consisted of walking through trails within two areas of campo sujo and two areas of campo rupestre. The record of an individual consuming the nectar of a flowering plant was considered to constitute a visit. A total of 296 visits were observed, comprising eight species of shrubs and herbs. The most often visited plant species were Bauhinia tenella (Caesalpinoideae and Vochysia pumila (Vochysiaceae in campo sujo, and Lychnophora ericoides (Asteraceae in campo rupestre. These three species were commonly found at the study sites. In both physiognomies, Heliactin bilophus consumed the nectar of few plant species. The most frequently visited species bore high numbers of flowers.

  9. Number of endemic and native plant species in the Galapagos Archipelago in relation to geographical parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, Eske; Hansen, Anders J.; Nielsen, Kirstine Klitgaard

    2002-01-01

    By simple and multiple regression analyses we investigate updated species numbers of endemic and native vascular plants and seed plants in the Galapagos Archipelago in relation to geographical parameters. We find that the best models to describe species numbers are regression models with log...... explained variation is in general small. The results show that the species area relationships are different for native and endemic species. This is discussed in relation to classical island biogeographical models, and the concepts of radiative speciation....

  10. Climate change may threaten habitat suitability of threatened plant species within Chinese nature reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunjing; Liu, Chengzhu; Wan, Jizhong; Zhang, Zhixiang

    2016-01-01

    Climate change has the potential to alter the distributions of threatened plant species, and may therefore diminish the capacity of nature reserves to protect threatened plant species. Chinese nature reserves contain a rich diversity of plant species that are at risk of becoming more threatened by climate change. Hence, it is urgent to identify the extent to which future climate change may compromise the suitability of threatened plant species habitats within Chinese nature reserves. Here, we modelled the climate suitability of 82 threatened plant species within 168 nature reserves across climate change scenarios. We used Maxent modelling based on species occurrence localities and evaluated climate change impacts using the magnitude of change in climate suitability and the degree of overlap between current and future climatically suitable habitats. There was a significant relationship between overlap with current and future climate suitability of all threatened plant species habitats and the magnitude of changes in climate suitability. Our projections estimate that the climate suitability of more than 60 threatened plant species will decrease and that climate change threatens the habitat suitability of plant species in more than 130 nature reserves under the low, medium, and high greenhouse gas concentration scenarios by both 2050s and 2080s. Furthermore, future climate change may substantially threaten tree plant species through changes in annual mean temperature. These results indicate that climate change may threaten plant species that occur within Chinese nature reserves. Therefore, we suggest that climate change projections should be integrated into the conservation and management of threatened plant species within nature reserves.

  11. Climate change may threaten habitat suitability of threatened plant species within Chinese nature reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jizhong

    2016-01-01

    Climate change has the potential to alter the distributions of threatened plant species, and may therefore diminish the capacity of nature reserves to protect threatened plant species. Chinese nature reserves contain a rich diversity of plant species that are at risk of becoming more threatened by climate change. Hence, it is urgent to identify the extent to which future climate change may compromise the suitability of threatened plant species habitats within Chinese nature reserves. Here, we modelled the climate suitability of 82 threatened plant species within 168 nature reserves across climate change scenarios. We used Maxent modelling based on species occurrence localities and evaluated climate change impacts using the magnitude of change in climate suitability and the degree of overlap between current and future climatically suitable habitats. There was a significant relationship between overlap with current and future climate suitability of all threatened plant species habitats and the magnitude of changes in climate suitability. Our projections estimate that the climate suitability of more than 60 threatened plant species will decrease and that climate change threatens the habitat suitability of plant species in more than 130 nature reserves under the low, medium, and high greenhouse gas concentration scenarios by both 2050s and 2080s. Furthermore, future climate change may substantially threaten tree plant species through changes in annual mean temperature. These results indicate that climate change may threaten plant species that occur within Chinese nature reserves. Therefore, we suggest that climate change projections should be integrated into the conservation and management of threatened plant species within nature reserves. PMID:27326373

  12. Vascular plant and vertebrate species richness in national parks of the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Jeffrey S.; Myrick, Kaci E.; Huston, Michael A.; Weckerly, Floyd W.; Green, M. Clay

    2013-01-01

    Given the estimates that species diversity is diminishing at 50-100 times the normal rate, it is critical that we be able to evaluate changes in species richness in order to make informed decisions for conserving species diversity. In this study, we examined the potential of vascular plant species richness to be used as a surrogate for vertebrate species richness in the classes of amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. Vascular plants, as primary producers, represent the biotic starting point for ecological community structure and are the logical place to start for understanding vertebrate species associations. We used data collected by the United States (US) National Park Service (NPS) on species presence within parks in the eastern US to estimate simple linear regressions between plant species richness and vertebrate richness. Because environmental factors may also influence species diversity, we performed simple linear regressions of species richness versus natural logarithm of park area, park latitude, mean annual precipitation, mean annual temperature, and human population density surrounding the parks. We then combined plant species richness and environmental variables in multiple regressions to determine the variables that remained as significant predictors of vertebrate species richness. As expected, we detected significant relationships between plant species richness and amphibian, bird, and mammal species richness. In some cases, plant species richness was predicted by park area alone. Species richness of mammals was only related to plant species richness. Reptile species richness, on the other hand, was related to plant species richness, park latitude and annual precipitation, while amphibian species richness was related to park latitude, park area, and plant species richness. Thus, plant species richness predicted species richness of different vertebrate groups to varying degrees and should not be used exclusively as a surrogate for vertebrate

  13. Progress on Plant-Level Components for Nuclear Fuel Recycling: Commonality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Almeida, Valmor F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Progress made in developing a common mathematical modeling framework for plant-level components of a simulation toolkit for nuclear fuel recycling is summarized. This ongoing work is performed under the DOE Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program, which has an element focusing on safeguards and separations (SafeSeps). One goal of this element is to develop a modeling and simulation toolkit for used nuclear fuel recycling. The primary function of the SafeSeps simulation toolkit is to enable the time-dependent coupling of separation modules and safeguards tools (either native or third-party supplied) that simulate and/or monitor the individual separation processes in a separations plant. The toolkit integration environment will offer an interface for the modules to register in the toolkit domain based on the commonality of diverse unit operations. This report discusses the source of this commonality from a combined mathematical modeling and software design perspectives, and it defines the initial basic concepts needed for development of application modules and their integrated form, that is, an application software. A unifying mathematical theory of chemical thermomechanical network transport for physicochemical systems is proposed and outlined as the basis for developing advanced modules. A program for developing this theory from the underlying first-principles continuum thermomechanics will be needed in future developments; accomplishment of this task will enable the development of a modern modeling approach for plant-level models. Rigorous, advanced modeling approaches at the plant-level can only proceed from the development of reduced (or low-order) models based on a solid continuum field theory foundation. Such development will pave the way for future programmatic activities on software verification, simulation validation, and model uncertainty quantification on a scientific basis; currently, no satisfactory foundation exists for

  14. Phytophthora multivora sp. nov., a new species recovered from declining Eucalyptus, Banksia, Agonis and other plant species in Western Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scott, P.M.; Burgess, T.I.; Barber, P.A.; Shearer, B.L.; Stukely, M.J.C.; Hardy, G.E.St.J.; Jung, T.

    2009-01-01

    A new Phytophthora species, isolated from rhizosphere soil of declining or dead trees of Eucalyptus gomphocephala, E. marginata, Agonis flexuosa, and another 13 plant species, and from fine roots of E. marginata and collar lesions of Banksia attenuata in Western Australia, is described as

  15. Vulnerability of oak-dominated forests in West Virginia to invasive exotic plants: temporal and spatial patterns of nine exotic species using herbarium records and land classification data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cynthia D. Huebner

    2003-01-01

    Are oak-dominated forests immune to invasive exotic plants? Herbarium and land classification data were used to evaluate the extent of spread of nine invasive exotic plants and to relate their distributions to remotely-sensed land use types in West Virginia. Collector-defined habitats indicated that the most common habitat was roadsides, but seven of the nine species...

  16. Strontium content in otoliths of common fish species in the northern Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lill, J-O.; Heselius, S-J. [Accelerator Laboratory, Turku PET Centre, Abo Akademi University, Turku (Finland); Himberg, M.; Hagerstand, H. [Cell Biology, Department of Biosciences, Abo Akademi University, Turku (Finland); Harju, L. [Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemical Engineering, Abo Akademi University, Turku (Finland); Lindroos, A. [Geology and Mineralogy, Department of Natural Sciences, Abo Akademi University, Turku (Finland); Gunnelius, K.; Smâtt, J-H. [Physical Chemistry, Department of Natural Sciences, Abo Akademi University, Turku (Finland)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: The salinity of water in the northern Baltic Sea forms a gradient as it receives fresh water from several large rivers in the north and salty water by infrequent inflows of North Sea water in the south. The salinity of brackish water in the north-south direction (700 km) changes from about 3 to 7%. In an attempt to use the salinity gradient to study migration patterns, sagittae otoliths were collected from common fish species caught at different locations along the Finnish west coast. Otoliths from fishes caught in fresh-water lakes in Finland and Estonia were also included in the study for comparison. Part of the otoliths was grind and the powder was pressed to pellets which were irradiated in air with an ion beam from the Abo Akademi cyclotron and the emitted X-rays were measured. Other otoliths were embedded in epoxy and polished to reveal the ring structure. These prepared otoliths were irradiated with the ion beam to determine elemental profiles. Furthermore, XRD was applied to study the crystal structure and to identify the minerals in the otoliths. The strontium level of water is usually related to its salinity, and as the strontium ions are able to replace calcium ions in fish otoliths [1], the strontium content in fish otoliths from the same locations is expected to be very similar. However, the PIXE analyses revealed large differences in the strontium content between otoliths from different species of fish caught at the same locations. The strontium concentration in otoliths of perch and pike from the Aland Islands was about 1600 μg/g and of common whitefish 3600 μg/g. The strontium concentration in perch otoliths from the Oravais archipelago, about 400 km north of the Aland Islands, was 1400 μg/g. Corresponding concentration in otoliths of perch and pike caught in fresh-water lakes was 200 μg/g and of common whitefish from Saadjarve 400 μg/g and from Lake Inari 1000 μg/g. Otoliths of perch contained no detectable amounts of zinc (Iower

  17. Strontium content in otoliths of common fish species in the northern Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lill, J-O.; Heselius, S-J.; Himberg, M.; Hagerstand, H.; Harju, L.; Lindroos, A.; Gunnelius, K.; Smâtt, J-H.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: The salinity of water in the northern Baltic Sea forms a gradient as it receives fresh water from several large rivers in the north and salty water by infrequent inflows of North Sea water in the south. The salinity of brackish water in the north-south direction (700 km) changes from about 3 to 7%. In an attempt to use the salinity gradient to study migration patterns, sagittae otoliths were collected from common fish species caught at different locations along the Finnish west coast. Otoliths from fishes caught in fresh-water lakes in Finland and Estonia were also included in the study for comparison. Part of the otoliths was grind and the powder was pressed to pellets which were irradiated in air with an ion beam from the Abo Akademi cyclotron and the emitted X-rays were measured. Other otoliths were embedded in epoxy and polished to reveal the ring structure. These prepared otoliths were irradiated with the ion beam to determine elemental profiles. Furthermore, XRD was applied to study the crystal structure and to identify the minerals in the otoliths. The strontium level of water is usually related to its salinity, and as the strontium ions are able to replace calcium ions in fish otoliths [1], the strontium content in fish otoliths from the same locations is expected to be very similar. However, the PIXE analyses revealed large differences in the strontium content between otoliths from different species of fish caught at the same locations. The strontium concentration in otoliths of perch and pike from the Aland Islands was about 1600 μg/g and of common whitefish 3600 μg/g. The strontium concentration in perch otoliths from the Oravais archipelago, about 400 km north of the Aland Islands, was 1400 μg/g. Corresponding concentration in otoliths of perch and pike caught in fresh-water lakes was 200 μg/g and of common whitefish from Saadjarve 400 μg/g and from Lake Inari 1000 μg/g. Otoliths of perch contained no detectable amounts of zinc (Iower

  18. The sentinel tree nursery as an early warning system for pathway risk assessment: Fungal pathogens associated with Chinese woody plants commonly shipped to Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Vettraino

    Full Text Available Introduction of and invasion by alien plant pathogens represents the main cause of emerging infectious diseases affecting domesticated and wild plant species worldwide. The trade in living plants is the most common pathway of introduction. Many of the alien tree pathogens recently introduced into Europe were not previously included on any quarantine lists. To help determine the potential risk of pest introduction through trading of ornamental plants, a sentinel nursery was established in Beijing, China in 2008. The sentinel nursery planting included four of the most common ornamental woody species shipped to Europe including Ilex cornuta var. fortunae, Zelkova schneideriana, Fraxinus chinensis and Buxus microphylla. Symptoms developing on these species within the sentinel nursery were detected in 2013 and consisted of necrotic spots on leaves, canker and stem necrosis, shoot blight and shoot necrosis. Fungi associated with the trees and their symptoms included Alternaria alternata detected from all hosts; Diaporthe liquidambaris and Diaporthe capsici from bark and leaf necrosis of Zelkova schneideriana; Botryosphaeria dothidea and Nothophoma quercina from stem cankers on Fraxinus chinensis and leaf necrosis on Ilex cornuta; and Pseudonectria foliicola from leaf necrosis on Buxus microphylla. Next generation sequencing analysis from asymptomatic tissues detected eighteen OTU's at species level among which some taxa had not been previously recorded in Europe. These results clearly demonstrate that looking at trees of internationally traded species in the region of origin can reveal the presence of potentially harmful organisms of major forestry, landscape or crop trees. Results of this study also provide an indication as to how some disease agents can be introduced using pathways other than the co-generic hosts. Hence, sentinel nurseries represent one potential mechanism to address the current lack of knowledge about pests in the countries from

  19. An Ethnobotanical Survey on Fuel Wood and Timber plant Species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... wood and 41 species belonging to 25 families were utilized as timber. Three tree species; Quercus incana, Cedrus deodara and Taxus wallichiana was found endangered. There is a dire need to conserve these species. Key words: Ethnobotany, fuel wood, timber species, Kaghan valleys, Khyber Pakhtoon ...

  20. Molecular and Morphological Differentiation of Common Dolphins (Delphinus sp.) in the Southwestern Atlantic: Testing the Two Species Hypothesis in Sympatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Haydée A.; de Castro, Rocio Loizaga; Secchi, Eduardo R.; Crespo, Enrique A.; Lailson-Brito, José; Azevedo, Alexandre F.; Lazoski, Cristiano; Solé-Cava, Antonio M.

    2015-01-01

    The taxonomy of common dolphins (Delphinus sp.) has always been controversial, with over twenty described species since the original description of the type species of the genus (Delphinus delphis Linnaeus, 1758). Two species and four subspecies are currently accepted, but recent molecular data have challenged this view. In this study we investigated the molecular taxonomy of common dolphins through analyses of cytochrome b sequences of 297 individuals from most of their distribution. We included 37 novel sequences from the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean, a region where the short- and long-beaked morphotypes occur in sympatry, but which had not been well sampled before. Skulls of individuals from the Southwestern Atlantic were measured to test the validity of the rostral index as a diagnostic character and confirmed the presence of the two morphotypes in our genetic sample. Our genetic results show that all common dolphins in the Atlantic Ocean belong to a single species, Delphinus delphis. According to genetic data, the species Delphinus capensis is invalid. Long-beaked common dolphins from the Northeastern Pacific Ocean may constitute a different species. Our conclusions prompt the need for revision of currently accepted common dolphin species and subspecies and of Delphinus delphis distribution. PMID:26559411

  1. Native bacterial endophytes promote host growth in a species-specific manner; phytohormone manipulations do not result in common growth responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang Hoa Long

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: All plants in nature harbor a diverse community of endophytic bacteria which can positively affect host plant growth. Changes in plant growth frequently reflect alterations in phytohormone homoeostasis by plant-growth-promoting (PGP rhizobacteria which can decrease ethylene (ET levels enzymatically by 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC deaminase or produce indole acetic acid (IAA. Whether these common PGP mechanisms work similarly for different plant species has not been rigorously tested. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We isolated bacterial endophytes from field-grown Solanum nigrum; characterized PGP traits (ACC deaminase activity, IAA production, phosphate solubilization and seedling colonization; and determined their effects on their host, S. nigrum, as well as on another Solanaceous native plant, Nicotiana attenuata. In S. nigrum, a majority of isolates that promoted root growth were associated with ACC deaminase activity and IAA production. However, in N. attenuata, IAA but not ACC deaminase activity was associated with root growth. Inoculating N. attenuata and S. nigrum with known PGP bacteria from a culture collection (DSMZ reinforced the conclusion that the PGP effects are not highly conserved. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that natural endophytic bacteria with PGP traits do not have general and predictable effects on the growth and fitness of all host plants, although the underlying mechanisms are conserved.

  2. A common thermal niche among geographically diverse populations of the widely distributed tree species Eucalyptus tereticornis: No evidence for adaptation to climate-of-origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, John E; Vårhammar, Angelica; Kumarathunge, Dushan; Medlyn, Belinda E; Pfautsch, Sebastian; Reich, Peter B; Tissue, David T; Ghannoum, Oula; Tjoelker, Mark G

    2017-12-01

    Impacts of climate warming depend on the degree to which plants are constrained by adaptation to their climate-of-origin or exhibit broad climatic suitability. We grew cool-origin, central and warm-origin provenances of Eucalyptus tereticornis in an array of common temperature environments from 18 to 35.5°C to determine if this widely distributed tree species consists of geographically contrasting provenances with differentiated and narrow thermal niches, or if provenances share a common thermal niche. The temperature responses of photosynthesis, respiration, and growth were equivalent across the three provenances, reflecting a common thermal niche despite a 2,200 km geographic distance and 13°C difference in mean annual temperature at seed origin. The temperature dependence of growth was primarily mediated by changes in leaf area per unit plant mass, photosynthesis, and whole-plant respiration. Thermal acclimation of leaf, stem, and root respiration moderated the increase in respiration with temperature, but acclimation was constrained at high temperatures. We conclude that this species consists of provenances that are not differentiated in their thermal responses, thus rejecting our hypothesis of adaptation to climate-of-origin and suggesting a shared thermal niche. In addition, growth declines with warming above the temperature optima were driven by reductions in whole-plant leaf area and increased respiratory carbon losses. The impacts of climate warming will nonetheless vary across the geographic range of this and other such species, depending primarily on each provenance's climate position on the temperature response curves for photosynthesis, respiration, and growth. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of some indigenous plants against common soil-borne fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuba, T.; Abid, M.; Shaukat, S. S.; Shaikh, A.

    2016-01-01

    Present study was conducted to evaluate the fungicidal property of methanolic extracts of some indigenous plants of Karachi such as Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (leaves), The spesia populnea (leaves, stem and fruit), Withania somnifera (leaves and stem), Solanum surattense (shoot) and Melia azedarach (fruit) against common soil-borne phytopathogens viz., Macrophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum by using food poison technique. Among the eight methanolic extracts of tested parts of plants, seven showed antifungal activity, of which T. populnea leaves and S. surattense shoots inhibited growth of all three test pathogens. Leaves of H. rosa-sinensis did not exhibit antifungal activity. T. populnea (leaves and stem), W. somnifera (stem) and M. azedarach (fruit) suppressed growth of Rhizoctonia solani by 100 percent. T. populnea leaves and M. azedarach fruit inhibited growth of M. phaseolina by 100 percent and 82 percent, respectively T. populnea leaves inhibited 99 percent mycelial growth of F. oxysporum. It is concluded that the methanolic extracts of the tested indigenous plants contain natural fungicidal compounds, which can be used for the control of common soil-borne pathogens. (author)

  4. Selecting Proper Plant Species for Mine Reclamation Using Fuzzy AHP Approach (Case Study: Chadormaloo Iron Mine of Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimabadi, Arash

    2016-12-01

    This paper describes an effective approach to select suitable plant species for reclamation of mined lands in Chadormaloo iron mine which is located in central part of Iran, near the city of Bafgh in Yazd province. After mine's total reserves are excavated, the mine requires to be permanently closed and reclaimed. Mine reclamation and post-mining land-use are the main issues in the phase of mine closure. In general, among various scenarios for mine reclamation process, i.e. planting, agriculture, forestry, residency, tourist attraction, etc., planting is the oldest and commonly-used technology for the reclamation of lands damaged by mining activities. Planting and vegetation play a major role in restoring productivity, ecosystem stability and biological diversity to degraded areas, therefore the main goal of this research work is to choose proper and suitable plants compatible with the conditions of Chadormaloo mined area, providing consistent conditions for future use. To ensure the sustainability of the reclaimed landscape, the most suitable plant species adapted to the mine conditions are selected. Plant species selection is a Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) problem. In this paper, a fuzzy MCDM technique, namely Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP) is developed to assist chadormaloo iron mine managers and designers in the process of plant type selection for reclamation of the mine under fuzzy environment where the vagueness and uncertainty are taken into account with linguistic variables parameterized by triangular fuzzy numbers. The results achieved from using FAHP approach demonstrate that the most proper plant species are ranked as Artemisia sieberi, Salsola yazdiana, Halophytes types, and Zygophyllum, respectively for reclamation of Chadormaloo iron mine.

  5. Species composition, plant cover and diversity of recently reforested ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-12-17

    Dec 17, 2007 ... plants. In the early stages of reforestation, herbs dominated the plant community in most plots, and woody plants became more important with time after reforestation. Preliminary ... Given the importance of colonization on forest stand composition ..... if the former was in full sunlight than if overtopped by the.

  6. Invasive plant species and the Joint Fire Science Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather E. Erickson; Rachel White

    2007-01-01

    Invasive nonnative plants may be responsible for serious, long-term ecological impacts, including altering fire behavior and fire regimes. Therefore, knowing how to successfully manage invasive plants and their impacts on natural resources is crucial. We present a summary of research on invasive plants and fire that has been generated through the Joint Fire Science...

  7. Redefining common endophytes and plant pathogens in Neofabraea, Pezicula, and related genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Verkley, Gerard J M; Sun, Guangyu; Groenewald, Johannes Z; Crous, Pedro W

    2016-11-01

    Species in Neofabraea, Pezicula, and related genera have been reported as saprobes, plant pathogens or endophytes from a wide range of hosts. The asexual morphs of Neofabraea and Pezicula had been placed in Cryptosporiopsis, now a synonym of Pezicula, while Neofabraea was also linked to Phlyctema. Based on morphology and molecular data of the partial large subunit nrDNA (LSU), the internal transcribed spacer region with intervening 5.8S nrDNA (ITS), partial β-tubulin region (tub2), and the partial RNA polymerase II second largest subunit region (rpb2), the taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships of these fungi were investigated. Five new species were described in Pezicula based on morphology, while a further eight unnamed phylogenetic lineages revealed further diversity in the genus. Based on these results, the generic concept of Neofabraea was also emended. Phlyctema, which was previously associated with Neofabraea, formed a distinct clade, separate from Neofabraea s. str. Two new neofabraea-like genera, Parafabraea and Pseudofabraea were proposed, along with one new combination in Neofabraea s. str. To stabilise the application of these names, an epitype was designated for Pe. carpinea, the type species of Pezicula, and for N. malicorticis, the type species of Neofabraea. Copyright © 2015 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Uranium and thorium nuclides series determined in medicinal plants commonly used in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, P.; Francisconi, L.; Damatto, S. [IPEN/CNEN-SP, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    In recent years the study of medicinal plants has become the focus of ever more extensive research all over the world due to their diversity and potential as source of medicinal products. According to the World Health Organization approximately 80% of world population makes use of medicinal herbs due to their believed therapeutic action. Besides being used as medicine, medicinal plants are also largely used as dietary supplements. The presence of radionuclides in plants constitutes one of the main pathways for their transfer to man. The amount of radioactive nuclides from U and Th series in edible vegetables are relatively well known since they have been the main concern of research conducted worldwide. Medicinal plants, on the other hand, have been neglected in these studies, possibly because the ingestion of radioactive material through their consumption has not been recognized or was considered insignificant. The objective of the present study was to determine the content of natural radionuclides from {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th series in 25 species of medicinal plants used in Brazil, both as medicine and as dietary supplement. The medicinal plant samples were obtained in specialized pharmacies and drugstores. The raw plant and their extracts, produced as recommended by the National Agency for Sanitary Vigilance, were analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analyses for the determination of U and Th and by Total Alpha and Beta Counting after Radiochemical Separation for determination of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb. In the raw plants the activity concentrations varied from 0,08 Bq kg{sup -1} to 8,0 Bq kg{sup -1} for thorium, from < LID to 22 Bq kg{sup -1} for uranium, from 1,8 Bq kg{sup -1} to 12 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, from 33 Bq kg{sup -1} to 74 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 228}Ra and from 10 Bq kg{sup -1} to 120 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 210}Pb. In the extracts, the activity concentrations varied from 9 mBq kg{sup -1} to 137 mBq kg{sup -1} for Th

  9. Molluscicides from some common medicinal plants of eastern Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sunil Kumar; Yadav, Ram P; Singh, Ajay

    2010-01-01

    Many aquatic snails act as intermediate hosts for the larvae of trematodes, Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica, which cause the diseases fascioliasis and schistosomiasis. The WHO has tested several thousands of synthetic compounds for the control of the snail host. Although effective, these molluscicides have so far not proved themselves to be entirely satisfactory. With a growing awareness of environmental pollution, efforts are being made to discover molluscicidal products of plant origin. Being products of biosynthesis, these are potentially biodegradable in nature. Several groups of compounds present in various plants have been found to be toxic to target organisms at acceptable doses ranging from molluscicidal activity against freshwater snails. The toxicological actions of Thevetia peruviana may be due to the presence of apigenin-5-methyl ether (flavonoid) and triterpenoid glycosides, while a number of alkaloids (pseudo-akuammigine in addition to betulin, ursolic acid and beta-sitosterol), steroids and triterpenoids are present in Alstonia scholaris and the diterpenoids, pulcherrol, beta-sitosterol, hentriacontane, ellagic acid and beta-amyrin are present in Euphorbia hirta and in Euphorbia pulcherima. Although, at present very little literature is available on the control of vector snails through plant origin pesticides, an attempt has been made in this review to assemble all the known information on molluscicidal properties of common medicinal plants of eastern Uttar Pradesh, India, which might be useful for the control of harmful snails.

  10. Standards for plant synthetic biology: a common syntax for exchange of DNA parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patron, Nicola J; Orzaez, Diego; Marillonnet, Sylvestre; Warzecha, Heribert; Matthewman, Colette; Youles, Mark; Raitskin, Oleg; Leveau, Aymeric; Farré, Gemma; Rogers, Christian; Smith, Alison; Hibberd, Julian; Webb, Alex A R; Locke, James; Schornack, Sebastian; Ajioka, Jim; Baulcombe, David C; Zipfel, Cyril; Kamoun, Sophien; Jones, Jonathan D G; Kuhn, Hannah; Robatzek, Silke; Van Esse, H Peter; Sanders, Dale; Oldroyd, Giles; Martin, Cathie; Field, Rob; O'Connor, Sarah; Fox, Samantha; Wulff, Brande; Miller, Ben; Breakspear, Andy; Radhakrishnan, Guru; Delaux, Pierre-Marc; Loqué, Dominique; Granell, Antonio; Tissier, Alain; Shih, Patrick; Brutnell, Thomas P; Quick, W Paul; Rischer, Heiko; Fraser, Paul D; Aharoni, Asaph; Raines, Christine; South, Paul F; Ané, Jean-Michel; Hamberger, Björn R; Langdale, Jane; Stougaard, Jens; Bouwmeester, Harro; Udvardi, Michael; Murray, James A H; Ntoukakis, Vardis; Schäfer, Patrick; Denby, Katherine; Edwards, Keith J; Osbourn, Anne; Haseloff, Jim

    2015-10-01

    Inventors in the field of mechanical and electronic engineering can access multitudes of components and, thanks to standardization, parts from different manufacturers can be used in combination with each other. The introduction of BioBrick standards for the assembly of characterized DNA sequences was a landmark in microbial engineering, shaping the field of synthetic biology. Here, we describe a standard for Type IIS restriction endonuclease-mediated assembly, defining a common syntax of 12 fusion sites to enable the facile assembly of eukaryotic transcriptional units. This standard has been developed and agreed by representatives and leaders of the international plant science and synthetic biology communities, including inventors, developers and adopters of Type IIS cloning methods. Our vision is of an extensive catalogue of standardized, characterized DNA parts that will accelerate plant bioengineering. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. Pollinator networks, alien species and the conservation of rare plants: Trinia glauca as a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalheiro, L.G.; Barbosa, E.R.; Memmott, J.

    2008-01-01

    1. Despite the essential role of pollination in the maintenance of many rare plant species, conservation management plans rarely consider the service of pollination. 2. This study identifies the main pollinators of a rare English plant species, Trinia glauca (Apiaceae), and provides recommendations

  12. Number of endemic and native plant species in the Galapagos Archipelago in relation to geographical parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, E.; Hansen, Anders J.; Nielsen, K. K.

    2002-01-01

    By simple and multiple regression analyses we investigate updated species numbers of endemic and native vascular plants and seed plants in the Galapagos Archipelago in relation to geographical parameters. We find that the best models to describe species numbers are regression models with log...

  13. Impact of mine dumps on transport the invasive plant species to Upper Silesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotkova, N.; Lokajickova, B.; Mec, J.; Svehlakova, H.; Stalmachova, B.

    2017-10-01

    Human activities significantly change the species composition in the area. The main factor of change was the mining industry, which changed the natural conditions on Upper Silesia. The anthropogenic relief of mine dumps are the main centre of alien plant in an industrial landscape. The poster deals with the state of the invasive plant species by the phyto-sociological surveys on Upper Silesia.

  14. Determining a charge for the clearing of invasive alien plant species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa is running out of water supply options. One option, however, is to control invasive alien plant species (IAPs) within water catchment areas and in riparian zones. The National Water Act and subsequent documentation provide a guide for the use of economic instruments to manage invasive alien plant species at ...

  15. The effects of fire-breaks on plant diversity and species composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a dearth of knowledge on the effects of annual burning of fire-breaks on species composition, plant diversity and soil properties. Whittaker's plant diversity technique was used to gather data on species composition and diversity in four grassland communities on the Loskop Dam Nature Reserve (LDNR). The study ...

  16. First-principles study of the formation of glycine-producing radicals from common interstellar species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Akimasa; Kitazawa, Yuya; Ochi, Toshiro; Shoji, Mitsuo; Komatsu, Yu; Kayanuma, Megumi; Aikawa, Yuri; Umemura, Masayuki; Shigeta, Yasuteru

    2018-03-01

    Glycine, the simplest amino acid, has been intensively searched for in molecular clouds, and the comprehensive clarification of the formation path of interstellar glycine is now imperative. Among all the possible glycine formation pathways, we focused on the radical pathways revealed by Garrod (2013). In the present study, we have precisely investigated all the chemical reaction steps related to the glycine formation processes based on state-of-the-art density functional theory (DFT) calculations. We found that two reaction pathways require small activation barriers (ΔE‡ ≤ 7.75 kJ mol-1), which demonstrates the possibility of glycine formation even at low temperatures in interstellar space if the radical species are generated. The origin of carbon and nitrogen in the glycine backbone and their combination patterns are further discussed in relation to the formation mechanisms. According to the clarification of the atomic correspondence between glycine and its potential parental molecules, it is shown that the nitrogen and two carbons in the glycine can originate in three common interstellar molecules, methanol, hydrogen cyanide, and ammonia, and that the source molecules of glycine can be described by any of their combinations. The glycine formation processes can be categorized into six patterns. Finally, we discussed two other glycine formation pathways expected from the present DFT calculation results.

  17. Common issues found in operating safety peer review of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Meijing; Zhang Fengping

    2004-01-01

    The 3rd stage of the safety culture promotion in a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) is characterized by establishing learning organization and continuous self-improvement. Peer Review was used as an effective tool by a lot of NPPs to improve the overall management and performance. This Paper provided the WANO Peer Review Methodology, the common issues found, the recommendation or suggestions to correct the area for improvement. It may be beneficial to other NPP which planning to have Peer Review or Self Evaluation. (authors)

  18. Traits related to species persistence and dispersal explain changes in plant communities subjected to habitat loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marini, Lorenzo; Bruun, Hans Henrik; Heikkinen, Risto

    2012-01-01

    -history traits and by recalculating standardized landscape measures from the original geographical data. We assessed the responses of plant species richness to habitat area, connectivity, plant life-history traits and their interactions using linear mixed models. Results We found that the negative effect......Aim Habitat fragmentation is a major driver of biodiversity loss but it is insufficiently known how much its effects vary among species with different life-history traits; especially in plant communities, the understanding of the role of traits related to species persistence and dispersal...... in determining dynamics of species communities in fragmented landscapes is still limited. The primary aim of this study was to test how plant traits related to persistence and dispersal and their interactions modify plant species vulnerability to decreasing habitat area and increasing isolation. Location Five...

  19. Seed longevity of dominant plant species from degraded savanna in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The low decay constant of some species is an indication of their abilities to form persistent seed banks. The intermittent and extended germination of seeds of the same species from the same batch shown by some species may be regarded as an ecological adaptation to prevent synchronous germination in unpredictable ...

  20. Research Note Impacts of mine dump pollution on plant species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Species composition and structure of vegetation close to the mine dump significantly changed, possibly due to negative impacts of heavy metals on recruitment as pollution-sensitive species died off, whereas tolerant species invaded the vacated ecological niches. Ordination analyses confirmed a strong pollution gradient, ...

  1. Herbs versus Trees: Influences on Teenagers' Knowledge of Plant Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lückmann, Katrin; Menzel, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    The study reports on species knowledge among German adolescents (n = 507) as: (1) self-assessed evaluation of one's species knowledge; and (2) factual knowledge about popular local herbs and trees. Besides assessing species knowledge, we were interested in whether selected demographic factors, environmental attitude (as measured through the New…

  2. Above- and below-ground effects of plant diversity depend on species origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuebbing, Sara E.; Classen, Aimee Taylor; Sanders, Nate

    2015-01-01

    Although many plant communities are invaded by multiple nonnative species, we have limited information on how a species' origin affects ecosystem function. We tested how differences in species richness and origin affect productivity and seedling establishment. We created phylogenetically paired......-interaction models to describe how species' interactions influenced diversity-productivity relationships. Communities with more species had higher total biomass than did monoculture communities, but native and nonnative communities diverged in root : shoot ratios and the mechanism responsible for increased...

  3. Social organization influences the exchange and species richness of medicinal plants in Amazonian homegardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Medicinal plants provide indigenous and peasant communities worldwide with means to meet their healthcare needs. Homegardens often act as medicine cabinets, providing easily accessible medicinal plants for household needs. Social structure and social exchanges have been proposed as factors influencing the species diversity that people maintain in their homegardens. Here, we assess the association between the exchange of medicinal knowledge and plant material and medicinal plant richness in homegardens. Using Tsimane' Amazonian homegardens as a case study, we explore whether social organization shapes exchanges of medicinal plant knowledge and medicinal plant material. We also use network centrality measures to evaluate people's location and performance in medicinal plant knowledge and plant material exchange networks. Our results suggest that social organization, specifically kinship and gender relations, influences medicinal plant exchange patterns significantly. Homegardens total and medicinal plant species richness are related to gardeners' centrality in the networks, whereby people with greater centrality maintain greater plant richness. Thus, together with agroecological conditions, social relations among gardeners and the culturally specific social structure seem to be important determinants of plant richness in homegardens. Understanding which factors pattern general species diversity in tropical homegardens, and medicinal plant diversity in particular, can help policy makers, health providers, and local communities to understand better how to promote and preserve medicinal plants in situ. Biocultural approaches that are also gender sensitive offer a culturally appropriate means to reduce the global and local loss of both biological and cultural diversity.

  4. Social organization influences the exchange and species richness of medicinal plants in Amazonian homegardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Díaz-Reviriego

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants provide indigenous and peasant communities worldwide with means to meet their healthcare needs. Homegardens often act as medicine cabinets, providing easily accessible medicinal plants for household needs. Social structure and social exchanges have been proposed as factors influencing the species diversity that people maintain in their homegardens. Here, we assess the association between the exchange of medicinal knowledge and plant material and medicinal plant richness in homegardens. Using Tsimane' Amazonian homegardens as a case study, we explore whether social organization shapes exchanges of medicinal plant knowledge and medicinal plant material. We also use network centrality measures to evaluate people's location and performance in medicinal plant knowledge and plant material exchange networks. Our results suggest that social organization, specifically kinship and gender relations, influences medicinal plant exchange patterns significantly. Homegardens total and medicinal plant species richness are related to gardeners' centrality in the networks, whereby people with greater centrality maintain greater plant richness. Thus, together with agroecological conditions, social relations among gardeners and the culturally specific social structure seem to be important determinants of plant richness in homegardens. Understanding which factors pattern general species diversity in tropical homegardens, and medicinal plant diversity in particular, can help policy makers, health providers, and local communities to understand better how to promote and preserve medicinal plants in situ. Biocultural approaches that are also gender sensitive offer a culturally appropriate means to reduce the global and local loss of both biological and cultural diversity.

  5. Fairly processing rare and common species in multivariate analysis of ecological series. Application to macrobenthic communities from Algiers harbour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manté, C; Claudet, J; Rebzani-Zahaf, C

    2003-01-01

    Systematic sampling of communities gives rise to large contingency tables summing up possible changes in the assemblages' structure. Such tables are generally analysed by multivariate statistical methods, which are ill-suited for simultaneously analysing rare and common species (Field et al., 1982). In order to separately process species belonging to either of these categories, we propose a statistical method to select common species in a sequence of ecological surveys. It is based on a precise definition of rarity, and depends on a rarity parameter. In this work, this parameter will be optimised so that the sub-table of common species captures the essential features of the complete table as well as possible. In this way we analysed the spatio-temporal evolution of macrobenthic communities from the Algiers harbour to study the pollution influence during a year. The examination of the communities' structuring was done through Principal Components Analysis (PCA) of the species proportions table. Environmental variables were simultaneously sampled. We show that the data structure can be explained by about 25% of the total number of present species. Two environmental gradients were brought to the fore inside the harbour, the first one representing pollution, and the second one representing hydrological instabilities. Since rare species can also convey information, the complete table was also coded according to a generalised presence/absence index and submitted to Correspondence Analysis. The results were consistent with those of PCA, but they depended on more species, and highlighted the influence of sedimentology on the assemblages composition.

  6. IDENTIFICATION AND OCCURRENCE OF FUSARIUM SPECIES ON SEEDS OF COMMON WETCH, WHITE LUPINE AND SOME WILD LEGUMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tihomir Miličević

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence and occurrence of Fusarium species was examined on the seeds of cultivated legumes – common vetch (Vicia sativa, white lupine (Lupinus albus, and wild legumes: bird’s-foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus, wild alfalfa (Medicago sativa, black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia, honey locust (Gleditsia triacanthos, sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis, bird vetch (Vicia cracca and meadow vetchling (Lathyrus pratensis. Thirteen Fusarium species were identified - F. verticillioides, F. acuminatum, F. avenaceum, F. tricinctum F. oxysporum, F. scirpi, F. semitectum, F. culmorum, F. proliferatum, F. pseudograminearum, F. sporotrichioides, F. sambucinum and F. heterosporum. Species F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum were determined on seeds of the cultivated legumes (common vetch and white lupine. Other 11 Fusarium species were determined on seeds of wild legumes (bird’s-foot trefoil, wild alfalfa, sweet clover and bird vetch among which the most prevalent were species F. avenaceum and F. acuminatum.

  7. Guide to the common Potentilla species of the Blue Mountains ecoregion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti Aitken; Catherine Gray. Parks

    2004-01-01

    This guide will assist field identification of Potentilla species likely to be found in the Blue Mountains region. Many species formerly classified in the genus Potentilla are also included. Illustrations accompany the descriptions and glossary.

  8. How does biomass distribution change with size and differ among species? An analysis for 1200 plant species from five continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorter, Hendrik; Jagodzinski, Andrzej M; Ruiz-Peinado, Ricardo; Kuyah, Shem; Luo, Yunjian; Oleksyn, Jacek; Usoltsev, Vladimir A; Buckley, Thomas N; Reich, Peter B; Sack, Lawren

    2015-11-01

    We compiled a global database for leaf, stem and root biomass representing c. 11 000 records for c. 1200 herbaceous and woody species grown under either controlled or field conditions. We used this data set to analyse allometric relationships and fractional biomass distribution to leaves, stems and roots. We tested whether allometric scaling exponents are generally constant across plant sizes as predicted by metabolic scaling theory, or whether instead they change dynamically with plant size. We also quantified interspecific variation in biomass distribution among plant families and functional groups. Across all species combined, leaf vs stem and leaf vs root scaling exponents decreased from c. 1.00 for small plants to c. 0.60 for the largest trees considered. Evergreens had substantially higher leaf mass fractions (LMFs) than deciduous species, whereas graminoids maintained higher root mass fractions (RMFs) than eudicotyledonous herbs. These patterns do not support the hypothesis of fixed allometric exponents. Rather, continuous shifts in allometric exponents with plant size during ontogeny and evolution are the norm. Across seed plants, variation in biomass distribution among species is related more to function than phylogeny. We propose that the higher LMF of evergreens at least partly compensates for their relatively low leaf area : leaf mass ratio. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. Plant population differentiation and climate change: responses of grassland species along an elevational gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, Esther R; Ghazoul, Jaboury; Matter, Philippe; Heggli, Martin; Pluess, Andrea R

    2014-02-01

    Mountain ecosystems are particularly susceptible to climate change. Characterizing intraspecific variation of alpine plants along elevational gradients is crucial for estimating their vulnerability to predicted changes. Environmental conditions vary with elevation, which might influence plastic responses and affect selection pressures that lead to local adaptation. Thus, local adaptation and phenotypic plasticity among low and high elevation plant populations in response to climate, soil and other factors associated with elevational gradients might underlie different responses of these populations to climate warming. Using a transplant experiment along an elevational gradient, we investigated reproductive phenology, growth and reproduction of the nutrient-poor grassland species Ranunculus bulbosus, Trifolium montanum and Briza media. Seeds were collected from low and high elevation source populations across the Swiss Alps and grown in nine common gardens at three different elevations with two different soil depths. Despite genetic differentiation in some traits, the results revealed no indication of local adaptation to the elevation of population origin. Reproductive phenology was advanced at lower elevation in low and high elevation populations of all three species. Growth and reproduction of T. montanum and B. media were hardly affected by garden elevation and soil depth. In R. bulbosus, however, growth decreased and reproductive investment increased at higher elevation. Furthermore, soil depth influenced growth and reproduction of low elevation R. bulbosus populations. We found no evidence for local adaptation to elevation of origin and hardly any differences in the responses of low and high elevation populations. However, the consistent advanced reproductive phenology observed in all three species shows that they have the potential to plastically respond to environmental variation. We conclude that populations might not be forced to migrate to higher elevations

  10. Citizen science contributes to our knowledge of invasive plant species distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crall, Alycia W.; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Young, Nicholas E.; Panke, Brendon; Renz, Mark; Stohlgren, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Citizen science is commonly cited as an effective approach to expand the scale of invasive species data collection and monitoring. However, researchers often hesitate to use these data due to concerns over data quality. In light of recent research on the quality of data collected by volunteers, we aimed to demonstrate the extent to which citizen science data can increase sampling coverage, fill gaps in species distributions, and improve habitat suitability models compared to professionally generated data sets used in isolation. We combined data sets from professionals and volunteers for five invasive plant species (Alliaria petiolata, Berberis thunbergii, Cirsium palustre, Pastinaca sativa, Polygonum cuspidatum) in portions of Wisconsin. Volunteers sampled counties not sampled by professionals for three of the five species. Volunteers also added presence locations within counties not included in professional data sets, especially in southern portions of the state where professional monitoring activities had been minimal. Volunteers made a significant contribution to the known distribution, environmental gradients sampled, and the habitat suitability of P. cuspidatum. Models generated with professional data sets for the other four species performed reasonably well according to AUC values (>0.76). The addition of volunteer data did not greatly change model performance (AUC > 0.79) but did change the suitability surface generated by the models, making them more realistic. Our findings underscore the need to merge data from multiple sources to improve knowledge of current species distributions, and to predict their movement under present and future environmental conditions. The efficiency and success of these approaches require that monitoring efforts involve multiple stakeholders in continuous collaboration via established monitoring networks.

  11. Plant biodiversity effects in reducing fluvial erosion are limited to low species richness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Daniel C; Cardinale, Bradley J; Wynn-Thompson, Theresa

    2016-01-01

    It has been proposed that plant biodiversity may increase the erosion resistance of soils, yet direct evidence for any such relationship is lacking. We conducted a mesocosm experiment with eight species of riparian herbaceous plants, and found evidence that plant biodiversity significantly reduced fluvial erosion rates, with the eight-species polyculture decreasing erosion by 23% relative to monocultures. Species richness effects were largest at low levels of species richness, with little increase between four and eight species. Our results suggest that plant biodiversity reduced erosion rates indirectly through positive effects on root length and number of root tips, and that interactions between legumes and non-legumes were particularly important in producing biodiversity effects. Presumably, legumes increased root production of non-legumes by increasing soil nitrogen availability due to their ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen. Our data suggest that a restoration project using species from different functional groups might provide the best insurance to maintain long-term erosion resistance.

  12. Fungi associated with three common bark beetle species in Norwegian scots pine forest

    OpenAIRE

    Waalberg, Max Emil

    2015-01-01

    Pityogenes bidentatus, P. quadridens and Ips acuminatus are known to be associated with fungi. However, little is known about the associations between the three beetle species and fungi in Norwegian Scots pine forest. This study reports species associated with the three beetle species in Norway. In total, 60 specimens P. bidentatus, 66 of P. quadridens, and 30 of I. acuminatus were collected and dissected. A total number of 560 fungal isolates including 46 species were obtained. In this study...

  13. Links between plant litter chemistry, species diversity, and below-ground ecosystem function

    OpenAIRE

    Meier, Courtney L.; Bowman, William D.

    2008-01-01

    Decomposition is a critical source of plant nutrients, and drives the largest flux of terrestrial C to the atmosphere. Decomposing soil organic matter typically contains litter from multiple plant species, yet we lack a mechanistic understanding of how species diversity influences decomposition processes. Here, we show that soil C and N cycling during decomposition are controlled by the composition and diversity of chemical compounds within plant litter mixtures, rather than by simple metrics...

  14. INVASIVE ALIEN PLANT SPECIES USED FOR THE TREATMENT OF VARIOUS DISEASES IN LIMPOPO PROVINCE, SOUTH AFRICA

    OpenAIRE

    Maema, Lesibana Peter; Potgieter, Martin; Mahlo, Salome Mamokone

    2016-01-01

    Background: Invasive alien plant species (IAPs) are plants that have migrated from one geographical region to non-native region either intentional or unintentional. The general view of IAPs in environment is regarded as destructive to the ecosystem and they pose threat to native vegetation and species. However, some of these IAPS are utilized by local inhabitants as a substitute for scarce indigenous plants. The aim of the study is to conduct ethnobotanical survey on medicinal usage of invasi...

  15. KEY TO THE POWDERY MILDEW SPECIES ON THE BASIS OF THE HOST PLANT FAMILIES AND GENERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Rakhimova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Key on the basis of the host plant taxonomy, symptoms of the infected plants and microscopic features of fungi was composed for identification of powdery mildews of the Kazakhstan. Features, which were used for identification of fungus, were the number of asci in cleistothecium, the number of ascospores in ascus and the type of appendages of cleistothecium. Key was composed for 81 species and 25 variations of Erysiphales fungi, infecting 739 species of host plants, which belong to 305 genera.

  16. Novel chemistry of invasive plants: exotic species have more unique metabolomic profiles than native congeners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macel, M.; de Vos, R.C.H.; Jansen, J.J.; Van der Putten, W.H.; Van Dam, N.M.

    2014-01-01

    t is often assumed that exotic plants can become invasive when they possess novel secondary chemistry compared with native plants in the introduced range. Using untargeted metabolomic fingerprinting, we compared a broad range of metabolites of six successful exotic plant species and their native

  17. Collection and Domestication of Rangeland Plant Species with Emphasis on Mongolia and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changing economic and social conditions are threatening plant diversity on rangelands in Mongolia and China. Teams of collaborating scientists from the U.S.A., Mongolia, and China collected seed of rangeland plant species in Mongolia and Inner Mongolia, China, to preserve plant biodiversity from th...

  18. Novel chemistry of invasive plants: exotic species have more unique metabolomic profiles than native congeners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macel, M.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Jansen, J.J.; Putten, van der W.H.; Dam, van N.M.

    2014-01-01

    It is often assumed that exotic plants can become invasive when they possess novel secondary chemistry compared with native plants in the introduced range. Using untargeted metabolomic fingerprinting, we compared a broad range of metabolites of six successful exotic plant species and their native

  19. Use of plant woody species electrical potential for irrigation scheduling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos-Rojas, Liliana; Morales-Moraga, David; Alcalde, José A; Gurovich, Luis A

    2015-01-01

    The electrical response of plants to environmental stimuli can be measured and quantitatively related to the intensity of several stimulating sources, like temperature, solar radiation, soil water content, evapotranspiration rates, sap flow and dendrometric cycles. These relations can be used to assess the influence of different environmental situations on soil water availability to plants, defined as a steady state condition between leaf transpirative flow and soil water flow to plant roots. A restricted soil water flow due to soil dryness can trigger water stress in plants, if the atmospheric evaporative demand is high, causing partial stomata closure as a physiological response to avoid plant dehydration; water stressed and unstressed plants manifest a differential electrical response. Real time plant electrical response measurements can anticipate actions that prevent the plant reaching actual stress conditions, optimizing stomata gas exchange and photosynthetic rates. An electrophysiological sensor developed in this work, allows remote real-time recording information on plant electrical potential (EP) in the field, which is highly related to EP measurements obtained with a laboratory Keithley voltmeter sensor used in an highly controlled experimental setup. Our electrophysiological sensor is a wireless, autonomous devise, which transmits EP information via Internet to a data server. Using both types of sensors (EP electrodes with a Keithley voltmeter and the electrophysiological sensor), we measured in real time the electrical responses of Persea americana and Prunus domestica plants, to induced water deficits. The differential response for 2 scenarios: irrigation and water restriction is identified by a progressive change in slope on the daily maximal and minimal electric signal values in stressed plants, and a zero-slope for similar signals for well-watered plants. Results show a correspondence between measured signals obtained by our electrophysiological

  20. The γ-gliadin multigene family in common wheat (Triticum aestivum and its closely related species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Qing

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The unique properties of wheat flour primarily depend on gluten, which is the most important source of protein for human being. γ-Gliadins have been considered to be the most ancient of the wheat gluten family. The complex family structure of γ-gliadins complicates the determination of their function. Moreover, γ-gliadins contain several sets of celiac disease epitopes. However, no systematic research has been conducted yet. Results A total of 170 γ-gliadin genes were isolated from common wheat and its closely related species, among which 138 sequences are putatively functional. The ORF lengths of these sequences range from 678 to 1089 bp, and the repetitive region is mainly responsible for the size heterogeneity of γ-gliadins. The repeat motif P(Q/L/S/T/I/V/R/AF(S/Y/V/Q/I/C/LP(R/L/S/T/H/C/YQ1–2(P(S/L/T/A/F/HQQ1–2is repeated from 7 to 22 times. Sequence polymorphism and linkage disequilibrium analyses show that γ-gliadins are highly diverse. Phylogenic analyses indicate that there is no obvious discrimination between Sitopsis and Ae. tauschii at the Gli-1 loci, compared with diploid wheat. According to the number and placement of cysteine residues, we defined nine cysteine patterns and 17 subgroups. Alternatively, we classified γ-gliadins into two types based on the length of repetitive domain. Amino acid composition analyses indicate that there is a wide range of essential amino acids in γ-gliadins, and those γ-gliadins from subgroup SG-10 and SG-12 and γ-gliadins with a short repetitive domain are more nutritional. A screening of toxic epitopes shows that γ-gliadins with a pattern of C9 and γ-gliadins with a short repetitive domain almost lack any epitopes. Conclusion γ-Gliadin sequences in wheat and closely related Aegilops species are diverse. Each group/subgroup contributes differently to nutritional quality and epitope content. It is suggested that the genes with a short repetitive domain are more

  1. Alien roadside species more easily invade alpine than lowland plant communities in a subarctic mountain ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas J Lembrechts

    Full Text Available Effects of roads on plant communities are not well known in cold-climate mountain ecosystems, where road building and development are expected to increase in future decades. Knowledge of the sensitivity of mountain plant communities to disturbance by roads is however important for future conservation purposes. We investigate the effects of roads on species richness and composition, including the plant strategies that are most affected, along three elevational gradients in a subarctic mountain ecosystem. We also examine whether mountain roads promote the introduction and invasion of alien plant species from the lowlands to the alpine zone. Observations of plant community composition were made together with abiotic, biotic and anthropogenic factors in 60 T-shaped transects. Alpine plant communities reacted differently to road disturbances than their lowland counterparts. On high elevations, the roadside species composition was more similar to that of the local natural communities. Less competitive and ruderal species were present at high compared with lower elevation roadsides. While the effects of roads thus seem to be mitigated in the alpine environment for plant species in general, mountain plant communities are more invasible than lowland communities. More precisely, relatively more alien species present in the roadside were found to invade into the surrounding natural community at high compared to low elevations. We conclude that effects of roads and introduction of alien species in lowlands cannot simply be extrapolated to the alpine and subarctic environment.

  2. Variation in habitat suitability does not always relate to variation in species' plant functional traits

    OpenAIRE

    Thuiller, Wilfried; Albert, Cécile H.; Dubuis, Anne; Randin, Christophe; Guisan, Antoine

    2009-01-01

    Habitat suitability models, which relate species occurrences to environmental variables, are assumed to predict suitable conditions for a given species. If these models are reliable, they should relate to change in plant growth and function. In this paper, we ask the question whether habitat suitability models are able to predict variation in plant functional traits, often assumed to be a good surrogate for a species' overall health and vigour. Using a thorough sampling design, we show a tigh...

  3. Impact of fish species on levels of lead accumulation in the meat of common bream (Abramis brama L., white bream (Blicca bjoerkna L. and common bleak (Alburnus alburnus L. from the Vistula River (Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena STANEK

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to compare the concentration of lead in the meat of common bream (Abramis brama L., white bream (Blicca bjoerkna L. and common bleak (Alburnus alburnus L.. The experimental fish were obtained in natural condition from Vistula River, located within Toru., near wastewater treatment plant. The study involved 60 individuals of freshwater fish caught in autumn. Analyses were carried out on 10 individuals of common bream, 20 white bream and 30 individuals of common bleak. The muscles samples for analyses were taken from the large side muscle of fish body above the lateral line. There were chosen for analyses individuals with similar biometric measurements. Due to a relatively low amounts of meat obtained from white bream and common bleak, the material from individuals of similar body length was combined (about 2-3 pieces. Pb concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer Solaar 939 QZ, ATI Unicam. Analyses of variance (test post hoc -Tukey test indicated that the mean value of lead was the highest in the meat of common bream (0.086 ƒĘgEg-1 wet weight and the lowest in the meat of white bream (0.075 ƒĘgEg-1 wet weight. There were no statistical significant differences in the lead content between the analyzed fish species (at p< 0.05. Analysis of correlation indicated a negative and statistical significant correlation between the fish body length and Pb concentration.

  4. Planting density and initial growth of two tree species adapted to the semi-arid region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Lima e Silva

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Planting densities influence several aspects of forest formation, including management practices, timber yield, quality, and extraction, and consequently its production costs. The objective of this study was to evaluate Mimosa caesalpiinifolia and Gliricidia sepium growth as a function of planting density (400, 600, 800, 1000, and 1200 plants ha-1 and plant age. The species were evaluated every 90 days for plant height (PH, crown diameter (CD and root collar diameter (RCD (10 cm above the ground, with the first evaluation performed at 90 days and the last at 720 days. When plants were one year of age and beyond, evaluations were conducted also for stem diameter at breast height (DBH (1.30 m above the ground. A randomized block design with split-plots and three replicates was adopted. Species were assigned to plots, planting densities were assigned to subplots, and evaluation ages were assigned to subsubplots. The four traits in both species had their values decreased as planting density increased, but continually increased as plant age increased. For PH and RCD there was an alternation between species superiority, with gliricidia being superior to sabiá at some ages, while the opposite occurred at other ages. As to CD the species only differed in the last measurement, gliricidia being superior. With regard to DBH, gliricidia was superior starting from the second measurement. There was an effect of the species × ages interaction for the four traits and also an effect of the densities × ages interaction for CD and DBH.

  5. Links between plant litter chemistry, species diversity, and below-ground ecosystem function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Courtney L; Bowman, William D

    2008-12-16

    Decomposition is a critical source of plant nutrients, and drives the largest flux of terrestrial C to the atmosphere. Decomposing soil organic matter typically contains litter from multiple plant species, yet we lack a mechanistic understanding of how species diversity influences decomposition processes. Here, we show that soil C and N cycling during decomposition are controlled by the composition and diversity of chemical compounds within plant litter mixtures, rather than by simple metrics of plant species diversity. We amended native soils with litter mixtures containing up to 4 alpine plant species, and we used 9 litter chemical traits to evaluate the chemical composition (i.e., the identity and quantity of compounds) and chemical diversity of the litter mixtures. The chemical composition of the litter mixtures was the strongest predictor of soil respiration, net N mineralization, and microbial biomass N. Soil respiration and net N mineralization rates were also significantly correlated with the chemical diversity of the litter mixtures. In contrast, soil C and N cycling rates were poorly correlated with plant species richness, and there was no relationship between species richness and the chemical diversity of the litter mixtures. These results indicate that the composition and diversity of chemical compounds in litter are potentially important functional traits affecting decomposition, and simple metrics like plant species richness may fail to capture variation in these traits. Litter chemical traits therefore provide a mechanistic link between organisms, species diversity, and key components of below-ground ecosystem function.

  6. Meta-scale mountain grassland observatories uncover commonalities as well as specific interactions among plant and non-rhizosphere soil bacterial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashiro, Erika; Pinto-Figueroa, Eric; Buri, Aline; Spangenberg, Jorge E; Adatte, Thierry; Niculita-Hirzel, Helene; Guisan, Antoine; van der Meer, Jan Roelof

    2018-04-10

    Interactions between plants and bacteria in the non-rhizosphere soil are rarely assessed, because they are less direct and easily masked by confounding environmental factors. By studying plant vegetation alliances and soil bacterial community co-patterning in grassland soils in 100 sites across a heterogeneous mountain landscape in the western Swiss Alps, we obtained sufficient statistical power to disentangle common co-occurrences and weaker specific interactions. Plant alliances and soil bacterial communities tended to be synchronized in community turnover across the landscape, largely driven by common underlying environmental factors, such as soil pH or elevation. Certain alliances occurring in distinct, local, environmental conditions were characterized by co-occurring specialist plant and bacterial species, such as the Nardus stricta and Thermogemmatisporaceae. In contrast, some generalist taxa, like Anthoxanthum odoratum and 19 Acidobacteria species, spanned across multiple vegetation alliances. Meta-scale analyses of soil bacterial community composition and vegetation surveys, complemented with local edaphic measurements, can thus prove useful to identify the various types of plant-bacteria interactions and the environments in which they occur.

  7. Mitochondrial Signaling in Plants Under Hypoxia: Use of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and Reactive Nitrogen Species (RNS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebelstrup, Kim; Møller, Ian Max

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia commonly occurs in roots in water-saturated soil and in maturing and germinating seeds. We here review the role of the mitochondria in the cellular response to hypoxia with an emphasis on the turnover of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and Reactive Nitrogen Species (RNS) and their potential...

  8. The factors controlling species density in herbaceous plant communities: An assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, J.B.

    1999-01-01

    This paper evaluates both the ideas and empirical evidence pertaining to the control of species density in herbaceous plant communities. While most theoretical discussions of species density have emphasized the importance of habitat productivity and disturbance regimes, many other factors (e.g. species pools, plant litter accumulation, plant morphology) have been proposed to be important. A review of literature presenting observations on the density of species in small plots (in the vicinity of a few square meters or less), as well as experimental studies, suggests several generalizations: (1) Available data are consistent with an underlying unimodal relationship between species density and total community biomass. While variance in species density is often poorly explained by predictor variables, there is strong evidence that high levels of community biomass are antagonistic to high species density. (2) Community biomass is just one of several factors affecting variations in species density. Multivariate analyses typically explain more than twice as much variance in species density as can be explained by community biomass alone. (3) Disturbance has important and sometimes complex effects on species density. In general, the evidence is consistent with the intermediate disturbance hypothesis but exceptions exist and effects can be complex. (4) Gradients in the species pool can have important influences on patterns of species density. Evidence is mounting that a considerable amount of the observed variability in species density within a landscape or region may result from environmental effects on the species pool. (5) Several additional factors deserve greater consideration, including time lags, species composition, plant morphology, plant density and soil microbial effects. Based on the available evidence, a conceptual model of the primary factors controlling species density is presented here. This model suggests that species density is controlled by the effects of

  9. Plant genetic resources and traditional knowledge on medicinal use of wild shrub and herbaceous plant species in the Etna Regional Park (Eastern Sicily, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttolomondo, Teresa; Licata, Mario; Leto, Claudio; Gargano, Maria Letizia; Venturella, Giuseppe; La Bella, Salvatore

    2014-09-11

    This paper illustrates the results of a study carried out in the Etna Regional Park (Eastern Sicily, Italy) concerning the traditional knowledge on medicinal use of wild plant species. It contains the results of a quantitative analysis carried out for the first time. A total of 71 wild species are used for medicinal purposes. Two species, Astracantha sicula (Biv.) Greuter and Trifolium phleoides Willd., are little known as medicinal in the Mediterranean area. The main aim of the study was to understand to what extent current knowledge on the medicinal use of plants is still an element of the culture within the elderly population of the Etna Regional Park. A further aim was to identify species not previously reported as medicinal in the Mediterranean area with a potential agricultural interest. The information was obtained using a semi-structured interview format performed on a sample of 196 people over the age of 60 who were considered experts in rural traditions. The plant uses were compared with other medical-ethnobotanical studies carried out in other areas of Sicily, Italy and various other Mediterranean countries. A number of quantitative indices were also used in order to verify the incidence of the species cited in the study within the culture and traditional medicine. Local communities currently use a total number of 71 wild species (34 families) as remedies for medicinal purposes. Most of the species were used as treatments against metabolic disorders and for general health. The leaves and the aerial parts of plants are the most-used parts of the plant and the most common preparation methods are decoction and direct application of plant parts. Astracantha sicula and Trifolium phleoides have never been documented as a species with medicinal properties in the Mediterranean literature. Only very few medicinal uses are widely known by all the informants and, on many occasions, a specific medicinal use is cited by only very few people. The quantitative analysis

  10. Mansonella, including a Potential New Species, as Common Parasites in Children in Gabon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaël Mourembou

    Full Text Available Like other tropical African countries, Gabon is afflicted by many parasitic diseases, including filariases such as loiasis and mansonellosis. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of these two filarial diseases in febrile and afebrile children using quantitative real-time PCR and standard PCR assays coupled with sequencing.DNA from blood specimens of 1,418 Gabonese children (1,258 febrile and 160 afebrile were analyzed. Overall, filarial DNA was detected in 95 (6.7% children, including 67 positive for M. perstans (4.7%, which was the most common. M. perstans was detected in 61/1,258 febrile children (4.8% and 6/160 afebrile children (3.8%, P = 0.6. Its prevalence increased statistically with age: 3.5%, 7.7% and 10.6% in children aged ≤ 5, 6-10 and 11-15 years, respectively. M. perstans prevalence was significantly higher in Koulamoutou and Lastourville (12% and 10.5%, respectively than in Franceville and Fougamou (2.6% and 2.4%, respectively. Loa loa was detected in seven febrile children including one co-infection with M. perstans. Finally, 21 filarial DNA positive were negative for M. perstans and Loa loa, but ITS sequencing could be performed for 12 and allowed the identification of a potential new species of Mansonella provisionally called "DEUX". Mansonella sp. "DEUX" was detected only in febrile children.Further study should be performed to characterize Mansonella sp. "DEUX" and evaluate the clinical significance of mansonellosis in humans.

  11. Organic, integrated and conventional management in apple orchards: effect on plant species composition, richness and diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeňka Lososová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to assess the effect of conventional, integrated and organic management on differences in plant species composition, richness and diversity. The plants were studied in triads of orchards situated in three regions of the Czech Republic. Data about species occurrences were collected on 15 permanent plots in the tree rows and 15 plots between tree rows in each of the apple orchards during 2009. A total of 201 vascular plant species (127 native species, 65 archaeophytes, and 9 neophytes were found. Management type and also different regional conditions had a significant effect on plant species composition and on diversity parameters of orchard spontaneous vegetation. Species richness and species pool was significantly higher in the organic orchards than in the differently managed orchards. Management type had significant effect on proportions of archaeophytes, and also neophytes in apple orchards. The results showed that a change from conventional to integrated and organic management in apple orchards lead to higher plant species diversity and to changes in plant species composition.

  12. Species richness of vascular plants, bryophytes, and lichens along an altitudinal gradient in western Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grytnes, John Arvid; Heegaard, Einar; Ihlen, Per G.

    2006-05-01

    Species richness patterns of ground-dwelling vascular plants, bryophytes, and lichens were compared along an altitudinal gradient (310-1135 m a.s.l.), in western Norway. Total species richness peaked at intermediate altitudes, vascular plant species richness peaked immediately above the forest limit (at 600-700 m a.s.l.), bryophyte species richness had no statistically significant trend, whereas lichen richness increased from the lowest point and up to the forest limit, with no trend above. It is proposed that the pattern in vascular plant species richness is enhanced by an ecotone effect. Bryophyte species richness responds to local scale factors whereas the lichen species richness may be responding to the shading from the forest trees.

  13. Common sources and estimated intake of plant sterols in the Spanish diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Escrig, Antonio; Santos-Hidalgo, Ana B; Saura-Calixto, Fulgencio

    2006-05-03

    Plant sterols (PS) are minor lipid components of plants, which may have potential health benefits, mainly based in their cholesterol-lowering effect. The aim of this study was to determine the composition and content of PS in plant-based foods commonly consumed in Spain and to estimate the PS intake in the Spanish diet. For this purpose, the determination of PS content, using a modern methodology to measure free, esterified, and glycosidic sterol forms, was done. Second, an estimation of the intake of PS, using the Spanish National Food Consumption data, was made. The daily intake per person of PS--campesterol, beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, and stigmastanol--in the Spanish diet was estimated at 276 mg, the largest component being beta-sitosterol (79.7%). Other unknown compounds, tentatively identified as PS, may constitute a considerable potential intake (99 mg). When the daily PS intake among European diets was compared in terms of campesterol, beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, and stigmastanol, the PS intake in the Spanish diet was in the same range of other countries such as Finland (15.7% higher) or The Netherlands (equal). However, some qualitative differences in the PS sources were detected, that is, the predominant brown bread and vegetable fat consumption in the northern diets versus the white bread and vegetable oil consumption in the Spanish diet. These differences may help to provide a link between the consumption of PS and healthy effects of the diet.

  14. THRIPS SPECIES (INSECTA: THYSANOPTERA OF ORNAMENTAL PLANTS FROM THE PARKS AND GREENHOUSES OF ADP PITESTI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Bărbuceanu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The observations carried-out in 2008/2010 to ornamental plants from parks and greenhouses of ADP Pitesti relieve 12 species of thrips. One species of them, Frankliniella occidentalis was identified in greenhouses on Rosa sp., Dianthus sp. and Zantedeschia sp. In parks, the thrips species belong to 12 species, dominated by Frankliniella intonsa. All of them are polypfagous and divided in two throphic levels: primary and secondary consumers. The thrips species are mentioned for the first time in Romania on this host plant. In greenhouses are necessary intensive chemical treatments and methods of cultural hygiene to limit the F. occidentalis populations.

  15. Rejoinder to Harrison (2008): The myth of plant species saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas J. Stohlgren; Curtis Flather; Catherine S. Jarnevich; David T. Barnett; John Kartesz

    2008-01-01

    We find ourselves in general agreement with many of Harrison's remarks especially since we both find our data present a ' strong case that at county to state scales, exotic plant invasions have led to few native plant extinctions' (emphasis added, Harrison 2007: 000). Where we differ appears related to the breadth of scales to which our conclusions may...

  16. Hemicryptophytes plant species as indicator of grassland state in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plots of 10 m X 10 m were installed along a land use gradient (from communal lands to the protected area via the buffer zone) in three vegetation types for plant biomass harvesting and hemicryptophytes traits measurement. The hemicryptophyte density, biovolume, tussock size, contact frequency, contribution to total plant ...

  17. Antimicrobial activity of some endemic plant species from Turkey

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-08-06

    Aug 6, 2007 ... Antibacterial and antifungal activity of Heracleum sphondylium subsp. arvinense. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 5: 1087-1089. Ertürk Ö (2006). Antibacterial and antifungal activity of ethanolic extracts from eleven spice plants. Biologia. 61: 275-278. Fazly Bazzaz BS, Haririzadeh G (2003). Screening of Iranian plants for.

  18. Race to Displace: A Game to Model the Effects of Invasive Species on Plant Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Jennifer L.; Flowers, Susan K.; Seidler, Katie J.; Hopwood, Erica L.

    2013-01-01

    Invasive species are a substantial threat to biodiversity. Educating students about invasive species introduces fundamental concepts in biology, ecology, and environmental science. In the Race to Displace game, students assume the characteristics of select native or introduced plants and experience first hand the influences of species interactions…

  19. The new flora of the northeastern USA: quantifying introduced plant species occupancy in forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethany K. Schulz; Andrew N. Gray

    2013-01-01

    Introduced plant species have significant negative impacts in many ecosystems and are found in many forests around the world. Some factors linked to the distribution of introduced species include fragmentation and disturbance, native species richness, and climatic and physical conditions of the landscape. However, there are few data sources that enable the assessment...

  20. The role of cattle in maintaining plant species diversity in wet dune valleys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aptroot, A.; van Dobben, H. F.; Slim, P. A.; Olff, H.

    The succession of species-rich wetland vegetation in dune valleys into species-poor dwarf shrub vegetation was followed by means of permanent vegetation plots, in which the cover of vascular plant, moss and lichen species were recorded over a period of up to 33 years. Low density cattle grazing is

  1. Plant–soil interactions in the expansion and native range of a poleward shifting plant species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Grunsven, R.H.A.; Van der Putten, W.H.; Bezemer, T.M.; Berendse, F.; Veenendaal, E.M.

    2010-01-01

    Climate warming causes range shifts of many species toward higher latitudes and altitudes. However, range shifts of host species do not necessarily proceed at the same rates as those of their enemies and symbionts. Here, we examined how a range shifting plant species performs in soil from its

  2. Phytochemicals of selected plant species of the Apocynaceae and Asclepiadaceae from Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    A concern about the declining supply of petroleum products has led to a renewed interest in evaluating plant species as potential alternate sources of energy. Five species of the Apocynaceae and three species of the Asclepiadaceae from the Western Ghats were evaluated as alternative sources of energ...

  3. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF NONTRADITIONAL PLANT POLLEN AGAINST DIFFERENT SPECIES OF MICROORGANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Kačániová

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to detect the antimicrobial activity of four plant pollen samples to pathogenic bacteria, microscopic fungi and yeasts. Pollens of dogwood common (Cornus mas, ray mountain (Secale strictum spp. strictum, pumpkin rape (Cucurbita pepo var. styriaca and grape vine (Vitis vinifera were collected in 2010 in Slovakia. The antimicrobial effects of the four nontraditional plant pollens were tested using the agar well diffusion method. For extraction, 70% ethanol (aqueous, v/v was applied. Antimicrobial susceptibility of five different strains of bacteria - three gram positive (Listeria monocytogenes CCM 4699, Pseudomonas aeruginosa CCM 1960, Staphylococcus aureus CCM 3953 and gram negative (Salmonella enterica CCM 4420, Escherichia coli CCM 3988, as well as three different strains of microscopic fungi, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, and three different strains of yeasts Candida albicans, Geotrichum candidum and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, were examinated. L. monocytogenes was the most sensitive among bacteria to the three ethanol extracts of plant pollen after 24 hours of inoculation, A. flavus and C. albicans were the most sensitive microscopic fungi and yeast species, respectively.

  4. Phylogenomics and molecular signatures for species from the plant pathogen-containing order xanthomonadales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiz Sohail Naushad

    Full Text Available The species from the order Xanthomonadales, which harbors many important plant pathogens and some human pathogens, are currently distinguished primarily on the basis of their branching in the 16S rRNA tree. No molecular or biochemical characteristic is known that is specific for these bacteria. Phylogenetic and comparative analyses were conducted on 26 sequenced Xanthomonadales genomes to delineate their branching order and to identify molecular signatures consisting of conserved signature indels (CSIs in protein sequences that are specific for these bacteria. In a phylogenetic tree based upon sequences for 28 proteins, Xanthomonadales species formed a strongly supported clade with Rhodanobacter sp. 2APBS1 as its deepest branch. Comparative analyses of protein sequences have identified 13 CSIs in widely distributed proteins such as GlnRS, TypA, MscL, LysRS, LipA, Tgt, LpxA, TolQ, ParE, PolA and TyrB that are unique to all species/strains from this order, but not found in any other bacteria. Fifteen additional CSIs in proteins (viz. CoxD, DnaE, PolA, SucA, AsnB, RecA, PyrG, LigA, MutS and TrmD are uniquely shared by different Xanthomonadales except Rhodanobacter and in a few cases by Pseudoxanthomonas species, providing further support for the deep branching of these two genera. Five other CSIs are commonly shared by Xanthomonadales and 1-3 species from the orders Chromatiales, Methylococcales and Cardiobacteriales suggesting that these deep branching orders of Gammaproteobacteria might be specifically related. Lastly, 7 CSIs in ValRS, CarB, PyrE, GlyS, RnhB, MinD and X001065 are commonly shared by Xanthomonadales and a limited number of Beta- or Gamma-proteobacteria. Our analysis indicates that these CSIs have likely originated independently and they are not due to lateral gene transfers. The Xanthomonadales-specific CSIs reported here provide novel molecular markers for the identification of these important plant and human pathogens and also as

  5. Common Risk Target for severe accidents of nuclear power plants based on IAEA INES scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitázková, Jiřina; Cazzoli, Errico

    2013-01-01

    The IAEA has repeatedly recommended that the nuclear community should arrive at a common understanding and definition of safety goals for severe accidents in nuclear power plants. The recommendation has only found partial answers, despite the numerous working groups and forums devoted to this effort. The most widely accepted definition of goals is based on the concept of Large (Early) Release Frequencies (L(E)RF) and its derivatives, a surrogate concept derived from results of Probabilistic Safety Assessments (PSAs) which was first introduced in the USA almost twenty years ago and much later accepted by the USNRC for risk informed decision making, but not for safety demonstrations. Other types of Safety Goals have been adopted by some nuclear authorities, but the main drawback of all current definitions is that they may apply only to LWRs. The lack of unifying safety/risk parameter throughout of PSAs worldwide is the basis of the present work, and an attempt is made to arrive at the definition of a Risk Target for severe accidents in NPPs, consistent with the IAEA definitions having a technical basis, which can be adopted without modifications for Generation IV power plants. The proposal of Common Risk Target in this work represents an attempt to define a Common Risk Target based on technical reasoning, reflecting IAEA definitions as well as harmonization requirements raised by the whole European Community in various OECD, ASAMPSA2 and SARNET (Guentay et al., 2006) conclusions and Council Directive of The European Union (Community Framework, 2009) as well as lastly performed stress tests of nuclear power plants throughout the Europe (Peer Review Report, 2012). The basic concept of CRT was first introduced and developed within the European project ASAMPSA2 by the authors of this article and was accepted by majority of world PSA experts participating in final evaluation and survey of the project (Guentay, 2011). In the proposed Risk Target concept an innovative

  6. Mobility of Four Common Mercury Species in Model and Natural Unsaturated Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, Ke; Hoelen, Thomas P; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Lowry, Gregory V

    2016-04-05

    Mercury (Hg) occurs as a myriad of species in environmental media, each with different physicochemical properties. The influence of Hg speciation on its transport in unsaturated soils is not well studied. Transport of four Hg species (dissolved inorganic Hg (II) species, a prepared Hg(II) and dissolved organic matter (DOM) complex, Hg(0), and HgS nanoparticles) was measured in sand and soil packed columns with partial water saturation under simulated rainfall (low ionic strength solution without DOM) and landfill leachate (high DOM content and high ionic strength) influent conditions. The Hg(II)-DOM species had the highest mobility among the four Hg species evaluated, and HgS particles (∼230 nm hydrodynamic diameter) had the poorest mobility, for all soil and influent conditions tested. The addition of 2 wt % clay particles to sand greatly retarded the transport of all Hg species, especially under simulated rainfall. DOM in the column influent facilitated the transport of all four Hg species in model and natural soils. For simulated rainfall, the transport trends observed in model sands were consistent with those measured in a sandy soil, except that the mobility of dissolved inorganic Hg(II) species was significantly lower in natural soils. For simulated rainfall, Hg transport was negligible in a high organic content (∼3.72 wt %) soil for all species except Hg-DOM. This work suggests that the Hg-DOM species presents the greatest potential for vertical migration to groundwater, especially with DOM in the influent solution.

  7. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi reduce the differences in competitiveness between dominant and subordinate plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariotte, Pierre; Meugnier, Claire; Johnson, David; Thébault, Aurélie; Spiegelberger, Thomas; Buttler, Alexandre

    2013-05-01

    In grassland communities, plants can be classified as dominants or subordinates according to their relative abundances, but the factors controlling such distributions remain unclear. Here, we test whether the presence of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus intraradices affects the competitiveness of two dominant (Taraxacum officinale and Agrostis capillaris) and two subordinate species (Prunella vulgaris and Achillea millefolium). Plants were grown in pots in the presence or absence of the fungus, in monoculture and in mixtures of both species groups with two and four species. In the absence of G. intraradices, dominants were clearly more competitive than subordinates. In inoculated pots, the fungus acted towards the parasitic end of the mutualism-parasitism continuum and had an overall negative effect on the growth of the plant species. However, the negative effects of the AM fungus were more pronounced on dominant species reducing the differences in competitiveness between dominant and subordinate species. The effects of G. intraradices varied with species composition highlighting the importance of plant community to mediate the effects of AM fungi. Dominant species were negatively affected from the AM fungus in mixtures, while subordinates grew identically with and without the fungus. Therefore, our findings predict that the plant dominance hierarchy may flatten out when dominant species are more reduced than subordinate species in an unfavourable AM fungal relationship (parasitism).

  8. European utility requirements: common rules to design next LWR plants in an open electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berbey, Pierre; Ingemarsson, Karl-Fredrik

    2004-01-01

    The major European electricity producers want to keep able to build new nuclear power plants and they believe 3. generation LWRs would be the most adapted response to their needs in the first decades of this century. Producing a common European Utility Requirement (EUR) document has been one of the basic tasks towards this objective. In this common frame, standardized and competitive LWR NPPs could be developed and offered to the investors. This idea is now well supported by all the other actors on the European electricity market: vendors, regulators, grid managers, administrations although in the competitive and unified European electricity market that is emerging, the electricity producers' stakes are more and more different from the other electricity business actors'. The next term objectives of the electricity producers involved in EUR are focused on negotiating common rules of the game together with the regulators. This covers the nuclear safety approaches, the conditions requested to connect a plant to a HV grid, as well as the design standards. Discussions are going on between the EUR organization and all the corresponding bodies to develop stabilized and predictable design rules that would meet the constraints of nuclear electricity generation in this new environment. Finally there cannot be competition without competitors. The EUR organization has proven to be the right place to establish trustful relationship between the vendors and their potential customers, through fair assessment of the proposed designs performance vs. the utility needs. This will be continued and developed with the main vendors present in Europe, so as to keep alive a list of 4 to 6 designs 'qualified', i.e. showing an acceptable score of non-compliance vs. EUR. (authors)

  9. Allelochemical Control of Non-Indigenous Invasive Plant Species Affecting Military Testing and Training Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    crude root exudates and water phase were applied directly to the liquid media in which the plants were growing . The chloroform and ethyl acetate... plant neighbors in the introduced range. We partially tested this hypothesis by growing seven competing native European plant species either with... bamboo ) in natural Indian soil in a single pulse, but soil concentrations at the time of planting seeds were either undetectable or very low

  10. Influences of Plant Species, Season and Location on Leaf Endophytic Bacterial Communities of Non-Cultivated Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Tao; Melcher, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria are known to be associated endophytically with plants. Research on endophytic bacteria has identified their importance in food safety, agricultural production and phytoremediation. However, the diversity of endophytic bacterial communities and the forces that shape their compositions in non-cultivated plants are largely uncharacterized. In this study, we explored the diversity, community structure, and dynamics of endophytic bacteria in different plant species in the Tallgrass Prairie Preserve of northern Oklahoma, USA. High throughput sequencing of amplified segments of bacterial rDNA from 81 samples collected at four sampling times from five plant species at four locations identified 335 distinct OTUs at 97% sequence similarity, representing 16 phyla. Proteobacteria was the dominant phylum in the communities, followed by the phyla Bacteriodetes and Actinobacteria. Bacteria from four classes of Proteobacteria were detected with Alphaproteobacteria as the dominant class. Analysis of molecular variance revealed that host plant species and collecting date had significant influences on the compositions of the leaf endophytic bacterial communities. The proportion of Alphaproteobacteria was much higher in the communities from Asclepias viridis than from other plant species and differed from month to month. The most dominant bacterial groups identified in LDA Effect Size analysis showed host-specific patterns, indicating mutual selection between host plants and endophytic bacteria and that leaf endophytic bacterial compositions were dynamic, varying with the host plant's growing season in three distinct patterns. In summary, next generation sequencing has revealed variations in the taxonomic compositions of leaf endophytic bacterial communities dependent primarily on the nature of the plant host species.

  11. Influences of Plant Species, Season and Location on Leaf Endophytic Bacterial Communities of Non-Cultivated Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Ding

    Full Text Available Bacteria are known to be associated endophytically with plants. Research on endophytic bacteria has identified their importance in food safety, agricultural production and phytoremediation. However, the diversity of endophytic bacterial communities and the forces that shape their compositions in non-cultivated plants are largely uncharacterized. In this study, we explored the diversity, community structure, and dynamics of endophytic bacteria in different plant species in the Tallgrass Prairie Preserve of northern Oklahoma, USA. High throughput sequencing of amplified segments of bacterial rDNA from 81 samples collected at four sampling times from five plant species at four locations identified 335 distinct OTUs at 97% sequence similarity, representing 16 phyla. Proteobacteria was the dominant phylum in the communities, followed by the phyla Bacteriodetes and Actinobacteria. Bacteria from four classes of Proteobacteria were detected with Alphaproteobacteria as the dominant class. Analysis of molecular variance revealed that host plant species and collecting date had significant influences on the compositions of the leaf endophytic bacterial communities. The proportion of Alphaproteobacteria was much higher in the communities from Asclepias viridis than from other plant species and differed from month to month. The most dominant bacterial groups identified in LDA Effect Size analysis showed host-specific patterns, indicating mutual selection between host plants and endophytic bacteria and that leaf endophytic bacterial compositions were dynamic, varying with the host plant's growing season in three distinct patterns. In summary, next generation sequencing has revealed variations in the taxonomic compositions of leaf endophytic bacterial communities dependent primarily on the nature of the plant host species.

  12. Exotic species and the structure of a plant-galling network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Santos de Araujo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Gall-inducing insects are highly specialized herbivores and is expected that networks composed by gall-inducing insects and their host plants are also very specialized. However, presence of exotic species might reduce the interaction number for native species, which would lead to changes in the specialization of plant-galling networks. In this study, we use network metrics to describe, for the first time, the structure of a network of gall-inducing insects associated to ornamental host plants. We found that the plant-galling network has a low-connected structure and is more modular than expected by chance. Native insect herbivores were significantly more frequent on native host plant species, while exotic herbivores occurred mostly on exotic host plant species. On the other hand, the number of interactions between insect herbivores and native or exotic plant species did not vary. Our findings show that plant-galling networks are very specialized and structured independently of exotic species presence.

  13. Nitrogen and protein contents in some aquatic plant species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Bytniewska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen and protein contents in higher aquatic plants deriving from a natural habitat were determined. The following plants were examined: Spirodela polyrrhiza (L. Schleid., Elodea canadensis Rich., Riccia fluitans L. Total nitrogen and nitrogen of respective fractions were determined by the Kjeldahl method. Nitrogen compounds were fractionated according to Thimann et al. Protein was extracted after Fletcher and Osborne and fractionated after Osborne. It was found, that total protein content in the plants under examination constitutes 18 to 25%o of dry matter. Albumins and glutelins are the most abundant protein fractions.

  14. Two common species dominate the species-rich Euglossine bee fauna of an Atlantic Rainforest remnant in Pernambuco, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, R; Pinto, C E; Schlindwein, C

    2015-11-01

    Nowadays, the northern part of the Atlantic Rainforest of Brazil is largely destroyed and forest remnants rarely exceed 100 ha. In a 118 ha forest fragment within a state nature reserve of Pernambuco (Reserva Ecológica Gurjaú), we surveyed the orchid bee fauna (Apidae, Euglossini) using eight different scent baits to attract males. Once a month during one year, the bees were actively collected with entomological nets, from November 2002 to October 2003 by two collectors. We collected 2,908 orchid bee males belonging to 23 species, one of the highest richness values of the Northern Atlantic Rainforest. Bees of only two species, Euglossa carolina (50%) and Eulaema nigrita (25%), which occurred throughout the year, accounted for three quarter of the collected individuals. Both species are typical for open or disturbed areas. Rainforest remnants like those of Gurjaú within the predominant sugar cane monocultures in the coastal plains of the northern Atlantic Rainforest play an important role in orchid bee conservation and maintenance of biodiversity.

  15. Plant species dynamics in the Southern Tall Grassveld under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An analysis of temporal changes in botanical composition in a long-term grazing trial indicates that species dynamics in the Southern Tall Grassveld of Natal are determined by the specific combination of grazing, mowing and fire impacts. Species composition of a grazing systems trial was recorded at intervals during 16 ...

  16. Systematic Experimental Designs For Mixed-species Plantings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery C. Goelz

    2001-01-01

    Systematic experimental designs provide splendid demonstration areas for scientists and land managers to observe the effects of a gradient of species composition. Systematic designs are based on large plots where species composition varies gradually. Systematic designs save considerable space and require many fewer seedlings than conventional mixture designs. One basic...

  17. An Ethnobotanical Survey on Fuel Wood and Timber plant Species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... 3Department of Botany, Post Graduate College Abbottabad, Pakistan. Accepted 17 March, 2011. A survey was conducted to explore the fuel wood species and timber producing species of Kaghan valleys, Pakistan. Consumption pattern and impact on the forest resources were also taken into consideration.

  18. seed longevity of dominant plant species from degraded savanna

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    groups: (1) non-dormant seeds (2) seeds with enforced dormancy and (3) seeds with seed coat imposed dormancy. The low decay constant of some species is an indication of their abilities to form persistent seed banks. The intermittent and extended germination of seeds of the same species from the same batch shown by ...

  19. Ethical perception of cross-species gene transfer in plant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-09-30

    Sep 30, 2011 ... the ethical acceptance of cross-species gene transfers in developing country. Key words: Ethical perception, genetically modified (GM) rice, cross-species gene transfer, Malaysia. INTRODUCTION. Rice is a staple food in much of Asia countries including. Malaysia, and by 2025 about 60% more rice must ...

  20. An Ethnobotanical Survey on Fuel Wood and Timber plant Species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was conducted to explore the fuel wood species and timber producing species of Kaghan valleys, Pakistan. Consumption pattern and impact on the forest resources were also taken into consideration. A questionnaire was used as a survey instrument to obtain desired data. For this study, 10 villages were randomly ...

  1. Exotic and indigenous problem plants species used, by the Bapedi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    Tel: +27 152683126. Email: Sebuasemenya@gmail.com. Introduction. Exotic species are widespread in South Africa, both in cultivated and communal areas. At least 161 species have been declared as exotics, and cause serious ..... Edeoga HO, Osuagwu GGE, Omosun G,. Mbaebie BO, Osuagwu AN. Pharmaceutical and.

  2. The exploration of plant species in nature reserve of Mount Mutis East Nusa Tenggara Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solikin Solikin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to explore and inventory the plant diversity, especially medicinal plants in Nature Reserve of Mount Mutis. Data were collected in Fatumnasi Village, Fatumnasi District of South Central Timor Regency in Octo-ber 2011 through plant exploration and interview the local people. Plants inventory was conducted along the tracks during exploration. Herbs vegetation analysis was conducted among the tree stands of Eucalyptus urophylla. In addi-tion, orchid vegetation analysis was only conducted to orchids that have been found attaching to Eucalyptus urophylla trees. Results showed that there were about 52 family, 78 genera and 84 species of plants in the observed area. Tree species was dominated by 'ampupu' (Eucalyptus urophylla, while orchid species was dominated by Eria retusa. Herbaceous plant communities were dominated by Centella asiatica, Cyperus sp. and Cynodon dactylon. There were about eight plant species of medicinal plants and one food plant species found in the forestthat have been known by local people. Keywords: exploration, inventory, Mount Mutis, nature reserve

  3. Cultural significance of medicinal plant families and species among Quechua farmers in Apillapampa, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Evert; Vandebroek, Ina; Sanca, Sabino; Van Damme, Patrick

    2009-02-25

    Medicinal plant use was investigated in Apillapampa, a community of subsistence farmers located in the semi-arid Bolivian Andes. The main objectives were to identify the culturally most significant medicinal plant families and species in Apillapampa. A total of 341 medicinal plant species was inventoried during guided fieldtrips and transect sampling. Data on medicinal uses were obtained from fifteen local Quechua participants, eight of them being traditional healers. Contingency table and binomial analyses of medicinal plants used versus the total number of inventoried species per family showed that Solanaceae is significantly overused in traditional medicine, whereas Poaceae is underused. Also plants with a shrubby habitat are significantly overrepresented in the medicinal plant inventory, which most likely relates to their year-round availability to people as compared to most annual plants that disappear in the dry season. Our ranking of medicinal species according to cultural importance is based upon the Quality Use Agreement Value (QUAV) index we developed. This index takes into account (1) the average number of medicinal uses reported for each plant species by participants; (2) the perceived quality of those medicinal uses; and (3) participant consensus. According to the results, the QUAV index provides an easily derived and valid appraisal of a medicinal plant's cultural significance.

  4. Individual-based ant-plant networks: diurnal-nocturnal structure and species-area relationship.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Dáttilo

    Full Text Available Despite the importance and increasing knowledge of ecological networks, sampling effort and intrapopulation variation has been widely overlooked. Using continuous daily sampling of ants visiting three plant species in the Brazilian Neotropical savanna, we evaluated for the first time the topological structure over 24 h and species-area relationships (based on the number of extrafloral nectaries available in individual-based ant-plant networks. We observed that diurnal and nocturnal ant-plant networks exhibited the same pattern of interactions: a nested and non-modular pattern and an average level of network specialization. Despite the high similarity in the ants' composition between the two collection periods, ant species found in the central core of highly interacting species totally changed between diurnal and nocturnal sampling for all plant species. In other words, this "night-turnover" suggests that the ecological dynamics of these ant-plant interactions can be temporally partitioned (day and night at a small spatial scale. Thus, it is possible that in some cases processes shaping mutualistic networks formed by protective ants and plants may be underestimated by diurnal sampling alone. Moreover, we did not observe any effect of the number of extrafloral nectaries on ant richness and their foraging on such plants in any of the studied ant-plant networks. We hypothesize that competitively superior ants could monopolize individual plants and allow the coexistence of only a few other ant species, however, other alternative hypotheses are also discussed. Thus, sampling period and species-area relationship produces basic information that increases our confidence in how individual-based ant-plant networks are structured, and the need to consider nocturnal records in ant-plant network sampling design so as to decrease inappropriate inferences.

  5. Matgrass sward plant species benefit from soil organisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkman, E.P.; Raaijmakers, C.E.; Bakx-Schotman, J.M.T.; Hannula, S.E.; Kemmers, R.H.; De Boer, W.; Van der Putten, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    Soilorganisms are important in the structuring of plant communities. However, little is known about how to apply this knowledge to vegetation management. Here, we examined if soilorganisms may promote plantspecies of characteristic habitats, and suppress plantspecies of disturbed habitats. We

  6. Patterns of genetic variation across altitude in three plant species of semi-dry grasslands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hahn

    Full Text Available Environmental gradients caused by altitudinal gradients may affect genetic variation within and among plant populations and inbreeding within populations. Populations in the upper range periphery of a species may be important source populations for range shifts to higher altitude in response to climate change. In this study we investigate patterns of population genetic variation at upper peripheral and lower more central altitudes in three common plant species of semi-dry grasslands in montane landscapes.In Briza media, Trifolium montanum and Ranunculus bulbosus genetic diversity, inbreeding and genetic relatedness of individuals within populations and genetic differentiation among populations was characterized using AFLP markers. Populations were sampled in the Swiss Alps at 1800 (upper periphery of the study organisms and at 1200 m a.s.l. Genetic diversity was not affected by altitude and only in B. media inbreeding was greater at higher altitudes. Genetic differentiation was slightly greater among populations at higher altitudes in B. media and individuals within populations were more related to each other compared to individuals in lower altitude populations. A similar but less strong pattern of differentiation and relatedness was observed in T. montanum, while in R. bulbosus there was no effect of altitude. Estimations of population size and isolation of populations were similar, both at higher and lower altitudes.Our results suggest that altitude does not affect genetic diversity in the grassland species under study. Genetic differentiation of populations increased only slightly at higher elevation, probably due to extensive (historic gene flow among altitudes. Potentially pre-adapted genes might therefore spread easily across altitudes. Our study indicates that populations at the upper periphery are not genetically depauperate or isolated and thus may be important source populations for migration under climate change.

  7. Invasive clonal plant species have a greater root-foraging plasticity than non-invasive ones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keser, Lidewij H; Dawson, Wayne; Song, Yao-Bin; Yu, Fei-Hai; Fischer, Markus; Dong, Ming; van Kleunen, Mark

    2014-03-01

    Clonality is frequently positively correlated with plant invasiveness, but which aspects of clonality make some clonal species more invasive than others is not known. Due to their spreading growth form, clonal plants are likely to experience spatial heterogeneity in nutrient availability. Plasticity in allocation of biomass to clonal growth organs and roots may allow these plants to forage for high-nutrient patches. We investigated whether this foraging response is stronger in species that have become invasive than in species that have not. We used six confamilial pairs of native European clonal plant species differing in invasion success in the USA. We grew all species in large pots under homogeneous or heterogeneous nutrient conditions in a greenhouse, and compared their nutrient-foraging response and performance. Neither invasive nor non-invasive species showed significant foraging responses to heterogeneity in clonal growth organ biomass or in aboveground biomass of clonal offspring. Invasive species had, however, a greater positive foraging response in terms of root and belowground biomass than non-invasive species. Invasive species also produced more total biomass. Our results suggest that the ability for strong root foraging is among the characteristics promoting invasiveness in clonal plants.

  8. Threatened plant species of the Nevada Test Site, Ash Meadows, central-southern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beatley, J.C.

    1977-04-01

    This report is a companion one to Endangered Plant Species of the Nevada Test Site, Ash Meadows, and Central-Southern Nevada (COO-2307-11) and deals with the threatened plant species of the same area. The species are those cited in the Federal Register, July 1, 1975, and include certain ones listed as occurring only in California or Arizona, but which occur also in central-southern Nevada. As with the earlier report, the purpose of this one is to record in detail the location of the past plant collections which constitute the sole or principal basis for defining the species' distributions and frequency of occurrence in southern Nye County, Nevada, and to recommend the area of the critical habitat where this is appropriate. Many of the species occur also in southern California, and for these the central-southern Nevada records are presented for consideration of the overall status of the species throughout its range.

  9. Comparative Genomics of Non-TNL Disease Resistance Genes from Six Plant Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepal, Madhav P; Andersen, Ethan J; Neupane, Surendra; Benson, Benjamin V

    2017-09-30

    Disease resistance genes (R genes), as part of the plant defense system, have coevolved with corresponding pathogen molecules. The main objectives of this project were to identify non-Toll interleukin receptor, nucleotide-binding site, leucine-rich repeat (nTNL) genes and elucidate their evolutionary divergence across six plant genomes. Using reference sequences from Arabidopsis , we investigated nTNL orthologs in the genomes of common bean, Medicago , soybean, poplar, and rice. We used Hidden Markov Models for sequence identification, performed model-based phylogenetic analyses, visualized chromosomal positioning, inferred gene clustering, and assessed gene expression profiles. We analyzed 908 nTNL R genes in the genomes of the six plant species, and classified them into 12 subgroups based on the presence of coiled-coil (CC), nucleotide binding site (NBS), leucine rich repeat (LRR), resistance to Powdery mildew 8 (RPW8), and BED type zinc finger domains. Traditionally classified CC-NBS-LRR (CNL) genes were nested into four clades (CNL A-D) often with abundant, well-supported homogeneous subclades of Type-II R genes. CNL-D members were absent in rice, indicating a unique R gene retention pattern in the rice genome. Genomes from Arabidopsis , common bean, poplar and soybean had one chromosome without any CNL R genes. Medicago and Arabidopsis had the highest and lowest number of gene clusters, respectively. Gene expression analyses suggested unique patterns of expression for each of the CNL clades. Differential gene expression patterns of the nTNL genes were often found to correlate with number of introns and GC content, suggesting structural and functional divergence.

  10. Comparative Genomics of Non-TNL Disease Resistance Genes from Six Plant Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhav P. Nepal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Disease resistance genes (R genes, as part of the plant defense system, have coevolved with corresponding pathogen molecules. The main objectives of this project were to identify non-Toll interleukin receptor, nucleotide-binding site, leucine-rich repeat (nTNL genes and elucidate their evolutionary divergence across six plant genomes. Using reference sequences from Arabidopsis, we investigated nTNL orthologs in the genomes of common bean, Medicago, soybean, poplar, and rice. We used Hidden Markov Models for sequence identification, performed model-based phylogenetic analyses, visualized chromosomal positioning, inferred gene clustering, and assessed gene expression profiles. We analyzed 908 nTNL R genes in the genomes of the six plant species, and classified them into 12 subgroups based on the presence of coiled-coil (CC, nucleotide binding site (NBS, leucine rich repeat (LRR, resistance to Powdery mildew 8 (RPW8, and BED type zinc finger domains. Traditionally classified CC-NBS-LRR (CNL genes were nested into four clades (CNL A-D often with abundant, well-supported homogeneous subclades of Type-II R genes. CNL-D members were absent in rice, indicating a unique R gene retention pattern in the rice genome. Genomes from Arabidopsis, common bean, poplar and soybean had one chromosome without any CNL R genes. Medicago and Arabidopsis had the highest and lowest number of gene clusters, respectively. Gene expression analyses suggested unique patterns of expression for each of the CNL clades. Differential gene expression patterns of the nTNL genes were often found to correlate with number of introns and GC content, suggesting structural and functional divergence.

  11. Are the metabolomic responses to folivory of closely related plant species linked to macroevolutionary and plant-folivore coevolutionary processes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas-Ubach, Albert [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington 99354 USA; CREAF, Cerdanyola del Vallès 08913 Catalonia Spain; Hódar, José A. [Grupo de Ecología Terrestre, Departamento de Biología Animal y Ecología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada Spain; Sardans, Jordi [CREAF, Cerdanyola del Vallès 08913 Catalonia Spain; CSIC, Global Ecology Unit CREAF-CEAB-CSIC-UAB, Cerdanyola del Vallès 08913 Catalonia Spain; Kyle, Jennifer E. [Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington 99354 USA; Kim, Young-Mo [Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington 99354 USA; Oravec, Michal [Global Change Research Centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Bĕlidla 4a CZ-603 00 Brno Czech Republic; Urban, Otmar [Global Change Research Centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Bĕlidla 4a CZ-603 00 Brno Czech Republic; Guenther, Alex [Department of Earth System Science, University of California, Irvine California 92697 USA; Peñuelas, Josep [CREAF, Cerdanyola del Vallès 08913 Catalonia Spain; CSIC, Global Ecology Unit CREAF-CEAB-CSIC-UAB, Cerdanyola del Vallès 08913 Catalonia Spain

    2016-06-02

    The debate whether the coevolution of plants and insects or macroevolutionary processes (phylogeny) is the main driver determining the arsenal of molecular defensive compounds of plants remains unresolved. Attacks by herbivorous insects affect not only the composition of defensive compounds in plants but the entire metabolome (the set of molecular metabolites), including defensive compounds. Metabolomes are the final products of genotypes and are directly affected by macroevolutionary processes, so closely related species should have similar metabolomic compositions and may respond in similar ways to attacks by folivores. We analyzed the elemental compositions and metabolomes of needles from Pinus pinaster, P. nigra and P. sylvestris to determine if these closely related Pinus species with different coevolutionary histories with the caterpillars of the processionary moth respond similarly to attacks by this lepidopteran. All pines had different metabolomes and metabolic responses to herbivorous attack. The metabolomic variation among the pine species and the responses to folivory reflected their macroevolutionary relationships, with P. pinaster having the most divergent metabolome. The concentrations of phenolic metabolites were generally not higher in the attacked trees, which had lower concentrations of terpenes, suggesting that herbivores avoid individuals with high concentrations of terpenes. Our results suggest that macroevolutionary history plays important roles in the metabolomic responses of these pine species to folivory, but plant-insect coevolution probably constrains those responses. Combinations of different evolutionary factors and trade-offs are likely responsible for the different responses of each species to folivory, which is not necessarily exclusively linked to plant-insect coevolution.

  12. Effects of plant diversity on primary production and species interactions in brackish water angiosperm communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salo, Tiina; Gustafsson, Camilla; Boström, Christoffer

    2009-01-01

    Research on plant biodiversity and ecosystem functioning has mainly focused on terrestrial ecosystems, and our understanding of how plant species diversity and interactions affect processes in marine ecosystems is still limited. To investigate if plant species richness and composition influence...... plant productivity in brackish water angiosperm communities, a 14 wk field experiment was conducted. Using a replacement design with a standardized initial aboveground biomass, shoots of Zostera marina, Potamogeton filiformis and P. perfoliatus were planted on a shallow, sandy bottom in replicated...... production in bicultures in general, while a positive net effect was found in the P. perfoliatus and P. filiformis biculture. Despite the absence of significant results for other treatments and plant variables, a trend of positive complementarity and negative selection effects were present. Plant diversity...

  13. Identifying plant traits: a key aspect for suitable species selection in ecological restoration of semiarid slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochet, Esther; García-Fayos, Patricio

    2017-04-01

    In the context of ecological restoration, one of the greatest challenges for practitioners and scientists is to select suitable species for revegetation purposes. In semiarid environments where restoration projects often fail, little attention has been paid so far to the contribution of plant traits to species success. The objective of this study was to (1) identify plant traits associated with species success on four roadside situations along an erosion-productivity gradient, and (2) to provide an ecological framework for selecting suitable species on the basis of their morphological and functional traits, applied to semiarid environments. We analyzed the association of 10 different plant traits with species success of 296 species surveyed on the four roadside situations in a semiarid region (Valencia, Spain). Plant traits included general plant traits (longevity, woodiness) and more specific root-, seed- and leaf-related traits (root type, sprouting ability, seed mucilage, seed mass, seed susceptibility to removal, specific leaf area and leaf dry matter content). All of them were selected according to the prevailing limiting ecogeomorphological processes acting along the erosion-productivity gradient. We observed strong shifts along the erosion-productivity gradient in the traits associated to species success. At the harshest end of the gradient, the most intensely eroded and driest one, species success was mainly associated to seed resistance to removal by runoff and to resistance to drought. At the opposite end of the gradient, the most productive one, species success was associated to a competitive-ruderal plant strategy (herbaceous successful species with high specific leaf area and low leaf dry matter content). Our study provides an ecologically-based approach for selecting suitable native species on the basis or their morphological and functional traits and supports a differential trait-based selection of species as regards roadslope type and aspect. In

  14. Individual species-area relationship of woody plant communities in a heterogeneous subtropical monsoon rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Han; Lin, Yi-Ching; Wiegand, Thorsten; Nakazawa, Takefumi; Su, Sheng-Hsin; Hsieh, Chih-Hao; Ding, Tzung-Su

    2015-01-01

    The spatial structure of species richness is often characterized by the species-area relationship (SAR). However, the SAR approach rarely considers the spatial variability of individual plants that arises from species interactions and species' habitat associations. Here, we explored how the interactions of individual plants of target species influence SAR patterns at a range of neighborhood distances. We analyzed the data of 113,988 woody plants of 110 species from the Fushan Forest Dynamics Plot (25 ha), northern Taiwan, which is a subtropical rainforest heavily influenced by typhoons. We classified 34 dominant species into 3 species types (i.e., accumulator, repeller, or no effect) by testing how the individual species-area relationship (i.e., statistics describing how neighborhood species richness changes around individuals) of target species departs (i.e., positively, negatively, or with no obvious trend) from a null model that accounts for habitat association. Deviation from the null model suggests that the net effect of species' interactions increases (accumulate) or decreases (repel) neighborhood species richness. We found that (i) accumulators were dominant at small interaction distances (30 m); (iii) repellers were rarely detected; and (iv) large-sized and abundant species tended to be accumulators. The findings suggest that positive species interactions have the potential to accumulate neighborhood species richness, particularly through size- and density-dependent mechanisms. We hypothesized that the frequently disturbed environment of this subtropical rainforest (e.g., typhoon-driven natural disturbances such as landslides, soil erosion, flooding, and windthrow) might create the spatial heterogeneity of species richness and promote positive species interactions.

  15. Antimutagenic activity of extracts of leaves of four common edible vegetable plants in Nigeria (west Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obaseiki-Ebor, E E; Odukoya, K; Telikepalli, H; Mitscher, L A; Shankel, D M

    1993-06-01

    Organic solvent extracts of leaves of 4 common edible vegetable plants--Bryophyllum pinnatum, Dialium guincense, Ocimum gratissimum and Vernonia amygdalina--had inhibitory activity for His- to His+ reverse-mutations induced by ethyl methanesulfonate acting on Salmonella typhimurium TA100. The concentrated ethyl acetate, methanol and petroleum ether extracts were heat-stable when dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide. The Bryophyllum ethyl acetate extract was fractionated into alkaloidal/water-soluble, acids, polar lipid and non-polar lipid fractions. The polar and non-polar lipid fractions inhibited reversion mutations induced by ethyl methanesulfonate acting on TA100 or TA102, and were also active against reversions induced by 4-nitro-O-phenylenediamine and 2-aminofluorene in TA98. The alkaloidal/water-soluble and the acid fractions had no appreciable antimutagenic activities.

  16. New approaches for sampling and modeling native and exotic plant species richness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, G.W.; Reich, R.M.; Kalkhan, M.A.; Stohlgren, T.J.

    2001-01-01

    We demonstrate new multi-phase, multi-scale approaches for sampling and modeling native and exotic plant species to predict the spread of invasive species and aid in control efforts. Our test site is a 54,000-ha portion of Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, USA. This work is based on previous research wherein we developed vegetation sampling techniques to identify hot spots of diversity, important rare habitats, and locations of invasive plant species. Here we demonstrate statistical modeling tools to rapidly assess current patterns of native and exotic plant species to determine which habitats are most vulnerable to invasion by exotic species. We use stepwise multiple regression and modified residual kriging to estimate numbers of native species and exotic species, as well as probability of observing an exotic species in 30 × 30-m cells. Final models accounted for 62% of the variability observed in number of native species, 51% of the variability observed in number of exotic species, and 47% of the variability associated with observing an exotic species. Important independent variables used in developing the models include geographical location, elevation, slope, aspect, and Landsat TM bands 1-7. These models can direct resource managers to areas in need of further inventory, monitoring, and exotic species control efforts.

  17. The Phaseolus vulgaris PvTRX1h gene regulates plant hormone biosynthesis in embryogenic callus from common bean

    OpenAIRE

    Barraza, Aar?n; Cabrera-Ponce, Jos? L.; Gamboa-Becerra, Roberto; Luna-Mart?nez, Francisco; Winkler, Robert; ?lvarez-Venegas, Ra?l

    2015-01-01

    Common bean is the most important grain legume in the human diet. Bean improvement efforts have been focused on classical breeding techniques because bean is recalcitrant to both somatic embryogenesis and in vitro regeneration. This study was undertaken to better understand the process of somatic embryogenesis in the common bean. We focused on the mechanisms by which somatic embryogenesis in plants is regulated and the interaction of these mechanisms with plant hormones. Specifically, we exam...

  18. Landscape genomics of tropical high altitude plant species

    OpenAIRE

    Mastretta-Yanes, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    Changes to species distributions involve demographic processes that occur over generations and affect allele frequencies within populations, leading to patterns of genetic restructuring. The specific genetic structuring patterns that will be observed as a consequence depend on explicit geographical features, such as topography and latitude. Over the first decades of phylogeography, the effect of climate history and geography on species genomes was examined at low resolution with DNA sequenc...

  19. Plant species with extremely small populations (PSESP in China: A seed and spore biology perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellie Merrett Wade

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Approximately one fifth of the world's plants are at risk of extinction. Of these, a significant number exist as populations of few individuals, with limited distribution ranges and under enormous pressure due to habitat destruction. In China, these most-at-risk species are described as ‘plant species with extremely small populations’ (PSESP. Implementing conservation action for such listed species is urgent. Storing seeds is one of the main means of ex situ conservation for flowering plants. Spore storage could provide a simple and economical method for fern ex situ conservation. Seed and spore germination in nature is a critical step in species regeneration and thus in situ conservation. But what is known about the seed and spore biology (storage and germination of at-risk species? We have used China's PSESP (the first group listing as a case study to understand the gaps in knowledge on propagule biology of threatened plant species. We found that whilst germination information is available for 28 species (23% of PSESP, storage characteristics are only known for 8% of PSESP (10 species. Moreover, we estimate that 60% of the listed species may require cryopreservation for long-term storage. We conclude that comparative biology studies are urgently needed on the world's most threatened taxa so that conservation action can progress beyond species listing.

  20. Modeling invasive alien plant species in river systems : Interaction with native ecosystem engineers and effects on hydro-morphodynamic processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oorschot, M.; Kleinhans, M. G.; Geerling, G.W.; Egger, G.; Leuven, R.S.E.W.; Middelkoop, H.

    2017-01-01

    Invasive alien plant species negatively impact native plant communities by out-competing species or changing abiotic and biotic conditions in their introduced range. River systems are especially vulnerable to biological invasions, because waterways can function as invasion corridors. Understanding

  1. Site fidelity by bees drives pollination facilitation in sequentially blooming plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, Jane E; Thomson, James D

    2016-06-01

    Plant species can influence the pollination and reproductive success of coflowering neighbors that share pollinators. Because some individual pollinators habitually forage in particular areas, it is also possible that plant species could influence the pollination of neighbors that bloom later. When flowers of a preferred forage plant decline in an area, site-fidelity may cause individual flower feeders to stay in an area and switch plant species rather than search for preferred plants in a new location. A newly blooming plant species may quickly inherit a set of visitors from a prior plant species, and therefore experience higher pollination success than it would in an area where the first species never bloomed. To test this, we manipulated the placement and timing of two plant species, Delphinium barbeyi and later-blooming Gentiana parryi. We recorded the responses of individually marked bumble bee pollinators. About 63% of marked individuals returned repeatedly to the same areas to forage on Delphinium. When Delphinium was experimentally taken out of bloom, most of those site-faithful individuals (78%) stayed and switched to Gentiana. Consequently, Gentiana flowers received more visits in areas where Delphinium had previously flowered, compared to areas where Delphinium was still flowering or never occurred. Gentiana stigmas received more pollen in areas where Delphinium disappeared than where it never bloomed, indicating that Delphinium increases the pollination of Gentiana when they are separated in time. Overall, we show that individual bumble bees are often site-faithful, causing one plant species to increase the pollination of another even when separated in time, which is a novel mechanism of pollination facilitation.

  2. Bioindicator responses and performance of plant species along a vehicular pollution gradient in western Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Rachit; Sharma, Rohit; Uniyal, Sanjay Kr

    2018-04-21

    Loss of green cover, and increasing pollution is a prime global concern. The problem calls for screening of pollution-tolerant tree species that can be integrated into plantation drives. Recognizing this, the study analyzed bio-indicator responses and performance of commonly occurring plant species along a pollution gradient in western Himalaya. Based on distance from the road, three sites viz., highly polluted (HP), moderately polluted (MP), and least polluted (LP), were identified. From these sites, leaves of commonly occurring 26 tree species were collected and analyzed for dust accumulation, total chlorophyll, relative water content (RWC), ascorbic acid, and pH using standard protocols. Later, assessment of Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) and Anticipated Performance Indices (API) was carried out. The results revealed variations in biochemical characteristics. The pH, RWC, and total chlorophyll increased with decreasing pollution while ascorbic acid increased with increasing pollution. Dust capturing potential of Ficus carica (1.191 mg/m 2 ) and Toona ciliata (0.820 mg/m 2 ) was relatively higher. Based on the results of APTI, Grevillea robusta was classified as tolerant. It scored significantly higher values (21.06, 21.19, and 19.61 in LP, MP, and HP sites, respectively). Quercus floribunda, G. robusta (68.75% each), Juglans regia (68.7%), and T. ciliata (62.50%) were good performers in HP sites. Acer caesium, Betula utilis, and Morus alba that had low API scores (43.75%) were predicted as poor performers. Thus, G. robusta, Q. floribunda, J. regia, T. ciliata, and F. carica were evaluated as best performers. They could be integrated into plantations drives for environmental management.

  3. Screening of 20 commonly used Iranian traditional medicinal plants against urease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biglar, Mahmood; Sufi, Hessameddin; Bagherzadeh, Kowsar; Amanlou, Massoud; Mojab, Faraz

    2014-01-01

    Infection with Helicobacter pyloriis the most common cause of stomach and duodenal ulcers. About more than 80 % of people are infected with H. pylori in developing countries. H. pylori uses urease enzyme product "ammonia" in order to neutralize and protect itself from the stomach acidic condition and urease enzyme activity has been shown to be essential to the colonization of H. pylori. Inhibitory activity of 20 traditional medicinal plants were examined and evaluated against Jack bean urease activity by Berthelot reaction to obtains natural sources of urease inhibitors. Each herb was extracted using 80% aqueous methanol, then tested its IC50 value was determined. Eight of the whole 20 studied plants crude extracts were found the most effective with IC50 values of less than 100 μg/mL including Laurus nobilis, Zingiber officinale, Nigella sativa, Angelica archangelica, Acorus calamus, Allium sativum,Curcuma longa, and Citrus aurantium extracts, from which most potent urease inhibitory was observed for Zingiber officinale, Laurus nobilis, and Nigella sativa with IC50 values of 48.54, 48.69 and 59.10 μg/mL, respectively.

  4. Operation of Shared Systems via a Common Control System in a Multi-Modular Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Qianqian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Integral type reactors may need to be grouped to produce as much energy as a utility demands due to the small electrical output of an individual reactor. Sharing of systems among modules at a nuclear plant site is economically beneficial. Operation of systems shared between modules in a multi-modular plant is an issue never met in current NPPs, which may impact human performance. A design of operation of the shared systems via a common control system is presented as a technical approach to solve the problem. Modules and shared systems are controlled in independent network domains, respectively. Different from current NPPs, a limitation of operation authorities corresponding to certain modules and shared systems is defined to minimize the operation confusion between modules by one operator and to minimize the operation confusion of shared systems by different operators. Different characteristics of the shared system are analyzed, and different operation and control strategies are presented. An example is given as an application of the operation strategies. The operation design of the multi-modular system is in the preliminary stage, and, as an concept design, more verification and validation is needed in further works.

  5. Assessment of bioaccumulation of heavy metals by different plant species grown on fly ash dump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambhulkar, Hemlata P; Juwarkar, Asha A

    2009-05-01

    A field experiment was conducted on a 10-hectare area on fly ash dump at Khaperkheda Thermal Power Plant, Nagpur, India, where different ecologically and economically important plant species were planted using bioremediation technology. The technology involves the use of organic amendment and selection of suitable plant species along with site-specific nitrogen-fixing strains of biofertilizers. The study was conducted to find out the metal accumulation potential of different plant species. The total heavy metal contents in fly ash were determined and their relative abundance was found in the order of Fe>Mn>Zn>Cu>Ni>Cr>Pb>Cd. Fly ash samples had acidic pH, low electrical conductivity, low level of organic carbon and trace amounts of N and P. Plantation of divergent species was done on fly ash dump using the bioremediation technique. After 3 years of plantation, luxuriant growth of these species was found covering almost the entire fly ash dump. The results of the metal analysis of these species indicated that iron accumulated to the greatest extent in vegetation followed by Mn, Ni, Zn, Cu, Cr and Pb. Cassia siamea was found to accumulate all metals at higher concentrations compared to other species. The experimental study revealed that C. siamea could be used as a hyper-accumulator plant for bioremediation of fly ash dump.

  6. Comparative analysis of diosgenin in Dioscorea species and related medicinal plants by UPLC-DAD-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Tao; Fan, Lan-Lan; Chen, Hong-Li; Zhu, Guo-Yuan; Suen, Hau-Man; Tang, Yi-Na; Zhu, Lin; Chu, Chu; Zhao, Zhong-Zhen; Chen, Hu-Biao

    2014-08-09

    Dioscorea is a genus of flowering plants, and some Dioscorea species are known and used as a source for the steroidal sapogenin diosgenin. To screen potential resource from Dioscorea species and related medicinal plants for diosgenin extraction, a rapid method to compare the contents of diosgenin in various plants is crucial. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with diode array detection (DAD) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) method was developed for identification and determination of diosgenin in various plants. A comprehensive validation of the developed method was conducted. Twenty-four batches of plant samples from four Dioscorea species, one Smilax species and two Heterosmilax species were analyzed by using the developed method.The present method presented good sensitivity, precision and accuracy. Diosgenin was found in three Dioscorea species and one Heterosmilax species, namely D. zingiberensis, D. septemloba, D. collettii and H. yunnanensis. The method is suitable for the screening of diosgenin resources from plants. D. zingiberensis is an important resource for diosgenin harvesting.

  7. Padus serotina (Rosaceae, a new host plant for some species of parasitic microfungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nałgorzata Ruszkiewicz-Michalska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Four species of parasitic microfungi were collected recenUy on Padus serotina (Ehrh. Borkh. (Rosaceae in Poland. Three species, Phyllactina guttata (Wallr. ex Fr. Lév. (Erysiphales, Monilia linhartiana Sacc. (Hyphomycetes, and Microsphaeropsis olivacea (Bonord. Höhn. (Coelomycetes, have not been reported before on thc plant, and Padus serotina is a new host for them. Monnilia linhartiana Sacc. is a new species for Poland. The fourth species, Podosphaera tridactyla (Wallr. de Baly var. tridactyla (Erysiphales, is known only from three localities in Europe, and has been collected on the host plant in Poland for the first time.

  8. Habitat types on the Hanford Site: Wildlife and plant species of concern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downs, J.L.; Rickard, W.H.; Brandt, C.A. [and others

    1993-12-01

    The objective of this report is to provide a comprehensive source of the best available information on Hanford Site sensitive and critical habitats and plants and animals of importance or special status. In this report, sensitive habitats include areas known to be used by threatened, endangered, or sensitive plant or animal species, wetlands, preserves and refuges, and other sensitive habitats outlined in the Hanford Site Baseline Risk Assessment Methodology. Potentially important species for risk assessment and species of special concern with regard to their status as threatened, endangered, or sensitive are described, and potential habitats for these species identified.

  9. Plant species' origin predicts dominance and response to nutrient enrichment and herbivores in global grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabloom, Eric W; Borer, Elizabeth T; Buckley, Yvonne M; Cleland, Elsa E; Davies, Kendi F; Firn, Jennifer; Harpole, W Stanley; Hautier, Yann; Lind, Eric M; MacDougall, Andrew S; Orrock, John L; Prober, Suzanne M; Adler, Peter B; Anderson, T Michael; Bakker, Jonathan D; Biederman, Lori A; Blumenthal, Dana M; Brown, Cynthia S; Brudvig, Lars A; Cadotte, Marc; Chu, Chengjin; Cottingham, Kathryn L; Crawley, Michael J; Damschen, Ellen I; Dantonio, Carla M; DeCrappeo, Nicole M; Du, Guozhen; Fay, Philip A; Frater, Paul; Gruner, Daniel S; Hagenah, Nicole; Hector, Andy; Hillebrand, Helmut; Hofmockel, Kirsten S; Humphries, Hope C; Jin, Virginia L; Kay, Adam; Kirkman, Kevin P; Klein, Julia A; Knops, Johannes M H; La Pierre, Kimberly J; Ladwig, Laura; Lambrinos, John G; Li, Qi; Li, Wei; Marushia, Robin; McCulley, Rebecca L; Melbourne, Brett A; Mitchell, Charles E; Moore, Joslin L; Morgan, John; Mortensen, Brent; O'Halloran, Lydia R; Pyke, David A; Risch, Anita C; Sankaran, Mahesh; Schuetz, Martin; Simonsen, Anna; Smith, Melinda D; Stevens, Carly J; Sullivan, Lauren; Wolkovich, Elizabeth; Wragg, Peter D; Wright, Justin; Yang, Louie

    2015-07-15

    Exotic species dominate many communities; however the functional significance of species' biogeographic origin remains highly contentious. This debate is fuelled in part by the lack of globally replicated, systematic data assessing the relationship between species provenance, function and response to perturbations. We examined the abundance of native and exotic plant species at 64 grasslands in 13 countries, and at a subset of the sites we experimentally tested native and exotic species responses to two fundamental drivers of invasion, mineral nutrient supplies and vertebrate herbivory. Exotic species are six times more likely to dominate communities than native species. Furthermore, while experimental nutrient addition increases the cover and richness of exotic species, nutrients decrease native diversity and cover. Native and exotic species also differ in their response to vertebrate consumer exclusion. These results suggest that species origin has functional significance, and that eutrophication will lead to increased exotic dominance in grasslands.

  10. The importance of species phylogenetic relationships and species traits for the intensity of plant-soil feedback

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Münzbergová, Zuzana; Šurinová, Mária

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 11 (2015), s. 1-16 ISSN 2150-8925 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-11635S Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : phylogenetic relationships * species traits * plant- soil feedback Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.287, year: 2015

  11. Bar-HRM for Authentication of Plant-Based Medicines: Evaluation of Three Medicinal Products Derived from Acanthaceae Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osathanunkul, Maslin; Madesis, Panagiotis; de Boer, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used as a popular alternative to synthetic drugs, both in developed and developing countries. The economic importance of the herbal and natural supplement industry is increasing every year. As the herbal industry grows, consumer safety is one issue that cannot be overlooked. Herbal products in Thai local markets are commonly sold without packaging or labels. Plant powders are stored in large bags or boxes, and therefore buying local herbal products poses a high risk of acquiring counterfeited, substituted and/or adulterated products. Due to these issues, a reliable method to authenticate products is needed. Here DNA barcoding was used in combination with High Resolution Melting analysis (Bar-HRM) to authenticate three medicinal Acanthaceae species (Acanthus ebracteatus, Andrographis paniculata and Rhinacanthus nasutus) commonly used in Thailand. The rbcL barcode was selected for use in primers design for HRM analysis to produce standard melting profiles of the selected species. Melting data from the HRM assay using the designed rbcL primers showed that the three chosen species could be distinguished from each other. HRM curves of all fifteen test samples indicated that three of tested products did not contain the indicated species. Two closely related species (A. paniculata and R. nasutus), which have a high level of morphological similarity, were interchanged with one another in three tested products. Incorrect information on packaging and labels of the tested herbal products was the cause of the results shown here. Morphological similarity among the species of interest also hindered the collection process. The Bar-HRM method developed here proved useful in aiding in the identification and authentication of herbal species in processed samples. In the future, species authentication through Bar-HRM could be used to promote consumer trust, as well as raising the quality of herbal products.

  12. Plant species from coal mine overburden dumping site in Satui, South Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivi Novianti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Coal mine overburden (OB materials were nutrient-poor, loosely adhered particles of shale, stones, boulders, and cobbles, also contained elevated concentration of trace metals. This condition cause OB substrate did not support plants growth. However, there were certain species that able to grow on overburden dumping site. This investigation sought to identify plants species that presence on coal mine overburden. The research was conducted on opencast coal mine OB dumping site in Satui, South Kalimantan. Vegetation sampling was carried out on six different ages of coal mine OB dumps (7, 10, 11, 42, 59 and 64 month using line transect. Species identification used information from local people, AMDAL report of PT Arutmin Indonesia-Satui mine project, and website. There were 123 plant species, consisted of 79 herbs (Cyperaceae, Poaceae and Asteraceae, 10 lianes, bryophyte, 9 ferns, 10 shrubs, and 14 trees. A number of Poaceae, i.e., Paspalumconjugatum, Paspalumdilatatum, and Echinochloacolona generally present among the stones, boulders, and cobbles. While Cyperaceae such as Fimbristylis miliaceae, Cyperus javanicus, Rhyncospora corymbosa and Scleria sumatrensis most often foundinand around thebasin/pond with its smooth and humid substrate characteristics. Certain species of shrubs and trees present on the 7 month OB dumping site. They wereChromolaena odorata, Clibadium surinamense, Melastoma malabathricum, Trema micrantha, and Solanum torvum (Shrubs, Ochroma pyramidale and Homalanthus populifolius (trees. This plant species could be used for accelerating primary succession purpose on coal mine overburden dumping site. Nevertheless, species selection was needed to avoid planting invasive species.

  13. Using habitat suitability models to target invasive plant species surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crall, Alycia W; Jarnevich, Catherine S; Panke, Brendon; Young, Nick; Renz, Mark; Morisette, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Managers need new tools for detecting the movement and spread of nonnative, invasive species. Habitat suitability models are a popular tool for mapping the potential distribution of current invaders, but the ability of these models to prioritize monitoring efforts has not been tested in the field. We tested the utility of an iterative sampling design (i.e., models based on field observations used to guide subsequent field data collection to improve the model), hypothesizing that model performance would increase when new data were gathered from targeted sampling using criteria based on the initial model results. We also tested the ability of habitat suitability models to predict the spread of invasive species, hypothesizing that models would accurately predict occurrences in the field, and that the use of targeted sampling would detect more species with less sampling effort than a nontargeted approach. We tested these hypotheses on two species at the state scale (Centaurea stoebe and Pastinaca sativa) in Wisconsin (USA), and one genus at the regional scale (Tamarix) in the western United States. These initial data were merged with environmental data at 30-m2 resolution for Wisconsin and 1-km2 resolution for the western United States to produce our first iteration models. We stratified these initial models to target field sampling and compared our models and success at detecting our species of interest to other surveys being conducted during the same field season (i.e., nontargeted sampling). Although more data did not always improve our models based on correct classification rate (CCR), sensitivity, specificity, kappa, or area under the curve (AUC), our models generated from targeted sampling data always performed better than models generated from nontargeted data. For Wisconsin species, the model described actual locations in the field fairly well (kappa = 0.51, 0.19, P habitat suitability models can be highly useful tools for guiding invasive species monitoring

  14. Threatened plant species in the river ports of Central Europe: a potential for nature conservation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jehlík, V.; Dostálek, J.; Frantík, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 2 (2016), s. 999-1012 ISSN 1083-8155 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Central Europe * plant species richness * waterway Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.970, year: 2016

  15. Predicting invasive species impacts on hydrological processes: the consequences of plant physiology for landscape processes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Maitre, David C

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available attention, despite growing evidence of their significance. The wide range in plant growth forms and physiology among invading species suggests that estimation of the hydrological impacts could be difficult. The concept of limits to evaporation was developed...

  16. Risk assessment of bioaccumulation in the food webs of two marine AMOEBE species: common tern and harbor seal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloed RH; Mensink BJWG; Vethaak AD; Luttik R; Rijksinstituut voor Kust en Zee; ACT; RIKZ

    1995-01-01

    A model has been developed for calculating Maximum Permissible Concentrations (MPCs) in water for chemicals accumulating in food webs of sea birds and mammals. Calculations are carried out for two marine AMOEBE species: common tern (Sterna hirundo) and harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), and five

  17. Detection of eight different tospovirus species by a monoclonal antibody against the common epitope of NSs protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, T.C.; Lu, Y.Y.; Kang, Y.C.; Li, J.T.; Yeh, Y.C.; Kormelink, R.J.M.; Yeh, S.D.

    2008-01-01

    Rabbit antisera against the nucleocapsid protein (NP) have been commonly used for detection of tospoviruses and classification into serogroups or serotypes. Mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) with high specificity to the NPs have also been widely used to identify tospovirus species. Recently, a

  18. Nitrogen transfer from forage legumes to nine neighbouring plants in a multi-species grassland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirhofer-Walzl, Karin; Rasmussen, Jim; Jensen, Henning Høgh

    2012-01-01

    amounts of N from legumes than dicotyledonous plants which generally have taproots. Slurry application mainly increased N transfer from legumes to grasses. During the growing season the three legumes transferred approximately 40 kg N ha-1 to neighbouring plants. Below-ground N transfer from legumes...... to neighbouring plants differed among nitrogen donors and nitrogen receivers and may depend on root characteristics and regrowth strategies of plant species in the multi-species grassland.......Legumes play a crucial role in nitrogen supply to grass-legume mixtures for ruminant fodder. To quantify N transfer from legumes to neighbouring plants in multi-species grasslands we established a grass-legume-herb mixture on a loamy-sandy site in Denmark. White clover (Trifolium repens L.), red...

  19. Spatial Autocorrelation Patterns of Understory Plant Species in a Subtropical Rainforest at Lanjenchi, Southern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Wei Fan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Many studies described relationships between plant species and intrinsic or exogenous factors, but few quantified spatial scales of species patterns. In this study, quantitative methods were used to explore the spatial scale of understory species (including resident and transient species, in order to identify the influential factors of species distribution. Resident species (including herbaceous species, climbers and tree ferns < 1 m high were investigated on seven transects, each 5-meter wide and 300-meter long, at Lanjenchi plot in Nanjenshan Reserve, southern Taiwan. Transient species (seedling of canopy, subcanopy and shrub species < 1 cm diameter at breast height were censused in three of the seven transects. The herb coverage and seedling abundance were calculated for each 5 × 5 m quadrat along the transects, and Moran’s I and Galiano’s new local variance (NLV indices were then used to identify the spatial scale of autocorrelation for each species. Patterns of species abundance of understory layer varied among species at fine scale within 50 meters. Resident species showed a higher proportion of significant autocorrelation than the transient species. Species with large size or prolonged fronds or stems tended to show larger scales in autocorrelation. However, dispersal syndromes and fruit types did not relate to any species’ spatial patterns. Several species showed a significant autocorrelation at a 180-meter class which happened to correspond to the local replicates of topographical features in hilltops. The spatial patterns of understory species at Lanjenchi plot are mainly influenced by species’ intrinsic traits and topographical characteristics.

  20. In vitro propagation of the elite species plant Pluchea lanceolata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An effective in vitro regeneration protocol was developed from nodal segment of Pluchea lanceolata (DC.) Oliver. & Hiern, a medicinally important plant used in ayurvedic system of medicine for curing diseases similar to rheumatoid arthritis. Nodal segments were cultured in MS medium supplemented with auxin and ...

  1. In vitro propagation of the elite species plant Pluchea lanceolata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-06-18

    Jun 18, 2014 ... An effective in vitro regeneration protocol was developed from nodal segment of Pluchea lanceolata. (DC.) Oliver. & Hiern, a medicinally important plant used in ayurvedic system of medicine for curing diseases similar to rheumatoid arthritis. Nodal segments were cultured in MS medium supplemented.

  2. Specific plant induced biofilm formation in Methylobacterium species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetto, Priscilla B.; Dourado, Manuella N.; Quecine, Maria C.; Andreote, Fernando D.; Araújo, Welington L.; Azevedo, João L.; Pizzirani-Kleiner, Aline A.

    2011-01-01

    Two endophytic strains of Methylobacterium spp. were used to evaluate biofilm formation on sugarcane roots and on inert wooden sticks. Results show that biofilm formation is variable and that plant surface and possibly root exudates have a role in Methylobacterium spp. host recognition, biofilm formation and successful colonization as endophytes. PMID:24031703