WorldWideScience

Sample records for common general surgical

  1. Surgical resident involvement is safe for common elective general surgery procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Warren H; Jin, Leah; Canter, Robert J; Martinez, Steve R; Khatri, Vijay P; Gauvin, Jeffrey; Bold, Richard J; Wisner, David; Taylor, Sandra; Chen, Steven L

    2011-07-01

    Outcomes of surgical resident training are under scrutiny with the changing milieu of surgical education. Few have investigated the effect of surgical resident involvement (SRI) on operative parameters. Examining 7 common general surgery procedures, we evaluated the effect of SRI on perioperative morbidity and mortality and operative time (OpT). The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database (2005 to 2007) was used to identify 7 cases of nonemergent operations. Cases with simultaneous procedures were excluded. Logistic regression was performed across all procedures and within each procedure incorporating SRI, OpT, and risk-stratifying American College of Surgery National Surgical Quality Improvement Program morbidity and mortality probability scores, which incorporate multiple prognostic individual patient factors. Procedure-specific, SRI-stratified OpTs were compared using Wilcoxon rank-sum tests. A total of 71.3% of the 37,907 cases had SRI. Absolute 30-day morbidity for all cases with SRI and without SRI were 3.0% and 1.0%, respectively (p < 0.001); absolute 30-day mortality for all cases with SRI and without SRI were 0.1% and 0.08%, respectively (p < 0.001). After multivariate analysis by specific procedure, SRI was not associated with increased morbidity but was associated with decreased mortality during open right colectomy (odds ratio 0.32; p = 0.01). Across all procedures, SRI was associated with increased morbidity (odds ratio 1.14; p = 0.048) but decreased mortality (odds ratio 0.42; p < 0.001). Mean OpT for all procedures was consistently lower for cases without SRI. SRI has a measurable impact on both 30-day morbidity and mortality and OpT. These data have implications to the impact associated with surgical graduate medical education. Further studies to identify causes of patient morbidity and prevention strategies in surgical teaching environments are warranted. Copyright © 2011 American College of Surgeons

  2. Paediatric Abdominal Surgical Emergencies in a General Surgical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... organized for general surgeons undertaking paediatric surgical emergencies. More paediatric surgeons should be trained and more paediatric surgical units should established in the country. Key Words: Paediatric Abdominal Surgical Emergencies; Paediatric Surgeons, General Surgeons. Journal of College of Medicine ...

  3. On-call emergency workload of a general surgical team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawaid, Masood; Raza, Syed Muhammad; Alam, Shams Nadeem; Manzar, S

    2009-01-01

    To examine the on-call emergency workload of a general surgical team at a tertiary care teaching hospital to guide planning and provision of better surgical services. During six months period from August to January 2007; all emergency calls attended by general surgical team of Surgical Unit II in Accident and Emergency department (A and E) and in other units of Civil, Hospital Karachi, Pakistan were prospectively recorded. Data recorded includes timing of call, diagnosis, operation performed and outcome apart from demography. Total 456 patients (326 males and 130 females) were attended by on-call general surgery team during 30 emergency days. Most of the calls, 191 (41.9%) were received from 8 am to 5 pm. 224 (49.1%) calls were of abdominal pain, with acute appendicitis being the most common specific pathology in 41 (9.0%) patients. Total 73 (16.0%) calls were received for trauma. Total 131 (28.7%) patients were admitted in the surgical unit for urgent operation or observation while 212 (46.5%) patients were discharged from A and E. 92 (20.1%) patients were referred to other units with medical referral accounts for 45 (9.8%) patients. Total 104 (22.8%) emergency surgeries were done and the most common procedure performed was appendicectomy in 34 (32.7%) patients. Major workload of on-call surgical emergency team is dealing with the acute conditions of abdomen. However, significant proportion of patients are suffering from other conditions including trauma that require a holistic approach to care and a wide range of skills and experience. These results have important implications in future healthcare planning and for the better training of general surgical residents.

  4. On-call emergency workload of a general surgical team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawaid Masood

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To examine the on-call emergency workload of a general surgical team at a tertiary care teaching hospital to guide planning and provision of better surgical services. Patients and Methods: During six months period from August to January 2007; all emergency calls attended by general surgical team of Surgical Unit II in Accident and Emergency department (A and E and in other units of Civil, Hospital Karachi, Pakistan were prospectively recorded. Data recorded includes timing of call, diagnosis, operation performed and outcome apart from demography. Results: Total 456 patients (326 males and 130 females were attended by on-call general surgery team during 30 emergency days. Most of the calls, 191 (41.9% were received from 8 am to 5 pm. 224 (49.1% calls were of abdominal pain, with acute appendicitis being the most common specific pathology in 41 (9.0% patients. Total 73 (16.0% calls were received for trauma. Total 131 (28.7% patients were admitted in the surgical unit for urgent operation or observation while 212 (46.5% patients were discharged from A and E. 92 (20.1% patients were referred to other units with medical referral accounts for 45 (9.8% patients. Total 104 (22.8% emergency surgeries were done and the most common procedure performed was appendicectomy in 34 (32.7% patients. Conclusion: Major workload of on-call surgical emergency team is dealing with the acute conditions of abdomen. However, significant proportion of patients are suffering from other conditions including trauma that require a holistic approach to care and a wide range of skills and experience. These results have important implications in future healthcare planning and for the better training of general surgical residents.

  5. Surgical management of gynecomastia: experience of a general surgery center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longheu, A; Medas, F; Corrias, F; Farris, S; Tatti, A; Pisano, G; Erdas, E; Calò, P G

    2016-01-01

    Gynecomastia is a common finding in male population of all ages. The aim of our study was to present our experience and goals in surgical treatment of gynecomastia. Clinical records of patients affected by gynecomastia referred to our Department of Surgery between September 2008 and January 2015 were analyzed. 50 patients were included in this study. Gynecomastia was monolateral in 12 patients (24%) and bilateral in 38 (76%); idiopathic in 41 patients (82%) and secondary in 9 (18%). 39 patients (78%) underwent surgical operation under general anaesthesia, 11 (22%) under local anaesthesia. 3 patients (6%) presented recurrent disease. Webster technique was performed in 28 patients (56%), Davidson technique in 16 patients (32%); in 2 patients (4%) Pitanguy technique was performed and in 4 patients (8%) a mixed surgical technique was performed. Mean surgical time was 80.72±35.14 minutes, median postoperative stay was 1.46±0.88 days. 2 patients (4%) operated using Davidson technique developed a hematoma, 1 patient (2%) operated with the same technique developed hypertrophic scar. Several surgical techniques are described for surgical correction of gynecomastia. If performed by skilled general surgeons surgical treatment of gynecomastia is safe and permits to reach satisfactory aesthetic results.

  6. Higher surgical training opportunities in the general hospital setting; getting the balance right.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, I; Traynor, O; Khan, W; Waldron, R; Barry, K

    2013-12-01

    The general hospital can play an important role in training of higher surgical trainees (HSTs) in Ireland and abroad. Training opportunities in such a setting have not been closely analysed to date. The aim of this study was to quantify operative exposure for HSTs over a 5-year period in a single institution. Analysis of electronic training logbooks (over a 5-year period, 2007-2012) was performed for general surgery trainees on the higher surgical training programme in Ireland. The most commonly performed adult and paediatric procedures per trainee, per year were analysed. Standard general surgery operations such as herniae (average 58, range 32-86) and cholecystectomy (average 60, range 49-72) ranked highly in each logbook. The most frequently performed emergency operations were appendicectomy (average 45, range 33-53) and laparotomy for acute abdomen (average 48, range 10-79). Paediatric surgical experience included appendicectomy, circumcision, orchidopexy and hernia/hydrocoele repair. Overall, the procedure most commonly performed in the adult setting was endoscopy, with each trainee recording an average of 116 (range 98-132) oesophagogastroduodenoscopies and 284 (range 227-354) colonoscopies. General hospitals continue to play a major role in the training of higher surgical trainees. Analysis of the electronic logbooks over a 5-year period reveals the high volume of procedures available to trainees in a non-specialist centre. Such training opportunities are invaluable in the context of changing work practices and limited resources.

  7. Application of a uniform anatomic grading system to measure disease severity in eight emergency general surgical illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, Marie L; Agarwal, Suresh; Muskat, Peter; Ross, Steven; Savage, Stephanie; Schuster, Kevin; Tominaga, Gail T; Shafi, Shahid

    2014-11-01

    Emergent general surgical diseases encompass a broad spectrum of anatomy and pathophysiology, creating challenges for outcomes assessment, research, and surgical training. The goal of this study was to measure anatomic disease severity for eight emergent general surgical diseases using the uniform grading system of the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST). The Committee on Patient Assessment and Outcomes of AAST applied the previously developed uniform grading system to eight emergent general surgical diseases using a consensus of experts. It was then reviewed and approved by the Board of Managers of AAST. Severity grades for eight commonly encountered emergent general surgical conditions were created: breast abscess, esophageal perforation, infectious colitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, perirectal abscess, pleural space infections, soft tissue infections, and surgical site infections. The range of grades from I through V, reflect progression from mild disease, limited to within the organ itself, to widespread severe disease. This article provides a uniform grading system for measuring anatomic severity of eight emergent general surgical diseases. Consistent adoption of these grades could improve standardization for quality assurance, outcomes research, and surgical training.

  8. [Audit of general hospitals and private surgical clinics in Israel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Ruth; Dor, Michael; Lotan, Yoram; Haver, Eitan

    2007-12-01

    Supervision and inspection of medical facilities are among the responsibilities of the Ministry of Health (MOH) anchored in the "Public Health Act 1940". In order to implement the law, the General Medical Division of the MOH began the process of auditing hospitals and private surgical clinics prior to considering the reissue of their license. The audit aimed to implement the law, activate supervision on general hospitals and private surgical clinics, provide feed-back to the audited institution and upgrade quality assurance, regulate medical activities according to the activities elaborated in the license and recommend the license renewal. Prior to the audits, 20 areas of activity were chosen for inspection. For each activity a check list was developed as a tool for inspection. Each area was inspected during a 4-5 hour visit by a MOH expert, accompanied by the local service manager in the institution under inspection. A comprehensive report, summarizing the findings was sent to the medical institute, requesting correction in those areas where improvements were needed. Recommendation for license renewal was sent to the Director of Licensing Division Ministry of Health. Between June 2003 and July 2006, 91 structured audits took place. A total of 47 general hospitals and 24 private surgical clinics were visited at least once. Most general hospitals were found abiding, functioning according to the required standards and eligible for license renewal. Licenses of institutions that complied with the standards determined by the audit teams, were renewed. Two private hospitals in central Israel, that were given an overall poor evaluation, were issued with a temporary license and subsequently re-audited 4 times over the next two years. Generally, the standards in private surgical clinics were lower than those found in general public hospitals. In one clinic the license was not renewed, and in another an order was issued to cease surgical procedures requiring general

  9. Provision of general paediatric surgical services in a regional hospital.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Zgraj, O

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: In Ireland, specialist paediatric surgery is carried out in paediatric hospitals in Dublin. General surgeons\\/consultants in other surgical specialities provide paediatric surgical care in regional centres. There has been a failure to train general surgeons with paediatric skills to replace these surgeons upon retirement. AIM: To assess paediatric surgical workload in one regional centre to focus the debate regarding the future provision of general paediatric surgery in Ireland. METHODS: Hospital in-patient enquiry (HIPE) system was used to identify total number of paediatric surgical admissions and procedures. Cases assessed requiring hospital transfer. RESULTS: Of 17,478 surgical patients treated, 2,584 (14.8%) were under 14 years. A total of 2,154 procedures were performed. CONCLUSION: Regional centres without dedicated paediatric surgeons deliver care to large numbers of paediatric patients. The demand for care highlights the need for formal paediatric services\\/appropriate surgical training for general surgical trainees.

  10. Evolution of general surgical problems in patients with left ventricular assist devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKellar, Stephen H; Morris, David S; Mauermann, William J; Park, Soon J; Zietlow, Scott P

    2012-11-01

    Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) are increasingly used to treat patients with end-stage heart failure. These patients may develop acute noncardiac surgical problems around the time of LVAD implantation or, as survival continues to improve, chronic surgical problems as ambulatory patients remote from the LVAD implant. Previous reports of noncardiac surgical problems in LVAD patients included patients with older, first-generation devices and do not address newer, second-generation devices. We describe the frequency and management of noncardiac surgical problems encountered during LVAD support with these newer-generation devices to assist noncardiac surgeons involved in the care of patients with LVADs. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of consecutive patients receiving LVADs at our institution. We collected data for any consultation by noncardiac surgeons within the scope of general surgery during LVAD support and subsequent treatment. Ninety-nine patients received implantable LVADs between 2003 and 2009 (first-generation, n = 19; second-generation, n = 80). Excluding intestinal hemorrhage, general surgical opinions were rendered for 34 patients with 49 problems, mostly in the acute recovery phase after LVAD implantation. Of those, 27 patients underwent 28 operations. Respiratory failure and intra-abdominal pathologies were the most common problems addressed, and LVAD rarely precluded operation. Patients with second-generation LVADs were more likely to survive hospitalization (P = .04) and develop chronic, rather than emergent, surgical problems. Patients with LVADs frequently require consultation from noncardiac surgeons within the scope of general surgeons and often require operation. Patients with second-generation LVADs are more likely to become outpatients and develop more elective surgical problems. Noncardiac surgeons will be increasingly involved in caring for patients with LVADs and should anticipate the problems unique to this patient

  11. A concept paper: Using the outcomes of common surgical conditions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A concept paper: Using the outcomes of common surgical conditions as quality metrics to benchmark district surgical services in South Africa as part of a systematic quality improvement programme. ... This would provide a framework for the introduction of collection of these outcomes as a ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  12. Learning styles of medical students, general surgery residents, and general surgeons: implications for surgical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Gara Chris

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surgical education is evolving under the dual pressures of an enlarging body of knowledge required during residency and mounting work-hour restrictions. Changes in surgical residency training need to be based on available educational models and research to ensure successful training of surgeons. Experiential learning theory, developed by David Kolb, demonstrates the importance of individual learning styles in improving learning. This study helps elucidate the way in which medical students, surgical residents, and surgical faculty learn. Methods The Kolb Learning Style Inventory, which divides individual learning styles into Accommodating, Diverging, Converging, and Assimilating categories, was administered to the second year undergraduate medical students, general surgery resident body, and general surgery faculty at the University of Alberta. Results A total of 241 faculty, residents, and students were surveyed with an overall response rate of 73%. The predominant learning style of the medical students was assimilating and this was statistically significant (p Conclusions We conclude that medical students have a significantly different learning style from general surgical trainees and general surgeons. This has important implications in the education of general surgery residents.

  13. Learning styles of medical students, general surgery residents, and general surgeons: implications for surgical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Paul T; de Gara, Chris

    2010-06-30

    Surgical education is evolving under the dual pressures of an enlarging body of knowledge required during residency and mounting work-hour restrictions. Changes in surgical residency training need to be based on available educational models and research to ensure successful training of surgeons. Experiential learning theory, developed by David Kolb, demonstrates the importance of individual learning styles in improving learning. This study helps elucidate the way in which medical students, surgical residents, and surgical faculty learn. The Kolb Learning Style Inventory, which divides individual learning styles into Accommodating, Diverging, Converging, and Assimilating categories, was administered to the second year undergraduate medical students, general surgery resident body, and general surgery faculty at the University of Alberta. A total of 241 faculty, residents, and students were surveyed with an overall response rate of 73%. The predominant learning style of the medical students was assimilating and this was statistically significant (p learning style found in the residents and faculty. The predominant learning styles of the residents and faculty were convergent and accommodative, with no statistically significant differences between the residents and the faculty. We conclude that medical students have a significantly different learning style from general surgical trainees and general surgeons. This has important implications in the education of general surgery residents.

  14. Identifying the nontechnical skills required of nurses in general surgical wards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Dianne C; Finlayson, Mary P

    2018-04-01

    To identify the nontechnical skills (NTS) required of nurses in general surgical wards for safe and effective care. As the largest occupational group, nurses are in an ideal position to block the vulnerabilities of patient adverse events in a surgical ward. Previous studies in the surgical environment have identified the NTS required of nurses for safe care in operating rooms; however, these skills have not been identified for nurses in general surgical wards. A nonparticipant observational descriptive design was used. A purposive sample of 15 registered nurses was recruited from four surgical wards and observed for a full shift on a morning, afternoon or night shift. Nonparticipant observations were conducted using field notes to collect data. A coding frame was developed, and an inductive process was used to analyse the data. A taxonomy comprising seven NTS required of nurses in their roles in surgical ward teams emerged from the data analysis. They are communication, leadership and management, planning, decision-making, situation awareness, teamwork and patient advocacy. Patient care provided by general surgical nurses involved the seven identified key NTS. These particular NTS are an important component of safe nursing practice as they underpin the provision of safe and effective care for general surgical patients. Nurses block the trajectory of error by using NTS to address the vulnerabilities in the system that can lead to adverse patient events. Identifying general surgical nurses' NTS enables the development of teaching strategies that target the learning of those skills to achieve successful work outcomes and improve patient safety. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. "Is general surgery still relevant to the subspecialised trainee?" A 10 year comparison of general versus specialty surgical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, C A; Khan, Z; Andrews, E J; Fulton, G J; Redmond, H P; Corrigan, M A

    2015-02-01

    The splintering of general surgery into subspecialties in the past decade has brought into question the relevance of a continued emphasis on traditional general surgical training. With the majority of trainees now expressing a preference to subspecialise early, this study sought to identify if the requirement for proficiency in managing general surgical conditions has reduced over the past decade through comparison of general and specialty surgical admissions at a tertiary referral center. A cross-sectional review of all surgical admissions at Cork University Hospital was performed at three individual time points: 2002, 2007 & 2012. Basic demographic details of both elective & emergency admissions were tabulated & analysed. Categorisation of admissions into specialty relevant or general surgery was made using International guidelines. 11,288 surgical admissions were recorded (2002:2773, 2007:3498 & 2012:5017), showing an increase of 81 % over the 10-year period. While growth in overall service provision was seen, the practice of general versus specialty relevant emergency surgery showed no statistically significant change in practice from 2002 to 2012 (p = 0.87). General surgery was mostly practiced in the emergency setting (84 % of all emergency admissions in 2012) with only 28 % elective admissions for general surgery. A reduction in length of stay was seen in both elective (3.62-2.58 bed days, p = 0.342) & emergency admissions (7.36-5.65, p = 0.026). General surgical emergency work continues to constitute a major part of the specialists practice. These results emphasize the importance of general surgical training even for those trainees committed to sub-specialisation.

  16. The delivery of general paediatric surgery in Ireland: a survey of higher surgical trainees.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Boyle, E

    2012-12-01

    The delivery of general paediatric surgery is changing in Ireland. Fewer paediatric surgical procedures are being performed by newly appointed consultant general surgeons, resulting in increased referrals to the specialist paediatric surgeons of uncomplicated general paediatric surgical problems. We surveyed current higher surgical trainees about their views on provision of paediatric surgical services.

  17. Surgical management of generalized gingival enlargement - a case series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, M.U.; Nazir, A.; Montmorency College of Dentistry, Lahore; Kiran, S.; Montmorency College of Dentistry, Lahore

    2014-01-01

    Generalized gingival enlargement is characterized by massive and exuberant gingival overgrowth that poses social, aesthetic, phonetic and functional problems for the patient. Therefore, it requires meticulous management. Objective: To describe the surgical management of generalized gingival enlargement by electrosurgical excision of patients presenting to a tertiary care centre. Study Design: Case series. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, de'Montmorency College of Dentistry, Lahore, from January 2010 to December 2012. A total of sixteen patients were operated by using electrosurgical approach under general anaesthesia for surgical excision of generalized gingival enlargement. Results: All of the sixteen patients, 11 males and 5 females, showed excellent healing postoperatively without any recurrent gingival overgrowth. Discussion: To the best of our knowledge, the current study presents the largest case series of generalized gingival enlargement. Most of these cases were with massive disease due to lack of information of the study population about their disease, delay in referral by the general dental practitioners, painless and innocent nature of the problem. Early referral of such patients to tertiary care centers can prevent the patients from social and psychological embarrassment. Conclusion: Electrosurgical excision is an excellent surgical technique for management of generalized gingival enlargement. Moreover, cross comparative studies are required to establish some diagnostic and therapeutic standards for such patients. (author)

  18. Retrieval of Surgical Clip from Common Bile Duct by Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography: A Rare Complication of Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Rasool

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has become the standard procedure for the surgical management of symptomatic cholelithiasis. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is generally considered a safe procedure although a few complications such as major bleeding, wound infection, bile leakage, biliary and bowel injury are well known. We are reporting a case of a thirty-seven year old male who presented with abdominal pain, three weeks after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Abdominal ultrasound revealed a filling defect in common bile duct with deranged liver function tests. With an impression of choledocholithiasis, his endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP was done which revealed a surgical clip impacted in the ampulla. The surgical clip was retrieved successfully by ERCP. Intraductal clip migration is a rarely encountered complication after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Appropriate management requires timely identification and retrieval during ERCP.

  19. Spectrum of general surgical problems in the developmentally disabled adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, K.; Al-Salamah, Saleh M.

    2006-01-01

    This study highlights the spectrum of general surgical problems necessitating admission on intellectually disabled adult patients. Problems encountered in the management and the ways to overcome various difficulties are highlighted. Prospective collection of data on 63 consecutive developmentally disabled adult patients admitted to the Department of General Surgery, Riyadh Medical Complex (RMC), Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia for various indications from January 2000 through December 2004. Demographic details, clinical presentation, diagnostic modalities, associated physical and neurological disabilities, coexisting medical condition, treatment options, morbidity and mortality were analyzed. Various difficulties encountered during the management and mean to overcome these problems are addressed. Sixty-three patients accounted for 71 admissions. Mean age was 26.7 years with a male preponderance (4.25:1). Fifty-four patients were admitted for various emergency conditions. History of pica could be obtained in 33% of the cases. Twenty-seven patients were admitted for acute abdomen. Volvulus of the colon (22.2%) and pseudo-obstruction (18.5%) were the most common causes of acute abdomen. Twenty-one patients were admitted with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Reflux esophagitis was the most common cause of bleeding (62%). Overall morbidity was 41% for emergency admissions and 22% for elective surgery. Hospital mortality was 21.4% for emergency surgery. There was no death in elective cases. Developmentally disabled patients comprise a special class of patients with peculiar management problems. The treating clinician should be aware of various unexpected conditions not found as frequently in the normal patient population. Apparent lack of pain does not exclude an acute emergency. Possible surgical condition should be suspected if there is vomiting, abdominal distension, fever, increased irritability of recent onset. Male gender and history of pica are added risk factors

  20. Evolving a common surgical curriculum for ASEAN nations with a public health approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Siew Kheong

    2013-03-01

    The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA) on medical practitioners' agreement will become a reality in the year 2015. Doctors registered in one ASEAN country will be given reciprocal recognition in another country under this agreement. Rapid and excessive movement of human resources between countries in a short span of time is undesirable and can be destabilizing. The surgical fraternity in the ASEAN countries should plan for a common surgical curriculum, a common examination and an ASEAN Board of Surgery so that standards of future trainees in different countries are comparable. The curriculum should take into consideration the diversity of the countries in socio-economic development. Ideally, it should be based on a public health approach to bring affordable quality surgical care to the masses in an efficient and effective manner. © 2013 The Author. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  1. [Management of patients with bronchial asthma received general anesthesia and surgical intervention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Masako; Tajima, Makoto; Ogawa, Cyuhei; Otomo, Mamoru; Suzuki, Naohito; Sano, Yasuyuki

    2002-01-01

    Stimulation to bronchial mucosa is one of the major risk factor of asthma attack. When patients receive surgical intervention and general anesthesia, they are always exposed to stimulation to bronchial mucosa. Prevention method of bronchial asthma attack during surgical intervention is not established yet. We investigated that clinical course of patients with bronchial asthma who received general anesthesia and surgical intervention. Seventy-six patients with bronchial asthma were received general anesthesia and surgical intervention from 1993 to 1998. Twenty-four patients were mild asthmatic patients, 39 were moderate asthmatic patients and 13 were severe asthmatic patients. Preoperative treatment for preventing asthma attack was as follows; Eight patients were given intravenous infusion of aminophylline before operation. Fifty-two patients were given intravenous infusion of aminophylline and hydrocortisone before operation. Three patients were given intravenous infusion of hydrocortisone for consecutive 3 days before operation. Thirteen patients were given no treatment for preventing asthma attack. One patient was suffered from asthma attack during operation. She was given no preventing treatment for asthma attack before operation. Three patients were suffered from asthma attack after operation. No wound dehiscence was observed in all patients. To prevent asthma attack during operation, intravenous infusion of steroid before operation is recommended, when patients with asthma receive general anesthesia and surgical intervention.

  2. Creation of an emergency surgery service concentrates resident training in general surgical procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Hesham M; Gale, Stephen C; Tinti, Meredith S; Shiroff, Adam M; Macias, Aitor C; Rhodes, Stancie C; Defreese, Marissa A; Gracias, Vicente H

    2012-09-01

    Emergency general surgery (EGS) is increasingly being provided by academic trauma surgeons in an acute care surgery model. Our tertiary care hospital recently changed from a model where all staff surgeons (private, subspecialty academic, and trauma academic) were assigned EGS call to one in which an emergency surgery service (ESS), staffed by academic trauma faculty, cares for all EGS patients. In the previous model, many surgeries were "not covered" by residents because of work-hour restrictions, conflicting needs, or private surgeon preference. The ESS was separate from the trauma service. We hypothesize that by creating a separate ESS, residents can accumulate needed and concentrated operative experience in a well-supervised academic environment. A prospectively accrued EGS database was retrospectively queried for the 18-month period: July 2010 to June 2011. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) databases were queried for operative numbers for our residency program and for national resident data for 2 years before and after creating the ESS. The ACGME operative requirements were tabulated from online sources. ACGME requirements were compared with surgical cases performed. During the 18-month period, 816 ESS operations were performed. Of these, 307 (38%) were laparoscopy. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy and appendectomy were most common (138 and 145, respectively) plus 24 additional laparoscopic surgeries. Each resident performed, on average, 34 basic laparoscopic cases during their 2-month rotation, which is 56% of their ACGME basic laparoscopic requirement. A diverse mixture of 70 other general surgical operations was recorded for the remaining 509 surgical cases, including reoperative surgery, complex laparoscopy, multispecialty procedures, and seldom-performed operations such as surgery for perforated ulcer disease. Before the ESS, the classes of 2008 and 2009 reported that only 48% and 50% of cases were performed at the main academic

  3. Attitudes and Perceptions of Surgical Oncology Fellows on ACGME Accreditation and the Complex General Surgical Oncology Certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David Y; Flaherty, Devin C; Lau, Briana J; Deutsch, Gary B; Kirchoff, Daniel D; Huynh, Kelly T; Lee, Ji-Hey; Faries, Mark B; Bilchik, Anton J

    2015-11-01

    With the first qualifying examination administered September 15, 2014, complex general surgical oncology (CGSO) is now a board-certified specialty. We aimed to assess the attitudes and perceptions of current and future surgical oncology fellows regarding the recently instituted Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) accreditation. A 29-question anonymous survey was distributed to fellows in surgical oncology fellowship programs and applicants interviewing at our fellowship program. There were 110 responses (79 fellows and 31 candidates). The response rate for the first- and second-year fellows was 66 %. Ninety-percent of the respondents were aware that completing an ACGME-accredited fellowship leads to board eligibility in CGSO. However, the majority (80 %) of the respondents stated that their decision to specialize in surgical oncology was not influenced by the ACGME accreditation. The fellows in training were concerned about the cost of the exam (90 %) and expressed anxiety in preparing for another board exam (83 %). However, the majority of the respondents believed that CGSO board certification will be helpful (79 %) in obtaining their future career goals. Interestingly, candidate fellows appeared more focused on a career in general complex surgical oncology (p = 0.004), highlighting the impact that fellowship training may have on organ-specific subspecialization. The majority of the surveyed surgical oncology fellows and candidates believe that obtaining board certification in CGSO is important and will help them pursue their career goals. However, the decision to specialize in surgical oncology does not appear to be motivated by ACGME accreditation or the new board certification.

  4. General surgery graduates may be ill prepared to enter rural or community surgical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillman, Lawrence M; Vergis, Ashley

    2013-06-01

    Rural/community surgery presents unique challenges to general surgeons. Not only are they required to perform "classic" general surgery procedures, but they are also often expected to be competent in other surgical disciplines. Final-year Canadian-trained residents in general surgery were asked to complete the survey. The survey explored chief residents' career plans for the following year and whether or not they would independently perform various procedures, some general surgical, and others now considered within the domain of the subspecialties. Sixty-four residents (71%) completed the survey. Twenty percent planned to undertake a rural surgical practice, 17% an urban community practice, and 55% had confirmed fellowships. Most residents (>90%) expressed comfort with basic general surgical procedures. However, residents were less comfortable with subspecialty procedures that are still performed by general surgeons in many rural practices. More than half of graduating general surgery residents are choosing subspecialty fellowship training over proceeding directly to practice. Those choosing a rural or community practice are likely to feel ill prepared to replace existing surgeons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. General Anesthesia in the Surgical Treatment of Coronary Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Karpun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the problem of anesthetic maintenance during surgical correction of coronary blood flow. The basis for this is the results of the investigations conducted at the V. A. Negovsky Research Institute of General Reanimatology, the objective of which was to improve the results of surgical treatment in patients with different forms of coronary heart disease (CHD, by optimizing the anesthetic maintenance of open heart surgery. Clinical and special examinations were made in 367 patients who had undergone surgical treatment (aortocoronary bypass surgery; formation of a mammary coronary anastomosis; resection and plastic repair of left ventricular aneurysms; thrombectomy from the heart chambers for CHD and its complications. The main methodological approach to this study is to personalize intensive therapy and general anesthesia, which are relied on both evidence-based medicine and an individual pathophysiological approach. The paper details how to choose the basic mode of general anesthesia depending on the form of CHD and myocardial contractile function. Furthermore, the authors propose methods for optimizing the perioperative period: postoperative analgesia; correction of the aggregate state of blood; operative hemodilution; prevention and correction of critically reduced blood oxygen capacity 

  6. Hypoxaemia in the general surgical ward--a potential risk factor?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, J

    1994-01-01

    After major operations, hypoxaemia is common in the late postoperative period in the surgical ward. Recent studies of humans after major operations showed that such hypoxaemia may be related to the development of myocardial ischaemia and cardiac arrhythmias, even in patients with no preoperative...... signs or symptoms of coronary artery disease. Experimental studies have shown an adverse effect of tissue hypoxia on wound healing and on resistance to bacterial wound infections. Finally, mental confusion and surgical delirium may be related to inadequate arterial oxygenation during the late...

  7. Live transference of surgical subspecialty skills using telerobotic proctoring to remote general surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ereso, Alexander Q; Garcia, Pablo; Tseng, Elaine; Gauger, Grant; Kim, Hubert; Dua, Monica M; Victorino, Gregory P; Guy, T Sloane

    2010-09-01

    Certain clinical environments, including military field hospitals or rural medical centers, lack readily available surgical subspecialists. We hypothesized that telementoring by a surgical subspecialist using a robotic platform is feasible and can convey subspecialty knowledge and skill to a remotely located general surgeon. Eight general surgery residents evaluated the effect of remote surgical telementoring by performing 3 operative procedures, first unproctored and then again when teleproctored by a surgical subspecialist. The clinical scenarios consisted of a penetrating right ventricular injury requiring suture repair, an open tibial fracture requiring external fixation, and a traumatic subdural hematoma requiring craniectomy. A robotic platform consisting of a pan-and-tilt camera with laser pointer attached to an overhead surgical light with integrated audio allowed surgical subspecialists the ability to remotely teleproctor residents. Performance was evaluated using an Operative Performance Scale. Satisfaction surveys were given after performing the scenario unproctored and again after proctoring. Overall mean performance scores were superior in all scenarios when residents were proctored than when they were not (4.30 +/- 0.25 versus 2.43 +/- 0.20; p knowledge of anatomy, were all superior when residents were proctored (p < 0.001). Satisfaction surveys showed greater satisfaction and comfort among residents when proctored. Proctored residents believed the robotic platform facilitated learning and would be feasible if used clinically. This study supports the use of surgical teleproctoring in guiding remote general surgeons by a surgical subspecialist in the care of a wounded patient in need of an emergency subspecialty operation. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. AUDIT OF SURGICAL EMERGENCY AT LAHORE GENERAL HOSPITAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Sadaf; Bhatti, Afsar Ali; Burhanulhuq

    2015-01-01

    Audit is a quality improvement process that seeks to improve patient care and outcomes through systematic review of care against explicit criteria and the review of change. Objective of this study was to report the patterns of admissions in our surgical emergency and the comparison of results with the available data. All the patients presented in the surgical emergency of Unit III from April to December 2014. Detail of all surgical patients admitted during the period was recorded from the emergency entry register maintained by the staff nurse. Demographic data, mode of admission, diagnosis and outcomes were recorded on a pro forma. Total number of patients were 11140, out of which 5998 (53.8%) were males and 5142 (46%) were females, mostly were between 18-56 years of age. Emergency surgeries were performed in 650 of our cases whereas the rest of the patients were managed conservatively, treated at minor operation theatre (MOT), referred to their concerned emergencies or discharged. The most common presentation was road traffic accidents followed by trauma, urological emergencies and intestinal obstruction. Overall mortality was estimated as 1.5%. Surgical audit should be made a regular practice to serve as an important and effective tool of accountibilty on clinical outcomes and self evaluation and in improving the quality of our health care system.

  9. Audit of surgical emergency at lahore general hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, S.; Bhatti, A.A.; Burhanulhuq, A.

    2015-01-01

    Audit is a quality improvement process that seeks to improve patient care and outcomes through systematic review of care against explicit criteria and the review of change. Objective of this study was to report the patterns of admissions in our surgical emergency and the comparison of results with the available data Methods: All the patients presented in the surgical emergency of Unit III from April to December 2014. Detail of all surgical patients admitted during the period was recorded from the emergency entry register maintained by the staff nurse. Demographic data mode of admission, diagnosis and outcomes were recorded on proforma. Results: Results: Total number of patients were 11140, out of which 5998 (53.8%) were males and 5142 (46%) were females, mostly were between 18-56 years of age. Emergency surgeries were performed in 650 of our cases whereas the rest of the patients were managed conservatively, treated at minor operation theatre (MOT), referred to their concerned emergencies or discharged. The most common presentation was road traffic accidents followed by trauma, urological emergencies and intestinal obstruction. Overall mortality was estimated as 1.5%. Conclusions: Surgical audit should be made a regular practice to serve as an important and effective tool of accountibilty on clinical outcomes and self evaluation and in improving the quality of our health care system. (author)

  10. Post-operative urinary retention in a general surgical population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreijer, Bjørn; Møller, Morten H; Bartholdy, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Post-operative urine retention is a frequent and serious complication. The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of post-operative urinary retention in a general surgical population and to identify the perioperative risk factors for developing this condition....

  11. An analysis of OSHA inspections assessing contaminant exposures in general medical and surgical hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Jordan L; Sleeth, Darrah K; Larson, Rodney R; Pahler, Leon F

    2013-04-01

    This study analyzed data from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) Chemical Exposure Health Database to assess contaminant exposures in general medical and surgical hospitals. Seventy-five inspections conducted in these hospitals from 2005 through 2009 were identified. Five categories of inspections were conducted, the three most common being complaint-based, planned, and referral-based inspections. Complaint-based inspections comprised the majority of inspections-55 (73%) of the 75 conducted. The overall violation rate for all inspection types was 68%. This finding was compared to the violation rates of planned inspections (100%), referral-based inspections (83%), and complaint-based inspections (62%). Asbestos was the hazardous substance most commonly sampled and cited by OSHA in hospitals, with 127 samples collected during 24 inspections; 31% of the total 75 inspections resulting in one or more violations were due to asbestos. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Career outcomes of nondesignated preliminary general surgery residents at an academic surgical program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Rima; Mullen, John T

    2013-01-01

    There remains a debate as to whether nondesignated preliminary (NDP) positions in surgery ultimately translate into successful surgical careers for those who pursue them. We sought to identify the success with which our NDP residents were able to transition to their desired career and what, if any, factors contributed to their success. The records of all NDP residents accepted into the Massachusetts General Hospital General Surgery Residency Program from 1995 to 2010 were examined and long-term follow-up was completed. Thirty-four NDP residents were identified, including 26.5% US graduates and 73.5% international medical graduates. At the end of the initial preliminary year, 30 (88%) got placed in a postgraduate residency program, whereas 4 (12%) pursued other career paths. Of those who got placed, 25 (83%) attained surgical residency positions, including 17 (57%) who continued as preliminary residents at our institution and 8 (27%) who got placed in categorical surgical positions at other programs. After multiple preliminary years, 15 of 17 achieved a categorical position, of which, 93% were in surgical fields. Overall, 64.7% of all entering NDP residents eventually went on to have careers in general surgery (50%) or surgical subspecialties (14.7%), and 24 of 34 (71%) fulfilled their desired career goals. No factor predicted success. From 1995 to 2012 there have been 15 midlevel (11 postgraduate year 4) vacancies in our program, 4 of which were filled by preliminary residents, 2 from our program and 2 from elsewhere. All have gone on to board certifications and careers in surgery. More than 70% of NDP residents in our program successfully transitioned to their desired career paths, many achieving categorical surgical positions and academic surgical careers, thus demonstrating the benefit of this track to both residency programs and trainees. © 2013 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Innovation in Pediatric Surgical Education for General Surgery Residents: A Mobile Web Resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouch, Joshua D; Wagner, Justin P; Scott, Andrew; Sullins, Veronica F; Chen, David C; DeUgarte, Daniel A; Shew, Stephen B; Tillou, Areti; Dunn, James C Y; Lee, Steven L

    2015-01-01

    General surgery residents lack a standardized educational experience in pediatric surgery. We hypothesized that the development of a mobile educational interface would provide general surgery residents broader access to pediatric surgical education materials. We created an educational mobile website for general surgery residents rotating on pediatric surgery, which included a curriculum, multimedia resources, the Operative Performance Rating Scale (OPRS), and Twitter functionality. Residents were instructed to consult the curriculum. Residents and faculty posted media using the Twitter hashtag, #UCLAPedSurg, and following each surgical procedure reviewed performance via the OPRS. Site visits, Twitter posts, and OPRS submissions were quantified from September 2013 to July 2014. The pediatric surgery mobile website received 257 hits; 108 to the homepage, 107 to multimedia, 28 to the syllabus, and 19 to the OPRS. All eligible residents accessed the content. The Twitter hashtag, #UCLAPedSurg, was assigned to 20 posts; the overall audience reach was 85 individuals. Participants in the mobile OPRS included 11 general surgery residents and 4 pediatric surgery faculty. Pediatric surgical education resources and operative performance evaluations are effectively administered to general surgery residents via a structured mobile platform. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. AN ANALYSIS OF MALIGNANCIES PRESENTING AS ACUTE GENERAL SURGICAL EMERGENCIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kannan Ross

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Malignancies in the setting of acute general surgical emergencies are rare to present. The commonly presenting malignancies to the general surgeon in emergency conditions are perforation, obstruction, haemorrhage or urinary retention. Though their incidence when compared to benign conditions presenting with same clinical presentations are rare, they should never be neglected. The general surgeon must be aware of such presentations and hereby decide the management and follow up according to the malignancy he encounters on the operation theatre. The management should aim at radical procedures and regular follow up if needed with chemotherapy or radiotherapy and also should be well informed of the morbidity and mortality following intervention considering the malignancy grade, age of patient, duration of presentation and co-morbid conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS In this study, we consider all patients taken up in emergency operative procedures, study their findings on operation theatre, correlate with their biopsy report for any malignancy and follow up during their immediate postop up to <30 days and also late post beyond the procedure and bring about the incidence, common modes of presentation, malignancies encountered, age and sex distribution and the perioperative morbidity and mortality rates of the those malignancies. RESULTS The incidence of malignancies presenting as acute abdominal emergencies in this study was found to be around 8.27%. The number of males who presented with such malignancies outnumbered females in a significant manner in the ratio 1.6:1. Among the malignancies, gastric (25% and colonic malignancies (59.38% were the most common. Perforation was the only presentation as acute emergency in carcinoma stomach. Incidence of malignancy in gastric perforation was 57.14% when compared to that reported by Emer Ergul et al that about 10-16% of all gastric perforations are caused by gastric carcinoma. 11 Perioperative

  15. Prospective randomized assessment of single versus double-gloving for general surgical procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na'aya, H U; Madziga, A G; Eni, U E

    2009-01-01

    There is increased tendency towards double-gloving by general surgeons in our practice, due probably to awareness of the risk of contamination with blood or other body fluids during surgery. The aim of the study was to compare the relative frequency of glove puncture in single-glove versus double glove sets in general surgical procedures, and to determine if duration of surgery affects perforation rate. Surgeons at random do single or double gloves at their discretion, for general surgical procedures. All the gloves used by the surgeons were assessed immediately after surgery for perforation. A total of 1120 gloves were tested, of which 880 were double-glove sets and 240 single-glove sets. There was no significant difference in the overall perforation rate between single and double glove sets (18.3% versus 20%). However, only 2.3% had perforations in both the outer and inner gloves in the double glove group. Therefore, there was significantly greater risk for blood-skin exposure in the single glove sets (p < 0.01). The perforation rate was also significantly greater during procedures lasting an hour or more compared to those lasting less than an hour (p < 0.01). Double-gloving reduces the risk of blood-skin contamination in all general surgical procedures, and especially so in procedures lasting an hour or more.

  16. Transforming Patient Value: Comparison of Hospital, Surgical, and General Surgery Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, Henry A; Tsypenyuk, Ella; Freeman, Susan L; Carson, Steven R; Shinefeld, Jonathan A; Hinkle, Sally M; Powers, Benjamin D; Goldberg, Amy J; DiSesa, Verdi J; Kaiser, Larry R

    2016-04-01

    Patient value (V) is enhanced when quality (Q) is increased and cost (C) is diminished (V = Q/C). However, calculating value has been inhibited by a lack of risk-adjusted cost data. The aim of this analysis was to measure patient value before and after implementation of quality improvement and cost reduction programs. Multidisciplinary efforts to improve patient value were initiated at a safety-net hospital in 2012. Quality improvement focused on adoption of multiple best practices, and minimizing practice variation was the strategy to control cost. University HealthSystem Consortium (UHC) risk-adjusted quality (patient mortality + safety + satisfaction + effectiveness) and cost (length of stay + direct cost) data were used to calculate patient value over 3 fiscal years. Normalized ranks in the UHC Quality and Accountability Scorecard were used in the value equation. For all hospital patients, quality scores improved from 50.3 to 66.5, with most of the change occurring in decreased mortality. Similar trends were observed for all surgery patients (42.6 to 48.4) and for general surgery patients (30.9 to 64.6). For all hospital patients, cost scores improved from 71.0 to 2.9. Similar changes were noted for all surgical (71.6 to 27.1) and general surgery (85.7 to 23.0) patients. Therefore, value increased more than 30-fold for all patients, 3-fold for all surgical patients, and almost 8-fold for general surgery patients. Multidisciplinary quality and cost efforts resulted in significant improvements in value for all hospitalized patients as well as general surgery patients. Mortality improved the most in general surgery patients, and satisfaction was highest among surgical patients. Copyright © 2016 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A cross sectional study of surgical training among United Kingdom general practitioners with specialist interests in surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, H J M; Fitzgerald, J E F; Reilly, J; Beamish, A J; Gokani, V J

    2015-04-08

    Increasing numbers of minor surgical procedures are being performed in the community. In the UK, general practitioners (family medicine physicians) with a specialist interest (GPwSI) in surgery frequently undertake them. This shift has caused decreases in available cases for junior surgeons to gain and consolidate operative skills. This study evaluated GPwSI's case-load, procedural training and perceptions of offering formalised operative training experience to surgical trainees. Prospective, questionnaire-based cross-sectional study. A novel, 13-item, self-administered questionnaire was distributed to members of the Association of Surgeons in Primary Care (ASPC). A total 113 of 120 ASPC members completed the questionnaire, representing a 94% response rate. Respondents were general practitioners practising or intending to practice surgery in the community. Respondents performed a mean of 38 (range 5-150) surgical procedures per month in primary care. 37% (42/113) of respondents had previously been awarded Membership or Fellowship of a Surgical Royal College; 22% (25/113) had completed a surgical certificate or diploma or undertaken a course of less than 1 year duration. 41% (46/113) had no formal British surgical qualifications. All respondents believed that surgical training in primary care could be valuable for surgical trainees, and the majority (71/113, 63%) felt that both general practice and surgical trainees could benefit equally from such training. There is a significant volume of surgical procedures being undertaken in the community by general practitioners, with the capacity and appetite for training of prospective surgeons in this setting, providing appropriate standards are achieved and maintained, commensurate with current standards in secondary care. Surgical experience and training of GPwSI's in surgery is highly varied, and does not yet benefit from the quality assurance secondary care surgical training in the UK undergoes. The Royal Colleges of

  18. General surgical admissions in the intensive care unit in Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives:The Intensive Care Unit (ICU) has improved patient outcome in complex surgeries while the costs of maintaining services are high. ICU services in developing countries are often inadequate due to lack of funds. This study reviews the pattern and outcomes of General Surgical patients admitted to the ICU of our ...

  19. Higher clinical performance during a surgical clerkship is independently associated with matriculation of medical students into general surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Shaun C; Deal, Rebecca A; Rinewalt, Daniel E; Francescatti, Amanda B; Luu, Minh B; Millikan, Keith W; Anderson, Mary C; Myers, Jonathan A

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine the predictive impact of individual academic measures for the matriculation of senior medical students into a general surgery residency. Academic records were evaluated for third-year medical students (n = 781) at a single institution between 2004 and 2011. Cohorts were defined by student matriculation into either a general surgery residency program (n = 58) or a non-general surgery residency program (n = 723). Multivariate logistic regression was performed to evaluate independently significant academic measures. Clinical evaluation raw scores were predictive of general surgery matriculation (P = .014). In addition, multivariate modeling showed lower United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1 scores to be independently associated with matriculation into general surgery (P = .007). Superior clinical aptitude is independently associated with general surgical matriculation. This is in contrast to the negative correlation United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1 scores have on general surgery matriculation. Recognizing this, surgical clerkship directors can offer opportunities for continued surgical education to students showing high clinical aptitude, increasing their likelihood of surgical matriculation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessment Of Common Surgical Conditions ~ncountered Py cal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    on-the-job training by visiting specialists and training at a referral facility as the best method to improve their surgical skills so as to competently deal with major surgical problems in their area. The majority (85%) of the respondents preferred that training should take 6-12 months. Medical officers, supported by periodic visits ...

  1. Surgical care in the isolated military hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukish, J R; Gill, G G; McCoy, T R

    2001-01-01

    To maintain the health of service members and their families throughout the world, the Department of Defense has established several isolated military hospitals (IHs). The operational environment of IHs is such that illness and traumatic injury requiring surgical intervention is common. This study sought to examine the general and orthopedic surgical experience at an IH to determine whether surgical care could be provided in an effective and safe manner. All patients evaluated by the general and orthopedic surgeon at Guantanamo Bay Naval Hospital from October 1, 1998, to April 1, 1999, were included in this study. The following data were retrospectively reviewed: patient demographic data, diagnosis, initial and follow-up care, medical evacuation data, operative procedures, and complications. There were 336 patients who presented for surgical evaluation, resulting in 660 follow-up appointments during the study period. There were 31 medical evacuations (3 emergent). The surgical services performed 122 major operative procedures. There were 58 inpatient admissions. There was 1 death, and surgical complications occurred in 2 patients, for an overall morbidity and mortality of 1.4% and 0.7%, respectively. Our data show that an IH is capable of providing surgical care, including care for traumatic injuries, in a safe manner. This is the first study that provides objective evidence that general and orthopedic surgery at an IH can be provided within the standard of care.

  2. Balancing Privacy and Professionalism: A Survey of General Surgery Program Directors on Social Media and Surgical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenfeld, Sean J; Vargo, Daniel J; Schenarts, Paul J

    Unprofessional behavior is common among surgical residents and faculty surgeons on Facebook. Usage of social media outlets such as Facebook and Twitter is growing at exponential rates, so it is imperative that surgery program directors (PDs) focus on professionalism within social media, and develop guidelines for their trainees and surgical colleagues. Our study focuses on the surgery PDs current approach to online professionalism within surgical education. An online survey of general surgery PDs was conducted in October 2015 through the Association for Program Directors in Surgery listserv. Baseline PD demographics, usage and approach to popular social media outlets, existing institutional policies, and formal curricula were assessed. A total of 110 PDs responded to the survey (110/259, 42.5% response rate). Social media usage was high among PDs (Facebook 68% and Twitter 40%). PDs frequently viewed the social media profiles of students, residents, and faculty. Overall, 11% of PDs reported lowering the rank or completely removing a residency applicant from the rank order list because of online behavior, and 10% reported formal disciplinary action against a surgical resident because of online behavior. Overall, 68% of respondents agreed that online professionalism is important, and that residents should receive instruction on the safe use of social media. However, most programs did not have formal didactics or known institutional policies in place. Use of social media is high among PDs, and they often view the online behavior of residency applicants, surgical residents, and faculty surgeons. Within surgical education, there needs to be an increased focus on institutional policies and standardized curricula to help educate physicians on social media and online professionalism. Copyright © 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Generalized Identities Involving Common Factors of Generalized Fibonacci, Jacobsthal and Jacobsthal-Lucas Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashwant K. Panwar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present generalized identities involving common factors of generalized Fibonacci, Jacobsthal and jacobsthal-Lucas numbers. Binet’s formula will employ to obtain the identities.

  4. Most common surgical mistakes with treatment of prosthetic joint infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boštjan Kocjančič

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of infections of orthopedic implants is often difficult and complex, although the chances of successful treatment with properly selected diagnostics, surgical and antibiotic treatment protocol have recently increased significantly. Surgical treatment is a key stone factor in the treatment of infections of orthopedic implants and any errors in it often lead to worse clinical outcomes. The most important and frequent surgical errors include: conservative treatment of periprothetic infections with antibiotics only, to-late surgical revision, insufficient debridement during surgical revision, inadequate intraoperative samples for bacteriological and histological analysis. It is important to have and to follow proper treatment algorithm for periprosthetic joint infection. In this work we present the listed surgical and most illustrative key errors.

  5. Surgical instruction for general practitioners: how, who and how often?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Collins, Anne M

    2010-07-01

    Educational programmes, designed to meet the training needs of General Practitioners (GPs) performing minor surgical procedures, have previously been shown to increase their surgical workload. The change in the level of competence following these programmes has not been assessed. The aims of this study were two-fold: to evaluate the vertical mattress suture for construct validity and to assess the impact of plastic surgery training on the surgical skill of GPs. Thirty non-consultant hospital doctors and 27 self-selected GPs were included. Using a modified objective structured assessment of technical skills (OSATS) scoring system, construct validity of the vertical mattress suture was confirmed. The median total OSATS score was 16 points (26.7%) in the novice group (medical registrars), 38.5 points (64.2%) in the intermediate group (surgical SHOs) and 59 points (98.3%) in the expert group (surgical registrars, p<0.001, Kruskal-Wallis test). Objective assessment in the GP group immediately following practical instruction revealed a median overall improvement of 31.7% (19 points) in total OSATS scores (p<0.001, Friedman non-parametric test, F). At six months follow-up all course participants had improved compared to their baseline. A median overall improvement of 13 points (21.7%) was noted (p<0.001, F). However, the majority (80%, n=20) had deteriorated from the standard set immediately after the course with a median overall reduction in total OSATS scores of six points (10%, p=0.001, F). Plastic surgery training is immediately efficacious in improving the technical proficiency of GPs. Through objective assessment of a standardised suture task we demonstrated a low rate of educational decay of 10% over a six-month period.

  6. [Common bile duct stones: the surgical treatment is always valid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, F; Gavelli, A; Dapri, G; Huguet, C

    2004-02-01

    The treatment of common bile duct stones has changed with the new therapeutic techniques, that have replaced the conventional therapy, represented by surgery. Anyway, they could cause some problems, that must be regarded. Therefore, we wish to confirm the importance of the conventional surgery in the management of patients with common bile duct stones. A total of 147 patients were operated for common bile duct stones (73 in emergency and 74 in election). The intraoperative cholangiography was carried out in 141 patients and a choledocoscopy in 130 patients. A drain of Kehr was positioned in 120 patients, a bilio-digestive anastomosis in 26 cases and in 1 case there was a direct suture of the common bile duct without drain. All patients were treated with a short-term antibioticotherapy, protracted to 5 days in the emergency cases. In the patients with the drain of Kehr there was a control cholangiography after 7 days from operation and it was removed after 25 days. The analysis of the results was done dividing the patients according to the age: old and >75 years old. Nobody died during the operation. Complications were 17.4% in the patients >75 years old and 2,6% in the patients old. There were 2 death, in the postoperative period, for the group >75 years old. Cases operated in emergency were 68.1% of "old" patients and 37.2% of "young" patients. The postoperative period was 14.9+/-9.2 days for the "old" group and 10.9+/-5.2 days for the "young" group. The treatment of common bile duct stones is still a surgical treatment, particularly for "old" patients.

  7. Open abdominal surgical training differences experienced by integrated vascular and general surgery residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanious, Adam; Wooster, Mathew; Jung, Andrew; Nelson, Peter R; Armstrong, Paul A; Shames, Murray L

    2017-10-01

    As the integrated vascular residency program reaches almost a decade of maturity, a common area of concern among trainees is the adequacy of open abdominal surgical training. It is our belief that although their overall exposure to open abdominal procedures has decreased, integrated vascular residents have an adequate and focused exposure to open aortic surgery during training. National operative case log data supplied by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education were compiled for both graduating integrated vascular surgery residents (IVSRs) and graduating categorical general surgery residents (GSRs) for the years 2012 to 2014. Mean total and open abdominal case numbers were compared between the IVSRs and GSRs, with more in-depth exploration into open abdominal procedures by organ system. Overall, the mean total 5-year case volume of IVSRs was 1168 compared with 980 for GSRs during the same time frame (P surgery, representing 57% of all open abdominal cases. GSRs completed an average of 116 open alimentary tract surgeries during their training. Open abdominal surgery represented an average of 7.1% of the total vascular case volume for the vascular residents, whereas open abdominal surgery represented 21% of a GSR's total surgical experience. IVSRs reported almost double the number of total cases during their training, with double chief-level cases. Sixty-five percent of open abdominal surgeries performed by IVSRs involved the aorta or its renovisceral branches. Whereas open abdominal surgery represented 7.1% of an IVSR's surgical training, GSRs had a far broader scope of open abdominal procedures, completing nearly double those of IVSRs. The differences in open abdominal procedures pertain to the differing diseases treated by GSRs and IVSRs. Copyright © 2017 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. General surgical complications associated with the use of long-term mechanical circulatory support devices: are we 'under-reporting' problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchantchaleishvili, Vakhtang; Umakanthan, Ramanan; Karp, Seth; Stulak, John M; Keebler, Mary E; Maltais, Simon

    2013-05-01

    Multiple complications are associated with use of ventricular assist devices (VADs). Cardiac-related complications and infections are most frequently reported. VADs, however, can also lead to a number of general surgical complications equally significant in terms of morbidity and mortality. The authors performed a systematic literature search to review current data that specifically relate general surgical complications to patients who undergo left VAD implantation. The review provides a relatively clear understanding of the spectrum of general surgical complications and shows that they contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality in these patients.

  9. General surgery residents' perception of robot-assisted procedures during surgical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farivar, Behzad S; Flannagan, Molly; Leitman, I Michael

    2015-01-01

    With the continued expansion of robotically assisted procedures, general surgery residents continue to receive more exposure to this new technology as part of their training. There are currently no guidelines or standardized training requirements for robot-assisted procedures during general surgical residency. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of this new technology on general surgery training from the residents' perspective. An anonymous, national, web-based survey was conducted on residents enrolled in general surgery training in 2013. The survey was sent to 240 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-approved general surgery training programs. Overall, 64% of the responding residents were men and had an average age of 29 years. Half of the responses were from postgraduate year 1 (PGY1) and PGY2 residents, and the remainder was from the PGY3 level and above. Overall, 50% of the responses were from university training programs, 32% from university-affiliated programs, and 18% from community-based programs. More than 96% of residents noted the availability of the surgical robot system at their training institution. Overall, 63% of residents indicated that they had participated in robotic surgical cases. Most responded that they had assisted in 10 or fewer robotic cases with the most frequent activities being assisting with robotic trocar placement and docking and undocking the robot. Only 18% reported experience with operating the robotic console. More senior residents (PGY3 and above) were involved in robotic cases compared with junior residents (78% vs 48%, p robotic case. Approximately 64% of residents reported that formal training in robotic surgery was important in residency training and 46% of residents indicated that robotic-assisted cases interfered with resident learning. Only 11% felt that robotic-assisted cases would replace conventional laparoscopic surgery in the future. This study illustrates that although the most residents

  10. Paediatric minor oral surgical procedures under inhalation sedation and general anaesthetic: a comparison of variety and duration of treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, J

    2008-03-01

    To develop baseline data in relation to paediatric minor oral surgical procedures undertaken with both general anaesthesia and nitrous oxide inhalation sedation within a Hospital Dental Service. Data were collected prospectively over a three-year period from May 2003 to June 2006 for patients attending the Departments of Paediatric Dentistry, Dundee Dental Hospital and Ninewells Hospital, NHS Tayside, Great Britain, for all surgical procedures undertaken with either inhalation sedation or general anaesthetic. Both operator status and the procedure being undertaken were noted. In addition, the operating time was recorded. Data for 166 patients (F: 102; M: 64) with a median age of 12.50 (inter-quartile range 10.00, 14.20) years showed that 195 surgical procedures were undertaken. Of these 160 and 35 were with general anaesthetic and sedation respectively. The surgical removal of impacted, carious and supernumerary unit(s) accounted for 53.8% of all procedures, whilst the exposure of impacted teeth and soft tissue surgery represented 34.9% and 11.3% of procedures respectively. The median surgical time for techniques undertaken with sedation was 30.00 (inter-quartile range 25.00, 43.50) minutes whilst that for general anaesthetic was similar at 30.00 (inter-quartile range 15.25, 40.00) minutes (not statistically significant, (Mann Whitney U, W = 3081.5, P = 0.331). The majority of paediatric minor oral surgical procedures entail surgical exposure or removal of impacted teeth. The median treatment time for most procedures undertaken with either general anaesthetic or nitrous oxide sedation was 30 minutes.

  11. Impact of robotic general surgery course on participants' surgical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchs, Nicolas C; Pugin, François; Volonté, Francesco; Hagen, Monika E; Morel, Philippe

    2013-06-01

    Courses, including lectures, live surgery, and hands-on session, are part of the recommended curriculum for robotic surgery. However, for general surgery, this approach is poorly reported. The study purpose was to evaluate the impact of robotic general surgery course on the practice of participants. Between 2007 and 2011, 101 participants attended the Geneva International Robotic Surgery Course, held at the University Hospital of Geneva, Switzerland. This 2-day course included theory lectures, dry lab, live surgery, and hands-on session on cadavers. After a mean of 30.1 months (range, 2-48), a retrospective review of the participants' surgical practice was performed using online research and surveys. Among the 101 participants, there was a majority of general (58.4 %) and colorectal surgeons (10.9 %). Other specialties included urologists (7.9 %), gynecologists (6.9 %), pediatric surgeons (2 %), surgical oncologists (1 %), engineers (6.9 %), and others (5.9 %). Data were fully recorded in 99 % of cases; 46 % of participants started to perform robotic procedures after the course, whereas only 6.9 % were already familiar with the system before the course. In addition, 53 % of the attendees worked at an institution where a robotic system was already available. All (100 %) of participants who started a robotic program after the course had an available robotic system at their institution. A course that includes lectures, live surgery, and hands-on session with cadavers is an effective educational method for spreading robotic skills. However, this is especially true for participants whose institution already has a robotic system available.

  12. Is it All About the Money? Not All Surgical Subspecialization Leads to Higher Lifetime Revenue when Compared to General Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baimas-George, Maria; Fleischer, Brian; Slakey, Douglas; Kandil, Emad; Korndorffer, James R; DuCoin, Christopher

    It is believed that spending additional years gaining expertise in surgical subspecialization leads to higher lifetime revenue. Literature shows that more surgeons are pursuing fellowship training and dedicated research years; however, there are no data looking at the aggregate economic impact when training time is accounted for. It is hypothesized that there will be a discrepancy in lifetime income when delay to practice is considered. Data were collected from the Medical Group Management Association's 2015 report of average annual salaries. Fixed time of practice was set at 30 years, and total adjusted revenue was calculated based on variable years spent in research and fellowship. All total revenue outcomes were compared to general surgery and calculated in US dollars. The financial data on general surgeons and 9 surgical specialties (vascular, pediatric, plastic, breast, surgical oncology, cardiothoracic, thoracic primary, transplant, and trauma) were examined. With fellowship and no research, breast and surgical oncology made significantly less than general surgery (-$1,561,441, -$1,704,958), with a difference in opportunity cost equivalent to approximately 4 years of work. Pediatric and cardiothoracic surgeons made significantly more than general surgeons, with an increase of opportunity cost equivalent to $5,301,985 and $3,718,632, respectively. With 1 research year, trauma surgeons ended up netting less than a general surgeon by $325,665. With 2 research years, plastic and transplant surgeons had total lifetime revenues approximately equivalent to that of a general surgeon. Significant disparities exist in lifetime total revenue between surgical subspecialties and in comparison, to general surgery. Although most specialists do gross more than general surgeons, breast and surgical oncologists end up netting significantly less over their lifetime as well as trauma surgeons if they do 1 year of research. Thus, the economic advantage of completing additional

  13. Hospital costs associated with surgical site infections in general and vascular surgery patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltz, Melissa M; Hollenbeak, Christopher S; Julian, Kathleen G; Ortenzi, Gail; Dillon, Peter W

    2011-11-01

    Although much has been written about excess cost and duration of stay (DOS) associated with surgical site infections (SSIs) after cardiothoracic surgery, less has been reported after vascular and general surgery. We used data from the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) to estimate the total cost and DOS associated with SSIs in patients undergoing general and vascular surgery. Using standard NSQIP practices, data were collected on patients undergoing general and vascular surgery at a single academic center between 2007 and 2009 and were merged with fully loaded operating costs obtained from the hospital accounting database. Logistic regression was used to determine which patient and preoperative variables influenced the occurrence of SSIs. After adjusting for patient characteristics, costs and DOS were fit to linear regression models to determine the effect of SSIs. Of the 2,250 general and vascular surgery patients sampled, SSIs were observed in 186 inpatients. Predisposing factors of SSIs were male sex, insulin-dependent diabetes, steroid use, wound classification, and operative time (P surgery. Although the excess costs and DOS associated with SSIs after general and vascular surgery are somewhat less, they still represent substantial financial and opportunity costs to hospitals and suggest, along with the implications for patient care, a continuing need for cost-effective quality improvement and programs of infection prevention. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A General Solution Framework for Component-Commonality Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Boysen

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Component commonality - the use of the same version of a component across multiple products - is being increasingly considered as a promising way to offer high external variety while retaining low internal variety in operations. However, increasing commonality has both positive and negative cost effects, so that optimization approaches are required to identify an optimal commonality level. As components influence to a greater or lesser extent nearly every process step along the supply chain, it is not surprising that a multitude of diverging commonality problems is being investigated in literature, each of which are developing a specific algorithm designed for the respective commonality problem being considered. The paper on hand aims at a general framework which is flexible and efficient enough to be applied to a wide range of commonality problems. Such a procedure based on a two-stage graph approach is presented and tested. Finally, flexibility of the procedure is shown by customizing the framework to account for different types of commonality problems.

  15. Surgical specialty procedures in rural surgery practices: implications for rural surgery training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sticca, Robert P; Mullin, Brady C; Harris, Joel D; Hosford, Clint C

    2012-12-01

    Specialty procedures constitute one eighth of rural surgery practice. Currently, general surgeons intending to practice in rural hospitals may not get adequate training for specialty procedures, which they will be expected to perform. Better definition of these procedures will help guide rural surgery training. Current Procedural Terminology codes for all surgical procedures for 81% of North Dakota and South Dakota rural surgeons were entered into the Dakota Database for Rural Surgery. Specialty procedures were analyzed and compared with the Surgical Council on Resident Education curriculum to determine whether general surgery training is adequate preparation for rural surgery practice. The Dakota Database for Rural Surgery included 46,052 procedures, of which 5,666 (12.3%) were specialty procedures. Highest volume specialty categories included vascular, obstetrics and gynecology, orthopedics, cardiothoracic, urology, and otolaryngology. Common procedures in cardiothoracic and vascular surgery are taught in general surgical residency, while common procedures in obstetrics and gynecology, orthopedics, urology, and otolaryngology are usually not taught in general surgery training. Optimal training for rural surgery practice should include experience in specialty procedures in obstetrics and gynecology, orthopedics, urology, and otolaryngology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Early clinical experience with the da Vinci Xi Surgical System in general surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Monika E; Jung, Minoa K; Ris, Frederic; Fakhro, Jassim; Buchs, Nicolas C; Buehler, Leo; Morel, Philippe

    2017-09-01

    The da Vinci Xi Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical Inc., Sunnyvale, CA, USA) has been released in 2014 to facilitate minimally invasive surgery. Novel features are targeted towards facilitating complex multi-quadrant procedures, but data is scarce so far. Perioperative data of patients who underwent robotic general surgery with the da Vinci Xi system within the first 6 month after installation were collected and analyzed. The gastric bypass procedures performed with the da Vinci Xi Surgical System were compared to an equal amount of the last procedures with the da Vinci Si Surgical System. Thirty-one foregut (28 Roux-en-Y gastric bypasses), 6 colorectal procedures and 1 revisional biliary procedure were performed. The mean operating room (OR) time was 221.8 (±69.0) minutes for gastric bypasses and 306.5 (±48.8) for colorectal procedures with mean docking time of 9.4 (±3.8) minutes. The gastric bypass procedure was transitioned from a hybrid to a fully robotic approach. In comparison to the last 28 gastric bypass procedures performed with the da Vinci Si Surgical System, the OR time was comparable (226.9 versus 230.6 min, p = 0.8094), but the docking time significantly longer with the da Vinci Xi Surgical System (8.5 versus 6.1 min, p = 0.0415). All colorectal procedures were performed with a single robotic docking. No intraoperative and two postoperative complications occurred. The da Vinci Xi might facilitate single-setups of totally robotic gastric bypass and colorectal surgeries. However, further comparable research is needed to clearly determine the significance of this latest version of the da Vinci Surgical System.

  17. Part-time general surgical training in South Australia: its success and future implications (or: pinnacles, pitfalls and lessons for the future).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, Susan; Igras, Emma; Fosh, Beverley; Benson, Sarah

    2012-12-01

    Flexible training options are sought by an increasing number of Australasian surgical trainees. Reasons include increased participation of women in the surgical workforce, postgraduate training and changing attitudes to family responsibilities. Despite endorsement of flexible training by the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons and Board in General Surgery, part-time (PT) training in General Surgery in Australia and New Zealand is not well established. A permanent 'stand-alone' PT training position was established at the Royal Adelaide Hospital in 2007 under the Surgical Education and Training Program. This position offered 12 months of General Surgical training on a 0.5 full-time (FT) equivalent basis with pro rata emergency and on-call commitments and was accredited for 6 months of General Surgical training. This paper reviews the PT training experience in South Australia. De-identified logbook data were obtained from the South Australian Regional Subcommittee of the Board in General Surgery with consent of each of the trainees. Totals of operative cases were compared against matched FT trainees working on the same unit. Overall, PT trainees achieved comparable operative caseloads compared with their FT colleagues. All trainees included in this review have subsequently passed the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons Fellowship Examination in General Surgery and returned to FT workforce positions. This paper presents two validated models of PT training. Training, resource and regulatory requirements and individual and institutional barriers to flexible training are substantial. Successful PT models offer positive and beneficial training alternatives for General Surgical trainees and contribute to workforce flexibility. © 2012 The Authors. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2012 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  18. Allergy to local and general anesthetics and to other drugs during surgical procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega, María Claudia; Hospital Universitario San Ignacio; López, Santiago; Hospital Infantil Los Ángeles; Morato, Fabio F.; Hospital de Clínicas, São Paulo, Brasil; Kase Tanno, Luciana; Hospital de Clínicas, São Paulo, Brasil; Ensina, Luis Felipe C.; Hospital de Clínicas, São Paulo, Brasil

    2010-01-01

    Shock and hypersensitivity reactions to local and general anesthetics and to other drugs used during surgical procedures continue being a challenge in clinical practice. Allergic hypersensitivity can vary in presentation and intensity and might manifest itself from mild cutaneous symptoms to death. Las reacciones de choque e hipersensibilidad a los anestésicos locales y generales y a otros medicamentos utilizados durante los procedimientos quirúrgicos, continúan siendo un reto en la prácti...

  19. Robotics in general thoracic surgery procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, M Jawad; Park, Bernard J

    2017-01-01

    The use of robotic technology in general thoracic surgical practice continues to expand across various institutions and at this point many major common thoracic surgical procedures have been successfully performed by general thoracic surgeons using the robotic technology. These procedures include lung resections, excision of mediastinal masses, esophagectomy and reconstruction for malignant and benign esophageal pathologies. The success of robotic technology can be attributed to highly magnified 3-D visualization, dexterity afforded by 7 degrees of freedom that allow difficult dissections in narrow fields and the ease of reproducibility once the initial set up and instruments become familiar to the surgeon. As the application of robotic technology trickle downs from major academic centers to community hospitals, it becomes imperative that its role, limitations, learning curve and financial impact are understood by the novice robotic surgeon. In this article, we share our experience as it relates to the setup, common pitfalls and long term results for more commonly performed robotic assisted lung and thymic resections using the 4 arm da Vinci Xi robotic platform (Intuitive Surgical, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA, USA) to help guide those who are interested in adopting this technology.

  20. The role of the internal medicine specialist in the management of infective complications in general surgical wards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Zoboli

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Internal medicine specialists are often asked to evaluate a patient before surgery. Perioperative risk evaluation for elderly patients is important, because complications increase with age. The increasing age of the general population increases the probabilities of surgery in the older patients. The manifestation of a surgical problem, is more likely to be severe and complicated in the elderly patients. In fact, emergency surgery treatment occurs more frequently in the elderly (e.g., it is much more common to see intestinal obstruction complicating colorectal cancer in the elderly compared with a younger population. Old age is an independent factor for long hospital stay after surgery. The role of the preoperative medical consultant is to identify and evaluate a patient’s current medical status and provide a clinical risk profile, in order to decide whether further tests are indicated prior to surgery, and to optimise the patient’s medical condition in the attempt of reducing the risk of complications. The medical consultant must know which medical condition could eventually influence the surgery, achieve a good contact and communication between the medical and surgical team, in order to obtain the best management planning. AIM OF THE STUDY This paper focuses on the rational use of antibiotic prophylaxis and on the treatment of the complications of post-surgery infections (e.g., pulmonary complication, peritonitis, intra-abdominal infection. Specific aspects of pre-operative risk evaluation and peri and post-operative management are discussed. CONCLUSIONS The internal medicin specialist in collaboration with the surgical team is necessary in the peri and post-surgery management.

  1. Sepsis in general surgery: the 2005-2007 national surgical quality improvement program perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Laura J; Moore, Frederick A; Todd, S Rob; Jones, Stephen L; Turner, Krista L; Bass, Barbara L

    2010-07-01

    To document the incidence, mortality rate, and risk factors for sepsis and septic shock compared with pulmonary embolism and myocardial infarction in the general-surgery population. Retrospective review. American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program institutions. General-surgery patients in the 2005-2007 National Surgical Quality Improvement Program data set. Incidence, mortality rate, and risk factors for sepsis and septic shock. Of 363 897 general-surgery patients, sepsis occurred in 8350 (2.3%), septic shock in 5977 (1.6%), pulmonary embolism in 1078 (0.3%), and myocardial infarction in 615 (0.2%). Thirty-day mortality rates for each of the groups were as follows: 5.4% for sepsis, 33.7% for septic shock, 9.1% for pulmonary embolism, and 32.0% for myocardial infarction. The septic-shock group had a greater percentage of patients older than 60 years (no sepsis, 40.2%; sepsis, 51.7%; and septic shock, 70.3%; P surgery resulted in more cases of sepsis (4.5%) and septic shock (4.9%) than did elective surgery (sepsis, 2.0%; septic shock, 1.2%) (P surgery, and the presence of any comorbidity. This study emphasizes the need for early recognition of patients at risk via aggressive screening and the rapid implementation of evidence-based guidelines.

  2. A concept paper: using the outcomes of common surgical conditions as quality metrics to benchmark district surgical services in South Africa as part of a systematic quality improvement programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Damian L; Kong, Victor Y; Handley, Jonathan; Aldous, Colleen

    2013-07-31

    The fourth, fifth and sixth Millennium Development Goals relate directly to improving global healthcare and health outcomes. The focus is to improve global health outcomes by reducing maternal and childhood mortality and the burden of infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. Specific targets and time frames have been set for these diseases. There is, however, no specific mention of surgically treated diseases in these goals, reflecting a bias that is slowly changing with emerging consensus that surgical care is an integral part of primary healthcare systems in the developing world. The disparities between the developed and developing world in terms of wealth and social indicators are reflected in disparities in access to surgical care. Health administrators must develop plans and strategies to reduce these disparities. However, any strategic plan that addresses deficits in healthcare must have a system of metrics, which benchmark the current quality of care so that specific improvement targets may be set.This concept paper outlines the role of surgical services in a primary healthcare system, highlights the ongoing disparities in access to surgical care and outcomes of surgical care, discusses the importance of a systems-based approach to healthcare and quality improvement, and reviews the current state of surgical care at district hospitals in South Africa. Finally, it proposes that the results from a recently published study on acute appendicitis, as well as data from a number of other common surgical conditions, can provide measurable outcomes across a healthcare system and so act as an indicator for judging improvements in surgical care. This would provide a framework for the introduction of collection of these outcomes as a routine epidemiological health policy tool.

  3. Choice of a General Anesthesia Technique in the Surgical Treatment of Postinfarct Left Ventricular Aneurysms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Karpun

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To choose the optimum technique of general anesthesia in the surgical treatment of patients with postinfarct left ventricular aneurysms (PLVA.Materials and methods. Fifty-four patients operated on for PLVA were examined. They were divided into 4 groups according to the basic technique of general anesthesia: 1 intravenous anesthesia based on propofol and fentanyl; 2 inhalation sevoflurane anesthesia with fentanyl enhancement of the analgesic component; 3 inhalation isoflurane anesthesia with fentanyl enhancement of the analgesic component; 4 general anesthesia in combination with epidural blockade. Central hemodynamics was investigated by the thermodilution technique and the perioperative period was also studied.Results and discussion. None of the general anesthesia techniques affected the development of perioperative complications. However, with decreased myocardial reserves, high thoracic epidural anesthesia should be applied with caution as it causes a significant desympathization, which may lead to impairments of the autoregulatory mechanisms of coronary blood flow and aggravate existing contractile disorders. Intravenous and inhalation anesthesia techniques provide a fair hemodynamic stability at all stages of surgical treatment. Inhalation anesthesia has a number of advantages: less cost and the possibility of rapid activation of patients in the early postoperative period.

  4. Mentor Tutoring: An Efficient Method for Teaching Laparoscopic Colorectal Surgical Skills in a General Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Nobuki; Homma, Shigenori; Yoshida, Tadashi; Ohno, Yosuke; Kawamura, Hideki; Wakizaka, Kazuki; Nakanishi, Kazuaki; Kazui, Keizo; Iijima, Hiroaki; Shomura, Hiroki; Funakoshi, Tohru; Nakano, Shiro; Taketomi, Akinobu

    2017-12-01

    We retrospectively assessed the efficacy of our mentor tutoring system for teaching laparoscopic colorectal surgical skills in a general hospital. A series of 55 laparoscopic colectomies performed by 1 trainee were evaluated. Next, the learning curves for high anterior resection performed by the trainee (n=20) were compared with those of a self-trained surgeon (n=19). Cumulative sum analysis and multivariate regression analyses showed that 38 completed cases were needed to reduce the operative time. In high anterior resection, the mean operative times were significantly shorter after the seventh average for the tutored surgeon compared with that for the self-trained surgeon. In cumulative sum charting, the curve reached a plateau by the seventh case for the tutored surgeon, but continued to increase for the self-trained surgeon. Mentor tutoring effectively teaches laparoscopic colorectal surgical skills in a general hospital setting.

  5. Burnout syndrome in surgical oncology and general surgery nurses: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Książek, Ilona; Stefaniak, Tomasz J; Stadnyk, Magdalena; Książek, Janina

    2011-09-01

    The occurrence of burnout syndrome is strongly associated with and modulated by multiple personality and environmental factors. In Poland, nurses experience a discrepancy between the demands, expectations and social status of the position of their profession and low salaries. Such a situation provokes frustration and depression, and further leads to problems of adaptation including burnout syndrome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of burnout syndrome among nurses working in general surgery and surgical oncology specialties. The study was designed as a cross-sectional questionnaire survey. It was undertaken in the largest Hospital in the Pomeranian region of Poland. The participants included 60 nurses working in two departments: General Surgery and Surgical Oncology. The study was based upon an anonymous self-test composed of a questionnaire and three psychological measures: Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), Psychological Burden Scale and a self-constructed questionnaire on job satisfaction. Intensity of burnout syndrome was significantly higher among oncology nurses than among surgical ones. There was also a strong but not significant trend towards higher Psychological Burden Scale in the group of oncology nurses. The study revealed a high degree of emotional burden and burnout in nurses working in the study hospital suggesting that nurses are at great occupational risk. The findings of the study provide evidence of the potential need to restructure the system and suggest that nurses need more control of their work including a higher degree of involvement in clinical decision-making. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Surgical management of radiation injury to the small intestine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swan, R.W.; Fowler, W.C. Jr., Boronow, R.C.

    1976-01-01

    Severe injury of the small intestine represents one of the most tragic complications of radiation of the pelvis and abdomen. Not uncommonly, patients die from the radiation or the treatment of its intestinal complications. More commonly, patients become intestinal cripples, secondary to chronic partial obstruction of the small intestine and malnutrition associated with the stagnant loop syndrome, as previously reported by one of us. Management results have been discouraging, usually because of a general lack of clinical recognition and understanding of radiation injury to the intestine. Medical management has not been satisfactory. It may provide temporary relief from symptoms, but not long-lasting. Surgical management, although frequently curative, has been associated with high death and morbidity rates. Many surgical procedures have been used in treating radiation injury to the small intestine. Generally, these fall into two categories: first, intestinal resection with primary anastomosis; and second, enteroenteric or enterocolic bypass. In the literature are reflected advocates for each method of surgical management.

  7. [The acute (surgical) abdomen - epidemiology, diagnosis and general principles of management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundmann, R T; Petersen, M; Lippert, H; Meyer, F

    2010-06-01

    This review comments on epidemiology, diagnosis and general principles of surgical management in patients with acute abdomen. DEFINITION AND EPIDEMIOLOGY: The most common cause of acute abdominal pain is non-specific abdominal pain (24 - 44.3 % of the study populations), followed by acute appendicitis (15.9 - 28.1 %), acute biliary disease (2.9 - 9.7 %) and bowel obstruction or diverticulitits in elderly patients. Acute appendicitis represents the cause of surgical intervention in two-thirds of the children with acute abdomen. A standardised physical examination combined with ultrasonography (US) represents the initial investigation in patients with acute abdominal pain. Due to the risk associated with radiation and due to the costs, a selective use of CT imaging is recommended. The work-flow given in this paper restricts the use of CT imaging to less than 50 % of patients with acute abdominal pain. Diagnostic laparoscopy should be considered in patients without a specific diagnosis after appropriate imaging and as an alternative to active clinical observation which is the current practice in patients with non-specific abdominal pain. Acute small bowel obstruction has previously been considered as a relative contraindication for laparoscopic management, but it has been shown in the meantime that laparoscopic treatment is an elegant tool for the management of simple band small bowel obstruction. Bedside diagnostic laparoscopy is recommended in intensive care unit (ICU) patients with acute abdomen or sepsis of unknown origin, in suspicion of acute cholecystitis, diffuse gut hypoperfusion and mesenteric ischaemia or in refractory lactic acidosis, especially after cardiac surgery. Early administration of analgesia to patients with acute abdominal pain in the emergency department will reduce the patient's discomfort without impairing clinically important diagnostic accuracy and is recommended on the basis of some prospective randomised trials. However, the impact on

  8. Training considerations for the intracoelomic implantation of electronic tags in fish with a summary of common surgical errors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, Steven J.; Wagner, Glenn N.; Brown, Richard S.; Deters, Katherine A.

    2011-01-01

    Training is a fundamental part of all scientific and technical disciplines. This is particularly true for all types of surgeons. For surgical procedures, a number of skills are necessary to reduce mistakes. Trainees must learn an extensive yet standardized set of problem-solving and technical skills to handle challenges as they arise. There are currently no guidelines or consistent training methods for those intending to implant electronic tags in fish; this is surprising, considering documented cases of negative consequences of fish surgeries and information from studies having empirically tested fish surgical techniques. Learning how to do fish surgery once is insufficient for ensuring the maintenance or improvement of surgical skill. Assessment of surgical skills is rarely incorporated into training, and is needed. Evaluation provides useful feedback that guides future learning, fosters habits of self-reflection and self-remediation, and promotes access to advanced training. Veterinary professionals should be involved in aspects of training to monitor basic surgical principles. We identified attributes related to knowledge, understanding, and skill that surgeons must demonstrate prior to performing fish surgery including a “hands-on” assessment using live fish. Included is a summary of common problems encountered by fish surgeons. We conclude by presenting core competencies that should be required as well as outlining a 3-day curriculum for training surgeons to conduct intracoelomic implantation of electronic tags. This curriculum could be offered through professional fisheries societies as professional development courses.

  9. Common Fixed Points of Generalized Cocyclic Mappings in Complex Valued Metric Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujahid Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present fixed point results of mappings satisfying generalized contractive conditions in complex valued metric spaces. As an application, we obtain a common fixed point of a pair of weakly compatible mappings. Some common fixed point results of generalized contractive-type mappings involved in cocyclic representation of a nonempty subset of a complex valued metric space are also obtained. Some examples are also presented to support the results proved herein. These results extend and generalize many results in the existing literature.

  10. Surgical sponges in small animal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeltzman, Phil; Downs, Myron

    2011-06-01

    Sponges are commonly used in veterinary practice. Uses for sponges in the operative arena include hemostasis, retraction, protection, dissection, and general wound management. Blood loss can be quantitated by counting blood-soaked sponges. Complications may arise when sponges are retained in the patient. Sponge retention is a risk whenever sponges are used during surgery, regardless of surgical procedure. This article reviews physical characteristics and proper uses of sponges, complications of sponge retention, and techniques to avoid retained sponges.

  11. [Surgical complications of colostomies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ameur, Hazem; Affes, Nejmeddine; Rejab, Haitham; Abid, Bassem; Boujelbene, Salah; Mzali, Rafik; Beyrouti, Mohamed Issam

    2014-07-01

    The colostomy may be terminal or lateral, temporary or permanent. It may have psychological, medical or surgical complications. reporting the incidence of surgical complications of colostomies, their therapeutic management and trying to identify risk factors for their occurrence. A retrospective study for a period of 5 years in general surgery department, Habib Bourguiba hospital, Sfax, including all patients operated with confection of a colostomy. Were then studied patients reoperated for stoma complication. Among the 268 patients who have had a colostomy, 19 patients (7%) developed surgical stoma complications. They had a mean age of 59 years, a sex ratio of 5.3 and a 1-ASA score in 42% of cases. It was a prolapse in 9 cases (reconfection of the colostomy: 6 cases, restoration of digestive continuity: 3 cases), a necrosis in 5 cases (reconfection of the colostomy), a plicature in 2 cases (reconfection of the colostomy) a peristomal abscess in 2 cases (reconfection of the colostomy: 1 case, restoration of digestive continuity: 1 case) and a strangulated parastomal hernia in 1 case (herniorrhaphy). The elective incision and the perineal disease were risk factors for the occurrence of prolapse stomial. Surgical complications of colostomies remain a rare event. Prolapse is the most common complication, and it is mainly related to elective approach. Reoperation is often required especially in cases of early complications, with usually uneventful postoperative course.

  12. Outcomes of surgery in patients aged ≥90 years in the general surgical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudlow, A; Tuffaha, H; Stearns, A T; Shaikh, I A

    2018-03-01

    Introduction An increasing proportion of the population is living into their nineties and beyond. These high risk patients are now presenting more frequently to both elective and emergency surgical services. There is limited research looking at outcomes of general surgical procedures in nonagenarians and centenarians to guide surgeons assessing these cases. Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted of all patients aged ≥90 years undergoing elective and emergency general surgical procedures at a tertiary care facility between 2009 and 2015. Vascular, breast and endocrine procedures were excluded. Patient demographics and characteristics were collated. Primary outcomes were 30-day and 90-day mortality rates. The impact of ASA (American Society of Anesthesiologists) grade, operation severity and emergency presentation was assessed using multivariate analysis. Results Overall, 161 patients (58 elective, 103 emergency) were identified for inclusion in the study. The mean patient age was 92.8 years (range: 90-106 years). The 90-day mortality rates were 5.2% and 19.4% for elective and emergency procedures respectively (p=0.013). The median survival was 29 and 19 months respectively (p=0.001). Emergency and major gastrointestinal operations were associated with a significant increase in mortality. Patients undergoing emergency major colonic or upper gastrointestinal surgery had a 90-day mortality rate of 53.8%. Conclusions The risk for patients aged over 90 years having an elective procedure differs significantly in the short term from those having emergency surgery. In selected cases, elective surgery carries an acceptable mortality risk. Emergency surgery is associated with a significantly increased risk of death, particularly after major gastrointestinal resections.

  13. Endovascular Versus Open Surgical Intervention in Patients with Takayasu's Arteritis: A Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae Hyun; Lee, Young Ho; Song, Gwan Gyu; Jeong, Han Saem; Kim, Jae-Hoon; Choi, Sung Jae

    2018-06-01

    Although medical treatment has advanced, surgical treatment is needed to control symptoms of Takayasu's arteritis (TA), such as angina, stroke, hypertension, or claudication. Endovascular or open surgical intervention is performed; however, there are few comparative studies on these methods. This meta-analysis and systematic review aimed to examine the outcome of surgical treatment of TA. A meta-analysis comparing outcomes of endovascular and open surgical intervention was performed using MEDLINE and Embase. This meta-analysis included only observational studies, and the evidence level was low to moderate. Data were pooled and analysed using a fixed or random effects model with the I 2 statistic. The included studies involved a total of 770 patients and 1363 lesions, with 389 patients treated endovascularly and 420 treated by surgical revascularization. Restenosis was more common with endovascular than open surgical intervention (odds ratio [OR] 5.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.78-9.62; p open surgical intervention patients in the coronary artery, supra-aortic branches, and renal artery. In both the active and inactive stages, restenosis was more common in those treated endovascularly than in those treated by open surgery. However, stroke occurred less often with endovascular intervention than with open surgical intervention (OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.12-0.90; p = .003). Mortality and complications other than stroke and mortality did not differ between endovascular and open surgical intervention. This meta-analysis has shown a lower risk of restenosis with open surgical intervention than with endovascular intervention. Stroke was generally more common with open surgical intervention than with endovascular intervention. However, there were differences according to the location of the lesion, and the risk of stroke in open surgery is higher when the supra-aortic branches are involved rather than the renal arteries. Copyright © 2018 European Society for Vascular

  14. Dexmedetomidine infusion during middle ear surgery under general anaesthesia to provide oligaemic surgical field: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumkum Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Middle ear surgery requires bloodless surgical field for better operating conditions, deep level of anaesthesia and rapid emergence. Recent studies suggest that α2 agonists could provide desired surgical field, sedation and analgesia. The present study was aimed to evaluate the clinical effects of dexmedetomidine infusion as anaesthetic adjuvant during middle ear surgery using operating microscope. Methods: Sixty four adult patients aged 18-58 years, American Society of Anaesthesiologists Grades I and II, of both gender were randomised into two comparable equal groups of 32 patients each for middle ear surgery under general anaesthesia with standard anaesthetic technique. After induction of general anaesthesia, patients of Group I were given dexmedetomidine infusion of 0.5 μg/kg/h and patients of Group II were given placebo infusion of normal saline. Isoflurane concentration was titrated to achieve a systolic blood pressure 30% below the baseline value. All patients were assessed intra-operatively for bleeding at surgical field, haemodynamic changes, awakening time and post-operative recovery. Results: Statistically significant reduction was observed in the required percentage of isoflurane (0.8 ± 0.6% to maintain the systolic blood pressure 30% below the baseline values in patients receiving dexmedetomidine infusion when compared to those receiving placebo infusion (1.6 ± 0.7%. Patients receiving dexmedetomidine infusion had statistically significant lesser bleeding at surgical field (P < 0.05. The mean awakening time and recovery from anaesthesia did not show any significant difference between the groups. Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine infusion can be safely used to provide oligaemic surgical field for better visualization using operating microscope for middle ear surgery.

  15. Surgical smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Joe King-Man; Chan, Fion Siu-Yin; Chu, Kent-Man

    2009-10-01

    Surgical smoke is the gaseous by-product formed during surgical procedures. Most surgeons, operating theatre staff and administrators are unaware of its potential health risks. Surgical smoke is produced by various surgical instruments including those used in electrocautery, lasers, ultrasonic scalpels, high speed drills, burrs and saws. The potential risks include carbon monoxide toxicity to the patient undergoing a laparoscopic operation, pulmonary fibrosis induced by non-viable particles, and transmission of infectious diseases like human papilloma virus. Cytotoxicity and mutagenicity are other concerns. Minimisation of the production of surgical smoke and modification of any evacuation systems are possible solutions. In general, a surgical mask can provide more than 90% protection to exposure to surgical smoke; however, in most circumstances it cannot provide air-tight protection to the user. An at least N95 grade or equivalent respirator offers the best protection against surgical smoke, but whether such protection is necessary is currently unknown.

  16. Surgical site infection in orthopedic implants and its common bacteria with their sensitivities to antibiotics, in open reduction internal fixation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, M.Q.; Zardad, M.S.; Khan, A.; Ahmed, S.; Awan, A. S.; Mohammad, T.

    2017-01-01

    : Surgical Site Infection is common in orthopaedic implants, occurring in 5.30% cases. Staphylococcus aureus is the common bacteria, causing it. (author)

  17. Surgical smartphone applications across different platforms: their evolution, uses, and users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulendran, Myutan; Lim, Marcus; Laws, Georgia; Chow, Andre; Nehme, Jean; Darzi, Ara; Purkayastha, Sanjay

    2014-08-01

    There are a vast array of smartphone applications that could benefit both surgeons and their patients. To review and identify all relevant surgical smartphone applications available for the Apple iPhone iOS and Google Android platform based on their user group and subspecialty for which they were designed. Both the literature using PubMed and Google Scholar were searched using the following terms: application$, smartphone$, app$, app*, surgery, surgical, surg*, general surgery, general surg*, bariatric$, urology and plastic surgery, ortho*, orthop(a)edic, cardiac surgery, cardiothoracic, neurosurgery, and ophthalmology. The search yielded 38 articles of which 23 were eligible. Each of the key specialties was searched in the Apple iTunes App Store for iPhone iOS and the Google Play Android application store. In total, there were 621 surgical applications for Apple iPhone iOS and 97 identified on Android's Google Play. There has been a 9-fold increase in the number of surgical applications available for the Apple iPhone iOS from 2009 to 2012. Of these applications there were 126 dedicated to plastic surgery, 79 to orthopedics, 41 to neurosurgical, 180 to general surgery, 36 to cardiac surgery, 121 to ophthalmology, and 44 to urology. There was a wide range of applications ranging from simple flashcards to be used for revision to virtual surgery applications that provided surgical exposure and familiarization with common operative procedures. Despite the plethora of surgical applications available for smartphones, there is no taxonomy for medical applications. Only 12% were affiliated with an academic institution or association, which highlights the need for greater regulation of surgical applications. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Mortality of induced abortion, other outpatient surgical procedures and common activities in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Elizabeth G; Grossman, Daniel; Weaver, Mark A; Toti, Stephanie; Winikoff, Beverly

    2014-11-01

    The recent surge of new legislation regulating induced abortion in the United States is ostensibly motivated by the desire to protect women's health. To provide context for interpreting the risk of abortion, we compared abortion-related mortality to mortality associated with other outpatient surgical procedures and selected nonmedical activities. We calculated the abortion-related mortality rate during 2000-2009 using national data. We searched PubMed and other sources for contemporaneous data on mortality associated with other outpatient procedures commonly performed on healthy young women, marathon running, bicycling and driving. The abortion-related mortality rate in 2000-2009 in the United States was 0.7 per 100,000 abortions. Studies in approximately the same years found mortality rates of 0.8-1.7 deaths per 100,000 plastic surgery procedures, 0-1.7deaths per 100,000 dental procedures, 0.6-1.2 deaths per 100,000 marathons run and at least 4 deaths among 100,000 cyclists in a large annual bicycling event. The traffic fatality rate per 758 vehicle miles traveled by passenger cars in the United States in 2007-2011 was about equal to the abortion-related mortality rate. The safety of induced abortion as practiced in the United States for the past decade met or exceeded expectations for outpatient surgical procedures and compared favorably to that of two common nonmedical voluntary activities. The new legislation restricting abortion is unnecessary; indeed, by reducing the geographic distribution of abortion providers and requiring women to travel farther for the procedure, these laws are potentially detrimental to women's health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Capping of the radicular exposed surface (part II). Surgical and not surgical treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Grados Pomarino, Sixto; Estrada, Andrew Alejandro; Maetahara Rubio, Denis Miguel; Guzmán Vera, Yanina Sara; Tello Barbarán, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The gingival recession treatment can be made surgical1y with a high predictability of success due to the great advance during the last ones of the mucogingival surgical techniques. The use of connective grafts in coverage of recessions has obtained high rates of success reason why these procedures are common within the modern periodontal surgical practice. Knowing that all patients do not accept the surgical treatment, many investigators have come studying the possibility of treating non-surg...

  20. The role of student surgical interest groups and surgical Olympiads in anatomical and surgical undergraduate training in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dydykin, Sergey; Kapitonova, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Traditional department-based surgical interest groups in Russian medical schools are useful tools for student-based selection of specialty training. They also form a nucleus for initiating research activities among undergraduate students. In Russia, the Departments of Topographical Anatomy and Operative Surgery play an important role in initiating student-led research and providing learners with advanced, practical surgical skills. In tandem with department-led activities, student surgical interest groups prepare learners through surgical competitions, known as "Surgical Olympiads," which have been conducted in many Russian centers on a regular basis since 1988. Surgical Olympiads stimulate student interest in the development of surgical skills before graduation and encourage students to choose surgery as their postgraduate specialty. Many of the participants in these surgical Olympiads have become highly qualified specialists in general surgery, orthopedic surgery, neurosurgery, urology, gynecology, and emergency medicine. The present article emphasizes the role of student interest groups and surgical Olympiads in clinical anatomical and surgical undergraduate training in Russia. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  1. Specialization and the Current Practices of General Surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Marquita R; Dodgion, Christopher M; Kwok, Alvin C; Hu, Yue-Yung; Havlena, Jeff A; Jiang, Wei; Lipsitz, Stuart R; Kent, K Craig; Greenberg, Caprice C

    2014-01-01

    Background The impact of specialization on the practice of general surgery has not been characterized. Our goal was to assess general surgeons’ operative practices to inform surgical education and workforce planning. Study Design We examined the practices of general surgeons identified in the 2008 State Inpatient and Ambulatory Surgery Databases of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) for three US states. Operations were identified using ICD-9 and CPT codes linked to encrypted physician identifiers. For each surgeon, total operative volume and the percentage of practice comprised of their most common operation were calculated. Correlation was measured between general surgeons’ case volume and the number of other specialists in a health service area. Results There were 1,075 general surgeons who performed 240,510 operations in 2008. The mean operative volume for each surgeon was 224 annual procedures. General surgeons performed an average of 23 different types of operations. For the majority of general surgeons, their most common procedure comprised no more than 30% of total practice. The most common operations, ranked by the frequency that they appeared as general surgeons’ top procedure, included: cholecystectomy, colonoscopy, endoscopy, and skin excision. The proportion of general surgery practice comprised of endoscopic procedures inversely correlated with the number of gastroenterologists in the health service area (Rho = - 0.50, p = 0.005). Conclusions Despite trends toward specialization, the current practices of general surgeons remain heterogeneous. This indicates a continued demand for broad-based surgical education to allow future surgeons to tailor their practices to their environment. PMID:24210145

  2. The Surgical Site Infection Risk Score (SSIRS: A Model to Predict the Risk of Surgical Site Infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl van Walraven

    Full Text Available Surgical site infections (SSI are an important cause of peri-surgical morbidity with risks that vary extensively between patients and surgeries. Quantifying SSI risk would help identify candidates most likely to benefit from interventions to decrease the risk of SSI.We randomly divided all surgeries recorded in the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program from 2010 into a derivation and validation population. We used multivariate logistic regression to determine the independent association of patient and surgical covariates with the risk of any SSI (including superficial, deep, and organ space SSI within 30 days of surgery. To capture factors particular to specific surgeries, we developed a surgical risk score specific to all surgeries having a common first 3 numbers of their CPT code.Derivation (n = 181 894 and validation (n = 181 146 patients were similar for all demographics, past medical history, and surgical factors. Overall SSI risk was 3.9%. The SSI Risk Score (SSIRS found that risk increased with patient factors (smoking, increased body mass index, certain comorbidities (peripheral vascular disease, metastatic cancer, chronic steroid use, recent sepsis, and operative characteristics (surgical urgency; increased ASA class; longer operation duration; infected wounds; general anaesthesia; performance of more than one procedure; and CPT score. In the validation population, the SSIRS had good discrimination (c-statistic 0.800, 95% CI 0.795-0.805 and calibration.SSIRS can be calculated using patient and surgery information to estimate individual risk of SSI for a broad range of surgery types.

  3. Accidental injuries and cutaneous contaminations during general ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: This study has demonstrated that cutaneous, percutaneous, and mucous membrane exposure to patients blood and body fluids are common events during general surgical operations. Most accidental injuries were due to solid suture needle-sticks, mostly injured personnel were the primary operating surgeons, ...

  4. The Effect of a Surgical Skills Course on Confidence Levels of Rural General Practitioners: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Pippa; Ward, Olga; Hamdorf, Jeffrey

    2016-10-01

    Objective  To investigate the effect of a short surgical skills course on general practitioners' confidence levels to perform procedural skills. Design  Prospective observational study. Setting  The Clinical Evaluation and Training Centre, a practical skills-based educational facility, at The University of Western Australia. Participants  Medical practitioners who participated in these courses. Nurses, physiotherapists, and medical students were excluded. The response rate was 61% with 61 participants providing 788 responses for pre- and postcourse confidence levels regarding various surgical skills. Intervention  One- to two-day surgical skills courses consisting of presentations, demonstrations, and practical stations, facilitated by specialists. Main Outcome Measures  A two-page precourse and postcourse questionnaire was administered to medical practitioners on the day. Participants rated their confidence levels to perform skills addressed during the course on a 4-point Likert scale. Results  Of the 788 responses regarding confidence levels, 621 were rated as improved postcourse, 163 were rated as no change, and 4 were rated as lower postcourse. Seven of the courses showed a 25% median increase in confidence levels, and one course demonstrated a 50% median increase. All courses showed statistically significant results ( p  skills course resulted in a statistically significant improvement in the confidence levels of rural general practitioners to perform these skills.

  5. Surgical orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohl, Alexis M; Vitkus, Lauren

    2017-08-01

    The article reviews some commonly used orthodontic treatments as well as new strategies to assist in the correction of malocclusion. Many techniques are used in conjunction with surgical intervention and are a necessary compliment to orthognathic surgery. Basic knowledge of these practices will aid in the surgeon's ability to adequately treat the patient. Many orthodontists and surgeons are eliminating presurgical orthodontics to adopt a strategy of 'surgery first' orthodontics in orthognathic surgery. This has the benefit of immediate improvement in facial aesthetics and shorter treatment times. The advent of virtual surgical planning has helped facilitate the development of this new paradigm by making surgical planning faster and easier. Furthermore, using intraoperative surgical navigation is improving overall precision and outcomes. A variety of surgical and nonsurgical treatments may be employed in the treatment of malocclusion. It is important to be familiar with all options available and tailor the patient's treatment plan accordingly. Surgery-first orthodontics, intraoperative surgical navigation, virtual surgical planning, and 3D printing are evolving new techniques that are producing shorter treatment times and subsequently improving patient satisfaction without sacrificing long-term stability.

  6. How common is multiple general practice attendance in Australia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michael; Hall, Jane; van Gool, Kees; Haas, Marion

    2018-05-01

    Australians can seek general practice care from multiple general practitioners (GPs) in multiple locations. This provides high levels of patient choice but may reduce continuity of care. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of attendance at multiple general practices in Australia, and identify patient characteristics associated with multiple practice attendances. A cross-sectional survey of 2477 Australian adults was conducted online in July 2013. Respondents reported whether they had attended more than one general practice in the past year, and whether they had a usual general practice and GP. Demographic information, health service use and practice characteristics were also obtained from the survey. Over one-quarter of the sample reported attending more than one practice in the previous year. Multiple practice attendance is less common with increasing age, and less likely for survey respondents from regional Australia, compared with respondents from metropolitan areas. Multiple practice attenders are just as likely as single practice attenders to have a usual GP. A significant proportion of general practice care is delivered away from usual practices. This may have implications for health policy, in terms of continuity and quality of primary care.

  7. Use of Quantile Regression to Determine the Impact on Total Health Care Costs of Surgical Site Infections Following Common Ambulatory Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Margaret A; Tian, Fang; Wallace, Anna E; Nickel, Katelin B; Warren, David K; Fraser, Victoria J; Selvam, Nandini; Hamilton, Barton H

    2017-02-01

    To determine the impact of surgical site infections (SSIs) on health care costs following common ambulatory surgical procedures throughout the cost distribution. Data on costs of SSIs following ambulatory surgery are sparse, particularly variation beyond just mean costs. We performed a retrospective cohort study of persons undergoing cholecystectomy, breast-conserving surgery, anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, and hernia repair from December 31, 2004 to December 31, 2010 using commercial insurer claims data. SSIs within 90 days post-procedure were identified; infections during a hospitalization or requiring surgery were considered serious. We used quantile regression, controlling for patient, operative, and postoperative factors to examine the impact of SSIs on 180-day health care costs throughout the cost distribution. The incidence of serious and nonserious SSIs was 0.8% and 0.2%, respectively, after 21,062 anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, 0.5% and 0.3% after 57,750 cholecystectomy, 0.6% and 0.5% after 60,681 hernia, and 0.8% and 0.8% after 42,489 breast-conserving surgery procedures. Serious SSIs were associated with significantly higher costs than nonserious SSIs for all 4 procedures throughout the cost distribution. The attributable cost of serious SSIs increased for both cholecystectomy and hernia repair as the quantile of total costs increased ($38,410 for cholecystectomy with serious SSI vs no SSI at the 70th percentile of costs, up to $89,371 at the 90th percentile). SSIs, particularly serious infections resulting in hospitalization or surgical treatment, were associated with significantly increased health care costs after 4 common surgical procedures. Quantile regression illustrated the differential effect of serious SSIs on health care costs at the upper end of the cost distribution.

  8. Surgical Management of Hemorrhoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbo, S. P.

    2011-01-01

    Hemorrhoids are common human afflictions known since the dawn of history. Surgical management of this condition has made tremendous progress from complex ligation and excision procedures in the past to simpler techniques that allow the patient to return to normal life within a short period. Newer techniques try to improve on the post-operative complications of older ones. The surgical options for the management of hemorrhoids today are many. Capturing all in a single article may be difficult if not impossible. The aim of this study therefore is to present in a concise form some of the common surgical options in current literature, highlighting some important post operative complications. Current literature is searched using MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane library. The conclusion is that even though there are many surgical options in the management of hemorrhoids today, most employ the ligature and excision technique with newer ones having reduced post operative pain and bleeding. PMID:22413048

  9. Robotic general surgery: current practice, evidence, and perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, M; Morel, P; Buehler, L; Buchs, N C; Hagen, M E

    2015-04-01

    Robotic technology commenced to be adopted for the field of general surgery in the 1990s. Since then, the da Vinci surgical system (Intuitive Surgical Inc, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) has remained by far the most commonly used system in this domain. The da Vinci surgical system is a master-slave machine that offers three-dimensional vision, articulated instruments with seven degrees of freedom, and additional software features such as motion scaling and tremor filtration. The specific design allows hand-eye alignment with intuitive control of the minimally invasive instruments. As such, robotic surgery appears technologically superior when compared with laparoscopy by overcoming some of the technical limitations that are imposed on the surgeon by the conventional approach. This article reviews the current literature and the perspective of robotic general surgery. While robotics has been applied to a wide range of general surgery procedures, its precise role in this field remains a subject of further research. Until now, only limited clinical evidence that could establish the use of robotics as the gold standard for procedures of general surgery has been created. While surgical robotics is still in its infancy with multiple novel systems currently under development and clinical trials in progress, the opportunities for this technology appear endless, and robotics should have a lasting impact to the field of general surgery.

  10. Pituitary adenomas: historical perspective, surgical management and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodros, Debebe; Patel, Mira; Ruzevick, Jacob; Lim, Michael; Bettegowda, Chetan

    2016-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas are among the most common central nervous system tumors. They represent a diverse group of neoplasms that may or may not secrete hormones based on their cell of origin. Epidemiologic studies have documented the incidence of pituitary adenomas within the general population to be as high as 16.7%. A growing body of work has helped to elucidate the pathogenesis of these tumors. Each subtype has been shown to demonstrate unique cellular changes potentially leading to tumorigenesis. Surgical advancements over several decades have included microsurgery and the employment of the endoscope for surgical resection. These advancements increase the likelihood of gross-total resection and have resulted in decreased patient morbidity. PMID:26497533

  11. Knowing the operative game plan: a novel tool for the assessment of surgical procedural knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balayla, Jacques; Bergman, Simon; Ghitulescu, Gabriela; Feldman, Liane S; Fraser, Shannon A

    2012-08-01

    What is the source of inadequate performance in the operating room? Is it a lack of technical skills, poor judgment or a lack of procedural knowledge? We created a surgical procedural knowledge (SPK) assessment tool and evaluated its use. We interviewed medical students, residents and training program staff on SPK assessment tools developed for 3 different common general surgery procedures: inguinal hernia repair with mesh in men, laparoscopic cholecystectomy and right hemicolectomy. The tools were developed as a step-wise assessment of specific surgical procedures based on techniques described in a current surgical text. We compared novice (medical student to postgraduate year [PGY]-2) and expert group (PGY-3 to program staff) scores using the Mann-Whitney U test. We calculated the total SPK score and defined a cut-off score using receiver operating characteristic analysis. In all, 5 participants in 7 different training groups (n = 35) underwent an interview. Median scores for each procedure and overall SPK scores increased with experience. The median SPK for novices was 54.9 (95% confidence interval [CI] 21.6-58.8) compared with 98.05 (95% CP 94.1-100.0) for experts (p = 0.012). The SPK cut-off score of 93.1 discriminates between novice and expert surgeons. Surgical procedural knowledge can reliably be assessed using our SPK assessment tool. It can discriminate between novice and expert surgeons for common general surgical procedures. Future studies are planned to evaluate its use for more complex procedures.

  12. Surgical procedures in patients with haemophilic arthropathy of the ankle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barg, A; Morris, S C; Schneider, S W; Phisitkul, P; Saltzman, C L

    2016-05-01

    In haemophilia, the ankle joint is one of the most common and earliest joints affected by recurrent bleeding, commonly resulting in end-stage ankle osteoarthritis during early adulthood. The surgical treatment of haemophilic ankle arthropathy is challenging. This review aims to highlight the literature addressing clinical outcomes following the most common approaches for different stages of haemophilia-induced ankle osteoarthritis: arthroscopic debridement, joint distraction arthroplasty, supramalleolar osteotomies, total ankle replacement, and ankle arthrodesis. A systematic literature review was performed using established medical literature databases. The following information was retrieved from the literature: patients' demographics, surgical technique, duration of follow-up, clinical outcome including pain relief and complication rate. A total of 42 clinical studies published between 1978 and 2015 were included in the systematic literature review. Eight and 34 studies had prospective and retrospective design, respectively. The most common studies were level IV studies (64.3%). The orthopaedic treatment of patients with haemophilic ankle osteoarthritis is often challenging and requires complete and careful preoperative assessment. In general, both joint-preserving and joint non-preserving procedure types can be performed. All specific relative and absolute contraindications should be considered to achieve appropriate postoperative outcomes. The current literature demonstrated that orthopaedic surgeries, with appropriate indication, in patients with haemophilic ankle arthropathy result in good postoperative results comparable to those observed in non-haemophiliacs. The surgical treatment should be performed in a setting with the ability to have multidisciplinary management, including expertise in haematology. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Nitrousoxide as a conscious sedative in minor oral surgical procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Rakesh; Asir, Vigil Dev; Shanmugapriyan; Ebenezr, Vijay; Dakir, Abu; Balakrishnan; Jacob, Jeffin

    2015-04-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is the most commonly used inhalation anesthetic in dentistry and is commonly used in emergency centers and ambulatory surgery centers as well. When used alone, it is incapable of producing general anesthesia reliably. However, as a single agent, it has an impressive safety and is excellent for providing minimal and moderate sedation for apprehensive minor oral surgical procedure. In this article, action of N2O in overcoming the anxiety and pain of the patient during the minor oral surgery and its advantages and disadvantages, have been reviewed.

  14. Surgical treatment of gross posttraumatic deformations in thoracic spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksei E. Shul’ga

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Rigid severe post-traumatic thoracic spine deformities result from frequent, recent high-energy trauma in children with an increasing frequency due to a variety of reasons. These types of injuries are commonly followed by spinal cord anatomic injury; therefore, the treatment of these patients warrants special attention from the ethical viewpoint. Generally, the only indication for surgical intervention is spinal dysfunction. Considering this and the patients’ ordinary severe somatic state, surgical trauma should be minimized as much as possible. However, for adequate deformity correction, effective spine stabilization and restoration of liquorodynamics is necessary. Recent studies have reported the successful use of different methods of dorsal interventions (P/VCR in cases with unstable damages in children. Here, we present the case of a 15-year-old boy who underwent surgical treatment for coarse post-traumatic thoracic spine deformity with chronic fracture-dislocation of Th7 vertebra.

  15. Open surgical simulation--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Jennifer; Khatib, Manaf; Bello, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Surgical simulation has benefited from a surge in interest over the last decade as a result of the increasing need for a change in the traditional apprentice model of teaching surgery. However, despite the recent interest in surgical simulation as an adjunct to surgical training, most of the literature focuses on laparoscopic, endovascular, and endoscopic surgical simulation with very few studies scrutinizing open surgical simulation and its benefit to surgical trainees. The aim of this review is to summarize the current standard of available open surgical simulators and to review the literature on the benefits of open surgical simulation. Open surgical simulators currently used include live animals, cadavers, bench models, virtual reality, and software-based computer simulators. In the current literature, there are 18 different studies (including 6 randomized controlled trials and 12 cohort studies) investigating the efficacy of open surgical simulation using live animal, bench, and cadaveric models in many surgical specialties including general, cardiac, trauma, vascular, urologic, and gynecologic surgery. The current open surgical simulation studies show, in general, a significant benefit of open surgical simulation in developing the surgical skills of surgical trainees. However, these studies have their limitations including a low number of participants, variable assessment standards, and a focus on short-term results often with no follow-up assessment. The skills needed for open surgical procedures are the essential basis that a surgical trainee needs to grasp before attempting more technical procedures such as laparoscopic procedures. In this current climate of medical practice with reduced hours of surgical exposure for trainees and where the patient's safety and outcome is key, open surgical simulation is a promising adjunct to modern surgical training, filling the void between surgeons being trained in a technique and a surgeon achieving fluency in that

  16. Learning styles of medical students, general surgery residents, and general surgeons: implications for surgical education

    OpenAIRE

    de Gara Chris; Engels Paul T

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Surgical education is evolving under the dual pressures of an enlarging body of knowledge required during residency and mounting work-hour restrictions. Changes in surgical residency training need to be based on available educational models and research to ensure successful training of surgeons. Experiential learning theory, developed by David Kolb, demonstrates the importance of individual learning styles in improving learning. This study helps elucidate the way in which ...

  17. Quality of complication reporting in the surgical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Robert C G; Brennan, Murray F; Jaques, David P

    2002-06-01

    To identify 10 critical elements of accurate and comprehensive reports of surgical complications. Despite a venerable tradition of weekly morbidity and mortality conferences, inconsistent complication reporting is common in the surgical literature. An analysis of articles reporting short-term outcomes after pancreatectomy, esophagectomy, and hepatectomy was performed. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) published from 1975 to 2001 and retrospective series of more than 100 patients published from 1990 to 2001 were reviewed. A total of 119 articles reporting outcomes in 22,530 patients were analyzed. This included 42 RCTs and 77 retrospective series. Of the 10 criteria developed, no articles met all criteria; 2% met 9 criteria, 38% 7 or 8, 34% 5 or 6, 40% 3 or 4, and 12% 1 or 2. Outpatient information (22% of articles), definitions of complications provided (34% of articles), severity grade used (20% of articles), and risk factors included in analysis (29% of articles) were the most commonly unmet quality reporting criteria. Type of study (RCT vs. retrospective), site of institution (U.S. vs. non-U.S.) and journal (U.S. vs. non-U.S.) did not influence the quality of complication reporting. Short-term surgical outcomes are routinely included in the data reported in the surgical literature. This is often used to show improvements over time or to assess the impact of therapeutic changes on patient outcome. The inconsistency of reporting and the lack of accepted principles of accrual, display, and analysis of complication data argue strongly for the creation and generalized use of standards for reporting this information.

  18. Common fixed points for generalized contractive mappings in cone metric spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen Aydi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to establish coincidence point and common fixed point results for four maps satisfying generalized weak contractions in cone metric spaces. Also, an example is given to illustrate our results.

  19. Surgical treatment of colorectal cancer complicated with acute intestinal obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Schaeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The main reason for urgent complications of colon cancer is an acute intestinal obstruction (AIO. This is complex pathological condition in 90 % of cases caused by colorectal cancer (CRC.Objective – to evaluate radicality of the performed operations in complicated colorectal cancer in general surgical hospitals. Dependence of the severity of intestinal obstruction by tumor localization, its morphological characteristics, determine dependence of the type of the surgical operation performed on the severity of intestinal obstruction.Materials and methods. We have studied the data on 667 patients with colorectal cancer complicated by acute intestinal obstruction. These patients were treated in the period from 2001 to 2013 in general surgical hospital in the territory of Smolensk and Smolensk region. For the processing of the obtained results we have used software Statistica 6.1. Differences were considered statistically at p ≤ 0.05.Results. All the patients were divided into 3 groups by the expression of intestinal obstruction. Group 1 (n = 279 consisted of patients with the presence of decompensated intestinal obstruction (DIO, group 2 (n = 313 consisted of patients with subcompensated intestinal obstruction (SIO, group 3 (n = 75 included patients with compensated intestinal obstruction (CIO. In case of tumor localization in right halfof the colon we most commonly observed clinical picture of acute development of decompensated intestinal obstruction (p = 0.041. Subcompensated intestinal obstruction prevailed in case of tumor localization in left half of the colon and rectal localization. In general surgical hospitals it is not always possible to speak about radicality of surgical treatment, as in a large number of cases (62.5 % the number of examined lymph nodes was less than 4. When DIO patients are admitted in the clinic, the percentage of singlestage operations is equal to 7.5 % (n = 21. In case of DIO and SIO there was a high

  20. Surgical management of common bile duct stones at Saint Paul's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: This study was aimed at evaluating the trend and outcome of surgical management of choledocholithiasis in St. Paul Teaching Hospital Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods: This was a clinical based retrospective analysis. The operation register was used to identify the cases that were operated for biliary lithiasis.

  1. Surgical versus non-surgical management for pleural empyema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redden, Mark D; Chin, Tze Yang; van Driel, Mieke L

    2017-03-17

    Empyema refers to pus in the pleural space, commonly due to adjacent pneumonia, chest wall injury, or a complication of thoracic surgery. A range of therapeutic options are available for its management, ranging from percutaneous aspiration and intercostal drainage to video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) or thoracotomy drainage. Intrapleural fibrinolytics may also be administered following intercostal drain insertion to facilitate pleural drainage. There is currently a lack of consensus regarding optimal treatment. To assess the effectiveness and safety of surgical versus non-surgical treatments for complicated parapneumonic effusion or pleural empyema. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2016, Issue 9), MEDLINE (Ebscohost) (1946 to July week 3 2013, July 2015 to October 2016) and MEDLINE (Ovid) (1 May 2013 to July week 1 2015), Embase (2010 to October 2016), CINAHL (1981 to October 2016) and LILACS (1982 to October 2016) on 20 October 2016. We searched ClinicalTrials.gov and WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing studies (December 2016). Randomised controlled trials that compared a surgical with a non-surgical method of management for all age groups with pleural empyema. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data, and checked the data for accuracy. We contacted trial authors for additional information. We assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. We included eight randomised controlled trials with a total of 391 participants. Six trials focused on children and two on adults. Trials compared tube thoracostomy drainage (non-surgical), with or without intrapleural fibrinolytics, to either VATS or thoracotomy (surgical) for the management of pleural empyema. Assessment of risk of bias for the included studies was generally unclear for selection and blinding but low for attrition and reporting bias. Data analyses compared

  2. Emergency general surgery in Rwandan district hospitals: a cross-sectional study of spectrum, management, and patient outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpirimbanyi, Christophe; Nyirimodoka, Alexandre; Lin, Yihan; Hedt-Gauthier, Bethany L; Odhiambo, Jackline; Nkurunziza, Theoneste; Havens, Joaquim M; Omondi, Jack; Rwamasirabo, Emile; Ntirenganya, Faustin; Toma, Gabriel; Mubiligi, Joel; Bayitondere, Scheilla; Riviello, Robert

    2017-12-01

    Management of emergency general surgical conditions remains a challenge in rural sub-Saharan Africa due to issues such as insufficient human capacity and infrastructure. This study describes the burden of emergency general surgical conditions and the ability to provide care for these conditions at three rural district hospitals in Rwanda. This retrospective cross-sectional study included all patients presenting to Butaro, Kirehe and Rwinkwavu District Hospitals between January 1st 2015 and December 31st 2015 with emergency general surgical conditions, defined as non-traumatic, non-obstetric acute care surgical conditions. We describe patient demographics, clinical characteristics, management and outcomes. In 2015, 356 patients presented with emergency general surgical conditions. The majority were male (57.2%) and adults aged 15-60 years (54.5%). The most common diagnostic group was soft tissue infections (71.6%), followed by acute abdominal conditions (14.3%). The median length of symptoms prior to diagnosis differed significantly by diagnosis type (p operated on at the district hospital, either by a general surgeon or general practitioner. Patients were more likely to receive surgery if they presented to a hospital with a general surgeon compared to a hospital with only general practitioners (75% vs 43%, p operation in a hospital with a general surgeon as opposed to a general practitioner. This provides evidence to support increasing the surgical workforce in district hospitals in order to increase surgical availability for patients.

  3. Common Fixed Points of Generalized Rational Type Cocyclic Mappings in Multiplicative Metric Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujahid Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present fixed point result of mappings satisfying a generalized rational contractive condition in the setup of multiplicative metric spaces. As an application, we obtain a common fixed point of a pair of weakly compatible mappings. Some common fixed point results of pair of rational contractive types mappings involved in cocyclic representation of a nonempty subset of a multiplicative metric space are also obtained. Some examples are presented to support the results proved herein. Our results generalize and extend various results in the existing literature.

  4. A concept paper: Using the outcomes of common surgical conditions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-08-03

    Aug 3, 2013 ... district surgical services in South Africa as part of a systematic quality ... become increasingly inequitable and cost-ineffective, implying that ... such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. Specific targets ... of healthcare and the processes of delivery of healthcare. The ... and able to differentiate. In addition ...

  5. Consumption of psychiatric drugs by patients of medical and surgical clinics in a general hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Shirama,Flavio Hiroshi; Miasso,Adriana Inocenti

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSES: to identify the prevalence of the use of psychiatric drugs among patients admitted to medical and surgical clinics of a general hospital, and also the factors related to the consumption of this type of medication. METHOD: this is a transversal, descriptive, correlational study with quantitative analysis. For the collection of data, there was use of structured interviews and also reference to medical files. RESULTS: there was confirmation of a high prevalence of users of psy...

  6. Nitrousoxide as a conscious sedative in minor oral surgical procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Mohan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrous oxide (N 2 O is the most commonly used inhalation anesthetic in dentistry and is commonly used in emergency centers and ambulatory surgery centers as well. When used alone, it is incapable of producing general anesthesia reliably. However, as a single agent, it has an impressive safety and is excellent for providing minimal and moderate sedation for apprehensive minor oral surgical procedure. In this article, action of N 2 O in overcoming the anxiety and pain of the patient during the minor oral surgery and its advantages and disadvantages, have been reviewed.

  7. Encounters for common illnesses in general practice increased in obese patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wayenburg, van C.A.M.; Lerniengre, M.B.T.; Reenen-Schimmel, van A.H.; Bor, J.H.J.; Bakx, J.C.; Staveren, van W.A.; Weel, van C.; Binsbergen, van J.J.

    2008-01-01

    Background. Obese patients are known to have more chronic medical conditions. Objective. To compare the frequency of encounter for episodes of the 10 most common illnesses in general practice between obese and non-overweight patients. Methods. Data were derived from the Continuous Morbidity

  8. Dental management of hemophiliac child under general anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayen, R; Hariharan, V S; Elavazhagan, N; Kamalendran, N; Varadarajan, R

    2011-01-01

    Hemophilia is the most common inherited bleeding disorder. Hemophilic patients should be cosidered as special patients. There is no contraindication to general dental treatment for hemophiliacs, as they generally do not involve bleeding. But caution must be used with any surgical procedures that involve the local and general anesthesia. Such patients should always be managed in the setting of specialized units with appropriate clinical expertise and laboratory support. Recent advances in the management of hemophilia have enabled many hemophiliac patients to receive surgical dental procedures in an outpatient dental care on a routine basis. The purpose of this case report is to provide a few management strategies when providing full mouth rehabilitation under anesthesia and replacement therapies that are available. In addition, overviews of possible complication that may be encountered when providing such treatment are discussed here.

  9. Dental management of hemophiliac child under general anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Rayen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemophilia is the most common inherited bleeding disorder. Hemophilic patients should be cosidered as special patients. There is no contraindication to general dental treatment for hemophiliacs, as they generally do not involve bleeding. But caution must be used with any surgical procedures that involve the local and general anesthesia. Such patients should always be managed in the setting of specialized units with appropriate clinical expertise and laboratory support. Recent advances in the management of hemophilia have enabled many hemophiliac patients to receive surgical dental procedures in an outpatient dental care on a routine basis. The purpose of this case report is to provide a few management strategies when providing full mouth rehabilitation under anesthesia and replacement therapies that are available. In addition, overviews of possible complication that may be encountered when providing such treatment are discussed here.

  10. Surgical Navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azarmehr, Iman; Stokbro, Kasper; Bell, R. Bryan

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This systematic review investigates the most common indications, treatments, and outcomes of surgical navigation (SN) published from 2010 to 2015. The evolution of SN and its application in oral and maxillofacial surgery have rapidly developed over recent years, and therapeutic indicatio...

  11. A CLINICAL AND SURGICAL STUDY OF INCISIONAL HERNIAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kethavath Changa Thavarya Naik

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Incisions through the abdominal wall are based on anatomical principles. The intra-abdominal pressure is considerable and the surgeon aims at leaving the abdominal wall as strong as possible after operation, otherwise there exists a very real fear that portions of the abdominal contents may leave the abdominal cavity through the weak area, which are caused by a badly placed incision resulting in a condition known as scar incisional or ventral hernia. This study is intended to understand the clinical and surgical factors that may have been a contributory factor for the formation of the incisional hernias and also the treatment modality that is commonly employed to correct the discontinuity. This study is intended to help the practicing surgeons and also the young budding surgeons to understand the disease in detail. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was done in the Department of General Surgery, RIMS Medical College, Ongole. Sixty patients who returned after undergoing the surgical procedures were included in the study. The study included 15 males and 45 females. The study was done from January 2014 to December 2016. RESULTS In the present study, the mean age of the total population was found to be 48.23 years. The female counterpart was found to be three times higher than that when compared to the males. The symptoms that tend to increase the intra-abdominal pressure tends to increase the mishap. The condition is more common in the early stages post-surgery. CONCLUSION In this study, the demographic pattern and the most common clinical and surgical factors that is thought to be directly involved with the condition has been reported.

  12. Surgical treatment of primary gynecomastia in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Sebastian; Hirsch, Tobias; Hirche, Christoph; Kiefer, Jurij; Kueckelhaus, Maximilian; Germann, Günter; Reichenberger, Matthias A

    2014-06-01

    Idiopathic gynecomastia is a common diagnosis in children and adolescents. Though medical treatments reveal potentially harmful side effects, surgical interventions are performable in numerous techniques. In children and adolescents, only minimal evidence exists. This retrospective study presents our experiences with two common surgical techniques, namely subcutaneous mastectomy and combination with liposuction. This retrospective study included all patients gynecomastia. Height, weight and grade of gynecomastia according to Simon's classification before surgery were reviewed in all patients' files. Additionally, duration of surgery, inpatient stay and postoperative complications were documented. Follow-up examinations were performed with assessment of scar formation, numbness and retraction of the nipple region. Furthermore, patients were asked to report on general satisfaction with surgery (satisfactory/not satisfactory) and esthetic outcome on a numeric scale (1 = good, 6 = bad). 37 patients underwent surgery for verified idiopathic gynecomastia. Grade of gynecomastia was I° in 13.5% (n = 5), II° in 40.5% (n = 15) and III° in 46% (n = 17) of cases. Subcutaneous mastectomy was applied in 11 patients (group I, 30%) and both subcutaneous mastectomy and liposuction in 26 patients (group II, 70.3%). Postoperative complications occurred in two patients. Long-term follow-up was performed in 32 patients after a median of 34 months (range 6-96 months). Hypertrophic scar formation was seen in one patient (3%) and nipple retraction in two patients (5%). Recurrence of gynecomastia occurred in two patients (5%). Patient rating was satisfactory in 9% of cases and esthetic outcome was received with a median of 2.0 (1-5). In comparing both surgical techniques, combination of mastectomy and liposuction revealed better results in every measure except for surgical duration (median 73 vs. 90 min). Surgical correction of gynecomastia remains a purely elective intervention. In

  13. Incidence of surgical-site infections and the validity of the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System risk index in a general surgical ward in Santa Cruz, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleto, Lorena; Pirard, Marianne; Boelaert, Marleen; Peredo, Remberto; Vargas, Reinerio; Gianella, Alberto; Van der Stuyft, Patrick

    2003-01-01

    To estimate the frequency of and risk factors for surgical-site infections (SSIs) in Bolivia, and to study the performance of the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) System risk index in a developing country. A prospective study with patient follow-up until the 30th postoperative day. A general surgical ward of a public hospital in Santa Cruz, Bolivia. Patients admitted to the ward between July 1998 and June 1999 on whom surgical procedures were performed. Follow-up was complete for 91.5% of 376 surgical procedures. The overall SSI rate was 12%. Thirty-four (75.6%) of the 45 SSIs were culture positive. A logistic regression model retained an American Society of Anesthesiologists score of more than 1 (odds ratio [OR], 1.87), a not-clean wound class (OR, 2.28), a procedure duration of more than 1 hour (OR, 1.81), and drain (OR, 1.98) as independent risk factors for SSI. There was no significant association between the NNIS System risk index and SSI rates. However, a "local" risk index constructed with the above cutoff points showed a linear trend with SSI (P < .001) and a relative risk of 3.18 for risk class 3 versus a class of less than 3. SSIs cause considerable morbidity in Santa Cruz. Appropriate nosocomial infection surveillance and control should be introduced. The NNIS System risk index did not discriminate between patients at low and high risk for SSI in this hospital setting, but a risk score based on local cutoff points performed substantially better.

  14. INTRA-ABDOMINAL INFECTION AND ACUTE ABDOMEN-EPIDEMIOLOGY, DIAGNOSIS AND GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF SURGICAL MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Dušan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Intra-abdominal infections are multifactorial and present an complex inflammatory response of the peritoneum to microorganisms followed by exudation in the abdominal cavity and systemic response Despite advances in management and critical care of patients with acute generalized peritonitis due to hollow viscus perforation, prognosis is still very poor, with high mortality rate. Early detection and adequate treatment is essential to minimize complications in the patient with acute abdomen. Prognostic evaluation of complicated IAI by modern scoring systems is important to assess the severity and the prognosis of the disease. Control of the septic source can be achieved either by nonoperative or operative means. Nonoperative interventional procedures include percutaneous drainages of abscesses. The management of primary peritonitis is non-surgical and antibiotic- treatment. The management of secondary peritonitis include surgery to control the source of infection, removal of toxins, bacteria, and necrotic tissue, antibiotic therapy, supportive therapy and nutrition. "Source control" is sine qua non of success and adequate surgical procedure involves closure or resection of any openings into the gastrointestinal tract, resection of inflamed tissue and drainage of all abdominal and pelivic collections.

  15. Deriving DICOM surgical extensions from surgical workflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgert, O.; Neumuth, T.; Gessat, M.; Jacobs, S.; Lemke, H. U.

    2007-03-01

    The generation, storage, transfer, and representation of image data in radiology are standardized by DICOM. To cover the needs of image guided surgery or computer assisted surgery in general one needs to handle patient information besides image data. A large number of objects must be defined in DICOM to address the needs of surgery. We propose an analysis process based on Surgical Workflows that helps to identify these objects together with use cases and requirements motivating for their specification. As the first result we confirmed the need for the specification of representation and transfer of geometric models. The analysis of Surgical Workflows has shown that geometric models are widely used to represent planned procedure steps, surgical tools, anatomical structures, or prosthesis in the context of surgical planning, image guided surgery, augmented reality, and simulation. By now, the models are stored and transferred in several file formats bare of contextual information. The standardization of data types including contextual information and specifications for handling of geometric models allows a broader usage of such models. This paper explains the specification process leading to Geometry Mesh Service Object Pair classes. This process can be a template for the definition of further DICOM classes.

  16. Surgical management of gynecomastia: 20 years' experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapid, O; Jolink, F

    2014-03-01

    Gynecomastia, breast hypertrophy in men, is a common finding. The diagnosis is clinical, and ancillary tests may be performed; however, there is no unanimity in the literature about their use or utility. The mainstay of management is conservative, with a minority of patients being operated on. The surgical treatment of gynecomastia is not restricted to one discipline and is performed by plastic, general, and pediatric surgeons. The aim of this study was to assess the experience treating gynecomastia in a university hospital and the practices of the different surgical disciplines in the diagnosis and surgical treatment of gynecomastia; this knowledge could be used for the formulation of guidelines and the allocation of health-care resources. a university medical center. A retrospective cohort study in which all records of patients operated on for gynecomastia over a 20-year period were retrieved. Data were obtained concerning patient demographics, responsible surgical discipline, the workup and etiology found, the surgical technique used, the occurrence of reoperations and revisions, and the use of pathological examination and its results. A total of 179 patients were treated. There was a difference between the patient groups operated on by the different disciplines regarding the indication, the workup, as well as in the operative techniques used. Plastic surgeons performed more bilateral operations than the other disciplines. Surgeons used more radiology and cytology testing. These results most probably represent differences in the population and pathologies treated. This is possibly due to a bias in the referrals by primary care physicians.

  17. Assessment of open operative vascular surgical experience among general surgery residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krafcik, Brianna M; Sachs, Teviah E; Farber, Alik; Eslami, Mohammad H; Kalish, Jeffrey A; Shah, Nishant K; Peacock, Matthew R; Siracuse, Jeffrey J

    2016-04-01

    General surgeons have traditionally performed open vascular operations. However, endovascular interventions, vascular residencies, and work-hour limitations may have had an impact on open vascular surgery training among general surgery residents. We evaluated the temporal trend of open vascular operations performed by general surgery residents to assess any changes that have occurred. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's database was used to evaluate graduating general surgery residents' cases from 1999 to 2013. Mean and median case volumes were analyzed for carotid endarterectomy, open aortoiliac aneurysm repair, and lower extremity bypass. Significance of temporal trends were identified using the R(2) test. The average number of carotid endarterectomies performed by general surgery residents decreased from 23.1 ± 14 (11.6 ± 9 chief, 11.4 + 10 junior) cases per resident in 1999 to 10.7 ± 9 (3.4 ± 5 chief, 7.3 ± 6 junior) in 2012 (R(2) = 0.98). Similarly, elective open aortoiliac aneurysm repairs decreased from 7.4 ± 5 (4 ± 4 chief, 3.4 ± 4 junior) in 1999 to 1.3 ± 2 (0.4 ± 1 chief, 0.8 ± 1 junior) in 2012 (R(2) = 0.98). The number of lower extremity bypasses decreased from 21 ± 12 (9.5 ± 7 chief, 11.8 ± 9 junior) in 1999 to 7.6 ± 2.6 (2.4 ± 1.3 chief, 5.2 + 1.8 junior) in 2012 (R(2) = 0.94). Infrapopliteal bypasses decreased from 8.1 ± 3.8 (3.5 ± 2.2 chief, 4.5 ± 2.9 junior) in 2001 to 3 ± 2.2 (1 ± 1.6 chief, 2 ± 1.6 junior) in 2012 (R(2) = 0.94). General surgery resident exposure to open vascular surgery has significantly decreased. Current and future graduates may not have adequate exposure to open vascular operations to be safely credentialed to perform these procedures in future practice without advanced vascular surgical training. Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Review of emerging surgical robotic technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Brian S; Armijo, Priscila R; Krause, Crystal; Choudhury, Songita A; Oleynikov, Dmitry

    2018-04-01

    The use of laparoscopic and robotic procedures has increased in general surgery. Minimally invasive robotic surgery has made tremendous progress in a relatively short period of time, realizing improvements for both the patient and surgeon. This has led to an increase in the use and development of robotic devices and platforms for general surgery. The purpose of this review is to explore current and emerging surgical robotic technologies in a growing and dynamic environment of research and development. This review explores medical and surgical robotic endoscopic surgery and peripheral technologies currently available or in development. The devices discussed here are specific to general surgery, including laparoscopy, colonoscopy, esophagogastroduodenoscopy, and thoracoscopy. Benefits and limitations of each technology were identified and applicable future directions were described. A number of FDA-approved devices and platforms for robotic surgery were reviewed, including the da Vinci Surgical System, Sensei X Robotic Catheter System, FreeHand 1.2, invendoscopy E200 system, Flex® Robotic System, Senhance, ARES, the Single-Port Instrument Delivery Extended Research (SPIDER), and the NeoGuide Colonoscope. Additionally, platforms were reviewed which have not yet obtained FDA approval including MiroSurge, ViaCath System, SPORT™ Surgical System, SurgiBot, Versius Robotic System, Master and Slave Transluminal Endoscopic Robot, Verb Surgical, Miniature In Vivo Robot, and the Einstein Surgical Robot. The use and demand for robotic medical and surgical platforms is increasing and new technologies are continually being developed. New technologies are increasingly implemented to improve on the capabilities of previously established systems. Future studies are needed to further evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of each robotic surgical device and platform in the operating suite.

  19. Surgical referral coordination from a first-level hospital: a prospective case study from rural Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Matthew; King, Caroline; Rajeev, Sindhya; Baruwal, Ashma; Schwarz, Dan; Schwarz, Ryan; Khadka, Nirajan; Pande, Sami; Khanal, Sumesh; Acharya, Bibhav; Benton, Adia; Rogers, Selwyn O; Panizales, Maria; Gyorki, David; McGee, Heather; Shaye, David; Maru, Duncan

    2017-09-25

    Patients in isolated rural communities typically lack access to surgical care. It is not feasible for most rural first-level hospitals to provide a full suite of surgical specialty services. Comprehensive surgical care thus depends on referral systems. There is minimal literature, however, on the functioning of such systems. We undertook a prospective case study of the referral and care coordination process for cardiac, orthopedic, plastic, gynecologic, and general surgical conditions at a district hospital in rural Nepal from 2012 to 2014. We assessed the referral process using the World Health Organization's Health Systems Framework. We followed the initial 292 patients referred for surgical services in the program. 152 patients (52%) received surgery and four (1%) suffered a complication (three deaths and one patient reported complication). The three most common types of surgery performed were: orthopedics (43%), general (32%), and plastics (10%). The average direct and indirect cost per patient referred, including food, transportation, lodging, medications, diagnostic examinations, treatments, and human resources was US$840, which was over 1.5 times the local district's per capita income. We identified and mapped challenges according to the World Health Organization's Health Systems Framework. Given the requirement of intensive human capital, poor quality control of surgical services, and the overall costs of the program, hospital leadership decided to terminate the referral coordination program and continue to build local surgical capacity. The results of our case study provide some context into the challenges of rural surgical referral systems. The high relative costs to the system and challenges in accountability rendered the program untenable for the implementing organization.

  20. [Surgical site infections: antibiotic prophylaxis in surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio, Angel

    2014-01-01

    Surgical site infections (SSI) are very common, and represent more than 20% of all hospital-acquired infections. SSIs are associated with a higher mortality, as well as to an extended hospital stay and costs, depending on the surgical procedure and type of SSI. Advances in control practices for these infections include improvement in operating room ventilation, sterilization methods, barriers, and surgical techniques, as well as in surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis. For the latter, the antimicrobial agent should: be active against the most common pathogens, be administered in an appropriate dosage and in a time frame to ensure serum and tissue concentrations over the period of potential contamination, be safe, and be administered over the shortest effective time period to minimize adverse events, development of resistances, and cost. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  1. Surgical management of failed endoscopic treatment of pancreatic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Kimberly A; Clark, Colby W; Vogel, Stephen B; Behrns, Kevin E

    2008-11-01

    Endoscopic therapy of acute and chronic pancreatitis has decreased the need for operative intervention. However, a significant proportion of patients treated endoscopically require definitive surgical management for persistent symptoms. Our aim was to determine which patients are likely to fail with endoscopic therapy, and to assess the clinical outcome of surgical management. Patients were identified using ICD-9 codes for pancreatic disease as well as CPT codes for endoscopic therapy followed by surgery. Patients with documented acute or chronic pancreatitis treated endoscopically prior to surgical therapy were included (N = 88). The majority of patients (65%) exhibited chronic pancreatitis due to alcohol abuse. Common indicators for surgery were: persistent symptoms, anatomy not amenable to endoscopic treatment and unresolved common bile duct or pancreatic duct strictures. Surgical salvage procedures included internal drainage of a pseudocyst or an obstructed pancreatic duct (46%), debridement of peripancreatic fluid collections (25%), and pancreatic resection (31%). Death occurred in 3% of patients. The most common complications were hemorrhage (16%), wound infection (13%), and pulmonary complications (11%). Chronic pancreatitis with persistent symptoms is the most common reason for pancreatic surgery following endoscopic therapy. Surgical salvage therapy can largely be accomplished by drainage procedures, but pancreatic resection is common. These complex procedures can be performed with acceptable mortality but also with significant risk for morbidity.

  2. Associations between common mental disorders and sexual dissatisfaction in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanwesenbeeck, W.M.A.; ten Have, M.; de Graaf, R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about the associations between common mental disorders and sexual dissatisfaction in the general population. Aims To assess the associations between the presence of 12-month and remitted (lifetime minus 12-month) mood, anxiety and substance use disorders and sexual

  3. SURGICAL TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH COLON CANCER IN DEPARTMENT FOR ABDOMINAL AND GENERAL SURGERY AT MARIBOR GENERAL HOSPITAL IN YEARS 1998–2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borut Gajzer

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this paper is to present and assess a surgical treatment of patients with colon cancer.Methods. All patients with colon cancer, who were operated in years 1998–2001, were included in the analysis. We have collected data including patients age, localization and stage of cancer, types of preformed procedures, postoperative mortality, disease recurrence and survival of the patients.Results. We have operated on 308 patients with histological evidence of colon cancer in abovementioned period. The average patients age was 66.5 years (SD = 11.1; 95% CI: 44.3– 88.7. Primary tumor was most commonly (36% located in sigmoid colon. UICC stages were as follows: stage I 34 patients, 11%; stage II 141, 46%; stage III 64, 21%; stage IV 69, 22%. We have performed 287 resections of colon (93% resectabillity, of these 214 (75% were potentially curative R0 resections. Share of urgent procedures was 21%. In the postoperative period 22 patients (7% have died. Postoperative mortality was significantly higher by urgent (19% compared to scheduled procedures (4% ( χ 2 = 16; df = 1; p = 0,005. In the observed time 22% of patients developed recurrent cancer. Mean survival rate of our patients was 1274 days or 3.5 years (SD = 191; 95% CI: 900–1648. Calculated overall five years survival rate was 45%.Conclusions. Planned and registered surgical treatment of patients with colon cancer, surgical specialization in colon surgery and adjuvant oncological treatment have shown the same incentive results, reflected in increased survival rate.

  4. Readmissions to Different Hospitals After Common Surgical Procedures and Consequences for Implementation of Perioperative Surgical Home Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Franklin; Epstein, Richard H; Sun, Eric C; Lubarsky, David A; Dexter, Elisabeth U

    2017-09-01

    We consider whether there should be greater priority of information sharing about postacute surgical resources used: (1) at skilled nursing facilities or inpatient rehabilitation hospitals to which patients are transferred upon discharge (when applicable) versus (2) at different hospitals where readmissions occur. Obtaining and storing data electronically from these 2 sources for Perioperative Surgical Home initiatives are dissimilar; both can be challenging depending on the country and health system. Using the 2013 US Nationwide Readmissions Database, we studied discharges of surgical diagnosis-related group (DRG) with US national median length of stay (LOS) ≥ 3 days and ≥ 10 hospitals each with ≥ 100 discharges for the Medicare Severity DRG. Nationwide, 16.15% (95% confidence interval [CI], 15.14%-17.22%) of discharges were with a disposition of "not to home" (ie, transfer to a skilled nursing facility or an inpatient rehabilitation hospital). Within 30 days, 0.88% of discharges (0.82%-0.95%) were followed by readmission and to a different hospital than the original hospital where the surgery was performed. Among all discharges, disposition "not to home" versus "to home" was associated with greater odds that the patient would have readmission within 30 days and to a different hospital than where the surgery was performed (2.11, 95% CI, 1.96-2.27; P < .0001). In part, this was because disposition "not to home" was associated with greater odds of readmission to any hospital (1.90, 95% CI, 1.82-1.98; P < .0001). In addition, among the subset of discharges with readmission within 30 days, disposition "not to home" versus "to home" was associated with greater odds that the readmission was to a different hospital than where the surgery was performed (1.20, 95% CI, 1.11-1.31; P < .0001). There was no association between the hospitals' median LOS for the DRG and the odds that readmission was to a different hospital (P = .82). The odds ratio per each 1 day decrease

  5. Anaesthesia for Ambulatory Paediatric Surgery: Common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Ambulatory surgical care accounts for over 70% of elective procedures in Northern America. Ambulatory paediatric surgical practice is not widespread in Nigeria. This report examined clinical indicators for quality care in paediatric ambulatory surgery using common outcomes after day case procedures as ...

  6. Surgical versus Non-surgical Management of Rotator Cuff Tears: Predictors of Treatment Allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Kweon, Christopher Y.; Gagnier, Joel Joseph; Robbins, Christopher; Bedi, Asheesh; Carpenter, James E.; Miller, Bruce S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Rotator cuff tears are a common shoulder disorder resulting in significant disability to patients and strain on the health care system. While both surgical and non-surgical management are accepted treatment options, little data exist to guide the surgeon in treatment allocation. Defining variables to guide treatment allocation may be important for patient education and counseling, as well as to deliver the most efficient care plan at the time of presentation. The objective of this...

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging metallic artifact of commonly encountered surgical implants and foreign material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland-Smith, James; Tilley, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) artifacts secondary to metallic implants and foreign bodies are well described. Herein, we provide quantitative data from veterinary implants including total hip arthroplasty implants, cranial cruciate repair implants, surgical screws, a skin staple, ligation clips, an identification microchip, ameroid constrictor, and potential foreign bodies including air gun and BB projectiles and a sewing needle. The objects were scanned in a gelatin phantom with plastic grid using standardized T2-weighted turbo-spin echo (TSE), T1-weighted spin echo, and T2*-weighted gradient recalled echo (GRE) image acquisitions at 1.5 T. Maximum linear dimensions and areas of signal voiding and grid distortion were calculated using a DICOM workstation for each sequence and object. Artifact severity was similar between the T2-weighted TSE and T1-weighted images, while the T2*-weighted images were most susceptible to artifact. Metal type influenced artifact size with the largest artifacts arising from steel objects followed by surgical stainless steel, titanium, and lead. For animals with metallic surgical implants or foreign bodies, the quantification of the artifact size will help guide clinicians on the viability of MRI. © 2012 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.

  8. Surgical ethics: surgical virtue and more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercler, Christian J

    2015-01-01

    The encounter between a patient and her surgeon is unique for several reasons. The surgeon inflicts pain upon a patient for the patient's own good. An operative intervention is irreducibly personal, such that the decisions about and performance of operations are inseparable from the idiosyncrasies of the individual surgeon. Furthermore, there is a chasm of knowledge between the patient and surgeon that is difficult to cross. Hence, training in the discipline of surgery includes the inculcation of certain virtues and practices to safeguard against abuses of this relationship and to make sure that the best interests of the patient are prioritized. The stories in this issue are evidence that in contemporary practice this is not quite enough, as surgeons reflect on instances they felt were ethically challenging. Common themes include the difficulty in communicating surgical uncertainty, patient-surgeon relationships, ethical issues in surgical training, and the impact of the technological imperative on caring for dying patients.

  9. Portsmouth physiological and operative severity score for the Enumeration of Mortality and morbidity scoring system in general surgical practice and identifying risk factors for poor outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Ashish; Nagpal, Nitin; Sidhu, D. S.; Singh, Amandeep; Tyagi, Anjali

    2017-01-01

    Background: Estimation of the outcome is paramount in disease stratification and subsequent management in severely ill surgical patients. Risk scoring helps us quantify the prospects of adverse outcome in a patient. Portsmouth-Physiological and Operative Severity Score for the Enumeration of Mortality and Morbidity (P-POSSUM) the world over has proved itself as a worthy scoring system and the present study was done to evaluate the feasibility of P-POSSUM as a risk scoring system as a tool in efficacious prediction of mortality and morbidity in our demographic profile. Materials and Methods: Validity of P-POSSUM was assessed prospectively in fifty major general surgeries performed at our hospital from May 2011 to October 2012. Data were collected to obtain P-POSSUM score, and statistical analysis was performed. Results: Majority (72%) of patients was male and mean age was 40.24 ± 18.6 years. Seventy-eight percentage procedures were emergency laparotomies commonly performed for perforation peritonitis. Mean physiological score was 17.56 ± 7.6, and operative score was 17.76 ± 4.5 (total score = 35.3 ± 10.4). The ratio of observed to expected mortality rate was 0.86 and morbidity rate was 0.78. Discussion: P-POSSUM accurately predicted both mortality and morbidity in patients who underwent major surgical procedures in our setup. Thus, it helped us in identifying patients who required preferential attention and aggressive management. Widespread application of this tool can result in better distribution of care among high-risk surgical patients. PMID:28250670

  10. Surgical virtual reality - highlights in developing a high performance surgical haptic device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custură-Crăciun, D; Cochior, D; Constantinoiu, S; Neagu, C

    2013-01-01

    Just like simulators are a standard in aviation and aerospace sciences, we expect for surgical simulators to soon become a standard in medical applications. These will correctly instruct future doctors in surgical techniques without there being a need for hands on patient instruction. Using virtual reality by digitally transposing surgical procedures changes surgery in are volutionary manner by offering possibilities for implementing new, much more efficient, learning methods, by allowing the practice of new surgical techniques and by improving surgeon abilities and skills. Perfecting haptic devices has opened the door to a series of opportunities in the fields of research,industry, nuclear science and medicine. Concepts purely theoretical at first, such as telerobotics, telepresence or telerepresentation,have become a practical reality as calculus techniques, telecommunications and haptic devices evolved,virtual reality taking a new leap. In the field of surgery barrier sand controversies still remain, regarding implementation and generalization of surgical virtual simulators. These obstacles remain connected to the high costs of this yet fully sufficiently developed technology, especially in the domain of haptic devices. Celsius.

  11. Surgical skills deficiencies and needs of rural general practitioners ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This open-access article is distributed under. Creative ... procedures performed in rural hospitals in Africa; and Framework for CPD ..... quality surgical care in rural areas is a challenge faced by the present .... Mullan F. The metrics of the physician brain drain. N Engl J Med ... Dare AJ, NgKamstra JS, Patra J, et al. Deaths ...

  12. Abdominal emergencies after liver transplantation: Presentation and surgical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaretti, Manuela; Dioguardi Burgio, Marco; Zarzavadjian Le Bian, Alban

    2017-11-01

    With an increasing number of liver transplantation (LT) and an enhanced overall survival, LT recipients are more likely to be admitted in emergency departments of general hospitals. Yet, in LT recipients, common but also benign symptoms may reveal a LT-related (or not) severe condition. To improve management of LT recipients by emergency physicians and general surgeons and potentially improve long-term outcomes, a clinical review was performed. Overall, CT scan and blood tests should be systematically performed. Immunosuppressive side effects should be excluded using blood tests. LT-related complications are more likely to occur during the first three months after LT, including mainly bile leak, arterial aneurysm, and pseudoaneurysm. Patients should be referred in emergency to tertiary centers. Non-LT-related complications and common abdominal conditions may also be diagnosed in LT recipients. Except in case of diffuse peritonitis or in hemodynamically unstable patients when surgical procedure should be performed, most conditions should be reassessed regarding the immunosuppressive treatment and the adhesive abdominal cavity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Recurrent vulvar carcinoma: complex surgical treatment via perineal excision and reconstruction with musculocutaneous flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoș Popa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Vulvar cancer is a malignant disease having a low frequency and with well-established surgical and oncological treatments based on the stage of the disease. The most important therapeutic problem encountered is represented by cases of perineal local regional recurrence, which are common in patients with large primary tumors and can occur even if the margins of the resection had no tumoral invasion. We present a case study of a 64-year-old patient diagnosed one year ago with squamous vulvar carcinoma (G3 for which a vulvectomy was performed after neoadjuvant radiotherapy. The patient later developed local recurrence with invasion of the anal sphincter, creating a delicate problem regarding a surgical approach. The size and the extent of the recurrent tumor required a complex surgical intervention using a mixed surgical team of general surgeons and plastic surgeons. Surgical intervention with a large excision of the recurrent cancer along with amputation of the inferior rectum via perineal route, and creation of a left iliac anus was performed. The perineal defect was covered via a musculocutaneous flap using the gracilis muscle. The immediate post-operative evolution was favorable.

  14. Surgical Pathology Bootcamp: A Military Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-17

    CAP 2018, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, March 17-23, 2018 14. ABSTRACT Surgical Pathology Bootcamp: A Military Experience Nathaniel Smith...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 17/03/2018 poster 03/17/2018-03/23/2018 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Surgical Pathology ...or its Components. Background A common complaint among pathology department faculty is the variable medical knowledge and histological experience

  15. Technical considerations for surgical intervention of Jones fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendicino, Robert W; Hentges, Matthew J; Mendicino, Michael R; Catanzariti, Alan R

    2013-01-01

    Jones fractures are a common injury treated by foot and ankle surgeons. Surgical intervention is recommended because of the high rate of delayed union, nonunion, and repeat fracture, when treated conservatively. Percutaneous intramedullary screw fixation is commonly used in the treatment of these fractures. We present techniques that can increase the surgical efficiency and decrease the complications associated with percutaneous delivery of internal fixation. Copyright © 2013 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. H-index and academic rank in general surgery and surgical specialties in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashfaq, Awais; Kalagara, Roshini; Wasif, Nabil

    2018-09-01

    H-index serves as an alternative to measure academic achievement. Our objective is to study the h-index as a measure of academic attainment in general surgery and surgical specialties. A database of all surgical programs in the United States was created. Publish or Perish software was used to determine surgeons h-index. A total of 134 hospitals and 3712 surgeons (79% male) were included. Overall, mean h-index was 14.9 ± 14.8. H-index increased linearly with academic rank: 6.8 ± 6.4 for assistant professors (n = 1557, 41.9%), 12.9 ± 9.3 for associate professors (n = 891, 24%), and 27.9 ± 17.4 for professors (n = 1170, 31.5%); P h-indices (18.7 ± 16.7 and 18.4 ± 17.6, respectively). Surgeons with additional postgraduate degrees, university affiliations and male had higher mean h-indices; P h-index and the number of publications (R2 = 0.817) and citations (R2 = 0.768). The h-index of academic surgeons correlates with academic rank and serves a potential tool to measure academic productivity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Surgical management of Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kim C; Hunt, Steven R

    2013-02-01

    Although medical management can control symptoms in a recurring incurable disease, such as Crohn's disease, surgical management is reserved for disease complications or those problems refractory to medical management. In this article, we cover general principles for the surgical management of Crohn's disease, ranging from skin tags, abscesses, fistulae, and stenoses to small bowel and extraintestinal disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. What Surgical Education the Speciality Offers? Perception of Role of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery by 1200 Healthcare Professionals, Students and the General Public in Hyderabad, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadepally, Ashwant Kumar; Sinha, Ramen

    2018-06-01

    To investigate the perception of Oral and maxillofacial surgery by healthcare professionals, students and general public. A questionnaire form was created that listed ten clinical situations, and given by hand to 1200 individuals, divided into six groups: group 1, medical professionals; group 2, Specialties of dentistry; group 3, general dentists; group 4, medical students; group 5, dental students; and group 6, general public, each comprising 200 individuals. Respondents were asked to indicate who they would expect to treat them if they had one of the specified conditions listed in the questionnaire. We present the results and current awareness levels of this simple questionnaire. The present study addresses the common issue raised by many authors, 'What surgical education the speciality offers?' especially to medical professionals, medical students and general public to enhance an appropriate referral. Most of the respondents in groups 2, 3 and 5 agreed that specific conditions listed in the questionnaire were within the domain of oral and maxillofacial surgery, but such response was not seen in groups 1, 4 and 6 ( p  oral and maxillofacial surgery was found to be 50.2%. The onus of creating and improving the awareness and perception of our specialty lies on oral and maxillofacial surgeon. Unified efforts at individual as well as global level will help achieve this goal.

  19. Predicted versus executed surgical orthognathic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falter, B; Schepers, S; Vrielinck, L; Lambrichts, I; Politis, C

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to analyse combined surgical-orthodontic treatment plans, compare them with the actual surgery performed, and define factors resulting in changes of the original plan during orthodontic pre-surgical preparation. The clinical files of 312 orthognathic surgery patients, operated between January 2008 and December 2010, were retrospectively reviewed. Of these 312 patients, 129 had a bimaxillary operation. One hundred sixty patients had osteotomy of the lower jaw only and 23 had osteotomy of the upper jaw only. Factors analysed in the study include Angle Class malocclusion, patient sex, and age. Lip-to-incisor relationship, overjet, overbite and midline deviations of the upper and lower jaw were recorded. Effects of surgical assisted rapid palatal expansion (SARPE) on the eventual surgery were also investigated. Reasons for changing the original treatment plan at the time of the finished pre-surgical-orthodontic alignment were analysed. The original treatment plan was changed in 42 of the 312 patients (13.5%). Changes occurred generally in case of a larger interval between set-up of the first treatment plan and the eventual operation (average 22.4 versus 16.4 months for patients with changed versus unchanged treatment plan, respectively). All Class I patients had surgery performed as planned. Class III patients had a significantly higher rate of altered treatment plan (27.3%) than Class II patients (7.6%). More men (52.4%) saw their treatment plan changed, although there were more women than men in the study population (59.6 versus 40.4%). One in seven patients (13.5%) had a different operation than was planned at the start of treatment. Class III patients with small overjet and overbite commonly have a treatment plan for a monomaxillary operation that, after decompensation, needs to be adapted to a bimaxillary operation. Copyright © 2012 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. VERTIGO AS AN ENT DISEASE : GENERAL PHYSICIAN AND THE COMMON MAN’S PERCEPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : To study consciousness amongst General Physicians and common people, on their perception of Vertigo related to ENT disease. METHODS : Study was conducted in two different places of Eastern India from 2006 to 2015 . The patients with complaints of vertigo attending Otorhinolaryngologists at the first instance or by GP referral were studied . General Physicians also underwent a survey through a questionnaire. RESULTS : From the last 9 years of data , we find a defin ite increment in the number of vertigo patients at our OPD along with an increase in consciousness amongst the general physicians, though majority of doctors still don't think Vertigo to be predominantly an ENT disease

  1. An evaluation of Irish general surgical research publications from 2000 to 2009.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Robertson, I J

    2010-12-01

    Maintaining a high standard of research, and being competitive in the funding application process requires a coordinated and focused research strategy. The first step in the formulation of such a strategy is the identification of those centres, and specifically those areas of study, in which Irish surgical research has previously performed strongly. The aim of this paper was to evaluate all surgical research produced in the Republic of Ireland in the first ten years of the new millennium.

  2. SAGES TAVAC safety and effectiveness analysis: da Vinci ® Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Shawn; Oleynikov, Dmitry; Gould, Jon; Azagury, Dan; Sandler, Bryan; Hutter, Matthew; Ross, Sharona; Haas, Eric; Brody, Fred; Satava, Richard

    2015-10-01

    The da Vinci(®) Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) is a computer-assisted (robotic) surgical system designed to enable and enhance minimally invasive surgery. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has cleared computer-assisted surgical systems for use by trained physicians in an operating room environment for laparoscopic surgical procedures in general, cardiac, colorectal, gynecologic, head and neck, thoracic and urologic surgical procedures. There are substantial numbers of peer-reviewed papers regarding the da Vinci(®) Surgical System, and a thoughtful assessment of evidence framed by clinical opinion is warranted. The SAGES da Vinci(®) TAVAC sub-committee performed a literature review of the da Vinci(®) Surgical System regarding gastrointestinal surgery. Conclusions by the sub-committee were vetted by the SAGES TAVAC Committee and SAGES Executive Board. Following revisions, the document was evaluated by the TAVAC Committee and Executive Board again for final approval. Several conclusions were drawn based on expert opinion organized by safety, efficacy, and cost for robotic foregut, bariatric, hepatobiliary/pancreatic, colorectal surgery, and single-incision cholecystectomy. Gastrointestinal surgery with the da Vinci(®) Surgical System is safe and comparable, but not superior to standard laparoscopic approaches. Although clinically acceptable, its use may be costly for select gastrointestinal procedures. Current data are limited to the da Vinci(®) Surgical System; further analyses are needed.

  3. An audit of generic prescribing in a general surgical department.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gleeson, M

    2013-01-17

    BACKGROUND: The Health Service Executive introduced a generic prescription policy to reduce costs. Despite this, generic prescription rates remain low. AIM: To audit in-patient prescription practice in a single surgical department and identify potential savings which could be realised by adherence to the generic prescribing policy. METHODS: Surgical in-patient charts were obtained at the point of discharge and their drug prescription information was recorded. RESULTS: 51 % of prescriptions involved a trade-name prescription where an appropriate generic equivalent existed. The cost implications for hospital and community patients were found to be greatly affected by substitution policies that exist at hospital pharmacy level. CONCLUSION: There is a need to promote greater adherence to generic prescribing amongst hospital doctors in line with international best practice. It can have a positive impact in terms of safe prescribing and can have cost implications at both hospital and community level.

  4. Anaesthesia for Surgical Outreach in a Rural Nigerian Hospital | Ilori ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Surgical outreach to rural areas is aimed at improving access to surgical treatment to a deprived community. The study reports the experience of a team consisting of specialist surgical and anaesthetic manpower during a five day surgical outreach at Ogoja General Hospital, Nigeria in 2010. This was on the ...

  5. Correlation Between Protein Intake and Nitrogen Balance of Surgical Patients in Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Installation, Sanglah General Hospital, Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Wiryana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: A cell injury from surgical stress in a trauma or a non-trauma case will induce a hyper metabolic response in which the protein degradation increases, the somatic protein synthesis decreases and the amino acid catabolism increases. Thus, the pyper metabolic response contributes to nitrogen loss in urine. This response, without an adequate nutrition, will lead an iatrogenic malnutrition and deterioration. A balance nitrogen formula through urinary urea nitrogen is one of many nutrition evaluation methods. This method aids in evaluating the daily nutrition status and it can be the baseline data for daily intake. Objective: To find a correlation between the protein intake and the nitrogen balance of the surgical patients in anesthesiology and intensive care installation, Sanglah General Hospital, Denpasar, Bali. Methods: Fifty-one surgical patients with trauma and non-trauma cases were observed for their protein intake for 2-3 days continuously. Moreover, they were evaluated for their nitrogen balance based on the urinary urea nitrogen per 24 hours for 2-3 days. For statistical analysis, we utilized Shapiro-Francia, Shapiro-Wilk, Spearman Frank correlation, two-sample t test, and multivariate regression analysis in Strata SE 12.1. Results: The correlation between the protein intake and the nitrogen balance on the first day was ra=0.50 (p<0.05, on the second day ra=0.70 (p<0,05, and on the third day ra=0.740 (p<0,05. Conclusions: There is a correlation between the protein intake and the nitrogen balance of surgical patients in Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Installation Sanglah General Hospital Denpasar. 

  6. A retrospective study comparing the accuracy of prehistology diagnosis and surgical excision of malignant melanomas by general practitioners and hospital specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhai, M; Hopster, D; Wakeel, R

    2010-01-01

    A retrospective study was carried out to compare the overall standard of surgical excision of malignant melanomas (MMs) between general practitioners (GPs) and hospital specialists before and after the introduction of the UK melanoma guidelines between 1989 and 2006. In total, 213 melanoma excision reports were examined and surgical excision margins recorded. The results showed a significant difference in the rate of adequate surgical excision margins (at all levels of Breslow thickness) between GPs and hospital specialists, with hospital specialists excising melanomas with safe surgical excision margins at a significantly higher rate compared with GPs. Since the introduction of the guidelines in 2002, GPs showed a significant improvement in the completeness of melanoma excision but remained poor at prehistology diagnosis and in particular at taking adequate excision margins. Implementation of the guidelines has not produced significant improvements in adequacy of excision margins in both primary and secondary care. The results show that hospital specialists maintained a high standard of prehistological diagnosis and completeness of excision throughout the time of the study, performing at a significantly higher standard compared with GPs. Our conclusions concur with the UK melanoma guidelines and the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence guidelines, which suggest that lesions suspicious for melanoma should be urgently referred to a dermatologist or plastic surgeon for surgical excision and should not be surgically excised in primary care, particularly if lesions have a Breslow thickness > 2 mm. We suggest that the new guidelines need to be more aggressively implemented in primary care and guidance introduced to improve the accuracy of diagnosis, with better training provided for GPs.

  7. Infantile hemangioma: pulsed dye laser versus surgical therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remlova, E.; Dostalova, T.; Michalusova, I.; Vranova, J.; Jelinkova, H.; Hubacek, M.

    2014-05-01

    Hemangioma is a mesenchymal benign tumor formed by blood vessels. Anomalies affect up to 10% of children and they are more common in females than in males. The aim of our study was to compare the treatment efficacy, namely the curative effect and adverse events, such as loss of pigment and appearance of scarring, between classical surgery techniques and laser techniques. For that reason a group of 223 patients with hemangioma was retrospectively reviewed. For treatment, a pulsed dye laser (PDL) (Rhodamine G, wavelength 595 nm, pulsewidth between 0.45 and 40 ms, spot diameter 7 mm, energy density 9-11 J cm-2) was used and the results were compared with a control group treated with classical surgical therapy under general anesthesia. The curative effects, mainly number of sessions, appearance of scars, loss of pigment, and relapses were evaluated as a marker of successful treatment. From the results it was evident that the therapeutic effects of both systems are similar. The PDL was successful in all cases. The surgery patients had four relapses. Classical surgery is directly connected with the presence of scars, but the system is safe for larger hemangiomas. It was confirmed that the PDL had the optimal curative effect without scars for small lesions (approximately 10 mm). Surgical treatment under general anesthesia is better for large hemangiomas; the disadvantage is the presence of scars.

  8. Surgical management of pain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    If these therapies fail, and with a thorough multidisciplinary approach involving carefully ... Generally, surgical pain management is divided into neuro- modulative .... 9 suggested. It is important to be sure that the underlying instability or.

  9. Incorporating simulation into gynecologic surgical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlrab, Kyle; Jelovsek, J Eric; Myers, Deborah

    2017-11-01

    Today's educational environment has made it more difficult to rely on the Halstedian model of "see one, do one, teach one" in gynecologic surgical training. There is decreased surgical volume, but an increased number of surgical modalities. Fortunately, surgical simulation has evolved to fill the educational void. Whether it is through skill generalization or skill transfer, surgical simulation has shifted learning from the operating room back to the classroom. This article explores the principles of surgical education and ways to introduce simulation as an adjunct to residency training. We review high- and low-fidelity surgical simulators, discuss the progression of surgical skills, and provide options for skills competency assessment. Time and money are major hurdles when designing a simulation curriculum, but low-fidelity models, intradepartmental cost sharing, and utilizing local experts for simulation proctoring can aid in developing a simulation program. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Patients' experiences of postoperative intermediate care and standard surgical ward care after emergency abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Thordis; Vester-Andersen, Morten; Nielsen, Martin Vedel

    2015-01-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To elicit knowledge of patient experiences of postoperative intermediate care in an intensive care unit and standard postoperative care in a surgical ward after emergency abdominal surgery. BACKGROUND: Emergency abdominal surgery is common, but little is known about how patie......, intermediate care patients felt hindered in doing so by continuous monitoring of vital signs. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Intermediate care may increase patient perceptions of quality and safety of care.......AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To elicit knowledge of patient experiences of postoperative intermediate care in an intensive care unit and standard postoperative care in a surgical ward after emergency abdominal surgery. BACKGROUND: Emergency abdominal surgery is common, but little is known about how...... patients experience postoperative care. The patient population is generally older with multiple comorbidities, and the short-term postoperative mortality rate is 15-20%. Thus, vigilant surgeon and nursing attention is essential. The present study is a qualitative sub-study of a randomised trial evaluating...

  11. Can SPECT change the surgical strategy in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iervolino, Leticia; Scalisse, Nilza Maria; Maeda, Sergio Setsuo, E-mail: leiervolino@hotmail.com [Discipline of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Faculdade de Medicina da Santa Casa de Sao Paulo (FMSCSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-06-15

    Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is the most common cause of hypercalcaemia in outpatients. It is more common in females, after menopause, and the prevalence is 1 to 4:1000 in the general population. Patients with PHPT have abnormal regulation of PTH secretion, resulting in elevated serum calcium and inappropriately high or normal PTH in relation to the calcium value. Sporadic PTH-secreting adenoma alone accounts for 90% of cases of PHPT, while multiglandular hyperplasia is more common in familial hyperparathyroidism syndromes (5%) and parathyroid carcinomas represent less than 1% of cases. Only after making sure there is functional autonomy of one or more parathyroid glands, localization imaging tests should be performed to guide a possible surgical procedure. It is important to highlight that these tests have limitations and can yield false-positive and false-negative results. There are cases in which the parathyroid gland is difficult to be located, requiring a combination of imaging methods for pre-operative localization, such as {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate, SPECT, SPECT/CT, and US. We describe the case of a 50-year-old female patient diagnosed with PHPT, who underwent a surgical procedure without success, with maintenance of hypercalcaemia and hyperparathyroidism. In this case, the hyper functioning parathyroid was located in the retrotracheal region only after scintigraphy combined with SPECT/CT were used. (author)

  12. Can SPECT change the surgical strategy in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iervolino, Leticia; Scalisse, Nilza Maria; Maeda, Sergio Setsuo

    2012-01-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is the most common cause of hypercalcaemia in outpatients. It is more common in females, after menopause, and the prevalence is 1 to 4:1000 in the general population. Patients with PHPT have abnormal regulation of PTH secretion, resulting in elevated serum calcium and inappropriately high or normal PTH in relation to the calcium value. Sporadic PTH-secreting adenoma alone accounts for 90% of cases of PHPT, while multiglandular hyperplasia is more common in familial hyperparathyroidism syndromes (5%) and parathyroid carcinomas represent less than 1% of cases. Only after making sure there is functional autonomy of one or more parathyroid glands, localization imaging tests should be performed to guide a possible surgical procedure. It is important to highlight that these tests have limitations and can yield false-positive and false-negative results. There are cases in which the parathyroid gland is difficult to be located, requiring a combination of imaging methods for pre-operative localization, such as 99m Tc-pertechnetate, SPECT, SPECT/CT, and US. We describe the case of a 50-year-old female patient diagnosed with PHPT, who underwent a surgical procedure without success, with maintenance of hypercalcaemia and hyperparathyroidism. In this case, the hyper functioning parathyroid was located in the retrotracheal region only after scintigraphy combined with SPECT/CT were used. (author)

  13. Surgical manifestations of filariasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subrahmanyam M

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgical manifestations of filariasis as seen in 150 cases over a period of three years in the department of Surgery, Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sevagram, Wardha are reviewed. The genital manifestations are more common than the elephantiasis in this endemic zone.

  14. Laparoscopic completion cholecystectomy and common bile duct exploration for retained gallbladder after single-incision cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroh, Matthew; Chalikonda, Sricharan; Chand, Bipan; Walsh, R Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Recent enthusiasm in the surgical community for less invasive surgical approaches has resulted in widespread application of single-incision techniques. This has been most commonly applied in laparoscopic cholecystectomy in general surgery. Cosmesis appears to be improved, but other advantages remain to be seen. Feasibility has been demonstrated, but there is little description in the current literature regarding complications. We report the case of a patient who previously underwent single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy for symptomatic gallstone disease. After a brief symptom-free interval, she developed acute pancreatitis. At evaluation, imaging results of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography demonstrated a retained gallbladder with cholelithiasis. The patient was subsequently referred to our hospital, where she underwent further evaluation and surgical intervention. Our patient underwent 4-port laparoscopic remnant cholecystectomy with transcystic common bile duct exploration. Operative exploration demonstrated a large remnant gallbladder and a partially obstructed cystic duct with many stones. Transcystic exploration with balloon extraction resulted in duct clearance. The procedure took 75 minutes, with minimal blood loss. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful. Final pathology results demonstrated a remnant gallbladder with cholelithiasis and cholecystitis. This report is the first in the literature to describe successful laparoscopic remnant cholecystectomy and transcystic common bile duct exploration after previous single-port cholecystectomy. Although inadvertent partial cholecystectomy is not unique to this technique, single-port laparoscopic procedures may result in different and significant complications.

  15. Heroic Measures for an American Hero: Attempting to Save the Life of General Douglas MacArthur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Theodore N

    2017-12-01

    General Douglas MacArthur was a towering public figure on an international stage for the first half of the 20th century. He was healthy throughout his life but developed a series of medical problems when he entered his 80s. This article reviews the General's medical care during two separate life-threatening medical crises that required surgical intervention. The first episode occurred in 1960 when MacArthur presented with renal failure due to an obstructed prostate. Four years later after his 84th birthday, MacArthur developed bile duct obstruction from common duct stones. He underwent an uncomplicated cholecystectomy and common duct exploration but developed variceal bleeding requiring an emergent splenorenal shunt. His terminal event was precipitated by strangulated bowel in long-ignored very large inguinal hernias. MacArthur died, despite state-of-the-art surgical intervention, due to renal failure and hepatic coma.

  16. Open core control software for surgical robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arata, Jumpei; Kozuka, Hiroaki; Kim, Hyung Wook; Takesue, Naoyuki; Vladimirov, B; Sakaguchi, Masamichi; Tokuda, Junichi; Hata, Nobuhiko; Chinzei, Kiyoyuki; Fujimoto, Hideo

    2010-05-01

    In these days, patients and doctors in operation room are surrounded by many medical devices as resulting from recent advancement of medical technology. However, these cutting-edge medical devices are working independently and not collaborating with each other, even though the collaborations between these devices such as navigation systems and medical imaging devices are becoming very important for accomplishing complex surgical tasks (such as a tumor removal procedure while checking the tumor location in neurosurgery). On the other hand, several surgical robots have been commercialized, and are becoming common. However, these surgical robots are not open for collaborations with external medical devices in these days. A cutting-edge "intelligent surgical robot" will be possible in collaborating with surgical robots, various kinds of sensors, navigation system and so on. On the other hand, most of the academic software developments for surgical robots are "home-made" in their research institutions and not open to the public. Therefore, open source control software for surgical robots can be beneficial in this field. From these perspectives, we developed Open Core Control software for surgical robots to overcome these challenges. In general, control softwares have hardware dependencies based on actuators, sensors and various kinds of internal devices. Therefore, these control softwares cannot be used on different types of robots without modifications. However, the structure of the Open Core Control software can be reused for various types of robots by abstracting hardware dependent parts. In addition, network connectivity is crucial for collaboration between advanced medical devices. The OpenIGTLink is adopted in Interface class which plays a role to communicate with external medical devices. At the same time, it is essential to maintain the stable operation within the asynchronous data transactions through network. In the Open Core Control software, several

  17. Surgical practice in a maximum security prison – unique and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The practice of general surgery in a prison population differs considerably from that in a general surgical practice. We audited surgical consultations at the Mangaung Correctional Centre from December 2003 to April 2009. We found a high incidence of foreign object ingestion and anal pathology. Understanding the medical ...

  18. Implementation of an electronic surgical referral service. Collaboration, consensus and cost of the surgeon – general practitioner Delphi approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augestad KM

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Knut Magne Augestad,1–3 Arthur Revhaug,1,3 Roar Johnsen,4 Stein-Olav Skrøvseth,2 Rolv-Ole Lindsetmo1,3 1Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, 2Department of Integrated Care and Telemedicine, University Hospital North Norway, Tromsø, Norway; 3Department of Colorectal Surgery, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio, USA; 4Department of Public Health and General Practice, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway Background: Poor coordination between levels of care plays a central role in determining the quality and cost of health care. To improve patient coordination, systematic structures, guidelines, and processes for creating, transferring, and recognizing information are needed to facilitate referral routines. Methods: Prospective observational survey of implementation of electronic medical record (EMR-supported guidelines for surgical treatment. Results: One university clinic, two local hospitals, 31 municipalities, and three EMR vendors participated in the implementation project. Surgical referral guidelines were developed using the Delphi method; 22 surgeons and seven general practitioners (GPs needed 109 hours to reach consensus. Based on consensus guidelines, an electronic referral service supported by a clinical decision support system, fully integrated into the GPs' EMR, was developed. Fifty-five information technology personnel and 563 hours were needed (total cost 67,000 £ to implement a guideline supported system in the EMR for 139 GPs. Economical analyses from a hospital and societal perspective, showed that 504 (range 401–670 and 37 (range 29–49 referred patients, respectively, were needed to provide a cost-effective service. Conclusion: A considerable amount of resources were needed to reach consensus on the surgical referral guidelines. A structured approach by the Delphi method and close collaboration between IT personnel, surgeons and primary care physicians were needed to

  19. Surgical Management of Iatrogenic Pigment Dispersion Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierlo, Camille Van; Pinto, Luis Abegão; Stalmans, Ingeborg

    2015-01-01

    Iatrogenic pigment dispersion syndrome generally originates from a repetitive, mechanical trauma to the pigmented posterior epithelium of the iris. This trauma can arise after intraocular surgery, most commonly due to an abnormal contact between the intraocular lens (IOL) and the iris. Whether surgical removal of this primary insult can lead to a successful intraocular pressure (IOP) control remains unclear. Case-series. Patients with IOP elevation and clinical signs of pigment dispersion were screened for a diagnosis of iatrogenic IOL-related pigment dispersion. Three patients in which the IOL or the IOL-bag complex caused a pigment dispersion through a repetitive iris chafing were selected. In two cases, replacement of a sulcus-based single-piece IOL (patient 1) or a sub-luxated in-the-bag IOL (patient 2) by an anterior-chamber (AC) iris-fixed IOL led to a sustained decrease in IOP. In the third case, extensive iris atrophy and poor anatomical AC parameters for IOL implantation precluded further surgical intervention. IOL-exchange appears to be a useful tool in the management of iatrogenic pigment dispersion glaucoma due to inappropriate IOL implantation. This cause-oriented approach seems to be effective in controlling IOP, but should be offered only if safety criteria are met. How to cite this article: Van Mierlo C, Abegao Pinto L, Stalmans I. Surgical Management of Iatrogenic Pigment Dispersion Glaucoma. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2015;9(1):28-32.

  20. Teaching surgery takes time: the impact of surgical education on time in the operating room

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinden, Christopher; Malthaner, Richard; McGee, Jacob; McClure, J. Andrew; Winick-Ng, Jennifer; Liu, Kuan; Nash, Danielle M.; Welk, Blayne; Dubois, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Background It is generally accepted that surgical training is associated with increased surgical duration. The purpose of this study was to determine the magnitude of this increase for common surgical procedures by comparing surgery duration in teaching and nonteaching hospitals. Methods This retrospective population-based cohort study included all adult residents of Ontario, Canada, who underwent 1 of 14 surgical procedures between 2002 and 2012. We used several linked administrative databases to identify the study cohort in addition to patient-, surgeon- and procedure-related variables. We determined surgery duration using anesthesiology billing records. Negative binomial regression was used to model the association between teaching versus nonteaching hospital status and surgery duration. Results Of the 713 573 surgical cases included in this study, 20.8% were performed in a teaching hospital. For each procedure, the mean surgery duration was significantly longer for teaching hospitals, with differences ranging from 5 to 62 minutes across individual procedures in unadjusted analyses (all p surgery duration, adjusting for patient-, surgeon- and procedure-related variables as well as the clustering of patients within surgeons and hospitals. Conclusion Our results show that a wide range of surgical procedures require significantly more time to perform in teaching than nonteaching hospitals. Given the magnitude of this difference, the impact of surgical training on health care costs and clinical outcomes should be a priority for future studies. PMID:27007088

  1. Effects of general anaesthesia on endocrine system of body in paediatric patients during surgical intervention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, N.

    1990-01-01

    A total of 50 children (mean age 7, range 2-12 years), undergoing minor to major surgical operations were evaluated for hormonal changes induced by anaesthesia 15 hormones i.e. GH, ACTH, OH, FISH, TSH, PTH, FT4, T3, prolactin, insulin estradiol, testosterone, aldosterone, progesterone, and cortisol were studies results obtained showed significant increase in the levels of GH, cortisol, aldosterone, prolactin, progesterone, and PTH at the time of induction of anaesthesia. Of these GH, prolactin and aldosterone levels showed further increase during surgery (maintenance of anaesthesia). Values of TSH, LH, FSH, FT4 and testosterone levels remained essentially unaffected at induction of anaesthesia, but showed significant rise during surgery (maintenance of anaesthesia). Serum levels of ACTH, insulin, estradiol, and T3 were basically unaffected by anaesthesia and surgery. Furthermore, increase in cortisol and PTH levels was more prominent in patients anaesthetized with halothane alone. In this group ACTH level recorded a decrease while in thiopentone, halothane+nitrous oxide anaesthesia group ACTH showed a significantly rise. Growth hormone and insulin response was significantly more prominent in patients undergoing major surgery as compared to others. These findings under score the importance of stress response resulting from general anaesthesia and surgical trauma in children, and brings into focus the need of careful pre and post operative monitoring of patients in this age group. (author)

  2. Analysing the operative experience of basic surgical trainees in Ireland using a web-based logbook

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lonergan, Peter E

    2011-09-25

    Abstract Background There is concern about the adequacy of operative exposure in surgical training programmes, in the context of changing work practices. We aimed to quantify the operative exposure of all trainees on the National Basic Surgical Training (BST) programme in Ireland and compare the results with arbitrary training targets. Methods Retrospective analysis of data obtained from a web-based logbook (http:\\/\\/www.elogbook.org) for all general surgery and orthopaedic training posts between July 2007 and June 2009. Results 104 trainees recorded 23,918 operations between two 6-month general surgery posts. The most common general surgery operation performed was simple skin excision with trainees performing an average of 19.7 (± 9.9) over the 2-year training programme. Trainees most frequently assisted with cholecystectomy with an average of 16.0 (± 11.0) per trainee. Comparison of trainee operative experience to arbitrary training targets found that 2-38% of trainees achieved the targets for 9 emergency index operations and 24-90% of trainees achieved the targets for 8 index elective operations. 72 trainees also completed a 6-month post in orthopaedics and recorded 7,551 operations. The most common orthopaedic operation that trainees performed was removal of metal, with an average of 2.90 (± 3.27) per trainee. The most common orthopaedic operation that trainees assisted with was total hip replacement, with an average of 10.46 (± 6.21) per trainee. Conclusions A centralised web-based logbook provides valuable data to analyse training programme performance. Analysis of logbooks raises concerns about operative experience at junior trainee level. The provision of adequate operative exposure for trainees should be a key performance indicator for training programmes.

  3. Computer-Assisted Technique for Surgical Tooth Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosamuddin Hamza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Surgical tooth extraction is a common procedure in dentistry. However, numerous extraction cases show a high level of difficulty in practice. This difficulty is usually related to inadequate visualization, improper instrumentation, or other factors related to the targeted tooth (e.g., ankyloses or presence of bony undercut. Methods. In this work, the author presents a new technique for surgical tooth extraction based on 3D imaging, computer planning, and a new concept of computer-assisted manufacturing. Results. The outcome of this work is a surgical guide made by 3D printing of plastics and CNC of metals (hybrid outcome. In addition, the conventional surgical cutting tools (surgical burs are modified with a number of stoppers adjusted to avoid any excessive drilling that could harm bone or other vital structures. Conclusion. The present outcome could provide a minimally invasive technique to overcome the routine complications facing dental surgeons in surgical extraction procedures.

  4. Definitions and general remarks on surgical pathology in the field of oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnould, L.

    2001-01-01

    In the field of oncology, surgical pathology analysis of biopsies or surgical specimens directly determines the care program of each patient. Without going into too much detail, we report here the description of different characteristics of neoplastic lesions, necessary or useful for the establishment of the care program of the patients. These macroscopic and microscopic analyses should result in the most precise possible diagnosis and should take into account a list of other factors which allow the development of an optimal strategy for therapy, and the establishment of prognosis of the tumor. These characteristics include properties of the tumor such as the size, shape, exact location, and the grade of the lesion, etc. They also concern the relationship of the tumor to certain structures like the basal membranes, the stroma reaction, the lymphatic vessels, the nerves, and so forth. The description of local and locoregional spreading, as well as the analysis of the surgical margins gives essential information as well. Finally, in certain cases, the description of modifications induced by neo-adjuvant therapy allows the evaluation of the treatment's efficacy. (author)

  5. Generalized Meir-Keeler Type ψ-Contractive Mappings and Applications to Common Solution of Integral Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Isik

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present article to introduce the notion of generalized Meir-Keeler type ψ-contractions and prove some coupled common fixed point results for such type of contractions. The theorems proved herein extend, generalize and improve some results of the existing literature. Several examples and an application to integral equations are also given in order to illustrate the genuineness of our results.

  6. The introduction of an acute physiological support service for surgical patients is an effective error reduction strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, D L; Kong, V Y; Naidoo, L C; Furlong, H; Aldous, C

    2013-01-01

    Acute surgical patients are particularly vulnerable to human error. The Acute Physiological Support Team (APST) was created with the twin objectives of identifying high-risk acute surgical patients in the general wards and reducing both the incidence of error and impact of error on these patients. A number of error taxonomies were used to understand the causes of human error and a simple risk stratification system was adopted to identify patients who are particularly at risk of error. During the period November 2012-January 2013 a total of 101 surgical patients were cared for by the APST at Edendale Hospital. The average age was forty years. There were 36 females and 65 males. There were 66 general surgical patients and 35 trauma patients. Fifty-six patients were referred on the day of their admission. The average length of stay in the APST was four days. Eleven patients were haemo-dynamically unstable on presentation and twelve were clinically septic. The reasons for referral were sepsis,(4) respiratory distress,(3) acute kidney injury AKI (38), post-operative monitoring (39), pancreatitis,(3) ICU down-referral,(7) hypoxia,(5) low GCS,(1) coagulopathy.(1) The mortality rate was 13%. A total of thirty-six patients experienced 56 errors. A total of 143 interventions were initiated by the APST. These included institution or adjustment of intravenous fluids (101), blood transfusion,(12) antibiotics,(9) the management of neutropenic sepsis,(1) central line insertion,(3) optimization of oxygen therapy,(7) correction of electrolyte abnormality,(8) correction of coagulopathy.(2) CONCLUSION: Our intervention combined current taxonomies of error with a simple risk stratification system and is a variant of the defence in depth strategy of error reduction. We effectively identified and corrected a significant number of human errors in high-risk acute surgical patients. This audit has helped understand the common sources of error in the general surgical wards and will inform

  7. Developing Common Competencies for Southeast Asian General Dental Practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuenjitwongsa, Supachai; Poolthong, Suchit; Bullock, Alison; Oliver, Richard G

    2017-09-01

    Current policy in Southeast Asian dental education focuses on high-quality dental services from new dental graduates and the free movement of dental practitioners across the region. The Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Dental Councils have proposed the "Common Major Competencies for ASEAN General Dental Practitioners" to harmonize undergraduate dental education. This article discusses how the ASEAN competencies were developed and established to assist the development of general dental practitioners with comparable knowledge, skills, and attitudes across ASEAN. The competencies were developed through four processes: a questionnaire about current national oral health problems, a two-round Delphi process that sought agreement on competencies, a panel discussion by representatives from ASEAN Dental Councils, and data verification by the representatives after the meeting. Key themes of the ASEAN competencies were compared with the competencies from the U.S., Canada, Europe, Australia, and Japan. A total of 33 competency statements, consistent with other regions, were agreed upon and approved. Factors influencing the ASEAN competencies and their implementation include oral health problems in ASEAN, new knowledge and technology in dentistry, limited institutional resources, underregulated dental schools, and uneven distribution of dental practitioners. The ASEAN competencies will serve as the foundation for further developments in ASEAN dental education including policy development, curriculum revision, quality assurance, and staff development. Collaboration amongst stakeholders is essential for successful harmonization of ASEAN dental education.

  8. Failed medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction: Causes and surgical strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchis-Alfonso, Vicente; Montesinos-Berry, Erik; Ramirez-Fuentes, Cristina; Leal-Blanquet, Joan; Gelber, Pablo E; Monllau, Joan Carles

    2017-01-01

    Patellar instability is a common clinical problem encountered by orthopedic surgeons specializing in the knee. For patients with chronic lateral patellar instability, the standard surgical approach is to stabilize the patella through a medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction. Foreseeably, an increasing number of revision surgeries of the reconstructed MPFL will be seen in upcoming years. In this paper, the causes of failed MPFL reconstruction are analyzed: (1) incorrect surgical indication or inappropriate surgical technique/patient selection; (2) a technical error; and (3) an incorrect assessment of the concomitant risk factors for instability. An understanding of the anatomy and biomechanics of the MPFL and cautiousness with the imaging techniques while favoring clinical over radiological findings and the use of common sense to determine the adequate surgical technique for each particular case, are critical to minimizing MPFL surgery failure. Additionally, our approach to dealing with failure after primary MPFL reconstruction is also presented. PMID:28251062

  9. Is the Relationship between Common Mental Disorder and Adiposity Bidirectional? Prospective Analyses of a UK General Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fezeu, Léopold K; Batty, G David; Batty, David G; Gale, Catharine R; Kivimaki, Mika; Hercberg, Serge; Czernichow, Sebastien

    2015-01-01

    The direction of the association between mental health and adiposity is poorly understood. Our objective was to empirically examine this link in a UK study. This is a prospective cohort study of 3 388 people (men) aged ≥ 18 years at study induction who participated in both the UK Health and Lifestyle Survey at baseline (HALS-1, 1984/1985) and the re-survey (HALS-2, 1991/1992). At both survey examinations, body mass index, waist circumference and self-reported common mental disorder (the 30-item General Health Questionnaire, GHQ) were measured. Logistic regression models were used to compute odds ratios (OR) and accompanying 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the associations between (1) baseline common mental disorder (QHQ score > 4) and subsequent general and abdominal obesity and (2) baseline general and abdominal obesity and re-survey common mental disorders. After controlling for a range of covariates, participants with common mental disorder at baseline experienced greater odds of subsequently becoming overweight (women, OR: 1.30, 1.03 - 1.64; men, 1.05, 0.81 - 1.38) and obese (women, 1.26, 0.82 - 1.94; men, OR: 2.10, 1.23 - 3.55) than those who were free of common mental disorder. Similarly, having baseline common mental health disorder was also related to a greater risk of developing moderate (1.57, 1.21 - 2.04) and severe (1.48, 1.09 - 2.01) abdominal obesity (women only). Baseline general or abdominal obesity was not associated with the risk of future common mental disorder. These findings of the present study suggest that the direction of association between common mental disorders and adiposity is from common mental disorder to increased future risk of adiposity as opposed to the converse.

  10. [Clinical application of Da Vinci surgical system in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhenyu

    2014-01-01

    Da Vinci robotic surgical system leads the development of minimally invasive surgical techniques. By using Da Vinci surgical robot for minimally invasive surgery, it brings a lot of advantages to the surgeons. Since 2008, Da Vinci surgeries have been performed in 14 hospitals in domestic cities such as Beijing and Shanghai. Until the end of 2012, 3 551 cases of Da Vinci robotic surgery have been performed, covering various procedures of various surgical departments including the department of general surgery, urology, cardiovascular surgery, thoracic surgery, gynecology, and etc. Robotic surgical technique has made remarkable achievements.

  11. Surgical Emphysema: A Rare Complication of a Simple Surgical Dental Extraction Without the Use of an Air-Driven Rotor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowans, Keegan; Patel, Muneer; Lewis, Khari

    2017-03-01

    Surgical emphysema is a rare complication of dental extractions, often associated with the use of high-speed air rotors. This report describes a case of extensive surgical emphysema following a simple surgical extraction of a LL6 under local anaesthetic. There was no use of air-driven handpieces during the procedure. The patient developed extensive surgical emphysema bi-laterally in both cervical neck and facial planes. After prophylactic antibiotics with careful monitoring in a secondary care setting, the patient made a full unremarkable recovery. Clinical relevance: Simple extraction of teeth is a procedure carried out daily by most general dental practitioners. However, the risk of surgical emphysema without the use of high-speed air rotors or instruments using pressurized air/water is not well known or documented.

  12. Quality of colonoscopy performance among gastroenterology and surgical trainees: a need for common training standards for all trainees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyden, J E; Doherty, G A; Hanley, A; McNamara, D A; Shields, C; Leader, M; Murray, F E; Patchett, S E; Harewood, G C

    2011-11-01

    Cecal intubation and polyp detection rates are objective measures of colonoscopy performance. Minimum cecal intubation rates greater than 90% have been endorsed by the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE) and the Joint Advisory Group (JAG) UK. Performance data for medical and surgical trainee endoscopists are limited, and we used endoscopy quality parameters to compare these two groups. Retrospective review of all single-endoscopist colonoscopies done by gastroenterology and surgical trainees ("registrars," equivalent to fellows, postgraduate year 5) with more than two years' endoscopy experience, in 2006 and 2007 at a single academic medical center. Completion rates and polyp detection rates for endoscopists performing more than 50 colonoscopies during the study period were audited. Colonoscopy withdrawal time was prospectively observed in a representative subset of 140 patients. Among 3079 audited single-endoscopist colonoscopies, seven gastroenterology trainees performed 1998 procedures and six surgery trainees performed 1081. The crude completion rate was 82%, 84% for gastroenterology trainees and 78% for surgery trainees (P gastroenterology trainees, and 84% for surgical trainees (P gastroenterology and surgical trainees, respectively (P gastroenterology trainees 14% and surgical trainees 9% (P = 0.0065). In the prospectively audited procedures, median withdrawal time was greater in the gastroenterology trainee group and polyp detection rates correlated closely with withdrawal time (r = 0.99). The observed disparity in endoscopic performance between surgical and gastroenterology trainees suggests the need for a combined or unitary approach to endoscopy training for specialist medical and surgical trainees. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Acute and chronic pancreatitis: surgical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzakovic, Alexander; Superina, Riccardo

    2012-08-01

    Pancreatitis is becoming increasingly prevalent in children, posing new challenges to pediatric health care providers. Although some general adult treatment paradigms are applicable in the pediatric population, diagnostic workup and surgical management of acute and chronic pancreatitis have to be tailored to anatomic and pathophysiological entities peculiar to children. Nonbiliary causes of acute pancreatitis in children are generally managed nonoperatively with hydration, close biochemical and clinical observation, and early initiation of enteral feeds. Surgical intervention including cholecystectomy or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography is often required in acute biliary pancreatitis, whereas infected pancreatic necrosis remains a rare absolute indication for pancreatic debridement and drainage via open, laparoscopic, or interventional radiologic procedure. Chronic pancreatitis is characterized by painful irreversible changes of the parenchyma and ducts, which may result in or be caused by inadequate ductal drainage. A variety of surgical procedures providing drainage, denervation, resection, or a combination thereof are well established to relieve pain and preserve pancreatic function. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Cost analysis of robotic versus laparoscopic general surgery procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Rana M; Frelich, Matthew J; Bosler, Matthew E; Gould, Jon C

    2017-01-01

    Robotic surgical systems have been used at a rapidly increasing rate in general surgery. Many of these procedures have been performed laparoscopically for years. In a surgical encounter, a significant portion of the total costs is associated with consumable supplies. Our hospital system has invested in a software program that can track the costs of consumable surgical supplies. We sought to determine the differences in cost of consumables with elective laparoscopic and robotic procedures for our health care organization. De-identified procedural cost and equipment utilization data were collected from the Surgical Profitability Compass Procedure Cost Manager System (The Advisory Board Company, Washington, DC) for our health care system for laparoscopic and robotic cholecystectomy, fundoplication, and inguinal hernia between the years 2013 and 2015. Outcomes were length of stay, case duration, and supply cost. Statistical analysis was performed using a t-test for continuous variables, and statistical significance was defined as p robotic procedures. Length of stay did not differ for fundoplication or cholecystectomy. Length of stay was greater for robotic inguinal hernia repair. Case duration was similar for cholecystectomy (84.3 robotic and 75.5 min laparoscopic, p = 0.08), but significantly longer for robotic fundoplication (197.2 robotic and 162.1 min laparoscopic, p = 0.01) and inguinal hernia repair (124.0 robotic and 84.4 min laparoscopic, p = ≪0.01). We found a significantly increased cost of general surgery procedures for our health care system when cases commonly performed laparoscopically are instead performed robotically. Our analysis is limited by the fact that we only included costs associated with consumable surgical supplies. The initial acquisition cost (over $1 million for robotic surgical system), depreciation, and service contract for the robotic and laparoscopic systems were not included in this analysis.

  15. Hard and soft tissue surgical complications in dental implantology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Shahid R

    2015-05-01

    This article discusses surgical complications associated with the placement of dental implants, specifically focusing on how they occur (etiology), as well as their management and prevention. Dental implant surgical complications can be classified into those of hard and soft tissues. In general, complications can be avoided with thorough preoperative treatment planning and proper surgical technique. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Generalizing the Arden Syntax to a Common Clinical Application Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    The Arden Syntax for Medical Logic Systems is a standard for encoding and sharing knowledge in the form of Medical Logic Modules (MLMs). Although the Arden Syntax has been designed to meet the requirements of data-driven clinical event monitoring, multiple studies suggest that its language constructs may be suitable for use outside the intended application area and even as a common clinical application language. Such a broader context, however, requires to reconsider some language features. The purpose of this paper is to outline the related modifications on the basis of a generalized Arden Syntax version. The implemented prototype provides multiple adjustments to the standard, such as an option to use programming language constructs without the frame-like MLM structure, a JSON compliant data type system, a means to use MLMs as user-defined functions, and native support of restful web services with integrated data mapping. This study does not aim to promote an actually new language, but a more generic version of the proven Arden Syntax standard. Such an easy-to-understand domain-specific language for common clinical applications might cover multiple additional medical subdomains and serve as a lingua franca for arbitrary clinical algorithms, therefore avoiding a patchwork of multiple all-purpose languages between, and even within, institutions.

  17. Advances in surgical treatment of chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Qingqiang; Yun, Lin; Roy, Manish; Shang, Dong

    2015-02-08

    The incidence of chronic pancreatitis (CP) is between 2 and 200 per 100,000 persons and shows an increasing trend year by year. India has the highest incidence of CP in the world at approximately 114 to 200 per 100,000 persons. The incidence of CP in China is approximately 13 per 100,000 persons. The aim of this review is to assist surgeons in managing patients with CP in surgical treatment. We conducted a PubMed search for "chronic pancreatitis" and "surgical treatment" and reviewed relevant articles. On the basis of our review of the literature, we found that CP cannot be completely cured. The purpose of surgical therapy for CP is to relieve symptoms, especially pain; to improve the patient's quality of life; and to treat complications. Decompression (drainage), resection, neuroablation and decompression combined with resection are commonly used methods for the surgical treatment of CP. Before developing a surgical regimen, surgeons should comprehensively evaluate the patient's clinical manifestations, auxiliary examination results and medical history to develop an individualized surgical treatment regimen.

  18. Surgical Management of Post-Prostatectomy Incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthi Satyanarayan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Post-prostatectomy incontinence (PPI is a common and significant issue that can affect the quality of life in men who are undergoing treatment for prostate cancer. While some patients opt for conservative management of their incontinence, many elect to undergo surgical treatment as a result of the significant impact to quality of life. The most commonly employed surgical techniques to address PPI are placement of a male sling or artificial urinary sphincter (AUS. Currently, the AUS continues to serve as the gold standard for management, with robust data concerning longitudinal outcomes available. However, in recent years, the various methods to place the male sling have emerged as viable, less complex alternatives that avoid the need for pump manipulation. In the present review, we discuss these main surgical treatment modalities for PPI, and focus on the selection criteria that may influence appropriate operative stratification of PPI patients. Indeed, an individualised, comprehensive assessment of baseline urinary function, age, radiation, prior surgeries, functional status, and other comorbidities must be considered in the context of shared decision-making between the treatment provider and the patient in determining the optimal approach to managing PPI.

  19. Trends in the Surgical Correction of Gynecomastia

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Rodger H.; Chang, Daniel K.; Siy, Richard; Friedman, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Gynecomastia refers to the enlargement of the male breast due to a proliferation of ductal, stromal, and/or fatty tissue. Although it is a common condition affecting up to 65% of men, not all cases require surgical intervention. Contemporary surgical techniques in the treatment of gynecomastia have become increasingly less invasive with the advent of liposuction and its variants, including power-assisted and ultrasound-assisted liposuction. These techniques, however, have been largely limited...

  20. Surgical treatment of chest instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitka, M.; Masek, M.

    2015-01-01

    Fractures of the ribs is the most common thoracic injury after blunt trauma. Chest wall instability (flail chest) is a common occurrence in the presence of multiple ribs fracture. Unilateral or bilateral fractures more ribs anteriorly or posteriorly will produce enough instability that paradoxical respiratory motion results in hypoventilation of an unacceptable degree. Open approach and surgical stabilisation of the chest preserved pulmonary function, improved pain control, minimized posttraumatic deformities and shorter back to work time. (author)

  1. A case of fascioliasis in common bile duct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, Soo Youn; Park, Cheol Min; Chung, Kyu Byung; Lee, Chang Hong; Park, Seung Chul; Choi, Sang Yong; Lim, Han Jong [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-10-15

    A case of Fascioliasis of common bile duct is confirmed by visualization of adult fluke. Fascioliasis caused by Fasciola hepatica, is common parasitic disease in cattle and sheep. Human is an accidental host. ERCP demonstrated irregular linear conglomerated filling defects in common bile duct. Through surgical intervention, we found adult flukes of F. hepatica and adenomatous hyperplasia of common bile duct.

  2. A case of fascioliasis in common bile duct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, Soo Youn; Park, Cheol Min; Chung, Kyu Byung; Lee, Chang Hong; Park, Seung Chul; Choi, Sang Yong; Lim, Han Jong

    1989-01-01

    A case of Fascioliasis of common bile duct is confirmed by visualization of adult fluke. Fascioliasis caused by Fasciola hepatica, is common parasitic disease in cattle and sheep. Human is an accidental host. ERCP demonstrated irregular linear conglomerated filling defects in common bile duct. Through surgical intervention, we found adult flukes of F. hepatica and adenomatous hyperplasia of common bile duct

  3. Age is not associated with increased surgical complications in patients after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jędrzejewski, Emil; Liszka, Maciej; Maciejewski, Marcin; Kowalewski, Piotr K; Walędziak, Maciej; Paśnik, Krzysztof; Janik, Michał R

    2018-03-01

    Age is considered as a risk factor in bariatric surgery. The observation was made on the basis of results from studies where patients underwent different type of surgery, but laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) was not among them. It is necessary to reevaluate the association of age with adverse events in the group of patients after LSG. To investigate the association of age with surgery-related adverse events in patients after LSG. Retrospective analysis of medical data was performed. The study involved 345 patients who underwent LSG in our institution between January 2013 and December 2014. The patients were subdivided by age into four groups according to quartiles. In 30-day follow-up adverse events were evaluated. We considered the presence of the following events as the endpoint of our study: death, medical events and surgical events. In general, we observed adverse events in 36 (10.4%) patients. The mortality rate in our study was 0.59%. Nineteen events were surgical and 18 medical. In 1 patient a surgical event was associated with a medical event. Bleeding was the most common surgical event and was observed in 17 (4.9%) cases. Age was not associated with surgical events (OR = 1.032, 95% CI: 0.991-1.075, p = 0.33) or medical events (OR = 0.997, 95% CI: 0.956-1.039, p = 0.89). The LSG is a safe bariatric procedure with low mortality. Bleeding is the most frequent surgical complication. Our findings suggest that age is not associated with increased risk of surgical or medical adverse events after LSG.

  4. ANAESTHESIA FOR OPHTHALMIC SURGICAL PROCEDURES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To review factors influencing the choice of anaesthesia for ophthalmic surgical procedures. ... as risk associated with general anaesthesia (8) they are more .... Wilson ME, Pandey SK, Thakur J. Paediatric cataract blindness in the ...

  5. Rates and risk factors of unplanned 30-day readmission following general and thoracic pediatric surgical procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polites, Stephanie F; Potter, Donald D; Glasgow, Amy E; Klinkner, Denise B; Moir, Christopher R; Ishitani, Michael B; Habermann, Elizabeth B

    2017-08-01

    Postoperative unplanned readmissions are costly and decrease patient satisfaction; however, little is known about this complication in pediatric surgery. The purpose of this study was to determine rates and predictors of unplanned readmission in a multi-institutional cohort of pediatric surgical patients. Unplanned 30-day readmissions following general and thoracic surgical procedures in children readmission per 30 person-days were determined to account for varied postoperative length of stay (pLOS). Patients were randomly divided into 70% derivation and 30% validation cohorts which were used for creation and validation of a risk model for readmission. Readmission occurred in 1948 (3.6%) of 54,870 children for a rate of 4.3% per 30 person-days. Adjusted predictors of readmission included hepatobiliary procedures, increased wound class, operative duration, complications, and pLOS. The predictive model discriminated well in the derivation and validation cohorts (AUROC 0.710 and 0.701) with good calibration between observed and expected readmission events in both cohorts (p>.05). Unplanned readmission occurs less frequently in pediatric surgery than what is described in adults, calling into question its use as a quality indicator in this population. Factors that predict readmission including type of procedure, complications, and pLOS can be used to identify at-risk children and develop prevention strategies. III. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The pregnant female surgical resident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shifflette V

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Vanessa Shifflette,1 Susannah Hambright,2 Joseph Darryl Amos,1 Ernest Dunn,3 Maria Allo4 1Associates in Surgical Acute Care, Methodist Dallas Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA; 2Methodist Surgical Associates, Methodist Dallas Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA; 3Graduate Medical Education - General Surgery, Methodist Dallas Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA; 4Santa Clara Valley Medical Center, San Jose, CA, USA Background: Surgery continues to be an intense, time-consuming residency. Many medical students decide against surgery as a profession due to the long work hours and family strain. The pregnant female surgical resident has an added stress factor compared to her male counterpart. Methods: We distributed an electronic, online 26-question survey to 32 general surgery programs in the southwestern region of the United States. Each program distributed our survey to the female surgical residents who had been pregnant during residency in the last 5 years. Each program was re-contacted 6 weeks after the initial contact. Most questions were in a 5-point Likert scale format. The responses were collected and analyzed using the Survey Monkey website. Results: An unvalidated survey was sent to 32 general surgery programs and 26 programs responded (81%. Each program was asked for the total number of possible responses from female residents that met our criteria (60 female residents. Seven of the programs (27% stated that they have had zero residents pregnant. We had 22 residents respond (37%. Over half of the residents (55% were pregnant during their 2nd or 3rd year of residency, with only 18% pregnant during a research year. Thirty-one percent had a lower American Board of Surgery In-Training Exam (ABSITE score. Ninety percent of the residents were able to take 4 weeks or more for maternity leave. Most of the residents (95% stated that they would do this again during residency given the opportunity, but many of the residents felt that returning back to work

  7. Effects of different types of anaesthesia (regional vs general) on serum NO and TNF-α levels in surgical patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hong

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of anesthesia on changes of serum NO and TNF-α levels in surgical patients. Methods: Serum NO (with biochemical method) and TNF-α (with RIA) levels were determined for 3 times in 31 patients operated under regional anesthesia and 31 patients operated under general anesthesia (both for benign gastric ulcer). The levels were measured before induction of anesthesia, at the beginning of operation, and 1 hr later. Results: In patients under regional anesthesia, both the NO and TNF-α levels increased significantly at the beginning of operation and, 1 hr later, though dropped, remained significantly higher than the levels before induction (P<0.05). NO significant changes of the levels were observed in patients under general anesthesia throughout the operation, and the levels were, as a whole, significantly lower than the levels under regional anesthesia (P<0.05). Conclusion: General anesthesia (combined intravenous and inhalation) could abolish the increase of serum NO and TNF-α levels duning operation. (authors)

  8. A national review of the frequency of minimally invasive surgery among general surgery residents: assessment of ACGME case logs during 2 decades of general surgery resident training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Morgan K; McAteer, Jarod P; Drake, F Thurston; Goldin, Adam B; Khandelwal, Saurabh; Gow, Kenneth W

    2015-02-01

    Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) has created a shift in how many surgical diseases are treated. Examining the effect on resident operative experience provides valuable insight into trends that may be useful for restructuring the requirements of resident training. To evaluate changes in general surgery resident operative experience regarding MIS. Retrospective review of the frequency of MIS relative to open operations among general surgery residents using the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education case logs for academic years 1993-1994 through 2011-2012. General surgery residency training among accredited programs in the United States. We analyzed the difference in the mean number of MIS techniques and corresponding open procedures across training periods using 2-tailed t tests with statistical significance set at P surgery has an increasingly prominent role in contemporary surgical therapy for many common diseases. The open approach, however, still predominates in all but 5 procedures. Residents today must become efficient at performing multiple techniques for a single procedure, which demands a broader skill set than in the past.

  9. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF 2 AGENTS, AIR AND DISTILLED WATER FOR INFLATION OF THE CUFFS OF ENDOTRACHEAL TUBES DURING LAPAROSCOPIC SURGICAL PROCEDURES UNDER GENERAL ANAESTHESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sistla Gopala Krishna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & AIM During Nitrous Oxide+ Oxygen anaesthesia and during laparoscopic surgeries using carbon dioxide for creating pneumoperitoneum, if cuff of endotracheal tube is inflated with air, cuff pressure can rise to dangerous limits and it can produce ischemia of tracheal mucosa. Hence distilled water as an alternative agent to air for inflation of cuffs of endotracheal tubes was used for our study. Our aim is to investigate the difference in increase of intra-cuff pressure with time during laparoscopic surgical procedures under general endotracheal anaesthesia with Nitrous oxide+ Oxygen+ relaxant technique when cuffs of endotracheal tube were inflated by air & distilled water. METHODS Fifty patients (n=50 undergoing different laparoscopic surgical procedures under general endotracheal anaesthesia were randomly divided into 2 groups. In group A, air was used & in group D, distilled water was used to inflate the cuffs of endotracheal tubes. General anaesthesia was given with Nitrous oxide+ Oxygen+ relaxant technique. The intra-cuff pressures of endotracheal tube cuffs were recorded in the beginning and at the end of laparoscopic surgical procedures. Increase of pressures with time were recorded and analysed. RESULTS In group in whom we inflated the cuffs with air, there was a significant increase in intra-cuff pressures with time and there was definite diffusion of gases into the cuffs. Increase of pressure with time was statistically highly significant (P=0.00001. But in group in whom we used distilled water to inflate the cuffs, there was no change in the volume of water used for inflation and water came out of cuffs at the end of the laparoscopic surgical procedures. No additional air could be aspirated from the cuffs at the end of laparoscopic surgeries in distilled water group, indicating that there was no diffusion of gases into the cuffs or the gases diffused got dissolved in distilled water. Hence there was no increase of volume

  10. Use of 0.5% bupivacaine with buprenorphine in minor oral surgical procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpal, Varun; Kaur, Tejinder; Kapila, Sarika; Bhullar, Ramandeep Singh; Dhawan, Amit; Kaur, Yashmeet

    2017-01-01

    Minor oral surgical procedures are the most commonly performed procedures by oral and maxillofacial surgeons. Performance of painless surgical procedure is highly appreciated by the patients and is possible through the use of local anesthesia, conscious sedation or general anesthesia. Postoperative pain can also be controlled by the use of opioids, as opioid receptors exist in the peripheral nervous system and offers the possibility of providing postoperative analgesia in the surgical patient. The present study compares the efficacy of 0.5% bupivacaine versus 0.5% bupivacaine with 0.3 mg buprenorphine in minor oral surgical procedures. The present study was conducted in 50 patients who required minor oral surgical procedures under local anesthesia. Two types of local anesthetic solutions were used- 0.5% bupivacaine with 1:200000 epinephrine in group I and a mixture of 39 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine with epinephrine 1:200000 and 1 ml of 300 μg buprenorphine (3 μg/kg)in group II. Intraoperative and postoperative evaluation was carried out for both the anesthetic solutions. The mean duration of postoperative analgesia in bupivacaine group (508.92 ± 63.30 minutes) was quite less than the buprenorphine combination group (1840.84 ± 819.51 minutes). The mean dose of postoperative analgesic medication in bupivacaine group (1.64 ± 0.99 tablets) was higher than buprenorphine combination group (0.80 ± 1.08 tablets). There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding the onset of action of the anesthetic effect and duration of anesthesia. Buprenorphine can be used in combination with bupivacaine for patients undergoing minor oral surgical procedures to provide postoperative analgesia for a longer duration.

  11. A Literature Review of Renal Surgical Anatomy and Surgical Strategies for Partial Nephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klatte, Tobias; Ficarra, Vincenzo; Gratzke, Christian; Kaouk, Jihad; Kutikov, Alexander; Macchi, Veronica; Mottrie, Alexandre; Porpiglia, Francesco; Porter, James; Rogers, Craig G; Russo, Paul; Thompson, R Houston; Uzzo, Robert G; Wood, Christopher G; Gill, Inderbir S

    2015-12-01

    A detailed understanding of renal surgical anatomy is necessary to optimize preoperative planning and operative technique and provide a basis for improved outcomes. To evaluate the literature regarding pertinent surgical anatomy of the kidney and related structures, nephrometry scoring systems, and current surgical strategies for partial nephrectomy (PN). A literature review was conducted. Surgical renal anatomy fundamentally impacts PN surgery. The renal artery divides into anterior and posterior divisions, from which approximately five segmental terminal arteries originate. The renal veins are not terminal. Variations in the vascular and lymphatic channels are common; thus, concurrent lymphadenectomy is not routinely indicated during PN for cT1 renal masses in the setting of clinically negative lymph nodes. Renal-protocol contrast-enhanced computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging is used for standard imaging. Anatomy-based nephrometry scoring systems allow standardized academic reporting of tumor characteristics and predict PN outcomes (complications, remnant function, possibly histology). Anatomy-based novel surgical approaches may reduce ischemic time during PN; these include early unclamping, segmental clamping, tumor-specific clamping (zero ischemia), and unclamped PN. Cancer cure after PN relies on complete resection, which can be achieved by thin margins. Post-PN renal function is impacted by kidney quality, remnant quantity, and ischemia type and duration. Surgical renal anatomy underpins imaging, nephrometry scoring systems, and vascular control techniques that reduce global renal ischemia and may impact post-PN function. A contemporary ideal PN excises the tumor with a thin negative margin, delicately secures the tumor bed to maximize vascularized remnant parenchyma, and minimizes global ischemia to the renal remnant with minimal complications. In this report we review renal surgical anatomy. Renal mass imaging allows detailed delineation of the

  12. Association of postdischarge complications with reoperation and mortality in general surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazaure, Hadiza S; Roman, Sanziana A; Sosa, Julie A

    2012-11-01

    To describe procedure-specific types, rates, and risk factors for postdischarge (PD) complications occurring within 30 days after 21 groups of inpatient general surgery procedures. Retrospective cohort study. American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program 2005 through 2010 Participant Use Data Files. A total of 551,510 adult patients who underwent one of 21 groups of general surgery procedures in the inpatient setting. Postdischarge complications, reoperation, and mortality. Of 551,510 patients (mean age, 54.6 years), 16.7% experienced a complication; 41.5% occurred PD. Of the PD complications, 75.0% occurred within 14 days PD. Proctectomy (14.5%), enteric fistula repair (12.6%), and pancreatic procedures (11.4%) had the highest PD complication rates. Breast, bariatric, and ventral hernia repair procedures had the highest proportions of complications that occurred PD (78.7%, 69.4%, and 62.0%, respectively). For all procedures, surgical site complications, infections, and thromboembolic events were the most common. Occurrence of an inpatient complication increased the likelihood of a PD complication (12.5% vs 6.2% without an inpatient complication; P surgery; those whose PD complication was preceded by an inpatient complication had the highest rates of reoperation (33.7%) and death (24.7%) (all P < .001). After adjustment, PD complications were associated with procedure type, American Society of Anesthesiologists class higher than 3, and steroid use. The PD complication rates vary by procedure, are commonly surgical site related, and are associated with mortality. Fastidious, procedure-specific patient triage at discharge as well as expedited patient follow-up could improve PD outcomes.

  13. Prevalence of Neoplastic Diseases in Pet Birds Referred for Surgical Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia F. Castro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neoplastic disease is common in pet birds, particularly in psittacines, and treatment should be primarily aimed at tumor eradication. Nineteen cases of pet birds submitted to diagnostic and/or therapeutic surgical procedures due to neoplastic disease characterized by the presence of visible masses were retrospectively analyzed; affected species, types of neoplasms and respective locations, and outcomes of surgical procedures were determined. All birds undergoing surgery belonged to the order Psittaciformes; the Blue-fronted parrot (Amazona aestiva was the prevalent species. Lipoma was the most frequent neoplasm in the sample studied. Most neoplasms affected the integumentary system, particularly the pericloacal area. Tumor resection was the most common surgical procedure performed, with high resolution and low recurrence rates.

  14. Prevalence of Neoplastic Diseases in Pet Birds Referred for Surgical Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Patrícia F.; Fantoni, Denise T.; Miranda, Bruna C.; Matera, Julia M.

    2016-01-01

    Neoplastic disease is common in pet birds, particularly in psittacines, and treatment should be primarily aimed at tumor eradication. Nineteen cases of pet birds submitted to diagnostic and/or therapeutic surgical procedures due to neoplastic disease characterized by the presence of visible masses were retrospectively analyzed; affected species, types of neoplasms and respective locations, and outcomes of surgical procedures were determined. All birds undergoing surgery belonged to the order Psittaciformes; the Blue-fronted parrot (Amazona aestiva) was the prevalent species. Lipoma was the most frequent neoplasm in the sample studied. Most neoplasms affected the integumentary system, particularly the pericloacal area. Tumor resection was the most common surgical procedure performed, with high resolution and low recurrence rates. PMID:26981315

  15. Surgical infections with Mycoplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi-Mazloum, Niels Donald; Prag, Jørgen Brorson; Jensen, J S

    1997-01-01

    Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum are common inhabitants of the human genital tract. Evidence for an aetiological role in pyelonephritis, pelvic inflammatory disease, post-abortion and post-partum fever has been presented. There are sporadic reports of Mycoplasma causing serious...... extragenital infection such as septicemia, septic arthritis, neonatal meningitis and encephalitis. We review 38 cases of surgical infections with Mycoplasma....

  16. Brain abscess: surgical experiences of 162 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forhad Hossain Chowdhury

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Brain abscess still poses a public health challenge in spite of the advent of modern neurosurgical techniques and antibiotics. Here, we present our surgical experiences and ultimate outcome in the management of brain abscess. Methods: Totally, 162 patients with proved brain abscess who underwent surgical treatment were included in this study. The prospectively recorded data of surgical management of brain abscess and the ultimate outcome (by Glasgow outcome scale were studied retrospectively. Results: Total number of cases was 162, of which 113 were acute pyogenic abscess while 49 were chronic abscess. Among the chronic abscess, 29 were chronic pyogenic abscess, 14 were tubercular, 3 aspergillus, and 3 abscesses were in malignant brain metastases. In acute cases, common clinical features were headache, fever, vomiting, focal deficit and seizure. In chronic abscesses, common clinical features were mild to moderate headache and progressive focal deficit. Seventy-three (45.06% patients had adjacent localized sinus, middle ear or cranial infection. The common predisposing factors included postneurosurgery, postpenetrating injury to brain, chronic suppurative otitis media, and congenital heart disease, infective endocarditis, sinusitis and sub optimum immuno-status. Frontal lobe involved in 30.2% cases, temporal lobe is next to involved. Single time burr hole aspiration in 111 (68.5% cases, two or more times burr hole aspiration were done in 34 (21% cases. Pus culture was negative in 129 (79.62% cases. Total number of death was 22 (13.58% cases. Complete resolution of abscess with complete recovery of preoperative neuro-deficit was seen in 80.86% cases and recovery with major neuro-deficit was observed in 5.55% cases. There is a significant association between Glasgow coma scale (GCS on admission and mortality in brain abscess. Conclusion: In most of the cases, pus culture did not yield growth of any causative organism. Mortality was not

  17. The general principles of the Chinese contract law from the perspective of an (English) Common lawyer

    OpenAIRE

    Twigg-Flesner, Christian

    2017-01-01

    This chapter will contrast the statement of general principles found in Arts.1-7 of the Chinese Contract Law (“CCL”) with the approach to general principles of contract law in the (English) common law. The particular purpose of this paper will be on how these two contract law regimes regard contractual freedom and the extent to which there are limitations to this. It will begin with a short summary account of the CCL’s general principles. The bulk of this paper will then set out the English c...

  18. Virtual reality technology and surgical training--a survey of general surgeons in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early, S A; Roche-Nagle, G

    2006-01-01

    Virtual Reality Technology (VRT) is a validated method of training in industry but only recently has found a place in the postgraduate surgical curriculum. We surveyed 143 Irish consultant surgeons to ascertain their opinions on this topical issue. The survey consisted of 22 questions to which the consultants were asked to respond by choosing from a 5-point Likert scale. Sixty-five per cent responded. A majority of 72% had seen VRT but only 47% had 'hands on' experience. Forty-six per cent believed that they were poorly informed regarding available technologies. As consultants became more informed about VRT significant differences were seen with regard to attitudes regarding the role of VR in skills in surgical training (p<0.05) and in the ability to define teaching objectives (p<0.005). Our survey suggests that the underuse of the current offerings is not due to a perceived lack of interest on the part of the surgical trainers. Suppliers of these programmes have a responsibility to adequately educate and collaborate with all parties involved to improve overall benefit from these simulators.

  19. Factors influencing incident reporting in surgical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreckler, S; Catchpole, K; McCulloch, P; Handa, A

    2009-04-01

    To evaluate the process of incident reporting in a surgical setting. In particular: the influence of event outcome on reporting behaviour; staff perception of surgical complications as reportable events. Anonymous web-based questionnaire survey. General Surgical Department in a UK teaching hospital. Of 203 eligible staff, 55 (76.4%) doctors and 82 (62.6%) nurses participated. Knowledge and use of local reporting system; propensity to report incidents which vary by outcome (harm, no harm, harm prevented); propensity to report surgical complications; practical and psychological barriers to reporting. Nurses were significantly more likely to know of the local reporting system and to have recently completed a report than doctors. The level of harm (F(1.8,246) = 254.2, pvs 53%, z = 4.633, psystems.

  20. Clinicopathological review of surgically removed appendix in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Babatunde M. Duduyemi

    2014-09-17

    Sep 17, 2014 ... It is the most common cause of acute surgical abdomen worldwide. ... Faculty of Medicine. Alexandria Journal of Medicine ... and sex distribution, nature of clinical signs and symptoms as .... radiological investigations.

  1. Post-traumatic Perineal Pubic Rami Protrusion: A Simple Surgical Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voon Victor

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Although pubic ramus fractures are common, they usually heal without surgical intervention and result in little long-term disability. We herein present two cases of symptomatic malunion of pubic rami fracture, which was successfully treated with a simple and safe surgical technique. The patients' local symptoms resolved afterwards.

  2. Evaluation of two surveillance methods for surgical site infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Haji Abdolbaghi

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Surgical wound infection surveillance is an important facet of hospital infection control processes. There are several surveillance methods for surgical site infections. The objective of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of two different surgical site infection surveillance methods. Methods: In this prospective cross sectional study 3020 undergoing surgey in general surgical wards of Imam Khomeini hospital were included. Surveillance methods consisted of review of medical records for postoperative fever and review of nursing daily note for prescription of antibiotics postoperatively and during patient’s discharge. Review of patient’s history and daily records and interview with patient’s surgeon and the head-nurse of the ward considered as a gold standard for surveillance. Results: The postoperative antibiotic consumption especially when considering its duration is a proper method for surgical wound infection surveillance. Accomplishments of a prospective study with postdischarge follow up until 30 days after surgery is recommended. Conclusion: The result of this study showed that postoperative antibiotic surveillance method specially with consideration of the antibiotic usage duration is a proper method for surgical site infection surveillance in general surgery wards. Accomplishments of a prospective study with post discharge follow up until 30 days after surgery is recommended.

  3. Neurologic Injury and Cerebral Blood Flow In Single Ventricles Throughout Staged Surgical Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Mark A.; Li, Christine; Elci, Okan U.; Pawlowski, Tom; Schwab, Peter J.; Wilson, Felice; Nicolson, Susan C.; Montenegro, Lisa M.; Diaz, Laura; Spray, Thomas L.; Gaynor, J William; Fuller, Stephanie; Mascio, Christopher; Keller, Marc S.; Harris, Matthew A.; Whitehead, Kevin K.; Bethel, Jim; Vossough, Arastoo; Licht, Daniel J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Single ventricle patients experience a high rate of brain injury and adverse neurodevelopmental outcome, however, the incidence of brain abnormalities throughout surgical reconstruction and its relationship with cerebral blood flow, oxygen delivery and carbon dioxide reactivity remains unknown. Methods Single ventricle patients were studied with MRI scans immediately prior to bidirectional Glenn (pre-BDG), prior to Fontan and then 3–9 months after Fontan reconstruction. Results One hundred and sixty eight consecutive subjects recruited into the project underwent 235 scans: 63 pre-BDG (mean age 4.8+1.7 months), 118 BDG (2.9+1.4 years) and 54 after Fontan (2.4+1.0 years). Non-acute ischemic white matter changes on T2 weighted imaging, focal tissue loss, and ventriculomegaly were all more commonly detected in BDG and Fontans compared to pre-BDG (P<0.05). BDG patients has significantly higher CBF than Fontan patients. The odds of discovering brain injury adjusting for surgical stage as well as 2 or more co-existing lesions within a patient all decreased (63–75% and 44% respectively) with increasing amount of cerebral blood flow (P<0.05). In general, there was no association of oxygen delivery (with the exception of ventriculomegaly in the BDG group) or carbon dioxide reactivity with neurological injury. Conclusion Significant brain abnormalities are commonly present in single ventricle patients and detection of these lesions increase as children progress through staged surgical reconstruction with multiple co-existing lesions more common earlier than later. In addition, this study demonstrated that BDG patients had greater CBF than Fontan patients and that there exists an inverse association of various indices of CBF with these brain lesions, however, CO2 reactivity, oxygen delivery (with one exception) were not associated with brain lesion development. PMID:28031423

  4. Emergence of a common generalized synchronization manifold in network motifs of structurally different time-delay systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suresh, R.; Senthilkumar, D.V.; Lakshmanan, M.; Kurths, J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We have identified that a common generalized synchronization manifold exist for symmetrically coupled structurally different time-delay systems with different orders. • We have provided a theoretical formulation for the existence of a common generalized synchronization manifold based on the auxiliary system approach. • We have pointed out the existence of a transition from partial to global generalized synchronization. • We have corroborated our results using the maximal transverse Lyapunov exponent, correlation coefficient, mutual false nearest neighbor method. - Abstract: We point out the existence of a transition from partial to global generalized synchronization (GS) in symmetrically coupled structurally different time-delay systems of different orders using the auxiliary system approach and the mutual false nearest neighbor method. The present authors have recently reported that there exists a common GS manifold even in an ensemble of structurally nonidentical scalar time-delay systems with different fractal dimensions and shown that GS occurs simultaneously with phase synchronization (PS). In this paper we confirm that the above result is not confined just to scalar one-dimensional time-delay systems alone but there exists a similar type of transition even in the case of time-delay systems with different orders. We calculate the maximal transverse Lyapunov exponent to evaluate the asymptotic stability of the complete synchronization manifold of each of the main and the corresponding auxiliary systems, which in turn ensures the stability of the GS manifold between the main systems. Further we estimate the correlation coefficient and the correlation of probability of recurrence to establish the relation between GS and PS. We also calculate the mutual false nearest neighbor parameter which doubly confirms the occurrence of the global GS manifold.

  5. Evolving issues in the prevention of surgical site infections.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quinn, A

    2009-06-01

    Surgical site infection is one of the more common causes of post-operative morbidity. Such infections contribute to prolonged recovery, delayed discharge and increasing costs to both patients and the health service. In the current climate increased emphasis is being placed on minimising the risks of acquiring or transmitting these nosocomial infections. This article reviews the current literature obtained from a Pubmed database search in relation to three specific aspects of surgical site infection: compliance with prophylactic antibiotics, post-discharge surveillance and novel methods for preventing surgical site infections. These topics represent areas where many institutions will find room for improvement in the prevention of surgical site infections. Tight adherence to prophylactic antibiotic guidelines, close followup of surgical wounds during and after hospital discharge, and attention to oxygenation status and the body temperature of patients may all prove to be useful adjuncts in significantly decreasing surgical site infections.

  6. Specific Clinical Profile and Risk Factors for Mortality in General Surgery Patients with Infections by Multi-Drug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Perez, Ines; Martin-Perez, Elena; Domingo-García, Diego; Garcia-Olmo, Damian

    2017-07-01

    The incidence of gram-negative multi-drug-resistant (MDR) infections is increasing worldwide. This study sought to determine the incidence, clinical profiles, risk factors, and mortality of these infections in general surgery patients. All general surgery patients with a clinical infection by gram-negative MDR bacteria were studied prospectively for a period of five years (2007-2011). Clinical, surgical, and microbiologic parameters were recorded, with a focus on the identification of risk factors for MDR infection and mortality. Incidence of MDR infections increased (5.6% to 15.2%) during the study period; 106 patients were included, 69.8% presented nosocomial infections. Mean age was 65 ± 15 years, 61% male. Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) Escherichia coli was the most frequent MDR bacteria. Surgical site infections and abscesses were the most common culture locations. The patients presented multiple pre-admission risk factors and invasive measures during hospitalization. Mortality was 15%, and related to older age (odds ratio [OR] 1.07), malnutrition (OR 13.5), chronic digestive conditions (OR 4.7), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (OR 3.9), and surgical re-intervention (OR 9.2). Multi-drug resistant infections in the surgical population are increasing. The most common clinical profile is a 65-year-old male, with previous comorbidities, who has undergone a surgical intervention, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and invasive procedures and who has acquired the MDR infection in the nosocomial setting.

  7. POSSUM--a model for surgical outcome audit in quality care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, K J; Yii, M K

    2003-10-01

    Comparative surgical audit to monitor quality of care should be performed with a risk-adjusted scoring system rather than using crude morbidity and mortality rates. A validated and widely applied risk adjusted scoring system, P-POSSUM (Portsmouth-Physiological and Operative Severity Score for the enUmeration of Mortality) methodology, was applied to a prospective series of predominantly general surgical patients at the Sarawak General Hospital, Kuching over a six months period. The patients were grouped into four risk groups. The observed mortality rates were not significantly different from predicted rates, showing that the quality of surgical care was at par with typical western series. The simplicity and advantages of this scoring system over other auditing tools are discussed. The P-POSSUM methodology could form the basis of local comparative surgical audit for assessment and maintenance of quality care.

  8. [The rational application of Da Vinci surgical system in thyroidectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Q Q

    2017-08-01

    Da Vinci surgical system is the most advanced minimally invasive surgical platform in the world, and this system has been widely used in cardiac surgery, urology surgery, gynecologic surgery and general surgery. Although the application of this system was relatively late in thyroid surgery, the number of thyroidectomy with Da Vinci surgical system is increasing quickly. Having reviewed recent studies and summarized clinical experience, compared with traditional open operation, the robotic thyroidectomy has the same surgical safety and effectiveness in selective patients with thyroid cancer. In this paper, several aspects on this novel operation were demonstrated, including surgical indications and contraindications, the approaches, surgical procedures and postoperative complications, in order to promote the rational application of Da Vinci surgical system in thyroidectomy.

  9. Strengthening Your Surgical Hand: Strengths-Based Profiling and Coaching of Surgical Trainees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A.L. Macafee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction As scientific and professional disciplines, medicine and surgery have a tendency to focus on deficiencies, namely what trainees do not know or are not good at doing. The philosophy of Positive Psychology and the notion of “Strengths” takes a different stance. It is an inherently positive process, seeing each trainee as an individual bringing a unique set of strengths to every situation. There is clear evidence from the commercial sector regarding improved performance and well-being when focusing on one's strengths. We were therefore keen to investigate its potential role in the global development of trainee surgeons. Methods Surgical trainees from Core Training 1 to Specialty Training 8 in one training region of the United Kingdom were invited to voluntarily undertake the online Strengthscope™ assessment tool. The computer-generated report was reviewed by an Occupational Psychologist and trainees were then invited to have a strengths-focused feedback discussion on that report, either face-to-face or via telephone. Results Thirty four surgical trainees ranging from CT1 to ST6 completed the tool and 28 undertook the voluntary feedback sessions. Decisiveness, self-improvement, efficiency, emotional control and critical thinking were common strengths identified. Less commonly represented were leading, creativity and developing others. Trainees found that the tool and feedback helped them identify their strengths and embrace them, rather than fitting the surgical mould. It further aided the recognition of strengths in-overdrive and for some trainees it helped explain difficulties they had experienced in previous jobs. It provided insight into individual motivations and character whilst also highlighting how others in the workplace might perceive them. Trainees liked the emphasis on the building up of positive attributes and utilizing innate skills and strengths. The feedback consultation from an accredited coach trained in the

  10. The effect of economic downturn on the volume of surgical procedures: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujihara, Nasa; Lark, Meghan E; Fujihara, Yuki; Chung, Kevin C

    2017-08-01

    Economic downturn can have a wide range of effects on medicine at both individual and national levels. We aim to describe these effects in relation to surgical volume to guide future planning for physician specialization, patient expectations in the face of economic crises, or estimating healthcare expenditure. We hypothesized that because of high out-of-pocket costs, cosmetic procedure volumes would be most affected by economic decline. A systematic review was conducted using MEDLINE, Embase, and ABI/INFORMS. The main search terms were "economic recession" and "surgical procedures, operative". Studies were included if surgical volumes were measured and economic indicators were used as predictors of economic conditions. Twelve studies were included, and the most common subject was cosmetic (n = 5), followed by orthopedic (n = 2) and cardiac surgeries (n = 2). The majority of studies found that in periods of economic downturn, surgical volume decreased. Among the eight studies using Pearson's correlation analysis, there were no significant differences between cosmetic procedures and other elective procedures, indicating that cosmetic procedures may display trends similar to those of non-cosmetic elective procedures in periods of economic downturn. Surgical volume generally decreased when economic indicators declined, observed for both elective and non-elective surgery fields. However, a few specific procedure volumes such as vasectomy and caesarean section for male babies increased during the economic downturn. Knowledge of these trends can be useful for future surgical planning and distribution of healthcare resources. Copyright © 2017 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Surgical Procedures and Clinical Considerations for Impacted Canines: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Torkzaban

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Impaction of canine teeth is a clinical problem whose treatment usually requires an interdisciplinary approach. After the maxillary third molar, the maxillary canine is the second-most commonly impacted tooth, with an incidence of 1% - 2.5%. Maxillary canines are more common in females than males. This study reviews the surgical treatments and orthodontic considerations for impacted canines exposure reported in previous studies. The clinician should be aware of variations in the surgical management of labially and palatally impacted canines, as well as the most common methods of canine in orthodontic application, and the implications of canine extraction. The different factors that affect these decisions are discussed.

  12. Evaluating the optimal timing of surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujagic, Edin; Zwimpfer, Tibor; Marti, Walter R; Zwahlen, Marcel; Hoffmann, Henry; Kindler, Christoph; Fux, Christoph; Misteli, Heidi; Iselin, Lukas; Lugli, Andrea Kopp; Nebiker, Christian A; von Holzen, Urs; Vinzens, Fabrizio; von Strauss, Marco; Reck, Stefan; Kraljević, Marko; Widmer, Andreas F; Oertli, Daniel; Rosenthal, Rachel; Weber, Walter P

    2014-05-24

    Surgical site infections are the most common hospital-acquired infections among surgical patients. The administration of surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis reduces the risk of surgical site infections . The optimal timing of this procedure is still a matter of debate. While most studies suggest that it should be given as close to the incision time as possible, others conclude that this may be too late for optimal prevention of surgical site infections. A large observational study suggests that surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis should be administered 74 to 30 minutes before surgery. The aim of this article is to report the design and protocol of a randomized controlled trial investigating the optimal timing of surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis. In this bi-center randomized controlled trial conducted at two tertiary referral centers in Switzerland, we plan to include 5,000 patients undergoing general, oncologic, vascular and orthopedic trauma procedures. Patients are randomized in a 1:1 ratio into two groups: one receiving surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis in the anesthesia room (75 to 30 minutes before incision) and the other receiving surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis in the operating room (less than 30 minutes before incision). We expect a significantly lower rate of surgical site infections with surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis administered more than 30 minutes before the scheduled incision. The primary outcome is the occurrence of surgical site infections during a 30-day follow-up period (one year with an implant in place). When assuming a 5% surgical site infection risk with administration of surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis in the operating room, the planned sample size has an 80% power to detect a relative risk reduction for surgical site infections of 33% when administering surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis in the anesthesia room (with a two-sided type I error of 5%). We expect the study to be completed within three years. The results of this

  13. Robotics in General Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Wall, James; Chandra, Venita; Krummel, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In summary, robotics has made a significant contribution to General Surgery in the past 20 years. In its infancy, surgical robotics has seen a shift from early systems that assisted the surgeon to current teleoperator systems that can enhance surgical skills. Telepresence and augmented reality surgery are being realized, while research and development into miniaturization and automation is rapidly moving forward. The future of surgical robotics is bright. Researchers are working to address th...

  14. Outcomes of Surgical Treatment for Anterior Tibial Stress Fractures in Athletes: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Zaira S; Raikin, Steven M; Harwood, Marc I; Bishop, Meghan E; Ciccotti, Michael G; Hammoud, Sommer

    2017-12-01

    Although most anterior tibial stress fractures heal with nonoperative treatment, some may require surgical management. To our knowledge, no systematic review has been conducted regarding surgical treatment strategies for the management of chronic anterior tibial stress fractures from which general conclusions can be drawn regarding optimal treatment in high-performance athletes. This systematic review was conducted to evaluate the surgical outcomes of anterior tibial stress fractures in high-performance athletes. Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4. In February 2017, a systematic review of the PubMed, MEDLINE, Cochrane, SPORTDiscus, and CINAHL databases was performed to identify studies that reported surgical outcomes for anterior tibial stress fractures. Articles meeting the inclusion criteria were screened, and reported outcome measures were documented. A total of 12 studies, published between 1984 and 2015, reporting outcomes for the surgical treatment of anterior tibial stress fractures were included in this review. All studies were retrospective case series. Collectively, surgical outcomes for 115 patients (74 males; 41 females) with 123 fractures were evaluated in this review. The overall mean follow-up was 23.3 months. The most common surgical treatment method reported in the literature was compression plating (n = 52) followed by drilling (n = 33). Symptom resolution was achieved in 108 of 123 surgically treated fractures (87.8%). There were 32 reports of complications, resulting in an overall complication rate of 27.8%. Subsequent tibial fractures were reported in 8 patients (7.0%). Moreover, a total of 17 patients (14.8%) underwent a subsequent procedure after their initial surgery. Following surgical treatment for anterior tibial stress fracture, 94.7% of patients were able to return to sports. The available literature indicates that surgical treatment of anterior tibial stress fractures is associated with a high rate of symptom resolution and return

  15. Pelvic Surgical Site Infections in Gynecologic Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark P. Lachiewicz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of surgical site infection (SSI remains the most common complication of gynecologic surgical procedures and results in significant patient morbidity. Gynecologic procedures pose a unique challenge in that potential pathogenic microorganisms from the skin or vagina and endocervix may migrate to operative sites and can result in vaginal cuff cellulitis, pelvic cellulitis, and pelvic abscesses. Multiple host and surgical risk factors have been identified as risks that increase infectious sequelae after pelvic surgery. This paper will review these risk factors as many are modifiable and care should be taken to address such factors in order to decrease the chance of infection. We will also review the definitions, microbiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of pelvic SSIs after gynecologic surgery.

  16. Hospital-acquired acute kidney injury in medical, surgical, and intensive care unit: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T B Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is a common complication in hospitalized patients. There are few comparative studies on hospital-acquired AKI (HAAKI in medical, surgical, and ICU patients. This study was conducted to compare the epidemiological characteristics, clinical profiles, and outcomes of HAAKI among these three units. All adult patients (>18 years of either gender who developed AKI based on RIFLE criteria (using serum creatinine, 48 h after hospitalization were included in the study. Patients of acute on chronic renal failure and AKI in pregnancy were excluded. Incidence of HAAKI in medical, surgical, and ICU wards were 0.54%, 0.72%, and 2.2% respectively ( P < 0.0001. There was no difference in age distribution among the groups, but onset of HAAKI was earliest in the medical ward ( P = 0.001. RIFLE-R was the most common AKI in medical (39.2% and ICU (50% wards but in the surgical ward, it was RIFLE-F that was most common (52.6%. Acute tubular necrosis was more common in ICU ( P = 0.043. Most common etiology of HAAKI in medical unit was drug induced (39.2%, whereas in surgical and ICU, it was sepsis (34% and 35.2% respectively. Mortality in ICU, surgical and medical units were 73.5%, 43.42%, and 37.2%, respectively ( P = 0.003. Length of hospital stay in surgical, ICU and medical units were different ( P = 0.007. This study highlights that the characters of HAAKI are different in some aspects among different hospital settings.

  17. Developing Surgical Antimicrobial Prophylaxis Interventions Using Theoretical Domains Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnar, Paul E; Senthinathan, Arrani; Nakamachi, Yoshiko; Backstein, David J; Steinberg, Marilyn; Morris, Andrew M

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Surgical site infections are common causes of healthcare-associated infections. Using surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis (SAP) is a complex process that can reduce these rates if performed correctly. While antimicrobial stewardship programs have developed guidelines for SAP, there has been less focus on understanding and modifying the behavioral and contextual factors required to optimize prophylaxis use. We performed chart reviews and workflow analyses to develop interven...

  18. Positive predictive value of cholescintigraphy in common bile duct obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecklitner, M.L.; Austin, A.R.; Benedetto, A.R.; Growcock, G.W.

    1986-01-01

    Technetium-99m DISIDA imaging was employed in 400 patients to differentiate obstruction of the common bile duct from medical and other surgical causes of hyperbilirubinemia. Sequential anterior images demonstrated variable degrees of liver uptake, yet there was no evidence of intrabiliary or extrabiliary radioactivity for at least 4 hr after injection in 25 patients. Twenty-three patients were surgically documented to have complete obstruction of the common bile duct. One patient had hepatitis, and another had sickle cell crisis without bile duct obstruction. The remaining patients had either partial or no obstruction of the common bile duct. We conclude that the presence of liver uptake without evident biliary excretion by 4 hr on cholescintigraphy is highly sensitive and predictive of total obstruction of the common bile duct

  19. Bacterial Agents Andantibiogram of Most Common Isolated Organisms from Hands of Surgical Team Members after Scrubbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PS Mohseni- Meybodi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Many post-surgical wound infections in hospitals cause morbidity and morality of patients and these are usually transmitted via hands of surgical personnel. The aim of the present study was to detect and antibiogram the bacterial agents following scrubbing of hands of surgical personnel before operation. Methods: Hands of 134 personnels of operation room were swabbed following scrubbing with antiseptic Betadine solution. Swab samples were inoculated on selective and differential media such as blood ager, McConky and manitol salt agar(MSA. Following incubation of media at 37c° for 24hr, bacterial species were identified using differential related tests. The isolated species were than antibiogramed and the results together with other data was analysed by SPSS software program. Results: Of the total of 134 cases, 81(60.4% were male and 53(39.6% female. The mean scrub time for each person was (206.1+/-103.2 seconds; 6 to 60 seconds base change. Increasing time of scrub was significantly correlated with decreasing rate of bacteria (P=0.003, (R=-0.254. Contamination was present in 129(96.3% cases following scrubbing. Maximum contamination was observed in nails (92.5%. Average number of bacteria for each individual was between 0 and 159. 62.6% of isolated bacteria were non- staphylococci and 7.7% were S. aureus. Vancomycin and ceftizoxim were the most sensitive, while penicillin was the least sensitive antibiotic. Conclusion: Results revealed that hand contamination was more than the expected standard level. Therefore, regarding the critical task of surgical personnel, training of all operation room staff is highly recommended to minimize the rate of contamination.

  20. Outcomes of surgical treatment of thyroid disease in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga S. Rogova

    2017-01-01

    postoperative complications such as hypoparathyroidism and paresis of the vocal folds were not identified. Adverse outcomes (disease recurrence, postoperative hypothyroidism were observed equally often after hemithyrodectomy and node enucleation. But the risk of recurrence of nodular goiter was significantly more common in children after node enucleation than after hemithyroidectomy and postsurgical hypothyroidism was more common in children with nodular goiter after hemithyrodectomy than after node enucleation. The frequency of adverse outcomes of surgical treatment of Graves’ disease in children was 14%. Complications were presented by post-surgical hypoparathyroidism and vocal cord paresis. All complications occurred only after thyroidectomy. When compared adverse outcomes of thyroidectomy were equally common in both nodular goiter and Graves ‘disease, but persistent dysfunction in the form of permanent hypoparathyroidism and permanent vocal cord paresis were more common in Graves’ disease than in nodular goiter.Conclusion. The results obtained demonstrate the heterogeneity of surgical treatment outcomes structure which depends on the surgical intervention volume.

  1. Open and Arthroscopic Surgical Treatment of Femoroacetabular Impingement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin D. Kuhns

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI is a common cause of hip pain, and when indicated, can be successfully managed through open surgery or hip arthroscopy. The goal of this review is to describe the different approaches to the surgical treatment of FAI. We present the indications, surgical technique, rehabilitation, and complications associated with (1 open hip dislocation, (2 reverse peri-acetabular osteotomy, (3 the direct anterior mini-open approach, and (4 arthroscopic surgery for femoroacetabular impingement.

  2. Surgical therapeutic management of perforated peptic ulcer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Karla de Sousa Almeida

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Perforated peptic ulcer is an emergency should be readily corrected by surgical approach to reduce potential damage and the risk of mortality associated with the extension frame. The option of handling most commonly used by surgeons is laparotomy, however, there is evidence pointing to approach laparoscopically like a viable, safe and with good results for their treatment. Therefore, it is appropriate to evaluate the data about each management and minimally invasive procedure, laparoscopy if overcomes the open surgical approach regarding the laparotomy regarding the treatment of patients with this condition.

  3. Continuous pulse oximetry in the general surgical ward: Nellcor N-200 versus Nellcor N-3000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, M; Lie, C; Rosenberg, J

    1999-01-01

    of drop-outs (loss of signal) was 13 (range 1-46) with the N-200 compared with nine (2-41) with the N-3000 (p = 0.06). The N-200 registered saturation values of 85% or below for 23% of the observation time compared with 6% of the observation time with the N-3000 pulse oximeter (p ... Symphony N-3000 with the Nellcor N-200 pulse oximeter, when monitoring patients in the general surgical ward. Twenty-two patients were monitored during unrestricted ward activities for a total of 275 h with a N-3000 and a N-200 pulse oximeter simultaneously. Data were analysed for lack of concordance...... between the two pulse oximeters with respect to frequency of registered hypoxaemic episodes and thus the amount of time spent in the alarm state. The median number of desaturation episodes with the N-200 was 18 (range 0-511) compared with four (range 0-476) with the N-3000 (p

  4. A tailored relocation stress intervention programme for family caregivers of patients transferred from a surgical intensive care unit to a general ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seul; Oh, HyunSoo; Suh, YeonOk; Seo, WhaSook

    2017-03-01

    To develop and examine a relocation stress intervention programme tailored for the family caregivers of patients scheduled for transfer from a surgical intensive care unit to a general ward. Family relocation stress syndrome has been reported to be similar to that exhibited by patients, and investigators have emphasised that nurses should make special efforts to relieve family relocation stress to maximise positive contributions to the well-being of patients by family caregivers. A nonequivalent control group, nonsynchronised pretest-post-test design was adopted. The study subjects were 60 family caregivers of patients with neurosurgical or general surgical conditions in the surgical intensive care unit of a university hospital located in Incheon, South Korea. Relocation stress and family burden were evaluated at three times, that is before intervention, immediately after transfer and four to five days after transfer. This relocation stress intervention programme was developed for the family caregivers based on disease characteristics and relocation-related needs. In the experimental group, relocation stress levels significantly and continuously decreased after intervention, whereas in the control group, a slight nonsignificant trend was observed. Family burden levels in the control group increased significantly after transfer, whereas burden levels in the experimental group increased only marginally and nonsignificantly. No significant between-group differences in relocation stress or family burden levels were observed after intervention. Relocation stress levels of family caregivers were significantly decreased after intervention in the experimental group, which indicates that the devised family relocation stress intervention programme effectively alleviated family relocation stress. The devised intervention programme, which was tailored to disease characteristics and relocation-related needs, may enhance the practicality and efficacy of relocation stress

  5. Failed medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction: Causes and surgical strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchis-Alfonso, Vicente; Montesinos-Berry, Erik; Ramirez-Fuentes, Cristina; Leal Blanquet, Joan; Gelber, Pablo-Eduardo; Monllau García, Juan Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Patellar instability is a common clinical problem encountered by orthopedic surgeons specializing in the knee. For patients with chronic lateral patellar instability, the standard surgical approach is to stabilize the patella through a medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction. Foreseeably, an increasing number of revision surgeries of the reconstructed MPFL will be seen in upcoming years. In this paper, the causes of failed MPFL reconstruction are analyzed: (1) incorrect surgical ...

  6. Comparison of the effects of sedation and general anesthesia in surgically assisted rapid palatal expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satilmis, Tulin; Ugurlu, Faysal; Garip, Hasan; Sener, Bedrettin C; Goker, Kamil

    2011-06-01

    To compare the effects of sedation and general anesthesia for surgically assisted rapid palatal expansion (SARPE). This randomized prospective study included 30 patients who were scheduled for SARPE, and was performed between January 2008 to February 2010 in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, Marmara University, Istanbul, Turkey. Patients were allocated into Group S - midazolam + fentanyl sedation (n=15), and Group G - general anesthesia (n=15). Hemodynamic parameters, duration of anesthesia, surgery, recovery time, time to discharge, visual analogue scale (VAS) pain scores at 30 minutes (min), one hour (hr), 4 hours, 12 hours, and 24 hours, first consumption of analgesic time, total amount of consumption of analgesics, patient and surgeon satisfaction, nausea, and vomiting were recorded. Analgesic time was significantly longer in Group S (p=0.008), and total analgesic consumption was significantly lower in Group S than in Group G (p=0.031). Patient satisfaction was statistically higher in Group S (p=0.035). At 30 min, one hr, and 12 hrs, VAS satisfaction scores in Group S were statistically lower than those in Group G, and at 4 hrs and 24 hrs there was no statistical difference in VAS scores for both groups. The use of sedation for outpatient SARPE resulted in lower pain scores at discharge, lower analgesic consumption, and greater patient satisfaction.

  7. Giant Condyloma Acuminatum: A Surgical Riddle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukla

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Giant condyloma acuminatum (GCA commonly known as Buschke-Lowenstein tumor (BLT is a rare sexually transmitted disease, which is always preceded by condyloma accuminata and linked to human papillomavirus (HPV. Most commonly affected sites are male and female genitalia, anal and perianal regions. Giant condyloma acuminatum is well-known as slow growing but locally destructive with a high rate of recurrence and increased frequency of malignant transformation. Surgical management is considered to be the best among all the options.

  8. Ophthalmology resident surgical competency: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binenbaum, Gil; Volpe, Nicholas J

    2006-07-01

    To describe the prevalence, management, and career outcomes of ophthalmology residents who struggle with surgical competency and to explore related educational issues. Fourteen-question written survey. Fifty-eight program directors at Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education-accredited, United States ophthalmology residency programs, representing a total of 2179 resident graduates, between 1991 and 2000. Study participants completed a mailed, anonymous survey whose format combined multiple choice and free comment questions. Number of surgically challenged residents, types of problems identified, types of remediation, final departmental decision at the end of residency, known career outcomes, and residency program use of microsurgical skills laboratories and applicant screening tests. One hundred ninety-nine residents (9% overall; 10% mean per program) were labeled as having trouble mastering surgical skills. All of the programs except 2 had encountered such residents. The most frequently cited problems were poor hand-eye coordination (24%) and poor intraoperative judgment (22%). Most programs were supportive and used educational rather than punitive measures, the most common being extra practice-laboratory time (32%), scheduling cases with the best teaching surgeon (23%), and counseling (21%). Nearly one third (31%) of residents were believed to have overcome their difficulties before graduation. Other residents were encouraged to pursue medical ophthalmology (22%) or to obtain further surgical training through a fellowship (21%) or a supervised practice setting (12%); these residents were granted a departmental statement of satisfactory completion of residency for Board eligibility. Twelve percent were asked to leave residency. Of reported career outcomes, 92% of residents were practicing ophthalmology, 65% as surgical and 27% as medical ophthalmologists. Ninety-eight percent of residency programs had microsurgical practice facilities, 64% had a formal

  9. Tympanosclerosis of the middle ear: radiologic-surgical correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Won Jin; Park, Dong Woo; Lee, Seung Ro; Seong, Jin Yong; Song, Soon Young; Hahm, Chang Kok; Kim, Yong Soo; Park, Choong Ki; Tae, Kyung

    1998-01-01

    Tympanosclerosis is a common problem causing conductive hearing loss accompanied by chronic otitis media. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the CT findings of tympanosclerosis, and correlate them with the surgical findings. The CT scans of 17 patients with surgically-proven tympanosclerosis and those of a control group of 34 patients with nontympanosclerotic chronic otitis media were reviewed. According to their location, they were assigned to one of three groups; tympanic membrane, epitympanum, or ossicles. Tympanosclerosis usually appears on CT as ossicular thickening, narrowing of the epitympanum, calcification of the tympanic membrane and/or tympanic cavity. CT is very helpful in evaluating ossicular involvement and determining the appropriate surgical treatment of tympanosclerosis. (author). 13 refs., 4 figs

  10. Tympanosclerosis of the middle ear: radiologic-surgical correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Won Jin; Park, Dong Woo; Lee, Seung Ro; Seong, Jin Yong; Song, Soon Young; Hahm, Chang Kok; Kim, Yong Soo; Park, Choong Ki; Tae, Kyung [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Medicine

    1998-02-01

    Tympanosclerosis is a common problem causing conductive hearing loss accompanied by chronic otitis media. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the CT findings of tympanosclerosis, and correlate them with the surgical findings. The CT scans of 17 patients with surgically-proven tympanosclerosis and those of a control group of 34 patients with nontympanosclerotic chronic otitis media were reviewed. According to their location, they were assigned to one of three groups; tympanic membrane, epitympanum, or ossicles. Tympanosclerosis usually appears on CT as ossicular thickening, narrowing of the epitympanum, calcification of the tympanic membrane and/or tympanic cavity. CT is very helpful in evaluating ossicular involvement and determining the appropriate surgical treatment of tympanosclerosis. (author). 13 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Improving Surgical Safety and Nontechnical Skills in Variable-Resource Contexts: A Novel Educational Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yihan; Scott, John W; Yi, Sojung; Taylor, Kathryn K; Ntakiyiruta, Georges; Ntirenganya, Faustin; Banguti, Paulin; Yule, Steven; Riviello, Robert

    2017-10-23

    A substantial proportion of adverse intraoperative events are attributed to failures in nontechnical skills. To strengthen these skills and improve surgical safety, the Non-Technical Skills for Surgeons (NOTSS) taxonomy was developed as a common framework. The NOTSS taxonomy was adapted for low- and middle-income countries, where variable resources pose a significant challenge to safe surgery. The NOTSS for variable-resource contexts (VRC) curriculum was developed and implemented in Rwanda, with the aim of enhancing knowledge and attitudes about nontechnical skills and promoting surgical safety. The NOTSS-VRC curriculum was developed through a rigorous process of integrating contextually appropriate values. It was implemented as a 1-day training course for surgical and anesthesia postgraduate trainees. The curriculum comprises lectures, videos, and group discussions. A pretraining and posttraining questionnaire was administered to compare knowledge and attitudes regarding nontechnical skills, and their potential to improve surgical safety. The setting of this study was in the tertiary teaching hospital of Kigali, Rwanda. Participants were residents of the University of Kigali. A total of 55 residents participated from general surgery (31.4%), obstetrics (25.5%), anesthesia (17.6%), and other surgical specialties (25.5%). In a paired analysis, understanding of NOTSS improved significantly (55.6% precourse, 80.9% postcourse, pskills would improve patient outcomes. Nontechnical skills must be highlighted in surgical training in low- and middle-income countries. The NOTSS-VRC curriculum can be implemented without additional technology or significant financial cost. Its deliberate design for resource-constrained settings allows it to be used both as an educational course and a quality improvement strategy. Our research demonstrates it is feasible to improve knowledge and attitudes about NOTSS through a 1-day course, and represents a novel approach to improving global

  12. The power of the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program--achieving a zero pneumonia rate in general surgery patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchshuber, Pascal R; Greif, William; Tidwell, Chantal R; Klemm, Michael S; Frydel, Cheryl; Wali, Abdul; Rosas, Efren; Clopp, Molly P

    2012-01-01

    The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) of the American College of Surgeons provides risk-adjusted surgical outcome measures for participating hospitals that can be used for performance improvement of surgical mortality and morbidity. A surgical clinical nurse reviewer collects 135 clinical variables including preoperative risk factors, intraoperative variables, and 30-day postoperative mortality and morbidity outcomes for patients undergoing major surgical procedures. A report on mortality and complications is prepared twice a year. This article summarizes briefly the history of NSQIP and how its report on surgical outcomes can be used for performance improvement within a hospital system. In particular, it describes how to drive performance improvement with NSQIP data using the example of postoperative respiratory complications--a major factor of postoperative mortality. In addition, this article explains the benefit of a collaborative of several participating NSQIP hospitals and describes how to develop a "playbook" on the basis of an outcome improvement project.

  13. Approach to Pediatric Patients during Surgical Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Seher Ünver; Meltem Yıldırım

    2013-01-01

    A child’s surgical period usually contains unpleasant and difficult experiences, for the child and the parents. The child in this period experiences greater anxiety and distress. On the other hand, pediatric patients have complex states that directly effects their perioperative care during. Because their perioperative care includes not only the knowledge of general surgical procedure and care of a patient in the operating room. It also includes the specific understanding of a child’s airway, ...

  14. Innovative Surgical Management of the Synovial Chondromatosis of Temporo-Mandibular Joints: Highly Conservative Surgical Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionna, Franco; Amantea, Massimiliano; Mastrangelo, Filiberto; Ballini, Andrea; Maglione, Maria Grazia; Aversa, Corrado; De Cecio, Rossella; Russo, Daniela; Marrelli, Massimo; Tatullo, Marco

    2016-07-01

    Synovial chondromatosis (SC) is an uncommon disease characterized by a benign nodular cartilaginous proliferation arising from the joint synovium, bursae, or tendon sheaths. Although the temporomandibular joint is rarely affected by neoplastic lesions, SC is the most common neoplastic lesion of this joint. The treatment of this disease consists in the extraoral surgery with a wide removal of the lesion; in this study, the authors described a more conservative intraoral surgical approach. Patient with SC of temporomandibular joint typically refer a limitation in the mouth opening, together with a persistent not physiological mandibular protrusion and an appearance of a neoformation located at the right preauricular region: the authors reported 1 scholar patient. After biopsy of the neoformation, confirming the synovial chondromatosis, the patient underwent thus to the surgical excision of the tumor, via authors' conservative transoral approach, to facilitate the enucleation of the neoformation. The mass fully involved the pterygo-maxillary fossa with involvement of the parotid lodge and of the right TMJ: this multifocal extension suggested for a trans-oral surgical procedure, in the light of the suspicion of a possible malignant nature of the neoplasm. Our intraoral conservative approach to surgery is aimed to reduce the presence of unaesthetic scars in preauricular and facial regions, with surgical results undoubtedly comparable to the traditional surgical techniques much more aggressive. Our technique could be a valid, alternative, and safe approach to treat this rare and complex kind of oncological disease.

  15. Pediatric hospitalist comanagement of surgical patients: structural, quality, and financial considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaport, David I; Rosenberg, Rebecca E; Shaughnessy, Erin E; Schaffzin, Joshua K; O'Connor, Katherine M; Melwani, Anjna; McLeod, Lisa M

    2014-11-01

    Comanagement of surgical patients is occurring more commonly among adult and pediatric patients. These systems of care can vary according to institution type, comanagement structure, and type of patient. Comanagement can impact quality, safety, and costs of care. We review these implications for pediatric surgical patients. © 2014 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  16. Surgical travellers: tapestry to Bayeux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedley-Whyte, John; Milamed, Debra R

    2014-09-01

    The planning for surgery in war was revisited in 1937 when Ian Fraser was elected a member of the Surgical Travellers. At their 1938 Surgical Travellers meeting in Vienna, Ian and Eleanor Fraser were evicted from their hotel room by the Nazis. The 1939 meeting in Belfast discussed the organization of surgery and the conduct of Emergency Medical Service Hospitals in the United Kingdom; the vast majority were to be under civilian government and military control. From 1943 lengthy and informative organizational meetings were held at least monthly under the chairmanship of Sir Alexander Hood, KBE, Head of the RAMC. Surgical Consultants, now Major Generals, Brigadiers or Full Colonels in the British and U.S. Armies stationed in the UK, prepared for the invasion of Europe. The allocation of medical, surgical, nursing and auxiliary responsibilities was delineated. Liaison with the RAF and US Army Air Force was close as it was with the proposed leaders, Ulstermen Brooke and Montgomery. Montgomery chose Arthur Porritt as Surgeon in Chief to Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force (SHAEF), and Eisenhower, General Albert W. Kenner. Just after D-Day, Porritt met Ian Fraser, who had waded in on Arromanches Beach. The triage and evacuation plans for Allied casualties had been controversial, particularly as regards Landing Ship Tanks (LSTs). The dispute with the Hood-selected surgeons on one side, against medical and surgical deployment of LSTs, and Admiral Ernest King and Winston Churchill on the other, favouring LST use for surgery and evacuation. King and Churchill were correct but total Allied air superiority allowed wide use of many of the Allies' Dakotas; 10,000 DC-3s were eventually in service. Supported by forty Allied combat planes to each Luftwaffe, the dispute about Landing Ship Tank use in about a fortnight became moot. The multifaceted role of the Princess Royal in the Emergency Medical Services of the United Kingdom and her close liaison with the Consultant

  17. The surgical experience of general surgery residents: an analysis of the applicability of the specialty program in General and Digestive Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Targarona Soler, Eduardo Ma; Jover Navalon, Jose Ma; Gutierrez Saiz, Javier; Turrado Rodríguez, Víctor; Parrilla Paricio, Pascual

    2015-03-01

    Residents in our country have achieved a homogenous surgical training by following a structured residency program. This is due to the existence of specific training programs for each specialty. The current program, approved in 2007, has a detailed list of procedures that a surgeon should have performed in order to complete training. The aim of this study is to analyze the applicability of the program with regard to the number of procedures performed during the residency period. A data collection form was designed that included the list of procedures from the program of the specialty; it was sent in April 2014 to all hospitals with accredited residency programs. In September 2014 the forms were analysed, and a general descriptive study was performed; a subanalysis according to the resident's sex and Autonomous region was also performed. The number of procedures performed according to the number of residents in the different centers was also analyzed. The survey was sent to 117 hospitals with accredited programs, which included 190 resident places. A total of 91 hospitals responded (53%). The training offered adapts in general to the specialty program. The total number of procedures performed in the different sub-areas, in laparoscopic and emergency surgery is correct or above the number recommended by the program, with the exception of esophageal-gastric and hepatobiliary surgery. The sub-analysis according to Autonomous region did not show any significant differences in the total number of procedures, however, there were significant differences in endocrine surgery (P=.001) and breast surgery (P=.042). A total of 55% of residents are female, with no significant differences in distribution in Autonomous regions. However, female surgeons operate more than their male counterparts during the residency period (512±226 vs. 625±244; P<.01). The number of residents in the hospital correlates with the number of procedures performed; the residents with more procedures

  18. Surgical therapy in chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, C P; Dennison, A R; Garcea, G

    2012-12-01

    valid surgical option for the treatment of pain. Though previously dismissed as a valid treatment due to the resultant brittle diabetes, the advent of islet cell autotransplantation has enabled this procedure to produce excellent long-term results in relation to pain, endocrine status and quality of life. Given these excellent short- and long-term results of surgical therapy for chronic pancreatitis, and the poor symptom control provided by conservative and endoscopic treatment (coupled to near inevitable progression to exocrine and endocrine failure), it is likely that future years will see a further shift towards the earlier and more frequent surgical treatment of chronic pancreatitis. Furthermore, the expansion of islet cell autotransplantation to a wider range of pancreatic resections has the potential to even further improve the outcomes of surgical treatment for this problematic yet increasingly common disease.

  19. Surgical Management of Common Disorders of Feedlot Calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miesner, Matt D; Anderson, David E

    2015-11-01

    Procedures to improve animal and handler safety, shape production parameters, and directly address the prosperity of individuals in need of assistance are performed routinely. Techniques to accomplish these tasks have been described in many venues. Painful procedures are expected in feedlot practice. Assessing and managing pain and welfare for these procedures has strengthened significantly over the past decade to address increased public concerns and also to support the desires of the operators/managers to progress. Methods to perform common procedures are described, including evidence and techniques for managing the pain and distress while performing them. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Dystocia in sheep and goats: outcome and fertility following surgical and non-surgical management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhair Bani Ismail

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cesarean section is a life-saving surgical procedure usually undertaken in sheep and goats that fail to deliver vaginally (dystocia. Unfortunately, there are no recent review articles in literature that summarize the results of published case reports and clinical trials concerning indications, surgical approaches and procedures and outcomes following cesarean section in sheep and goats. Therefore, the aim of this article was to compile available data related to dystocia and cesarean section in small ruminants. Fortunately, the incidence of dystocia in small ruminants is considered to be low. It can be caused by either maternal or fetal factors. Maternal-related dystocia is most commonly because of failure of cervical dilation, narrow birth canal and uterine inertia. Those related to fetal causes are usually associated with fetal malposition/presentation, feto-pelvic disproportion/fetal oversize, and fetal malformation. Manual extraction of the fetus may be attempted in most cases, however, early surgical intervention by performing cesarean section ensures satisfactory outcome. Cesarean section is usually performed in lateral recumbency through left paralumbar fossa or left paralumbar fossa oblique celiotomy under local analgesia. The success rates and post-operative complications in sheep and goats are underreported; however, early surgical intervention using aseptic technique usually results in a satisfactory outcome for both the dam and newborn with acceptable prognosis for future breeding soundness.

  1. [Is the structure of surgical clinics in Germany changing? A current investigation into the structure of surgical clinics in the Federal Republic of Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lob, G; Lob, T; Bauer, H; Niethard, F; Polonius, J; Siebert, H

    2009-04-01

    Medical developments have led to extensive specialization in the field of surgery. This has already been reflected for many years in altered structure and organization forms of surgical clinics. Indispensable quality standards, statutory general conditions, increasing competition in service providers and health insurance with transparency of the service procedure all intensify this trend. The aim of this investigation was, therefore, to determine how far this differentiation of service supply in the field of surgery is also reflected in the area and in surgical departments and clinics of basic and routine supply. To achieve this, all available published information on the structure and organization of surgical clinics in the Federal Republic of Germany was classified according to current departmentalization into "undivided" or general/visceral surgery facilities compared to orthopedic/trauma surgery departments.

  2. Relationship between occurrence of surgical complications and hospital finances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eappen, Sunil; Lane, Bennett H; Rosenberg, Barry; Lipsitz, Stuart A; Sadoff, David; Matheson, Dave; Berry, William R; Lester, Mark; Gawande, Atul A

    2013-04-17

    The effect of surgical complications on hospital finances is unclear. To determine the relationship between major surgical complications and per-encounter hospital costs and revenues by payer type. Retrospective analysis of administrative data for all inpatient surgical discharges during 2010 from a nonprofit 12-hospital system in the southern United States. Discharges were categorized by principal procedure and occurrence of 1 or more postsurgical complications, using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, diagnosis and procedure codes. Nine common surgical procedures and 10 major complications across 4 payer types were analyzed. Hospital costs and revenue at discharge were obtained from hospital accounting systems and classified by payer type. Hospital costs, revenues, and contribution margin (defined as revenue minus variable expenses) were compared for patients with and without surgical complications according to payer type. Of 34,256 surgical discharges, 1820 patients (5.3%; 95% CI, 4.4%-6.4%) experienced 1 or more postsurgical complications. Compared with absence of complications, complications were associated with a $39,017 (95% CI, $20,069-$50,394; P financial consequences for decreasing postsurgical complications.

  3. Intra-Operative Surgical Irrigation of the Surgical Incision: What Does the Future Hold-Saline, Antibiotic Agents, or Antiseptic Agents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmiston, Charles E; Leaper, David J

    2016-12-01

    Intra-operative surgical site irrigation (lavage) is common practice in surgical procedures in general, with all disciplines advocating some form of irrigation before incision closure. This practice, however, has been neither standardized nor is there compelling evidence that it effectively reduces the risk of surgical site infection (SSI). This narrative review addresses the laboratory and clinical evidence that is available to support the practice of irrigation of the abdominal cavity and superficial/deep incisional tissues, using specific irrigation solutions at the end of an operative procedure to reduce the microbial burden at wound closure. Review of PubMed and OVID for pertinent, scientific, and clinical publications in the English language was performed. Incision irrigation was found to afford a three-fold benefit: First, to hydrate the bed; second, to assist in allowing better examination of the area immediately before closure; and finally, by removing superficial and deep incisional contamination and lowering the bioburden, expedite the healing process. The clinical practice of intra-operative peritoneal lavage is highly variable and is dependent solely on surgeon preference. By contrast, intra-operative irrigation after device-related procedures has become a standard of care for the prophylaxis of acute peri-prosthetic infection. The clinical evidence that supports the use of antibiotic irrigation is limited and based on retrospective analysis and few acceptable randomized controlled trials. The results of laboratory and animal studies using aqueous 0.05% chlorhexidine gluconate are favorable, suggesting that further studies are justified to determine its clinical efficacy. The adoption of appropriate and standardized intra-operative irrigation practices into peri-operative care bundles, which include other evidence-based strategies (weight-based antimicrobial prophylaxis, antimicrobial sutures, maintenance of normothermia, and glycemic control), offers

  4. Availability of cardiac surgical care in surgical correction of acquired heart defects in patients of older age group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubatbek S. Urmanbetov

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A study of accessibility of surgical care to elderly patients (aged 60 and above with valvular heart disease has been conducted at the BSCCS "Bakulev Scientific Center of Cardiovascular Surgery» of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation. Methods: A retrospective analysis of structure of hospitalizations of 1726 patients, that were hospitalized between 2009 and 2010 at the BSCCS for surgical correction of valvular heart disease was performed. Results: Our study demonstrated that age, on one hand, is not the most significant barrier in the geographical accessibility of cardiac surgical care. On the other hand, it can influence the availability in general, taking into account other factors (urban / rural areas, the presence of cardiac surgical clinics, and clinical status. Provision of cardiac surgical care for patients with heart defects at the BSCCS per 1 million population varies considerably in the context of federal districts and is 0.4 for the Siberian Federal District 30 for the Central Federal District (the highest is 42 for the Moscow Region. Conclusion: Thus, our study demonstrated accessibility of surgical care for elderly patients is the highest for the urban areas with specialized cardiac surgery centers, where patients referred from rural regions

  5. Improving surgical weekend handover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culwick, Caroline; Devine, Chris; Coombs, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Effective handovers are vital to patient safety and continuity of care, and this is recognised by several national bodies including the GMC. The existing model at Great Western Hospital (GWH) involved three general surgical teams and a urology team placing their printed patient lists, complete with weekend jobs, in a folder for the on-call team to collect at the weekend. We recognised a need to reduce time searching for patients, jobs and reviews, and to streamline weekend ward rounds. A unified weekend list ordering all surgical patients by ward and bed number was introduced. Discrepancies in the layout of each team's weekday list necessitated the design of a new weekday list to match the weekend list to facilitate the easy transfer of information between the two lists. A colour coding system was also used to highlight specific jobs. Prior to this improvement project only 7.1% of those polled were satisfied with the existing system, after a series of interventions satisfaction increased to 85.7%. The significant increase in overall satisfaction with surgical handover following the introduction of the unified weekend list is promising. Locating patients and identifying jobs is easier and weekend ward rounds can conducted in a more logical and timely fashion. It has also helped facilitate the transition to consultant ward rounds of all surgical inpatients at the weekends with promising feedback from a recent consultants meeting.

  6. Use of the 3D surgical modelling technique with open-source software for mandibular fibula free flap reconstruction and its surgical guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganry, L; Hersant, B; Quilichini, J; Leyder, P; Meningaud, J P

    2017-06-01

    Tridimensional (3D) surgical modelling is a necessary step to create 3D-printed surgical tools, and expensive professional software is generally needed. Open-source software are functional, reliable, updated, may be downloaded for free and used to produce 3D models. Few surgical teams have used free solutions for mastering 3D surgical modelling for reconstructive surgery with osseous free flaps. We described an Open-source software 3D surgical modelling protocol to perform a fast and nearly free mandibular reconstruction with microvascular fibula free flap and its surgical guides, with no need for engineering support. Four successive specialised Open-source software were used to perform our 3D modelling: OsiriX ® , Meshlab ® , Netfabb ® and Blender ® . Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) data on patient skull and fibula, obtained with a computerised tomography (CT) scan, were needed. The 3D modelling of the reconstructed mandible and its surgical guides were created. This new strategy may improve surgical management in Oral and Craniomaxillofacial surgery. Further clinical studies are needed to demonstrate the feasibility, reproducibility, transfer of know how and benefits of this technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Interfaces for Modular Surgical Planning and Assistance Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Gessat, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Modern surgery of the 21st century relies in many aspects on computers or, in a wider sense, digital data processing. Department administration, OR scheduling, billing, and - with increasing pervasion - patient data management are performed with the aid of so called Surgical Information Systems (SIS) or, more general, Hospital Information Systems (HIS). Computer Assisted Surgery (CAS) summarizes techniques which assist a surgeon in the preparation and conduction of surgical interventions...

  8. Surgical Management of Renal Hyperparathyroidism: Case Series and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Neagoe Radu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT occurs most commonly in the setting of chronic renal failure (CRF being frequently referred to as “renal” hyperparathyroidism The “classical” medical treatment with oral calcium and vitamin D supplementation is generally sufficient to lower parathyroid hormone levels in the majority of these patients. However, we frequently encounter cases of severe refractory sHPT, a state in which even recently available therapeutic agents, i.e. calcimimetics, new phosphate binders, vitamin D analogues, remain inefficient, thus parathyroidectomy and/or renal transplant becoming necessary. Three types of surgeries have been proposed in sHPT: two of them are grouped as remnant-conserving techniques, i.e. subtotal parathyroidectomy (sPtx and total parathyroidectomy with autotransplantation (tPtx+AT, the third one being total parathyroidectomy without autotransplantation (tPtx. There was a continuous debate concerning the best surgical approach in renal hyperparathyroidism, starting very soon after those techniques were described; without pretending to solve these controversies, this paper aims to review the surgical treatment options in sHPT, based on our 5-year experience in dealing with the disease.

  9. Role of Antibiotics on Surgical Site Infection in Cases of Open and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surgical site infection (SSI) comes as third most common healthcare related infection which produces morbidity and deaths at large.[1] There are evidence of postoperative morbidity due to SSI. So it is needed to improve the outcome of surgical procedures and hence advised to give antibiotic prophylaxis. The incidence.

  10. Current Limitations of Surgical Robotics in Reconstructive Plastic Microsurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youri P. A. Tan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Surgical robots have the potential to provide surgeons with increased capabilities, such as removing physiologic tremor, scaling motion and increasing manual dexterity. Several surgical specialties have subsequently integrated robotic surgery into common clinical practice. Plastic and reconstructive microsurgical procedures have not yet  benefitted significantly from technical developments observed over the last two decades. Several studies have successfully demonstrated the feasibility of utilising surgical robots in plastic surgery procedures, yet limited work has been done to identify and analyse current barriers that have prevented wide-scale adaptation of surgical robots for microsurgery. Therefore, a systematic review using PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase and Web of Science databases was performed, in order to evaluate current state of surgical robotics within the field of reconstructive microsurgery and their limitations. Despite the theoretical potential of surgical robots, current commercially available robotic systems are suboptimal for plastic or reconstructive microsurgery. Absence of bespoke microsurgical instruments, increases in operating time, and high costs associated with robotic-assisted provide a barrier to using such systems effectively for reconstructive microsurgery. Consequently, surgical robots provide currently little overall advantage over conventional microsurgery. Nevertheless, if current barriers can be addressed and systems are specifically designed for microsurgery, surgical robots may have the potential of meaningful impact on clinical outcomes within  this surgical subspeciality.

  11. Current Limitations of Surgical Robotics in Reconstructive Plastic Microsurgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Youri P. A.; Liverneaux, Philippe; Wong, Jason K. F.

    2018-01-01

    Surgical robots have the potential to provide surgeons with increased capabilities, such as removing physiologic tremor, scaling motion and increasing manual dexterity. Several surgical specialties have subsequently integrated robotic surgery into common clinical practice. Plastic and reconstructive microsurgical procedures have not yet  benefitted significantly from technical developments observed over the last two decades. Several studies have successfully demonstrated the feasibility of utilising surgical robots in plastic surgery procedures, yet limited work has been done to identify and analyse current barriers that have prevented wide-scale adaptation of surgical robots for microsurgery. Therefore, a systematic review using PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase and Web of Science databases was performed, in order to evaluate current state of surgical robotics within the field of reconstructive microsurgery and their limitations. Despite the theoretical potential of surgical robots, current commercially available robotic systems are suboptimal for plastic or reconstructive microsurgery. Absence of bespoke microsurgical instruments, increases in operating time, and high costs associated with robotic-assisted provide a barrier to using such systems effectively for reconstructive microsurgery. Consequently, surgical robots provide currently little overall advantage over conventional microsurgery. Nevertheless, if current barriers can be addressed and systems are specifically designed for microsurgery, surgical robots may have the potential of meaningful impact on clinical outcomes within  this surgical subspeciality. PMID:29740585

  12. In vivo virtual intraoperative surgical photoacoustic microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Seunghoon; Kim, Sehui; Kim, Jeehyun; Lee, Changho; Jeon, Mansik; Kim, Chulhong

    2013-01-01

    We developed a virtual intraoperative surgical photoacoustic microscopy system by combining with a commercial surgical microscope and photoacoustic microscope (PAM). By sharing the common optical path in the microscope and PAM system, we could acquire the PAM and microscope images simultaneously. Moreover, by employing a beam projector to back-project 2D PAM images onto the microscope view plane as augmented reality, the conventional microscopic and 2D cross-sectional PAM images are concurrently mapped on the plane via an ocular lens of the microscope in real-time. Further, we guided needle insertion into phantom ex vivo and mice skins in vivo

  13. In vivo virtual intraoperative surgical photoacoustic microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seunghoon, E-mail: hsh860504@gmail.com; Kim, Sehui, E-mail: sehui0916@nate.com; Kim, Jeehyun, E-mail: jeehk@knu.ac.kr, E-mail: chulhong@postech.edu [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Changho, E-mail: ch31037@postech.edu; Jeon, Mansik, E-mail: msjeon@postech.edu [Department of Creative IT Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chulhong, E-mail: jeehk@knu.ac.kr, E-mail: chulhong@postech.edu [Department of Creative IT Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomedical Engineering, The State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14221 (United States)

    2013-11-11

    We developed a virtual intraoperative surgical photoacoustic microscopy system by combining with a commercial surgical microscope and photoacoustic microscope (PAM). By sharing the common optical path in the microscope and PAM system, we could acquire the PAM and microscope images simultaneously. Moreover, by employing a beam projector to back-project 2D PAM images onto the microscope view plane as augmented reality, the conventional microscopic and 2D cross-sectional PAM images are concurrently mapped on the plane via an ocular lens of the microscope in real-time. Further, we guided needle insertion into phantom ex vivo and mice skins in vivo.

  14. Most common dermatologic topics published in five high-impact general medical journals, 1970-2012: melanoma, psoriasis, herpes simplex, herpes zoster, and acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young M; Namavar, Aram A; Wu, Jashin J

    2014-01-01

    General practitioners frequently encounter skin diseases and are accustomed to diagnosing the most common dermatologic conditions. We sought to determine the most common dermatologic topics published in five high-impact general medical journals (New England Journal of Medicine, The Lancet, the Journal of the American Medical Association, British Medical Journal (now The BMJ), and Annals of Internal Medicine). We conducted an independent search of the Thomson Reuters’ Science Citation Index for common dermatologic topics, limited to the period 1970 to 2012. Total number of publications dealing with each dermatologic topic considered. The five most common dermatologic topics published were melanoma, psoriasis, herpes simplex, herpes zoster, and acne. Melanoma and psoriasis were the top two dermatologic topics published in each journal except for Annals of Internal Medicine. Internists frequently diagnose herpes simplex, herpes zoster, and acne, which are also common dermatologic topics published. Although internists infrequently diagnose melanoma and psoriasis, they are major topics for general medical journals because of their increased community awareness, major advancements in therapeutic research, and their nondermatologic manifestations.

  15. Abortion - surgical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suction curettage; Surgical abortion; Elective abortion - surgical; Therapeutic abortion - surgical ... Surgical abortion involves dilating the opening to the uterus (cervix) and placing a small suction tube into the uterus. ...

  16. [Congenital cyst of the common bile duct. Surgical treatment with total excision of the cyst].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco-Sánchez, J; Carreón-Carranza, J J; Benitez-Sánchez, J A; Rosas-Salas, G; Casian-Castellanos, G; Llanes-González, E; Turcio-Cortazar, E

    1989-02-01

    Congenital choledochal cyst (CChC) has a very low frequency in our population; it is more frequent among females and its pattern of inheritance is multifactorial. The frequency of CChC in our population was 1 per 20,000 to 1 per 30,000 hospitalized patients in the pediatrics department of the Hospital Juarez and Hospital Infantil de Tacubaya, respectively. Four new cases of CChC are reported, two school children and two teenagers. Pre-operative diagnosis was accomplished clinically, which is the most precise non-invasive method. The most effective actual diagnostic methods include ultrasonography, CAT scan, and basic laboratory data, which can corroborate the clinical diagnosis of CChC with 100% certainty. The surgical treatment of CChC is controversial, but the surgical procedures of choice are choledochocystojejunostomy with total cyst removal, Roux's Y, and cholecystectomy. One case was treated with latero-terminal choledochocystojejunostomy and 3 cases with total removal of the cyst. The results were excellent.

  17. Preoperative Optimization of Total Joint Arthroplasty Surgical Risk: Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Matthew N; Hallock, Justin; Mihalko, William M

    2016-08-01

    Obesity is a problem that is increasing in prevalence in the United States and in other countries, and it is a common comorbidity in patients seeking total joint arthroplasty for degenerative musculoskeletal diseases. Obesity, as well as commonly associated comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and those contributing to the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome, have been shown to have detrimental effects on total joint arthroplasty outcomes. Although there are effective surgical and nonsurgical interventions which can result in weight loss in these patients, concomitant benefit on arthroplasty outcomes is not clear. Preoperative optimization of surgical risk in obese total joint arthroplasty patients is an important point of intervention to improve arthroplasty outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Surgical handover in an era of reduced working hours: an audit of current practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiq-ur-Rehman; Mehmood, Sajid; Ahmed, Jamil; Razzaq, Muhammad Haroon; Khan, Shakeeb; Perry, Eugene Phillip

    2012-06-01

    To examine the current practice of handover and to record trainees' assessment of handover process. An audit study. Department of General Surgery, Scarborough General Hospital, Scarborough, United Kingdom, from January to April 2010. A paper-based questionnaire containing instruments pertaining to handover guidelines was disseminated to trainees on surgical on-call rota at the hospital. Trainees' responses regarding handover process including information transferred, designated location, duration, structure, senior supervision, awareness of guidelines, formal training, and rating of current handover practice were analysed. A total of 42 questionnaires were returned (response rate = 100%). The trainees included were; registrars 21% (n=9), core surgical trainees 38 % (n=16), and foundation trainees 41% (n=17). Satisfactory compliance (> 80% handover sessions) to RCS guidelines was observed for only five out of nine components. Ninety-five percent of hand over sessions took place at a designated place and two-third lasted less than 20-minutes. Computer generated handover sheet 57% (n=24) was the most commonly practised method of handover. Specialist registrar 69 % (n=29) remained the supervising person in majority of handover sessions. None of the respondents received formal teaching or training in handover, whereas only half of them 48% (n=20) were aware of handover guidelines. Twenty-one percent of the trainees expressed dissatisfaction with the current practice of handover. Current practice of surgical handover lacks structure despite a fair degree of compliance to RCS handover guidelines. A computerised-sheet based structured handover process, subjected to regular audit, would ensure patient safety and continuity of care.

  19. Mortality spectrum among adult surgical in-patients at the Niger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Knowledge of the common causes of death in a particular locality is important. This would help in planning interventions aimed at preventing and adequately managing such diseases to reduce mortality. Aims: To document the common disease conditions which cause mortality in adult surgical in-patients and ...

  20. Post surgical complications from students' large animal surgical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A retrospective study of post surgical complications was conducted on records of students' Large Animal Surgical Laboratories in the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (F.V.M.), Ahmadu Bello University (A.B.U), Zaria from 1989 to 1993. Three hundred and eleven surgical complications were recorded from five surgical ...

  1. THD Doppler procedure for hemorrhoids: the surgical technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratto, C

    2014-03-01

    Transanal hemorrhoidal dearterialization (THD) is an effective treatment for hemorrhoidal disease. The ligation of hemorrhoidal arteries (called "dearterialization") can provide a significant reduction of the arterial overflow to the hemorrhoidal piles. Plication of the redundant rectal mucosa/submucosa (called "mucopexy") can provide a repositioning of prolapsing tissue to the anatomical site. In this paper, the surgical technique and perioperative patient management are illustrated. Following adequate clinical assessment, patients undergo THD under general or spinal anesthesia, in either the lithotomy or the prone position. In all patients, distal Doppler-guided dearterialization is performed, providing the selective ligation of hemorrhoidal arteries identified by Doppler. In patients with hemorrhoidal/muco-hemorrhoidal prolapse, the mucopexy is performed with a continuous suture including the redundant and prolapsing mucosa and submucosa. The description of the surgical procedure is complemented by an accompanying video (see supplementary material). In long-term follow-up, there is resolution of symptoms in the vast majority of patients. The most common complication is transient tenesmus, which sometimes can result in rectal discomfort or pain. Rectal bleeding occurs in a very limited number of patients. Neither fecal incontinence nor chronic pain should occur. Anorectal physiology parameters should be unaltered, and anal sphincters should not be injured by following this procedure. When accurately performed and for the correct indications, THD is a safe procedure and one of the most effective treatments for hemorrhoidal disease.

  2. 55 HIV/AIDS, SURGICAL COMPLICATIONS AND CHALLENGES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drclement

    Department of Surgery University of Benin Teaching Hospital Benin City. INTRODUCTION. Surgical complication resulting ... Bone/Joint Infections. Tuberculosis infection and bacteria infection are common in this patient and the treatment is the same for non HIV- infected individual. Chest Condition. This is usually due to ...

  3. Additive Manufacturing for Surgical Planning of Mandibular Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Maria da Silva Oliveira Brito

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, imaging techniques such as Computed Tomography with three-dimensional reconstruction (3D and Magnetic Resonances are being routinely used in pre-surgical planning in all fields of medicine. Nowadays, virtual three-dimensional images, commonly displayed on two-dimensional surfaces, such as the computer screen, can be used to produce rapidly prototyped models, with excellent dimensional accuracy and fine reproduction of anatomical structures, providing professionals with the ability to use the biomodel in planning and simulating medical and dental procedures (oral and maxillofacial surgery, making individualized facial implants and prostheses, measurements and previous adaptations of prefabricated fixation plates, thus contributing to considerable reductions in surgical time and consequently the duration of anesthesia, minimizing infection risks and reducing hospital costs. In this report, we describe a case of surgical planning and treatment of bilateral atrophic mandibular fracture, in which, for surgical planning, authors used Rapid Prototyping as an adjunct tool, considering the advantages already outlined.

  4. Efficacy of Surgical Therapy for Carotid Body Tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-shan Lian; Chang-wei Liu; Heng Guan; Yue-hong Zheng; Xing-ming Chen; Yong-jun Li

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of surgical therapy for carotid body tumors.Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted,covering the diagnosis,surgical procedure,post-operative complications,and prognosis of 120 cases of carotid body tumors in Peking Union Medical College Hospital from 1949 to May,2011.Results Surgical excision was successfully performed in 111 cases with 117 tumors.In all those cases,50 underwent simple tumor resection,42 underwent resection of tumors and ligation of the external carotid arteries,7 underwent co-resection of tumors and common carotid arteries,internal carotid arteries,as well as external arteries without vascular reconstruction,and the other 12 cases experienced tumor resection and vascular reconstruction as internal carotid arteries were involved.After operation,3 cases developed cerebral infarction,30 cases showed cranial nerve palsy,including 15 cases of hypoglossal nerve damage,10 cases of vagus paralysis,and 5 cases of Horner's syndrome.Conclusion It is essential to make a proper surgical strategy,which can reduce postoperative complications.

  5. Surgical considerations and management of bilateral labially impacted canines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan Huang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Canines are among the most commonly impacted teeth. When a canine is positioned labially, the untoward soft-tissue responses following surgical exposure may cause unfavorable esthetic outcomes. Therefore, decision making as to the choice of a proper surgical technique to uncover labially impacted teeth is critical. This case presentation describes two different surgical approaches for two maxillary impacted canines in a 12-year-old girl. A sequential approach included a first stage of surgical exposure using apically positioned flaps and orthodontic extrusion of both impacted teeth. A successive laterally positioned flap was used for the left maxillary canine to achieve a harmonious soft-tissue contour. In this case, close monitoring and cooperation during the various treatment phases led to proper canine positioning and a successful esthetic result, with good periodontal health and functional occlusion.

  6. Robotics and general surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Brian P; Gagner, Michel

    2003-12-01

    Robotics are now being used in all surgical fields, including general surgery. By increasing intra-abdominal articulations while operating through small incisions, robotics are increasingly being used for a large number of visceral and solid organ operations, including those for the gallbladder, esophagus, stomach, intestines, colon, and rectum, as well as for the endocrine organs. Robotics and general surgery are blending for the first time in history and as a specialty field should continue to grow for many years to come. We continuously demand solutions to questions and limitations that are experienced in our daily work. Laparoscopy is laden with limitations such as fixed axis points at the trocar insertion sites, two-dimensional video monitors, limited dexterity at the instrument tips, lack of haptic sensation, and in some cases poor ergonomics. The creation of a surgical robot system with 3D visual capacity seems to deal with most of these limitations. Although some in the surgical community continue to test the feasibility of these surgical robots and to question the necessity of such an expensive venture, others are already postulating how to improve the next generation of telemanipulators, and in so doing are looking beyond today's horizon to find simpler solutions. As the robotic era enters the world of the general surgeon, more and more complex procedures will be able to be approached through small incisions. As technology catches up with our imaginations, robotic instruments (as opposed to robots) and 3D monitoring will become routine and continue to improve patient care by providing surgeons with the most precise, least traumatic ways of treating surgical disease.

  7. Neurological Injury and Cerebral Blood Flow in Single Ventricles Throughout Staged Surgical Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Mark A; Li, Christine; Elci, Okan U; Pawlowski, Tom; Schwab, Peter J; Wilson, Felice; Nicolson, Susan C; Montenegro, Lisa M; Diaz, Laura; Spray, Thomas L; Gaynor, J William; Fuller, Stephanie; Mascio, Christopher; Keller, Marc S; Harris, Matthew A; Whitehead, Kevin K; Bethel, Jim; Vossough, Arastoo; Licht, Daniel J

    2017-02-14

    Patients with a single ventricle experience a high rate of brain injury and adverse neurodevelopmental outcome; however, the incidence of brain abnormalities throughout surgical reconstruction and their relationship with cerebral blood flow, oxygen delivery, and carbon dioxide reactivity remain unknown. Patients with a single ventricle were studied with magnetic resonance imaging scans immediately prior to bidirectional Glenn (pre-BDG), before Fontan (BDG), and then 3 to 9 months after Fontan reconstruction. One hundred sixty-eight consecutive subjects recruited into the project underwent 235 scans: 63 pre-BDG (mean age, 4.8±1.7 months), 118 BDG (2.9±1.4 years), and 54 after Fontan (2.4±1.0 years). Nonacute ischemic white matter changes on T2-weighted imaging, focal tissue loss, and ventriculomegaly were all more commonly detected in BDG and Fontan compared with pre-BDG patients ( P <0.05). BDG patients had significantly higher cerebral blood flow than did Fontan patients. The odds of discovering brain injury with adjustment for surgical stage as well as ≥2 coexisting lesions within a patient decreased (63%-75% and 44%, respectively) with increasing amount of cerebral blood flow ( P <0.05). In general, there was no association of oxygen delivery (except for ventriculomegaly in the BDG group) or carbon dioxide reactivity with neurological injury. Significant brain abnormalities are commonly present in patients with a single ventricle, and detection of these lesions increases as children progress through staged surgical reconstruction, with multiple coexisting lesions more common earlier than later. In addition, this study demonstrated that BDG patients had greater cerebral blood flow than did Fontan patients and that an inverse association exists of various indexes of cerebral blood flow with these brain lesions. However, CO 2 reactivity and oxygen delivery (with 1 exception) were not associated with brain lesion development. URL: http

  8. Combat surgical workload in Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom: The definitive analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Caryn A; Stockinger, Zsolt T; Gurney, Jennifer M

    2017-07-01

    Relatively few publications exist on surgical workload in the deployed military setting. This study analyzes US military combat surgical workload in Iraq and Afghanistan to gain a more thorough understanding of surgical training gaps and personnel requirements. A retrospective analysis of the Department of Defense Trauma Registry was performed for all Role 2 (R2) and Role 3 (R3) military treatment facilities from January 2001 to May 2016. International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification procedure codes were grouped into 18 categories based on functional surgical skill sets. The 189,167 surgical procedures identified were stratified by role of care, month, and year. Percentiles were calculated for the number of procedures for each skill set. A literature search was performed for publications documenting combat surgical workload during the same period. A total of 23,548 surgical procedures were performed at R2 facilities, while 165,619 surgical procedures were performed at R3 facilities. The most common surgical procedures performed overall were soft tissue (37.5%), orthopedic (13.84%), abdominal (13.01%), and vascular (6.53%). The least common surgical procedures performed overall were cardiac (0.23%), peripheral nervous system (0.53%), and spine (0.34%).Mean surgical workload at any point in time clearly underrepresented those units in highly kinetic areas, at times by an order of magnitude or more. The published literature always demonstrated workloads well in excess of the 50th percentile for the relevant time period. The published literature on combat surgical workload represents the high end of the spectrum of deployed surgical experience. These trends in surgical workload provide vital information that can be used to determine the manpower needs of future conflicts in ever-changing operational tempo environments. Our findings provide surgical types and surgical workload requirements that will be useful in surgical training and

  9. Barriers to the implementation and uptake of simulation-based training programs in general surgery: a multinational qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosny, Shady G; Johnston, Maximilian J; Pucher, Philip H; Erridge, Simon; Darzi, Ara

    2017-12-01

    Despite evidence demonstrating the advantages of simulation training in general surgery, it is not widely integrated into surgical training programs worldwide. The aim of this study was to identify barriers and facilitators to the implementation and uptake of surgical simulation training programs. A multinational qualitative study was conducted using semi-structured interviews of general surgical residents and experts. Each interview was audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and underwent emergent theme analysis. All data were anonymized and results pooled. A total of 37 individuals participated in the study. Seventeen experts (Program Directors and Surgical Attendings with an interest in surgical education) and 20 residents drawn from the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, France, and Japan were interviewed. Barriers to simulation-based training were identified based on key themes including financial cost, access, and translational benefit. Participants described cost (89%) and access (76%) as principal barriers to uptake. Common facilitators included a mandatory requirement to complete simulation training (78%) and on-going assessment of skills (78%). Participants felt that simulation training could improve patient outcomes (76%) but identified a lack of evidence to demonstrate benefit (38%). There was a consensus that simulation training has not been widely implemented (70%). There are multiple barriers to the implementation of surgical simulation training programs, however, there is agreement that these programs could potentially improve patient outcomes. Identifying these barriers enable the targeted use of facilitators to deliver simulation training programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Gynecomastia Classification for Surgical Management: A Systematic Review and Novel Classification System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltho, Daniel; Hatchell, Alexandra; Thoma, Achilleas

    2017-03-01

    Gynecomastia is a common deformity of the male breast, where certain cases warrant surgical management. There are several surgical options, which vary depending on the breast characteristics. To guide surgical management, several classification systems for gynecomastia have been proposed. A systematic review was performed to (1) identify all classification systems for the surgical management of gynecomastia, and (2) determine the adequacy of these classification systems to appropriately categorize the condition for surgical decision-making. The search yielded 1012 articles, and 11 articles were included in the review. Eleven classification systems in total were ascertained, and a total of 10 unique features were identified: (1) breast size, (2) skin redundancy, (3) breast ptosis, (4) tissue predominance, (5) upper abdominal laxity, (6) breast tuberosity, (7) nipple malposition, (8) chest shape, (9) absence of sternal notch, and (10) breast skin elasticity. On average, classification systems included two or three of these features. Breast size and ptosis were the most commonly included features. Based on their review of the current classification systems, the authors believe the ideal classification system should be universal and cater to all causes of gynecomastia; be surgically useful and easy to use; and should include a comprehensive set of clinically appropriate patient-related features, such as breast size, breast ptosis, tissue predominance, and skin redundancy. None of the current classification systems appears to fulfill these criteria.

  11. Outcome of anesthesia in elective surgical patients with comorbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyelade, Olayinka; Sanusi, Arinola; Adigun, Tinuola; Adejumo, Olufemi

    2016-01-01

    Presence of comorbidity in surgical patients may be associated with adverse perioperative events and increased the risk of morbidity and mortality. This audit was conducted to determine the frequencies of comorbidities in elective surgical patients and the outcome of anesthesia in a Tertiary Hospital in Nigeria. Observational study of a cross-section of adult patients scheduled for elective surgery over a 6-month period. A standardized questionnaire was used to document patients' demographics, the presence of comorbidity and type, surgical diagnosis, anesthetic technique, intraoperative adverse events, and outcome of anesthesia. The questionnaire was administered pre- and post-operatively to determine the effects of the comorbidities on the outcome of anesthesia. One hundred and sixty-five adult patients aged between 18 and 84 years were studied. There were 89 (53.9%) females and 76 (46.1%) males. Forty-five (27.3%) have at least one comorbidity. Hypertension was the most common (48.8%) associated illness. Other comorbidities identified include anemia (17.8%), asthma (8.9%), diabetes mellitus (6.7%), chronic renal disease (6.7%), and others. The perioperative period was uneventful in majority of patients (80.6%) despite the presence of comorbidities. Intraoperative adverse events include hypotension, hypertension, shivering, and vomiting. No mortality was reported. Hypertension was the most common comorbidity in this cohort of patients. The presence of comorbidity did not significantly affect the outcome of anesthesia in elective surgical patients.

  12. Emergency Stent Grafting After Unsuccessful Surgical Repair of a Mycotic Common Femoral Artery Pseudoaneurysm in a Drug Abuser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupattelli, Tommaso; Garaci, Francesco Giuseppe; Basile, Antonio; Minnella, Daniela Paola; Casini, Andrea; Clerissi, Jacques

    2009-01-01

    Mycotic false aneurysm caused by local arterial injury from attempted intravenous injections in drug addicts remains a challenging clinical problem. The continued increase in drug abuse has resulted in an increased incidence of this problem, particularly in high-volume urban centres. In the drug-abusing population, mycotic arterial pseudoaneurysms most often occur because of missed venous injection and are typically seen in the groin, axilla, and antecubital fossa. Mycotic aneurysms may lead to life-threatening haemorrhage, limb loss, sepsis, and even death. Any soft-tissue swelling in the vicinity of a major artery in an intravenous drug abuser should be suspected of being a false aneurysm until proven otherwise and should prompt immediate referral to a vascular surgeon for investigation and management. We report a case of rupturing mycotic pseudoaneurysm of the left common femoral artery treated by surgical resection followed by vessel reconstruction with autologous material. Unfortunately, at the time of discharge a sudden leakage from the vein graft anastomosis occurred, with subsequent massive bleeding, and required emergent endovascular covered stenting. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of femoral artery bleeding in a drug abuser treated by stent graft placement.

  13. The evolution of robotic general surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, E B

    2009-01-01

    Surgical robotics in general surgery has a relatively short but very interesting evolution. Just as minimally invasive and laparoscopic techniques have radically changed general surgery and fractionated it into subspecialization, robotic technology is likely to repeat the process of fractionation even further. Though it appears that robotics is growing more quickly in other specialties, the changes digital platforms are causing in the general surgical arena are likely to permanently alter general surgery. This review examines the evolution of robotics in minimally invasive general surgery looking forward to a time where robotics platforms will be fundamental to elective general surgery. Learning curves and adoption techniques are explored. Foregut, hepatobiliary, endocrine, colorectal, and bariatric surgery will be examined as growth areas for robotics, as well as revealing the current uses of this technology.

  14. Surgically treated cases of lumbar spondylolysis and isthmic spondylolisthesis: a multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Kenichi; Imagama, Shiro; Matsuyama, Yukihiro; Kawakami, Noriaki; Yukawa, Yasutsugu; Kato, Fumihiko; Hachiya, Yudo; Kanemura, Tokumi; Kamiya, Mitsuhiro; Deguchi, Masao; Ito, Zenya; Wakao, Norimitsu; Ando, Kei; Tauchi, Ryoji; Muramoto, Akio; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2015-06-01

    Prospective database study. To grasp the characteristics of surgically treated cases with lumbar spondylolysis or isthmic spondylolisthesis. A detailed analysis of surgically treated cases with spondylolysis or isthmic spondylolisthesis has never been reported. An epidemiological study in Japan conducted on 2000 subjects found the incidence of lumbar spondylolysis in the Japanese general population (population-based study) to be 5.9% (males: 7.9%, females: 3.9%). Among 124 vertebrae with spondylolysis, there were 0.8% L2 lesions, 3.2% L3 lesions, 5.6% L4 lesions, and 90.3% L5 lesions, including 5 cases (4.3%) with multiple-level lesions. We have been registering surgically treated spine cases in our database since 2000. From this database, we prospectively collected cases with lumbar spondylolysis or isthmic spondylolisthesis that were treated surgically between January 2000 and December 2009. We determined the age at surgery, sex, and vertebral level of spondylolysis. Of the 564 spondylolysis patients treated surgically, 66.8% were male and 33.2% were female. The mean age at surgery was 52.5 years (range, 13-84 y). There were 585 vertebrae with spondylolysis including 21 cases (3.7%) with multiple-level lesions. L5 spondylolysis affected 432 vertebrae and was the most common location (73.8%), followed by 125 L4 lesions (21.4%), 24 L3 lesions (4.1%), and 2 L2 lesions (0.7%). The percentage of L4 lesions in our study was significantly higher and of L5 lesions was significantly lower than those lesions' percentages in the population-based study. L4 spondylolysis may be more unstable or cause clinical symptoms more frequently leading to more surgical intervention. The percentage of multiple-level spondylolysis was similar between the 2 studies, suggesting these patients respond relatively well to conservative treatment. The male/female ratio was 2:1 in both studies, indicating that males and females require surgery at a similar frequency.

  15. General and acute care surgical procedures in patients with left ventricular assist devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaoutakis, George J; Bittle, Gregory J; Allen, Jeremiah G; Weiss, Eric S; Alejo, Jennifer; Baumgartner, William A; Shah, Ashish S; Wolfgang, Christopher L; Efron, David T; Conte, John V

    2014-04-01

    Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) have become common as a bridge to heart transplant as well as destination therapy. Acute care surgical (ACS) problems in this population are prevalent but remain ill-defined. Therefore, we reviewed our experience with ACS interventions in LVAD patients. A total of 173 patients who received HeartMate(®) XVE or HeartMate(®) II (HMII) LVADs between December 2001 and March 2010 were studied. Patient demographics, presentation of ACS problem, operative intervention, co-morbidities, transplantation, complications, and survival were analyzed. A total of 47 (27 %) patients underwent 67 ACS procedures at a median of 38 days after device implant (interquartile range 15-110), with a peri-operative mortality rate of 5 % (N = 3). Demographics, device type, and acuity were comparable between the ACS and non-ACS groups. A total of 21 ACS procedures were performed emergently, eight were urgent, and 38 were elective. Of 29 urgent and emergent procedures, 28 were for abdominal pathology. In eight patients, the cause of the ACS problem was related to LVADs or anticoagulation. Cumulative survival estimates revealed no survival differences if patients underwent ACS procedures (p = 0.17). Among HMII patients, transplantation rates were unaffected by an ACS intervention (p = 0.2). ACS problems occur frequently in LVAD patients and are not associated with adverse outcomes in HMII patients. The acute care surgeon is an integral member of a comprehensive approach to effective LVAD management.

  16. Effects of different types of anaesthesia (regional vs general) on serum IL-6, IL-8 and M-CSF levels in surgical patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Jiawang

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of anesthesia(regional vs general) on serum IL-6, IL-8 and M-CSF levels in surgical patients. Methods: Serum IL-6, IL-8 and M-CSF levels were determined with RIA 3 times in 34 patients operated under ragional anesthesia and 34 patients operted under general anesthesia (both for benign gastral ulcer). The levels were measured before induction of anesthesia, at beginning of operation and 1 hr later. Results: In patients under regional anesthesia, the IL-6, IL-8 and M-CSF levels increased significantly at the beginning of operation and 1 hr later. Though dropped remained significantly higher than the levels before induction (P<0.05); No significant change of the levels were obsorved in patients under general anesthesia through the operation, and the levels were as a whole significantly lower than the levels under regional anesthesia (P<0.05). Conclusion: General anesthesia (combined intravenous and inhalation) could abolish increases of serum IL-6, IL-8 and M-CSF levels during operation must be of clinical values. (authors)

  17. Operating Room Fires and Surgical Skin Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Edward L; Overbey, Douglas M; Chapman, Brandon C; Jones, Teresa S; Hilton, Sarah A; Moore, John T; Robinson, Thomas N

    2017-07-01

    Operating room fires are "never events" that remain an under-reported source of devastating complications. One common set-up that promotes fires is the use of surgical skin preparations combined with electrosurgery and oxygen. Limited data exist examining the incidence of fires and surgical skin preparations. A standardized, ex vivo model was created with a 15 × 15 cm section of clipped porcine skin. An electrosurgical "Bovie" pencil was activated for 2 seconds on 30 Watts coagulation mode in 21% oxygen (room air), both immediately and 3 minutes after skin preparation application. Skin preparations with and without alcohol were tested, and were applied with and without pooling. Alcohol-based skin preparations included 70% isopropyl alcohol (IPA) with 2% chlorhexidine gluconate, 74% IPA with 0.7% iodine povacrylex, and plain 70% IPA. No fires occurred with nonalcohol-based preparations (p fires occurred in 38% (23 of 60) at 0 minutes and 27% (16 of 60) at 3 minutes. Alcohol-based skin preparations fuel operating room fires in common clinical scenarios. Following manufacturer guidelines and allowing 3 minutes for drying, surgical fires were still created in 1 in 10 cases without pooling and more than one-quarter of cases with pooling. Surgeons can decrease the risk of an operating room fire by using nonalcohol-based skin preparations or avoiding pooling of the preparation solution. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Robot-assisted general surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazey, Jeffrey W; Melvin, W Scott

    2004-06-01

    With the initiation of laparoscopic techniques in general surgery, we have seen a significant expansion of minimally invasive techniques in the last 16 years. More recently, robotic-assisted laparoscopy has moved into the general surgeon's armamentarium to address some of the shortcomings of laparoscopic surgery. AESOP (Computer Motion, Goleta, CA) addressed the issue of visualization as a robotic camera holder. With the introduction of the ZEUS robotic surgical system (Computer Motion), the ability to remotely operate laparoscopic instruments became a reality. US Food and Drug Administration approval in July 2000 of the da Vinci robotic surgical system (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA) further defined the ability of a robotic-assist device to address limitations in laparoscopy. This includes a significant improvement in instrument dexterity, dampening of natural hand tremors, three-dimensional visualization, ergonomics, and camera stability. As experience with robotic technology increased and its applications to advanced laparoscopic procedures have become more understood, more procedures have been performed with robotic assistance. Numerous studies have shown equivalent or improved patient outcomes when robotic-assist devices are used. Initially, robotic-assisted laparoscopic cholecystectomy was deemed safe, and now robotics has been shown to be safe in foregut procedures, including Nissen fundoplication, Heller myotomy, gastric banding procedures, and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. These techniques have been extrapolated to solid-organ procedures (splenectomy, adrenalectomy, and pancreatic surgery) as well as robotic-assisted laparoscopic colectomy. In this chapter, we review the evolution of robotic technology and its applications in general surgical procedures.

  19. The Incidence of Postoperative Pneumonia in Various Surgical Subspecialties: A Dual Database Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chughtai, Morad; Gwam, Chukwuweike U; Khlopas, Anton; Newman, Jared M; Curtis, Gannon L; Torres, Pedro A; Khan, Rafay; Mont, Michael A

    2017-07-25

    Pneumonia is the third most common postoperative complication. However, its epidemiology varies widely and is often difficult to assess. For a better understanding, we utilized two national databases to determine the incidence of postoperative pneumonia after various surgical procedures. Specifically, we used the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) and the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) to determine the incidence and yearly trends of postoperative pneumonia following orthopaedic, urologic, otorhinolaryngologic, cardiothoracic, neurosurgery, and general surgeries. The NIS and NSQIP databases from 2009-2013 were utilized. The Clinical Classification Software (CCS) for International Classification of Diseases, 9th edition (ICD-9) codes provided by the NIS database was used to identify all surgical subspecialty procedures. The incidence of postoperative pneumonia was identified as the total number of cases under each identifying CCS code that also had ICD-9 codes for postoperative pneumonia. In the NSQIP database, the surgical subspecialties were selected using the following identifying string variables provided by NSQIP: 1) "Orthopedics", 2) "Otolaryngology (ENT)", 3) "Urology", 4) "Neurosurgery", 5) "General Surgery", and 6) "Cardiac Surgery" and "Thoracic Surgery". Cardiac and thoracic surgery was merged to create the variable "Cardiothoracic Surgery". Postoperative pneumonia cases were extracted utilizing the available NSQIP nominal variables. All variables were used to isolate the incidences of postoperative pneumonia stratified by surgical specialty. A subsequent trend analysis was conducted to assess the associations between operative year and incidence of postoperative pneumonia. For all NIS surgeries, the incidence of postoperative pneumonia was 0.97% between 2009 and 2013. The incidence was highest among patients who underwent cardiothoracic surgery (3.3%) and urologic surgery (1.73%). Patients who

  20. Preoperative learning goals set by surgical residents and faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernar, Luise I M; Breen, Elizabeth; Ashley, Stanley W; Peyre, Sarah E

    2011-09-01

    The operating room (OR) remains the main teaching venue for surgical trainees. The OR is considered a pure-discovery learning environment; the downsides of this can be putatively overcome when faculty and trainee arrive at a shared understanding of learning. This study aimed to better understand preoperative learning goals to identify areas of commonalities and potential barrier to intraoperative teaching. Brief, structured preoperative interviews were conducted outside the OR with the resident and faculty member who were scheduled to operate together. Answers were analyzed and grouped using grounded theory. Twenty-seven resident-faculty pairs were interviewed. Nine residents (33.3%) were junior (PGY 1 and 2) and 18 (66.7%) were senior (PGY 3 through 5). Learning goal categories that emerged from the response analysis were anatomy, basic and advanced surgical skills, general and specific procedural tasks, technical autonomy, and pre-, intra-, and postoperative considerations. Residents articulated fewer learning goals than faculty (1.5 versus 2.4; P = 0.024). The most frequently identified learning goal by both groups was one classifiable under general procedural tasks; the greatest divergence was seen regarding perioperative considerations, which were identified frequently by faculty members but rarely by residents. Faculty articulate significantly more learning goals for the residents they will operate with than residents articulate for themselves. Our data suggest that residents and faculty align on some learning goals for the OR but residents tend to be more limited, focusing predominantly on technical aspects of the operation. Faculty members tend to hold a broader view of the learning potential of the OR. These discrepancies may present barriers to effective intraoperative teaching. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Surgical lighting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knulst, A.J.

    2017-01-01

    The surgical light is an important tool for surgeons to create and maintain good visibility on the surgical task. Chapter 1 gives background to the field of (surgical) lighting and related terminology. Although the surgical light has been developed strongly since its introduction a long time ago,

  2. Acute ankle sprain: conservative or surgical approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mohrej, Omar A.; Al-Kenani, Nader S.

    2016-01-01

    Ankle sprains fall into two main categories: acute ankle sprains and chronic ankle instability, which are among the most common recurrent injuries during occupational activities, athletic events, training and army service. Acute ankle sprain is usually managed conservatively and functional rehabilitation failure by conservative treatment leads to development of chronic ankle instability, which most often requires surgical intervention. Enhancing the in-depth knowledge of the ankle anatomy, biomechanics and pathology helps greatly in deciding the management options. Cite this article: Al-Mohrej OA, Al-Kenani NS. Acute ankle sprain: conservative or surgical approach? EFORT Open Rev 2016;1:34-44. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.1.000010. PMID:28461926

  3. Surgical consideration for benign bone tumors | Eyesan | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most common indication for surgery is painful swelling; other indications include a pathological fracture, restricted range of movement, and peripheral nerve compression. The surgical procedures performed are simple excision, curettage, and stabilization; and 1-stage and 2-stage wide resection with reconstruction.

  4. Surgical attenuation of congenital portosystemic shunts in dogs. Techniques, complications and prognosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kummeling, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304828793

    2009-01-01

    The general aim of this thesis was to identify factors associated with outcome after surgical attenuation of congenital portosystemic shunts (CPSS) in dogs and to clarify underlying mechanisms of postoperative recovery in this disease. Two surgical techniques used for CPSS attenuation, ligation and

  5. [Non-surgical management after blunt traumatic liver injuries: A review article].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyola-Villalobos, Héctor Faustino; Loera-Torres, Marco Antonio; Jiménez-Chavarría, Enrique; Núñez-Cantú, Olliver; García-Núñez, Luis Manuel; Arcaute-Velázquez, Fernando Federico

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic trauma is a common cause for admissions in the Emergency Room. Currently, non-surgical management is the standard treatment in haemodynamically stable patients with a success rate of around 85 to 98%. This haemodynamic stability is the most important factor in selecting the appropriate patient. Adjuncts in non-surgical management are angioembolisation, image-guided drainage and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Failure in non-surgical management is relatively rare but potentially fatal, and needs to be recognised and aggressively treated as early as possible. The main cause of failure in non-surgical management is persistent haemorrhage. The aim of this paper is to describe current evidence and guidelines that support non-surgical management of liver injuries in blunt trauma. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  6. Most Common Dermatologic Topics Published in Five High-Impact General Medical Journals, 1970–2012: Melanoma, Psoriasis, Herpes Simplex, Herpes Zoster, and Acne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young M; Namavar, Aram A; Wu, Jashin J

    2014-01-01

    Context: General practitioners frequently encounter skin diseases and are accustomed to diagnosing the most common dermatologic conditions. Objective: We sought to determine the most common dermatologic topics published in five high-impact general medical journals (New England Journal of Medicine, The Lancet, the Journal of the American Medical Association, British Medical Journal (now The BMJ), and Annals of Internal Medicine). Design: We conducted an independent search of the Thomson Reuters’ Science Citation Index for common dermatologic topics, limited to the period 1970 to 2012. Main Outcome Measure: Total number of publications dealing with each dermatologic topic considered. Results: The five most common dermatologic topics published were melanoma, psoriasis, herpes simplex, herpes zoster, and acne. Melanoma and psoriasis were the top two dermatologic topics published in each journal except for Annals of Internal Medicine. Conclusions: Internists frequently diagnose herpes simplex, herpes zoster, and acne, which are also common dermatologic topics published. Although internists infrequently diagnose melanoma and psoriasis, they are major topics for general medical journals because of their increased community awareness, major advancements in therapeutic research, and their nondermatologic manifestations. PMID:25662523

  7. Dealing with the Surgical and Medical Challenges of Penetrating Brain Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Syrmos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Peacetime has reduced the overall incidence of penetrating brain injuries (PBI, and those related to missile penetration are not common anymore at least in western countries. Nevertheless, PBI still occur, and car crashes or work accidents are their main causes. The management of such cases is characterized by many challenges, not only from a surgical and medical point of view, but also for the different and sometimes bizarre dynamics by which they present. Herein we report an unusual deep penetrating brain injury, due to a high-energy crash against a metallic rod in a construction site, with a good surgical outcome despite dramatic clinical conditions on admission. A discussion of the surgical results and functional outcome related to PBI, as found in the English medical literature, is provided. Moreover the most common postoperative complications along with the diagnostic flow charts and therapeutic options useful to prevent inappropriate treatment are highlighted.

  8. The Patterns Of Surgical Thyroid Diseases And Operative Treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Patterns Of Surgical Thyroid Diseases And Operative Treatment. In Gondar College of Medical sciences, North-western Ethiopia. Abebe B. M.D. Lecturer and General practitioner,. Girmaye T. M.D. Assistant professor of surgery,. Mensur 0. M.D. Assistant professor of surgery,. Sentayehu T. M.D. General practitioner,.

  9. Surgical stress response: does endoscopic surgery confer an advantage?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, H

    1999-01-01

    of postoperative pulmonary function and less hypoxemia with endoscopic operation. The slight modification of surgical stress responses by endoscopic surgery is in contrast to the common, though not universal, demonstration of less pain, shorter hospital stay, and less morbidity after endoscopic surgery...... operations where differences are more likely to be found. The clinical consequences of these findings in relation to all over surgical outcome remain to be defined, but effective pain treatment, stress reduction by other techniques, and provision of an active rehabilitation program with early mobilization...

  10. Current approaches to journal club by general surgery programs within the Southwestern surgical congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shifflette, Vanessa; Mitchell, Chris; Mangram, Alicia; Dunn, Ernest

    2012-01-01

    Journal club (JC) is a well-recognized education tool for many postgraduate medical education programs. Journal club helps residents learn critical analytic skills and keep up to date with current medical practices. To our knowledge, there is minimal evidence in the current literature detailing modern JC practices of general surgery training programs. Our study attempts to define how general surgery residency programs are implementing JC in their training process. We distributed by mail a 14-question survey to general surgery program directors within the Southwestern Surgical Congress. These surveys were redistributed 1 month after the initial attempt. The responses were collected and analyzed. Survey questions aimed to define JC practice characteristics, such as where JC is held, when JC is held, who directs JC, what journals are used, the perceived importance of JC, and average attendance. The surveys were sent to 32 program directors (PDs), which included 26 university and 6 community-based programs. We received responses from 26 (81%) PDs. Ninety-two percent of the programs have a consistent journal club (JC). Most JCs meet monthly (64%) or weekly (16%). The meeting places ranged from conference rooms (60%), faculty homes (20%), restaurants (8%), or in the hospital (12%). The meeting times were divided between morning (29%), midday (29%), and evening (42%). Most JCs lasted between 1 and 2 hours (88%), reviewed 1-4 articles (88%), and are attended by more than 60% of residents routinely (75%). Half of the programs (50%) had 3-4 faculty members present during discussion; 29% of the programs had only 1-2 faculty present. The articles were selected from more than 10 different journals. Seventy-five percent of the programs used the American Journal of Surgery and Annals of Surgery to find articles; only 13% of the programs used evidence-based reviews in surgery. PDs believe JC is very beneficial (42%), moderately beneficial (42%), or only fairly beneficial (16

  11. Peripheral surgical wounding and age-dependent neuroinflammation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhipeng Xu

    Full Text Available Post-operative cognitive dysfunction is associated with morbidity and mortality. However, its neuropathogenesis remains largely to be determined. Neuroinflammation and accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ have been reported to contribute to cognitive dysfunction in humans and cognitive impairment in animals. Our recent studies have established a pre-clinical model in mice, and have found that the peripheral surgical wounding without the influence of general anesthesia induces an age-dependent Aβ accumulation and cognitive impairment in mice. We therefore set out to assess the effects of peripheral surgical wounding, in the absence of general anesthesia, on neuroinflammation in mice with different ages. Abdominal surgery under local anesthesia was established in 9 and 18 month-old mice. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6, Iba1 positive cells (the marker of microglia activation, CD33, and cognitive function in mice were determined. The peripheral surgical wounding increased the levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and Iba1 positive cells in the hippocampus of both 9 and 18 month-old mice, and age potentiated these effects. The peripheral surgical wounding increased the levels of CD33 in the hippocampus of 18, but not 9, month-old mice. Finally, anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen ameliorated the peripheral surgical wounding-induced cognitive impairment in 18 month-old mice. These data suggested that the peripheral surgical wounding could induce an age-dependent neuroinflammation and elevation of CD33 levels in the hippocampus of mice, which could lead to cognitive impairment in aged mice. Pending further studies, anti-inflammatory therapies may reduce the risk of postoperative cognitive dysfunction in elderly patients.

  12. Discussion on the Relevant Factors of General Surgery Incision Infection and Prevention Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Baotao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many reasons that can lead to incision infection of general surgical patients. The main reasons include weight, age, body albumin level, surgical time, observation ward, etc. This paper analyzes the clinic data of patients with incision infection after general surgery based on clinic practice and study on the reasons that have impact on general surgical incision infection and gives relevant prevention countermeasures.

  13. Surgical Treatment for Chronic Pancreatitis: Past, Present, and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Plagemann

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The pancreas was one of the last explored organs in the human body. The first surgical experiences were made before fully understanding the function of the gland. Surgical procedures remained less successful until the discovery of insulin, blood groups, and finally the possibility of blood donation. Throughout the centuries, the surgical approach went from radical resections to minimal resections or only drainage of the gland in comparison to an adequate resection combined with drainage procedures. Today, the well-known and standardized procedures are considered as safe due to the high experience of operating surgeons, the centering of pancreatic surgery in specialized centers, and optimized perioperative treatment. Although surgical procedures have become safer and more efficient than ever, the overall perioperative morbidity after pancreatic surgery remains high and management of postoperative complications stagnates. Current research focuses on the prevention of complications, optimizing the patient’s general condition preoperatively and finding the appropriate timing for surgical treatment.

  14. Surgical Assisting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... instruction, including: Microbiology Pathophysiology Pharmacology Anatomy and physiology Medical terminology Curriculum . Course content includes: Advanced surgical anatomy Surgical microbiology Surgical pharmacology Anesthesia methods and agents Bioscience Ethical ...

  15. Surgical management for lumbar disc herniation in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapetanakis, S; Giovannopoulou, E; Blontzos, N; Kazakos, G; Givissis, P

    2017-12-01

    Lumbar disc herniation is a common surgical spine pathology that may be presented during pregnancy. The state of pregnancy complicates the diagnosis and therapeutical management of this entity. Specific considerations rule the decision for surgical intervention, the optimal timing of it and the type of selected procedure in a pregnant patient, due to the potential risks for the fetus. In the last 30 years, evolution in the field of spine surgery has provided options other than open standard discectomy. The well-established concept of "minimal intervention" has led to the development of microdiscectomy and other innovative, full-endoscopic techniques for lumbar discectomy. The aim of the present study is to review the surgical management of lumbar disc herniation in pregnancy and investigate the potential role of minimally invasive spine surgery in this specific population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Surgical management of third nerve palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupam Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Third nerve paralysis has been known to be associated with a wide spectrum of presentation and other associated factors such as the presence of ptosis, pupillary involvement, amblyopia, aberrant regeneration, poor bell′s phenomenon, superior oblique (SO overaction, and lateral rectus (LR contracture. Correction of strabismus due to third nerve palsy can be complex as four out of the six extraocular muscles are involved and therefore should be approached differently. Third nerve palsy can be congenital or acquired. The common causes of isolated third nerve palsy in children are congenital (43%, trauma (20%, inflammation (13%, aneurysm (7%, and ophthalmoplegic migraine. Whereas, in adult population, common etiologies are vasculopathic disorders (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, aneurysm, and trauma. Treatment can be both nonsurgical and surgical. As nonsurgical modalities are not of much help, surgery remains the main-stay of treatment. Surgical strategies are different for complete and partial third nerve palsy. Surgery for complete third nerve palsy may involve supra-maximal recession - resection of the recti. This may be combined with SO transposition and augmented by surgery on the other eye. For partial third nerve, palsy surgery is determined according to nature and extent of involvement of extraocular muscles.

  17. Surgical management of third nerve palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anupam; Bahuguna, Chirag; Nagpal, Ritu; Kumar, Barun

    2016-01-01

    Third nerve paralysis has been known to be associated with a wide spectrum of presentation and other associated factors such as the presence of ptosis, pupillary involvement, amblyopia, aberrant regeneration, poor bell's phenomenon, superior oblique (SO) overaction, and lateral rectus (LR) contracture. Correction of strabismus due to third nerve palsy can be complex as four out of the six extraocular muscles are involved and therefore should be approached differently. Third nerve palsy can be congenital or acquired. The common causes of isolated third nerve palsy in children are congenital (43%), trauma (20%), inflammation (13%), aneurysm (7%), and ophthalmoplegic migraine. Whereas, in adult population, common etiologies are vasculopathic disorders (diabetes mellitus, hypertension), aneurysm, and trauma. Treatment can be both nonsurgical and surgical. As nonsurgical modalities are not of much help, surgery remains the main-stay of treatment. Surgical strategies are different for complete and partial third nerve palsy. Surgery for complete third nerve palsy may involve supra-maximal recession - resection of the recti. This may be combined with SO transposition and augmented by surgery on the other eye. For partial third nerve, palsy surgery is determined according to nature and extent of involvement of extraocular muscles. PMID:27433033

  18. How I do it: surgical ligation of craniocervical junction dural AV fistulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Thomas J; La Pira, Biagia; Hughes, Joshua; Lanzino, Giuseppe

    2017-08-01

    Dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) of the craniocervical junction are uncommon vascular lesions, which often require surgical treatment even in the endovascular era. Most commonly, the fistula is placed laterally, and surgical ligation is performed through a lateral suboccipital craniotomy. After dural opening, the area is inspected, and the arterialized vein is identified emerging from the dura, often adjacent to the entry point of the vertebral artery, and ligated. A far lateral craniotomy is the authors' preferred surgical approach for accessing and treating dural arteriovenous fistulas of the craniocervical junction that cannot be reached endovascularly.

  19. [Experience of the surgical management of the esophageal achalasia in a tertiary care hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barajas-Fregoso, Elpidio Manuel; Romero-Hernández, Teodoro; Sánchez-Fernández, Patricio Rogelio; Fuentes-Orozco, Clotilde; González-Ojeda, Alejandro; Macías-Amezcua, Michel Dassaejv

    2015-01-01

    Achalasia is a primary esophageal motor disorder. The most common symptoms are: dysphagia, chest pain, reflux and weight loss. The esophageal manometry is the standard for diagnosis. The aim of this paper is to determine the effectiveness of the surgical management in patients with achalasia in a tertiary care hospital. A case series consisting of achalasia patients, treated surgically between January and December of 2011. Clinical charts were reviewed to obtain data and registries of the type of surgical procedure, morbidity and mortality. Fourteen patients were identified, with an average age of 49.1 years. The most common symptoms were: dysphagia, vomiting, weight loss and pyrosis. Eight open approaches were performed and six by laparoscopy, with an average length of cardiomyotomy of 9.4 cm. Eleven patients received an antireflux procedure. The effectiveness of procedures performed was 85.7 %. Surgical management offered at this tertiary care hospital does not differ from that reported in other case series, giving effectiveness and safety for patients with achalasia.

  20. Introduction of an acute surgical unit: comparison of performance indicators and outcomes for operative management of acute appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancashire, John F; Steele, M; Parker, D; Puhalla, H

    2014-08-01

    The Acute Surgical Unit (ASU) is a recent change in management of acute general surgical patients in hospitals worldwide. In contrast to traditional management of acute surgical presentations by a rotating on-call system, ASUs are shown to deliver improved efficiency and patient outcomes. This study investigated the impact of an ASU on operative management of appendicitis, the most common acute surgical presentation, by comparing performance indicators and patient outcomes prior to and after introduction of an ASU at the Gold Coast Hospital, Queensland, Australia. A retrospective study of patients admitted from the Emergency Department (ED) and who underwent emergency appendectomy from February 2010 to January 2011 (pre-ASU) and after introduction of the ASU from February 2011 to January 2012 (post-ASU). A total of 548 patients underwent appendectomy between February 2010 and January 2012, comprising 247 pre-ASU and 301 post-ASU patients. Significant improvements were demonstrated: reduced time to surgical review, fewer complications arising from operations commencing during ASU in-hours, and more appendectomies performed during the daytime attended by the consultant. There was no significant difference in total cost of admission or total admission length of stay. This study demonstrated that ASUs have potential to significantly improve the outcomes for operative management of acute appendicitis compared to the traditional on-call model. The impact of the ASU was limited by access to theaters and restricted ASU operation hours. Further investigation of site-specific determinants could be beneficial to optimize this new model of acute surgical care.

  1. Acute surgical management in idiopathic intracranial hypertension.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Zakaria, Zaitun

    2012-01-01

    Idiopathic intracranial hypertension is a headache syndrome with progressive symptoms of raised intracranial pressure. Most commonly, it is a slow process where surveillance and medical management are the main treatment modalities. We describe herein an acute presentation with bilateral sixth nerve palsies, papilloedema and visual deterioration, where acute surgical intervention was a vision-saving operation.

  2. THE RESULTS OF THE PANCREATODUODENECTOMY IN THE SPECIALIZED DEPARTMENT OF A GENERAL HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Rogal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pancreatoduodenal resection (PDR is the only radical method of treatment in patients with malignancies of the head of pancreas, terminal part of the common bile duct, duodenum, and major duodenal papilla. That is why the demand for this operation is very high.PURPOSE OF THE STUDY To reason the possibility and necessity of PDR in a general hospital.MATERIAL AND METHODS We studied 55 patients aged from 29 to 75 years who had undergone PDR. In 27 (49% patients, cancer of the head of pancreas was an indication for surgery. The tumor of the terminal part of the common bile duct was diagnosed in 12 (21% cases, major duodenal papilla — in 2 (3% cases. Complicated chronic pancreatitis was the indication for operation in 15 (27% cases.RESULTS Postoperative complications were mild or average, lethal outcomes did not occur. Failure of the pancreatic-digestive anastomosis was the most common complication (8 patients. Most postoperative complications have been cured by mini invasive methods.CONCLUSION PDR is possible, and in many cases advisable to be performed in a multidisciplinary institution, with relevant experience and technical equipment, as it provides much greater possibilities of treatment for both surgical and non-surgical complications.

  3. Assessment of surgical and obstetrical care at 10 district hospitals in Ghana using on-site interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Fizan; Choo, Shelly; Hesse, Afua A J; Abantanga, Francis; Sory, Elias; Osen, Hayley; Ng, Julie; McCord, Colin W; Cherian, Meena; Fleischer-Djoleto, Charles; Perry, Henry

    2011-12-01

    For most of the population in Africa, district hospitals represent the first level of access for emergency and essential surgical services. The present study documents the number and availability of surgical and obstetrical care providers as well as the types of surgical and obstetrical procedures being performed at 10 first-referral district hospitals in Ghana. After institutional review board and governmental approval, a study team composed of Ghanaian and American surgeons performed on-site surveys at 10 district hospitals in 10 different regions of Ghana in August 2009. Face-to-face interviews were conducted documenting the numbers and availability of surgical and obstetrical personnel as well as gathering data relating to the number and types of procedures being performed at the facilities. A total of 68 surgical and obstetrical providers were interviewed. Surgical and obstetrical care providers consisted of Medical Officers (8.5%), nurse anesthetists (6%), theatre nurses (33%), midwives (50.7%), and others (4.5%). Major surgical cases represented 37% of overall case volumes with cesarean section as the most common type of major surgical procedure performed. The most common minor surgical procedures performed were suturing of lacerations or episiotomies. The present study demonstrates that there is a substantial shortage of adequately trained surgeons who can perform surgical and obstetrical procedures at first-referral facilities. Addressing human resource needs and further defining practice constraints at the district hospital level are important facets of future planning and policy implementation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Patterns and outcome of surgical management of anorectal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Anorectal malformations (ARM) are common congenital abnormalities in most parts of the world and its management remains a challenge to surgeons practicing in resource-limited setting such as Tanzania. This study aimed to determine the patterns and outcome of surgical management of ARM at a ...

  5. Mid- and long-term clinical results of surgical therapy in unicameral bone cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagmann Sébastien

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unicameral (or simple bone cysts (UBC are benign tumours most often located in long bones of children and adolescents. Pathological fractures are common, and due to high recurrence rates, these lesions remain a challenge to treat. Numerous surgical procedures have been proposed, but there is no general consensus of the ideal treatment. The aim of this investigation therefore was to study the long-term outcome after surgical treatment in UBC. Methods A retrospective analysis of 46 patients surgically treated for UBC was performed for short and mid-term outcome. Clinical and radiological outcome parameters were studied according to a modified Neer classification system. Long-term clinical information was retrieved via a questionnaire at a minimum follow-up of 10 years after surgery. Results Forty-six patients (17 female, 29 male with a mean age of 10.0 ± 4.8 years and with histopathologically confirmed diagnosis of UBC were included. Pathological fractures were observed in 21 cases (46%. All patients underwent surgery for UBC (35 patients underwent curettage and bone grafting as a primary therapy, 4 curettage alone, 3 received corticoid instillation and 4 decompression by cannulated screws. Overall recurrence rate after the first surgical treatment was 39% (18/46, second (17.4% of all patients and third recurrence (4.3% were frequently observed and were addressed by revision surgery. Recurrence was significantly higher in young and in male patients as well as in active cysts. After a mean of 52 months, 40 out of 46 cysts were considered healed. Prognosis was significantly better when recurrence was observed later than 30 months after therapy. After a mean follow-up of 15.5 ± 6.2 years, 40 patients acknowledged clinically excellent results, while five reported mild and casual pain. Only one patient reported a mild limitation of range of motion. Conclusions Our results suggest satisfactory overall long-term outcome for the

  6. Mid- and long-term clinical results of surgical therapy in unicameral bone cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmann, Sébastien; Eichhorn, Florian; Moradi, Babak; Gotterbarm, Tobias; Dreher, Thomas; Lehner, Burkhard; Zeifang, Felix

    2011-12-13

    Unicameral (or simple) bone cysts (UBC) are benign tumours most often located in long bones of children and adolescents. Pathological fractures are common, and due to high recurrence rates, these lesions remain a challenge to treat. Numerous surgical procedures have been proposed, but there is no general consensus of the ideal treatment. The aim of this investigation therefore was to study the long-term outcome after surgical treatment in UBC. A retrospective analysis of 46 patients surgically treated for UBC was performed for short and mid-term outcome. Clinical and radiological outcome parameters were studied according to a modified Neer classification system. Long-term clinical information was retrieved via a questionnaire at a minimum follow-up of 10 years after surgery. Forty-six patients (17 female, 29 male) with a mean age of 10.0 ± 4.8 years and with histopathologically confirmed diagnosis of UBC were included. Pathological fractures were observed in 21 cases (46%). All patients underwent surgery for UBC (35 patients underwent curettage and bone grafting as a primary therapy, 4 curettage alone, 3 received corticoid instillation and 4 decompression by cannulated screws). Overall recurrence rate after the first surgical treatment was 39% (18/46), second (17.4% of all patients) and third recurrence (4.3%) were frequently observed and were addressed by revision surgery. Recurrence was significantly higher in young and in male patients as well as in active cysts. After a mean of 52 months, 40 out of 46 cysts were considered healed. Prognosis was significantly better when recurrence was observed later than 30 months after therapy. After a mean follow-up of 15.5 ± 6.2 years, 40 patients acknowledged clinically excellent results, while five reported mild and casual pain. Only one patient reported a mild limitation of range of motion. Our results suggest satisfactory overall long-term outcome for the surgical treatment of UBC, although short-and mid

  7. Hip Arthroscopy Surgical Volume Trends and 30-Day Postoperative Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetanovich, Gregory L; Chalmers, Peter N; Levy, David M; Mather, Richard C; Harris, Joshua D; Bush-Joseph, Charles A; Nho, Shane J

    2016-07-01

    To determine hip arthroscopy surgical volume trends from 2006 to 2013 using the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database, the incidence of 30-day complications of hip arthroscopy, and patient and surgical risk factors for complications. Patients who underwent hip arthroscopy from 2006 to 2013 were identified in the NSQIP database for the over 400 NSQIP participating hospitals from the United States using Current Procedural Terminology and International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes. Trends in number of hip arthroscopy procedures per year were analyzed. Complications in the 30-day period after hip arthroscopy were identified. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify risk factors for complications. We identified 1,338 patients who underwent hip arthroscopy, with a mean age of 39.5 ± 13.0 years. Female patients comprised 59.6%. Hip arthroscopy procedures became 25 times more common in 2013 than 2006 (P arthroscopy. Hip arthroscopy is an increasingly common procedure, with a 25-fold increase from 2006 to 2013. There is a low incidence of 30-day postoperative complications (1.3%), most commonly bleeding requiring a transfusion, return to the operating room, and superficial infection. Regional/monitored anesthesia care and steroid use were independent risk factors for minor complications. Level III, retrospective comparative study. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Preoperative Site Marking: Are We Adhering to Good Surgical Practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathla, Sonia; Chadwick, Michael; Nevins, Edward J; Seward, Joanna

    2017-06-29

    Wrong-site surgery is a never event and a serious, preventable patient safety incident. Within the United Kingdom, national guidance has been issued to minimize the risk of such events. The mandate includes preoperative marking of all surgical patients. This study aimed to quantify regional variation in practice within general surgery and opinions of the surgeons, to help guide the formulation and implementation of a regional general surgery preoperative marking protocol. A SurveyMonkey questionnaire was designed and distributed to 120 surgeons within the Mersey region, United Kingdom. This included all surgical trainees in Mersey (47 registrars, 56 core trainees), 15 consultants, and 2 surgical care practitioners. This sought to ascertain their routine practice and how they would choose to mark for 12 index procedures in general surgery, if mandated to do so. A total of 72 responses (60%) were obtained to the SurveyMonkey questionnaire. Only 26 (36.1%) said that they routinely marked all of their patients preoperatively. The operating surgeon marked the patient in 69% of responses, with the remainder delegating this task. Markings were visible after draping in only 55.6% of marked cases. Based on our findings, surgeons may not be adhering to "Good Surgical Practice"; practice is widely variable and surgeons are largely opposed and resistant to marking patients unless laterality is involved. We suggest that all surgeons need to be actively engaged in the design of local marking protocols to gain support, change practice, and reduce errors.

  9. Mental training in surgical education: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Sara; Raison, Nicholas; Khan, Muhammad S; Dasgupta, Prokar; Ahmed, Kamran

    2017-11-01

    Pressures on surgical education from restricted working hours and increasing scrutiny of outcomes have been compounded by the development of highly technical surgical procedures requiring additional specialist training. Mental training (MT), the act of performing motor tasks in the 'mind's eye', offers the potential for training outside the operating room. However, the technique is yet to be formally incorporated in surgical curricula. This study aims to review the available literature to determine the role of MT in surgical education. EMBASE and Medline databases were searched. The primary outcome measure was surgical proficiency following training. Secondary analyses examined training duration, forms of MT and trainees level of experience. Study quality was assessed using Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials scores or Quality Assessment Tool for Before-After (Pre-Post) Studies with No Control Group. Fourteen trials with 618 participants met the inclusion criteria, of which 11 were randomized and three longitudinal. Ten studies found MT to be beneficial. Mental rehearsal was the most commonly used form of training. No significant correlation was found between the length of MT and outcomes. MT benefitted expert surgeons more than medical students or novice surgeons. The majority studies demonstrate MT to be beneficial in surgical education especially amongst more experienced surgeons within a well-structured MT programme. However, overall studies were low quality, lacked sufficient methodology and suffered from small sample sizes. For these reasons, further research is required to determine optimal role of MT as a supplementary educational tool within the surgical curriculum. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  10. Surgical management of abnormal uterine bleeding in fertile age women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finco, Andrea; Centini, Gabriele; Lazzeri, Lucia; Zupi, Errico

    2015-07-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding is a common gynecological disease and represents one of the most frequent reasons for hospital admission to a specialist unit, often requiring further surgical treatment. Following the so-called PALM-COEIN system we will attempt to further clarify the surgical treatments available today. The first group (PALM) is characterized by structural lesions, which may be more appropriately treated by means of surgical management. Although hysterectomy remains the definitive and decisive choice, there are many alternative techniques available. These minimally invasive procedures offer the opportunity for a more conservative approach. Precise and accurate counseling facilitates better patient selection, based on the patient's desires, age and disease type, allowing treatment to be individually tailored to each woman.

  11. Biomarkers of general stress in mussels as common indicators for marine biomonitoring programmes in Europe: The ICON experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez-Gómez, C.; Robinson, C.D.; Burgeot, T.; Gubbins, M.J.; Halldórsson, H.P.; Albentosa, M.; Bignell, J.P.; Hylland, K.; Vethaak, A.D.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether general stress biomarkers in mussels can be applied as common first-tier biomarkers in regional biomonitoring programmes in the North Sea (including Iceland) and western Mediterranean Sea. Stress on Stress (SoS) and lysosomal membrane stability (LMS) biomarkers were

  12. Measuring the Burden of Surgical Disease Averted by Emergency and Essential Surgical Care in a District Hospital in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Matthew A R; Guest, Glenn D; Mamadi, Perista; Seta, Westin; Yaubihi, Noel; Karawiga, Grace; Naidi, Billy; Watters, David A K

    2017-03-01

    Timely access to emergency and essential surgical care (EESC) and anaesthesia in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) prevents premature death, minimises lifelong disability and reduces their economic impact on families and communities. Papua New Guinea is one of the poorest countries in the Pacific region, and provides much of its surgical care at a district hospital level. We aimed to evaluate the surgical capacity of a district hospital in PNG and estimate the effectiveness of surgical interventions provided. We performed a prospective study to calculate the number of DALYs averted for 465 patients treated with surgical care over a 3-month period (Sep-Nov 2013) in Alotau Hospital, Milne Bay Province, PNG (pop 210,000). Data were also collected on infrastructure, workforce, interventions provided and equipment available using the World Health Organization's Integrated Management of Emergency and Essential Surgical Care Toolkit, a survey to assess EESC and surgical capacity. We also performed a retrospective one-year audit of surgical, obstetric and anaesthetic care to provide context with regards to annual disease burden treated and surgical activity. EESC was provided by 11 Surgeons/Anaesthetists/Obstetricians (SAO) providers, equating to 5.7 per 100,000 population (including 4 nurse anaesthetists). They performed 783/100,000 procedures annually. Over the 3-month prospective study period, 4954 DALYs were averted by 465 surgical interventions, 52 % of which were elective. This equates to 18,330 DALYs averted annually or, approximately 18 % of the published but estimated disease burden in the Province in the 2013 Global Burden of Disease Study. The overall peri-operative mortality rate was 1.29 %, with 0.41 % for elective procedures and 2.25 % for emergencies. Much of the burden of surgical disease in Papua New Guinea presenting to Alotau General Hospital serving Milne Bay Province can be effectively treated by a small team providing emergency and

  13. Evaluation of management and surgical outcomes in pregnancies complicated by acute cholecystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Messidi, Amira; Alsarraj, Ghazi; Czuzoj-Shulman, Nicholas; Mishkin, Daniel S; Abenhaim, Haim Arie

    2018-01-25

    To evaluate the management of pregnancies complicated by acute cholecystitis (AC) and determine whether pregnant women are more likely to have medical and surgical complications. We carried out a population-based matched cohort study using the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project-Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 2003 to 2011. Pregnant women with AC were age matched to non-pregnant women with AC on a 1:5 ratio. Management and outcomes were compared using descriptive analysis and conditional logistic regression. There were 11,835 pregnant women admitted with AC who were age matched to 59,175 non-pregnant women. As compared to non-pregnant women, women with AC were more commonly managed conservatively, odds ratio (OR) 6.1 (5.8-6.4). As compared to non-pregnant women, pregnant women with AC more commonly developed sepsis [OR 1.4 (1.0-1.9)], developed venous thromboembolism [OR 8.7 (4.3-17.8)] and had bowel obstruction [OR 1.3 (1.1-1.6)]. Among pregnant women with AC, surgical management was associated with a small but significant increased risk of septic shock and bile leak. AC, in the context of pregnancy, is associated with an increased risk of adverse outcomes. Although the literature favors early surgical intervention, pregnancies with AC appear to be more commonly managed conservatively with overall comparable outcomes to surgically managed AC. Conservative management may have a role in select pregnant women with AC.

  14. Mobile task management tool that improves workflow of an acute general surgical service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Elizabeth; McDonald, Rod; Savage, Earle; Floyd, Richard; Butler, Anthony; Rumball-Smith, Alistair; Connor, Saxon

    2015-10-01

    Understanding and being able to measure constraints within a health system is crucial if outcomes are to be improved. Current systems lack the ability to capture decision making with regard to tasks performed within a patient journey. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a mobile task management tool on clinical workflow within an acute general surgical service by analysing data capture and usability of the application tool. The Cortex iOS application was developed to digitize patient flow and provide real-time visibility over clinical decision making and task performance. Study outcomes measured were workflow data capture for patient and staff events. Usability was assessed using an electronic survey. There were 449 unique patient journeys tracked with a total of 3072 patient events recorded. The results repository was accessed 7792 times. The participants reported that the application sped up decision making, reduced redundancy of work and improved team communication. The mode of the estimated time the application saved participants was 5-9 min/h of work. Of the 14 respondents, nine discarded their analogue methods of tracking tasks by the end of the study period. The introduction of a mobile task management system improved the working efficiency of junior clinical staff. The application allowed capture of data not previously available to hospital systems. In the future, such data will contribute to the accurate mapping of patient journeys through the health system. © 2015 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  15. A randomised comparison between an inexpensive, general-purpose headlight and a purpose-built surgical headlight on users' visual acuity and colour vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, I; Sayles, M; Nistor, M; McRae, A R

    2014-02-01

    To determine if there are any differences in near visual acuity and colour vision between an inexpensive general-purpose light emitting diode (LED) headlight and a purpose-built surgical LED headlight. A prospective study was conducted sequentially comparing near visual acuity and colour vision, the headlights being tested in random order, in a testing room with a constant minimal amount of background light. The participants were NHS employee volunteers, with self-declared normal (or corrected) vision, working in occupations requiring full literacy. For visual acuity, outcome was measured by recording the smallest font legible when using each headlight when the subject read a near visual acuity test card. For colour vision, the outcome was passing or failing the Ishihara test. There was no statistically significant difference between the general-purpose and the purpose-built headlights in users' near visual acuity or colour vision.

  16. Risk Factors and Predictive Model Development of Thirty-Day Post-Operative Surgical Site Infection in the Veterans Administration Surgical Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinli; Nylander, William; Smith, Tracy; Han, Soonhee; Gunnar, William

    2018-04-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) complicates approximately 2% of surgeries in the Veterans Affairs (VA) hospitals. Surgical site infections are responsible for increased morbidity, length of hospital stay, cost, and mortality. Surgical site infection can be minimized by modifying risk factors. In this study, we identified risk factors and developed accurate predictive surgical specialty-specific SSI risk prediction models for the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) surgery population. In a retrospective observation study, surgical patients who underwent surgery from October 2013 to September 2016 from 136 VA hospitals were included. The Veteran Affairs Surgical Quality Improvement Program (VASQIP) database was used for the pre-operative demographic and clinical characteristics, intra-operative characteristics, and 30-day post-operative outcomes. The study population represents 11 surgical specialties: neurosurgery, urology, podiatry, otolaryngology, general, orthopedic, plastic, thoracic, vascular, cardiac coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), and cardiac valve/other surgery. Multivariable logistic regression models were developed for the 30-day post-operative SSIs. Among 354,528 surgical procedures, 6,538 (1.8%) had SSIs within 30 days. Surgical site infection rates varied among surgical specialty (0.7%-3.0%). Surgical site infection rates were higher in emergency procedures, procedures with long operative duration, greater complexity, and higher relative value units. Other factors associated with increased SSI risk were high level of American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification (level 4 and 5), dyspnea, open wound/infection, wound classification, ascites, bleeding disorder, chemotherapy, smoking, history of severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), radiotherapy, steroid use for chronic conditions, and weight loss. Each surgical specialty had a distinct combination of risk factors. Accurate SSI risk-predictive surgery specialty

  17. Pattern strabismus and torsion needs special surgical attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kekunnaya, R; Mendonca, T; Sachdeva, V

    2015-01-01

    Pattern strabismus is relatively common in strabismus practice. Although it is classically used to include A and V patterns, the term has been expanded to include additional vertically incomitant horizontal strabismus. This article reviews the clinical features, etiopathogenesis, and surgical options for the patients with pattern strabismus. PMID:25412718

  18. Suction Cup Induced Palatal Fistula: Surgical Closure by Palatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Department of Pediatrics, Pragna Children's Hospital, Hyderabad, ... Eluru, 4Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, KIMS Dental College and ... The surgical closure of palatal fistula planned under general anesthesia.

  19. Systemic antimicrobial therapy (minocycline as an adjunct to non-surgical approach to recurrent chronic generalized gingival hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parag M Khatri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic antibiotic treatment has emerged as a powerful adjunct to conventional mechanical debridement for therapeutic management of the periodontal diseases. The conceptual basis for treating periodontal diseases as infections is particularly attractive in part because of substantial data indicating that these diseases may be associated with specific putative pathogens. Further, discrete groups of patients respond well to systemic antibiotics and exhibit improvement of clinical parameters, including attachment level and inflammation. This bacterial-host interaction, which is ever-so-present in periodontitis, directs us toward utilizing antimicrobial agents along with the routine mechanical debridement. This case report presents a case of a female patient with recurrence of the chronic generalized periodontitis with gingival enlargement, which is treated thrice by referral dentist. A through clinical examination was carried out pre-operatively and treatment was planned with systemic minocycline in conjunction with the conventional non-surgical approach. There was a significant reduction of pocket depth, gain in attachment with dramatic improvement clinically.

  20. Systemic antimicrobial therapy (minocycline) as an adjunct to non-surgical approach to recurrent chronic generalized gingival hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Parag M; Bacha, Shraddanand

    2014-03-01

    Systemic antibiotic treatment has emerged as a powerful adjunct to conventional mechanical debridement for therapeutic management of the periodontal diseases. The conceptual basis for treating periodontal diseases as infections is particularly attractive in part because of substantial data indicating that these diseases may be associated with specific putative pathogens. Further, discrete groups of patients respond well to systemic antibiotics and exhibit improvement of clinical parameters, including attachment level and inflammation. This bacterial-host interaction, which is ever-so-present in periodontitis, directs us toward utilizing antimicrobial agents along with the routine mechanical debridement. This case report presents a case of a female patient with recurrence of the chronic generalized periodontitis with gingival enlargement, which is treated thrice by referral dentist. A through clinical examination was carried out pre-operatively and treatment was planned with systemic minocycline in conjunction with the conventional non-surgical approach. There was a significant reduction of pocket depth, gain in attachment with dramatic improvement clinically.

  1. Wrong-Site Surgery, Retained Surgical Items, and Surgical Fires : A Systematic Review of Surgical Never Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempel, Susanne; Maggard-Gibbons, Melinda; Nguyen, David K; Dawes, Aaron J; Miake-Lye, Isomi; Beroes, Jessica M; Booth, Marika J; Miles, Jeremy N V; Shanman, Roberta; Shekelle, Paul G

    2015-08-01

    Serious, preventable surgical events, termed never events, continue to occur despite considerable patient safety efforts. To examine the incidence and root causes of and interventions to prevent wrong-site surgery, retained surgical items, and surgical fires in the era after the implementation of the Universal Protocol in 2004. We searched 9 electronic databases for entries from 2004 through June 30, 2014, screened references, and consulted experts. Two independent reviewers identified relevant publications in June 2014. One reviewer used a standardized form to extract data and a second reviewer checked the data. Strength of evidence was established by the review team. Data extraction was completed in January 2015. Incidence of wrong-site surgery, retained surgical items, and surgical fires. We found 138 empirical studies that met our inclusion criteria. Incidence estimates for wrong-site surgery in US settings varied by data source and procedure (median estimate, 0.09 events per 10,000 surgical procedures). The median estimate for retained surgical items was 1.32 events per 10,000 procedures, but estimates varied by item and procedure. The per-procedure surgical fire incidence is unknown. A frequently reported root cause was inadequate communication. Methodologic challenges associated with investigating changes in rare events limit the conclusions of 78 intervention evaluations. Limited evidence supported the Universal Protocol (5 studies), education (4 studies), and team training (4 studies) interventions to prevent wrong-site surgery. Limited evidence exists to prevent retained surgical items by using data-matrix-coded sponge-counting systems (5 pertinent studies). Evidence for preventing surgical fires was insufficient, and intervention effects were not estimable. Current estimates for wrong-site surgery and retained surgical items are 1 event per 100,000 and 1 event per 10,000 procedures, respectively, but the precision is uncertain, and the per

  2. Exposure in emergency general surgery in a time-based residency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This paper aimed to characterize the resident exposure to acute general surgical conditions during a three-months rotation in a general surgical unit. Setting: The Department of Surgery, University of Nairobi and Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. MethodS: Four residents (in their first to ...

  3. Measuring Error Identification and Recovery Skills in Surgical Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternbach, Joel M; Wang, Kevin; El Khoury, Rym; Teitelbaum, Ezra N; Meyerson, Shari L

    2017-02-01

    Although error identification and recovery skills are essential for the safe practice of surgery, they have not traditionally been taught or evaluated in residency training. This study validates a method for assessing error identification and recovery skills in surgical residents using a thoracoscopic lobectomy simulator. We developed a 5-station, simulator-based examination containing the most commonly encountered cognitive and technical errors occurring during division of the superior pulmonary vein for left upper lobectomy. Successful completion of each station requires identification and correction of these errors. Examinations were video recorded and scored in a blinded fashion using an examination-specific rating instrument evaluating task performance as well as error identification and recovery skills. Evidence of validity was collected in the categories of content, response process, internal structure, and relationship to other variables. Fifteen general surgical residents (9 interns and 6 third-year residents) completed the examination. Interrater reliability was high, with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.78 between 4 trained raters. Station scores ranged from 64% to 84% correct. All stations adequately discriminated between high- and low-performing residents, with discrimination ranging from 0.35 to 0.65. The overall examination score was significantly higher for intermediate residents than for interns (mean, 74 versus 64 of 90 possible; p = 0.03). The described simulator-based examination with embedded errors and its accompanying assessment tool can be used to measure error identification and recovery skills in surgical residents. This examination provides a valid method for comparing teaching strategies designed to improve error recognition and recovery to enhance patient safety. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Uncommon surgical emergencies in neonatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Angotti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Over the past decade, multiple factors have changed the pattern of neonatal surgical emergencies. An increase in prenatal screenings and the development of neonatal tertiary care centres have changed the clinical approach to these kids. Materials and methods. Between 1995 to 2011 were retrospectively reviewed 34 patients with diagnosis of uncommon rare neonatal surgical emergencies at our institute. We analyzed: sex, gestational age, weight at birth, primary pathology, prenatal diagnosis, associated anomalies, age and weight at surgery, clinical presentation, start of oral feeding and hospitalization. The follow-up was performed at 6,12, 24 and 36 months. Results. There were 21 male and 13 female. The gestational age ranged between 28 and 36 weeks. The weight at birth ranged between 700 and 1400 grams. Oral feeding was started between 4th and 10th postoperative day. The average hospitalization was about 70.47 days. To date, all patients have finished the followup. They are healthy. Conclusion. The outcome of the patients with uncommon surgical emergencies is different based on the etiology. Overall survival is generally good but is influenced by the associated anomalies.

  5. Perceptions of gender-based discrimination during surgical training and practice

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce, Adrienne N.; Battista, Alexis; Plankey, Michael W.; Johnson, Lynt B.; Marshall, M. Blair

    2015-01-01

    Background: Women represent 15% of practicing general surgeons. Gender-based discrimination has been implicated as discouraging women from surgery. We sought to determine women’s perceptions of gender-based discrimination in the surgical training and working environment.Methods: Following IRB approval, we fielded a pilot survey measuring perceptions and impact of gender-based discrimination in medical school, residency training, and surgical practice. It was sent electronically to 1,065 indiv...

  6. Thoracic surgical resident education: a costly endeavor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoon, John H; Baisden, Clint; Holler, Ben; Hicks, George L; Bove, Ed L; Wright, Cameron D; Merrill, Walter H; Fullerton, Dave A

    2014-12-01

    We sought to define an accurate measure of thoracic surgical education costs. Program directors from six distinct and differently sized and geographically located thoracic surgical training programs used a common template to provide estimates of resident educational costs. These data were reviewed, clarifying questions or discrepancies when noted and using best estimates when exact data were unavailable. Subsequently, a composite of previously published cost-estimation products was used to capture accurate cost data. Data were then compiled and averaged to provide an accurate picture of all costs associated with thoracic surgical education. Before formal accounting was performed, the estimated average for all programs was approximately $250,000 per year per resident. However, when formal evaluations by the six programs were performed, the annual cost of resident education ranged from $330,000 to $667,000 per year per resident. The average cost of $483,000 per year was almost double the initial estimates. Variability was noted by region and size of program. Faculty teaching costs varied from $208,000 to $346,000 per year. Simulation costs ranged from $0 to $80,000 per year. Resident savings to program ranged from $0 to $135,000 per year and averaged $37,000 per year per resident. Thoracic surgical education costs are considerably higher than initial estimates from program directors and probably represent an unappreciated source of financial burden for cardiothoracic surgical educational programs. Copyright © 2014 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Surgical Instrument Sets for Special Operations Expeditionary Surgical Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Diane F; Sexton, Justin C; Benavides, Linda C; Benavides, Jerry M; Lundy, Jonathan B

    The deployment of surgical assets has been driven by mission demands throughout years of military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. The transition to the highly expeditious Golden Hour Offset Surgical Transport Team (GHOST- T) now offers highly mobile surgical assets in nontraditional operating rooms; the content of the surgical instrument sets has also transformed to accommodate this change. The 102nd Forward Surgical Team (FST) was attached to Special Operations assigned to southern Afghanistan from June 2015 to March 2016. The focus was to decrease overall size and weight of FST instrument sets without decreasing surgical capability of the GHOST-T. Each instrument set was evaluated and modified to include essential instruments to perform damage control surgery. The overall number of main instrument sets was decreased from eight to four; simplified augmentation sets have been added, which expand the capabilities of any main set. The overall size was decreased by 40% and overall weight decreased by 58%. The cardiothoracic, thoracotomy, and emergency thoracotomy trays were condensed to thoracic set. The orthopedic and amputation sets were replaced with an augmentation set of a prepackaged orthopedic external fixator set). An augmentation set to the major or minor basic sets, specifically for vascular injuries, was created. Through the reorganization of conventional FST surgical instrument sets to maintain damage control capabilities and mobility, the 102nd GHOST-T reduced surgical equipment volume and weight, providing a lesson learned for future surgical teams operating in austere environments. 2017.

  8. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: the Midwestern surgical experience with the diaphragm pacing stimulation system shows that general anesthesia can be safely performed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onders, Raymond P; Carlin, Arthur M; Elmo, MaryJo; Sivashankaran, Subhalakashmi; Katirji, Bashar; Schilz, Robert

    2009-03-01

    There is a paucity of literature concerning general anesthesia and surgery in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS or Lou Gehrig's disease). This report summarizes the largest series of surgical cases in ALS during multicenter prospective trials of the laparoscopic diaphragm pacing system (DPS) to delay respiratory failure. The overall strategy outlined includes the use of rapidly reversible short-acting analgesic and amnestic agents with no neuromuscular relaxants. Fifty-one patients were implanted from March 2005 to March 2008 at 2 sites. Age at implantation ranged from 42 to 73 years and the percent predicted forced vital capacity (FVC) ranged from 20% to 87%. On preoperative blood gases, Pco(2) was as high as 60. Using this protocol, there were no failures to extubate or 30-day mortalities. The DPS system increases the respiratory system compliance by decreasing posterior lobe atelectasis and can stimulate respirations at the end of each case. Laparoscopic surgery with general anesthesia can be safely performed in patients with ALS undergoing DPS.

  9. Surgical dislocation of the hip in patients with femoroacetabular impingement: Surgical techniques and our experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Marko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Arthrosis of the hip is the most common cause of a hip joint disorders. The aim of this study was to present our experience in the application of a safe surgical dislocation of the hip in patients with minor morphological changes in the hip joint, which, through the mechanism of femoroacetabular impingement, cause damage to the acetabular labrum and adjacent cartilage as an early sign of the hip arthrosis. Methods. We have operated 51 patients with different morphological bone changes in the hip area and resultant soft tissue damage of the acetabular labrum and its adjacent cartilage. Surgical technique that we applied in this group of patients, was adapted to our needs and capabilities and it was minimaly modified compared to the original procedure. Results. The surgical technique presented in this paper, proved to be a good method of treatment of bone and soft tissue pathomorphological changes of the hip in patients with femoroacetabular impingement. We had no cases with avascular necrosis of the femoral head, and two patients had nonunion of the greater trochanter, 9 patients developed paraarticular ossification, without subjective symptoms, while 3 patients suffered from postoperative pain in the groin during more energetic physical activities. Conclusion. Utilization of our partly modified surgical technique of controlled and safe dislocation of the hip can solve all the bone and soft tissue problems in patients with femoroacetibular impingement to stop already developed osteoarthritis of the hip or to prevent mild form of it.

  10. Organising pneumonia in common variable immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boujaoude, Ziad; Arya, Rohan; Rafferty, William; Dammert, Pedro

    2013-06-07

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most common of the primary immunodeficiency disorders. Pulmonary manifestations are characterised by recurrent rhinosinusitis, respiratory tract infections and bronchiectasis. Less commonly the lung may be affected by lymphoid disorders and sarcoid-like granulomas. Organising pneumonia (OP) is a rare pulmonary manifestation. We report the case of a 32-year-old woman with CVID who presented with fever, dyspnoea and persistent lung infiltrates despite antibiotic therapy. CT of the chest showed bilateral patchy alveolar infiltrates. Pulmonary function tests revealed moderate restriction and reduction in diffusion capacity. Initial bronchoscopy with transbronchial biopsies did not yield a diagnosis but surgical lung biopsies identified OP. Significant clinical, radiographic and physiological improvement was achieved after institution of corticosteroid therapy.

  11. The Use of Smart Glasses for Surgical Video Streaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiranaka, Takafumi; Nakanishi, Yuta; Fujishiro, Takaaki; Hida, Yuichi; Tsubosaka, Masanori; Shibata, Yosaku; Okimura, Kenjiro; Uemoto, Harunobu

    2017-04-01

    Observation of surgical procedures performed by experts is extremely important for acquisition and improvement of surgical skills. Smart glasses are small computers, which comprise a head-mounted monitor and video camera, and can be connected to the internet. They can be used for remote observation of surgeries by video streaming. Although Google Glass is the most commonly used smart glasses for medical purposes, it is still unavailable commercially and has some limitations. This article reports the use of a different type of smart glasses, InfoLinker, for surgical video streaming. InfoLinker has been commercially available in Japan for industrial purposes for more than 2 years. It is connected to a video server via wireless internet directly, and streaming video can be seen anywhere an internet connection is available. We have attempted live video streaming of knee arthroplasty operations that were viewed at several different locations, including foreign countries, on a common web browser. Although the quality of video images depended on the resolution and dynamic range of the video camera, speed of internet connection, and the wearer's attention to minimize image shaking, video streaming could be easily performed throughout the procedure. The wearer could confirm the quality of the video as the video was being shot by the head-mounted display. The time and cost for observation of surgical procedures can be reduced by InfoLinker, and further improvement of hardware as well as the wearer's video shooting technique is expected. We believe that this can be used in other medical settings.

  12. Frequency of nursing tasks in medical and surgical wards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, Barbara; Bell, Cheryl; Johnston, Derek; Jones, Martyn; Schofield, Pat; Allan, Julia; Ricketts, Ian; Morrison, Kenny; Johnston, Marie

    2013-09-01

    To explore the frequency of different nursing tasks in medical and surgical wards. The time nurses spend on direct patient care is important for both patients and nurses. However, little is known about the time nurses spend on various nursing tasks. A real-time, repeated measures design conducted amongst 67 (n = 39 medical, n = 28 surgical) UK hospital nurses. Between September 2011 and August 2012 participants completed an electronic diary version of a classification of nursing tasks (WOMBAT) during shifts. A total of 961 real-time measures of nursing task were obtained. Direct patient care [median = 37.5%, interquartile range = 27.8], indirect care (median = 11.1%, interquartile range = 19.4) and medication (median = 11.1%, interquartile range = 18.8) were most commonly reported. Participants were interrupted in 62% of entries (interquartile range = 35), reported adequate time in 78% (interquartile range = 31) and adequate resources in 89% (interquartile range = 36). Ward-related tasks were significantly more frequent on medical wards than surgical wards but otherwise there were no significant differences. Nurses spend the highest proportion of time in direct patient care and majority of this on core nursing activities. Interruptions to tasks are common. Nurses tend to report adequate time/resources. The frequency of nursing tasks is similar in medical and surgical wards. Nurse managers should review the level of interruptions to nurses' work and ensure appropriate levels of supervision. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Providing care for critically ill surgical patients: challenges and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisherman, Samuel A; Kaplan, Lewis; Gracias, Vicente H; Beilman, Gregory J; Toevs, Christine; Byrnes, Matthew C; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2013-07-01

    Providing optimal care for critically ill and injured surgical patients will become more challenging with staff shortages for surgeons and intensivists. This white paper addresses the historical issues behind the present situation, the need for all intensivists to engage in dedicated critical care per the intensivist model, and the recognition that intensivists from all specialties can provide optimal care for the critically ill surgical patient, particularly with continuing involvement by the surgeon of record. The new acute care surgery training paradigm (including trauma, surgical critical care, and emergency general surgery) has been developed to increase interest in trauma and surgical critical care, but the number of interested trainees remains too few. Recommendations are made for broadening the multidisciplinary training and practice opportunities in surgical critical care for intensivists from all base specialties and for maintaining the intensivist model within acute care surgery practice. Support from academic and administrative leadership, as well as national organizations, will be needed.

  14. Improving surgical weekend handover

    OpenAIRE

    Culwick, Caroline; Devine, Chris; Coombs, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Effective handovers are vital to patient safety and continuity of care, and this is recognised by several national bodies including the GMC. The existing model at Great Western Hospital (GWH) involved three general surgical teams and a urology team placing their printed patient lists, complete with weekend jobs, in a folder for the on-call team to collect at the weekend. We recognised a need to reduce time searching for patients, jobs and reviews, and to streamline weekend ward rounds. A unif...

  15. Reduction Mammoplasty: A Comparison Between Operations Performed by Plastic Surgery and General Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordahi, Anthony M; Hoppe, Ian C; Lee, Edward S

    2015-01-01

    Reduction mammoplasty is an often-performed procedure by plastic surgeons and increasingly by general surgeons. The question has been posed in both general surgical literature and plastic surgical literature as to whether this procedure should remain the domain of surgical specialists. Some general surgeons are trained in breast reductions, whereas all plastic surgeons receive training in this procedure. The National Surgical Quality Improvement Project provides a unique opportunity to compare the 2 surgical specialties in an unbiased manner in terms of preoperative comorbidities and 30-day postoperative complications. The National Surgical Quality Improvement Project database was queried for the years 2005-2012. Patients were identified as having undergone a reduction mammoplasty by Current Procedural Terminology codes. RESULTS were refined to include only females with an International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, code of 611.1 (hypertrophy of breasts). Information was collected regarding age, surgical specialty performing procedure, body mass index, and other preoperative variables. The outcomes utilized were presence of superficial surgical site infection, presence of deep surgical site infection, presence of wound dehiscence, postoperative respiratory compromise, pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, perioperative transfusion, operative time, reintubation, reoperation, and length of hospital stay. During this time period, there were 6239 reduction mammaplasties performed within the National Surgical Quality Improvement Project database: 339 by general surgery and 5900 by plastic surgery. No statistical differences were detected between the 2 groups with regard to superficial wound infections, deep wound infections, organ space infections, or wound dehiscence. There were no significant differences noted between within groups with regard to systemic postoperative complications. Patients undergoing a procedure by general surgery were more likely

  16. A cross-cultural study of the structure of comorbidity among common psychopathological syndromes in the general health care setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krueger, RF; Chentsova-Dutton, YE; Markon, KE; Goldberg, D; Ormel, J

    This study presents analyses of 7 common psychopathological syndromes in the World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborative Study of Psychological Problems in General Health Care (T. B. Ustun & N. Sartorius, 1995). Data on depression, somatization, hypochondriasis, neurasthenia, anxious worry,

  17. Acute surgical unit: The consultant experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J Stokes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Establishment of the Acute Surgical Unit (ASU has redefined the approach to emergency surgery in Australia with quantitative data showing improvement in patient outcomes. However, as qualitative data regarding the ASU remains scarce, we sought to determine the impact of the ASU on overall surgeon job satisfaction. Aims The aim of this paper was to specifically address the impact of the ASU on consultant surgeons overall job satisfaction. Methods We designed a 34 – item questionnaire with consultant general surgeons addressing important aspects of the ASU. Themes included on – call rostering and workload, academic pursuits, surgical training, work – life balance and overall job satisfaction. Results We received responses from 88 surgeons currently working on ASU units, responding correctly and in full to the survey. Overall, our surveyed cohort reported better on – call rostering, improved surgical training and higher levels of job satisfaction and overall work – life balance with ASU implementation. Conclusion Preliminary qualitative results indicate that the ASU may improve on – call rostering, work – life balance and overall job satisfaction.

  18. Surgical management of colloid cyst of the third ventricle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brostigen, C S; Meling, T R; Marthinsen, P B

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study of third ventricular colloid cysts (TVCC) from a defined population was to estimate the incidence, the presenting features, the surgical treatment, the treatment related complications, and the clinical and surgical outcomes. METHODS: A reprospective study of 32...... consecutive primary surgeries for TVCC was performed at Oslo University Hospital in the time period 2002-2015. RESULTS: The estimated incidence rate for TVCC was 0.9 per million. Mean age was 41 years and the male-to-female ratio was 1:1.5. The most common presenting symptoms were headache (100%), ataxia (25...

  19. Seasonality and surgical management of intussusception over 10 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    47.5%of patients had resection and primary anastomosis while 24.0% had manual reduction at laparotomy. Conclusion: Intussusception is one of the most common paediatric surgical emergencies at Harare Central Hospital. The age and sex of patients are the same as those found in literature. In contrast with previous data ...

  20. Premature ovarian failure/dysfunction following surgical treatment of polycystic ovarian syndrome: A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.K. Al-Hussaini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS is one of the most common causes of infertility in women. Surgical treatment of PCOS, either by the antiquated wedge resection or ovarian drilling, is one of the commonly used lines in developing countries due to its low-cost. Premature ovarian failure and diminished ovarian reserve are serious complications of the surgical treatment but no published reports sufficiently highlighted these hazards. In this case series, we report on twenty one women aged between 19–39 years, presented to Infertility Clinic, Assiut Women Health Hospital with ovarian dysfunction, diagnosed within 6–36 months after surgical management of PCOS. Nineteen of them had laparoscopic bilateral ovarian drilling using electrocauterization, and the last two had bilateral wedge resection of the ovaries through minilaparotomy. Accurate and documented diagnosis of PCOS, appropriate surgical training, adjusted thermal injury and adjusted number of punctures are essential for the avoidance of excessive damage to the ovaries. Under treatment (failure of drilling is much better than premature ovarian failure or diminishing ovarian reserve.

  1. Prospective analysis of skin findings in surgical critically Ill patients intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan Demir Pektas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intensive Care Units (ICUs are places where critically ill patients are managed. Aim: We aimed to investigate skin disorders that developed in critically ill surgical patients during their stay in the ICU. Methods: The prevalence of dermatological disorders and factors affecting their clinical features was prospectively analyzed in surgical ICU patients. We recorded age, sex, type of ICU, comorbidities, skin disorders, time to consultation, duration of ICU stay, and mortality rate. Results: Our study included 605 patients (mean age of 60.1 ± 20.2 years; 56.4% males. Seventy-three (12.1% patients were consulted with the Dermatology Department, among which 28.8% had infectious dermatological lesions, 26% dermatoses, and 45.2% drug reactions. The most common infectious dermatological disorder was wound infection (55.6%, the most common drug reaction was maculopapular drug eruption (75.8%, and the most common dermatosis was frictional blisters (47.4%. Multiple comorbidities, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, Parkinson disease, and stroke increased dermatological disorders (P < 0.05. The consulted patients had a median ICU stay of 7 days (range 2–53 days; consultation was significantly more common when it exceeded 10 days (74% vs. 26%, P < 0.05. The consulted patients died more commonly (P < 0.05. Infectious dermatological disorders and dermatoses were more common in patients older and younger than 50 years, respectively (P < 0.05. Dermatoses were more common among women (P < 0.05. The median time to consultation was 6 (2–30 days; it was longest for dermatological infections and shortest for dermatoses (P < 0.05. Infectious dermatological disorders were significantly more common among the deceased patients (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Multiple factors including multiple comorbidities, duration of ICU stay, time to consultation, and mortality increase dermatological disorders among surgical ICU patients.

  2. Trends in the Surgical Correction of Gynecomastia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rodger H; Chang, Daniel K; Siy, Richard; Friedman, Jeffrey

    2015-05-01

    Gynecomastia refers to the enlargement of the male breast due to a proliferation of ductal, stromal, and/or fatty tissue. Although it is a common condition affecting up to 65% of men, not all cases require surgical intervention. Contemporary surgical techniques in the treatment of gynecomastia have become increasingly less invasive with the advent of liposuction and its variants, including power-assisted and ultrasound-assisted liposuction. These techniques, however, have been largely limited in their inability to address significant skin excess and ptosis. For mild to moderate gynecomastia, newer techniques using arthroscopic morcellation and endoscopic techniques promise to address the fibrous component, while minimizing scar burden by utilizing liposuction incisions. Nevertheless, direct excision through periareolar incisions remains a mainstay in treatment algorithms for its simplicity and avoidance of additional instrumentation. This is particularly true for more severe cases of gynecomastia requiring skin resection. In the most severe cases with significant skin redundancy and ptosis, breast amputation with free nipple grafting remains an effective option. Surgical treatment should be individualized to each patient, combining techniques to provide adequate resection and optimize aesthetic results.

  3. Surgical Management in Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy Due to Alkaptonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadag, Ali; Sandal, Evren; Middlebrooks, Erik H; Senoglu, Mehmet

    2018-05-01

    Ochronotic arthropathy related to alkaptonuria is a rare condition. Cervical spine involvement with myelopathic features has been even more rarely described, particularly related to atlantoaxial instability. As such, little is known about the optimal surgical management in these patients. We described the first case, to our knowledge, of a patient with alkaptonuria and related cervical spondylotic myelopathy from pannus formation at the atlantoaxial joint. We describe our choices in surgical management of this rare condition in a patient with an excellent outcome. Ochronotic cervical spondylotic myelopathy is a rare condition and may require additional considerations in surgical treatment compared to more common causes of cervical spondylotic myelopathy. In our case, we elected for decompression with posterior occipitocervical screw fixation and were able to achieve neurologic recovery with no complications, currently at 2-year follow-up. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Symptomatic unruptured cerebral aneurysms. Features and surgical outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Date, Isao

    2010-01-01

    Development of less invasive imaging studies, such as magnetic resonance angiography, has increased the chances that unruptured cerebral aneurysms are found. The rupture risk of 'symptomatic' aneurysms is higher than for 'asymptomatic' aneurysms; so 'symptomatic' aneurysms are more often surgically treated. Many reviews examine 'asymptomatic' unruptured cerebral aneurysms, but few evaluate 'symptomatic' aneurysms. The author has treated many patients with symptomatic unruptured cerebral aneurysms and found that improved cranial nerve signs can be expected if the surgical treatment is performed before the symptoms become irreversible; the critical period is approximately 3 months. It is important to suppress the pulsation of the aneurysms compressing the cranial nerves; both a clipping procedure and endovascular coiling are effective. Cranial nerve signs are more commonly the symptoms of unruptured cerebral aneurysms, but large to giant aneurysms can also be the causes of hemiparesis, hydrocephalus, epilepsy, or even cerebral infarction. This review summarizes the features and surgical outcome of symptomatic unruptured cerebral aneurysms. (author)

  5. [Surgical treatment of gynecomastia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Târcoveanu, E; Lupaşcu, C; Vasilescu, A; Moldovanu, R; Ichim, Mihaela; Georgescu, St; Niculescu, D; Dănilă, N; Dimofte, G; Anton, Raluca; Crumpei, Felicia; Florea, Niculina; Ungureanu, Cristina

    2008-01-01

    Gynecomastia describes a benign increase of the mammary gland in men. When medical treatment fails, the surgical procedure is the treatment of choice. There are two main surgical procedures: subdermal mastectomy and liposuction. To evaluate the results after surgical treatment (mastectomy) performed in a general surgery unit. We performed a retrospective study; all the patients operated for gynecomastia were reviewed. The clinical, imaging, biological, intraoperative and histological data were included into a MS Access database and statistical analyzed. From 1990-2007, 114 patients were admitted in the First Surgical Clinic Iaşi for gynecomastia. Only 12.6% from the patients were with bilateral gynecomastia. The mean age was 40.54 +/- 1.83 years old (range 12-84). Mean body mass was 26.72 +/- 0.46 kg/m2 (range 18.5-41), and about 20% from the patients had a BMI of over 30 kg/m2. We also noted that 46.5% were smokers. Simon classification was used for preoperative staging: 2.6% from the cases (N = 3) were included in stage I, 16.7% (N = 19) in stage IIa, 50% (N = 57) in stage IIb and 30.7% in stage III. The patients included in stages IIa and I are younger then the patients included in stage III (p = 0.024). Mastodynia was noted in 46 cases (40.4%). Ultrasound exam was performed in all the cases, and the larger diameter of the nodule measured was 3.75 +/- 0.18 cm (range 0.5-9.7). Only three cases were preoperatively treated with tamoxifen. Most of the cases were operated using general anesthesia (53.5%). Mastectomy was performed by peri-areolar (70.2%), elliptical (28.9%) or radial (0.9%) incisions. The subdermal mastectomy using peri-areolar approach was performed especially for the cases included in stages I, IIa and IIb--p gynecomastia in 6 cases; the other cases presented dilated ducts. We also noted intraductal papillary hyperplasia in 87 cases and chronic inflammation in 35 cases. The histological exam also revealed intraductal papilloma--9 cases, fibro

  6. Surgical care of the pediatric Crohn's disease patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Dylan

    2017-12-01

    Despite the significant advances in the medical management of inflammatory bowel disease over the last decade, surgery continues to play a major role in the management of pediatric Crohn's disease (CD). While adult and pediatric Crohn's disease may share many clinical characteristics, pediatric Crohn's patients often have a more aggressive phenotype, and the operative care given by the pediatric surgeon to the newly diagnosed Crohn's patient is very different in nature to the surgical needs of adult patients after decades of disease progression. Children also have the unique surgical indication of growth failure to consider in the overall clinical decision making. While surgery is never curative in CD, it has the ability to transform the disease process in children, and appropriately timed operations may have tremendous impact on a child's physical and mental maturation. This monograph aims to address the surgical care of Crohn's disease in general, with a specific emphasis on the surgical treatment of small intestinal and ileocecal involvement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Surgical Navigation: A Systematic Review of Indications, Treatments, and Outcomes in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarmehr, Iman; Stokbro, Kasper; Bell, R Bryan; Thygesen, Torben

    2017-09-01

    This systematic review investigates the most common indications, treatments, and outcomes of surgical navigation (SN) published from 2010 to 2015. The evolution of SN and its application in oral and maxillofacial surgery have rapidly developed over recent years, and therapeutic indications are discussed. A systematic search in relevant electronic databases, journals, and bibliographies of the included articles was carried out. Clinical studies with 5 or more patients published between 2010 and 2015 were included. Traumatology, orthognathic surgery, cancer and reconstruction surgery, skull-base surgery, and foreign body removal were the areas of interests. The search generated 13 articles dealing with traumatology; 5, 6, 2, and 0 studies were found that dealt with the topics of orthognathic surgery, cancer and reconstruction surgery, skull-base surgery, and foreign body removal, respectively. The average technical system accuracy and intraoperative precision reported were less than 1 mm and 1 to 2 mm, respectively. In general, SN is reported to be a useful tool for surgical planning, execution, evaluation, and research. The largest numbers of studies and patients were identified in the field of traumatology. Treatment of complex orbital fractures was considerably improved by the use of SN compared with traditionally treated control groups. SN seems to be a very promising addition to the surgical toolkit. Planning details of the surgical procedure in a 3-dimensional virtual environment and execution with real-time guidance can significantly improve precision. Among factors to be considered are the financial investments necessary and the learning curve. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. All rights reserved.

  8. Quality improvement initiative: Preventative Surgical Site Infection Protocol in Vascular Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parizh, David; Ascher, Enrico; Raza Rizvi, Syed Ali; Hingorani, Anil; Amaturo, Michael; Johnson, Eric

    2018-02-01

    Objective A quality improvement initiative was employed to decrease single institution surgical site infection rate in open lower extremity revascularization procedures. In an attempt to lower patient morbidity, we developed and implemented the Preventative Surgical Site Infection Protocol in Vascular Surgery. Surgical site infections lead to prolonged hospital stays, adjunctive procedure, and additive costs. We employed targeted interventions to address the common risk factors that predispose patients to post-operative complications. Methods Retrospective review was performed between 2012 and 2016 for all surgical site infections after revascularization procedures of the lower extremity. A quality improvement protocol was initiated in January 2015. Primary outcome was the assessment of surgical site infection rate reduction in the pre-protocol vs. post-protocol era. Secondary outcomes evaluated patient demographics, closure method, perioperative antibiotic coverage, and management outcomes. Results Implementation of the protocol decreased the surgical site infection rate from 6.4% to 1.6% p = 0.0137). Patient demographics and comorbidities were assessed and failed to demonstrate a statistically significant difference among the infection and no-infection groups. Wound closure with monocryl suture vs. staple proved to be associated with decreased surgical site infection rate ( p site infections in the vascular surgery population are effective and necessary. Our data suggest that there may be benefit in the incorporation of MRSA and Gram-negative coverage as part of the Surgical Care Improvement Project perioperative guidelines.

  9. Surgical-site Infection Following Cesarean Section in Kano, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence, risk factors and common bacterial pathogens for surgical site infection (SSI), following cesarean section (CS). Materials and Methods: A retrospective case-control study of patients delivered by CS in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria. The cases were the patients whose ...

  10. [The application of general magnetic therapy for the rehabilitation of the patients following the surgical treatment of herniated intervertebral discs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronina, D D; Kulikov, A G; Luppova, I A; Yarustovskaya, O V

    The objective of the present work was to rehabilitate more efficiently the patients who had undergone the surgical treatment for herniated discs in the lumbosacral spine by applying general magnetic therapy during the combined treatment. A total of 73 patients underwent the medical examination and treatment. The patients matched for age and sex presenting with similar clinical symptoms were divided into two groups. All of them received initial therapy that included medication, therapeutic physical exercises, and aquatic therapy. The patients in the main study group were given, in addition, general magnetic therapy. All the patients had their lower back examined before and after the treatment; moreover, they were asked to report their pain intensity based on the visual-analogue scale. The patients had their spinal and lower extremity temperature measured by means of thermal scanning with the use of remote infrared thermography and the non-invasive thermal imaging to check temperature fluctuations. To evaluate the psycho-emotional condition of the patients and to obtain their quality of life characteristics, they were asked to fill up the WAM (wellbeing, activity, mood) questionnaire; moreover, the disability Index was determined using the Oswestry questionnaire (version 2.1.), and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was employed. 75.7% of the patients in the main group had the positive treatment results in the form of improvement of the affected movement skills, sensory processing abilities, and reflex functions as compared with the 58,3% success rate among the patients in the control groupd. Based on the data of non-invasive infrared thermal imaging, the patients of the main group had significantly lower post-treatment topical hyperthermia in the region of the surgical intervention in comparison with the controls which suggested the reduction of the severity of the inflammatory process and the manifestations of the muscular-tonic syndrome. Their temperature

  11. Peyronie's Disease: Still a Surgical Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Daniel; Ercole, Cesar E; Hakky, Tariq S; Kramer, Andrew; Carrion, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Peyronie's Disease (PD) remains a challenging and clinically significant morbid condition. Since its first description by François Gigot de la Peyronie, much of the treatment for PD remains nonstandardized. PD is characterized by the formation of fibrous plaques at the level of the tunica albuginea. Clinical manifestations include morphologic changes, such as curvatures and hourglass deformities. Here, we review the common surgical techniques for the management of patients with PD.

  12. Evaluation of surgical treatment for cerebral amyloid angiopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Masaru; Takeshita, Iwao; Samoto, Ken

    2007-01-01

    Treatment of cerebral hemorrhage in the elderly is often difficult and a growing concern due to Japan's aging population. We retrospectively evaluated radiological images of intracerebral hemorrhages associated with cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) and surgical efficacy for performance status of patients. From January 2000 to December 2005, 240 patients with intracerebral hemorrhage and 49 patients with cerebral subcortical hemorrhage were reported. Of these, 41 cases fulfilled the Boston criteria for CAA. Diagnosis by autopsy was 0, surgical biopsy histopathology 9, multiple hemorrhagic lesions 8 and single lesion in 24 patients. Involved lobes were frontal: 6, temporal: 1, fronto-parietal: 3, temporo-parietal: 8, parietal: 12, parieto-occipital: 6 and occipital: 5. CAA-related subcortical hemorrhages were commonly distributed in 2 lobes, with the parietal lobe the most commonly affected area. Radiological characteristics of CAA-related subcortical hemorrhages were irregular borders: 30/41 (73%) intraventricular ruptures: 15/41 (37%), and subarachnoid hemorrhage and/or acute subdural hematoma: 37/41 (90%). Surgery was indicated if consciousness level (Japan Coma Scale) was greater than II-20 and hematoma volume greater than 40 ml. Craniotomy was performed on 18 patients with modified Rankin Scale (mRS) with 60% improving postoperatively and the remainder maintaining the same mRS as before surgery. Two patients underwent emergency craniotomy due to a rapidly growing hematoma producing a comatose state. Of the 18 surgical cases, 1 had further bleeding in a different area postoperatively at 3 months. Of the 23 nonsurgical cases, 4 had further bleeding after conservative treatment at 1.5 to 3.5 months with 1 case affected on 3 separate occasions. Surgical removal of hematomas caused by CAA is safe and unlikely to accelerate the rate of further bleeding, but rather contribute to improvement of mRS in selected patients. (author)

  13. Characterization of aerosols produced by surgical procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, H.C.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Lundgren, D.L.; Guilmette, R.A.; Snipes, M.B.; Jones, R.K. [Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Turner, R.S. [Lovelace Health Systems, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-07-01

    In many surgeries, especially orthopedic procedures, power tools such as saws and drills are used. These tools may produce aerosolized blood and other biological material from bone and soft tissues. Surgical lasers and electrocautery tools can also produce aerosols when tissues are vaporized and condensed. Studies have been reported in the literature concerning production of aerosols during surgery, and some of these aerosols may contain infectious material. Garden et al. (1988) reported the presence of papilloma virus DNA in the fumes produced from laser surgery, but the infectivity of the aerosol was not assessed. Moon and Nininger (1989) measured the size distribution and production rate of emissions from laser surgery and found that particles were generally less than 0.5 {mu}m diameter. More recently there has been concern expressed over the production of aerosolized blood during surgical procedures that require power tools. In an in vitro study, the production of an aerosol containing the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was reported when power tools were used to cut tissues with blood infected with HIV. Another study measured the size distribution of blood aerosols produced by surgical power tools and found blood-containing particles in a number of size ranges. Health care workers are anxious and concerned about whether surgically produced aerosols are inspirable and can contain viable pathogens such as HIV. Other pathogens such as hepatitis B virus (HBV) are also of concern. The Occupational Safety and Health funded a project at the National Institute for Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute to assess the extent of aerosolization of blood and other tissues during surgical procedures. This document reports details of the experimental and sampling approach, methods, analyses, and results on potential production of blood-associated aerosols from surgical procedures in the laboratory and in the hospital surgical suite.

  14. Surgical results of strabismus correction in patients with myelomeningocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayane Cristine Issaho

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Myelomeningocele is one of the most common birth defects. It is associated with severe neurological deficiencies, and ocular changes, such as strabismus, are very common. The purpose of this study was to describe indications for strabismus surgery in patients with myelomeningocele and to evaluate the results achieved with surgical correction. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed records of all patients with myelomeningocele who underwent surgery for strabismus correction in a 5-year period in an institution for disabled children. Results: The main indications for strabismus surgery were esotropia and A-pattern anisotropia. Excellent surgical results were achieved in 60.9% of patients, satisfactory in 12.2%, and unsatisfactory in 26.9%. Conclusion: Patients with myelomeningocele and strabismus had a high incidence of esotropia and A-pattern anisotropia. Strabismus surgery in these patients had an elevated percentage of excellent and satisfactory results, not only for the ocular deviation, but also for improvement of head posture.

  15. Non-surgical treatment for eyelid retraction in thyroid eye disease (TED).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisolia, Ana Beatriz Diniz; Couso, Ricardo Christopher; Matayoshi, Suzana; Douglas, Raymond S; Briceño, César Augusto

    2017-08-09

    Thyroid eye disease (TED) is an autoimmune condition with an unpredictable course that may lead to permanent facial disfigurement. Eyelid retraction is one of the most common findings, and frequently demands attention due to ocular exposure and impaired cosmesis. Surgical treatment remains the most effective option, but there is a role for temporary corrections during the active phase of the disease, as well as in patients who are poor surgical candidates. The aim of this review is to describe the non-surgical modalities currently available for treatment of eyelid malposition in TED. The authors have focused on the use of hyaluronic acid, triamcinolone injections and botulinum toxin type A as non-surgical treatment alternatives, paying special attention to dosing, technique, efficacy and duration of effect. Non-surgical treatment modalities may represent viable in cases where surgical correction is not an option. Although temporary, these modalities appear to be beneficial for ocular exposure remediation, improving quality of life and broadening our therapeutic arsenal. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. A Comparative Study of Surgical Training in South East Asia, Australia and The United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Kheong Lum

    2009-07-01

    Conclusion: Quality of training can be improved by changing to a curriculum and competency based model, utilization of continuous assessment methods, reducing service requirements and better compensation for trainers. Southeast Asia has the potential to provide centres of excellence for surgical training. Surgical educators in SEA will find useful information in this paper to improve their programs which will hopefully evolve into a common core curriculum and enable cross border exchange of surgical trainees in SEA for broader exposure.

  17. Patient satisfaction: does surgical volume matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tevis, Sarah E; Kennedy, Gregory D

    2015-06-01

    Patient satisfaction is an increasing area of interest due to implications of pay for performance and public reporting of results. Although scores are adjusted for patient factors, little is known about the relationship between hospital structure, postoperative outcomes, and patient satisfaction with the hospital experience. Hospitals participating in the University HealthSystem Consortium database from 2011-2012 were included. Patients were restricted to those discharged by general surgeons to isolate surgical patients. Hospital data were paired with Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) results from the Hospital Compare website. Postoperative outcomes were dichotomized based on the median for all hospitals and stratified based on surgical volume. The primary outcome of interest was high on overall patient satisfaction, whereas other HCAHPS domains were assessed as secondary outcomes. Chi square and binary logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate whether postoperative outcomes or surgical volume more significantly influenced high patient satisfaction. The study population consisted of 171 hospitals from the University HealthSystem Consortium database. High surgical volume was a more important predictor of overall patient satisfaction regardless of hospital complication (P patient satisfaction on the HCAHPS survey than postoperative outcomes, whereas volume was less predictive in other HCAHPS domains. Patients may require more specific questioning to identify high quality, safe hospitals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A Study of General Education Astronomy Students' Understandings of Cosmology. Part IV. Common Difficulties Students Experience with Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Colin S.; Prather, Edward E.; Duncan, Douglas K.

    2012-01-01

    This is our fourth paper in our five paper series describing our national study of general education astronomy students' conceptual and reasoning difficulties with cosmology. While previous papers in this series focused on the processes by which we collected and quantitatively analyzed our data, this paper presents the most common pre-instruction…

  19. The unerupted maxillary canine - a post-surgical review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Dowling, Ian

    2009-10-01

    The orthodontic records of 685 patients referred for surgical exposure of an unerupted impacted maxillary canine tooth were examined. The condition was more common among females than males, slightly less than 2:1. The impacted teeth had a palatal-labial ratio of 3:1. All of the teeth were exposed using the open surgical technique and in 98% of cases the tooth erupted and was orthodontically aligned. In 2% of cases ankylosis occurred and the teeth were subsequently extracted. The presence of peg-shaped lateral incisors associated with the impacted maxillary canine tooth was 3.4% of the total number of impacted teeth and congenital absence was found in 1.7% of impacted teeth.

  20. Surgical techniques for treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Édder de Mello Cardoso Lima

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Gastroesophageal reflux is one of the most frequently gastrointestinal tract diseases currently found, having a great impact on the patient's quality of life. Purpose: to analyze the main surgical techniques used in the treatment of this pathology, their indications, advantages and disadvantages. Methods: this is a literature review. Thirteen articles published between 1998 and 2013 in the Lilacs, Bireme e Scielo databases, addressing different surgical techniques for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux were selected. Results: Five hundred and thirty-eight total fundoplications and 466 partial fundoplications were performed. Conclusion: The findings of this review show that total fundoplication is the most commonly used technique in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease.

  1. The unerupted maxillary canine--a post-surgical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dowling, Ian

    2009-01-01

    The orthodontic records of 685 patients referred for surgical exposure of an unerupted impacted maxillary canine tooth were examined. The condition was more common among females than males, slightly less than 2:1. The impacted teeth had a palatal-labial ratio of 3:1. All of the teeth were exposed using the open surgical technique and in 98% of cases the tooth erupted and was orthodontically aligned. In 2% of cases ankylosis occurred and the teeth were subsequently extracted. The presence of peg-shaped lateral incisors associated with the impacted maxillary canine tooth was 3.4% of the total number of impacted teeth and congenital absence was found in 1.7% of impacted teeth.

  2. Frugal Design and Surgical Robotics

    OpenAIRE

    McKinley, Stephen Alan

    2016-01-01

    A new era of robotic surgery is poised to begin when critical patents held by Intuitive Surgical (IS) expire in 2016. IS market dominance for decades has led to an effective monopoly that will be challenged by several commercial enterprises working on next generation general robotic surgery systems. Robotic surgery has the potential to alleviate the skill-gap between experienced and inexperienced surgeons through the automation of sub-tasks within surgicalprocedures.The primary objective of...

  3. Micro-surgical endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliyas, S; Vere, J; Ali, Z; Harris, I

    2014-02-01

    Non-surgical endodontic retreatment is the treatment of choice for endodontically treated teeth with recurrent or residual disease in the majority of cases. In some cases, surgical endodontic treatment is indicated. Successful micro-surgical endodontic treatment depends on the accuracy of diagnosis, appropriate case selection, the quality of the surgical skills, and the application of the most appropriate haemostatic agents and biomaterials. This article describes the armamentarium and technical procedures involved in performing micro-surgical endodontics to a high standard.

  4. Gender identity disorder: general overview and surgical treatment for vaginoplasty in male-to-female transsexuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaggi, Gennaro; Ceulemans, Peter; De Cuypere, Griet; VanLanduyt, Koen; Blondeel, Phillip; Hamdi, Moustapha; Bowman, Cameron; Monstrey, Stan

    2005-11-01

    After studying this article, the participant should be able to discuss: 1. The terminology related to male-to-female gender dysphoria. 2. The different theories regarding cause, epidemiology, and treatment of gender dysphoria. 3. The surgical goals of sex reassignment surgery in male-to-female transsexualism. 4. The surgical techniques available for sex reassignment surgery in male-to-female transsexualism. Gender identity disorder (previously "transsexualism") is the term used for individuals who show a strong and persistent cross-gender identification and a persistent discomfort with their anatomical sex, as manifested by a preoccupation with getting rid of one's sex characteristics, or the belief of being born in the wrong sex. Since 1978, the Harry Benjamin International Gender Dysphoria Association (in honor of Dr. Harry Benjamin, one of the first physicians who made many clinicians aware of the potential benefits of sex reassignment surgery) has played a major role in the research and treatment of gender identity disorder, publishing the Standards of Care for Gender Dysphoric Persons. The authors performed an overview of the terminology related to male-to-female gender identity disorder; the different theories regarding cause, epidemiology, and treatment; the goals expected; and the surgical technique available for sex reassignment surgery in male-to-female transsexualism. Surgical techniques available for sex reassignment surgery in male-to-female transsexualism, with advantages and disadvantages offered by each technique, are reviewed. Other feminizing nongenital operative interventions are also examined. This review describes recent etiopathogenetic theories and actual guidelines on the treatment of the gender identity disorder in male-to-female transsexuals; the penile-scrotal skin flap technique is considered the state of the art for vaginoplasty in male-to-female transsexuals, whereas other techniques (rectosigmoid flap, local flaps, and isolated skin

  5. Robot-assisted laparoscopic (RAL) procedures in general surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimoglu, Orhan; Sagiroglu, Julide; Atak, Ibrahim; Kilic, Ali; Eren, Tunc; Caliskan, Mujgan; Bas, Gurhan

    2016-09-01

    Robotics was introduced in clinical practice more than two decades ago, and it has gained remarkable popularity for a wide variety of laparoscopic procedures. We report our results of robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery (RALS) in the most commonly applied general surgical procedures. Ninety seven patients underwent RALS from 2009 to 2012. Indications for RALS were cholelithiasis, gastric carcinoma, splenic tumors, colorectal carcinoma, benign colorectal diseases, non-toxic nodular goiter and incisional hernia. Records of patients were analyzed for demographic features, intraoperative and postoperative complications and conversion to open surgery. Forty six female and 51 male patients were operated and mean age was 58,4 (range: 25-88). Ninety three out of 97 procedures (96%) were completed robotically, 4 were converted to open surgery and there were 15 postoperative complications. There was no mortality. Wide variety of procedures of general surgery can be managed safely and effectively by RALS. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. [Cardiac myxoma -- the influence of preoperative clinical presentation and surgical technique on late outcome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikić, Aleksandar; Obrenović-Krcanski, Bilijana; Kocica, Mladen; Vranes, Mile; Lacković, Vesna; Velinović, Milos; Miarković, Miroslav; Kovacević, Natasa; Djukić, Petar

    2007-01-01

    Cardiac myxomas are the most frequent primary tumours of the heart in adults, and they can be found in each of four cardiac chambers. Although biologically benign, due to their unfavourable localization, myxomas are considered "functionally malignant" tumours. Diagnosis of cardiac myxoma necessitates surgical treatment. To analyse: 1) the influence of localization, size and consistency of cardiac myxomas on preoperative symptomatology; 2) the influence of different surgical techniques (left, right, biatrial approach, tumour basis solving) on early, and late outcomes. From 1982 to 2000, at the Institute for Cardiovascular Diseases, Clinical Centre of Serbia, there were 46 patients with cardiac myxomas operated on, 67.4% of them women, mean age 47.1 +/- 16.3 years. The diagnosis was made according to clinical presentation, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic examinations and cardiac catheterization. Follow-up period was 4-18 (mean 7.8) years. In 41 (89.1%) patients, myxoma was localized in the left, while in 5 (10.9%), it was found in the right atrium. Average size was 5.8 x 3.8 cm (range: 1 x l cm to 9 x 8 cm) and 6 x 4 cm (range: 3 x 2 cm to 9 x 5 cm) for the left and right atrial myxomas, respectively. A racemous form predominated in the left (82.6%) and globous in the right (80%) atrium. Fatigue was the most common general (84.8%) and dyspnoea the most common cardiologic symptom (73.9%). Preoperative embolic events were present in 8 patients (4 pulmonary, 4 systemic). In our series: 1) different localization, size and consistency had no influence on the preoperative symptomatology; 2) surgical treatment applied, regardless of different approaches and basis solving, resulted in excellent functional improvements (63.1% patients in NYHA III and IV class preoperatively vs. 6.7% patients postoperatively) and had no influence on new postoperative rhythm disturbances (8.7% patients preoperatively vs. 24.4% patients postoperatively); 3) early (97.8%), and late

  7. Surgeon and type of anesthesia predict variability in surgical procedure times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strum, D P; Sampson, A R; May, J H; Vargas, L G

    2000-05-01

    Variability in surgical procedure times increases the cost of healthcare delivery by increasing both the underutilization and overutilization of expensive surgical resources. To reduce variability in surgical procedure times, we must identify and study its sources. Our data set consisted of all surgeries performed over a 7-yr period at a large teaching hospital, resulting in 46,322 surgical cases. To study factors associated with variability in surgical procedure times, data mining techniques were used to segment and focus the data so that the analyses would be both technically and intellectually feasible. The data were subdivided into 40 representative segments of manageable size and variability based on headers adopted from the common procedural terminology classification. Each data segment was then analyzed using a main-effects linear model to identify and quantify specific sources of variability in surgical procedure times. The single most important source of variability in surgical procedure times was surgeon effect. Type of anesthesia, age, gender, and American Society of Anesthesiologists risk class were additional sources of variability. Intrinsic case-specific variability, unexplained by any of the preceding factors, was found to be highest for shorter surgeries relative to longer procedures. Variability in procedure times among surgeons was a multiplicative function (proportionate to time) of surgical time and total procedure time, such that as procedure times increased, variability in surgeons' surgical time increased proportionately. Surgeon-specific variability should be considered when building scheduling heuristics for longer surgeries. Results concerning variability in surgical procedure times due to factors such as type of anesthesia, age, gender, and American Society of Anesthesiologists risk class may be extrapolated to scheduling in other institutions, although specifics on individual surgeons may not. This research identifies factors associated

  8. Common Variants Near Melanocortin 4 Receptor Are Associated with General and Visceral Adiposity in European- and African-American Youth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Gaifen; Zhu, Haidong; Lagou, Vasiliki; Gutin, Bernard; Barbeau, Paule; Treiber, Frank A.; Dong, Yanbin; Snieder, Harold

    Objective Recent genome-wide association studies found common variants near the melanocortin 4 receptor gene associated with obesity. This study aimed to assess the influence of the identified single nucleotide polymorphisms rs17782313 and rs17700633 on general and visceral adiposity in European-and

  9. [Palliative surgical correction of respiratory insufficiency in diffusive pulmonary emphysema].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbunkov, S D; Varlamov, V V; Cherny, S M; Lukina, O V; Kiryukhina, L D; Romanikhin, A I; Zinchenko, A V; Akopov, A L

    To analyze early postoperative period in patients with diffuse pulmonary emphysema after palliative surgical correction of respiratory failure. The study included 196 patients who underwent bullectomy (n=111) and surgical reduction of pulmonary volume (n=85). Overall morbidity and mortality were 40.8% and 12.2% respectively. Among patients older than 60 years these values were significantly higher (58.0% and 22.6% respectively). It was shown that age over 60 years is associated with high risk of complications and mortality after excision of large and giant bulls. In patients pulmonary volume. Selection of patients for palliative surgical correction of respiratory failure is generally corresponded to that for lung transplantation. However, these methods should be considered complementary rather competing.

  10. Surgical management of secondary hyperparathyroidism: how to effectively reduce recurrence at the time of primary surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, D; Yin, Y; Hou, L; Dai, W

    2016-05-01

    Successful parathyroidectomy (PTX) often results in a dramatic drop in the parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels, relieves the patient from clinical symptoms, and reduces mortality. Although PTX is generally a successful treatment for progressive secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) patients subjected to surgery, a significant proportion develops recurrent SHPT following PTX. SHPT requiring PTX occurs more commonly in progressive chronic kidney disease and in long-term lithium therapy. Operative approaches include subtotal PTX, total PTX with or without autotransplantation, and possible thymectomy. Each approach has its proponents, advantages, and disadvantages. Although PTX offers the highest percentage cure for SHPT, compared to all other medical and surgical treatment, recurrent hyperparathyroidism can be observed in some patients dependent on follow-up time. A literature review and analysis of recent data regarding how to reduce recurrence of SHPT at the time of primary surgery was performed. The current literature and our own experience in the field have confirmed that pre-operative imaging, thymectomy, stereo magnifier, and surgical procedure may effectively reduce recurrence of SHPT at the time of primary surgery.

  11. Identifying gaps in the surgical training curriculum in Rwanda through evaluation of operative activity at a teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, Jennifer L; Ntakiyiruta, Georges; Chu, Kathryn M

    2015-01-01

    To define the operations performed by surgical residents at a tertiary referral hospital in Rwanda to help guide development of the residency program. Cross-sectional study of all patients operated by surgical residents from October 2012 to September 2013. University Teaching Hospital of Kigali (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Kigali [CHUK]), a public, tertiary referral hospital in Kigali, Rwanda. All patient data were entered into the operative database by surgical residents at CHUK. A total of 2833 cases were entered into the surgical database. Of them, 53 cases were excluded from further analysis because no surgical resident was listed as the primary or assistant surgeon, leaving 2780 cases for analysis. There were 2780 operations involving surgical residents. Of them, 51% of procedures were classified under general surgery, 38% orthopedics, 7% neurosurgery, and 4% urology. Emergency operations accounted for 64% of the procedures, with 56% of those being general surgery and 35% orthopedic. Further, 50% of all operations were trauma, with 71% of those orthopedic and 21% general surgery. Surgical faculty were involved in 45% of operations as either the primary or the assistant surgeons, while the remainder of operations did not involve surgical faculty. Residents were primary surgeons in 68% of procedures and assistant surgeons in 84% of procedures. The operative experience of surgery residents at CHUK primarily involves emergency and trauma procedures. Although this likely reflects the demographics of surgical care within Rwanda, more focus should be placed on elective procedures to ensure that surgical residents are broadly trained. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Congenital heart malformations induced by hemodynamic altering surgical interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeline eMidgett

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic heart formation results from a dynamic interplay between genetic and environmental factors. Blood flow during early embryonic stages plays a critical role in heart development, as interactions between flow and cardiac tissues generate biomechanical forces that modulate cardiac growth and remodeling. Normal hemodynamic conditions are essential for proper cardiac development, while altered blood flow induced by surgical manipulations in animal models result in heart defects similar to those seen in humans with congenital heart disease. This review compares the altered hemodynamics, changes in tissue properties, and cardiac defects reported after common surgical interventions that alter hemodynamics in the early chick embryo, and shows that interventions produce a wide spectrum of cardiac defects. Vitelline vein ligation and left atrial ligation decrease blood pressure and flow; and outflow tract banding increases blood pressure and flow velocities. These three surgical interventions result in many of the same cardiac defects, which indicate that the altered hemodynamics interfere with common looping, septation and valve formation processes that occur after intervention and that shape the four-chambered heart. While many similar defects develop after the interventions, the varying degrees of hemodynamic load alteration among the three interventions also result in varying incidence and severity of cardiac defects, indicating that the hemodynamic modulation of cardiac developmental processes is strongly dependent on hemodynamic load.

  13. Surgical and procedural skills training at medical school - a national review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Christopher R; Toll, Edward C; Bates, Anthony S; Cole, Matthew D; Smith, Frank C T

    2014-01-01

    This national study quantifies procedural and surgical skills training at medical schools in the United Kingdom (UK), a stipulated requirement of all graduates by the General Medical Council (GMC). A questionnaire recorded basic procedural and surgical skills training provided by medical schools and surgical societies in the UK. Skills were extracted from (1) GMC Tomorrows Doctors and (2) The Royal College of Surgeons Intercollegiate Basic Surgical Skills (BSS) course. Data from medical school curricula and extra-curricular student surgical societies were compared against the national GMC guidelines and BSS course content. Data were analysed using Mann-Whitney U tests. Representatives from 23 medical schools completed the survey (71.9% response). Thirty one skills extracted from the BSS course were split into 5 categories, with skills content cross referenced against GMC documentation. Training of surgical skills by medical schools was as follows: Gowning and gloving (72.8%), handling instruments (29.4%), knot tying (17.4%), suturing (24.7%), other surgical techniques (4.3%). Surgical societies provided significantly more training of knot tying (64.4%, P = 0.0013) and suturing (64.5%, P = 0.0325) than medical schools. Medical schools provide minimal basic surgical skills training, partially supplemented by extracurricular student surgical societies. Our findings suggest senior medical students do not possess simple surgical and procedural skills. Newly qualified doctors are at risk of being unable to safely perform practical procedures, contradicting GMC Guidelines. We propose a National Undergraduate Curriculum in Surgery and Surgical Skills to equip newly qualified doctors with basic procedural skills to maximise patient safety. Copyright © 2014 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Virtual reality based surgical assistance and training system for long duration space missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, K; Thonier, G; Stephanides, M; Schendel, S

    2001-01-01

    Access to medical care during long duration space missions is extremely important. Numerous unanticipated medical problems will need to be addressed promptly and efficiently. Although telemedicine provides a convenient tool for remote diagnosis and treatment, it is impractical due to the long delay between data transmission and reception to Earth. While a well-trained surgeon-internist-astronaut would be an essential addition to the crew, the vast number of potential medical problems necessitate instant access to computerized, skill-enhancing and diagnostic tools. A functional prototype of a virtual reality based surgical training and assistance tool was created at our center, using low-power, small, lightweight components that would be easy to transport on a space mission. The system consists of a tracked, head-mounted display, a computer system, and a number of tracked surgical instruments. The software provides a real-time surgical simulation system with integrated monitoring and information retrieval and a voice input/output subsystem. Initial medical content for the system has been created, comprising craniofacial, hand, inner ear, and general anatomy, as well as information on a number of surgical procedures and techniques. One surgical specialty in particular, microsurgery, was provided as a full simulation due to its long training requirements, significant impact on result due to experience, and likelihood for need. However, the system is easily adapted to realistically simulate a large number of other surgical procedures. By providing a general system for surgical simulation and assistance, the astronaut-surgeon can maintain their skills, acquire new specialty skills, and use tools for computer-based surgical planning and assistance to minimize overall crew and mission risk.

  15. Novel use of hand fracture fixation plates in the surgical stabilisation of flail chest.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dunlop, Rebecca L E

    2010-01-01

    Plastic surgeons specialize in working closely with other surgical colleagues to help solve clinical problems. In this case, we performed surgical stabilisation of a large flail chest fragment in conjunction with the cardiothoracic surgical team, using the mini-plating set more commonly used for hand fracture fixation. The use of this fixation system for flail chest has not previously been described, but offers advantages over other reported methods, primarily by dispensing with the need for an extensive thoracotomy incision and by providing robust stabilisation without the presence of prominent hardware.

  16. Development of a tool for evaluating multimedia for surgical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlan, Jane; Morar, Sonali S

    2008-09-01

    Educational multimedia has been designed to provide surgical trainees with expert operative information outside of the operating theater. The effectiveness of multimedia (e.g., CD-ROMs) for learning has been a common research topic since the 1990s. To date, however, little discussion has taken place on the mechanisms to evaluate the quality of multimedia-driven teaching. This may be because of a lack of research into the development of appropriate tools for evaluating multimedia, especially for surgical education. This paper reports on a small-scale pilot and exploratory study (n = 12) that developed a tool for surgical multimedia evaluation. The validity of the developed tool was established through adaptation of an existing tool, which was reviewed using experts in surgery, usability, and education. The reliability of the developed tool was tested with surgical trainees who used it to assess a multimedia CD-ROM created for teaching basic surgical skills. The findings contribute to an understanding of surgical trainees' experience of using educational multimedia, in terms of characteristics of the learning material for interface design and content and the process of developing evaluation tools, in terms of inclusion of appropriate assessment criteria. The increasing use of multimedia in medical education necessitates the development of standardized tools for determining the quality of teaching and learning. Little research exists into the development of such tools and so the present work stimulates discussion on how to evaluate surgical training.

  17. Safe surgical technique: intramedullary nail fixation of tibial shaft fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelle, Boris A; Boni, Guilherme

    2015-01-01

    Statically locked, reamed intramedullary nailing remains the standard treatment for displaced tibial shaft fractures. Establishing an appropriate starting point is a crucial part of the surgical procedure. Recently, suprapatellar nailing in the semi-extended position has been suggested as a safe and effective surgical technique. Numerous reduction techiques are available to achieve an anatomic fracture alignment and the treating surgeon should be familiar with these maneuvers. Open reduction techniques should be considered if anatomic fracture alignment cannot be achieved by closed means. Favorable union rates above 90 % can be achieved by both reamed and unreamed intramedullary nailing. Despite favorable union rates, patients continue to have functional long-term impairments. In particular, anterior knee pain remains a common complaint following intramedullary tibial nailing. Malrotation remains a commonly reported complication after tibial nailing. The effect of postoperative tibial malalignment on the clinical and radiographic outcome requires further investigation.

  18. Common Lung Microbiome Identified among Mechanically Ventilated Surgical Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley D Smith

    Full Text Available The examination of the pulmonary microbiome in patients with non-chronic disease states has not been extensively examined. Traditional culture based screening methods are often unable to identify bacteria from bronchoalveolar lavage samples. The advancement of next-generation sequencing technologies allows for a culture-independent molecular based analysis to determine the microbial composition in the lung of this patient population. For this study, the Ion Torrent PGM system was used to assess the microbial complexity of culture negative bronchoalveolar lavage samples. A group of samples were identified that all displayed high diversity and similar relative abundance of bacteria. This group consisted of Hydrogenophaga, unclassified Bacteroidetes, Pedobacter, Thauera, and Acinetobacter. These bacteria may be representative of a common non-pathogenic pulmonary microbiome associated within this population of patients.

  19. Understanding Surgical Resident and Fellow Perspectives on Their Operative Performance Feedback Needs: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Ricardo J; Sarmiento, Samuel; Meyer, Meredith L; Rosson, Gedge D; Cooney, Damon S; Lifchez, Scott D; Cooney, Carisa M

    2018-04-20

    Operative performance feedback is essential for surgical training. We aimed to understand surgical trainees' views on their operative performance feedback needs and to characterize feedback to elucidate factors affecting its value from the resident perspective. Using a qualitative research approach, 2 research fellows conducted semistructured, one-on-one interviews with surgical trainees. We analyzed recurring themes generated during interviews related to feedback characteristics, as well as the extent to which performance rating tools can help meet trainees' operative feedback needs. Departments or divisions of general or plastic surgery at 9 US academic institutions. Surgical residents and clinical fellows in general or plastic surgery. We conducted 30 interviews with 9 junior residents, 14 senior residents, and 7 clinical fellows. Eighteen (60%) participants were in plastic and 12 (40%) were in general surgery. Twenty-four participants (80%) reported feedback as very or extremely important during surgical training. All trainees stated that verbal, face-to-face feedback is the most valuable, especially if occurring during (92%) or immediately after (65%) cases. Of those trainees using performance rating tools (74%), most (57%) expressed positive views about them but wanted the tools to complement and not replace verbal feedback in surgical education. Trainees value feedback more if received within 1 week or the case. Verbal, face-to-face feedback is very or extremely important to surgical trainees. Residents and fellows prefer to receive feedback during or immediately after a case and continue to value feedback if received within 1 week of the event. Performance rating tools can be useful for providing formative feedback and documentation but should not replace verbal, face-to-face feedback. Considering trainee views on feedback may help reduce perceived gaps in feedback demand-versus-supply in surgical training, which may be essential to overcoming current

  20. What Factors are Associated With a Surgical Site Infection After Operative Treatment of an Elbow Fracture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessen, Femke M A P; Braun, Yvonne; van Leeuwen, Wouter F; Dyer, George S; van den Bekerom, Michel P J; Ring, David

    2016-02-01

    Surgical site infections are one of the more common major complications of elbow fracture surgery and can contribute to other adverse outcomes, prolonged hospital stays, and increased healthcare costs. We asked: (1) What are the factors associated with a surgical site infection after elbow fracture surgery? (2) When taking the subset of closed elbow fractures only, what are the factors associated with a surgical site infection? (3) What are the common organisms isolated from an elbow infection after open treatment? One thousand three hundred twenty adult patients underwent surgery for an elbow fracture between January 2002 and July 2014 and were included in our study. Forty-eight of 1320 patients (4%) had a surgical site infection develop. Thirty-four of 1113 patients with a closed fracture (3%) had a surgical site infection develop. For all elbow fractures, use of plate and screw fixation (adjusted odds ratio [OR]= 2.2; 95% CI, 1.0-4.5; p = 0.041) and use of external fixation before surgery (adjusted OR = 4.7; 95% CI, 1.1-21; p = 0.035) were associated with higher infection rates. When subset analysis was performed for closed fractures, only smoking (adjusted OR = 2.2; 95% CI, 1.1-4.5; p = 0.023) was associated with higher infection rates. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common bacteria cultured (59%). The only modifiable risk factor for a surgical site infection after open reduction and internal fixation was cigarette smoking. Plate fixation and temporary external fixation are likely surrogates for more complex injuries, therefore no recommendations should be inferred from this association. Surgeons should counsel patients who smoke. Level IV, prognostic study.

  1. An Improvised Active Drain | Ogirima | Nigerian Journal of Surgical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An improvised active drain is designed from intravenous infusion set and recycled RedivacR or Haemovac® bottle. Outcome of the use of this system on 100 patients is presented. This suction drainage system had been used in major orthopaedic and common minor surgical procedures and no significant complication was ...

  2. A New Method for Surgical Treatment of Subcondylar Fractures: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Shirani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractSubcondylar fractures are common in the maxillofacial region following direct trauma to the mandibular ramus. The literature is replete with articles written on the treatment of subcondylar fractures, encompassing a plethora of various surgical approaches; however, the best treatment procedure has remained controversial. Such fractures are either treated by open reduction with internal fixation or closed reduction with maxillomandibular fixation. In this article, we describe a new surgical method for treatment of subcondylar fractures.

  3. Attrition from surgical residency training: perspectives from those who left.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongiovanni, Tasce; Yeo, Heather; Sosa, Julie A; Yoo, Peter S; Long, Theodore; Rosenthal, Marjorie; Berg, David; Curry, Leslie; Nunez-Smith, Marcella

    2015-10-01

    High rates of attrition from general surgery residency may threaten the surgical workforce. We sought to gain further insight regarding resident motivations for leaving general surgery residency. We conducted in-depth interviews to generate rich narrative data that explored individual experiences. An interdisciplinary team used the constant comparative method to analyze the data. Four themes characterized experiences of our 19 interviewees who left their residency program. Participants (1) felt an informal contract was breached when clinical duties were prioritized over education, (2) characterized a culture in which there was no safe space to share personal and programmatic concerns, (3) expressed a scarcity of role models who demonstrated better work-life balance, and (4) reported negative interactions with authority resulting in a profound loss of commitment. As general surgery graduate education continues to evolve, our findings may inform interventions and policies regarding programmatic changes to boost retention in surgical residency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Mobile surgical skills education unit: a new concept in surgical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Faisal M; Hseino, Hazem; Hill, Arnold D K; Kavanagh, Eamon; Traynor, Oscar

    2011-08-01

    Basic surgical skills are an integral part of surgical training. Simulation-based surgical training offers an opportunity both to trainees and trainers to learn and teach surgical skills outside the operating room in a nonpatient, nonstressed environment. However, widespread adoption of simulation technology especially in medical education is prohibited by its inherent higher cost, limited space, and interruptions to clinical duties. Mobile skills laboratory has been proposed as a means to address some of these limitations. A new program is designed by the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI), in an approach to teach its postgraduate basic surgical trainees the necessary surgical skills, by making the use of mobile innovative simulation technology in their own hospital settings. In this article, authors describe the program and students response to the mobile surgical skills being delivered in the region of their training hospitals and by their own regional consultant trainers.

  5. Penicillin allergy and surgical prophylaxis: Cephalosporin cross-reactivity risk in a pediatric tertiary care center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran, Ralph J; Kako, Hiromi; Chovanec, Thomas; Ramesh, Archana; Bissonnette, Bruno; Tobias, Joseph D

    2015-05-01

    First generation cephalosporins are commonly used as antibiotic prophylaxis prior to surgery. Patients labeled as penicillin-allergic are often precluded from receiving cephalosporins because of an allergic cross-reactivity. The aims of this study were to evaluate the clinical practice for surgical prophylaxis at Nationwide Children's Hospital and to determine the incidence of adverse effects and allergic reactions when using cephalosporins in patients labeled as penicillin-allergic. A retrospective chart review was performed to identify patients who were allergic to penicillin, penicillin antibiotic family, who required surgical treatment for an existing medical condition, and received an antibiotic to prevent surgical site infection. Five hundred thirteen penicillin-allergic patients were identified, encompassing 624 surgical cases. Cephalosporins were administered in 153 cases (24.5%) with cefazolin used 83% of the time. Only one documented case of nonanaphylactic reaction was reported. Clindamycin was the most common cephalosporin substitute (n=387), and the reported adverse reaction rate was 1.5%. No cases of anaphylaxis were documented. Our data suggest that the administration of cephalosporins for surgical prophylaxis following induction of anesthesia in a patient with a known or reported penicillin-allergy appears appropriate and results in a lower adverse event rate that when clindamycin is administered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Trends in surgical mortality following colorectal resection between 2002 and 2012: A single-centre, retrospective analysis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Stephens, I

    2017-06-01

    Surgical mortality is a commonly-used measurement of surgical risk. It is imperative that patients receive accurate, up-to-date information regarding operative risk. To date, studies investigating temporal changes in surgical mortality following colorectal resection in Ireland have been limited. This retrospective study investigates such trends in one of the eight centres for symptomatic and screen-detected colorectal cancers in Ireland, across an 11-year period. A steady decline in surgical mortality was found across this time, showing a significant difference in rates before and after centralisation of rectal cancer care and the advent of colorectal surgery as a surgical specialisation (5.2%, 1.52%). This has important implications for the organisation of colorectal cancer care in Ireland.

  7. Abdominal and perineal approaches in the surgical treatment of rectal prolapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesut Gül

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rectal prolapse is a disease, which is an important cause of social and functional problems and has a continuing debate about the ideal surgical treatment of itself. In this study, we aimed to investigate the abdominal and perineal approaches with early and late postoperative result in the patients undergoing surgery for rectal prolapse.Materials and methods: Between 2006-2011, the records of 21 patients undergoing surgery with the diagnosis of rectal prolapse were reviewed, retrospectively. The demographic and physical examination findings, surgical procedures, early and late postoperative complications, recurrence and mortality rates were recorded.Results: The median age was 43 years and female/male ratio was 1.63/1. The most common presenting complaint was gas control failure and often wetting with mucus. Stage 1 and stage 3 rectal prolapses was detected in 19% and 81% of the patients, respectively. The most common surgical procedure was Notaras (54%. Early postoperative complications were seen in 14.3% of the patients. There were no postoperative recurrence, mortality and complication requiring re-exploration. Advanced age and shorter duration of hospital stay were determined and often performed under regional anesthesia in the patients undergoing perineal approach. No statistical differences were observed in terms of early postoperative complications and recurrence.Conclusion: Results of abdominal and perineal approaches were similar, when they were applied with taking into account the risk factors for surgical treatment, findings of the patients and the surgeon’s experience.

  8. Prospective validation of a surgical complications grading system in a cohort of 2114 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazeh, Haggi; Cohen, Oded; Mizrahi, Ido; Hamburger, Tamar; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Abu-Wasel, Bassam; Alaiyan, Bilal; Freund, Herbert R; Eid, Ahmed; Nissan, Aviram

    2014-05-01

    We recently reported a grading system for surgical complications. This system proved to have a high sensitivity for recording minor but meaningful complications prolonging hospital stay in patients after colorectal surgery. We aimed to prospectively validate the complication grading system in a general surgery department over 1 year. All surgical procedures and related complications were prospectively recorded between January 1st and December 31st, 2009. Surgical complications were graded on a severity scale of 1-5. The system classifies short-term outcome by grade emphasizing intensity of therapy required for treatment of the defined complication. During the study period, 2114 patients underwent surgery. Elective and oncological surgeries were performed in 1606 (76%) and 465 (22%) patients, respectively. There were 422 surgical complications in 304 (14%) patients (Grade 1/2: 203 [67%]; Grade 3/4: 90 [29%]; Grade 5: 11 [4%]). Median length of stay correlated significantly with complication severity: 2.3 d for no complication, 6.2 and 11.8 d for Grades 1/2 and 3/4, respectively (P 2 (OR 2.07, P Grade (OR 1.85, P = 0.001), oncological (OR 2.82, P 120 min (OR 2.08, P grading surgical complications permits standardized reporting of surgical morbidity according to the severity of impact. Prospective validation of this system supports its use in a general surgery setting as a tool for surgical outcome assessment and quality assurance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Attitudes and factors contributing to attrition in Canadian surgical specialty residency programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Simon; Ginther, David Nathan; Neuls, Evan; Hayes, Paul

    2017-08-01

    We recently studied attrition in Canadian general surgical programs; however, there are no data on whether residents enrolled in other surgical residencies harbour the same intents as their general surgical peers. We sought to determine how many residents in surgical disciplines in Canada consider leaving their programs and why. An anonymous survey was administered to all residents in 9 surgical disciplines in Canada. Significance of association was determined using the Pearson χ2 test. The Canadian Post-MD Education Registry (CAPER) website was used to calculate the response rate. We received 523 responses (27.6% response rate). Of these respondents, 140 (26.8%) were either "somewhat" or "seriously" considering leaving their program. Residents wanting to pursue additional fellowship training and those aspiring to an academic career were significantly less likely to be considering changing specialties ( p = 0.003 and p = 0.005, respectively). Poor work-life balance and fear of unemployment/underemployment were the top reasons why residents would change specialty (55.5% and 40.8%, respectively), although the reasons cited were not significantly different between those considering changing and those who were not ( p = 0.64). Residents who were considering changing programs were significantly less likely to enjoy their work and more likely to cite having already invested too much time to change as a reason for continuing ( p work-life balance and limited employment prospects. Efforts to educate prospective residents about the reality of the surgical lifestyle and to optimize employment prospects may improve completion rates.

  10. Current surgical treatment for chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimoto, Takayuki; Uchida, Eiji; Nakamura, Yoshiharu; Yamahatsu, Kazuya; Matsushita, Akira; Katsuno, Akira; Cho, Kazumitsu; Kawamoto, Masao

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a painful, yet benign inflammatory process of the pancreas. Surgical management should be individualized because the pain is multifactorial and its mechanisms vary from patient to patient. Two main pathogenetic theories for the mechanisms of pain in CP have been proposed: the neurogenic theory and the theory of increased intraductal/intraparenchymal pressures. The latter theory is strongly supported by the good results of drainage procedures in the surgical management of CP. Other possible contributing factors include pancreatic ischemia; a centrally sensitized pain state; and the development of complications, such as pseudocysts and stenosis of the duodenum or common bile duct. Common indications for surgery include intractable pain, suspicion of neoplasm, and complications that cannot be resolved with radiological or endoscopic treatments. Operative procedures have been historically classified into 4 categories: decompression procedures for diseased and obstructed pancreatic ducts; resection procedures for the proximal, distal, or total pancreas; denervation procedures of the pancreas; and hybrid procedures. Pancreaticoduodenectomy and pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy, once the standard operations for patients with CP, have been replaced by hybrid procedures, such as duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection, the Frey procedure, and their variants. These procedures are safe and effective in providing long-term pain relief and in treating CP-related complications. Hybrid procedures should be the operations of choice for patients with CP.

  11. Is anemia associated with cognitive impairment and delirium among older acute surgical patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myint, Phyo Kyaw; Owen, Stephanie; McCarthy, Kathryn; Pearce, Lyndsay; Moug, Susan J; Stechman, Michael J; Hewitt, Jonathan; Carter, Ben

    2018-03-01

    The determinants of cognitive impairment and delirium during acute illness are poorly understood, despite being common among older people. Anemia is common in older people, and there is ongoing debate regarding the association between anemia, cognitive impairment and delirium, primarily in non-surgical patients. Using data from the Older Persons Surgical Outcomes Collaboration 2013 and 2014 audit cycles, we examined the association between anemia and cognitive outcomes in patients aged ≥65 years admitted to five UK acute surgical units. On admission, the Confusion Assessment Method was carried out to detect delirium. Cognition was assessed using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, and two levels of impairment were defined as Montreal Cognitive Assessment cognitive impairment or delirium. The adjusted odds ratios of cognitive impairment were 0.95 (95% CI 0.56-1.61) and 1.00 (95% CI 0.61-1.64) for the Montreal Cognitive Assessment cognitive outcomes among older people in this acute surgical setting. Considering the retrospective nature of the study and possible lack of power, findings should be taken with caution. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; ••: ••-••. © 2018 The Authors Geriatrics & Gerontology International published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japan Geriatrics Society.

  12. Central polydactyly of the foot: surgical management with plantar and dorsal advancement flaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Emily J; Davids, Jon R; Leffler, Lauren C; Gibson, Thomas W; Pugh, Linda I

    2014-01-01

    Central polydactyly is the least common form of foot polydactyly, and the intercalary location of the duplicated ray makes the surgical exposure, excision, and closure more complex. For these reasons there is little consensus concerning the optimal technique for surgical management. A retrospective case series of 22 patients with 27 feet with central polydactyly, treated surgically by the dorsal and plantar advancement flap technique, was performed. Change in width of the forefoot was measured from radiographs by the metatarsal gap ratio. Functional outcomes were assessed by the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure. Signficant narrowing of the forefoot, as measured radiographically by the metatarsal gap ratio, was achieved after surgery (Psports, and overall function categories. The few reports of less than normal foot function were related to shoe wear issues and incisional scarring that was painful or cosmetically unappealing. The radiographic and functional outcomes after surgical management of central polydactyly with the dorsal and plantar advancement flap technique are excellent. The technique successfully narrows the forefoot on radiographs, and this narrowing is maintained with growth over time. However, families should be advised that persistent perceived widening of the forefoot relative to normal is common, despite successful radiographic narrowing after surgery. IV.

  13. Output control of da Vinci surgical system's surgical graspers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Paul J; Schmidt, David E; Duvvuri, Umamaheswar

    2014-01-01

    The number of robot-assisted surgeries performed with the da Vinci surgical system has increased significantly over the past decade. The articulating movements of the robotic surgical grasper are controlled by grip controls at the master console. The user interface has been implicated as one contributing factor in surgical grasping errors. The goal of our study was to characterize and evaluate the user interface of the da Vinci surgical system in controlling surgical graspers. An angular manipulator with force sensors was used to increment the grip control angle as grasper output angles were measured. Input force at the grip control was simultaneously measured throughout the range of motion. Pressure film was used to assess the maximum grasping force achievable with the endoscopic grasping tool. The da Vinci robot's grip control angular input has a nonproportional relationship with the grasper instrument output. The grip control mechanism presents an intrinsic resistant force to the surgeon's fingertips and provides no haptic feedback. The da Vinci Maryland graspers are capable of applying up to 5.1 MPa of local pressure. The angular and force input at the grip control of the da Vinci robot's surgical graspers is nonproportional to the grasper instrument's output. Understanding the true relationship of the grip control input to grasper instrument output may help surgeons understand how to better control the surgical graspers and promote fewer grasping errors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Facilitating Surgical Resection of Infantile Massive Intracranial Immature Teratoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitahara, Takahiro; Tsuji, Yoshihito; Shirase, Tomoyuki; Yukawa, Hiroyuki; Takeichi, Yasuhiro; Yamazoe, Naohiro

    2016-04-01

    Immature teratoma (IMT) is the most frequent histological subtype of infantile intracranial teratoma, the most common congenital brain tumor. IMT contains incompletely differentiated components resembling fetal tissues. Infantile intracranial IMT has a dismal prognosis, because it is often inoperable due to its massive size and high vascularity. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy has been shown to be effective in decreasing tumor volume and vascularity to facilitate surgical resection in other types of infantile brain tumors. However, only one recent case report described the effectiveness of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for infantile intracranial IMT in the literature, even though it is common entity with a poor prognosis in infants. Here, we describe the case of a 2-month-old male infant with a very large intracranial IMT. Maximal surgical resection was first attempted but was unsuccessful because of severe intraoperative hemorrhage. Neoadjuvant carboplatin and etoposide (CARE) chemotherapy was then administered with the aim of shrinking and devascularizing the tumor. After neoadjuvant chemotherapy, tumor size did not decrease, but intraoperative blood loss significantly decreased and near-total resection was achieved by the second and third surgery. The patient underwent adjuvant CARE chemotherapy and has been alive for 3 years after surgery without tumor regrowth. Even when neoadjuvant chemotherapy does not decrease tumor volume of infantile intracranial IMT, surgical resection should be tried because chemotherapy can facilitate surgical resection and improve clinical outcome by reducing tumor vascularity.

  15. Patient satisfaction and quality of surgical care in US hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Thomas C; Orav, E John; Jha, Ashish K

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between patient satisfaction and surgical quality is unclear for US hospitals. Using national data, we examined if hospitals with high patient satisfaction have lower levels of performance on accepted measures of the quality and efficiency of surgical care. Federal policymakers have made patient satisfaction a core measure for the way hospitals are evaluated and paid through the value-based purchasing program. There is broad concern that performance on patient satisfaction may have little or even a negative correlation with the quality of surgical care, leading to potential trade-offs in efforts to improve patient experience with other surgical quality measures. We used the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems survey data from 2010 and 2011 to assess performance on patient experience. We used national Medicare data on 6 common surgical procedures to calculate measures of surgical efficiency and quality: risk-adjusted length of stay, process score, risk-adjusted mortality rate, risk-adjusted readmission rate, and a composite z score across all 4 metrics. Multivariate models adjusting for hospital characteristics were used to assess the independent relationships between patient satisfaction and measures of surgical efficiency and quality. Of the 2953 US hospitals that perform one of these 6 procedures, the median patient satisfaction score was 69.5% (interquartile range, 63%-75.5%). Length of stay was shorter in hospitals with the highest levels of patient satisfaction (7.1 days vs 7.7 days, P patient satisfaction had the higher process of care performance (96.5 vs 95.5, P patient satisfaction also had a higher composite score for quality across all measures (P patient satisfaction provided more efficient care and were associated with higher surgical quality. Our findings suggest there need not be a trade-off between good quality of care for surgical patients and ensuring a positive patient experience.

  16. Surgical reimplantation of penile glans amputation in children during circumcision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouassida Khaireddine

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Circumcision is one of the oldest and most commonly performed surgical procedures. Unfortunately, various complications may occur during circumcision, ranging from trivial to tragic such as penile amputation which is a serious complication and a challenging injury to treat. We describe two cases of non-microsurgical successful reattachment of a distal penile glans which were amputated during circumcision. In the first case, a 5-year-old child underwent circumcision by an urologist under local anesthesia. In the second one, a 3-year-old child underwent circumcision by a general practitioner who used to make circumcision. In this article, the literature is reviewed; results and potential complications of this surgery are also discussed. Glans sensation was present, early morning erection was maintained, and there was an erectile response during penile manipulation in both cases. Although circumcision is not technically difficult, it should be taken seriously. The use of microsurgical reattachment is not always possible, especially in pediatric cases; it also requires special equipment and training.

  17. Trends in the Surgical Correction of Gynecomastia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rodger H.; Chang, Daniel K.; Siy, Richard; Friedman, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Gynecomastia refers to the enlargement of the male breast due to a proliferation of ductal, stromal, and/or fatty tissue. Although it is a common condition affecting up to 65% of men, not all cases require surgical intervention. Contemporary surgical techniques in the treatment of gynecomastia have become increasingly less invasive with the advent of liposuction and its variants, including power-assisted and ultrasound-assisted liposuction. These techniques, however, have been largely limited in their inability to address significant skin excess and ptosis. For mild to moderate gynecomastia, newer techniques using arthroscopic morcellation and endoscopic techniques promise to address the fibrous component, while minimizing scar burden by utilizing liposuction incisions. Nevertheless, direct excision through periareolar incisions remains a mainstay in treatment algorithms for its simplicity and avoidance of additional instrumentation. This is particularly true for more severe cases of gynecomastia requiring skin resection. In the most severe cases with significant skin redundancy and ptosis, breast amputation with free nipple grafting remains an effective option. Surgical treatment should be individualized to each patient, combining techniques to provide adequate resection and optimize aesthetic results. PMID:26528088

  18. Timing of surgical site infection and pulmonary complications after laparotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundel, Ossian; Gundersen, Sofie Kirchhoff; Dahl, Rikke Maria

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Surgical site infection (SSI) and other postoperative complications are associated with high costs, morbidity, secondary surgery, and mortality. Many studies have identified factors that may prevent SSI and pulmonary complications, but it is important to know when they in fact occur....... The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic timing of surgical site infections and pulmonary complications after laparotomy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of the PROXI trial which was a randomized clinical trial conducted in 1400 patients undergoing elective or emergent...... laparotomy. Patients were randomly allocated to either 80% or 30% perioperative inspiratory oxygen fraction. RESULTS: SSI or pulmonary complications were diagnosed in 24.2% (95% CI: 22.0%-26.5%) of the patients at a median of 9 days [IQR: 5-15] after surgery. Most common was surgical site infection (19...

  19. Textual Analysis of General Surgery Residency Personal Statements: Topics and Gender Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostapenko, Laura; Schonhardt-Bailey, Cheryl; Sublette, Jessica Walling; Smink, Douglas S; Osman, Nora Y

    2017-10-25

    Applicants to US general surgery residency training programs submit standardized applications. Applicants use the personal statement to express their individual rationale for a career in surgery. Our research explores common topics and gender differences within the personal statements of general surgery applicants. We analyzed the electronic residency application service personal statements of 578 applicants (containing 3,82,405 words) from Liaison Committee on Medical Education-accredited medical schools to a single ACGME-accredited general surgery program using an automated textual analysis program to identify common topics and gender differences. Using a recursive algorithm, the program identified common words and clusters, grouping them into topic classes, which are internally validated. We identified and labeled 8 statistically significant topic classes through independent review: "my story," "the art of surgery," "clinical vignettes," "why I love surgery," "residency program characteristics," "working as a team," "academics and research," and "global health and policy." Although some classes were common to all applications, we also identified gender-specific differences. Notably, women were significantly more likely than men to be represented within the class of "working as a team." (p differences between the statements of men and women. Women were more likely to discuss surgery as a team endeavor while men were more likely to focus on the details of their surgical experiences. Our work mirrors what has been found in social psychology research on gender-based differences in how men and women communicate their career goals and aspirations in other competitive professional situations. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. American College of Surgeons/Association for Surgical Education medical student simulation-based surgical skills curriculum needs assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Charity C; Acton, Robert D; Blair, Patrice G; Campbell, Andre R; Deutsch, Ellen S; Jones, Daniel B; Liscum, Kathleen R; Sachdeva, Ajit K; Scott, Daniel J; Yang, Stephen C

    2014-02-01

    Simulation can enhance learning effectiveness, efficiency, and patient safety and is engaging for learners. A survey was conducted of surgical clerkship directors nationally and medical students at 5 medical schools to rank and stratify simulation-based educational topics. Students applying to surgery were compared with others using Wilcoxon's rank-sum tests. Seventy-three of 163 clerkship directors (45%) and 231 of 872 students (26.5%) completed the survey. Of students, 28.6% were applying for surgical residency training. Clerkship directors and students generally agreed on the importance and timing of specific educational topics. Clerkship directors tended to rank basic skills, such as examination skills, higher than medical students. Students ranked procedural skills, such as lumbar puncture, more highly than clerkship directors. Surgery clerkship directors and 4th-year medical students agree substantially about the content of a simulation-based curriculum, although 4th-year medical students recommended that some topics be taught earlier than the clerkship directors recommended. Students planning to apply to surgical residencies did not differ significantly in their scoring from students pursuing nonsurgical specialties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The methodological quality of systematic reviews comparing temporomandibular joint disorder surgical and non-surgical treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasconcelos Belmiro CE

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Temporomandibular joint disorders (TMJD are multifactor, complex clinical problems affecting approximately 60–70% of the general population, with considerable controversy about the most effective treatment. For example, reports claim success rates of 70% and 83% for non-surgical and surgical treatment, whereas other reports claim success rates of 40% to 70% for self-improvement without treatment. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to (1 identify systematic reviews comparing temporomandibular joint disorder surgical and non-surgical treatment, (2 evaluate their methodological quality, and (3 evaluate the evidence grade within the systematic reviews. Methods A search strategy was developed and implemented for MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, LILACS, and Brazilian Dentistry Bibliography databases. Inclusion criteria were: systematic reviews (± meta-analysis comparing surgical and non-surgical TMJD treatment, published in English, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, or German between the years 1966 and 2007(up to July. Exclusion criteria were: in vitro or animal studies; narrative reviews or editorials or editorial letters; and articles published in other languages. Two investigators independently selected and evaluated systematic reviews. Three different instruments (AMSTAR, OQAQ and CASP were used to evaluate methodological quality, and the results averaged. The GRADE instrument was used to evaluate the evidence grade within the reviews. Results The search strategy identified 211 reports; of which 2 were systematic reviews meeting inclusion criteria. The first review met 23.5 ± 6.0% and the second met 77.5 ± 12.8% of the methodological quality criteria (mean ± sd. In these systematic reviews between 9 and 15% of the trials were graded as high quality, and 2 and 8% of the total number of patients were involved in these studies. Conclusion The results indicate that in spite of the widespread impact of TMJD, and the multitude of

  2. A Prospective Study of Postoperative Vomiting in Children Undergoing Different Surgical Procedures under General Anaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaya Choudhary

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available To identify the risk factors associated with postoperative vomiting (POV in paediatric population undergoing common surgeries. The risk factors studied for association with POV were age> 5 years, female gender, previous history of POV/motion sickness, type of surgery and duration of anaesthesia> 45 min. A total of 100 ASA grade I and II patients of either sex aged between 2-12 years undergoing elective surgical procedures were screened for the study. All patients underwent similar anaesthe-sia protocol and received two antiemetic agents (ondansetron 0.05mg.kg-1 and dexamethasone 0.15mg.kg-1 in premedication. The patients were observed for 24 hours postoperatively for the incidence of vomiting, number of times rescue antiemetic given and any adverse reaction to antiemetic.Overall 34% patients (34/100 developed POV of which 26 had only one episode and 8 patients had 2 episodes during first 24 h. Incidence of POV was 13% (13/100 in first 4 h whereas it was 29% (29/100 in late postoperative period. In early post operative period, POV was not associated significantly with any predicted risk factors. However, age>5years, duration of anaesthesia>45 minutes and history of motion sickness/POV were significantly associated in late postoperative period(4-24h. Female gender and type of surgery were not associated with increased POV. The combination antiemetic effectively prevented POV in early postoperative period (0-4h only but not in late postoperative period(0-24h.

  3. Patterns of Daily Costs Differ for Medical and Surgical Intensive Care Unit Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershengorn, Hayley B; Garland, Allan; Gong, Michelle N

    2015-12-01

    Published studies suggest hospital costs on Day 1 in the intensive care unit (ICU) far exceed those of subsequent days, when costs are relatively stable. Yet, no study stratified patients by ICU type. To determine whether daily cost patterns differ by ICU type. We performed a retrospective study of adults admitted to five ICUs (two surgical: quaternary surgical ICU [SICU quat] and quaternary cardiac surgical ICU [CSICU quat]; two medical: tertiary medical ICU [MICU tertiary] and quaternary medical ICU [MICU quat]; one general: community medical surgical ICU [MSICU comm]) at Montefiore Medical Center in the Bronx, New York during 2013. After excluding costs clearly accrued outside the ICU, daily hospital costs were merged with clinical data. Patterns of daily unadjusted costs were evaluated in each ICU using median regression. Generalized estimating equations with first-order autocorrelation were used to identify factors independently associated with daily costs. Unadjusted daily costs were higher on Day 1 than on subsequent days only for surgical ICUs-SICU quat (median [interquartile range], $2,636 [$1,834-$4,282] on Day 1 vs. $1,840 [$1,501-$2,332] on Day 2; P cost from Days 1 to 2. After multivariate adjustment, there remained a significant decrease in cost from ICU Day 1 to 2 in surgical units with statistically similar Day 1 and 2 costs for other ICUs. Higher Day 1 costs are not seen in patients admitted to medical/nonsurgical ICUs.

  4. Critical roles of orthopaedic surgeon leadership in healthcare systems to improve orthopaedic surgical patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Calvin C; Robb, William J

    2013-06-01

    The prevention of medical and surgical harm remains an important public health problem despite increased awareness and implementation of safety programs. Successful introduction and maintenance of surgical safety programs require both surgeon leadership and collaborative surgeon-hospital alignment. Documentation of success of such surgical safety programs in orthopaedic practice is limited. We describe the scope of orthopaedic surgical patient safety issues, define critical elements of orthopaedic surgical safety, and outline leadership roles for orthopaedic surgeons needed to establish and sustain a culture of safety in contemporary healthcare systems. We identified the most common causes of preventable surgical harm based on adverse and sentinel surgical events reported to The Joint Commission. A comprehensive literature review through a MEDLINE(®) database search (January 1982 through April 2012) to identify pertinent orthopaedic surgical safety articles found 14 articles. Where gaps in orthopaedic literature were identified, the review was supplemented by 22 nonorthopaedic surgical references. Our final review included 36 articles. Six important surgical safety program elements needed to eliminate preventable surgical harm were identified: (1) effective surgical team communication, (2) proper informed consent, (3) implementation and regular use of surgical checklists, (4) proper surgical site/procedure identification, (5) reduction of surgical team distractions, and (6) routine surgical data collection and analysis to improve the safety and quality of surgical patient care. Successful surgical safety programs require a culture of safety supported by all six key surgical safety program elements, active surgeon champions, and collaborative hospital and/or administrative support designed to enhance surgical safety and improve surgical patient outcomes. Further research measuring improvements from such surgical safety systems in orthopaedic care is needed.

  5. Surgical repair of an aberrant splenic artery aneurysm: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, Giulio; LaMuraglia, Glenn; Nigri, Giuseppe; Vietri, Francesco

    2007-03-01

    Aneurysms of the splenic artery are the most common splanchnic aneurysms. Aneurysms of a splenic artery with an anomalous origin from the superior mesenteric artery are however rare, with eight previously reported cases. Their indications for treatment are superposable to those of aneurysms affecting an orthotopic artery. Methods of treatment of this condition include endovascular, minimally invasive techniques and surgical resection. We report one more case of aneurysm of an aberrant splenic artery, treated with surgical resection, and preservation of the spleen.

  6. The Pattern of Surgical Admissions in University of Nigeria Teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The digestive system and genitourinary systems were the most commonly affected systems. Emergency admission accounted for 18.1% of all surgical admissions while elective admissions accounted for the rest. Conclusion: More detailed research on the pattern of admissions is important in planning and should be carried ...

  7. The health-related quality of life journey of gynecologic oncology surgical patients: Implications for the incorporation of patient-reported outcomes into surgical quality metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, Kemi M; Barber, Emma L; Bensen, Jeannette T; Snavely, Anna C; Gehrig, Paola A

    2016-05-01

    To report the changes in patient-reported quality of life for women undergoing gynecologic oncology surgeries. In a prospective cohort study from 10/2013-10/2014, women were enrolled pre-operatively and completed comprehensive interviews at baseline, 1, 3, and 6months post-operatively. Measures included the disease-specific Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-GP), general Patient Reported Outcome Measure Information System (PROMIS) global health and validated measures of anxiety and depression. Bivariate statistics were used to analyze demographic groups and changes in mean scores over time. Of 231 patients completing baseline interviews, 185 (80%) completed 1-month, 170 (74%) 3-month, and 174 (75%) 6-month interviews. Minimally invasive (n=115, 63%) and laparotomy (n=60, 32%) procedures were performed. Functional wellbeing (20 → 17.6, ptherapy administration. In an exploratory analysis of the interaction of QOL and quality, patients with increased postoperative healthcare resource use were noted to have higher baseline levels of anxiety. For women undergoing gynecologic oncology procedures, temporary declines in functional wellbeing are balanced by improvements in emotional wellbeing and decreased anxiety symptoms after surgery. Not all commonly used QOL surveys are sensitive to changes during the perioperative period and may not be suitable for use in surgical quality metrics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Surgical management of necrotizing sialometaplasia of palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S M Balaji

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Necrotizing sialometaplasia (NSM is a rare benign, inflammatory disease of both major and minor salivary glands, although more commonly reported in the minor glands of the palate. The characteristic clinical presentation can perplex the clinician and may be mistaken for a malignant neoplasm, such as mucoepidermoid carcinoma, as well as invasive squamous cell carcinoma. The clinical and histological similarity between this entity and a malignant lesion may result in unnecessary or mis-treatment. Though clinically mimics malignancy, NSM is considered to be a self-limiting disease, and takes about 3-12 weeks to resolve. Majority of the case resolves itself or by supportive and symptomatic treatment. Surgical intervention is rarely required in NSM except the diagnostic biopsy. Herein we report the clinical, histopathological feature and surgical management of a case of NSM of hard palate in a young adult male.

  9. Surgical management of necrotizing sialometaplasia of palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, S M; Balaji, Preetha

    2015-01-01

    Necrotizing sialometaplasia (NSM) is a rare benign, inflammatory disease of both major and minor salivary glands, although more commonly reported in the minor glands of the palate. The characteristic clinical presentation can perplex the clinician and may be mistaken for a malignant neoplasm, such as mucoepidermoid carcinoma, as well as invasive squamous cell carcinoma. The clinical and histological similarity between this entity and a malignant lesion may result in unnecessary or mis-treatment. Though clinically mimics malignancy, NSM is considered to be a self-limiting disease, and takes about 3-12 weeks to resolve. Majority of the case resolves itself or by supportive and symptomatic treatment. Surgical intervention is rarely required in NSM except the diagnostic biopsy. Herein we report the clinical, histopathological feature and surgical management of a case of NSM of hard palate in a young adult male.

  10. Surgical repair of large cyclodialysis clefts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Jacob B; Davis, Garvin H; Bell, Nicholas P; Feldman, Robert M; Blieden, Lauren S

    2017-05-11

    To describe a new surgical technique to effectively close large (>180 degrees) cyclodialysis clefts. Our method involves the use of procedures commonly associated with repair of retinal detachment and complex cataract extraction: phacoemulsification with placement of a capsular tension ring followed by pars plana vitrectomy and gas tamponade with light cryotherapy. We also used anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a noninvasive mechanism to determine the extent of the clefts and compared those results with ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) and gonioscopy. This technique was used to repair large cyclodialysis clefts in 4 eyes. All 4 eyes had resolution of hypotony and improvement of visual acuity. One patient had an intraocular pressure spike requiring further surgical intervention. Anterior segment OCT imaging in all 4 patients showed a more extensive cleft than UBM or gonioscopy. This technique is effective in repairing large cyclodialysis clefts. Anterior segment OCT more accurately predicted the extent of each cleft, while UBM and gonioscopy both underestimated the size of the cleft.

  11. Pseudotumor of the distal common bile duct at endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Justin H.; Coakley, Fergus V; Wang, Zhen J.; Poder, Liina; Webb, Emily; Yeh, Benjamin M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Prior studies have described a pseudocalculus appearance in the distal common bile duct as a normal variant at cholangiography. The objective of this study is to describe the occurrence of pseudotumor in the distal common bile duct at endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Methods Nine patients who underwent ERCP between May 2004 and July 2008 were identified as having a transient eccentric mural-based filling defect in the distal common bile duct. A single reader systematically reviewed all studies and recorded the imaging findings. Results The mean diameter of the filling defect was 9 mm (range, 5 to 11). Eight patients had resolution of the filling defect during the same ERCP or on a subsequent ERCP, and in 2 of these patients the inferior border of the filling defect was not well visualized. The other patient underwent surgical resection of a presumed tumor with no evidence of malignancy on surgical pathology. Conclusion An eccentric mural-based filling defect in the distal common bile duct can be artifactual in nature and may reflect transient contraction of the sphincter of Oddi. Recognition of this pseudotumor may help avoid unnecessary surgery. PMID:21724120

  12. The surgical manegement of metastases to humerus-clinical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrobok, Adam; Spindel, Jerzy; Miszczyk, Leszek; Koczy, Bogdan; Pilecki, Bogdan; Jarosz, Adam; Mrozek, Tomasz

    2003-06-30

    Background. The humerus is a common localisation of cancer metastases. The restoration of anatomical order and tumor resection within humerus is important for patients quality of everyday life and for their pain relief. The surgical treatment is one of the most important part of the whole oncological ways of tratment. The study objective was a clinical assesment of tumor resection and reconstruction within humerus according to matastasis localisation and the choice of surgical technique. Material and methods. In the years 1999-2002 19 patients underwent surgery due to pathological fracture or/and cancer metastasis within humerus. The shaft localisation of the tumor was found in 8 cases and in 11 patients the metastatic foci were found in proximnal diaphysis. In patients with proximal diaphysis localisation of the tumor the partial resection with subsequent joint exchange procedure was made. The humeral shaft metastatic cancer changes were treated by the segmental resection with subsequent surgical cement filling or auto/allogenical bone grafting combined with intramedullary nail or AO/ASIF plate stabilisation. The average follow-up period was 8,5 months. Results. In patients after resection with shoulder joint alloplasty according to the Enneking test a very good result was found in 7 and very good in 4 cases. In patients with femoral shaft metastatic tumor locaslisation, 6 good and 2 fair results were found. In 1 patient after 2 months rehabilitation a reoperation was needed due to the mechanical destabilisation. The best results were found in patients after intramedullary nailing.An acute soft tissue inflamation requiering surgical treatment was found in 1 patient after shoulder joint replacement. Conclusions. After clinical analysis of the material we highly recomend the partial humeral bone resection with subsequent shoulder alloplasty in patients with proximal humeral diaphysis metastatic localisation. In cases with shaft localisation a better results were

  13. [Surgical management of animal bites in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touzet-Roumazeille, S; Jayyosi, L; Plenier, Y; Guyot, E; Guillard, T; François, C

    2016-10-01

    Children represent a population at risk, because of their short size, their naivety and their attraction to animals. The face and hands are the most specific locations in young children. Wounds are often multiple. In more than half the cases, the child knows the animal, which are dogs and cats by frequency argument. The bite episode occurs mostly when the child is alone with the pet without direct supervision, while playing or stroking the animal. As in all bites, pediatric lesions are infectious, functional and aesthetic emergencies, but the goal of this work was primarily to make a point on principles of surgical management of animal bites in children, highlighting pediatric specificities. Animal bites require psychological, anesthetic and surgical treatment, adapted to the child, in a specialized structure. Hospitalization and general anesthesia are more frequent in children. Any suspicion of mistreatment (and/or abuse) should lead to the child's hospitalization, even if wounds do not justify monitoring in a surgical environment. Emergency surgery is essential to limit functional and aesthetic consequences. The healing capacities of the child and the frequent lack of co-morbidity allow a conservative surgical treatment with suture, repositioning skin flaps and controlled healing in the first place. Immobilization, drainage, and antibiotics will complete the surgery. The healing process, however, leads to a specific management during scar remodeling phase and growth. Psychological care of the child and parents should not be forgotten, and has to start at the same time as surgical treatment at in acute phase. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Clustering in surgical trials - database of intracluster correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cook Jonathan A

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Randomised trials evaluation of surgical interventions are often designed and analysed as if the outcome of individual patients is independent of the surgeon providing the intervention. There is reason to expect outcomes for patients treated by the same surgeon tend to be more similar than those under the care of another surgeon due to previous experience, individual practice, training, and infrastructure. Such a phenomenon is referred to as the clustering effect and potentially impacts on the design and analysis adopted and thereby the required sample size. The aim of this work was to inform trial design by quantifying clustering effects (at both centre and surgeon level for various outcomes using a database of surgical trials. Methods Intracluster correlation coefficients (ICCs were calculated for outcomes from a set of 10 multicentre surgical trials for a range of outcomes and different time points for clustering at both the centre and surgeon level. Results ICCs were calculated for 198 outcomes across the 10 trials at both centre and surgeon cluster levels. The number of cases varied from 138 to 1370 across the trials. The median (range average cluster size was 32 (9 to 51 and 6 (3 to 30 for centre and surgeon levels respectively. ICC estimates varied substantially between outcome type though uncertainty around individual ICC estimates was substantial, which was reflected in generally wide confidence intervals. Conclusions This database of surgical trials provides trialists with valuable information on how to design surgical trials. Our data suggests clustering of outcome is more of an issue than has been previously acknowledged. We anticipate that over time the addition of ICCs from further surgical trial datasets to our database will further inform the design of surgical trials.

  15. A comparative study of thoracoscopic sympathicotomy versus local surgical treatment for axillary hyperhidrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heidemann, Erik; Licht, Peter B

    2013-01-01

    Axillary hyperhidrosis affects approximately 1.4% of the population. Medical management is often frustrating, and the response generally transient. Surgical methods include thoracoscopic sympathectomy or sympathicotomy and local axillary surgery such as suction-curettage or en-bloc skin resection....... Many case series with retrospective follow-up are available in the literature, but no comparative studies between surgical techniques have been published....

  16. Reducing healthcare costs facilitated by surgical auditing: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govaert, Johannes Arthuur; van Bommel, Anne Charlotte Madeline; van Dijk, Wouter Antonie; van Leersum, Nicoline Johanneke; Tollenaar, Robertus Alexandre Eduard Mattheus; Wouters, Michael Wilhemus Jacobus Maria

    2015-07-01

    Surgical auditing has been developed in order to benchmark and to facilitate quality improvement. The aim of this review is to determine if auditing combined with systematic feedback of information on process and outcomes of care results in lower costs of surgical care. A systematic search of published literature before 21-08-2013 was conducted in Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library. Articles were selected if they met the inclusion criteria of describing a surgical audit with cost-evaluation. The systematic search resulted in 3608 papers. Six studies were identified as relevant, all showing a positive effect of surgical auditing on quality of healthcare and therefore cost savings was reported. Cost reductions ranging from $16 to $356 per patient were seen in audits evaluating general or vascular procedures. The highest potential cost reduction was described in a colorectal surgical audit (up to $1,986 per patient). All six identified articles in this review describe a reduction in complications and thereby a reduction in costs due to surgical auditing. Surgical auditing may be of greater value when high-risk procedures are evaluated, since prevention of adverse events in these procedures might be of greater clinical and therefore of greater financial impact. This systematic review shows that surgical auditing can function as a quality instrument and therefore as a tool to reduce costs. Since evidence is scarce so far, further studies should be performed to investigate if surgical auditing has positive effects to turn the rising healthcare costs around. In the future, incorporating (actual) cost analyses and patient-related outcome measures would increase the audits' value and provide a complete overview of the value of healthcare.

  17. Is Western Australia's rural surgical workforce going to sustain the future? A quantitative and qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugakumar, Sharanyaa; Playford, Denese; Burkitt, Tessa; Tennant, Marc; Bowles, Tom

    2017-03-01

    Objective Despite public interest in the rural workforce, there are few published data on the geographical distribution of Australia's rural surgeons, their practice skill set, career stage or work-life balance (on-call burden). Similarly, there has not been a peer-reviewed skills audit of rural training opportunities for surgical trainees. The present study undertook this baseline assessment for Western Australia (WA), which has some of the most remote practice areas in Australia. Methods Hospital staff from all WA Country Health Service hospitals with surgical service (20 of 89 rural health services) were contacted by telephone. A total of 18 of 20 provided complete data. The study questionnaire explored hospital and practice locations of practicing rural surgeons, on-call rosters, career stage, practice skill set and the availability of surgical training positions. Data were tabulated in excel and geographic information system geocoded. Descriptive statistics were calculated in Excel. Results Of the seven health regions for rural Western Australia, two (28.6%) were served by resident surgeons at a ratio consistent with Royal Australasian College of Surgeons (RACS) guidelines. General surgery was offered in 16 (89%) hospitals. In total, 16 (89%) hospitals were served by fly-in, fly-out (FIFO) surgical services. Two hospitals with resident surgeons did not use FIFO services, but all hospitals without resident surgeons were served by FIFO surgical specialists. The majority of resident surgeons (62.5%) and FIFO surgeons (43.2%) were perceived to be mid-career by hospital staff members. Three hospitals (16.7%) offered all eight of the identified surgical skill sets, but 16 (89%) offered general surgery. Conclusions Relatively few resident rural surgeons are servicing large areas of WA, assisted by the widespread provision of FIFO surgical services. The present audit demonstrates strength in general surgical skills throughout regional WA, and augers well for the

  18. YouTube is the Most Frequently Used Educational Video Source for Surgical Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Allison K; Healy, Michael G; Charlton, Mary E; Keith, Jerrod N; Rosenbaum, Marcy E; Kapadia, Muneera R

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate surgical preparation methods of medical students, residents, and faculty with special attention to video usage. Following Institutional Review Board approval, anonymous surveys were distributed to participants. Information collected included demographics and surgical preparation methods, focusing on video usage. Participants were questioned regarding frequency and helpfulness of videos, video sources used, and preferred methods between videos, reading, and peer consultation. Statistical analysis was performed using SAS. Surveys were distributed to participants in the Department of Surgery at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, a tertiary care center in Iowa City, Iowa. Survey participants included fourth-year medical students pursuing general surgery, general surgery residents, and faculty surgeons in the Department of Surgery. A total of 86 surveys were distributed, and 78 surveys were completed. This included 42 learners (33 residents, 9 fourth-year medical students) and 36 faculty. The overall response rate was 91%; 90% of respondents reported using videos for surgical preparation (learners = 95%, faculty = 83%, p = NS). Regarding surgical preparation methods overall, most learners and faculty selected reading (90% versus 78%, p = NS), and fewer respondents reported preferring videos (64% versus 44%, p = NS). Faculty more often use peer consultation (31% versus 50%, p YouTube (86%). Learners and faculty use different video sources. Learners use YouTube and Surgical Council on Resident Education (SCORE) Portal more than faculty (YouTube: 95% versus 73%, p YouTube was the preferred source. Posting surgical videos to YouTube may allow for maximal access to learners who are preparing for surgical cases. Copyright © 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparative effectiveness of skin antiseptic agents in reducing surgical site infections: a report from the Washington State Surgical Care and Outcomes Assessment Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkarainen, Timo W; Dellinger, E Patchen; Evans, Heather L; Farjah, Farhood; Farrokhi, Ellen; Steele, Scott R; Thirlby, Richard; Flum, David R

    2014-03-01

    Surgical site infections (SSI) are an important source of morbidity and mortality. Chlorhexidine in isopropyl alcohol is effective in preventing central venous-catheter associated infections, but its effectiveness in reducing SSI in clean-contaminated procedures is uncertain. Surgical studies to date have had contradictory results. We aimed to further evaluate the relationship of commonly used antiseptic agents and SSI, and to determine if isopropyl alcohol has a unique effect. We performed a prospective cohort analysis to evaluate the relationship of commonly used skin antiseptic agents and SSI for patients undergoing mostly clean-contaminated surgery from January 2011 through June 2012. Multivariate regression modeling predicted expected rates of SSI. Risk adjusted event rates (RAERs) of SSI were compared across groups using proportionality testing. Among 7,669 patients, the rate of SSI was 4.6%. The RAERs were 0.85 (p = 0.28) for chlorhexidine (CHG), 1.10 (p = 0.06) for chlorhexidine in isopropyl alcohol (CHG+IPA), 0.98 (p = 0.96) for povidone-iodine (PVI), and 0.93 (p = 0.51) for iodine-povacrylex in isopropyl alcohol (IPC+IPA). The RAERs were 0.91 (p = 0.39) for the non-IPA group and 1.10 (p = 0.07) for the IPA group. Among elective colorectal patients, the RAERs were 0.90 (p = 0.48) for CHG, 1.04 (p = 0.67) for CHG+IPA, 1.04 (p = 0.85) for PVI, and 1.00 (p = 0.99) for IPC+IPA. For clean-contaminated surgical cases, this large-scale state cohort study did not demonstrate superiority of any commonly used skin antiseptic agent in reducing the risk of SSI, nor did it find any unique effect of isopropyl alcohol. These results do not support the use of more expensive skin preparation agents. Copyright © 2014 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Surgical therapeutic management of perforated peptic ulcer

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Karla de Sousa Almeida; Clara Rafael Silva Xavier; Lucas de Faria Barros Medeiros; Joanna de Andrade Cordeiro; Amália Cínthia Menezes Rêgo; Irami Araújo-Filho

    2016-01-01

    Perforated peptic ulcer is an emergency should be readily corrected by surgical approach to reduce potential damage and the risk of mortality associated with the extension frame. The option of handling most commonly used by surgeons is laparotomy, however, there is evidence pointing to approach laparoscopically like a viable, safe and with good results for their treatment. Therefore, it is appropriate to evaluate the data about each management and minimally invasive procedure, lap...

  1. Surgical care for the direct and indirect victims of violence in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ford Nathan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The provision of surgical assistance in conflict is often associated with care for victims of violence. However, there is an increasing appreciation that surgical care is needed for non-traumatic morbidities. In this paper we report on surgical interventions carried out by Médecins sans Frontières in Masisi, North Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo to contribute to the scarce evidence base on surgical needs in conflict. Methods We analysed data on all surgical interventions done at Masisi district hospital between September 2007 and December 2009. Types of interventions are described, and logistic regression used to model associations with violence-related injury. Results 2869 operations were performed on 2441 patients. Obstetric emergencies accounted for over half (675, 57% of all surgical pathology and infections for another quarter (160, 14%. Trauma-related injuries accounted for only one quarter (681, 24% of all interventions; among these, 363 (13% were violence-related. Male gender (adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 20.0, p Conclusions In this study, most surgical interventions were unrelated to violent trauma and rather reflected the general surgical needs of a low-income tropical country. Programs in conflict zones in low-income countries need to be prepared to treat both the war-wounded and non-trauma related life-threatening surgical needs of the general population. Given the limited surgical workforce in these areas, training of local staff and task shifting is recommended to support broad availability of essential surgical care. Further studies into the surgical needs of the population are warranted, including population-based surveys, to improve program planning and resource allocation and the effectiveness of the humanitarian response.

  2. Surgical care for the direct and indirect victims of violence in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Kathryn; Havet, Philippe; Ford, Nathan; Trelles, Miguel

    2010-04-14

    The provision of surgical assistance in conflict is often associated with care for victims of violence. However, there is an increasing appreciation that surgical care is needed for non-traumatic morbidities. In this paper we report on surgical interventions carried out by Médecins sans Frontières in Masisi, North Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo to contribute to the scarce evidence base on surgical needs in conflict. We analysed data on all surgical interventions done at Masisi district hospital between September 2007 and December 2009. Types of interventions are described, and logistic regression used to model associations with violence-related injury. 2869 operations were performed on 2441 patients. Obstetric emergencies accounted for over half (675, 57%) of all surgical pathology and infections for another quarter (160, 14%). Trauma-related injuries accounted for only one quarter (681, 24%) of all interventions; among these, 363 (13%) were violence-related. Male gender (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 20.0, p violence-related injury. Immediate peri-operative mortality was 0.2%. In this study, most surgical interventions were unrelated to violent trauma and rather reflected the general surgical needs of a low-income tropical country. Programs in conflict zones in low-income countries need to be prepared to treat both the war-wounded and non-trauma related life-threatening surgical needs of the general population. Given the limited surgical workforce in these areas, training of local staff and task shifting is recommended to support broad availability of essential surgical care. Further studies into the surgical needs of the population are warranted, including population-based surveys, to improve program planning and resource allocation and the effectiveness of the humanitarian response.

  3. Adjacent segment infection after surgical treatment of spondylodiscitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siam, Ahmed Ezzat; El Saghir, Hesham; Boehm, Heinrich

    2016-03-01

    This is the first case series to describe adjacent segment infection (ASI) after surgical treatment of spondylodiscitis (SD). Patients with SD, spondylitis who were surgically treated between 1994 and 2012 were included. Out of 1187 cases, 23 (1.94 %) returned to our institution (Zentralklinik Bad Berka) with ASI: 10 males, 13 females, with a mean age of 65.1 years and a mean follow-up of 69 months. ASI most commonly involved L3-4 (seven patients), T12-L1 (five) and L2-3 (four). The mean interval between operations of primary infection and ASI was 36.9 months. All cases needed surgical intervention, debridement, reconstruction and fusion with longer instrumentation, with culture and sensitivity-based postoperative antimicrobial therapy. At last follow-up, six patients (26.1 %) were mobilized in a wheelchair with a varying degree of paraplegia (three had pre-existing paralysis). Three patients died within 2 months after the ASI operation (13 %). Excellent outcomes were achieved in five patients, and good in eight. Adjacent segment infection after surgical treatment of spondylodiscitis is a rare complication (1.94 %). It is associated with multimorbidity and shows a high mortality rate and a high neurological affection rate. Possible explanations are: haematomas of repeated micro-fractures around screw loosening, haematogenous spread, direct inoculation or a combination of these factors. ASI may also lead to proximal junctional kyphosis, as found in this series. We suggest early surgical intervention with anterior debridement, reconstruction and fusion with posterior instrumentation, followed by antimicrobial therapy for 12 weeks. Level IV retrospective uncontrolled case series.

  4. Hand-hygiene compliance does not predict rates of resistant infections in critically ill surgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, Sudha P; Klompas, Michael; Bascom, Molli; Liu, Xiaoxia; Piszcz, Regina; Rogers, Selwyn O; Askari, Reza

    2014-10-01

    Our institution had a major outbreak of multi-drug-resistant Acinetobacter (MDRA) in its general surgical and trauma intensive care units (ICUs) in 2011, requiring implementation of an aggressive infection-control response. We hypothesized that poor hand-hygiene compliance (HHC) may have contributed to the outbreak of MDRA. A response to the outbreak including aggressive environmental cleaning, cohorting, and increased hand hygiene compliance monitoring may have led to an increase in HHC after the outbreak and to a consequent decrease in the rates of infection by the nosocomial pathogens methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), and Clostridium difficile. Hand-hygiene compliance, tracked in monthly audits by trained and anonymous observers, was abstracted from an infection control database. The incidences of nosocomial MRSA, VRE, and C. difficile were calculated from a separate prospectively collected data base for 6 mo before and 12 mo after the 2011 outbreak of MDRA in the institution's general surgical and trauma ICUs, and data collected prospectively from two unaffected ICUs (the thoracic surgical ICU and medical intensive care unit [MICU]). We created a composite endpoint of "any resistant pathogen," defined as MRSA, VRE, or C. difficile, and compared incidence rates over time, using the Wilcoxon signed rank test and Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient to measure the correlations among these rates. Rates of HHC before and after the outbreak of MDRA were consistently high in both the general surgical (median rates: 100% before and 97.6% after the outbreak, p=0.93) and trauma ICUs (median rates: 90% before and 96.75% after the outbreak, p=0.14). In none of the ICUs included in the study did the rates of HHC increase in response to the outbreak of MDRA. The incidence of "any resistant pathogen" decreased in the general surgical ICU after the outbreak (from 6.7/1,000 patient-days before the outbreak to 2

  5. Surgical data science: The new knowledge domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedula, S. Swaroop; Hager, Gregory D.

    2017-01-01

    Healthcare in general, and surgery/interventional care in particular, is evolving through rapid advances in technology and increasing complexity of care with the goal of maximizing quality and value of care. While innovations in diagnostic and therapeutic technologies have driven past improvements in quality of surgical care, future transformation in care will be enabled by data. Conventional methodologies, such as registry studies, are limited in their scope for discovery and research, extent and complexity of data, breadth of analytic techniques, and translation or integration of research findings into patient care. We foresee the emergence of Surgical/Interventional Data Science (SDS) as a key element to addressing these limitations and creating a sustainable path toward evidence-based improvement of interventional healthcare pathways. SDS will create tools to measure, model and quantify the pathways or processes within the context of patient health states or outcomes, and use information gained to inform healthcare decisions, guidelines, best practices, policy, and training, thereby improving the safety and quality of healthcare and its value. Data is pervasive throughout the surgical care pathway; thus, SDS can impact various aspects of care including prevention, diagnosis, intervention, or post-operative recovery. Existing literature already provides preliminary results suggesting how a data science approach to surgical decision-making could more accurately predict severe complications using complex data from pre-, intra-, and post-operative contexts, how it could support intra-operative decision-making using both existing knowledge and continuous data streams throughout the surgical care pathway, and how it could enable effective collaboration between human care providers and intelligent technologies. In addition, SDS is poised to play a central role in surgical education, for example, through objective assessments, automated virtual coaching, and robot

  6. Surgical data science: The new knowledge domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedula, S Swaroop; Hager, Gregory D

    2017-04-01

    Healthcare in general, and surgery/interventional care in particular, is evolving through rapid advances in technology and increasing complexity of care with the goal of maximizing quality and value of care. While innovations in diagnostic and therapeutic technologies have driven past improvements in quality of surgical care, future transformation in care will be enabled by data. Conventional methodologies, such as registry studies, are limited in their scope for discovery and research, extent and complexity of data, breadth of analytic techniques, and translation or integration of research findings into patient care. We foresee the emergence of Surgical/Interventional Data Science (SDS) as a key element to addressing these limitations and creating a sustainable path toward evidence-based improvement of interventional healthcare pathways. SDS will create tools to measure, model and quantify the pathways or processes within the context of patient health states or outcomes, and use information gained to inform healthcare decisions, guidelines, best practices, policy, and training, thereby improving the safety and quality of healthcare and its value. Data is pervasive throughout the surgical care pathway; thus, SDS can impact various aspects of care including prevention, diagnosis, intervention, or post-operative recovery. Existing literature already provides preliminary results suggesting how a data science approach to surgical decision-making could more accurately predict severe complications using complex data from pre-, intra-, and post-operative contexts, how it could support intra-operative decision-making using both existing knowledge and continuous data streams throughout the surgical care pathway, and how it could enable effective collaboration between human care providers and intelligent technologies. In addition, SDS is poised to play a central role in surgical education, for example, through objective assessments, automated virtual coaching, and robot

  7. Surgical data science: the new knowledge domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedula S. Swaroop

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare in general, and surgery/interventional care in particular, is evolving through rapid advances in technology and increasing complexity of care, with the goal of maximizing the quality and value of care. Whereas innovations in diagnostic and therapeutic technologies have driven past improvements in the quality of surgical care, future transformation in care will be enabled by data. Conventional methodologies, such as registry studies, are limited in their scope for discovery and research, extent and complexity of data, breadth of analytical techniques, and translation or integration of research findings into patient care. We foresee the emergence of surgical/interventional data science (SDS as a key element to addressing these limitations and creating a sustainable path toward evidence-based improvement of interventional healthcare pathways. SDS will create tools to measure, model, and quantify the pathways or processes within the context of patient health states or outcomes and use information gained to inform healthcare decisions, guidelines, best practices, policy, and training, thereby improving the safety and quality of healthcare and its value. Data are pervasive throughout the surgical care pathway; thus, SDS can impact various aspects of care, including prevention, diagnosis, intervention, or postoperative recovery. The existing literature already provides preliminary results, suggesting how a data science approach to surgical decision-making could more accurately predict severe complications using complex data from preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative contexts, how it could support intraoperative decision-making using both existing knowledge and continuous data streams throughout the surgical care pathway, and how it could enable effective collaboration between human care providers and intelligent technologies. In addition, SDS is poised to play a central role in surgical education, for example, through objective

  8. Dynamics of the surgical microbiota along the cardiothoracic surgery pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara eRomano-Bertrand

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human skin associated microbiota are increasingly described by culture-independent methods that showed an unexpected diversity with variation correlated with several pathologies. A role of microbiota disequilibrium in infection occurrence is hypothesized, particularly in surgical site infections. We study the diversities of operative site microbiota and its dynamics during surgical pathway of patients undergoing coronary-artery by-pass graft (CABG. Pre-, per- and post-operative samples were collected from 25 patients: skin before the surgery, superficially and deeply during the intervention, and healing tissues. Bacterial diversity was assessed by DNA fingerprint using 16S rRNA gene PCR and Temporal Temperature Gel Electrophoresis (TTGE. The diversity of Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs at the surgical site was analyzed according to the stage of surgery.From all patients and samples, we identified 147 different OTUs belonging to the 6 phyla Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria and Fusobacteria. High variations were observed among patients but common themes can be observed. The Firmicutes dominated quantitatively but were largely encompassed by the Proteobacteria regarding the OTUs diversity. The genera Propionibacterium and Staphylococcus predominated on the preoperative skin, whereas very diverse Proteobacteria appeared selected in peri-operative samples. The resilience in scar skin was partial with depletion in Actinobacteria and Firmicutes and increase of Gram-negative bacteria. Finally, the thoracic operative site presents an unexpected bacterial diversity, which is partially common to skin microbiota but presents particular dynamics. We described a complex bacterial community that gathers pathobiontes and bacteria deemed to be environmental, opportunistic pathogens and non-pathogenic bacteria. These data stress to consider surgical microbiota as a pathobiome rather than a reservoir of individual

  9. [Full attention to several key issues in surgical treatment for the elderly patients with gastrointestinal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhenggang

    2016-05-01

    With the development of population aging in our country, the incidence of gastrointestinal cancer is increasing. The risk of developing gastrointestinal cancer in elderly over 75 years was 5-6 times and the risk of death of gastrointestinal cancer was 7-8 times of the general population. As compared to non-elderly, the incidence of gastric cancer was not decreased obviously but the total incidence of colorectal cancer was increased more quickly. Therefore, screening of gastrointestinal cancer should be performed in the elderly for early discovery, diagnosis and treatment. Because of the insidious onset of the illness in elderly patients, gastrointestinal cancers are mostly diagnosed at advanced or late stage (stage III or IV). Well differentiated cancer is more common, such as papillary or tubular adenocarcinoma. Lauren type, Borrmann II or III are more common in gastric cancer, which are relatively favorable. Compared with non-elderly patients, many elderly patients also suffer from comorbid diseases with higher operation risk and postoperative complication rates. Therefore, we must pay great attention to the perioperative management and the surgical operation for the elderly patients. In this paper, several key issues involved the development trend of incidence and mortality of gastrointestinal cancer, the clinicopathological characteristics, the comorbidity and surgical treatment in the elderly patients with gastrointestinal cancer will be elaborated, aiming at promoting further attention to the clinical therapeutic strategies, management measures and prognostic factors for the elderly patients with gastrointestinal cancer.

  10. Acute bacterial endocarditis. Optimizing surgical results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larbalestier, R I; Kinchla, N M; Aranki, S F; Couper, G S; Collins, J J; Cohn, L H

    1992-11-01

    Acute bacterial endocarditis continues to be a condition with high morbidity. Although the majority of patients are treated by high-dose antibiotics, a high-risk patient group requires surgical intervention, which is the subject of this article. From 1972 to 1991, 3,820 patients underwent heart valve replacement at the Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston. Of this group, 158 patients underwent surgery for acute bacterial endocarditis: 109 had native valve endocarditis (NVE), and 49 had prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE). There were 108 men and 50 women with a mean age of 49 years (range, 16-79 years); 64% were New York Heart Association functional class IV before surgery, and 12% of the group had a history of intravenous drug abuse. In both NVE and PVE groups, Streptococcus was the predominant infecting agent. Uncontrolled sepsis, progressive congestive failure, peripheral emboli, and echocardiographically demonstrated vegetations were the most common indications for surgery. Eighty-five percent of patients had a single-valve procedure, 15% had a multivalve procedure, and 34 patients had other associated major cardiac procedures. The operative mortality was 6% in NVE and 22% in PVE. Long-term survival at 10 years was 66% for NVE and 29% for PVE. Freedom from recurrent endocarditis at 10 years was 85% for NVE and 82% for PVE. The main factors associated with decreased survival overall were PVE and nonstreptococcal infection. The morbidity and mortality after surgical treatment of acute endocarditis depend on the site, the severity, and the subject infected. Early aggressive surgical intervention is indicated to optimize surgical results, especially in patients with nonstreptococcal infection or PVE.

  11. Multi-perspective workflow modeling for online surgical situation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Stefan; Meixensberger, Jürgen; Neumuth, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Surgical workflow management is expected to enable situation-aware adaptation and intelligent systems behavior in an integrated operating room (OR). The overall aim is to unburden the surgeon and OR staff from both manual maintenance and information seeking tasks. A major step toward intelligent systems behavior is a stable classification of the surgical situation from multiple perspectives based on performed low-level tasks. The present work proposes a method for the classification of surgical situations based on multi-perspective workflow modeling. A model network that interconnects different types of surgical process models is described. Various aspects of a surgical situation description were considered: low-level tasks, high-level tasks, patient status, and the use of medical devices. A study with sixty neurosurgical interventions was conducted to evaluate the performance of our approach and its robustness against incomplete workflow recognition input. A correct classification rate of over 90% was measured for high-level tasks and patient status. The device usage models for navigation and neurophysiology classified over 95% of the situations correctly, whereas the ultrasound usage was more difficult to predict. Overall, the classification rate decreased with an increasing level of input distortion. Autonomous adaptation of medical devices and intelligent systems behavior do not currently depend solely on low-level tasks. Instead, they require a more general type of understanding of the surgical condition. The integration of various surgical process models in a network provided a comprehensive representation of the interventions and allowed for the generation of extensive situation descriptions. Multi-perspective surgical workflow modeling and online situation models will be a significant pre-requisite for reliable and intelligent systems behavior. Hence, they will contribute to a cooperative OR environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Management of mediastinal syndromes in pediatrics: a new challenge of ultrasound guidance to avoid high-risk general anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola, Chrystelle; Choquet, Olivier; Prodhomme, Olivier; Capdevila, Xavier; Dadure, Christophe

    2014-05-01

    Adverse events associated with anesthetic management of anterior mediastinal masses in pediatrics are common. To avoid an extremely hazardous general anesthesia, the use of real-time ultrasonography offers an effective alternative in high-risk cases. We report the anesthetic management including a light sedation and ultrasound guidance for regional anesthesia, surgical node biopsy, and placement of a central venous line in two children with an anterior symptomatic mediastinal mass. For pediatric patients with clinical and/or radiologic signs of airway compression, ultrasound guidance provides safety technical assistance to avoid general anesthesia and should be performed for the initial diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Surgical treatment of distal biceps tendon rupture: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina N. Cozma

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Distal biceps tendon rupture affects the functional upperextremity movement, impairing supination and flexion strength. According to age, profession and additional risks treatment might be nonoperative or surgical. Methods. We describe the case of a 43 years old male patient who sustained an injury to his right distal biceps and was diagnosed with acute right distal biceps rupture. Surgical treatment was decided and biceps tendon was reinserted to the radius tuberosity using a combination of a cortical button fixation associated with an interference screw. Results. Postoperative functional result was favorable with no complications and with no movement limitation after one month. Conclusions. When possible, distal biceps tendon repair should be realized surgically because this permits restoring of the muscle strength to near normal levels with no loss of motion. Nerve complications are common; therefore the surgery should be realized by experienced upper extremity surgeons.

  14. Pictorial Review of Surgical Anatomy in Adult Congenital Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cecco, Carlo N; Muscogiuri, Giuseppe; Madrid Pérez, José M; Eid, Marwen; Suranyi, Pal; Lesslie, Virginia W; Bastarrika, Gorka

    2017-07-01

    The survival rate of patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) has dramatically improved over the last 2 decades because of technological and surgical advances in diagnosis and treatment, respectively. The vast majority of CHD patients are, in fact, amenable to treatment by either device closure or surgery. Considering the wide spectrum of surgical procedures and complex native and derived anatomy, continuous and detailed follow-up is of paramount importance. Cardiac magnetic resonance and cardiac computed tomography angiography are the cornerstones of diagnosis and follow-up of CHD, allowing for comprehensive noninvasive assessment of the heart, coronary tree, and intrathoracic great vessels, along with both morphological and functional evaluation. The aim of this pictorial review is to provide an overview of the most common CHDs and their related surgical procedures as familiarity with the radiological findings of grown-up congenital heart disease patients is crucial for proper diagnostic and follow-up pathways.

  15. Anxiety in veterinary surgical students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langebæk, Rikke; Eika, Berit; Jensen, Asger Lundorff

    2012-01-01

    The surgical educational environment is potentially stressful and this can negatively affect students' learning. The aim of this study was to investigate whether veterinary students' level of anxiety is higher in a surgical course than in a non-surgical course and if pre-surgical training...... in a Surgical Skills Lab (SSL) has an anxiety reducing effect. Investigations were carried out as a comparative study and a parallel group study. Potential participants were fourth-year veterinary students who attended a surgical course (Basic Surgical Skills) and a non-surgical course (Clinical Examination...... and 28 students from 2010). Our results show that anxiety levels in veterinary students are significantly higher in a surgical course than in a non-surgical course (p...

  16. The Virtual Surgical Pelvis : Anatomy Visualization for Education and Surgical Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, N.N.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis deals with visualizing anatomical data for medical education and surgical planning purposes. To this end, we have developed a detailed virtual atlas, the Virtual Surgical Pelvis (VSP),which unifies surgically relevant knowledge on pelvic anatomy. We provide methods to share the knowledge

  17. Common sense and the common morality in theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Patrick

    2014-06-01

    The unfinished nature of Beauchamp and Childress's account of the common morality after 34 years and seven editions raises questions about what is lacking, specifically in the way they carry out their project, more generally in the presuppositions of the classical liberal tradition on which they rely. Their wide-ranging review of ethical theories has not provided a method by which to move beyond a hypothetical approach to justification or, on a practical level regarding values conflict, beyond a questionable appeal to consensus. My major purpose in this paper is to introduce the thought of Bernard Lonergan as offering a way toward such a methodological breakthrough. In the first section, I consider Beauchamp and Childress's defense of their theory of the common morality. In the second, I relate a persisting vacillation in their argument regarding the relative importance of reason and experience to a similar tension in classical liberal theory. In the third, I consider aspects of Lonergan's generalized empirical method as a way to address problems that surface in the first two sections of the paper: (1) the structural relation of reason and experience in human action; and (2) the importance of theory for practice in terms of what Lonergan calls "common sense" and "general bias."

  18. Surgical management of urethral prolapse in girls: 13 years' experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Charlotte; Misra, Devesh

    2012-07-01

    Study Type - Therapy (case series) Level of Evidence 4 What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Urethral prolapse (UP) is a rare condition, with a suggested incidence of one in 3000. It occurs most often in prepubertal, primarily Black, girls. The underlying cause of this condition remains uncertain, although a lack of oestrogen is thought to have a role, owing to the preponderance of the condition in the prepubertal and postmenopausal age groups. A popular theory is that the problem arises as a consequence of poor attachments between the two layers of smooth muscle surrounding the urethra, combined with episodic increases in intraabdominal pressure. The most common presentation of UP is genital bleeding or a mass. The classical appearance of UP (i.e. the 'doughnut' sign) enables diagnosis to be made easily on clinical grounds alone. Optimum management of UP is less certain, with opinion divided on the merits of conservative therapy vs surgical excision. Conservative therapy aims to reduce mucosal oedema, improve local hygiene and counteract lack of oestrogen by using a combination of any or all of the following: Sitz baths, topical oestrogen cream, antibacterial wash/soap and topical antibiotics. Surgical management of UP involves excision of the prolapsed mucosa circumferentially. Several authors have reported success with surgical excision, but it carries a risk of developing stenosis of the urethral opening. The present study supports previously reported findings by other authors in terms of demographics and clinical presentation. Patient ages ranged from 2 to 15 years and all girls were of Black race. They most commonly presented with a mass (8/21 patients) or bleeding (6/21 patients) and diagnosis was confirmed on clinical examination, although one required a general anaesthetic (GA) to complete the examination. The present study shows that, in mild cases (usually where there is a mass without symptoms), UP can be successfully managed using

  19. How Common Is PTSD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Center for PTSD » Public » How Common Is PTSD? PTSD: National Center for PTSD Menu Menu PTSD PTSD Home For the Public ... here Enter ZIP code here How Common Is PTSD? Public This section is for Veterans, General Public, ...

  20. Protocol for a multicentre, prospective, population-based cohort study of variation in practice of cholecystectomy and surgical outcomes (The CholeS study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohra, Ravinder S; Spreadborough, Philip; Johnstone, Marianne; Marriott, Paul; Bhangu, Aneel; Alderson, Derek; Morton, Dion G; Griffiths, Ewen A

    2015-01-12

    Cholecystectomy is one of the most common general surgical operations performed. Despite level one evidence supporting the role of cholecystectomy in the management of specific gallbladder diseases, practice varies between surgeons and hospitals. It is unknown whether these variations account for the differences in surgical outcomes seen in population-level retrospective data sets. This study aims to investigate surgical outcomes following acute, elective and delayed cholecystectomies in a multicentre, contemporary, prospective, population-based cohort. UK and Irish hospitals performing cholecystectomies will be recruited utilising trainee-led research collaboratives. Two months of consecutive, adult patient data will be included. The primary outcome measure of all-cause 30-day readmission rate will be used in this study. Thirty-day complication rates, bile leak rate, common bile duct injury, conversion to open surgery, duration of surgery and length of stay will be measured as secondary outcomes. Prospective data on over 8000 procedures is anticipated. Individual hospitals will be surveyed to determine local policies and service provision. Variations in outcomes will be investigated using regression modelling to adjust for confounders. Research ethics approval is not required for this study and has been confirmed by the online National Research Ethics Service (NRES) decision tool. This novel study will investigate how hospital-level surgical provision can affect patient outcomes, using a cross-sectional methodology. The results are essential to inform commissioning groups and implement changes within the National Health Service (NHS). Dissemination of the study protocol is primarily through the trainee-led research collaboratives and the Association of Upper Gastrointestinal Surgeons (AUGIS). Individual centres will have access to their own results and the collective results of the study will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at relevant

  1. Knuckle Pads—A common problem but good to treat by Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Manfred; Russe-Wilflingseder, Katharina

    2010-05-01

    Knuckle pads are common skin lesions not disease associated and seen as thickended skin like nodules situated usually on the dorsal site of the proximal interphalangeal joints. Neither medical nor surgical procedures are very effective to remove knuckle pads. A women 22 years of age with knuckle pads on the fingers two and three on both hands which reoccurred after surgical resections was successful treated with a long pulsed Erbium:YAG laser. All four fingers were ablated within one single treatment. The aesthetic result was excellent and lasted at least for 18 months.

  2. 3D Printed Surgical Simulation Models as educational tool by maxillofacial surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werz, S M; Zeichner, S J; Berg, B-I; Zeilhofer, H-F; Thieringer, F

    2018-02-26

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether inexpensive 3D models can be suitable to train surgical skills to dental students or oral and maxillofacial surgery residents. Furthermore, we wanted to know which of the most common filament materials, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) or polylactic acid (PLA), can better simulate human bone according to surgeons' subjective perceptions. Upper and lower jaw models were produced with common 3D desktop printers, ABS and PLA filament and silicon rubber for soft tissue simulation. Those models were given to 10 blinded, experienced maxillofacial surgeons to perform sinus lift and wisdom teeth extraction. Evaluation was made using a questionnaire. Because of slightly different density and filament prices, each silicon-covered model costs between 1.40-1.60 USD (ABS) and 1.80-2.00 USD (PLA) based on 2017 material costs. Ten experienced raters took part in the study. All raters deemed the models suitable for surgical education. No significant differences between ABS and PLA were found, with both having distinct advantages. The study demonstrated that 3D printing with inexpensive printing filaments is a promising method for training oral and maxillofacial surgery residents or dental students in selected surgical procedures. With a simple and cost-efficient manufacturing process, models of actual patient cases can be produced on a small scale, simulating many kinds of surgical procedures. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Compliance and Effectiveness of WHO Surgical Safety Check list: A JPMC Audit

    OpenAIRE

    Anwer, Mariyah; Manzoor, Shahneela; Muneer, Nadeem; Qureshi, Shamim

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess World Health Organization (WHO) Surgical Safety Checklist (SSC), compliance and its effectiveness in reducing complications and final outcome of patients. Methods: This was a prospective study done in Department of General Surgery (Ward 02), Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre (JPMC), Karachi. The study included Total 3638 patients who underwent surgical procedure in elective theatre in four years from November 2011 to October 2015 since the SSC was included as part of his...

  4. Caudal anesthesia in pediatric surgical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, S; Siddiqui, M A; Haque, M; Majumder, S K; Ali, M S; Majid, M A; Hasan, M R

    2006-07-01

    Prospective study was carried out on 100 patients since May 2005 in my private practice and in the department of pediatric surgery of MMCH. Under caudal anesthesia along with or without ketaminie induction and gas inhalation all the patients underwent different surgical procedure namely anorectal surgery (eg. anoplasty, rectal polyp), urogenital surgery (Circumcision, hypospadias, meatotomy), groin surgery (hernia, hydrocele) and foot & leg surgery. Calculated dose schedule of drugs used in anesthesia and volume were maintained. Time of giving anesthesia and time of starting analgesia were recorded. Per-operative and postoperative analgesia were evaluated. Every parent was explained regarding the merit of caudal anesthesia calculated and compared with that of general anesthesia. Application of caudal anesthesia with or without ketamine & diazepam induction can be used safely and cost effectively and may be put into protocol in many of the pediatric surgical practice both in institute and also in private practice.

  5. Disposable surgical face masks for preventing surgical wound infection in clean surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allyson Lipp

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Surgical face masks were originally developed to contain and filter droplets containing microorganisms expelled from the mouth and nasopharynx of healthcare workers during surgery, thereby providing protection for the patient. However, there are several ways in which surgical face masks could potentially contribute to contamination of the surgical wound, e.g. by incorrect wear or by leaking air from the side of the mask due to poor string tension. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether disposable surgical face masks worn by the surgical team during clean surgery prevent postoperative surgical wound infection. SEARCH METHODS: We searched The Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (searched 14 September 2011; The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 3; Ovid MEDLINE (2008 to August Week 5 2011; Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process &Other Non-Indexed Citations September 13, 2011; Ovid EMBASE (2008 to 2011 Week 35; and EBSCO CINAHL (2008 to 9 September 2011. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs and quasi-randomized controlled trials comparing the use of disposable surgical masks with the use of no mask. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors extracted data independently. MAIN RESULTS: Three trials were included, involving a total of 2113 participants. There was no statistically significant difference in infection rates between the masked and unmasked group in any of the trials. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: From the limited results it is unclear whether the wearing of surgical face masks by members of the surgical team has any impact on surgical wound infection rates for patients undergoing clean surgery.

  6. Surgical resident perceptions of trauma surgery as a specialty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadzikadic, Lejla; Burke, Peter A; Esposito, Thomas J; Agarwal, Suresh

    2010-05-01

    Presenting the opinions of surgical residents about the appeal of trauma surgery as a specialty may influence current reform. Survey study. Academic research. General surgery residents (postgraduate years 1-5 and recent graduates) registered with the American College of Surgeons. A 22-item survey. Career plans and perceptions about trauma surgery as a specialty. Of 6006 mailed surveys, we had a 20.1% response rate. Midlevel residents comprised most of the respondents, and most were undecided about their career choice or planned to enter general surgical private practice. The typical residency programs represented were academic (81.7%), urban (90.6%), and level I trauma centers (78.7%), and included more than 6 months of trauma experience (77.6%). Most respondents (70.6%) thought that trauma surgery was unappealing. The most important deterrents to entering the field were lifestyle, poor reimbursement, and limited operating room exposure, while increased surgical critical care was not seen as a restriction. When questioned about the future of trauma surgery, they believed that trauma surgeons should perform elective (86.8%) and nontrauma emergency (91.5%) cases and would benefit from active association with an outpatient clinic (76.0%). Intellectual challenge and exciting nature of the field were listed as the most appealing aspects, and ideal practice characteristics included guaranteed salary and time away from work. As demand for trauma surgeons increases, resident interest has dwindled. As a specialty, trauma surgery must undergo changes that reflect the needs of the incoming generation. We present a sampling of current surgical resident opinion and offer these data to assist the changing discipline and the evolving field of acute care surgery.

  7. Peyronie’s Disease: Still a Surgical Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Martinez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Peyronie’s Disease (PD remains a challenging and clinically significant morbid condition. Since its first description by François Gigot de la Peyronie, much of the treatment for PD remains nonstandardized. PD is characterized by the formation of fibrous plaques at the level of the tunica albuginea. Clinical manifestations include morphologic changes, such as curvatures and hourglass deformities. Here, we review the common surgical techniques for the management of patients with PD.

  8. A cross-sectional survey of essential surgical capacity in Somalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkheir, Natalie; Sharma, Akshay; Cherian, Meena; Saleh, Omar Abdelrahman; Everard, Marthe; Popal, Ghulam Rabani; Ibrahim, Abdi Awad

    2014-05-07

    To assess life-saving and disability-preventing surgical services (including emergency, trauma, obstetrics, anaesthesia) of health facilities in Somalia and to assist in the planning of strategies for strengthening surgical care systems. Cross-sectional survey. Health facilities in all 3 administrative zones of Somalia; northwest Somalia (NWS), known as Somaliland; northeast Somalia (NES), known as Puntland; and south/central Somalia (SCS). 14 health facilities. The WHO Tool for Situational Analysis to Assess Emergency and Essential Surgical Care was employed to capture a health facility's capacity to deliver surgical and anaesthesia services by investigating four categories of data: infrastructure, human resources, interventions available and equipment. The 14 facilities surveyed in Somalia represent 10 of the 18 districts throughout the country. The facilities serve an average patient population of 331 250 people, and 12 of the 14 identify as hospitals. While major surgical procedures were provided at many facilities (caesarean section, laparotomy, appendicectomy, etc), only 22% had fully available oxygen access, 50% fully available electricity and less than 30% had any management guidelines for emergency and surgical care. Furthermore, only 36% were able to provide general anaesthesia inhalation due to lack of skills, supplies and equipment. Basic supplies for airway management and the prevention of infection transmission were severely lacking in most facilities. According to the results of the WHO Tool for Situational Analysis to Assess Emergency and Essential Surgical Care survey, there exist significant gaps in the capacity of emergency and essential surgical services in Somalia including inadequacies in essential equipment, service provision and infrastructure. The information provided by the WHO tool can serve as a basis for evidence-based decisions on country-level policy regarding the allocation of resources and provision of emergency and essential

  9. Four common types of bursitis: diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Daniel L; Patel, Amar; Kayiaros, Stephen; Calfee, Ryan

    2011-06-01

    Bursitis is a common cause of musculoskeletal pain and often prompts orthopaedic consultation. Bursitis must be distinguished from arthritis, fracture, tendinitis, and nerve pathology. Common types of bursitis include prepatellar, olecranon, trochanteric, and retrocalcaneal. Most patients respond to nonsurgical management, including ice, activity modification, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. In cases of septic bursitis, oral antibiotics may be administered. Local corticosteroid injection may be used in the management of prepatellar and olecranon bursitis; however, steroid injection into the retrocalcaneal bursa may adversely affect the biomechanical properties of the Achilles tendon. Surgical intervention may be required for recalcitrant bursitis, such as refractory trochanteric bursitis.

  10. A STUDY OF POST-SURGICAL COMPLICATIONS IN ACUTE ABDOMEN CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhooma Reddy Muthyala

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The most common causes of the acute abdomen are acute appendicitis which may be perforated, typhoid ileal perforation, acute intestinal obstruction, gastroduodenal perforations, nonspecific abdominal pain, abdominal injuries, and acute cholecystitis. A summary of all the acute complications taken together will be the fact that all are associated with post-surgical complications. A sincere effort has been made to study the post-operative complications that a surgeon encounters while treating the acute abdomen cases. This study is intended to help the practising surgeons who deal with such complications. It also is intended to help the doctors who practice to identify such complications and thus refer the patients for immediate intervention. METHODS This study was conducted in the Department of General Surgery, Government Medical College, Nizamabad, Telangana. This study was done from June 2013 to May 2016. One hundred sixty patients who were admitted in the hospital after surgery for acute abdominal conditions were considered for the study. Thorough clinical examination was conducted and the complications that were encountered were noted and the complications were treated as per the need of the hour. The complications faced by the treating surgeon in each and every entity that was discussed earlier was duly noted and statistical analysis was conducted. All the statistical analysis was done using the latest SPSS software 2015 (California. RESULT In our study, the mean age of the study population was found to be 29.8 years. That means the majority of the patients who turn up in the Department of Emergency is young and generally in the third decade of life. In Acute Intestinal Obstruction and blunt abdominal injuries, significance of mortality is high (p<0.05. CONCLUSION The study was successful in proving that abdominal injuries are the main factors of causing morbidity and mortality in the younger generation. The surgical mode of

  11. The Basic Surgical Skills Course in Sub-Saharan Africa: An Observational Study of Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergusson, Stuart J; Sedgwick, David M; Ntakiyiruta, Georges; Ntirenganya, Faustin

    2018-04-01

    The Basic Surgical Skills (BSS) course is a common component of postgraduate surgical training programmes in sub-Saharan Africa, but was originally designed in a UK context, and its efficacy and relevance have not been formally assessed in Africa. An observational study was carried out during a BSS course delivered to early-stage surgical trainees from Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Technical skill in a basic wound closure task was assessed in a formal Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSAT) before and after course completion. Participants completed a pre-course questionnaire documenting existing surgical experience and self-perceived confidence levels in surgical skills which were to be taught during the course. Participants repeated confidence ratings and completed course evaluation following course delivery. A cohort of 17 participants had completed a pre-course median of 150 Caesarean sections as primary operator. Performance on the OSAT improved from a mean of 10.5/17 pre-course to 14.2/17 post-course (mean of paired differences 3.7, p skills taught, and the course was assessed as highly relevant by trainees. The Basic Surgical Skills course is effective in improving the basic surgical technique of surgical trainees from sub-Saharan Africa and their confidence in key technical skills.

  12. Can surgical simulation be used to train detection and classification of neural networks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zisimopoulos, Odysseas; Flouty, Evangello; Stacey, Mark; Muscroft, Sam; Giataganas, Petros; Nehme, Jean; Chow, Andre; Stoyanov, Danail

    2017-10-01

    Computer-assisted interventions (CAI) aim to increase the effectiveness, precision and repeatability of procedures to improve surgical outcomes. The presence and motion of surgical tools is a key information input for CAI surgical phase recognition algorithms. Vision-based tool detection and recognition approaches are an attractive solution and can be designed to take advantage of the powerful deep learning paradigm that is rapidly advancing image recognition and classification. The challenge for such algorithms is the availability and quality of labelled data used for training. In this Letter, surgical simulation is used to train tool detection and segmentation based on deep convolutional neural networks and generative adversarial networks. The authors experiment with two network architectures for image segmentation in tool classes commonly encountered during cataract surgery. A commercially-available simulator is used to create a simulated cataract dataset for training models prior to performing transfer learning on real surgical data. To the best of authors' knowledge, this is the first attempt to train deep learning models for surgical instrument detection on simulated data while demonstrating promising results to generalise on real data. Results indicate that simulated data does have some potential for training advanced classification methods for CAI systems.

  13. Recurrence and Mortality after Surgical Treatment of Soft Tissue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Africa, patients with soft tissue sarcomas generally present late and have to travel long distances to treatment centers. Many do not benefit from radiotherapy and chemotherapy after the surgical procedure due to inadequate resources. As such recurrence rates may be much higher than those reported elsewhere (11).

  14. Lateral Interbody Fusion for Treatment of Discogenic Low Back Pain: Minimally Invasive Surgical Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Marchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Low back pain is one of the most common ailments in the general population, which tends to increase in severity along with aging. While few patients have severe enough symptoms or underlying pathology to warrant surgical intervention, in those select cases treatment choices remain controversial and reimbursement is a substancial barrier to surgery. The object of this study was to examine outcomes of discogenic back pain without radiculopathy following minimally-invasive lateral interbody fusion. Twenty-two patients were treated at either one or two levels (28 total between L2 and 5. Discectomy and interbody fusion were performed using a minimallyinvasive retroperitoneal lateral transpsoas approach. Clinical and radiographic parameters were analyzed at standard pre- and postoperative intervals up to 24 months. Mean surgical duration was 72.1 minutes. Three patients underwent supplemental percutaneous pedicle screw instrumentation. Four (14.3% stand-alone levels experienced cage subsidence. Pain (VAS and disability (ODI improved markedly postoperatively and were maintained through 24 months. Segmental lordosis increased significantly and fusion was achieved in 93% of levels. In this series, isolated axial low back pain arising from degenerative disc disease was treated with minimally-invasive lateral interbody fusion in significant radiographic and clinical improvements, which were maintained through 24 months.

  15. Escalation of Commitment in the Surgical ICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braxton, Carla C; Robinson, Celia N; Awad, Samir S

    2017-04-01

    Escalation of commitment is a business term that describes the continued investment of resources into a project even after there is objective evidence of the project's impending failure. Escalation of commitment may be a contributor to high healthcare costs associated with critically ill patients as it has been shown that, despite almost certain futility, most ICU costs are incurred in the last week of life. Our objective was to determine if escalation of commitment occurs in healthcare settings, specifically in the surgical ICU. We hypothesize that factors previously identified in business and organizational psychology literature including self-justification, accountability, sunk costs, and cognitive dissonance result in escalation of commitment behavior in the surgical ICU setting resulting in increased utilization of resources and cost. A descriptive case study that illustrates common ICU narratives in which escalation of commitment can occur. In addition, we describe factors that are thought to contribute to escalation of commitment behaviors. Escalation of commitment behavior was observed with self-justification, accountability, and cognitive dissonance accounting for the majority of the behavior. Unlike in business decisions, sunk costs was not as evident. In addition, modulating factors such as personality, individual experience, culture, and gender were identified as contributors to escalation of commitment. Escalation of commitment occurs in the surgical ICU, resulting in significant expenditure of resources despite a predicted and often known poor outcome. Recognition of this phenomenon may lead to actions aimed at more rational decision making and may contribute to lowering healthcare costs. Investigation of objective measures that can help aid decision making in the surgical ICU is warranted.

  16. Gross Instability After Hip Arthroscopy: An Analysis of Case Reports Evaluating Surgical and Patient Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Marco; Memon, Muzammil; Simunovic, Nicole; Belzile, Etienne; Philippon, Marc J; Ayeni, Olufemi R

    2016-06-01

    Gross hip instability is a rare complication after hip arthroscopy, and there is limited literature surrounding this topic. This systematic review investigates cases of gross hip instability after arthroscopy and discusses the risk factors associated with this complication. A systematic search was performed in duplicate for studies investigating gross hip instability after hip arthroscopy up to October 2015. Study parameters including sample size, mechanism and type of dislocation, surgical procedure details, patient characteristics, postoperative rehabilitation protocol, and level of evidence were analyzed. The systematic review identified 9 case reports investigating gross hip instability after hip arthroscopy (10 patients). Anterior dislocation occurred in 66.7% of patients, and most injuries occurred with a low-energy mechanism. Common surgical factors cited included unrepaired capsulotomy (77.8%) and iliopsoas release (33.3%), whereas patient factors included female gender (77.8%), acetabular dysplasia (22.2%), and general ligamentous laxity (11.1%). Postoperative restrictions and protocols were variable and inconsistently reported, and their relation to post-arthroscopy instability was difficult to ascertain. This systematic review discussed various patient, surgical, and postoperative risk factors of gross hip instability after arthroscopy. Patient characteristics such as female gender, hip dysplasia, and ligamentous laxity may be risk factors for post-arthroscopy dislocation. Similarly, surgical risk factors for iatrogenic hip instability may include unrepaired capsulotomies and iliopsoas debridement, although the role of capsular closure in iatrogenic instability is not clear. The influences of postoperative restrictions and protocols on dislocation are also unclear in the current literature. Surgeons should be cognizant of these risk factors when performing hip arthroscopy and be mindful that these factors appear to occur in combination. Level IV

  17. Hyperspectral image segmentation of the common bile duct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarov, Daniel; Wehner, Eleanor; Schwarz, Roderich; Zuzak, Karel; Livingston, Edward

    2013-03-01

    Over the course of the last several years hyperspectral imaging (HSI) has seen increased usage in biomedicine. Within the medical field in particular HSI has been recognized as having the potential to make an immediate impact by reducing the risks and complications associated with laparotomies (surgical procedures involving large incisions into the abdominal wall) and related procedures. There are several ongoing studies focused on such applications. Hyperspectral images were acquired during pancreatoduodenectomies (commonly referred to as Whipple procedures), a surgical procedure done to remove cancerous tumors involving the pancreas and gallbladder. As a result of the complexity of the local anatomy, identifying where the common bile duct (CBD) is can be difficult, resulting in comparatively high incidents of injury to the CBD and associated complications. It is here that HSI has the potential to help reduce the risk of such events from happening. Because the bile contained within the CBD exhibits a unique spectral signature, we are able to utilize HSI segmentation algorithms to help in identifying where the CBD is. In the work presented here we discuss approaches to this segmentation problem and present the results.

  18. Large Variability in the Diversity of Physiologically Complex Surgical Procedures Exists Nationwide Among All Hospitals Including Among Large Teaching Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Franklin; Epstein, Richard H; Thenuwara, Kokila; Lubarsky, David A

    2017-11-22

    Multiple previous studies have shown that having a large diversity of procedures has a substantial impact on quality management of hospital surgical suites. At hospitals with substantial diversity, unless sophisticated statistical methods suitable for rare events are used, anesthesiologists working in surgical suites will have inaccurate predictions of surgical blood usage, case durations, cost accounting and price transparency, times remaining in late running cases, and use of intraoperative equipment. What is unknown is whether large diversity is a feature of only a few very unique set of hospitals nationwide (eg, the largest hospitals in each state or province). The 2013 United States Nationwide Readmissions Database was used to study heterogeneity among 1981 hospitals in their diversities of physiologically complex surgical procedures (ie, the procedure codes). The diversity of surgical procedures performed at each hospital was quantified using a summary measure, the number of different physiologically complex surgical procedures commonly performed at the hospital (ie, 1/Herfindahl). A total of 53.9% of all hospitals commonly performed 3-fold larger diversity (ie, >30 commonly performed physiologically complex procedures). Larger hospitals had greater diversity than the small- and medium-sized hospitals (P 30 procedures (lower 99% CL, 71.9% of hospitals). However, there was considerable variability among the large teaching hospitals in their diversity (interquartile range of the numbers of commonly performed physiologically complex procedures = 19.3; lower 99% CL, 12.8 procedures). The diversity of procedures represents a substantive differentiator among hospitals. Thus, the usefulness of statistical methods for operating room management should be expected to be heterogeneous among hospitals. Our results also show that "large teaching hospital" alone is an insufficient description for accurate prediction of the extent to which a hospital sustains the

  19. Graduating general surgery resident operative confidence: perspective from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Annabelle L; Reddy, Vikram; Longo, Walter E; Gusberg, Richard J

    2014-08-01

    General surgical training has changed significantly over the last decade with work hour restrictions, increasing subspecialization, the expanding use of minimally invasive techniques, and nonoperative management for solid organ trauma. Given these changes, this study was undertaken to assess the confidence of graduating general surgery residents in performing open surgical operations and to determine factors associated with increased confidence. A survey was developed and sent to general surgery residents nationally. We queried them regarding demographics and program characteristics, asked them to rate their confidence (rated 1-5 on a Likert scale) in performing open surgical procedures and compared those who indicated confidence with those who did not. We received 653 responses from the fifth year (postgraduate year 5) surgical residents: 69% male, 68% from university programs, and 51% from programs affiliated with a Veterans Affairs hospital; 22% from small programs, 34% from medium programs, and 44% from large programs. Anticipated postresidency operative confidence was 72%. More than 25% of residents reported a lack of confidence in performing eight of the 13 operations they were queried about. Training at a university program, a large program, dedicated research years, future fellowship plans, and training at a program that performed a large percentage of operations laparoscopically was associated with decreased confidence in performing a number of open surgical procedures. Increased surgical volume was associated with increased operative confidence. Confidence in performing open surgery also varied regionally. Graduating surgical residents indicated a significant lack of confidence in performing a variety of open surgical procedures. This decreased confidence was associated with age, operative volume as well as type, and location of training program. Analyzing and addressing this confidence deficit merits further study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All

  20. Acute posterior cruciate ligament injuries: effect of location, severity, and associated injuries on surgical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark A; Simeone, F Joseph; Palmer, William E; Chang, Connie Y

    2018-06-01

    To correlate MRI findings of patients with posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injury and surgical management. A retrospective search yielded 79 acute PCL injuries (36 ± 16 years old, 21 F, 58 M). Two independent readers graded PCL tear location (proximal, middle, or distal third) and severity (low-grade or high-grade partial/complete) and evaluated injury of other knee structures. When available, operative reports were examined and the performed surgical procedure was compared with injury grade, location, and presence of associated injuries. The most commonly injured knee structures in acute PCL tears were posterolateral corner (58/79, 73%) and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) (48/79, 61%). Of the 64 patients with treatment information, 31/64 (48%) were managed surgically: 12/31 (39%) had PCL reconstruction, 13/31 (42%) had ACL reconstruction, 10/31 (32%) had posterolateral corner reconstruction, 9/31 (29%) had LCL reconstruction, 8/31 (26%) had meniscectomy, and 8/31 (26%) had fixation of a fracture. Proximal third PCL tear and multiligamentous injury were more commonly associated with surgical management (P < 0.05). Posterolateral and posteromedial corner, ACL, collateral ligament, meniscus, patellar retinaculum, and gastrocnemius muscle injury, and fracture were more likely to result in surgical management (P < 0.05). Patients with high-grade partial/complete PCL tear were more likely to have PCL reconstruction as a portion of surgical management (P < 0.05). Location of PCL tear and presence of other knee injuries were associated with surgical management while high-grade/complete PCL tear grade was associated with PCL reconstruction. MRI reporting of PCL tear location, severity, and of other knee structure injuries is important for guiding clinical management.

  1. Efficacy of non-surgical treatments for androgenetic alopecia: a systematic review and network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aditya K; Mays, Rachel R; Dotzert, Michelle S; Versteeg, Sarah G; Shear, Neil H; Piguet, Vincent

    2018-05-24

    Androgenetic alopecia, or male/female pattern baldness, is the most common type of progressive hair loss disorder. The aim of this paper is to review recent advances in non-surgical treatments for androgenetic alopecia and identify the most effective treatments. A network meta-analysis (NMA) was conducted of the available literature of the six most common non-surgical treatment options for treating androgenetic alopecia in both men and women; dutasteride 0.5mg, finasteride 1mg, low level laser therapy (LLLT), minoxidil 2%, minoxidil 5% and platelet rich plasma (PRP). Seventy-eight studies met the inclusion criteria and twenty-two studies had the data necessary for a network meta-analysis. Relative effects show LLLT as the superior treatment. Relative effects show PRP, finasteride 1 mg (male), finasteride 1 mg (female), minoxidil 5%, minoxidil 2% and dutasteride (male) are approximately equivalent in mean change hair count following treatment. Minoxidil 5% and minoxidil 2% reported the most drug-related adverse events (n=45 and n=23, respectively). The quality of evidence of minoxidil 2% vs. minoxidil 5% was high; minoxidil 5% vs. placebo was moderate; dutasteride (male) vs. placebo, finasteride (female) vs placebo, minoxidil 2% vs. placebo, minoxidil 5% vs. LLLT was low and finasteride (male) vs. placebo, LLLT vs. sham, PRP vs. placebo, finasteride vs. minoxidil 2% was very low. Results of this NMA indicate the emergence of novel, non-hormonal therapies as effective treatments for hair loss; however, the quality of evidence is generally low. High quality randomized controlled trials and head to head trials are required to support these findings and aid in the development of more standardized protocols, particularly for PRP. Regardless, this analysis may aid physicians in clinical decision making and highlight the variety of non-surgical hair restoration options for patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by

  2. Emergency obstetric care in a rural district of Burundi: What are the surgical needs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E De Plecker

    Full Text Available In a rural district hospital in Burundi offering Emergency Obstetric care-(EmOC, we assessed the a characteristics of women at risk of, or with an obstetric complication and their types b the number and type of obstetric surgical procedures and anaesthesia performed c human resource cadres who performed surgery and anaesthesia and d hospital exit outcomes.A retrospective analysis of EmOC data (2011 and 2012.A total of 6084 women were referred for EmOC of whom 2534(42% underwent a major surgical procedure while 1345(22% required a minor procedure (36% women did not require any surgical procedure. All cases with uterine rupture(73 and extra-uterine pregnancy(10 and the majority with pre-uterine rupture and foetal distress required major surgery. The two most prevalent conditions requiring a minor surgical procedure were abortions (61% and normal delivery (34%. A total of 2544 major procedures were performed on 2534 admitted individuals. Of these, 1650(65% required spinal and 578(23% required general anaesthesia; 2341(92% procedures were performed by 'general practitioners with surgical skills' and in 2451(96% cases, anaesthesia was provided by nurses. Of 2534 hospital admissions related to major procedures, 2467(97% were discharged, 21(0.8% were referred to tertiary care and 2(0.1% died.Overall, the obstetric surgical volume in rural Burundi is high with nearly six out of ten referrals requiring surgical intervention. Nonetheless, good quality care could be achieved by trained, non-specialist staff. The post-2015 development agenda needs to take this into consideration if it is to make progress towards reducing maternal mortality in Africa.

  3. Consensus Bundle on Prevention of Surgical Site Infections After Major Gynecologic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Joseph E; Toledo, Paloma; Soper, David E; Bradford, William C; Cruz, Deborah A; Levy, Barbara S; Lemieux, Lauren A

    Surgical site infections are the most common complications of surgery in the United States. Of surgeries in women of reproductive age, hysterectomy is one of the most frequently performed, second only to cesarean birth. Therefore, prevention of surgical site infections in women undergoing gynecologic surgery is an ideal topic for a patient safety bundle. The primary purpose of this safety bundle is to provide recommendations that can be implemented into any surgical environment in an effort to reduce the incidence of surgical site infection. This bundle was developed by a multidisciplinary team convened by the Council on Patient Safety in Women's Health Care. The bundle is organized into four domains: Readiness, Recognition and Prevention, Response, and Reporting and Systems Learning. In addition to recommendations for practice, each of the domains stresses communication and teamwork between all members of the surgical team. Although the bundle components are designed to be adaptable to work in a variety of clinical settings, standardization within institutions is encouraged. Copyright © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A survey of general surgery clerkships in Australian and New Zealand medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tzu-Chieh; Wheeler, Benjamin Robert Logan; Hill, Andrew Graham

    2010-12-01

    Surgical clerkships facilitate development of knowledge and competency, but their structure and content vary. Establishment of new medical schools and raising student numbers are new challenges to the provision of standardized surgical teaching across Australasian medical schools. A survey was conducted to investigate how Australian and New Zealand medical schools structure their general surgery clerkships. Between April and August 2009, a 30-item web-based survey was electronically sent to academic and administrative staff members of 22 Australian and New Zealand medical schools. Eighteen surveys were returned by 16 medical schools, summarizing 20 clerkships. Ten schools utilize five or more different clinical teaching sites for general surgery clerkships and these include urban and rural hospitals from both public and private health sectors. Student teaching and assessment methods are similar between clerkships and standardized across clinical sites during 10 and 16 of the clerkships, respectively. Only eight of the surveyed clerkships use centralized assessments to evaluate student learning outcomes across different clinical sites. Four clerkships do not routinely use direct observational student assessments. Australian and New Zealand medical schools commonly assign students to multiple diverse clinical sites during general surgery clerkships and they vary in their approaches to standardizing curriculum delivery and student assessment across these sites. Differences in student learning are likely to exist and deficiencies in clinical ability may go undetected. This should be a focus for future improvement. © 2010 The Authors. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2010 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  5. Reducing surgical levels by paraspinal mapping and diffusion tensor imaging techniques in lumbar spinal stenosis

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Hua-Biao; Wan, Qi; Xu, Qi-Feng; Chen, Yi; Bai, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Background Correlating symptoms and physical examination findings with surgical levels based on common imaging results is not reliable. In patients who have no concordance between radiological and clinical symptoms, the surgical levels determined by conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neurogenic examination (NE) may lead to a more extensive surgery and significant complications. We aimed to confirm that whether the use of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and paraspinal mapping (PM...

  6. Supernumerary Teeth in the Maxillary Anterior Region: The Dilemma of Early Versus Late Surgical Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarne, Ofer; Shapira, Yehoshua; Blumer, Sigalit; Finkelstein, Tamar; Schonberger, Shirley; Bechor, Naomi; Shpack, Nir

    Supernumerary teeth are the most common developmental dental anomalies in the maxillary anterior region causing interference to the developing permanent incisors resulting in poor dental and facial esthetics. Two different opinions regarding the timing for surgical removal of the supernumerary teeth are presented. In this case report, three brothers with supernumerary teeth in the maxillary anterior region are presented, their surgical and orthodontic management and outcome are discussed.

  7. Surgical treatment of rib fracture nonunion: A single center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, M B; Houwert, R M; van Heerde, S; de Steenwinkel, M; Hietbrink, F; Leenen, L P H

    2018-03-01

    In contrast to the emerging evidence on the operative treatment of flail chest, there is a paucity of literature on the surgical treatment of rib fracture nonunion. The purpose of this study was to describe our standardized approach and report the outcome (e.g. patient satisfaction, pain and complications) after surgical treatment of a rib fracture nonunion. A single centre retrospective cohort study was performed at a level 1 trauma centre. Symptomatic rib nonunion was defined as a severe persistent localized pain associated with the nonunion of one or more rib fractures on a chest CT scan at least 3 months after the initial trauma. Patients after initial operative treatment of rib fractures were excluded. Nineteen patients (11 men, 8 women), with symptomatic nonunions were included. Fourteen patients were referred from other hospitals and 8 patients received treatment from a pain medicine specialist. The mean follow-up was 36 months. No in-hospital complications were observed. In 2 patients, new fractures adjacent to the implant, without new trauma were observed. Furthermore 3 patients requested implant removal with a persistent nonunion in one patient. There was a mean follow-up of 36 months, the majority of patients (n = 13) were satisfied with the results of their surgical treatment and all patients experienced a reduction in the number of complaints. Persisting pain was a common complaint. Three patients reporting severe pain used opioid analgesics on a daily or weekly basis. Only 1 patient needed ongoing treatment by a pain medicine specialist. Surgical fixation of symptomatic rib nonunion is a safe and feasible procedure, with a low perioperative complication rate, and might be beneficial in selected symptomatic patients in the future. In our study, although the majority of patients were satisfied and the pain level subjectively decreases, complaints of persistent pain were common. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. General surgery 2.0: the emergence of acute care surgery in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, S. Morad; Brenneman, Frederick D.; Ball, Chad G.; Pagliarello, Joe; Razek, Tarek; Parry, Neil; Widder, Sandy; Minor, Sam; Buczkowski, Andrzej; MacPherson, Cailan; Johner, Amanda; Jenkin, Dan; Wood, Leanne; McLoughlin, Karen; Anderson, Ian; Davey, Doug; Zabolotny, Brent; Saadia, Roger; Bracken, John; Nathens, Avery; Ahmed, Najma; Panton, Ormond; Warnock, Garth L.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 5 years, there has been a groundswell of support in Canada for the development of organized, focused and multidisciplinary approaches to caring for acutely ill general surgical patients. Newly forged acute care surgery (ACS) services are beginning to provide prompt, evidence-based and goal-directed care to acutely ill general surgical patients who often present with a diverse range of complex pathologies and little or no pre- or postoperative planning. Through a team-based structure with attention to processes of care and information sharing, ACS services are well positioned to improve outcomes, while finding and developing efficiencies and reducing costs of surgical and emergency health care delivery. The ACS model also offers enhanced opportunities for surgical education for students, residents and practicing surgeons, and it will provide avenues to strengthen clinical and academic bonds between the community and academic surgical centres. In the near future, cooperation of ACS services from community and academic hospitals across the country will lead to the formation of systems of acute surgical care whose development will be informed by rigorous data collection and research and evidence-based quality-improvement initiatives. In an era of increasing subspecialization, ACS is a strong unifying force in general surgery and a platform for collective advocacy for an important patient population. PMID:20334738

  9. Orthognathic surgery: general considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khechoyan, David Y

    2013-08-01

    a patient's appearance and occlusal function can be improved significantly, impacting the patient's sense of self and well-being. Successful outcomes in modern orthognathic surgery rely on close collaboration between the surgeon and the orthodontist across all stages of treatment, from preoperative planning to finalization of occlusion. Virtual computer planning promotes a more accurate analysis of dentofacial deformity and preoperative planning. It is also an invaluable aid in providing comprehensive patient education. In this article, the author describes the general surgical principles that underlie orthognathic surgery, highlighting the sequence of treatment, preoperative analysis of dentofacial deformity, surgical execution of the treatment plan, and possible complications.

  10. Women in academic general surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroen, Anneke T; Brownstein, Michelle R; Sheldon, George F

    2004-04-01

    To portray the professional experiences of men and women in academic general surgery with specific attention to factors associated with differing academic productivity and with leaving academia. A 131-question survey was mailed to all female (1,076) and a random 2:1 sample of male (2,152) members of the American College of Surgeons in three mailings between September 1998 and March 1999. Detailed questions regarding academic rank, career aspirations, publication rate, grant funding, workload, harassment, income, marriage and parenthood were asked. A five-point Likert scale measured influences on career satisfaction. Responses from strictly academic and tenure-track surgeons were analyzed and interpreted by gender, age, and rank. Overall, 317 surgeons in academic practice (168 men, 149 women) responded, of which 150 were in tenure-track positions (86 men, 64 women). Men and women differed in academic rank, tenure status, career aspirations, and income. Women surgeons had published a median of ten articles compared with 25 articles for men (p career satisfaction was high, but women reported feeling career advancement opportunities were not equally available to them as to their male colleagues and feeling isolation from surgical peers. Ten percent to 20% of surgeons considered leaving academia, with women assistant professors (29%) contemplating this most commonly. Addressing the differences between men and women academic general surgeons is critical in fostering career development and in recruiting competitive candidates of both sexes to general surgery.

  11. Patients at High-Risk for Surgical Site Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueck, Krislynn M; Kao, Lillian S

    Surgical site infections (SSIs) are a significant healthcare quality issue, resulting in increased morbidity, disability, length of stay, resource utilization, and costs. Identification of high-risk patients may improve pre-operative counseling, inform resource utilization, and allow modifications in peri-operative management to optimize outcomes. Review of the pertinent English-language literature. High-risk surgical patients may be identified on the basis of individual risk factors or combinations of factors. In particular, statistical models and risk calculators may be useful in predicting infectious risks, both in general and for SSIs. These models differ in the number of variables; inclusion of pre-operative, intra-operative, or post-operative variables; ease of calculation; and specificity for particular procedures. Furthermore, the models differ in their accuracy in stratifying risk. Biomarkers may be a promising way to identify patients at high risk of infectious complications. Although multiple strategies exist for identifying surgical patients at high risk for SSIs, no one strategy is superior for all patients. Further efforts are necessary to determine if risk stratification in combination with risk modification can reduce SSIs in these patient populations.

  12. Surgical Fires and Operative Burns: Lessons Learned From a 33-Year Review of Medical Litigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhry, Asad J; Haddad, Nadeem N; Khasawneh, Mohammad A; Cullinane, Daniel C; Zielinski, Martin D

    2017-03-01

    We aimed to understand the setting and litigation outcomes of surgical fires and operative burns. Westlaw, an online legal research data-set, was utilized. Data were collected on patient, procedure, and case characteristics. One hundred thirty-nine cases were identified; 114 (82%) operative burns and 25 (18%) surgical fires. Median plaintiff (patient) age was 46 (IQR:28-59). Most common site of operative burn was the face (26% [n = 36]). Most common source of injury was a high energy device (43% [n = 52]). Death was reported in 2 (1.4%) cases. Plaintiff age <18 vs age 18-50 and mention of a non-surgical physician as a defendant both were shown to be independently associated with an award payout (OR = 4.90 [95% CI, 1.23-25.45]; p = .02) and (OR = 4.50 [95% CI, 1.63-13.63]; p = .003) respectively. Plaintiff award payment (settlement or plaintiff verdict) was reported in 83 (60%) cases; median award payout was $215,000 (IQR: $82,000-$518,000). High energy devices remain as the most common cause of injury. Understanding and addressing pitfalls in operative care may mitigate errors and potentially lessen future liability. III. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Post-surgical rehabilitative approach to fragility fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimigliano, F; Iolascon, G; Riccio, I; Frizzi, L; Gimigliano, R

    2013-10-01

    Osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder characterized by compromised bone strength predisposing to an increased risk of fracture. The most frequent sites of fragility fractures are the hip, the distal radius, the spine, the proximal humerus, and the ankle. In most cases, a surgical approach with subsequent rehabilitative treatment is required. The general aims of rehabilitation are to increase functioning and improve patients' activities, participation level, and quality of life.

  14. History of surgical treatments for hallux valgus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galois, Laurent

    2018-05-31

    In the nineteenth century, the prevalent understanding of the hallux valgus was that it was purely an enlargement of the soft tissue, first metatarsal head, or both, most commonly caused by ill-fitting footwear. Thus, treatment had varying results, with controversy over whether to remove the overlying bursa alone or in combination with an exostectomy of the medial head. Since 1871, when the surgical technique was first described, many surgical treatments for the correction of hallux valgus have been proposed. A number of these techniques have come into fashion, and others have fallen into oblivion. Progress in biomechanical knowledge, and improvements in materials and supports have allowed new techniques to be developed over the years. We have developed techniques that sacrifice the metatarsophalangeal joint (arthrodesis, arthroplasties), as well as conservative procedures, and one can distinguish those which only involve the soft tissues from those that are linked with a first ray osteotomy.

  15. Minimizing surgical skin incision scars with a latex surgical glove.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, So-Eun; Ryoo, Suk-Tae; Lim, So Young; Pyon, Jai-Kyung; Bang, Sa-Ik; Oh, Kap-Sung; Mun, Goo-Hyun

    2013-04-01

    The current trend in minimally invasive surgery is to make a small surgical incision. However, the excessive tensile stress applied by the retractors to the skin surrounding the incision often results in a long wound healing time and extensive scarring. To minimize these types of wound problems, the authors evaluated a simple and cost-effective method to minimize surgical incision scars based on the use of a latex surgical glove. The tunnel-shaped part of a powder-free latex surgical glove was applied to the incision and the dissection plane. It was fixed to the full layer of the dissection plane with sutures. The glove on the skin surface then was sealed with Ioban (3 M Health Care, St. Paul, MN, USA) to prevent movement. The operation proceeded as usual, with the retractor running through the tunnel of the latex glove. It was possible to complete the operation without any disturbance of the visual field by the surgical glove, and the glove was neither torn nor separated by the retractors. The retractors caused traction and friction during the operation, but the extent of damage to the postoperative skin incision margin was remarkably less than when the operation was performed without a glove. This simple and cost-effective method is based on the use of a latex surgical glove to protect the surgical skin incision site and improve the appearance of the postoperative scar. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  16. Quality of colonoscopy performance among gastroenterology and surgical trainees: a need for common training standards for all trainees?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Leyden, J E

    2011-11-01

    Cecal intubation and polyp detection rates are objective measures of colonoscopy performance. Minimum cecal intubation rates greater than 90% have been endorsed by the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE) and the Joint Advisory Group (JAG) UK. Performance data for medical and surgical trainee endoscopists are limited, and we used endoscopy quality parameters to compare these two groups.

  17. Surgical Considerations in the Management of Tumours of the Nose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Tumours of the nose and paranasal sinuses in sub-Saharan Africa are generally characterised by late presentation posing management challenges to the otorhinolaryngologists in the sub-region. OBJECTIVES: To appraise surgical considerations in the management of tumours of the nose and paranasal ...

  18. GYNOTEL: telephone advice to gynaecological surgical patients after discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caljouw, Monique A A; Hogendorf-Burgers, Marja E H J

    2010-12-01

    To investigate in surgical gynaecological patients the types of health problems arising or persisting up to six weeks after discharge and the effectiveness of telephone advice. The decreasing length of hospital stay has increased the need for specific instructions about the postdischarge period. Telephone advice could be a valuable tool to address this problem. To our knowledge, postdischarge health problems and the value of telephone advice have not been investigated among gynaecological patients. Randomised controlled trial. Gynaecological patients expected to stay in the ward longer than 24 hour were invited to participate. A pilot study showed that wound healing, pain, mobility, urination, defecation and vaginal bleeding were the most common health problems postdischarge. Based on that information, guidelines were formulated that were used by trained nurses to give telephone advice to the intervention group (n=235), in addition to the usual care. The control group of gynaecological patients (n=233) received usual care only. Of all 468 participants, about 50% were operated for general gynaecology. At discharge, wound pain (56%), mobility problems (54%) and constipation (27%) were the most frequently mentioned problems in both groups. Participants who completely followed the advice with regard to wound healing (p=0.02), pain (p=0.01), vaginal bleeding (p=0.03) and mobility (p=0.04) experienced greater improvement than participants who did not follow, or only partly followed, the advice. The telephone advice appears to make a significant contribution to help gynaecological surgical patients to solve or reduce their postdischarge health problems. The positive effect of such advice can be interpreted as an improvement in the quality of life of the postoperative gynaecological patient. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Proposal