WorldWideScience

Sample records for common garter snake

  1. Behavioral shifts associated with reproduction in garter snakes

    OpenAIRE

    R. Shine; B. Phillips; H. Waye; R. T. Mason

    2003-01-01

    Reproduction may involve profound modifications to behaviors such as feeding, antipredator tactics, and thermoregulation. Such shifts have generally been interpreted as direct consequences of reproduction but may instead be secondary effects of reproduction-associated changes in other traits such as habitat use. We quantified behaviors of red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) courting and mating at a communal den, and also of postreproductive snakes dispersing from the same...

  2. A novel mechanism regulating a sexual signal: the testosterone-based inhibition of female sex pheromone expression in garter snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M Rockwell; Mason, Robert T

    2014-08-01

    Vertebrates communicate their sex to conspecifics through the use of sexually dimorphic signals, such as ornaments, behaviors and scents. Furthermore, the physiological connection between hormones and secondary sexual signal expression is key to understanding their dimorphism, seasonality and evolution. The red-sided garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) is the only reptile for which a described pheromone currently exists, and because garter snakes rely completely on the sexual attractiveness pheromone for species identification and mate choice, they constitute a unique model species for exploring the relationship between pheromones and the endocrine system. We recently demonstrated that estrogen can activate female pheromone production in male garter snakes. The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanism(s) acting to prevent female pheromone production in males. We found that castrated males (GX) are courted by wild males in the field and produce appreciable amounts of female sex pheromone. Furthermore, pheromone production is inhibited in castrates given testosterone implants (GX+T), suggesting that pheromone production is actively inhibited by the presence of testosterone. Lastly, testosterone supplementation alone (T) increased the production of several saturated methyl ketones in the pheromone but not the unsaturated ketones; this may indicate that saturated ketones are testosterone-activated components of the garter snake's skin lipid milieu. Collectively, our research has shown that pheromone expression in snakes results from two processes: activation by the feminizing steroid estradiol and inhibition by testosterone. We suggest that basal birds and garter snakes share common pathways of activation that modulate crucial intraspecific signals that originate from skin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Vertical Transmission of Hepatozoon in the Garter Snake Thamnophis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Kiera L; Sparkman, Amanda; Bronikowski, Anne M; Palacios, Maria G

    2017-01-01

    Vertical transmission of blood parasites has been demonstrated in humans and some domestic species, but it has not been well documented in wild populations. We assessed whether Hepatozoon blood parasites are vertically transmitted in naturally infected individuals of the viviparous western terrestrial garter snake ( Thamnophis elegans ). Blood smears were taken from nine wild-caught gravid female snakes at capture, preparturition, and postparturition, and then from their laboratory-born offspring at age 2 mo and 1 yr. All infected offspring were born to four infected females, although not all offspring in a given litter were necessarily infected. Parasites were not detected in offspring born to the five uninfected mothers. The highest parasite loads were found in neonates at 2 mo of age. Parasite prevalence did not vary between sexes in offspring, but females showed higher loads than did males when 2 mo old. This study supports vertical transmission of Hepatozoon in naturally infected viviparous snakes and suggests that vertical transmission of hematozoan parasites might be an overlooked mode of transmission in wildlife.

  4. Chronobiology of reproduction in garter snakes: neuroendocrine mechanisms and geographic variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutterschmidt, Deborah I

    2012-05-01

    The majority of studies on reproductive neuroendocrinology in snakes have focused on one particular snake population in Manitoba, Canada, the red-sided garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis). Although traditionally these studies have emphasized its unusual temporal dissociation between mating behavior and peak gonadal activity, current evidence suggests that reproductive regulation in this population may be more similar to the norm than previously thought. Like other ectotherms, temperature plays a critical role in activating reproductive behavior in red-sided garter snakes. Diel melatonin and corticosterone rhythms appear to be important in transducing temperature cues, and it is clear that both hormones regulate courtship behavior during spring. Current evidence also suggests that sex steroid hormones are in fact central to reproductive regulation in males, although the timing of their action occurs during winter dormancy. Whether this is also true for female T. sirtalis parietalis requires further study, but it should be noted that patterns of sex steroid hormones are sexually dimorphic during winter dormancy, as are melatonin rhythms during spring emergence. While continuing to advance our understanding of reproductive regulation in this extremely well-studied population is prudent, future comparative studies are critical for understanding if and how reproductive regulatory mechanisms differ across environments, populations, and phylogenies. For example, melatonin and corticosterone responses to environmental cues vary significantly among populations of T. sirtalis in a common garden, as do male courtship behavior and androgen concentrations. These data support the hypothesis that neuroendocrine-mediated responses to environmental cues underlie phenotypic plasticity in reproductive life history traits. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Sexual conflict over mating in red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis) as indicated by experimental manipulation of genitalia

    OpenAIRE

    Friesen, Christopher R.; Uhrig, Emily J.; Squire, Mattie K.; Mason, Robert T.; Brennan, Patricia L. R.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual conflict over mating can result in sex-specific morphologies and behaviours that allow each sex to exert control over the outcome of reproduction. Genital traits, in particular, are often directly involved in conflict interactions. Via genital manipulation, we experimentally investigated whether genital traits in red-sided garter snakes influence copulation duration and formation of a copulatory plug. The hemipenes of male red-sided garter snakes have a large basal spine that inserts i...

  6. Alaria mesocercariae in the tails of red-sided garter snakes: evidence for parasite-mediated caudectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhrig, Emily J; Spagnoli, Sean T; Tkach, Vasyl V; Kent, Michael L; Mason, Robert T

    2015-12-01

    Trematodes of the genus Alaria develop into an arrested stage, known as mesocercariae, within their amphibian second intermediate host. The mesocercariae are frequently transmitted to a non-obligate paratenic host before reaching a definitive host where further development and reproduction can occur. Snakes are common paratenic hosts for Alaria spp. with the mesocercariae often aggregating in the host's tail. In the current study, we used morphological examination and molecular analyses based on partial sequences of nuclear large ribosomal subunit gene and mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 gene to identify larvae in the tails of red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) as mesocercariae of Alaria marcianae, Alaria mustelae, and Alaria sp. as well as metacercariae of Diplostomidae sp. of unknown generic affiliation. We assessed infection prevalence, absolute and relative intensity, and associated pathological changes in these snakes. Infection prevalence was 100 % for both male and female snakes. Infection intensity ranged from 11 to more than 2000 mesocercariae per snake tail but did not differ between the sexes. Gross pathological changes included tail swelling while histopathological changes included mild inflammation and the presence of mucus-filled pseudocysts surrounding mesocercariae, as well as the compression and degeneration of muscle fibers. Our results indicate that mesocercariae can lead to extensive muscle damage and loss in both sexes which likely increases the fragility of the tail making it more prone to breakage. As tail loss in garter snakes can affect both survival and reproduction, infection by Alaria mesocercariae clearly has serious fitness implications for these snakes.

  7. Bumpus in the snake den: effects of sex, size, and body condition on mortality of red-sided garter snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shine, R; LeMaster, M P; Moore, I T; Olsson, M M; Mason, R T

    2001-03-01

    Huge breeding aggregations of red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) at overwintering dens in Manitoba provide a unique opportunity to identify sources of mortality and to clarify factors that influence a snake's vulnerability to these factors. Comparisons of sexes, body sizes, and body condition of more than 1000 dead snakes versus live animals sampled at the same time reveal significant biases. Three primary sources of mortality were identified. Predation by crows, Corvus brachyrhynchos (590 snakes killed), was focussed mostly on small snakes of both sexes. Crows generally removed the snake's liver and left the carcass, but very small snakes were sometimes brought back to the nest. Suffocation beneath massive piles of other snakes within the den (301 dead animals) involved mostly small males and (to a lesser extent) large females; snakes in poor body condition were particularly vulnerable. Many emaciated snakes (n = 142, mostly females) also died without overt injuries, probably due to depleted energy reserves. These biases in vulnerability are readily interpretable from information on behavioral ecology of the snakes. For example, sex biases in mortality reflect differences in postemergence behavior and locomotor capacity, the greater attractiveness of larger females to males, and the high energy costs of reproduction for females.

  8. Merging the "Morphology-Performance-Fitness" Paradigm and Life-History Theory in the Eagle Lake Garter Snake Research Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addis, Elizabeth A; Gangloff, Eric J; Palacios, Maria G; Carr, Katherine E; Bronikowski, Anne M

    2017-08-01

    The morphology-performance-fitness paradigm for testing selection on morphological traits has seen decades of successful application. At the same time, life-history approaches using matrix methods and perturbation studies have also allowed the direct estimate of selection acting on vital rates and the traits that comprise them. Both methodologies have been successfully applied to the garter snakes of the long-term Eagle Lake research project to reveal selection on morphology, such as color pattern, number of vertebrae, and gape size; and life-history traits such as birth size, growth rates, and juvenile survival. Here we conduct a reciprocal transplant study in a common laboratory environment to study selection on morphology and life-history. To place our results in the ecomorphology paradigm, we measure performance outcomes (feeding rates, growth, insulin-like growth factor 1 titers) of morphological variation (body size, condition) and their fitness consequences for juvenile survival-a trait that has large fitness sensitivities in these garter snake populations, and therefore is thought to be subject to strong selection. To better merge these two complementary theories, we end by discussing our findings in a nexus of morphology-performance-fitness-life history to highlight what these approaches, when combined, can reveal about selection in the wild. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Ghost of habitat past: historic habitat affects the contemporary distribution of giant garter snakes in a modified landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, Brian J.; Wylie, Glenn D.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Historic habitat conditions can affect contemporary communities and populations, but most studies of historic habitat are based on the reduction in habitat extent or connectivity. Little is known about the effects of historic habitat on contemporary species distributions when historic habitat has been nearly completely removed, but species persist in a highly altered landscape. More than 93% of the historic wetlands in the Central Valley of California, USA, have been drained and converted to agricultural and other uses, but agricultural wetlands, such as rice and its supporting infrastructure of canals, allow some species to persist. Little is known about the distribution of giant garter snakes Thamnophis gigas, a rare aquatic snake species inhabiting this predominantly agricultural landscape, or the variables that affect where this species occurs. We used occupancy modeling to examine the distribution of giant garter snakes at the landscape scale in the Sacramento Valley (northern portion of the Central Valley) of California, with an emphasis on the relative strength of historic and contemporary variables (landscape-scale habitat, local microhabitat, vegetation composition and relative prey counts) for predicting giant garter snake occurrence. Proximity to historic marsh best explained variation in the probability of occurrence of giant garter snakes at the landscape scale, with greater probability of occurrence near historic marsh. We suspect that the importance of distance to historic marsh represents dispersal limitations of giant garter snakes. These results suggest that preserving and restoring areas near historic marsh, and minimizing activities that reduce the extent of marsh or marsh-like (e.g. rice agriculture, canal) habitats near historic marsh may be advantageous to giant garter snakes.

  10. Metabolism of homologous and heterologous serum proteins in garter snakes (Thamnophis ordinoides)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leong, D.; Coe, J.E.

    1978-01-01

    The half-life (Tsub(1/2) of serum immunoglobulin (Ig) and albumin from snakes and mammals were determined in both garter snakes (Thamnophis ordinoides) and mice (Mus musculus). Metabolism of serum proteins in snakes was similar to mammalian protein metabolism in that homologous serum albumin had shorter Tsub(1/2) (16 days) than IgG (38 days). Also, reptilian and mammalian serum proteins had a relatively longer Tsub(1/2) when injected into closely related species. Thus mammalian serum Ig (rabbit gamma globulin (RGG)) had a shorter Tsub(1/2) (6.3 days) in snake than did homologous snake IgG (38 days), whereas in mice, RGG had a longer Tsub(1/2) (3.8 days) than snake Ig (0.9 days). Differences between metabolism of homologous and heterologous albumins were apparent only in snakes in which the Tsub(1/2) of homologous albumin was approximately 8-fold greater than mammalian albumin. These results indicate that metabolism of both Ig and albumin in snakes is regulated by specific receptors whereas albumin receptors have been difficult to demonstrate in mammals. The results of this study suggest that one of the factors determining the metabolism of a protein is its foreignness to the host perhaps because of receptor cross reactions. (author)

  11. Evolution of senescence in nature: physiological evolution in populations of garter snake with divergent life histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Kylie A; Bronikowski, Anne M

    2010-02-01

    Evolutionary theories of aging are linked to life-history theory in that age-specific schedules of reproduction and survival determine the trajectory of age-specific mutation/selection balances across the life span and thus the rate of senescence. This is predicted to manifest at the organismal level in the evolution of energy allocation strategies of investing in somatic maintenance and robust stress responses in less hazardous environments in exchange for energy spent on growth and reproduction. Here we report experiments from long-studied populations of western terrestrial garter snakes (Thamnophis elegans) that reside in low and high extrinsic mortality environments, with evolved long and short life spans, respectively. Laboratory common-environment colonies of these two ecotypes were tested for a suite of physiological traits after control and stressed gestations. In offspring derived from control and corticosterone-treated dams, we measured resting metabolism; mitochondrial oxygen consumption, ATP and free radical production rates; and erythrocyte DNA damage and repair ability. We evaluated whether these aging biomarkers mirrored the evolution of life span and whether they were sensitive to stress. Neonates from the long-lived ecotype (1) were smaller, (2) consumed equal amounts of oxygen when corrected for body mass, (3) had DNA that damaged more readily but repaired more efficiently, and (4) had more efficient mitochondria and more efficient cellular antioxidant defenses than short-lived snakes. Many ecotype differences were enhanced in offspring derived from stress-treated dams, which supports the conclusion that nongenetic maternal effects may further impact the cellular stress defenses of offspring. Our findings reveal that physiological evolution underpins reptilian life histories and sheds light on the connectedness between stress response and aging pathways in wild-dwelling organisms.

  12. Laser induced photoreceptor damage and recovery in the high numerical aperture eye of the garter snake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwick, H; Edsall, P; Stuck, B E; Wood, E; Elliott, R; Cheramie, R; Hacker, H

    2008-02-01

    The garter snake provides a unique model for in-vivo imaging of photoreceptor damage induced by laser retinal exposure. Laser thermal/mechanical retinal injury induced alterations in photoreceptor structure and leukocyte cellular behavior. Photoreceptors turned white, lost mode structure, and swelled; leukocyte activity was observed in the vicinity of photoreceptor cells. Non-thermal alterations were identified with a bio-tag for oxidative stress. Mechanisms of photoreceptor recovery and replacement were observed and evaluated for active cytoskeletal systems by using an anti-actin tag that could detect the presence of active cytoskeletal systems resident in photoreceptors as well as other retinal systems.

  13. Garter snakes distributions in high elevation aquatic ecosystems: Is there a link with declining amphibian populations and nonnative trout introductions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.R. Matthews; R.A. Knapp; K.L. Pope

    2002-01-01

    ABSTRACT.—The dramatic amphibian population declines reported worldwide likely have important effects on their predators. In the Sierra Nevada, where amphibian declines are well documented and some are closely tied to the introduction of nonnative trout, the mountain garter snake, Thamnophis elegans elegans, preys predominately on amphibians. We surveyed 2103 high-...

  14. Partial hepatectomy in a Plains garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis radix with biliary cystadenoma: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Knotek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A four-year-old, captive-bred, female Plains garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis radix was presented with a large midbody distension (5 cm × 3 cm × 3 cm in the second third of the body length (total body length 123 cm. Contrast radiography technique excluded an envolvement of the oesophagus or stomach. Aspiration of 8 ml of acellular straw coloured fluid negative for presence of bacteria, fungi or parasites, reduced the swelling to a third of its original size. Surgical exploration revealed a pathologically changed central part of the liver with multiple different sized cysts. Histopathologically the diagnosis was defined as biliary cystadenoma. As the liver had a physiological appearance cranial and caudal to the central area, a partial hepatectomy was performed. The snake recovered well and started to feed spontaneously two days after surgery. During the check up two, four and seven months after hepatectomy, the snake was active and in a good condition. Hypoproteinaemia and altered activity of lactate dehydrogenase were present two months after surgery, azurophilia and hyperuricaemia were present in the blood sampled four months after hepatectomy. Except for azurophilia, the other values of the blood profile were within the expected range for a healthy snake seven months after surgery, indicating full recovery. This is the first detailed report of a successful central resection of a large pathologically changed part of the liver in snakes which was diagnosed as biliary cystadenoma.

  15. Brain nuclei in actively courting red-sided garter snakes: a paradigm of neural trimorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohmer, Randolph W; DeMarchi, Geno A; Baleckaitis, Daniel D; Lutterschmidt, Deborah I; Mason, Robert T

    2011-03-28

    During the breeding season, two distinct male phenotypes are exhibited by red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis), with courtship behavior being directed not only toward females, but also toward a sub-population of males called she-males. She-males are morphologically identical to other males except for a circulating androgen level three times that of normal males and their ability to produce a female-like pheromone. As in other vertebrates, limbic nuclei in the red-sided garter snake brain are involved in the control of sexual behaviors. For example, an intact anterior hypothalamus pre-optic area (AHPOA) is essential for the initiation and maintenance of reproduction. To determine if brain morphology varies among the three behavioral phenotypes (i.e., males, she-males, and females) during the breeding season, we examined the volume, cell size and cell density of the AHPOA as well as a control region, the external nucleus of the optic tract (ENOT). We used Luxol Fast Blue and Ziehl's Fuchsin to visualize neurons and glial cells, respectively. No significant differences were observed among the three behavioral phenotypes in the volume, cell size or density in the control region. In contrast, the volume, cell size and density of the AHPOA of she-males were significantly greater than those of both male and female snakes. While the volume of the AHPOA was significantly greater in females compared to males, no differences were observed in cell size or density. These differences in brain morphology suggest a possible underlying mechanism for phenotypic-specific behavioral patterns. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. How to make a sexy snake: estrogen activation of female sex pheromone in male red-sided garter snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M Rockwell; Mason, Robert T

    2012-03-01

    Vertebrates indicate their genetic sex to conspecifics using secondary sexual signals, and signal expression is often activated by sex hormones. Among vertebrate signaling modalities, the least is known about how hormones influence chemical signaling. Our study species, the red-sided garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis), is a model vertebrate for studying hormonal control of chemical signals because males completely rely on the female sex pheromone to identify potential mates among thousands of individuals. How sex hormones can influence the expression of this crucial sexual signal is largely unknown. We created two groups of experimental males for the first experiment: Sham (blank implants) and E2 (17β-estradiol implants). E2 males were vigorously courted by wild males in outdoor bioassays, and in a Y-maze E2 pheromone trails were chosen by wild males over those of small females and were indistinguishable from large female trails. Biochemically, the E2 pheromone blend was similar to that of large females, and it differed significantly from Shams. For the second experiment, we implanted males with 17β-estradiol in 2007 but removed the implants the following year (2008; Removal). That same year, we implanted a new group of males with estrogen implants (Implant). Removal males were courted by wild males in 2008 (implant intact) but not in 2009 (removed). Total pheromone quantity and quality increased following estrogen treatment, and estrogen removal re-established male-typical pheromone blends. Thus, we have shown that estrogen activates the production of female pheromone in adult red-sided garter snakes. This is the first known study to quantify both behavioral and biochemical responses in chemical signaling following sex steroid treatment of reptiles in the activation/organization context. We propose that the homogametic sex (ZZ, male) may possess the same targets for activation of sexual signal production, and the absence of the activator (17

  17. Sexual conflict over mating in red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis) as indicated by experimental manipulation of genitalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Christopher R; Uhrig, Emily J; Squire, Mattie K; Mason, Robert T; Brennan, Patricia L R

    2014-01-07

    Sexual conflict over mating can result in sex-specific morphologies and behaviours that allow each sex to exert control over the outcome of reproduction. Genital traits, in particular, are often directly involved in conflict interactions. Via genital manipulation, we experimentally investigated whether genital traits in red-sided garter snakes influence copulation duration and formation of a copulatory plug. The hemipenes of male red-sided garter snakes have a large basal spine that inserts into the female cloaca during mating. We ablated the spine and found that males were still capable of copulation but copulation duration was much shorter and copulatory plugs were smaller than those produced by intact males. We also anaesthetized the female cloacal region and found that anaesthetized females copulated longer than control females, suggesting that female cloacal and vaginal contractions play a role in controlling copulation duration. Both results, combined with known aspects of the breeding biology of red-sided garter snakes, strongly support the idea that sexual conflict is involved in mating interactions in this species. Our results demonstrate the complex interactions among male and female traits generated by coevolutionary processes in a wild population. Such complexity highlights the importance of simultaneous examination of male and female traits.

  18. Evolutionary ecology of endocrine-mediated life-history variation in the garter snake Thamnophis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparkman, Amanda M; Vleck, Carol M; Bronikowski, Anne M

    2009-03-01

    The endocrine system plays an integral role in the regulation of key life-history traits. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is a hormone that promotes growth and reproduction, and it has been implicated in the reduction of lifespan. IGF-1 is also capable of responding plastically to environmental stimuli such as resource availability and temperature. Thus pleiotropic control of life-history traits by IGF-1 could provide a mechanism for the evolution of correlated life-history traits in a new or changing environment. An ideal system in which to investigate the role of IGF-1 in life-history evolution exists in two ecotypes of the garter snake Thamnophis elegans, which derive from a single recent ancestral source but have evolved genetically divergent life-history characteristics. Snakes from meadow populations near Eagle Lake, California (USA) exhibit slower growth rates, lower annual reproductive output, and longer median adult lifespans relative to populations along the lakeshore. We hypothesized that the IGF-1 system has differentiated between these ecotypes and can account for increased growth and reproduction and reduced survival in lakeshore vs. meadow snakes. We tested for a difference in plasma IGF-1 levels in free-ranging snakes from replicate populations of each ecotype over three years. IGF-1 levels were significantly associated with adult body size, reproductive output, and season in a manner that reflects established differences in prey ecology and age/size-specific reproduction between the ecotypes. These findings are discussed in the context of theoretical expectations for a tradeoff between reproduction and lifespan that is mediated by pleiotropic endocrine mechanisms.

  19. Corticosterone and the transition from courtship behavior to dispersal in male red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cease, Arianne J; Lutterschmidt, Deborah I; Mason, Robert T

    2007-01-01

    Seasonal modulation of baseline glucocorticoid concentrations as well as the sensitivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis plays an important role in supporting critical life-history events such as seasonal reproduction and migration. Despite numerous studies on adrenocortical modulation, little is known about the exact timing of this seasonal modulation with respect to critical life-history stages. We tested the hypothesis that seasonal modulation of the HPA axis during the spring mating season in male red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) is temporally linked to the mechanisms regulating dispersal. We compared hormonal responses to capture stress in courting male red-sided garter snakes collected from the den site and den perimeter to those of dispersing snakes collected 0.6 km from the den. We also investigated possible changes in steroid hormones during the spring mating season. These studies support previous findings that plasma androgen and corticosterone concentrations significantly decline over the mating season. Our results demonstrate that males 0.6 km into a 15-20 km route to the feeding grounds have lower baseline corticosterone concentrations than male snakes actively courting at the den. Dispersing males also exhibit a typical stress response marked by a significant increase in corticosterone while actively courting males do not. Capture stress did not significantly influence androgen concentrations of either courting or dispersing male red-sided garter snakes. There were no significant differences in body composition indices among male snakes collected from the den, den perimeter, or 0.6 km away from the den. However, we did observe a significant negative correlation between baseline corticosterone levels and body composition indices. These data suggest that breeding is a distinct stage accompanied by specific physiological parameters that differ from those during dispersal to the feeding grounds. Our results

  20. Age-related sex differences in body condition and telomere dynamics of red-sided garter snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollings, Nicky; Uhrig, Emily J.; Krohmer, Randolph W.; Waye, Heather L.; Mason, Robert T.; Olsson, Mats; Whittington, Camilla M.

    2017-01-01

    Life-history strategies vary dramatically between the sexes, which may drive divergence in sex-specific senescence and mortality rates. Telomeres are tandem nucleotide repeats that protect the ends of chromosomes from erosion during cell division. Telomeres have been implicated in senescence and mortality because they tend to shorten with stress, growth and age. We investigated age-specific telomere length in female and male red-sided garter snakes, Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis. We hypothesized that age-specific telomere length would differ between males and females given their divergent reproductive strategies. Male garter snakes emerge from hibernation with high levels of corticosterone, which facilitates energy mobilization to fuel mate-searching, courtship and mating behaviours during a two to four week aphagous breeding period at the den site. Conversely, females remain at the dens for only about 4 days and seem to invest more energy in growth and cellular maintenance, as they usually reproduce biennially. As male investment in reproduction involves a yearly bout of physiologically stressful activities, while females prioritize self-maintenance, we predicted male snakes would experience more age-specific telomere loss than females. We investigated this prediction using skeletochronology to determine the ages of individuals and qPCR to determine telomere length in a cross-sectional study. For both sexes, telomere length was positively related to body condition. Telomere length decreased with age in male garter snakes, but remained stable in female snakes. There was no correlation between telomere length and growth in either sex, suggesting that our results are a consequence of divergent selection on life histories of males and females. Different selection on the sexes may be the physiological consequence of the sexual dimorphism and mating system dynamics displayed by this species. PMID:28381620

  1. Age-related sex differences in body condition and telomere dynamics of red-sided garter snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollings, Nicky; Uhrig, Emily J; Krohmer, Randolph W; Waye, Heather L; Mason, Robert T; Olsson, Mats; Whittington, Camilla M; Friesen, Christopher R

    2017-04-12

    Life-history strategies vary dramatically between the sexes, which may drive divergence in sex-specific senescence and mortality rates. Telomeres are tandem nucleotide repeats that protect the ends of chromosomes from erosion during cell division. Telomeres have been implicated in senescence and mortality because they tend to shorten with stress, growth and age. We investigated age-specific telomere length in female and male red-sided garter snakes, Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis We hypothesized that age-specific telomere length would differ between males and females given their divergent reproductive strategies. Male garter snakes emerge from hibernation with high levels of corticosterone, which facilitates energy mobilization to fuel mate-searching, courtship and mating behaviours during a two to four week aphagous breeding period at the den site. Conversely, females remain at the dens for only about 4 days and seem to invest more energy in growth and cellular maintenance, as they usually reproduce biennially. As male investment in reproduction involves a yearly bout of physiologically stressful activities, while females prioritize self-maintenance, we predicted male snakes would experience more age-specific telomere loss than females. We investigated this prediction using skeletochronology to determine the ages of individuals and qPCR to determine telomere length in a cross-sectional study. For both sexes, telomere length was positively related to body condition. Telomere length decreased with age in male garter snakes, but remained stable in female snakes. There was no correlation between telomere length and growth in either sex, suggesting that our results are a consequence of divergent selection on life histories of males and females. Different selection on the sexes may be the physiological consequence of the sexual dimorphism and mating system dynamics displayed by this species. © 2017 The Author(s).

  2. Parallel evolution of tetrodotoxin resistance in three voltage-gated sodium channel genes in the garter snake Thamnophis sirtalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlothlin, Joel W; Chuckalovcak, John P; Janes, Daniel E; Edwards, Scott V; Feldman, Chris R; Brodie, Edmund D; Pfrender, Michael E; Brodie, Edmund D

    2014-11-01

    Members of a gene family expressed in a single species often experience common selection pressures. Consequently, the molecular basis of complex adaptations may be expected to involve parallel evolutionary changes in multiple paralogs. Here, we use bacterial artificial chromosome library scans to investigate the evolution of the voltage-gated sodium channel (Nav) family in the garter snake Thamnophis sirtalis, a predator of highly toxic Taricha newts. Newts possess tetrodotoxin (TTX), which blocks Nav's, arresting action potentials in nerves and muscle. Some Thamnophis populations have evolved resistance to extremely high levels of TTX. Previous work has identified amino acid sites in the skeletal muscle sodium channel Nav1.4 that confer resistance to TTX and vary across populations. We identify parallel evolution of TTX resistance in two additional Nav paralogs, Nav1.6 and 1.7, which are known to be expressed in the peripheral nervous system and should thus be exposed to ingested TTX. Each paralog contains at least one TTX-resistant substitution identical to a substitution previously identified in Nav1.4. These sites are fixed across populations, suggesting that the resistant peripheral nerves antedate resistant muscle. In contrast, three sodium channels expressed solely in the central nervous system (Nav1.1-1.3) showed no evidence of TTX resistance, consistent with protection from toxins by the blood-brain barrier. We also report the exon-intron structure of six Nav paralogs, the first such analysis for snake genes. Our results demonstrate that the molecular basis of adaptation may be both repeatable across members of a gene family and predictable based on functional considerations. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  3. Corticosterone and pace of life in two life-history ecotypes of the garter snake Thamnophis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Maria G; Sparkman, Amanda M; Bronikowski, Anne M

    2012-02-01

    Glucocorticoids are main candidates for mediating life-history trade-offs by regulating the balance between current reproduction and survival. It has been proposed that slow-living organisms should show higher stress-induced glucocorticoid levels that favor self-maintenance rather than current reproduction when compared to fast-living organisms. We tested this hypothesis in replicate populations of two ecotypes of the garter snake (Thamnophis elegans) that exhibit slow and fast pace of life strategies. We subjected free-ranging snakes to a capture-restraint protocol and compared the stress-induced corticosterone levels between slow- and fast-living snakes. We also used a five-year dataset to assess whether baseline corticosterone levels followed the same pattern as stress-induced levels in relation to pace of life. In accordance with the hypothesis, slow-living snakes showed higher stress-induced corticosterone levels than fast-living snakes. Baseline corticosterone levels showed a similar pattern with ecotype, although differences depended on the year of study. Overall, however, levels of glucocorticoids are higher in slow-living than fast-living snakes, which should favor self-maintenance and survival at the expense of current reproduction. The results of the present study are the first to relate glucocorticoid levels and pace of life in a reptilian system and contribute to our understanding of the physiological mechanisms involved in life-history evolution. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Fasting for 21days leads to changes in adipose tissue and liver physiology in juvenile checkered garter snakes (Thamnophis marcianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Mary; Jessee, Renee; Close, Matthew; Fu, Xiangping; Settlage, Robert; Wang, Guoqing; Cline, Mark A; Gilbert, Elizabeth R

    2015-12-01

    Snakes often undergo periods of prolonged fasting and, under certain conditions, can survive years without food. Despite this unique phenomenon, there are relatively few reports of the physiological adaptations to fasting in snakes. At post-prandial day 1 (fed) or 21 (fasting), brain, liver, and adipose tissues were collected from juvenile checkered garter snakes (Thamnophis marcianus). There was greater glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH)-specific activity in the liver of fasted than fed snakes (P=0.01). The mRNA abundance of various fat metabolism-associated factors was measured in brain, liver, and adipose tissue. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) mRNA was greater in fasted than fed snakes in the brain (P=0.04). Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL; P=0.006) mRNA was greater in the liver of fasted than fed snakes. In adipose tissue, expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ (P=0.01), and fatty acid binding protein 4 (P=0.03) was greater in fed than fasted snakes. Analysis of adipocyte morphology revealed that cross-sectional area (P=0.095) and diameter (P=0.27) were not significantly different between fed and fasted snakes. Results suggest that mean adipocyte area can be preserved during fasting by dampening lipid biosynthesis while not changing rates of lipid hydrolysis. In the liver, however, extensive lipid remodeling may provide energy and lipoproteins to maintain lipid structural integrity during energy restriction. Because the duration of fasting was not sufficient to change adipocyte size, results suggest that the liver is important as a short-term provider of energy in the snake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. GENETIC BASIS OF ACTIVITY METABOLISM. I. INHERITANCE OF SPEED, STAMINA, AND ANTIPREDATOR DISPLAYS IN THE GARTER SNAKE THAMNOPHIS SIRTALIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Theodore

    1988-03-01

    Recent conceptual advances in physiological ecology emphasize the potential selective importance of whole-animal performance. Empirical studies of locomotor performance in reptiles have revealed surprising amounts of individual variation in speed and stamina. The present study is the first in a series examining the genetic basis of variation in locomotor performance, activity metabolism, and associated behaviors in garter snakes. Maximal sprint crawling speed, treadmill endurance, and antipredator displays (Arnold and Bennett, 1984; exhibited as snakes reached exhaustion on the treadmill) were measured for approximately six offspring (presumed to be full siblings) from each of 46 wild-caught gravid garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis). Each character was measured on two days; all were individually repeatable. Correlations of these characters with body mass, snout-vent length, age at testing, litter size, dam mass, and dam snout-vent length were removed by computing residuals from multiple-regression equations. These residuals were used in subsequent genetic analyses. Approximate coefficients of variation of residuals were 17% for speed, 48% for endurance, and 31% for antipredator displays. Broad-sense heritabilities were significant for all characters: speed h 2 = 0.58; stamina h 2 = 0.70; antipredator display h 2 = 0.42. All three residual characters showed positive and statistically significant phenotypic correlations (r = 0.19-0.36). Genetic correlations (estimated and tested by restricted maximum likelihood) among residuals were positive and highly significant between speed and endurance (0.58), but nonsignificant between speed and antipredator display (0.43), and between endurance and antipredator display (0.26). All environmental correlations were nonsignificant. These data suggest that, contrary to expectations based on previous physiological studies, there may be no necessary evolutionary trade-off between speed and stamina in these animals. This tentative

  6. Purification and characterization of a chemoattractant from electric shock-induced earthworm secretion, its receptor binding, and signal transduction through the vomeronasal system of garter snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, X C; Inouchi, J; Wang, D; Halpern, M

    1990-05-25

    Following shocks with low voltage electric current, earthworms, Lumbricus terrestris, secrete a yellow mucus that has alarm properties for conspecifics and chemoattractive properties for garter snakes, Thamnophis sirtalis. A proteinaceous chemoattractant for garter snakes has been isolated and purified to homogeneity from such secretions by means of permeation chromatography and semipreparative nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The purified protein is highly attractive to garter snakes; it loses its activity after proteolytic digestion. It is a glycoprotein consisting of a single polypeptide chain with an NH2-terminal alanine. This chemoattractant has a minimum molecular mass of 15.4 kDa calculated from its amino acid and carbohydrate contents and an apparent molecular mass of about 20 kDa as estimated from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. It has a pI of about 4.0, and it binds wheat germ agglutinin but not concanavalin A. This chemoattractant shows a protein to carbohydrate ratio of 2.0 +/- 0.08 (n = 5) and a ratio of total sugar to amino sugar of 1.9 +/- 0.08 (n = 3). The sequence of its NH2-terminal 15 amino acid residues has been determined. Studies were also conducted on the chemosignal transduction through the vomeronasal sensory system of the garter snake. Dot blot analysis showed that the purified chemoattractant bound to snake vomeronasal sensory epithelial membrane fractions. It did not bind to membrane extracts of the nonsensory epithelium of the vomeronasal mushroom body. The chemoattractant also bound specifically to vomeronasal sensory epithelial membrane in a reversible and saturable fashion with Kd and Bmax values of about 0.3 microM and 0.4 nmol/mg of protein, respectively. In electrophysiological studies, the chemoattractant applied to the vomeronasal epithelium caused an increase in firing rate of individual neurons in the accessory olfactory bulb of garter snakes, the projection site for vomeronasal

  7. Stochastic population dynamics in populations of western terrestrial garter snakes with divergent life histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David A; Clark, William R; Arnold, Stevan J; Bronikowski, Anne M

    2011-08-01

    Comparative evaluations of population dynamics in species with temporal and spatial variation in life-history traits are rare because they require long-term demographic time series from multiple populations. We present such an analysis using demographic data collected during the interval 1978-1996 for six populations of western terrestrial garter snakes (Thamnophis elegans) from two evolutionarily divergent ecotypes. Three replicate populations from a slow-living ecotype, found in mountain meadows of northeastern California, were characterized by individuals that develop slowly, mature late, reproduce infrequently with small reproductive effort, and live longer than individuals of three populations of a fast-living ecotype found at lakeshore locales. We constructed matrix population models for each of the populations based on 8-13 years of data per population and analyzed both deterministic dynamics based on mean annual vital rates and stochastic dynamics incorporating annual variation in vital rates. (1) Contributions of highly variable vital rates to fitness (lambda(s)) were buffered against the negative effects of stochastic variation, and this relationship was consistent with differences between the meadow (M-slow) and lakeshore (L-fast) ecotypes. (2) Annual variation in the proportion of gravid females had the greatest negative effect among all vital rates on lambda(s). The magnitude of variation in the proportion of gravid females and its effect on lambda(s) was greater in M-slow than L-fast populations. (3) Variation in the proportion of gravid females, in turn, depended on annual variation in prey availability, and its effect on lambda(s) was 4 23 times greater in M-slow than L-fast populations. In addition to differences in stochastic dynamics between ecotypes, we also found higher mean mortality rates across all age classes in the L-fast populations. Our results suggest that both deterministic and stochastic selective forces have affected the evolution of

  8. Why Did the Snake Cross the Road? Effects of Roads on Movement and Location of Mates by Garter Snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Shine

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available If animals avoid road surfaces or are unable to follow conspecific trails across such surfaces, previously continuous populations may be fragmented. We gathered data on the effects of a small (4-m wide gravel road on the behavior and trail-following abilities of garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis in Manitoba, central Canada. As expected, the road surface had less vegetation cover, a more open canopy and, thus, higher incident radiation than did the surrounding grassland. Contrary to expectations, however, substrate temperatures were lower on the road than in its surrounds, because of the higher reflectivity of the road's surface. On a nearby asphalt road, substrate temperatures were relatively high on the road surface only in the evening, as surrounding areas cooled. Focal sampling showed that snakes avoided the gravel road, typically changing direction when they encountered it. If they crossed the road, they did so by the shortest possible route (straight across. Mate-searching male snakes were less able to follow substrate-deposited pheromonal trails left by females if those trails crossed a road than if the trails were entirely within the surrounding grassland. Thus, roads may significantly modify snake movement patterns, as well as the ability of males to locate reproductive females. Our study provides the first detailed information on the effects of roads on snake behavior.

  9. An empirical test of evolutionary theories for reproductive senescence and reproductive effort in the garter snake Thamnophis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparkman, Amanda M; Arnold, Stevan J; Bronikowski, Anne M

    2007-04-07

    Evolutionary theory predicts that differential reproductive effort and rate of reproductive senescence will evolve under different rates of external mortality. We examine the evolutionary divergence of age-specific reproduction in two life-history ecotypes of the western terrestrial garter snake, Thamnophis elegans. We test for the signature of reproductive senescence (decreasing fecundity with age) and increasing reproductive effort with age (increasing reproductive productivity per gram female) in replicate populations of two life-history ecotypes: snakes that grow fast, mature young and have shorter lifespans, and snakes that grow slow, mature late and have long lives. The difference between life-history ecotypes is due to genetic divergence in growth rate. We find (i) reproductive success (live litter mass) increases with age in both ecotypes, but does so more rapidly in the fast-growth ecotype, (ii) reproductive failure increases with age in both ecotypes, but the proportion of reproductive failure to total reproductive output remains invariant, and (iii) reproductive effort remains constant in fast-growth individuals with age, but declines in slow-growth individuals. This illustration of increasing fecundity with age, even at the latest ages, deviates from standard expectations for reproductive senescence, as does the lack of increases in reproductive effort. We discuss our findings in light of recent theories regarding the phenomenon of increased reproduction throughout life in organisms with indeterminate growth and its potential to offset theoretical expectations for the ubiquity of senescence.

  10. The effects of maternal corticosterone levels on offspring behavior in fast- and slow-growth garter snakes (Thamnophis elegans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Kylie A; Vleck, Carol; Bronikowski, Anne M

    2009-01-01

    During embryonic development, viviparous offspring are exposed to maternally circulating hormones. Maternal stress increases offspring exposure to corticosterone and this hormonal exposure has the potential to influence developmental, morphological and behavioral traits of the resulting offspring. We treated pregnant female garter snakes (Thamnophis elegans) with low levels of corticosterone after determining both natural corticosterone levels in the field and pre-treatment levels upon arrival in the lab. Additional measurements of plasma corticosterone were taken at days 1, 5, and 10 during the 10-day exposure, which occurred during the last third of gestation (of 4-month gestation). These pregnant snakes were from replicate populations of fast- and slow-growth ecotypes occurring in Northern California, with concomitant short and long lifespans. Field corticosterone levels of pregnant females of the slow-growth ecotype were an order of magnitude higher than fast-growth dams. In the laboratory, corticosterone levels increased over the 10 days of corticosterone manipulation for animals of both ecotypes, and reached similar plateaus for both control and treated dams. Despite similar plasma corticosterone levels in treated and control mothers, corticosterone-treated dams produced more stillborn offspring and exhibited higher total reproductive failure than control dams. At one month of age, offspring from fast-growth females had higher plasma corticosterone levels than offspring from slow-growth females, which is opposite the maternal pattern. Offspring from corticosterone-treated mothers, although unaffected in their slither speed, exhibited changes in escape behaviors and morphology that were dependent upon maternal ecotype. Offspring from corticosterone-treated fast-growth females exhibited less anti-predator reversal behavior; offspring from corticosterone-treated slow-growth females exhibited less anti-predator tail lashing behavior.

  11. Neurogenesis in the vomeronasal epithelium of adult garter snakes: 3. Use of 3H-thymidine autoradiography to trace the genesis and migration of bipolar neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, R.T.; Halpern, M.

    1988-01-01

    Use of 3H-thymidine autoradiography and unilateral vomeronasal (VN) axotomy has permitted us to demonstrate directly the existence of VN stem cells in the adult garter snake and to trace continuous bipolar neuron development and migration in the normal VN and deafferentated VN epithelium in the same animal. The vomeronasal epithelium and olfactory epithelium of adult garter snakes are both capable of incorporating 3H-thymidine. In the sensory epithelium of the vomeronasal organ, 3H-thymidine-labeled cells were initially restricted to the base of the undifferentiated cell layer in animals surviving 1 day following 3H-thymidine injection. With increasing survival time, labeled cells progressively migrated vertically within the receptor cell column toward the apex of the bipolar neuron layer. In both the normal and denervated VN epithelium, labeled cells were observed through the 56 days of postoperative survival. In the normal epithelium, labeled cells were always located within the matrix of the intact receptor cell columns. However, labeled cells of the denervated epithelium were always located at the apical front of the newly formed cell mass following depletion of the original neuronal cell population. In addition, at postoperative days 28 and 56, labeled cells of the denervated VN epithelium achieved neuronal differentiation and maturation by migrating much farther away from the base of the receptor cell column than the labeled cells on the normal, unoperated contralateral side. This study directly demonstrates that basal cells initially incorporating 3H-thymidine are indeed stem cells of the VN epithelium in adult garter snakes

  12. Insulin-like signaling (IIS) responses to temperature, genetic background, and growth variation in garter snakes with divergent life histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reding, Dawn M; Addis, Elizabeth A; Palacios, Maria G; Schwartz, Tonia S; Bronikowski, Anne M

    2016-07-01

    The insulin/insulin-like signaling pathway (IIS) has been shown to mediate life history trade-offs in mammalian model organisms, but the function of this pathway in wild and non-mammalian organisms is understudied. Populations of western terrestrial garter snakes (Thamnophis elegans) around Eagle Lake, California, have evolved variation in growth and maturation rates, mortality senescence rates, and annual reproductive output that partition into two ecotypes: "fast-living" and "slow-living". Thus, genes associated with the IIS network are good candidates for investigating the mechanisms underlying ecological divergence in this system. We reared neonates from each ecotype for 1.5years under two thermal treatments. We then used qPCR to compare mRNA expression levels in three tissue types (brain, liver, skeletal muscle) for four genes (igf1, igf2, igf1r, igf2r), and we used radioimmunoassay to measure plasma IGF-1 and IGF-2 protein levels. Our results show that, in contrast to most mammalian model systems, igf2 mRNA and protein levels exceed those of igf1 and suggest an important role for igf2 in postnatal growth in reptiles. Thermal rearing treatment and recent growth had greater impacts on IGF levels than genetic background (i.e., ecotype), and the two ecotypes responded similarly. This suggests that observed ecotypic differences in field measures of IGFs may more strongly reflect plastic responses in different environments than evolutionary divergence. Future analyses of additional components of the IIS pathway and sequence divergence between the ecotypes will further illuminate how environmental and genetic factors influence the endocrine system and its role in mediating life history trade-offs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Sex or candy? Neuroendocrine regulation of the seasonal transition from courtship to feeding behavior in male red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutterschmidt, Deborah I; Maine, Ashley R

    2014-06-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Energy Balance". Seasonal modulation of glucocorticoids plays an important role in supporting critical life-history events, and probably facilitates transitions between different life-history stages. In a well-studied population of red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis), glucocorticoids are elevated during the mating season, but males dispersing to summer feeding grounds have significantly lower baseline glucocorticoids than courting males at the den. We tested the hypothesis that decreased plasma glucocorticoids mediate the behavioral switch between reproduction and foraging in this species. Using a two-choice Y-maze paradigm, we demonstrate that males treated with the glucocorticoid synthesis inhibitor metyrapone (1 and 3mg implants) prefer feeding cues (worm trail) over reproductive cues (female pheromone trail) significantly earlier than control-treated snakes. The metyrapone-induced changes in appetitive feeding behavior were independent of changes in plasma androgens and body mass loss. Metyrapone-treated males continued to court females at levels similar to those of control-treated snakes, suggesting that appetitive reproductive and ingestive behaviors are not mutually exclusive during this life-history transition. Consistent with this hypothesis, metyrapone treatment did not alter the number of arginine vasotocin-immunoreactive cells in any brain region, while it significantly increased neuropeptide Y-immunoreactive cell number in both the cortex and nucleus sphericus (homologues of the mammalian hippocampus and amygdala, respectively). Our results suggest that male red-sided garter snakes have the potential to maximize reproductive opportunities by continuing to court females they encounter even as they disperse from the den in search of food. Taken together, these data have important implications for understanding the neuroecology of seasonal life-history transitions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier

  14. Alaria mesocercariae in the tails of red-sided garter snakes: Evidence for parasite-mediated caudectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Uhrig, Emily J.; Spagnoli, Sean T.; Tkach, Vasyl V.; Kent, Michael L.; Mason, Robert T.

    2015-01-01

    Trematodes of the genus Alaria develop into an arrested stage, known as mesocercariae, within their amphibian second intermediate host. The mesocercariae are frequently transmitted to a non-obligate paratenic host before reaching a definitive host where further development and reproduction can occur. Snakes are common paratenic hosts for Alaria spp. with the mesocercariae often aggregating in the host’s tail. In the current study, we used morphological examination and molecu...

  15. Snakes! Snakes! Snakes!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nature Naturally, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Designed for students in grades 4-6, the teaching unit presents illustrations and facts about snakes. Topics include common snakes found in the United States, how snakes eat, how snakes shed their skin, poisonous snakes, the Eastern Indigo snake, and the anatomy of a snake. A student page includes a crossword puzzle and surprising snake facts. A…

  16. Seasonal variation in cell proliferation and cell migration in the brain of adult red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maine, Ashley R; Powers, Sean D; Lutterschmidt, Deborah I

    2014-01-01

    Plasticity in the adult central nervous system has been described in all vertebrate classes as well as in some invertebrate groups. However, the limited taxonomic diversity represented in the current neurogenesis literature limits our ability to assess the functional significance of adult neurogenesis for natural behaviors as well as the evolution of its regulatory mechanisms. In the present study, we used free-ranging red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) to test the hypothesis that seasonal shifts in physiology and behavior are associated with seasonal variation in postembryonic neurogenesis. Specifically, we used the thymidine analog 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to determine if the rates of cell proliferation in the adult brain vary between male snakes collected during spring and fall at 1, 5, and 10 days post-BrdU treatment. To assess rates of cell migration within the brain, we further categorized BrdU-labeled cells according to their location within the ventricular zone or parenchymal region. BrdU-labeled cells were localized mainly within the lateral, dorsal, and medial cortex, septal nucleus, nucleus sphericus, preoptic area, and hypothalamus. In all regions, the number of BrdU-labeled cells in the ventricular zone was higher in the fall compared to spring. In the parenchymal region, a significantly higher number of labeled cells was also observed during the fall, but only within the nucleus sphericus and the combined preoptic area/hypothalamus. The immunoreactive cell number did not vary significantly with days post-BrdU treatment in either season or in any brain region. While it is possible that the higher rates of cell proliferation in the fall simply reflect increased growth of all body tissues, including the brain, our data show that seasonal changes in cell migration into the parenchyma are region specific. In red-sided garter snakes and other reptiles, the dorsal and medial cortex is important for spatial navigation and memory

  17. Complex interplay of body condition, life history, and prevailing environment shapes immune defenses of garter snakes in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Maria G; Cunnick, Joan E; Bronikowski, Anne M

    2013-01-01

    The immunocompetence "pace-of-life" hypothesis proposes that fast-living organisms should invest more in innate immune defenses and less in adaptive defenses compared to slow-living ones. We found some support for this hypothesis in two life-history ecotypes of the snake Thamnophis elegans; fast-living individuals show higher levels of innate immunity compared to slow-living ones. Here, we optimized a lymphocyte proliferation assay to assess the complementary prediction that slow-living snakes should in turn show stronger adaptive defenses. We also assessed the "environmental" hypothesis that predicts that slow-living snakes should show lower levels of immune defenses (both innate and adaptive) given the harsher environment they live in. Proliferation of B- and T-lymphocytes of free-living individuals was on average higher in fast-living than slow-living snakes, opposing the pace-of-life hypothesis and supporting the environmental hypothesis. Bactericidal capacity of plasma, an index of innate immunity, did not differ between fast-living and slow-living snakes in this study, contrasting the previously documented pattern and highlighting the importance of annual environmental conditions as determinants of immune profiles of free-living animals. Our results do not negate a link between life history and immunity, as indicated by ecotype-specific relationships between lymphocyte proliferation and body condition, but suggest more subtle nuances than those currently proposed.

  18. Cutaneous Chromatophoromas in Captive Snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Gutiérrez, J F; Garner, M M; Kiupel, M

    2016-11-01

    Chromatophoromas are neoplasms arising from pigment-bearing cells (chromatophores) of the dermis. While isolated cases have been reported in the literature, the prevalence and biological behavior of chromatophoromas in snakes are unknown. Forty-two chromatophoromas were identified among 4663 submissions (0.9%) to a private diagnostic laboratory in a 16-year period. The most commonly affected snakes were colubrids (23 cases, 55%) and vipers (8 cases, 19%). The San Francisco garter snake was the most commonly affected species (6 cases; 14% of all affected snake species and 3.7% of all garter snake submissions). No sex predilection was found. The age of 28 snakes ranged from 5 to 27 years. Single cutaneous chromatophoromas were most commonly observed and presented as pigmented cutaneous masses or plaques along any body segment. Euthanasia or death due to progressive neoplastic disease or metastasis was reported in 8 (19%) and 4 (10%) cases, respectively. The survival time of 4 animals ranged from 4 to 36 months. Microscopically, xanthophoromas, iridophoromas, melanocytic neoplasms, and mixed chromatophoromas were identified, with melanocytic neoplasms being most common. Microscopic examination alone was generally sufficient for the diagnosis of chromatophoroma, but immunohistochemistry for S-100 and PNL-2 may be helpful for diagnosing poorly pigmented cases. Moderate to marked nuclear atypia appears to be consistently present in cutaneous chromatophoromas with a high risk of metastasis, while mitotic count, lymphatic invasion, the level of infiltration, and the degree of pigmentation or ulceration were not reliable predictors of metastasis. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Patterns of stress responses shift during seasonal life-history transitions: An analysis comparing baseline, maximal and integrated corticosterone in female red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayger, Catherine A; Lutterschmidt, Deborah I

    2017-05-15

    Glucocorticoids often rise and fall with a variety of external and internal cues and frequently vary among life-history stages. This suggests that changing glucocorticoids may coordinate life-history transitions. To explore this hypothesis, we asked if the time-course of stress-induced glucocorticoid levels differ between two life-history transitions (i.e., spring and fall migration) in female red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis). We collected non-migratory females from a communal den and migratory females from a road along the migration route and treated them with 4h of capture stress; plasma corticosterone was measured before, during and after capture stress. During the spring, den-collected females exhibited a stress-induced peak in corticosterone at an earlier sampling time than migrating, road-collected females. Because the pattern of corticosterone responses varied with migratory state, negative feedback on and/or sensitivity of the hypothalamus-pituitaryadrenal (HPA) axis may be linked to spring migration. During the fall, capture stress elicited an increase in corticosterone in den-collected females but not in migrating, road-collected females. Baseline corticosterone was higher and both maximal and integrated corticosterone responses were lower during the fall compared to spring, indicating that stress responses are smaller when baseline corticosterone is elevated, perhaps due to a "ceiling effect". These data suggest that HPA axis regulation changes during seasonal migration, possibly via altering negative feedback, HPA axis sensitivity, or some other mechanism. This study supports the hypothesis that glucocorticoids coordinate life-history events and suggests that examining a suite of stress response characteristics is most informative for understanding the function of HPA modulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Postmortem examination of Australian sea snakes ( Hydrophiinae): Anatomy and common pathologic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, Amber K; Ploeg, Richard; Flint, Mark; Mills, Paul C

    2017-09-01

    There is limited published information about disease in wild sea snakes and no standardized guideline for postmortem examination of sea snakes. Identifying causes of morbidity and mortality of marine vertebrate species has been pivotal to understanding disease factors implicated in stranding events and assisting with the formulation of conservation plans. Additionally, postmortem findings can provide valuable information on life history traits and the ecology of these reclusive species. Sick, moribund, or dead sea snakes are intermittently washed ashore along Australian and international beaches and provide an opportunity to examine a subset of the population and identify causes of population decline. We present an illustrated description of sea snake anatomy and describe a systematic approach to postmortem examination of sea snakes. We describe common pathologic conditions identified from clinical and postmortem examinations of stranded Australian sea snakes from southeast Queensland. Notable pathologic conditions include traumatic injury, inflammatory conditions, parasitic infections, and neoplasia.

  1. Debunking the viper's strike: harmless snakes kill a common assumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penning, David A; Sawvel, Baxter; Moon, Brad R

    2016-03-01

    To survive, organisms must avoid predation and acquire nutrients and energy. Sensory systems must correctly differentiate between potential predators and prey, and elicit behaviours that adjust distances accordingly. For snakes, strikes can serve both purposes. Vipers are thought to have the fastest strikes among snakes. However, strike performance has been measured in very few species, especially non-vipers. We measured defensive strike performance in harmless Texas ratsnakes and two species of vipers, western cottonmouths and western diamond-backed rattlesnakes, using high-speed video recordings. We show that ratsnake strike performance matches or exceeds that of vipers. In contrast with the literature over the past century, vipers do not represent the pinnacle of strike performance in snakes. Both harmless and venomous snakes can strike with very high accelerations that have two key consequences: the accelerations exceed values that can cause loss of consciousness in other animals, such as the accelerations experienced by jet pilots during extreme manoeuvres, and they make the strikes faster than the sensory and motor responses of mammalian prey and predators. Both harmless and venomous snakes can strike faster than the blink of an eye and often reach a target before it can move. © 2016 The Author(s).

  2. Patrones espaciales de la riqueza específica de las culebras Thamnophis en México Spatial patterns of species richness of garter snakes Thamnophis in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystian Sadiel Venegas-Barrera

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se identificaron tanto las áreas de mayor riqueza específica de las culebras del género Thamnophis y su presencia en las provincias biogeográficas y las Regiones Terrestres Prioritarias (RTP, como los factores antropogénicos que pueden influir en su distribución. Con la combinación de mapas de distribución potencial de las especies se creó un mapa de riqueza específica para calcular el porcentaje de celdas ocupadas por el género dentro de cada provincia biogeográfica, de cada RTP y conocer el tipo de uso de suelo. Además, se obtuvo la complementariedad de especies y la ordenación de las RTP a partir de su composición específica. El género se distribuyó en el 80.5% de México, en todas sus provincias biogeográficas. Los estados de Durango, Michoacán, Puebla, Veracruz y Oaxaca presentaron la mayor riqueza específica. Potencialmente, el género puede encontrarse en el 96% de las RTP de México con un patrón altitudinal y climático. De 6 grupos de las RTP, el grupo oriental presentó la mayor riqueza específica. El 25.8% de la distribución potencial del género se encontró en áreas modificadas por el hombre. Se discuten los patrones de distribución bajo una perspectiva ecológica, biogeográfica y de conservación y se sugiere comprobar la riqueza específica potencial con estudios de campo.We identified areas of high species richness of snakes of the genus Thamnophis, their presence within biogeographic provinces and Terrestrial Priority Regions (TPR. We also identified anthropogenic factors that may influence their distribution. We created a map of species richness from the combination of potential distribution maps of species to calculate the percentage of cells occupied by the genus within each biogeographic province, TPR and type of land use. In addition, we obtained the complementarity of species and the ordination of TPR from its species composition. The genus is distributed in 80.5% of Mexico, in all biogeographic

  3. Inter- and intraspecific variation in mercury bioaccumulation by snakes inhabiting a contaminated river floodplain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewett, David V V; Willson, John D; Cristol, Daniel A; Chin, Stephanie Y; Hopkins, William A

    2013-04-01

    Although mercury (Hg) is a well-studied contaminant, knowledge about Hg accumulation in snakes is limited. The authors evaluated Hg bioaccumulation within and among four snake species (northern watersnakes, Nerodia sipedon; queen snakes, Regina septemvittata; common garter snakes, Thamnophis sirtalis; and rat snakes, Elaphe obsoleta [Pantherophis alleghaniensis]) from a contaminated site on the South River (Waynesboro, VA, USA) and two nearby reference sites. Total Hg (THg) concentrations in northern watersnake tail tissue at the contaminated site ranged from 2.25 to 13.84 mg/kg dry weight (mean: 4.85 ± 0.29), or 11 to 19 times higher than reference sites. Blood THg concentrations (0.03-7.04 mg/kg wet wt; mean: 2.24 ± 0.42) were strongly correlated with tail concentrations and were the highest yet reported in a snake species. Within watersnakes, nitrogen stable isotope values indicated ontogenetic trophic shifts that correlated with THg bioaccumulation, suggesting that diet plays a substantial role in Hg exposure. Female watersnakes had higher mean THg concentrations (5.67 ± 0.46 mg/kg) than males (4.93 ± 0.49 mg/kg), but no significant differences between sexes were observed after correcting for body size. Interspecific comparisons identified differences in THg concentrations among snake species, with more aquatic species (watersnakes and queen snakes) accumulating higher mean concentrations (5.60 ± 0.40 and 4.59 ± 0.38 mg/kg in tail tissue, respectively) than the more terrestrial species, garter snakes and rat snakes (1.28 ± 0.32 and 0.26 ± 0.09 mg/kg, respectively). The results of the present study warrant further investigation of potential adverse effects and will aid in prioritizing conservation efforts. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  4. A resistant predator and its toxic prey: persistence of newt toxin leads to poisonous (not venomous) snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Becky L; Brodie, Edmund D; Brodie, Edmund D

    2004-10-01

    The common garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis) preys upon the rough-skinned newt (Taricha granulosa), which contains the neurotoxin tetrodotoxin (TTX) in the skin. TTX is toxic, large quantities are present in a newt, and highly resistant snakes have the ability to ingest multiple newts; subsequently snakes harbor significant amounts of active toxin in their own tissues after consuming a newt. Snakes harbor TTX in the liver for 1 mo or more after consuming just one newt, and at least 7 wk after consuming a diet of newts. Three weeks after eating one newt, snakes contained an average of 42 microg of TTX in the liver. This amount could severely incapacitate or kill avian predators, and mammalian predators may be negatively affected as well.

  5. Giant Garter Snake Range - CWHR [ds599

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  6. [Identification of common medicinal snakes in medicated liquor of Guangdong by COI barcode sequence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jing; Chao, Zhi; Zhang, Liang

    2013-11-01

    To identify the common snakes in medicated liquor of Guangdong using COI barcode sequence,and to test the feasibility. The COI barcode sequences of collected medicinal snakes were amplified and sequenced. The sequences combined with the data from GenBank were analyzed for divergence and building a neighbor-joining(NJ) tree with MEGA 5.0. The genetic distance and NJ tree demonstrated that there were 241 variable sites in these species, and the average (A + T) content of 56.2% was higher than the average (G + C) content of 43.7%. The maximum interspecific genetic distance was 0.2568, and the minimum was 0. 1519. In the NJ tree,each species formed a monophyletic clade with bootstrap supports of 100%. DNA barcoding identification method based on the COI sequence is accurate and can be applied to identify the common medicinal snakes.

  7. Antivenom Cross-Neutralization of the Venoms of Hydrophis schistosus and Hydrophis curtus, Two Common Sea Snakes in Malaysian Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choo Hock Tan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sea snake envenomation is a serious occupational hazard in tropical waters. In Malaysia, the beaked sea snake (Hydrophis schistosus, formerly known as Enhydrina schistosa and the spine-bellied sea snake (Hydrophis curtus, formerly known as Lapemis curtus or Lapemis hardwickii are two commonly encountered species. Australian CSL sea snake antivenom is the definitive treatment for sea snake envenomation; it is unfortunately extremely costly locally and is not widely available or adequately stocked in local hospitals. This study investigated the cross-neutralizing potential of three regionally produced anti-cobra antivenoms against the venoms of Malaysian H. schistosus and H. curtus. All three antivenoms conferred paraspecific protection from sea snake venom lethality in mice, with potency increasing in the following order: Taiwan bivalent antivenom < Thai monocled cobra monovalent antivenom < Thai neuro polyvalent antivenom (NPAV. NPAV demonstrated cross-neutralizing potencies of 0.4 mg/vial for H. schistosus venom and 0.8 mg/vial for H. curtus, which translates to a dose of less than 20 vials of NPAV to neutralize an average amount of sea snake venom per bite (inferred from venom milking. The cross-neutralization activity was supported by ELISA cross-reactivity between NPAV and the venoms of H. schistosus (58.4% and H. curtus (70.4%. These findings revealed the potential of NPAV as a second-line treatment for sea snake envenomation in the region. Further profiling of the cross-neutralization activity should address the antivenomic basis using purified toxin-based assays.

  8. [DNA barcoding and its utility in commonly-used medicinal snakes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yong; Zhang, Yue-yun; Zhao, Cheng-jian; Xu, Yong-li; Gu, Ying-le; Huang, Wen-qi; Lin, Kui; Li, Li

    2015-03-01

    Identification accuracy of traditional Chinese medicine is crucial for the traditional Chinese medicine research, production and application. DNA barcoding based on the mitochondrial gene coding for cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), are more and more used for identification of traditional Chinese medicine. Using universal barcoding primers to sequence, we discussed the feasibility of DNA barcoding method for identification commonly-used medicinal snakes (a total of 109 samples belonging to 19 species 15 genera 6 families). The phylogenetic trees using Neighbor-joining were constructed. The results indicated that the mean content of G + C(46.5%) was lower than that of A + T (53.5%). As calculated by Kimera-2-parameter model, the mean intraspecies genetic distance of Trimeresurus albolabris, Ptyas dhumnades and Lycodon rufozonatus was greater than 2%. Further phylogenetic relationship results suggested that identification of one sample of T. albolabris was erroneous. The identification of some samples of P. dhumnades was also not correct, namely originally P. korros was identified as P. dhumnades. Factors influence on intraspecific genetic distance difference of L. rufozonatus need to be studied further. Therefore, DNA barcoding for identification of medicinal snakes is feasible, and greatly complements the morphological classification method. It is necessary to further study in identification of traditional Chinese medicine.

  9. Decline of a common reptile: case study of the viperine snake Natrix maura in a Mediterranean wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Santos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Ebro Delta is a wetland area in which natural ecosystems have been partially replaced by rice fields. This mixed and productive landscape has allowed the establishment of a rich community of organisms. The viperine snake Natrix maura has traditionally been a common and abundant predator because the habitat is favorable and prey availability is high. In June 1995, we conducted a demographic study to evaluate relative densities of snakes in the rice fields. Thirteen years later, we repeated the same study in the same area and season. The field work consisted of 29 censuses of one hectare each, and snakes and their potential prey (green frogs and fish were counted. In 1995, we found 27 snakes (0.93 animals/ha, these occupying 48% of the sites. Frogs and fish were observed in 23 of the 29 censuses (79%. In 2008, no snakes were found and frogs and fish appeared in only 11 of the samples (38%. In 2008, we also prospected 20 sites in rice fields located next to the natural lagoons. At these sites, we detected a greater number of snakes (25% of the stations. Several factors can explain the clear decline of the N. maura population in the Ebro Delta rice fields: 1 the transformation and degradation of the habitat; 2 the increase in population densities of natural predators such as herons; 3 the decrease in prey availability; 4 the massive use of pollutants in the rice fields; and 5 snake death on local roads and directly by human persecution. We propose that a combined effect of these factors has caused the alarming decline of this predator. The observation of water snakes in rice fields near natural lagoons indicates that protected natural areas act as natural refuges for fauna with reduced mobility, such as viperine snakes. The recovery of the N. maura population in the rice fields of the Ebro Delta depends on an integral change in agricultural management, including the reduced use of pollutants, the recovery of snake prey, and the maintenance of

  10. Common Cutaneous Bacteria Isolated from Snakes Inhibit Growth of Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Aubree J; Leys, Jacob E; Bryan, Danny; Erdman, Fantasia M; Malone, Katherine S; Russell, Gabrielle N; Applegate, Roger D; Fenton, Heather; Niedringhaus, Kevin; Miller, Andrew N; Allender, Matthew C; Walker, Donald M

    2018-03-01

    There is increasing concern regarding potential impacts of snake fungal disease (SFD), caused by Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola (Oo), on free-ranging snake populations in the eastern USA. The snake cutaneous microbiome likely serves as the first line of defense against Oo and other pathogens; however, little is known about microbial associations in snakes. The objective of this study was to better define the composition and immune function of the snake cutaneous microbiome. Eight timber rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus) and four black racers (Coluber constrictor) were captured in Arkansas and Tennessee, with some snakes exhibiting signs of SFD. Oo was detected through real-time qPCR in five snakes. Additional histopathological techniques confirmed a diagnosis of SFD in one racer, the species' first confirmed case of SFD in Tennessee. Fifty-eight bacterial and five fungal strains were isolated from skin swabs and identified with Sanger sequencing. Non-metric multidimensional scaling and PERMANOVA analyses indicated that the culturable microbiome does not differ between snake species. Fifteen bacterial strains isolated from rattlesnakes and a single strain isolated from a racer inhibited growth of Oo in vitro. Results shed light on the culturable cutaneous microbiome of snakes and probiotic members that may play a role in fighting an emergent disease.

  11. Proteomic profiling of liver from Elaphe taeniura, a common snake in eastern and southeastern Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Snake liver has been implicated in the adaptation of snakes to a variety of habitats. However, to date, there has been no systematic analysis of snake liver proteins. In this study, we undertook a proteomic analysis of liver from the colubrid snake Elaphe taeniura using a combination of two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flightmass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS. We also constructed a local protein sequence database based on transcriptome sequencing to facilitate protein identification. Of the 268 protein spots revealed by 2-DE 109 gave positive MS signals, 84 of which were identified by searching the NCBInr, Swiss-Prot and local databases. The other 25 protein spots could not be identified, possibly because their transcripts were not be stable enough to be detected by transcriptome sequencing. GO analysis showed that most proteins may be involved in binding, catalysis, cellular processes and metabolic processes. Forty-two of the liver proteins identified were found in other reptiles and in amphibians. The findings of this study provide a good reference map of snake liver proteins that will be useful in molecular investigations of snake physiology and adaptation.

  12. Reproductive Disorders in Snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Girolamo, Nicola; Selleri, Paolo

    2017-05-01

    Reproduction of snakes is one of the challenging aspects of herpetology medicine. Due to the complexity of reproduction, several disorders may present before, during, or after this process. This article describes the physical examination, and radiographic, ultrasonographic, and endoscopic findings associated with reproductive disorders in snakes. Surgical techniques used to resolve reproductive disorders in snakes are described. Finally, common reproductive disorders in snakes are individually discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Cryptic forcible insemination: male snakes exploit female physiology, anatomy, and behavior to obtain coercive matings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shine, Richard; Langkilde, Tracy; Mason, Robert T

    2003-11-01

    Whether males can inseminate uncooperative females is a central determinant of mating system evolution that profoundly affects the interpretation of phenomena such as multiple mating by females, mate choice, reproductive seasonality, and courtship tactics. Forcible insemination is usually inferred from direct physical battles between the sexes and has been dismissed on intuitive grounds for many kinds of animals. For example, snakes have elongate flexible bodies (making it difficult for a male to restrain a female physically), males are typically smaller than females, and copulation requires female cloacal gaping to enable intromission. Male garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis) do not display any overt aggression during courtship and simply lie over the female and exhibit rhythmic pulsating caudocephalic waves of muscular contraction; previous studies have interpreted this behavior as a mechanism for eliciting female receptivity. In contrast, we show that male garter snakes forcibly inseminate females. They do so by taking advantage of specific features of snake physiology, respiratory anatomy, and antipredator behavior. The snake lung extends along most of the body, with the large posterior section (the saccular lung) lacking any respiratory exchange surface. Rhythmic caudocephalic waves by courting male garter snakes push anoxic air from the saccular lung forward and across the respiratory surfaces such that females cannot obtain oxygen. Their stress response involves cloacal gaping, which functions in other contexts to repel predators by extruding feces and musk but in this situation permits male intromission. Thus, superficially benign courtship behaviors may involve cryptic coercion even in species for which intuition dismisses any possibility of forcible insemination.

  14. Tight fitting garter springs-MODAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazimer, D. [Bruce Power, Tiverton, Ontario (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Annulus spacers are used in CANDU reactors to maintain the annular gap between two tubes - an inner pressure tube (PT) and the outer calandria tube (CT). Typically four annulus spacers are used in one fuel channel assembly, each at a specified axial position. Bruce Unit 8 and many other CANDU units were constructed with tight-fitting garter springs (TFGS). The TFGS were not designed to be detected or relocated by the conventional tool, Spacer Location And Repositioning (SLAR) processes. Due to non-optimal 'As Left' construction locations for the Bruce Unit 8 TFGS, PT/CT contact has been predicted to occur well prior to its End of Life (EOL). Bruce Power entered a Project with AECL-CRL to design, manufacture and test and implement a new tooling system that would detect and reposition tight fitting annulus spacers. (author)

  15. Development of transducers for integrated garter spring repositioning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, B S.V.G.; Shyam, T V; Shrivastava, A K; Rupani, B B; Sinha, R K [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Reactor Engineering Div.

    1994-12-31

    In order to reposition the dislocated garter springs in active channels of 235 MW Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs), a tool named as Integrated Garter Spring Repositioning System (INGRES) has been developed. The tool consists of transducers to detect the concentricity between the Pressure Tube (P/T) and Calandria Tube (C/T) and also to detect garter springs in the channel besides different modules for correcting the eccentricity between P/T and C/T and garter spring repositioning. The transducers used in the system namely Concentricity Detection Probe (CDP) and Garter Spring Detection Probe (GSDP) are based on the eddy current techniques. The CDP makes use of four eddy current bobbin probes separated 90 degrees apart in cross sectional plane of channel assembly. The transducer gives output signal in proportional to the air gap between P/T and C/T in two axes (X and Y) which are designed for the purpose. The output of the unit is obtained on the Cathode Ray Oscilloscope (CRO) screen in the form of illuminated dot. The dot position on the CRO screen gives the information about mismatch in concentricity between P/T and C/T of the channel. The GSDP meant for detecting garter springs in PHWR channel uses two sets of primary and secondary coils connected in differential mode. The output signals from the transducers are processed through a signal processing unit devised for the purpose to obtain output from it as a horizontal beam on the CRO screen. The garter spring presence in the channel is indicated by a change in the voltage level of beam and also by audio-visual indication in the form of buzzer and LED illumination on the processing unit. This paper gives general design and development aspects of the CDP and GSDP transducers of the INGRES tool. (author). 3 figs.

  16. Black Bear Reactions to Venomous and Non-venomous Snakes in Eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Lynn L; Mansfield, Susan A; Hornby, Kathleen; Hornby, Stewart; Debruyn, Terry D; Mize, Malvin; Clark, Rulon; Burghardt, Gordon M

    2014-01-01

    Bears are often considered ecological equivalents of large primates, but the latter often respond with fear, avoidance, and alarm calls to snakes, both venomous and non-venomous, there is sparse information on how bears respond to snakes. We videotaped or directly observed natural encounters between black bears (Ursus americanus) and snakes. Inside the range of venomous snakes in Arkansas and West Virginia, adolescent and adult black bears reacted fearfully in seven of seven encounters upon becoming aware of venomous and non-venomous snakes; but in northern Michigan and Minnesota where venomous snakes have been absent for millennia, black bears showed little or no fear in four encounters with non-venomous snakes of three species. The possible roles of experience and evolution in bear reactions to snakes and vice versa are discussed. In all areas studied, black bears had difficulty to recognize non-moving snakes by smell or sight. Bears did not react until snakes moved in 11 of 12 encounters with non-moving timber rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus) and four species of harmless snakes. However, in additional tests in this study, bears were repulsed by garter snakes that had excreted pungent anal exudates, which may help explain the absence of snakes, both venomous and harmless, in bear diets reported to date. PMID:25635152

  17. Phylogenetic analysis of Common Garter Snake (Thamnophis sirtalis) stomach contents detects cryptic range of a secretive salamander (Ensatina eschscholtzii oregonensis) Herpetological Conservation and Biology 5(3):395–402

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sean B. Reilly; Andrew D Gottsho; Justin M. Garwood; Bryan. Jennings

    2010-01-01

    Given the current global amphibian decline, it is crucial to obtain accurate and current information regarding species distributions. Secretive amphibians such as plethodontid salamanders can be difficult to detect in many cases, especially in remote, high elevation areas. We used molecular phylogenetic analyses to identify three partially digested salamanders palped...

  18. Process improvements for enhanced productivity of PHWR garter springs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasula Reddy, S.; Tonpe, Sunil; Saibaba, N.; Jayaraj, R.N.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: In Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWR), Garter springs are used as spacers between the coolant tube and calandria tube. Garter springs are made from Zirconium alloy containing 2.5 % Niobium and 0.5% copper. The springs are basically manufactured by coiling a wire of cross section 1.7 mm x 1.0 mm, which is produced by series of drawing and swaging operations using hot extruded rods of 19 mm diameter. The manufacturing process also involves heat treatment and chemical cleaning operations at appropriate stages. It is required to ensure that the life of springs against parameters like hydrogen pickup, residual stresses and low stiffness is improved at the manufacturing stage itself by improving manufacturing process. The impact of above problems on spring life and process improvements is briefly discussed. The critical factor affecting the garter spring performance in PHWR Reactor is mainly hydrogen. The life limiting factors for garter springs are the problems arising out of high total hydrogen content, which depends on the hydrogen pickup during reactor operation. This phenomenon can happen during the reactor operation, as springs are prone to pick-up hydrogen in the reactor environment. Hence acceptable hydrogen content for the springs is specified as 25 ppm (max.). Garter spring is susceptible to hydrogen pick-up during various production processes, which make material brittle and difficult for fabrication process such as wire drawing and coiling. By studying and optimizing the process parameters of spring manufacturing, the hydrogen pick-up of springs is brought down from 70 ppm to a level of 20 ppm. Garter springs are provided with a hook at each end to enable its assembly to coolant tube in the reactor. The hook portion is very critical in maintaining the integrity of the spring. It is desirable to have the hook portion relieved of all residual stresses. For this purpose manufacturing process has been modified and solutionising was introduced as

  19. Snake resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tepikian, S.

    1988-01-01

    Siberian Snakes provide a practical means of obtaining polarized proton beams in large accelerators. The effect of snakes can be understood by studying the dynamics of spin precession in an accelerator with snakes and a single spin resonance. This leads to a new class of energy independent spin depolarizing resonances, called snake resonances. In designing a large accelerator with snakes to preserve the spin polarization, there is an added constraint on the choice of the vertical betatron tune due to the snake resonances. 11 refs., 4 figs

  20. Comparative Sex Chromosome Genomics in Snakes: Differentiation, Evolutionary Strata, and Lack of Global Dosage Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zektser, Yulia; Mahajan, Shivani; Bachtrog, Doris

    2013-01-01

    Snakes exhibit genetic sex determination, with female heterogametic sex chromosomes (ZZ males, ZW females). Extensive cytogenetic work has suggested that the level of sex chromosome heteromorphism varies among species, with Boidae having entirely homomorphic sex chromosomes, Viperidae having completely heteromorphic sex chromosomes, and Colubridae showing partial differentiation. Here, we take a genomic approach to compare sex chromosome differentiation in these three snake families. We identify homomorphic sex chromosomes in boas (Boidae), but completely heteromorphic sex chromosomes in both garter snakes (Colubridae) and pygmy rattlesnake (Viperidae). Detection of W-linked gametologs enables us to establish the presence of evolutionary strata on garter and pygmy rattlesnake sex chromosomes where recombination was abolished at different time points. Sequence analysis shows that all strata are shared between pygmy rattlesnake and garter snake, i.e., recombination was abolished between the sex chromosomes before the two lineages diverged. The sex-biased transmission of the Z and its hemizygosity in females can impact patterns of molecular evolution, and we show that rates of evolution for Z-linked genes are increased relative to their pseudoautosomal homologs, both at synonymous and amino acid sites (even after controlling for mutational biases). This demonstrates that mutation rates are male-biased in snakes (male-driven evolution), but also supports faster-Z evolution due to differential selective effects on the Z. Finally, we perform a transcriptome analysis in boa and pygmy rattlesnake to establish baseline levels of sex-biased expression in homomorphic sex chromosomes, and show that heteromorphic ZW chromosomes in rattlesnakes lack chromosome-wide dosage compensation. Our study provides the first full scale overview of the evolution of snake sex chromosomes at the genomic level, thus greatly expanding our knowledge of reptilian and vertebrate sex chromosomes

  1. Post irradiation examination of garter springs from Indian PHWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubey, J.S.; Shah, Priti Kotak; Mishra, Prerna; Singh, H.N.; Alur, V.D.; Kumar, Ashwini; Bhandekar, A.; Pandit, K.M.; Anantharaman, S.

    2013-12-01

    Irradiated Zr-2.5Nb-0.5Cu garter springs, belonging to Indian Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors, which had experienced 8 to 10 Effective Full Power Years of operation were subjected to visual, dimensional, chemical, metallographic examination and relevant mechanical tests. Methodology of the tests conducted and results are presented. The digital photographs were used to measure the inner and outer circumferences by image processing. The hydrogen (H) content in the spring coils were measured using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). In the stretch test, all the irradiated GSs were found to require an additional load, as compared to unirradiated GS, to produce a given amount of residual extension which indicated that the irradiated GSs had undergone significant irradiation hardening. The crush test results showed that the minimum load required to crush the coil or cause a sudden sideways shift in the grips was higher than 400 N/coil, much higher than the design load. The test results indicated that the irradiated GS, after 10 EFPY of operation, have adequate strength and ductility to continue to meet the design intent. Mechanical tests were carried out on irradiated girdle wires taken out of the loose fit garter springs (GS) from (NAPS-1, ∼ 8.5 EFPY) and tight fit garter spring from KAPS-2 (∼ 8.0 EFPY) PHWRs. Tensile tests on the irradiated girdle wires, showed irradiation hardening in the material and reduction in ductility. The irradiated girdle wires have around 4 to 5% residual ductility level against the 15% ductility of unirradiated wire. The fracture surfaces of the irradiated as well as the un-irradiated girdle wires were observed in SEM. (author)

  2. Garter spring location of pressure tube for PHWR using eddy current testing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y. S.; Yang, D. J.; Jeong, H. K.

    2001-01-01

    There are garter springs between pressure tube and calandria tube for PHWR. If the space of these garter springs become to be changed, the sagging of tube is caused and the contact between the pressure tube and calandria tube will cause the tube to be failed. AECL has applied the eddy current testing methods using send-receive type probe for this purpose, but this study apply eddy current testing methods using bobbin differential type probe to detection of garter spring location. And we did the computer simulation using VIC-3D code and compared it with experiments results for inspection 1 ∼ 11kHz. The results was that the garter spring signal was successfully detected for every frequency, and 5 kHz was best

  3. Snake bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... number if someone has been bitten by a snake. If possible, call ahead to the emergency room so that antivenom can be ready when the person arrives. Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the ...

  4. [Bites of venomous snakes in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plate, Andreas; Kupferschmidt, Hugo; Schneemann, Markus

    2016-06-08

    Although snake bites are rare in Europe, there are a constant number of snake bites in Switzerland. There are two domestic venomous snakes in Switzerland: the aspic viper (Vipera aspis) and the common European adder (Vipera berus). Bites from venomous snakes are caused either by one of the two domestic venomous snakes or by an exotic venomous snake kept in a terrarium. Snake- bites can cause both a local and/or a systemic envenoming. Potentially fatal systemic complications are related to disturbances of the hemostatic- and cardiovascular system as well as the central or peripheral nervous system. Beside a symptomatic therapy the administration of antivenom is the only causal therapy to neutralize the venomous toxins.

  5. Spatial ecology of the aquatic garter snake, Thamnophis atratus, in a free-flowing stream environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. H. Welsh; C. A. Wheeler; A. J. Lind

    2010-01-01

    Spatial patterns of animals have important implications for population dynamics and can reveal other key aspects of a species' ecology. Movements and the resulting spatial arrangements have fitness and genetic consequences for both individuals and populations. We studied the spatial and dispersal patterns of the Oregon Gartersnake, Thamnophis atratus...

  6. Natural History of Pseudoboine Snakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília P. Gaiarsa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Even though natural history information is crucial for answering key ecological, evolutionary, and conservation questions, basic studies are still lacking for Neotropical snakes. This study aims at contributing to the knowledge of the Neotropical tribe Pseudoboini, based on literature data, analysis of museum specimens and unpublished data. The tribe is mainly composed of moderate-sized snakes, although small and large-sized snakes also occur in the clade. Mean fecundity ranged from two (Rodriguesophis iglesiasi to 29 eggs (Clelia plumbea and the species are predominantly terrestrial and nocturnal. Most species are diet specialists and lizards are the most commonly consumed prey (found in the diet of 29 species, followed by small mammals (consumed by 20 species and snakes (consumed by 18 species. Although the tribe Pseudoboini appears to be well studied, for 15 species (32% only a small amount of information or none was available. We hope that our study can motivate research on the least known species.

  7. Monterey Peninsula Water Supply Project. Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Report/Statement II. Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-01

    ROSACEAE Acaena californica: C-S, CPI Adenostoma fasciculctmm: CH-, CS, C-L Aichemilla arvensis: CP Fragaria vesca ssp. cabjfomica: NP, LO, M-LI Hetermeles...Thamnophis elegans * Western Aquatic Garter Snake T. couchi * Common Garter Snake T. sinalis * Western Rattlesnake Crotalus viridis TOTAL 22 8 3 3 BIRDS

  8. Performance evaluation of eddy current transducers and associated instrumentation of integrated garter spring repositioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, B.S.V.G.; Shyam, T.V.; Shrivastava, A.K.; Sinha, R.K.

    1997-01-01

    To extend the life of coolant channels of operating Indian Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs) of an early generation, repositioning of dislocated Garter Spring (GS) spacers is necessary. For this purpose a remotely operated system named INtegrated Garter spring REpositioning System (INGRES) has been developed. As a part of this system, eddy current transducers namely Garter Spring Detection Probe (GSDP) and Concentricity Detection Probe (CDP) along with respective signal processor units have been designed and developed. These devices detect GS spacers and eccentricity between Pressure Tube (PT) and Calandria Tube (CT) of the channel respectively. During a recent campaign of INGRES at Madras Atomic Power Station unit-2 (MAPS-2), these transducer systems have fulfilled intended design and operational objectives besides providing additional information regarding channel. These aspects are discussed. (author). 6 figs

  9. Post irradiation examination of tight fit garter springs from PHWR after 15 HOY of operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubey, J.S.; Shriwastaw, R.S.; Kumar, Ashwini; Shah, Priti Kotak; Rath, B.N.; Kumar, Sunil; Mishra, Prerna; Alur, V.D.; Mallik, G.K.; Anantharaman, S.

    2015-01-01

    Tight fit irradiated garter springs made of Zr-2.5Nb-0.5Cu, belonging to Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs), which had experienced 15 Hot Operation Years (HOY) of operation were subjected to visual, dimensional, metallographic examination and relevant mechanical tests such as stretch, crush and rolling-fatigue tests. The girdle wires, of these garter springs, made of Zr-2 were subjected to tension and bend tests. Methodology of the tests conducted and results of PIE are presented. Significance of the test results are discussed in view of its continued operation in reactor. (author)

  10. The Narrow Fellow in the Grass: Human Infants Associate Snakes and Fear

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLoache, Judy S.; LoBue, Vanessa

    2009-01-01

    Why are snakes such a common target of fear? One current view is that snake fear is one of several innate fears that emerge spontaneously. Another is that humans have an evolved predisposition to learn to fear snakes. In the first study reported here, 9- to 10-month-old infants showed no differential spontaneous reaction to films of snakes versus…

  11. The Hidden Snake in the Grass: Superior Detection of Snakes in Challenging Attentional Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra C Soares

    Full Text Available Snakes have provided a serious threat to primates throughout evolution. Furthermore, bites by venomous snakes still cause significant morbidity and mortality in tropical regions of the world. According to the Snake Detection Theory (SDT Isbell, 2006; 2009, the vital need to detect camouflaged snakes provided strong evolutionary pressure to develop astute perceptual capacity in animals that were potential targets for snake attacks. We performed a series of behavioral tests that assessed snake detection under conditions that may have been critical for survival. We used spiders as the control stimulus because they are also a common object of phobias and rated negatively by the general population, thus commonly lumped together with snakes as "evolutionary fear-relevant". Across four experiments (N = 205 we demonstrate an advantage in snake detection, which was particularly obvious under visual conditions known to impede detection of a wide array of common stimuli, for example brief stimulus exposures, stimuli presentation in the visual periphery, and stimuli camouflaged in a cluttered environment. Our results demonstrate a striking independence of snake detection from ecological factors that impede the detection of other stimuli, which suggests that, consistent with the SDT, they reflect a specific biological adaptation. Nonetheless, the empirical tests we report are limited to only one aspect of this rich theory, which integrates findings across a wide array of scientific disciplines.

  12. The Hidden Snake in the Grass: Superior Detection of Snakes in Challenging Attentional Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Sandra C; Lindström, Björn; Esteves, Francisco; Ohman, Arne

    2014-01-01

    Snakes have provided a serious threat to primates throughout evolution. Furthermore, bites by venomous snakes still cause significant morbidity and mortality in tropical regions of the world. According to the Snake Detection Theory (SDT Isbell, 2006; 2009), the vital need to detect camouflaged snakes provided strong evolutionary pressure to develop astute perceptual capacity in animals that were potential targets for snake attacks. We performed a series of behavioral tests that assessed snake detection under conditions that may have been critical for survival. We used spiders as the control stimulus because they are also a common object of phobias and rated negatively by the general population, thus commonly lumped together with snakes as "evolutionary fear-relevant". Across four experiments (N = 205) we demonstrate an advantage in snake detection, which was particularly obvious under visual conditions known to impede detection of a wide array of common stimuli, for example brief stimulus exposures, stimuli presentation in the visual periphery, and stimuli camouflaged in a cluttered environment. Our results demonstrate a striking independence of snake detection from ecological factors that impede the detection of other stimuli, which suggests that, consistent with the SDT, they reflect a specific biological adaptation. Nonetheless, the empirical tests we report are limited to only one aspect of this rich theory, which integrates findings across a wide array of scientific disciplines.

  13. Pre and post garter spring repositioning ultrasonic inspection of pressure tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desimone, C.; Katchadjian, P.; Tacchia, Mauricio

    1997-01-01

    This paper present a description of the ultrasonic cracked hydride blister detections system used for pre and post inspection of pressure tubes during garter spring repositioning in CNE (Embalse Nuclear Power Station). Ultrasonic system setup configuration, transducers characteristics, blister detection head, calibration of parameters, operating procedure, records of ultrasonic inspections and evaluation. (author) [es

  14. Comparison of proteomic profiles of the venoms of two of the 'Big Four' snakes of India, the Indian cobra (Naja naja) and the common krait (Bungarus caeruleus), and analyses of their toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Manisha; McCleary, Ryan J R; Kesherwani, Manish; Kini, R Manjunatha; Velmurugan, Devadasan

    2017-09-01

    Snake venoms are mixtures of biologically-active proteins and peptides, and several studies have described the characteristics of some of these toxins. However, complete proteomic profiling of the venoms of many snake species has not yet been done. The Indian cobra (Naja naja) and common krait (Bungarus caeruleus) are elapid snake species that are among the 'Big Four' responsible for the majority of human snake envenomation cases in India. As understanding the composition and complexity of venoms is necessary for successful treatment of envenomation in humans, we utilized three different proteomic profiling approaches to characterize these venoms: i) one-dimensional SDS-PAGE coupled with in-gel tryptic digestion and electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-LC-MS/MS) of individual protein bands; ii) in-solution tryptic digestion of crude venoms coupled with ESI-LC-MS/MS; and iii) separation by gel-filtration chromatography coupled with tryptic digestion and ESI-LC-MS/MS of separated fractions. From the generated data, 81 and 46 different proteins were identified from N. naja and B. caeruleus venoms, respectively, belonging to fifteen different protein families. Venoms from both species were found to contain a variety of phospholipases A 2 and three-finger toxins, whereas relatively higher numbers of snake venom metalloproteinases were found in N. naja compared to B. caeruleus venom. The analyses also identified less represented venom proteins including L-amino acid oxidases, cysteine-rich secretory proteins, 5'-nucleotidases and venom nerve growth factors. Further, Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitors, cobra venom factors, phosphodiesterases, vespryns and aminopeptidases were identified in the N. naja venom, while acetylcholinesterases and hyaluronidases were found in the B. caeruleus venom. We further analyzed protein coverage (Lys/Arg rich and poor regions as well as potential glycosylation sites) using in-house software. These studies expand our

  15. Management of Poisonous Snake Bites in Southern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kao-Ping Chang

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Snake bite envenomation is not uncommon in Taiwan. This study focuses on the pattern of poisonous snake bites and their management in southern Taiwan over a 5-year period. The case histories of 37 patients with poisonous snake bites admitted to the Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital between June 2001 and July 2005 were analyzed retrospectively. Three patients, bitten by unknown species of venomous snakes, were excluded from this study. The frequency of snake bites from each species of snake, the local and systemic manifestations of snake bite, treatment of complications and final outcomes were analyzed. Of the remaining 34 patients, 11 (32.4% were bitten by bamboo vipers, 10 (29.4% by Russell's pit vipers, 8 (23.5% by Taiwan cobras and 5 (14.7% by Taiwan Habu. The majority of snake bites (28 occurred between May and November. Those affected were mainly outdoor hikers (14 and workers (9. The antivenin requirements for treatment in the emergency room were in accordance with standard procedures. No mortality was noted among those envenomed by poisonous snakes. Although poisonous snake bite is not a common life-threatening emergency in the study area, we observed both an environmental risk and a seasonal incidence of snake bite. Keeping the varied clinical manifestations of snake bite in mind is important for effective management. Ready availability and appropriate use of antivenin, close monitoring of patients, institution of ventilatory support and early referral to a larger hospital when required, all help reduce mortality.

  16. Dictionary Snakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders Bjorholm; Dahl, Vedrana Andersen

    2014-01-01

    for image segmentation that operates without training data. Our method is based on a probabilistic dictionary of image patches coupled with a deformable model inspired by snakes and active contours without edges. We separate the image into two classes based on the information provided by the evolving curve......, which moves according to the probabilistic information obtained from the dictionary. Initially, the image patches are assigned to the nearest dictionary element, where the image is sampled at each pixel such that patches overlap. The curve divides the image into an inside and an outside region allowing...... us to estimate the pixel-wise probability of the dictionary elements. In each iteration we evolve the curve and update the probabilities, which merges similar texture patterns and pulls dissimilar patterns apart. We experimentally evaluate our approach, and show how textured objects are precisely...

  17. Genomic and phylogenetic analyses of an adenovirus isolated from a corn snake (Elaphe guttata) imply a common origin with members of the proposed new genus Atadenovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Szilvia L; Benko, Mária; Elo, Péter; Ursu, Krisztina; Dán, Adám; Ahne, Winfried; Harrach, Balázs

    2002-10-01

    Approximately 60% of the genome of an adenovirus isolated from a corn snake (Elaphe guttata) was cloned and sequenced. The results of homology searches showed that the genes of the corn snake adenovirus (SnAdV-1) were closest to their counterparts in members of the recently proposed new genus ATADENOVIRUS: In phylogenetic analyses of the complete hexon and protease genes, SnAdV-1 indeed clustered together with the atadenoviruses. The characteristic features in the genome organization of SnAdV-1 included the presence of a gene homologous to that for protein p32K, the lack of structural proteins V and IX and the absence of homologues of the E1A and E3 regions. These characteristics are in accordance with the genus-defining markers of atadenoviruses. Comparison of the cleavage sites of the viral protease in core protein pVII also confirmed SnAdV-1 as a candidate member of the genus ATADENOVIRUS: Thus, the hypothesis on the possible reptilian origin of atadenoviruses (Harrach, Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 48, 484-490, 2000) seems to be supported. However, the base composition of DNA sequence (>18 kb) determined from the SnAdV-1 genome showed an equilibrated GC content of 51%, which is unusual for an atadenovirus.

  18. The complexity of snake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Biasi, M.; Ophelders, T.

    2016-01-01

    Snake and Nibbler are two well-known video games in which a snake slithers through a maze and grows as it collects food. During this process, the snake must avoid any collision with its tail. Various goals can be associated with these video games, such as avoiding the tail as long as possible, or

  19. Even order snake resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.

    1993-01-01

    We found that the perturbed spin tune due to the imperfection resonance plays an important role in beam depolarization at snake resonances. We also found that even order snake resonances exist in the overlapping intrinsic and imperfection resonances. Due to the perturbed spin tune shift of imperfection resonances, each snake resonance splits into two

  20. Anti-snake venom: use and adverse reaction in a snake bite study clinic in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Amin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Snakebites can present local or systemic envenomation, while neurotoxicity and respiratory paralysis are the main cause of death. The mainstay of management is anti-snake venom (ASV, which is highly effective, but liable to cause severe adverse reactions including anaphylaxis. The types of adverse reaction to polyvalent anti-snake venom have not been previously studied in Bangladesh. In this prospective observational study carried out between 1999 and 2001, in the Snake Bite Study Clinic of Chittagong Medical College Hospital, 35 neurotoxic-snake-bite patients who had received polyvalent anti-snake venom were included while the ones sensitized to different antitoxins and suffering from atopy were excluded. The common neurotoxic features were ptosis (100%, external ophthalmoplegia (94.2%, dysphagia (77.1%, dysphonia (68.5% and broken neck sign (80%. The percentage of anti-snake venom reaction cases was 88.57%; pyrogenic reaction was 80.64%; and anaphylaxis was 64.51%. The common features of anaphylaxis were urticaria (80%; vomiting and wheezing (40%; and angioedema (10%. The anti-snake venom reaction was treated mainly with adrenaline for anaphylaxis and paracetamol suppository in pyrogenic reactions. The average recovery time was 4.5 hours. Due to the danger of reactions the anti-snake venom should not be withheld from a snakebite victim when indicated and appropriate guidelines should be followed for its administration.

  1. Snakes and spin rotators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.

    1990-01-01

    The generalized snake configuration offers advantages of either shorter total snake length and smaller orbit displacement in the compact configuration or the multi-functions in the split configuration. We found that the compact configuration can save about 10% of the total length of a snake. On other hand, the spilt snake configuration can be used both as a snake and as a spin rotator for the helicity state. Using the orbit compensation dipoles, the spilt snake configuration can be located at any distance on both sides of the interaction point of a collider provided that there is no net dipole rotation between two halves of the snake. The generalized configuration is then applied to the partial snake excitation. Simple formula have been obtained to understand the behavior of the partial snake. Similar principle can also be applied to the spin rotators. We also estimate the possible snake imperfections are due to various construction errors of the dipole magnets. Accuracy of field error of better than 10 -4 will be significant. 2 refs., 5 figs

  2. Snake evolution and prospecting of snake venom

    OpenAIRE

    Vonk, Freek Jacobus

    2012-01-01

    in this thesis I have shown that snakes have undergone multiple changes in their genome and embryonic development that has provided them with the variation to which natural selection could act. This thesis provides evidence for the variable mechanisms of venom gene evolution, which presumably is much more flexible than previously thought. But it also underscores the potential use of the many different types of snake venom toxins that could be screened for use against human disorders. And most...

  3. The Complexity of Snake

    OpenAIRE

    De Biasi, Marzio; Ophelders, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Snake and Nibbler are two well-known video games in which a snake slithers through a maze and grows as it collects food. During this process, the snake must avoid any collision with its tail. Various goals can be associated with these video games, such as avoiding the tail as long as possible, or collecting a certain amount of food, or reaching some target location. Unfortunately, like many other motion-planning problems, even very restricted variants are computationally intractable. In parti...

  4. Molecular Identification of Cryptosporidium Species from Pet Snakes in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yimming, Benjarat; Pattanatanang, Khampee; Sanyathitiseree, Pornchai; Inpankaew, Tawin; Kamyingkird, Ketsarin; Pinyopanuwat, Nongnuch; Chimnoi, Wissanuwat; Phasuk, Jumnongjit

    2016-08-01

    Cryptosporidium is an important pathogen causing gastrointestinal disease in snakes and is distributed worldwide. The main objectives of this study were to detect and identify Cryptosporidium species in captive snakes from exotic pet shops and snake farms in Thailand. In total, 165 fecal samples were examined from 8 snake species, boa constrictor (Boa constrictor constrictor), corn snake (Elaphe guttata), ball python (Python regius), milk snake (Lampropeltis triangulum), king snake (Lampropeltis getula), rock python (Python sebae), rainbow boa (Epicrates cenchria), and carpet python (Morelia spilota). Cryptosporidium oocysts were examined using the dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-modified acid-fast staining and a molecular method based on nested-PCR, PCR-RFLP analysis, and sequencing amplification of the SSU rRNA gene. DMSO-modified acid-fast staining revealed the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in 12 out of 165 (7.3%) samples, whereas PCR produced positive results in 40 (24.2%) samples. Molecular characterization indicated the presence of Cryptosporidium parvum (mouse genotype) as the most common species in 24 samples (60%) from 5 species of snake followed by Cryptosporidium serpentis in 9 samples (22.5%) from 2 species of snake and Cryptosporidium muris in 3 samples (7.5%) from P. regius.

  5. Fur Trade Era Interpretation. The Voyageur Sash and Garter and a Fur Trade Emblem: A Curiosity Ripe for Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Wendy; Henderson, Bob

    1998-01-01

    Provides outdoor educators with background information for historical interpretation activities during Canadian canoe trips. Discusses the history, evolution, and uses of brightly colored sashes and garters worn by voyageurs during the fur trade era, and speculates on the origins of the Lauburu canoe emblem, used by both the Mic Mac peoples and…

  6. Present and future ecological niche modeling of garter snake species from the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Vázquez, Uri; D’Addario, Maristella

    2018-01-01

    Land use and climate change are affecting the abundance and distribution of species. The Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) is a very diverse region due to geological history, geographic position, and climate. It is also one of the most disturbed regions in Mexico. Reptiles are particularly sensitive to environmental changes due to their low dispersal capacity and thermal ecology. In this study, we define the important environmental variables (considering climate, topography, and land use) and potential distribution (present and future) of the five Thamnophis species present in TMVB. To do so, we used the maximum entropy modeling software (MAXENT). First, we modeled to select the most important variables to explain the distribution of each species, then we modeled again using only the most important variables and projected these models to the future considering a middle-moderate climate change scenario (rcp45), and land use and vegetation variables for the year 2050 (generated according to land use changes that occurred between years 2002 and 2011). Arid vegetation had an important negative effect on habitat suitability for all species, and minimum temperature of the coldest month was important for four of the five species. Thamnophis cyrtopsis was the species with the lowest tolerance to minimum temperatures. The maximum temperature of the warmest month was important for T. scalaris and T. cyrtopsis. Low percentages of agriculture were positive for T. eques and T. melanogaster but, at higher values, agriculture had a negative effect on habitat suitability for both species. Elevation was the most important variable to explain T. eques and T. melanogaster potential distribution while distance to Abies forests was the most important variable for T. scalaris and T. scaliger. All species had a high proportion of their potential distribution in the TMVB. However, according to our models, all Thamnophis species will experience reductions in their potential distribution in this region. T. scalaris will suffer the biggest reduction because this species is limited by high temperatures and will not be able to shift its distribution upward, as it is already present in the highest elevations of the TMVB. PMID:29666767

  7. Distribution and outcome of ocular lesions in snakes examined at a veterinary teaching hospital: 67 cases (1985-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Jennifer C; Hollingsworth, Steven R; Hawkins, Michelle G; Kass, Philip H; Maggs, David J

    2013-07-15

    To determine the distribution and clinical outcome of ocular lesions in snakes. Retrospective case series. 67 snakes with ocular lesions. Signalment, lesion duration, diagnosis, treatment, and clinical outcome were recorded for all snakes with ocular lesions that were examined at a veterinary teaching hospital from 1985 to 2010. 71 ocular lesions were detected in 67 of 508 (13%) snakes examined. Affected snakes were of the families Boidae, Pythonidae, Colubridae, and Viperidae. The distribution of ocular lesions did not vary by taxonomic family, age, or sex; however, snakes from the genus Epicrates with ocular lesions were overrepresented in the population. The most commonly diagnosed ocular lesions were retained spectacle (n = 41), pseudobuphthalmos or subspectacular abscess (13), trauma (8), and cataracts (4). Pseudobuphthalmos or subspectacular abscess developed more frequently in Colubridae than in non-Colubridae snakes. Of the 16 snakes with retained spectacles for which data were available, the lesion recurred once in 4 snakes and multiple times in 5 snakes. Results indicated that retained spectacle was the most common ocular lesion diagnosed in snakes. Compared with other snakes with ocular lesions, snakes of the genus Epicrates had a higher than expected frequency of ocular lesions in general and snakes of the family Colubridae had a higher than expected frequency of pseudobuphthalmos or subspectacular abscess.

  8. The influence of the preliminary garter spring spacer simulator clamping force in the pressure tube spacer -calandria tube hook-up simulator aging behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyongyosi, T.; Deloreanu, G.; Puiu, D.; Corbescu, B.; Anghel, N.; Dinu, E.

    2016-01-01

    The garter spring spacer is a specially constructed torsion spring used to fit-out the CANDU 6 fuel channel. The pressure tube ageing decreases the gap to the calandria tube. Continuous gap decrease directly affects the garter spring spacers behavior during fuel channel assembly operation. The preliminary clamping force value of the garter spring spacer assembly is important for its ageing behavior. This paper briefly describes the experimental technological facilities used for conducted the experiments and highlights some of the important moments during an experiment carried out in laboratory conditions, without using pressurized boiled water and irradiation working conditions. The results analysis and some conclusions are outlined at the end, pointing out that a garter spring spacer preliminary clamping force increase reduces the vibration response signal amplitude, and does not lead to its relaxation. The paper is dedicated to specialists working in research and technological engineering. (authors)

  9. Snake evolution and prospecting of snake venom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, Freek Jacobus

    2012-01-01

    in this thesis I have shown that snakes have undergone multiple changes in their genome and embryonic development that has provided them with the variation to which natural selection could act. This thesis provides evidence for the variable mechanisms of venom gene evolution, which presumably is

  10. Final Environmental Assessment for Planned Growth Hulrburd Field, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    snake1 Thamnophis sirtalis Eastern garter snake1 Trachemys scripta Yellow-belly slider Virginia striatula Rough earth snake Virginia valeriae...tailed grackle Quiscalus quiscula Common grackle1 Rallus elegans King rail Rallus limicola Virginia rail Rallus longirostris Clapper rail Regulus

  11. Hepatozoon infection prevalence in four snake genera: influence of diet, prey parasitemia levels, or parasite type?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomé, Beatriz; Maia, João P M C; Harris, D James

    2012-10-01

    Hepatozoon spp. (Apicomplexa: Haemogregarinidae) are the most commonly reported hemoparasites from snakes. Of over 300 Hepatozoon species identified, more than 120 were described from snakes. However, recent genetic assessments have found Hepatozoon lineages recovered from both prey and predators, indicating that diet may play an important role in the infection of final vertebrate hosts. Here 4 different snake genera with different diets were assessed. Hepatozoon spp. prevalence varied greatly between the genera, but only lineages already identified from potential prey, i.e., gecko and lacertid lizards, were recovered from the snakes. Interestingly, the Hepatozoon spp. lineage known from geckos was the most common in the snakes, but this does not reflect their diet. Higher parasitemia levels, reported for some geckos relative to lacertid lizards, may play a role. Alternatively, this lineage may be more effective at parasitizing snakes or may occur, despite being unrecorded, in other vertebrate groups consumed by snakes.

  12. The ecological origins of snakes as revealed by skull evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Filipe O; Fabre, Anne-Claire; Savriama, Yoland; Ollonen, Joni; Mahlow, Kristin; Herrel, Anthony; Müller, Johannes; Di-Poï, Nicolas

    2018-01-25

    The ecological origin of snakes remains amongst the most controversial topics in evolution, with three competing hypotheses: fossorial; marine; or terrestrial. Here we use a geometric morphometric approach integrating ecological, phylogenetic, paleontological, and developmental data for building models of skull shape and size evolution and developmental rate changes in squamates. Our large-scale data reveal that whereas the most recent common ancestor of crown snakes had a small skull with a shape undeniably adapted for fossoriality, all snakes plus their sister group derive from a surface-terrestrial form with non-fossorial behavior, thus redirecting the debate toward an underexplored evolutionary scenario. Our comprehensive heterochrony analyses further indicate that snakes later evolved novel craniofacial specializations through global acceleration of skull development. These results highlight the importance of the interplay between natural selection and developmental processes in snake origin and diversification, leading first to invasion of a new habitat and then to subsequent ecological radiations.

  13. Molecular detection of Toxoplasma gondii in snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Vahid; Teymurzadeh, Shohreh; Karimi, Gholamreza; Nasiri, Mehdi

    2016-10-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite, is responsible for one of the most common zoonotic parasitic diseases in almost all warm-blooded vertebrates worldwide, and it is estimated that about one-third of the world human population is chronically infected with this parasite. Little is known about the circulation of T. gondii in snakes and this study for the first time aimed to evaluate the infection rates of snakes by this parasite by PCR methods. The brain of 68 Snakes, that were collected between May 2012 and September 2015 and died after the hold in captivity, under which they were kept for taking poisons, were examined for the presence of this parasite. DNA was extracted and Nested-PCR method was carried out with two of pairs of primers to detect the 344 bp fragment of T. gondii GRA6 gene. Five positive nested-PCR products were directly sequenced in the forward and reverse directions by Sequetech Company (Mountain View, CA). T. gondii GRA6 gene were detected from 55 (80.88%) of 68 snakes brains. Sequencing of the GRA6 gene revealed 98-100% of similarity with T. gondii sequences deposited in GenBank. To our knowledge, this is the first study of molecular detection of T. gondii in snakes and our findings show a higher frequency of this organism among them. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Oral microbiota of Brazilian captive snakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MG Fonseca

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to determine the oral microbiotic composition of snakes from São José do Rio Preto city, São Paulo State, Brazil. Ten snake species, comprising the families Boidae, Colubridae, Elapidae and Viperidae, were submitted to microbiological examination of their oral cavity, which indicated positivity for all buccal samples. Gram-negative bacilli, gram-negative cocci bacilli, gram-positive bacilli and gram-positive cocci were isolated from the snakes. Among isolated bacterium species, the occurrence of coagulase-negative staphylococci in the buccal cavity of Crotalus durissus (Viperiade, Eunectes murinus (Boidae, Mastigodryas bifossatus (Colubridae and Bacillus subtilis, common to oral cavity of Bothrops alternatus (Viperidae and Phalotris mertensi (Colubridae, was detected. It was observed higher diversity of isolated bacteria from the oral cavity of Micrurus frontalis (Elapidae and Philodryas nattereri (Colubridae, as well as the prevalence of gram-positive baccillus and gram-positive cocci. The composition of the oral microbiota of the studied snakes, with or without inoculating fangs, is diverse and also related to the formation of abscesses at the bite site in the victims of the ophidian accidents, and to pathogenic processes in the snakes that host these microorganisms.

  15. MODELING SNAKE MICROHABITAT FROM RADIOTELEMETRY STUDIES USING POLYTOMOUS LOGISTIC REGRESSION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multivariate analysis of snake microhabitat has historically used techniques that were derived under assumptions of normality and common covariance structure (e.g., discriminant function analysis, MANOVA). In this study, polytomous logistic regression (PLR which does not require ...

  16. Pharmacokinetics of Snake Venom

    OpenAIRE

    Suchaya Sanhajariya; Stephen B. Duffull; Geoffrey K. Isbister

    2018-01-01

    Understanding snake venom pharmacokinetics is essential for developing risk assessment strategies and determining the optimal dose and timing of antivenom required to bind all venom in snakebite patients. This review aims to explore the current knowledge of snake venom pharmacokinetics in animals and humans. Literature searches were conducted using EMBASE (1974–present) and Medline (1946–present). For animals, 12 out of 520 initially identified studies met the inclusion criteria. In general, ...

  17. Reproductive strategies in snakes.

    OpenAIRE

    Shine, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Snakes of both sexes display remarkable flexibility and diversity in their reproductive tactics. Many features of reproduction in female snakes (such as reproductive mode and frequency, seasonality and multiple mating) allow flexible maternal control. For example, females can manipulate not only the genotypes of their offspring (through mate choice or enhanced sperm competition) but also the phenotypes of their offspring (through allocation 'decisions', behavioural and physiological thermoreg...

  18. Snakes: An Integrated Unit Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Lisa

    This document presents an integrated unit plan on snakes targeting second grade students. Objectives of the unit include developing concepts of living things, understanding the contribution and importance of snakes to the environment, and making connections between different disciplines. The unit integrates the topic of snakes into the areas of…

  19. Diversity of Snakes in Rajegwesi Tourism Area, Meru Betiri National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aji Dharma Raharjo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Rajegwesi tourism area is one of the significant tourism areas in Meru Betiri National Park, East Java, Indonesia. The area rich in term of biodiversity which are potential for developed as natural tourism attraction.  The aim of this study is to identify snakes species diversity and its distribution in Rajegwesi tourism area. Field survey was done in Rajegwesi area, namely swamps forest, residential area, rice fields, agriculture area (babatan, resort area, and Plengkang cliff. This study found some snakes, encompasses Colubridae (10 species, Elapidae (four species, and Phytonidae (one species. There are Burmese Python (Python reticulatus, Red-necked Keelback (Rhabdophis subminiatus, Painted Bronzeback Snake (Dendrelaphis Pictus, Black Copper Rat Snake (Coelognathus flavolineatus, Radiated Rat Snake (C. radiatus, Striped Keelback (Xenochrophis vittatus, Checkered Keelback (X. piscator, Spotted Ground Snake (Gongyosoma balioderius, Gold-ringed Cat Snake (Boiga dendrophila, Common Wolf Snake (Lycodon capucinus, Banded Wolf snake (L. subcinctus, Cobra (Naja sputatrix, King Cobra (Ophiophagus hannah, Malayan Krait (Bungarus candidus, and Banded Krait (B. fasciatus was found. These snake habitats distributes at 21 coordinate points. Keywords: conservation, ecotourism, snakes.

  20. Addiction to Snake Venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Saibal; Barnwal, Preeti; Maiti, Tanay; Ramasamy, Anand; Mondal, Somnath; Babu, Dinesh

    2017-07-03

    The nature of addiction depends on various factors. The tendency to have already used several addictive substances and to seek high sensation experiences as a result of specific personality traits may lead to extreme and peculiar forms of addictions. Even belonging to specific social and cultural background may lead to such forms of addiction such as intentional snake bite and willful envenomation. In this article, we have discussed the peculiarities and practical insight of such addiction to snake venom. The possible molecular mechanism behind such venom-mediated reinforcement has also been highlighted. Finally, we have stressed upon the treatment and de-addiction measures.

  1. Pulmonoscopy of Snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knotek, Zdenek; Jekl, Vladimir

    2015-09-01

    Pulmonoscopy is a practical diagnostic tool for investigating respiratory diseases in snakes. Two different approaches exist for pulmonoscopy, tracheal and transcutaneous. The access to the proximal or distal lung is limited by the length and diameter of the endoscope when using the tracheal approach. The transcutaneous approach allows direct evaluation of the lung and distal trachea through the air sac. Both of the methods are safe, and specific contraindications for pulmonoscopy in snakes are not known except for any anesthesia contraindication. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. 50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. 226.205 Section... Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. The following areas consisting of the water, waterway bottom, and adjacent riparian zone of...

  3. Snow snake performance monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    A recent study, Three-Dimensional Roughness Elements for Snow Retention (FHWA-WY-06/04F) (Tabler 2006), demonstrated : positive evidence for the effectiveness of Snow Snakes, a new type of snow fence suitable for use within the highway right-of...

  4. Where Galactic Snakes Live

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This infrared image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope shows what astronomers are referring to as a 'snake' (upper left) and its surrounding stormy environment. The sinuous object is actually the core of a thick, sooty cloud large enough to swallow dozens of solar systems. In fact, astronomers say the 'snake's belly' may be harboring beastly stars in the process of forming. The galactic creepy crawler to the right of the snake is another thick cloud core, in which additional burgeoning massive stars might be lurking. The colorful regions below the two cloud cores are less dense cloud material, in which dust has been heated by starlight and glows with infrared light. Yellow and orange dots throughout the image are monstrous developing stars; the red star on the 'belly' of the snake is 20 to 50 times as massive as our sun. The blue dots are foreground stars. The red ball at the bottom left is a 'supernova remnant,' the remains of massive star that died in a fiery blast. Astronomers speculate that radiation and winds from the star before it died, in addition to a shock wave created when it exploded, might have played a role in creating the snake. Spitzer was able to spot the two black cloud cores using its heat-seeking infrared vision. The objects are hiding in the dusty plane of our Milky Way galaxy, invisible to optical telescopes. Because their heat, or infrared light, can sneak through the dust, they first showed up in infrared images from past missions. The cloud cores are so thick with dust that if you were to somehow transport yourself into the middle of them, you would see nothing but black, not even a star in the sky. Now, that's spooky! Spitzer's new view of the region provides the best look yet at the massive embryonic stars hiding inside the snake. Astronomers say these observations will ultimately help them better understand how massive stars form. By studying the clustering and range of masses of the stellar embryos, they hope to determine if the stars

  5. Keeping venomous snakes in the Netherlands: a harmless hobby or a public health threat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Genderen, P J J; Slobbe, L; Koene, H; Mastenbroek, R D L; Overbosch, D

    2013-10-01

    To describe the incidence of venomous snakebites and the hospital treatment thereof (if any) amongst private individuals who keep venomous snakes as a hobby. Descriptive study. Private keepers of venomous snakes were invited via the social media Facebook, Hyves, Twitter, Google Plus, Linked In and two large discussion forums to fill in an online questionnaire on a purely voluntary and anonymous basis. In the period from 1 September 2012 to 31 December 2012, 86 questionnaires were completed by individuals who keep venomous snakes as a hobby. One-third of the venomous snake keepers stated that they had at some point been bitten by a venomous snake. Out of those, two-thirds needed hospital treatment and one-third of those bitten required at least one, sometimes more, doses of antiserum. The chances of being bitten increased the more venomous snakes a person kept. An inventory of the collections of venomous snakes being kept further revealed that no antiserum exists for 16 of the species, including for the most commonly held venomous snake, the coral cobra. Keeping venomous snakes as a hobby is not without danger. Although in the majority of snakebite cases no antiserum had to be administered, there is nevertheless a significant risk of morbidity and sequelae. Preventing snakebites in the first place remains the most important safety measure since there are no antiserums available for a substantial number of venomous snakes.

  6. Snake antivenom for snake venom induced consumption coagulopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Maduwage, Kalana; Buckley, Nick A.; Janaka de Silva, H.; Lalloo, David; Isbister, Geoffrey K.

    2015-01-01

    Background\\ud \\ud Snake venom induced consumption coagulopathy is a major systemic effect of envenoming. Observational studies suggest that antivenom improves outcomes for venom induced consumption coagulopathy in some snakebites and not others. However, the effectiveness of snake antivenom in all cases of venom induced consumption coagulopathy is controversial.\\ud \\ud Objectives\\ud \\ud To assess the effect of snake antivenom as a treatment for venom induced consumption coagulopathy in people...

  7. Toxins not neutralized by brown snake antivenom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judge, Roopwant K.; Henry, Peter J.; Mirtschin, Peter; Jelinek, George; Wilce, Jacqueline A.

    2006-01-01

    The Australian snakes of the genus Pseudonaja (dugite, gwardar and common brown) account for the majority of snake bite related deaths in Australia. Without antivenom treatment, the risk of mortality is significant. There is an accumulating body of evidence to suggest that the efficacy of the antivenom is limited. The current study investigates the protein constituents recognized by the antivenom using 2-DE, immuno-blot techniques and rat tracheal organ bath assays. The 2-DE profiles for all three snake venoms were similar, with major species visualized at 78-132 kDa, 32-45 kDa and 6-15 kDa. Proteins characterized by LC-MS/MS revealed a coagulant toxin (∼42 kDa) and coagulant peptide (∼6 kDa), as well as two PLA 2 (∼14 kDa). Peptides isolated from ∼78 kDa and 15-32 kDa protein components showed no similarity to known protein sequences. Protein recognition by the antivenom occurred predominantly for the higher molecular weight components with little recognition of 6-32 kDa MW species. The ability of antivenom to neutralize venom activity was also investigated using rat tracheal organ bath assays. The venoms of Pseudonaja affinis affinis and Pseudonaja nuchalis incited a sustained, significant contraction of the trachea. These contractions were attributed to PLA 2 enzymatic activity as pre-treatment with the PLA 2 inhibitor 4-BPB attenuated the venom-induced contractions. The venom of Pseudonaja textilis incited tracheal contractility through a non-PLA 2 enzymatic activity. Neither activity was attenuated by the antivenom treatment. These results represent the first proteomic investigation of the venoms from the snakes of the genus Pseudonaja, revealing a possible limitation of the brown snake antivenom in binding to the low MW protein components

  8. Responses by king snakes (Lampropeltis getulus) to chemicals from colubrid and crotaline snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldon, P J; Schell, F M

    1984-10-01

    Four litters of king snakes (Lampropeltis getulus), a snake-eating species, were tested for responses to chemicals from colubrid and crotaline snakes. King snakes presented with swabs rubbed against the dorsal skin of living snakes and with swabs treated with methylene chloride extracts of shed snake skins tongue-flicked more to swabs from a northern copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix), a crotaline, than to swabs from some colubrid snakes or to blank swabs. Six out of 10 king snakes in one litter attacked and attempted to ingest swabs treated with snake skin chemicals, implicating these chemicals as feeding stimuli for these ophiophagous snakes. Ingestively naive king snakes presented with plain air and snake odors in an olfactometer tongue-flicked more to snake odors. This study and others suggest that crotaline and colubrid snakes can be distinguished by chemical cues.

  9. Snake studies on Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristofani, P.; Desgranges, C.; Garbet, X.; Geraud, A.; Gil, C.; Hoang, G.T.; Joffrin, E.; Pecquet, A.L.

    1995-01-01

    Snakes have been achieved after pellet injection in Tore Supra during ohmic as well as ICRH discharges as it has already been observed in other machines. On Tore Supra, high speed H 2 pellets were injected into D 2 plasmas under the specified experimental conditions, the matter is deposited in the centre and snakes are produced in 50% of the cases, but they are created on a second much more internal q=1 surface leading probably to a non monotonic current profile. The properties of the snake, induced current modification and the important role of the bootstrap current in the snake formation are described. (K.A.) 5 refs.; 7 figs

  10. Snake Venom Metalloproteinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gâz Florea Şerban Andrei

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As more data are generated from proteome and transcriptome analysis revealing that metalloproteinases represent most of the Viperid and Colubrid venom components authors decided to describe in a short review a classification and some of the multiple activities of snake venom metalloproteinases. SVMPs are classified in three major classes (P-I, P-II and P-III classes based on the presence of various domain structures and according to their domain organization. Furthermore, P-II and P-III classes were separated in subclasses based on distinctive post-translational modifications. SVMPs are synthesized in a latent form, being activated through a Cys-switch mechanism similar to matrix metalloproteinases. Most of the metalloproteinases of the snake venom are responsible for the hemorrhagic events but also have fibrinogenolytic activity, poses apoptotic activity, activate blood coagulation factor II and X, inhibit platelet aggregation, demonstrating that SVMPs have multiple functions in addition to well-known hemorrhagic function.

  11. Pharmacokinetics of Snake Venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchaya Sanhajariya

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding snake venom pharmacokinetics is essential for developing risk assessment strategies and determining the optimal dose and timing of antivenom required to bind all venom in snakebite patients. This review aims to explore the current knowledge of snake venom pharmacokinetics in animals and humans. Literature searches were conducted using EMBASE (1974–present and Medline (1946–present. For animals, 12 out of 520 initially identified studies met the inclusion criteria. In general, the disposition of snake venom was described by a two-compartment model consisting of a rapid distribution phase and a slow elimination phase, with half-lives of 5 to 48 min and 0.8 to 28 h, respectively, following rapid intravenous injection of the venoms or toxins. When the venoms or toxins were administered intramuscularly or subcutaneously, an initial absorption phase and slow elimination phase were observed. The bioavailability of venoms or toxins ranged from 4 to 81.5% following intramuscular administration and 60% following subcutaneous administration. The volume of distribution and the clearance varied between snake species. For humans, 24 out of 666 initially identified publications contained sufficient information and timed venom concentrations in the absence of antivenom therapy for data extraction. The data were extracted and modelled in NONMEM. A one-compartment model provided the best fit, with an elimination half-life of 9.71 ± 1.29 h. It is intended that the quantitative information provided in this review will provide a useful basis for future studies that address the pharmacokinetics of snakebite in humans.

  12. Snake Venom Metalloproteinases

    OpenAIRE

    Gâz Florea Şerban Andrei; Gâz Florea Adriana; Kelemen Hajnal; Muntean Daniela-Lucia

    2016-01-01

    As more data are generated from proteome and transcriptome analysis revealing that metalloproteinases represent most of the Viperid and Colubrid venom components authors decided to describe in a short review a classification and some of the multiple activities of snake venom metalloproteinases. SVMPs are classified in three major classes (P-I, P-II and P-III classes) based on the presence of various domain structures and according to their domain organization. Furthermore, P-II and P-III clas...

  13. Reproductive strategies in snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shine, Richard

    2003-05-22

    Snakes of both sexes display remarkable flexibility and diversity in their reproductive tactics. Many features of reproduction in female snakes (such as reproductive mode and frequency, seasonality and multiple mating) allow flexible maternal control. For example, females can manipulate not only the genotypes of their offspring (through mate choice or enhanced sperm competition) but also the phenotypes of their offspring (through allocation 'decisions', behavioural and physiological thermoregulation, and nest-site selection). Reliance on stored energy ('capital') to fuel breeding results in low frequencies of female reproduction and, in extreme cases, semelparity. A sophisticated vomeronasal system not only allows male snakes to locate reproductive females by following scent trails, but also facilitates pheromonally mediated mate choice by males. Male-male rivalry takes diverse forms, including female mimicry and mate guarding; combat bouts impose strong selection for large body size in males of some species. Intraspecific (geographical) variation and phenotypic plasticity in a wide array of reproductive traits (offspring size and number; reproductive frequency; incidence of multiple mating; male tactics such as mate guarding and combat; mate choice criteria) provide exceptional opportunities for future studies.

  14. Snake Venom As An Effective Tool Against Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzair, Bushra; Atlas, Nagina; Malik, Sidra Batool; Jamil, Nazia; Salaam, Temitope Ojuolape; Rehman, Mujaddad Ur; Khan, Barkat Ali

    2018-06-13

    Cancer is considered one of the most predominant causes of morbidity and mortality all over the world and colorectal cancer is the most common fatal cancers, triggering the second cancer related death. Despite progress in understanding carcinogenesis and development in chemotherapeutics, there is an essential need to search for improved treatment. More than the half a century, cytotoxic and cytostatic agents have been examined as a potential treatment of cancer, among these agents; remarkable progresses have been reported by the use of the snake venom. Snake venoms are secreting materials of lethal snakes are store in venomous glands. Venoms are composite combinations of various protein, peptides, enzymes, toxins and non proteinaceous secretions. Snake venom possesses immense valuable mixtures of proteins and enzymes. Venoms have potential to combat with the cancerous cells and produce positive effect. Besides the toxicological effects of venoms, several proteins of snake venom e.g. disintegrins, phospholipases A2, metalloproteinases, and L-amino acid oxidases and peptides e.g. bradykinin potentiators, natriuretic, and analgesic peptides have shown potential as pharmaceutical agents, including areas of diagnosis and cancer treatment. In this review we have discussed recent remarkable research that has involved the dynamic snake venoms compounds, having anticancer bustle especially in case of colorectal cancer. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. A Review and Database of Snake Venom Proteomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasoulis, Theo; Isbister, Geoffrey K

    2017-09-18

    Advances in the last decade combining transcriptomics with established proteomics methods have made possible rapid identification and quantification of protein families in snake venoms. Although over 100 studies have been published, the value of this information is increased when it is collated, allowing rapid assimilation and evaluation of evolutionary trends, geographical variation, and possible medical implications. This review brings together all compositional studies of snake venom proteomes published in the last decade. Compositional studies were identified for 132 snake species: 42 from 360 (12%) Elapidae (elapids), 20 from 101 (20%) Viperinae (true vipers), 65 from 239 (27%) Crotalinae (pit vipers), and five species of non-front-fanged snakes. Approximately 90% of their total venom composition consisted of eight protein families for elapids, 11 protein families for viperines and ten protein families for crotalines. There were four dominant protein families: phospholipase A₂s (the most common across all front-fanged snakes), metalloproteases, serine proteases and three-finger toxins. There were six secondary protein families: cysteine-rich secretory proteins, l-amino acid oxidases, kunitz peptides, C-type lectins/snaclecs, disintegrins and natriuretic peptides. Elapid venoms contained mostly three-finger toxins and phospholipase A₂s and viper venoms metalloproteases, phospholipase A₂s and serine proteases. Although 63 protein families were identified, more than half were present in <5% of snake species studied and always in low abundance. The importance of these minor component proteins remains unknown.

  16. Snake Venom: From Deadly Toxins to Life-saving Therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waheed, Humera; Moin, Syed F; Choudhary, M I

    2017-01-01

    Snakes are fascinating creatures and have been residents of this planet well before ancient humans dwelled the earth. Venomous snakes have been a figure of fear, and cause notable mortality throughout the world. The venom constitutes families of proteins and peptides with various isoforms that make it a cocktail of diverse molecules. These biomolecules are responsible for the disturbance in fundamental physiological systems of the envenomed victim, leading to morbidity which can lead to death if left untreated. Researchers have turned these life-threatening toxins into life-saving therapeutics via technological advancements. Since the development of captopril, the first drug that was derived from bradykininpotentiating peptide of Bothrops jararaca, to the disintegrins that have potent activity against certain types of cancers, snake venom components have shown great potential for the development of lead compounds for new drugs. There is a continuous development of new drugs from snake venom for coagulopathy and hemostasis to anti-cancer agents. In this review, we have focused on different snake venom proteins / peptides derived drugs that are in clinical use or in developmental stages till to date. Also, some commonly used snake venom derived diagnostic tools along with the recent updates in this exciting field are discussed. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. Snake Bite: A review of Current Literature | Dreyer | East and Central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East and Central African Journal of Surgery ... Snake bite most commonly affects those living in the tropical and sub-tropical areas of Africa, Asia, the ... (WHO) recently recognised snake bite as a neglected tropical disease and this has led to a ...

  18. Snakes Have Feelings, Too: Elements of a Camp Snake Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Robert Ross

    2001-01-01

    A camp snake program can help campers overcome their fear of snakes, and people cannot truly enjoy nature when they carry a phobia about any one part of it. It can also help overcome prejudice by teaching truth and respect, instilling compassion, and helping campers develop empathy. Advice on catching, handling, identifying, keeping, and feeding…

  19. \\'The snake will swallow you': supernatural snakes and the creation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    \\'The snake will swallow you': supernatural snakes and the creation of the Khotso legend. Felicity Wood. Abstract. No Abstract. Indilinga: African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems (IAJIKS) Vol. 4(1) 2005: 347-359. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  20. Are snake populations in widespread decline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reading, C J; Luiselli, L M; Akani, G C; Bonnet, X; Amori, G; Ballouard, J M; Filippi, E; Naulleau, G; Pearson, D; Rugiero, L

    2010-12-23

    Long-term studies have revealed population declines in fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. In birds, and particularly amphibians, these declines are a global phenomenon whose causes are often unclear. Among reptiles, snakes are top predators and therefore a decline in their numbers may have serious consequences for the functioning of many ecosystems. Our results show that, of 17 snake populations (eight species) from the UK, France, Italy, Nigeria and Australia, 11 have declined sharply over the same relatively short period of time with five remaining stable and one showing signs of a marginal increase. Although the causes of these declines are currently unknown, we suspect that they are multi-faceted (such as habitat quality deterioration, prey availability), and with a common cause, e.g. global climate change, at their root.

  1. Finding the neck-trunk boundary in snakes: anteroposterior dissociation of myological characteristics in snakes and its implications for their neck and trunk body regionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuihiji, Takanobu; Kearney, Maureen; Rieppel, Olivier

    2012-09-01

    The neck and trunk regionalization of the presacral musculoskeletal system in snakes and other limb-reduced squamates was assessed based on observations on craniovertebral and body wall muscles. It was confirmed that myological features characterizing the neck in quadrupedal squamates (i.e., squamates with well-developed limbs) are retained in all examined snakes, contradicting the complete lack of the neck in snakes hypothesized in previous studies. However, the posterior-most origins of the craniovertebral muscles and the anterior-most bony attachments of the body wall muscles that are located at around the neck-trunk boundary in quadrupedal squamates were found to be dissociated anteroposteriorly in snakes. Together with results of a recent study that the anterior expression boundaries of Hox genes coinciding with the neck-trunk boundary in quadrupedal amniotes were dissociated anteroposteriorly in a colubrid snake, these observations support the hypothesis that structures usually associated with the neck-trunk boundary in quadrupedal squamates are displaced relative to one another in snakes. Whereas certain craniovertebral muscles are elongated in some snakes, results of optimization on an ophidian cladogram show that the most recent common ancestor of extant snakes would have had the longest craniovertebral muscle, M. rectus capitis anterior, that is elongated only by several segments compared with that of quadrupedal squamates. Therefore, even such a posteriorly displaced "cervical" characteristic plesiomorphically lies fairly anteriorly in the greatly elongated precloacal region of snakes, suggesting that the trunk, not the neck, would have contributed most to the elongation of the snake precloacal region. A similar dissociation of structures usually associated with the neck-trunk boundary in quadrupedal squamates is observed in limb-reduced squamates, suggesting that these forms and snakes may share a developmental mechanism producing modifications in the

  2. Runaway snakes in TEXTOR-94

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Entrop, I.; R. Jaspers,; Cardozo, N. J. L.; Finken, K.H.

    1999-01-01

    Observations of a runaway beam confined in an island-like structure, a so-called runaway snake, are reported. The observations are made in TEXTOR-94 by measurement of synchrotron radiation emitted by these runaways. A full poloidal View allows for the study of the synchrotron pattern of the snake to

  3. Veterinary management of snake reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Scott J

    2002-09-01

    The reptile veterinarian should approach the breeder with a comprehensive plan involving a review of proper husbandry, nutrition, record keeping, and a thorough prebreeding evaluation of the snakes. In addition, an evaluation of the reproductive strategy, assistance with confirming and monitoring gestation, and a review of potential reproductive complications will help to prepare the snake owner for a successful breeding season.

  4. Identification and comparative analysis of the epidermal differentiation complex in snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigit Holthaus, Karin; Mlitz, Veronika; Strasser, Bettina; Tschachler, Erwin; Alibardi, Lorenzo; Eckhart, Leopold

    2017-01-01

    The epidermis of snakes efficiently protects against dehydration and mechanical stress. However, only few proteins of the epidermal barrier to the environment have so far been identified in snakes. Here, we determined the organization of the Epidermal Differentiation Complex (EDC), a cluster of genes encoding protein constituents of cornified epidermal structures, in snakes and compared it to the EDCs of other squamates and non-squamate reptiles. The EDC of snakes displays shared synteny with that of the green anole lizard, including the presence of a cluster of corneous beta-protein (CBP)/beta-keratin genes. We found that a unique CBP comprising 4 putative beta-sheets and multiple cysteine-rich EDC proteins are conserved in all snakes and other squamates investigated. Comparative genomics of squamates suggests that the evolution of snakes was associated with a gene duplication generating two isoforms of the S100 fused-type protein, scaffoldin, the origin of distinct snake-specific EDC genes, and the loss of other genes that were present in the EDC of the last common ancestor of snakes and lizards. Taken together, our results provide new insights into the evolution of the skin in squamates and a basis for the characterization of the molecular composition of the epidermis in snakes. PMID:28345630

  5. Quantum snake walk on graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosmanis, Ansis

    2011-01-01

    I introduce a continuous-time quantum walk on graphs called the quantum snake walk, the basis states of which are fixed-length paths (snakes) in the underlying graph. First, I analyze the quantum snake walk on the line, and I show that, even though most states stay localized throughout the evolution, there are specific states that most likely move on the line as wave packets with momentum inversely proportional to the length of the snake. Next, I discuss how an algorithm based on the quantum snake walk might potentially be able to solve an extended version of the glued trees problem, which asks to find a path connecting both roots of the glued trees graph. To the best of my knowledge, no efficient quantum algorithm solving this problem is known yet.

  6. Nanofibrous Snake Venom Hemostat

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Vivek A.; Wickremasinghe, Navindee C.; Shi, Siyu; Hartgerink, Jeffrey D.

    2015-01-01

    Controlling perioperative bleeding is of critical importance to minimize hemorrhaging and fatality. Patients on anticoagulant therapy such as heparin have diminished clotting potential and are at risk for hemorrhaging. Here we describe a self-assembling nanofibrous peptide hydrogel (termed SLac) that on its own can act as a physical barrier to blood loss. SLac was loaded with snake-venom derived Batroxobin (50 μg/mL) yielding a drug-loaded hydrogel (SB50). SB50 was potentiated to enhance clot...

  7. Snake-bite-induced Acute Kidney Injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqvi, R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To describe the clinical spectrum and outcome of patients presenting to a tertiary care kidney center, developing acute kidney injury (AKI) after snake-bite. Study Design: An observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Nephrology Department, Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation (SIUT), Karachi, from January 1990 to December 2014. Methodology: All patients coming to SIUT identified as having AKI after snake-bite during the study period were included. AKI was defined according to RIFLE criteria with sudden rise in creatinine or decline in urine output or both. Demographics, clinical presentation, laboratory profile, and final outcome was noted. Result: During the studied period, 115 cases of AKI, secondary to snake-bite, were registered at this institution. Median age of patients was 35.92 ±15.04 (range: 6 - 70) years and male to female ratio was 1.6:1. Time from bite and referral to this hospital ranged from 2 to 28 days (mean: 8.77 ±5.58 days). Oligo-anuria was the most common presentation, being found in 98 (93.90 percentage) patients. Bleeding diathesis was reported in 75 (65.21 percentage) patients on presentation. All patients had normal sized, non-obstructed kidneys on ultrasonography, with no previous comorbids. Renal replacement therapy (RRT) was required in 106 (92.17 percentage) patients. Complete recovery was seen in 59 (51.30 percentage), while 15 (13.04 percentage) patients expired during acute phase of illness, 4 (3.47 percentage) developed CKD, 11 (9.56 percentage) required dialysis beyond 90 days, and 26 (22.60 percentage) were lost to long-term follow-up. Conclusion: Snake-bite, leading to multiple complications including renal failure and death, is a major health issue in tropical countries. Late referral of these patients to specialized centres Result in undesirable outcome. (author)

  8. JESS: Java extensible snakes system

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerney, Tim; Akhavan Sharif, M. Reza; Pashotanizadeh, Nasrin

    2005-04-01

    Snakes (Active Contour Models) are powerful model-based image segmentation tools. Although researchers have proven them especially useful in medical image analysis over the past decade, Snakes have remained primarily in the academic world and they have not become widely used in clinical practice or widely available in commercial packages. A number of confusing and specialized variants exist and there has been no standard open-source implementation available. To address this problem, we present a Java Extensible Snakes System (JESS) that is general, portable, and extensible. The system uses Java Swing classes to allow for the rapid development of custom graphical user interfaces (GUI's). It also incorporates the Java Advanced Imaging(JAI) class library, which provide custom image preprocessing, image display and general image I/O. The Snakes algorithm itself is written in a hierarchical fashion, consisting of a general Snake class and several subclasses that span the main variants of Snakes including a new, powerful, robust subdivision-curve Snake. These subclasses can be easily and quickly extended and customized for any specific segmentation and analysis task. We demonstrate the utility of these classes for segmenting various anatomical structures from 2D medical images. We also demonstrate the effectiveness of JESS by using it to rapidly build a prototype semi-automatic sperm analysis system. The JESS software will be made publicly available in early 2005.

  9. Neurological manifestations of snake bite in Sri Lanka.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seneviratne U

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Snake bite is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in certain parts of Sri Lanka. This study was designed to determine the offending snakes, neurological manifestations, disease course, and outcome in neurotoxic envenomation. METHODS AND MATERIAL: Fifty six consecutive patients admitted with neurological manifestations following snake bite were studied prospectively. Data were obtained regarding the offending snakes, neurological symptoms, time taken for onset of symptoms, neurological signs, and time taken for recovery. RESULTS: The offending snake was Russell′s viper in 27(48.2%, common and Sri Lankan krait in 19(33.9%, cobra in 3(5.4%, and unidentified in 7(12.5%. Ptosis was the commonest neurological manifestation seen in 48(85.7% followed by ophthalmoplegia (75%, limb weakness (26.8%, respiratory failure (17.9%, palatal weakness (10.7%, neck muscle weakness (7.1%, and delayed sensory neuropathy (1.8%. Neurological symptoms were experienced usually within 6 hours after the bite. Following administration of antivenom, the signs of recovery became evident within a few hours to several days. The duration for complete recovery ranged from four hours to two weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Complete recovery of neuromuscular weakness was observed in all patients except for one who died with intracerebral haemorrhage shortly after admission.

  10. Recombinant snake venom prothrombin activators

    OpenAIRE

    L?vgren, Ann

    2012-01-01

    Three prothrombin activators; ecarin, which was originally isolated from the venom of the saw-scaled viper Echis carinatus, trocarin from the rough-scaled snake Tropidechis carinatus, and oscutarin from the Taipan snake Oxyuranus scutellatus, were expressed in mammalian cells with the purpose to obtain recombinant prothrombin activators that could be used to convert prothrombin to thrombin. We have previously reported that recombinant ecarin can efficiently generate thrombin without the need ...

  11. Impact of first aid training in management of snake bite victims in Madi valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, D P; Thapa, C L; Hamal, P K

    2010-04-01

    Tropical lowland on Nepal is at full of risk to snake bite. The snake bite mortality is due to lack of awareness about proper management of victims. The study aims to assess the change in the pattern of management of snake bite victims after first aid training. A retrospective study was done from October 2007 to October 2008 among 43 snake bite victims in rural Madi valley comprising of 4 village development committees where first aid training was conducted one year before. Only 26% of the snake bite victims approached traditional healer before arriving at the heath facility. The case fatality rate dropped to 22% after venomous snake bite. Pressure Immobilization bandaging and local compression pad immobilization technique was used by 56% who went to the health facility. Mean duration for reaching health facility was 61.51±33.55 minutes. Common places of bite were field 16 (37.2%), Indoor 6 (14%), while sleeping 6 (14%), and yard 6 (14%). Lower extremity bites were 32 (74.4%), upper extremity 8 (18.6%) and head 3 (7%). Bicycle was the commonest mode of transport 22 (51%) followed by ambulance 9(27.9%) and Motorcycle 6 (11%). First aid training changes the attitude of the people in management of snake bite victims and is one of the effective ways in decreasing mortality. Nationwide campaigning should be done especially at snake bite prone area about the proper first aid technique to improve the awareness level of the general population.

  12. Runaway snakes in TEXTOR-94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entrop, I.; Jaspers, R.; Lopes Cardozo, N.J.; Finken, K.H.

    1999-01-01

    Observations of a runaway beam confined in an island-like structure, a so-called runaway snake, are reported. The observations are made in TEXTOR-94 by measurement of synchrotron radiation emitted by these runaways. A full poloidal view allows for the study of the synchrotron pattern of the snake to estimate runaway energy, pitch angle and the radius, shift and safety factor of the drift surface q D at which the runaway beam has developed. The runaway snake parameters are investigated under different current and magnetic field strength conditions. Examples are found of a runaway snake at the q D =1 and the q D =2 drift surface. The radial diffusion coefficient of runaways inside a snake is D r approx. 0.01m 2 s -1 . The rapid runaway losses in regions of (macroscopic) magnetic perturbations outside a snake and the good confinement inside an island assumed to consist of perfect nested surfaces are consistent with magnetic turbulence as the main cause for runaway transport. (author)

  13. The oldest known snakes from the Middle Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous provide insights on snake evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Michael W; Nydam, Randall L; Palci, Alessandro; Apesteguía, Sebastián

    2015-01-27

    The previous oldest known fossil snakes date from ~100 million year old sediments (Upper Cretaceous) and are both morphologically and phylogenetically diverse, indicating that snakes underwent a much earlier origin and adaptive radiation. We report here on snake fossils that extend the record backwards in time by an additional ~70 million years (Middle Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous). These ancient snakes share features with fossil and modern snakes (for example, recurved teeth with labial and lingual carinae, long toothed suborbital ramus of maxillae) and with lizards (for example, pronounced subdental shelf/gutter). The paleobiogeography of these early snakes is diverse and complex, suggesting that snakes had undergone habitat differentiation and geographic radiation by the mid-Jurassic. Phylogenetic analysis of squamates recovers these early snakes in a basal polytomy with other fossil and modern snakes, where Najash rionegrina is sister to this clade. Ingroup analysis finds them in a basal position to all other snakes including Najash.

  14. Siberian snakes for the Fermilab Main Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anferov, V.A.; Baiod, R.; Courant, E.D.

    1993-01-01

    Appropriate Siberian snakes were designed to maintain the proton beam polarization during acceleration in the Fermilab Main Injector from 8 to 150 GeV. Various snake designs were investigated to find one fitting into the 14 m straight section spaces with the required spin rotation axis and the minimum orbit excursion. The authors studied both cold and warm discrete magnet snakes as well as warm snakes with helical magnets. For the warm discrete magnet snake, obtaining small orbit excursions required a nearly longitudinal snake axis, while axes near ±45 degrees are needed when using two snakes in a ring. The authors found acceptable snakes either by using superconducting magnets or by using warm magnets with a helical dipole field

  15. Analysis, reconstruction and manipulation using arterial snakes

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Guo; Liu, Ligang; Zheng, Hanlin; Mitra, Niloy J.

    2010-01-01

    , and manipulating such arterial surfaces. The core of the algorithm is a novel deformable model, called arterial snake, that simultaneously captures the topology and geometry of the arterial objects. The recovered snakes produce a natural decomposition of the raw

  16. The North-South divide in snake bite envenomation in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Chauhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Snake bite envenomations are common in rural areas and the incidence peaks during monsoons in India. Prominent venomous species have been traditionally labeled as the ′big four′ that includes Cobra, Krait, Russel′s viper and Saw scaled viper. Systematic attempts for identification and classification of prevalent snakes in various states of India are missing till now and there is no concrete data on this aspect. The published literature however shows that some species of snakes are more prevalent in a particular region than the other parts of India e.g. Saw scaled vipers in Rajasthan. We reviewed the published literature from various parts of India and found that there is a North-South divide in the snake bite profile from India. Neurotoxic envenomations are significantly higher in North India compared to South India where Hematotoxic envenomations are prevalent. Russel′s viper causes local necrosis, gangrene and compartment syndrome. These manifestations have never been reported in North Indian snake bite profile in the published literature. Early morning neuroparalysis caused by Krait is a common problem in North India leading to high mortality after snake bite. This review presents supporting evidence for the North-South divide and proposes a way forward in formulation and revision of guidelines for snake bite in India.

  17. Cognitive reappraisal of snake and spider pictures: An event-related potentials study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeslag, Sandra J E; van Strien, Jan W

    2018-05-30

    Fear of snakes and spiders are common animal phobias. Emotion regulation can change the response to emotional stimuli, including snakes and spiders. It is well known that emotion regulation modulates the late positive potential (LPP), which reflects sustained motivated attention. However, research concerning the effect of emotion regulation on the early posterior negativity (EPN), which reflects early selective attention, is scarce. The present research question was whether the EPN and LPP amplitudes are modulated by regulation of emotional responses to snake and spider stimuli. Emotion up- and down-regulation were expected to enhance and reduce the LPP amplitude, respectively, but emotion regulation was not expected to modulate the EPN amplitude. Female participants passively viewed snake, spider, and bird pictures, and up- and down-regulated their emotional responses to the snake and spider pictures using self-focused reappraisal, while their electroencephalogram was recorded. There were EPNs for snakes and spiders vs. birds, as well as for snakes vs. spiders. The LPP amplitude tended to be enhanced for snakes and spiders compared to birds. Most importantly, the LPP amplitude was larger in the up-regulate than in the down-regulate condition for both snakes and spiders, but there was no evidence that the EPN amplitude was modulated by emotion regulation. This suggests that emotion regulation modulated sustained motivated attention, but not early selective attention, to snakes and spiders. The findings are in line with the notion that the emotional modulation of the EPN is more automatic than the emotional modulation of the LPP. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Cheyletus eruditus (taurrus): an effective candidate for the biological control of the snake mite (Ophionyssus natricis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilliger, Lionel H; Morel, Damien; Bonwitt, Jesse H; Marquis, Olivier

    2013-09-01

    The most commonly encountered ectoparasite in captive snakes is the hematophagous snake mite (Ophionyssus natricis). Infected snakes often exhibit lethargy, dysecdysis, pruritus, crusting dermatitis (sometimes progressing to abscesses), and behavioral changes (increased bathing time, rubbing against objects). Anemia and septicemia are occasional complications. Eliminating snake mites from a collection is frustrating. Insecticidal and acaricidal compounds used in mammals can be used against O. natricis infestation in reptiles, but they all are potentially neurotoxic to reptiles. The use of a biological agent to control the snake mite was first developed by using the predatory mites Hypoaspis miles and Hypoaspis aculeifer. However, no data are available regarding the potential of these mites to control O. natricis. Furthermore, the survival and predatory behavior of H. aculeifer and H. miles decreases above 28 degrees C, which is the lower value of the optimal temperature zone range required for rearing snakes. The aim of this study is to identify the ability of the predatory mite Cheyletus eruditus to control O. natricis. In the first experiment, 125 O. natricis mites where placed in separate plastic tubes together with the same number of C. eruditus mites. After 48 hr, the survival rate of snake mites was 6% compared with 92% in the control group (n = 125, P snake) ball pythons, with an average of 13 O. natricis per individual, were placed in separate cages with 1,000 C. eruditus mites + vermiculite After 15 days, only an average of two mites per snake remained, compared with 48 per snake in the control group (t-test, P < 0,01).

  19. Computational Studies of Snake Venom Toxins

    OpenAIRE

    Paola G. Ojeda; David Ramírez; Jans Alzate-Morales; Julio Caballero; Quentin Kaas; Wendy González

    2017-01-01

    Most snake venom toxins are proteins, and participate to envenomation through a diverse array of bioactivities, such as bleeding, inflammation, and pain, cytotoxic, cardiotoxic or neurotoxic effects. The venom of a single snake species contains hundreds of toxins, and the venoms of the 725 species of venomous snakes represent a large pool of potentially bioactive proteins. Despite considerable discovery efforts, most of the snake venom toxins are still uncharacterized. Modern bioinformatics t...

  20. 33 CFR 117.1058 - Snake River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Snake River. 117.1058 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Washington § 117.1058 Snake River. (a) The draw of the Burlington Northern Santa Fe railroad bridge across the Snake River at mile 1.5 between Pasco and Burbank is...

  1. 33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Snake Creek. 117.331 Section 117.331 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake Creek...

  2. Coyotes Are Afraid of Little Snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weewish Tree, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Wichita tale of a contest between Coyote and Small Snake to see whose teeth are strongest. They bite each other, and soon big, strong Coyote is dead from the poisoned bite of the tiny snake. Explains why, from that time onward, coyotes have been afraid of little snakes. (DS)

  3. New practicable Siberian Snake schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffen, K.

    1983-07-01

    Siberian Snake schemes can be inserted in ring accelerators for making the spin tune almost independent of energy. Two such schemes are here suggested which lend particularly well to practical application over a wide energy range. Being composed of horizontal and vertical bending magnets, the proposed snakes are designed to have a small maximum beam excursion in one plane. By applying in this plane a bending correction that varies with energy, they can be operated at fixed geometry in the other plane where most of the bending occurs, thus avoiding complicated magnet motion or excessively large magnet apertures that would otherwise be needed for large energy variations. The first of the proposed schemes employs a pair of standard-type Siberian Snakes, i.e. of the usual 1st and 2nd kind which rotate the spin about the longitudinal and the transverse horizontal axis, respectively. The second scheme employs a pair of novel-type snakes which rotate the spin about either one of the horizontal axes that are at 45 0 to the beam direction. In obvious reference to these axes, they are called left-pointed and right-pointed snakes. (orig.)

  4. An uncommon initial presentation of snake bite-subarachnoid hemorrhage: A case report with literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Roy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Snake bites are very common in India, particularly in West Bengal. Snake bite can cause various hematological, neuromyopathical complications. It can be very fatal if not detected and treated early. Timely intervention can save the patient. We are reporting a case of hematotoxic Russell viper snake bite presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Patient was successfully treated with antivenom serum (AVS along with other conservative management. Subarachnoid hemorrhage as an initial presentation in viper bite is very rare and we discuss the case with proper literature review.

  5. Molecular Identification of Cryptosporidium Species from Pet Snakes in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Yimming, Benjarat; Pattanatanang, Khampee; Sanyathitiseree, Pornchai; Inpankaew, Tawin; Kamyingkird, Ketsarin; Pinyopanuwat, Nongnuch; Chimnoi, Wissanuwat; Phasuk, Jumnongjit

    2016-01-01

    Cryptosporidium is an important pathogen causing gastrointestinal disease in snakes and is distributed worldwide. The main objectives of this study were to detect and identify Cryptosporidium species in captive snakes from exotic pet shops and snake farms in Thailand. In total, 165 fecal samples were examined from 8 snake species, boa constrictor (Boa constrictor constrictor), corn snake (Elaphe guttata), ball python (Python regius), milk snake (Lampropeltis triangulum), king snake (Lampropel...

  6. SNAKE BITE WITH TOXIC DEMYELINATION – A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Snakebite is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in India. India has the highest number of deaths due to snake bite1 Neurotoxicity due to snakebite is well-known with varied presentation.2 Common cases of snakebites are of saw-scaled viper (Echis carinatus, Russell’s viper (a viperidae, krait (Bungarus caeruleus, common cobra (Naja naja king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah.3

  7. Siberian Snakes in high-energy accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mane, S R; Shatunov, Yu M; Yokoya, K

    2005-01-01

    We review modern techniques to accelerate spin-polarized beams to high energy and to preserve their polarization in storage rings. Crucial to the success of such work is the use of so-called Siberian Snakes. We explain these devices and the reason for their necessity. Closely related to Snakes is the concept of 'spin rotators'. The designs and merits of several types of Snakes and spin rotators are examined. Theoretical work with Snakes and spin rotators, and experimental results from several storage rings, are reviewed, including the so-called Snake resonances. (topical review)

  8. First test of the Siberian Snake concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krisch, A.D.

    1990-01-01

    Test results of the Siberian Snake concept at the Indiana University Cooler Ring are presented. The Siberian Snake is a clever and interesting concept for accelerating polarized protons to high energy. Thus it would be especially useful at TeV energies where there are thousands of depolarizing resonances. The Snake is the device which job is to rotate the proton's spin by 180 deg. every time the proton goes around the ring. The Snake's main element is the superconducting solenoid magnet. Examples of the Siberian Snake overcoming depolarizing resonances are presented. 6 refs.; 24 figs

  9. Prevalence of snake bites in Kangar District Hospital, Perlis, west Malaysia: a retrospective study (January 1999-December 2000).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamaiah, I; Rohela, M; Roshalina, R; Undan, R C

    2004-12-01

    The records of 284 snake bite cases presenting to the Kangar District Hospital, Perlis, west Malaysia, from January 1999 till December 2000 were carefully reviewed. Data on prevalence and types of snake bites, were recorded. The majority of the cases were among Malays (60.2%), followed by Chinese (16.9%), Indians (13%), and others which include Thai nationals, army personnel from Sabah and Sarawak, and foreign tourists (9.8%). A higher incidence was found in males (60.2%) and most cases were seen in the age group of 10-19 years (33%). Snake bites were more common between 2 PM and 9 PM (47.6%) and from 7 AM to 2 PM (33.4%). The snakes were positively identified in 68 cases, of which 50 were common cobras (Naja naja) (73%), 16 were Malayan pit vipers (Agkistrodon rhodostoma) (24%) and two were sea-snakes (3%).

  10. Defining population structure and genetic signatures of decline in the giant garter snake (Thamnophis gigas): implications for conserving threatened species within highly altered landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Dustin A.; Halstead, Brian J.; Casazza, Michael L.; Hansen, Eric C.; Wylie, Glenn D.; Vandergast, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic habitat fragmentation can disrupt the ability of species to disperse across landscapes, which can alter the levels and distribution of genetic diversity within populations and negatively impact long-term viability. The giant gartersnake (Thamnophis gigas) is a state and federally threatened species that historically occurred in the wetland habitats of California’s Great Central Valley. Despite the loss of 93 % of historic wetlands throughout the Central Valley, giant gartersnakes continue to persist in relatively small, isolated patches of highly modified agricultural wetlands. Gathering information regarding genetic diversity and effective population size represents an essential component for conservation management programs aimed at this species. Previous mitochondrial sequence studies have revealed historical patterns of differentiation, yet little is known about contemporary population structure and diversity. On the basis of 15 microsatellite loci, we estimate population structure and compare indices of genetic diversity among populations spanning seven drainage basins within the Central Valley. We sought to understand how habitat loss may have affected genetic differentiation, genetic diversity and effective population size, and what these patterns suggest in terms of management and restoration actions. We recovered five genetic clusters that were consistent with regional drainage basins, although three northern basins within the Sacramento Valley formed a single genetic cluster. Our results show that northern drainage basin populations have higher connectivity than among central and southern basins populations, and that greater differentiation exists among the more geographically isolated populations in the central and southern portion of the species’ range. Genetic diversity measures among basins were significantly different, and were generally lower in southern basin populations. Levels of inbreeding and evidence of population bottlenecks were detected in about half the populations we sampled, and effective population size estimates were well below recommended minimum thresholds to avoid inbreeding. Efforts focused on maintaining and enhancing existing wetlands to facilitate dispersal between basins and increase local effective population sizes may be critical for these otherwise isolated populations.

  11. Toxin synergism in snake venoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Andreas Hougaard

    2016-01-01

    Synergism between venom toxins exists for a range of snake species. Synergism can be derived from both intermolecular interactions and supramolecular interactions between venom components, and can be the result of toxins targeting the same protein, biochemical pathway or physiological process. Few...... simple systematic tools and methods for determining the presence of synergism exist, but include co-administration of venom components and assessment of Accumulated Toxicity Scores. A better understanding of how to investigate synergism in snake venoms may help unravel strategies for developing novel...

  12. An instructive case of presumed brown snake (Pseudonaja spp.) envenoming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Judy; Haiart, Sebastien; Galluccio, Steven; White, Julian; Weinstein, Scott A

    2015-01-01

    Several species of medically important Australian elapid snakes are frequently involved in human envenoming. The brown snake group (Pseudonaja spp., 9 species) is most commonly responsible for envenoming including life-threatening or fatal cases. Several Pseudonaja spp. can inflict human envenoming that features minor local effects, but may cause serious systemic venom disease including defibrination coagulopathy, thrombocytopenia, micro-angiopathic hemolytic anemia (MAHA) and, rarely, paralysis. Pseudonaja envenoming is typically diagnosed by history, clinical assessment including occasional active clinical bleeding noted on physical examination (e.g. from venipuncture sites, recent cuts, etc.), and laboratory detection of coagulopathy (prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time [APTT]/INR, elevated D-dimer, afibrinogenemia and thrombocytopenia). Lack of verified identity of the envenoming snake species is a common problem in Australia and elsewhere. Identification and confirmation of the envenoming Australian snake taxon is often attempted with enzyme sandwich immunoassay venom detection kits (SVDKs). However, the SVDK has limited utility due to unreliable specificity and sensitivity when used to detect venoms of some Australian elapids. Antivenom (AV) remains the cornerstone of treatment, although there is debate concerning the recommended dose (1 vs. 2 or more vials) necessary to treat serious Pseudonaja envenoming. Envenomed patients receiving timely treatment uncommonly succumb, but a proportion of seriously envenomed patients may exhibit clinical or laboratory evidence of myocardial insult. An 88-year-old woman presented her dog to a veterinarian after it had sustained a bite by a witnessed snake, reportedly an eastern brown snake (Pseudonaja textilis, Elapidae). The woman became suddenly confused, and lost consciousness at the veterinary office. After transport to hospital, she denied any contact with the snake, but developed large haematomas at

  13. Revisiting the fear of snakes in children: the role of aposematic signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souchet, Jérémie; Aubret, Fabien

    2016-11-25

    Why humans fear snakes is an old, yet unresolved debate. Its innate origin from evolutionary causes is debated against the powerful influence early experience, culture, media and religion may have on people's aversion to snakes. Here we show that the aversion to snakes in human beings may have been mistaken for an aversion to aposematic signals that are commonly displayed by snakes. A total of 635 children were asked to rate single item images as "nice" or "mean". Snakes, pets and smiley emoticon items were not rated as "mean" unless they displayed subtle aposematic signals in the form of triangular (rather than round) shapes. Another 722 children were shown images featuring two items and asked which item was "nice" and which item was "mean". This context dependent comparison triggered even sharper responses to aposematic signals. We hypothesise that early primates evolved an aversion for aposematic signals in the form of potentially harmful triangular shapes such as teeth, claws or spikes, not for snakes per se. Further, we hypothesise that this adaptation was in turn exploited by snakes in their anti-predatory threat display as a triangular head or dorsal zig-zag pattern, and is currently the basis for efficient international road-danger signalling.

  14. CLINICO-EPIDEMIOLOGY AND THERAPEUTIC OUTCOME OF SNAKE BITE IN KONASEEMA REGION OF ANDHRA PRADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai Krishna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Snake bite is a common and frequently devastating environmental and occupational problem, especially in rural areas of tropical developing countries. Snake bite incidence is high in Andhra Pradesh. With the onset of monsoon the incidence of snake bite used to increase. METHODS Present study is a retrospective study in which all the data of snake bite cases admitted in the Konaseema Institute of Medical Sciences was collected in last two years; details of the patient was obtained from bed head ticket. RESULTS In two years of data collection, 46 snake bite cases are found as per our record. Out of 46 patients, twenty seven were male and nineteen were female. Maximum twenty two (22 patients were between ages 20 to 40 years. Out of forty six patients, forty four recovered and only two patients died, cause of death was acute pulmonary oedema with cardiac arrhythmia. DISCUSSION Most of the patients were given ASV (anti-snake venom, out of that only four patients developed reaction to ASV. Most of the patients who have received ASV were recovered. Only two deaths were reported which was due to acute pulmonary oedema with cardiac arrhythmia. CONCLUSION Awareness and education about snake is required.

  15. Mass awareness regarding snake bite induced early morning neuroparalysis can prevent many deaths in North India

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Rupinder; Dogra, Varundeep; Sharma, Gurudutt; Chauhan, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: In North India snake bite deaths are predominantly seen with neurotoxic envenomations (NEs) whereas in South India the hemotoxic envenomation (HE) is more common. Krait is responsible for most deaths in North India. It bites people sleeping on the floors, mostly at night. We describe the profile of venomous snake bites over 1 year in 2013. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in a rural tertiary care hospital in North India. Demographics, circumstances of bite, envenom...

  16. Snake Robots Modelling, Mechatronics, and Control

    CERN Document Server

    Liljebäck, Pål; Stavdahl, Øyvind; Gravdahl, Jan Tommy

    2013-01-01

    Snake Robots is a novel treatment of theoretical and practical topics related to snake robots: robotic mechanisms designed to move like biological snakes and able to operate in challenging environments in which human presence is either undesirable or impossible. Future applications of such robots include search and rescue, inspection and maintenance, and subsea operations. Locomotion in unstructured environments is a focus for this book. The text targets the disparate muddle of approaches to modelling, development and control of snake robots in current literature, giving a unified presentation of recent research results on snake robot locomotion to increase the reader’s basic understanding of these mechanisms and their motion dynamics and clarify the state of the art in the field. The book is a complete treatment of snake robotics, with topics ranging from mathematical modelling techniques, through mechatronic design and implementation, to control design strategies. The development of two snake robots is de...

  17. A description of parasites from Iranian snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Vahid; Mobedi, Iraj; Dalimi, Abdolhossein; Mirakabadi, Abbas Zare; Ghaffarifar, Fatemeh; Teymurzadeh, Shohreh; Karimi, Gholamreza; Abdoli, Amir; Paykari, Habibollah

    2014-12-01

    Little is known of the parasitic fauna of terrestrial snakes in Iran. This study aimed to evaluate the parasitic infection rates of snakes in Iran. A total of 87 snakes belonging to eight different species, that were collected between May 2012 and September 2012 and died after the hold in captivity, under which they were kept for taking poisons, were examined for the presence of gastrointestinal and blood parasites. According to our study 12 different genera of endoparasites in 64 (73.56%) of 87 examined snakes were determined. Forty one snakes (47.12%) had gastrointestinal parasites. In prepared blood smears, it was found that in 23 (26.43%) of 87 examined snakes there are at least one hemoparasite. To our knowledge, these are the first data on the internal parasitic fauna of Iranian terrestrial snakes and our findings show a higher prevalence of these organisms among them. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Snake fungal disease: an emerging threat to wild snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Jeffrey M; Knowles, Susan; Lankton, Julia S; Michell, Kathy; Edwards, Jaime L; Kapfer, Joshua M; Staffen, Richard A; Wild, Erik R; Schmidt, Katie Z; Ballmann, Anne E; Blodgett, Doug; Farrell, Terence M; Glorioso, Brad M; Last, Lisa A; Price, Steven J; Schuler, Krysten L; Smith, Christopher E; Wellehan, James F X; Blehert, David S

    2016-12-05

    Since 2006, there has been a marked increase in the number of reports of severe and often fatal fungal skin infections in wild snakes in the eastern USA. The emerging condition, referred to as snake fungal disease (SFD), was initially documented in rattlesnakes, where the infections were believed to pose a risk to the viability of affected populations. The disease is caused by Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola, a fungus recently split from a complex of fungi long referred to as the Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii (CANV). Here we review the current state of knowledge about O. ophiodiicola and SFD. In addition, we provide original findings which demonstrate that O. ophiodiicola is widely distributed in eastern North America, has a broad host range, is the predominant cause of fungal skin infections in wild snakes and often causes mild infections in snakes emerging from hibernation. This new information, together with what is already available in the scientific literature, advances our knowledge of the cause, pathogenesis and ecology of SFD. However, additional research is necessary to elucidate the factors driving the emergence of this disease and develop strategies to mitigate its impacts.This article is part of the themed issue 'Tackling emerging fungal threats to animal health, food security and ecosystem resilience'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  19. Snake fungal disease: An emerging threat to wild snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Knowles, Susan N.; Lankton, Julia S.; Michell, Kathy; Edwards, Jaime L.; Kapfer, Joshua M.; Staffen, Richard A.; Wild, Erik R.; Schmidt, Katie Z.; Ballmann, Anne; Blodgett, Doug; Farrell, Terence M.; Glorioso, Brad M.; Last, Lisa A.; Price, Steven J.; Schuler, Krysten L.; Smith, Christopher; Wellehan, James F. X.; Blehert, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Since 2006, there has been a marked increase in the number of reports of severe and often fatal fungal skin infections in wild snakes in the eastern USA. The emerging condition, referred to as snake fungal disease (SFD), was initially documented in rattlesnakes, where the infections were believed to pose a risk to the viability of affected populations. The disease is caused byOphidiomyces ophiodiicola, a fungus recently split from a complex of fungi long referred to as the Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii (CANV). Here we review the current state of knowledge about O. ophiodiicola and SFD. In addition, we provide original findings which demonstrate that O. ophiodiicola is widely distributed in eastern North America, has a broad host range, is the predominant cause of fungal skin infections in wild snakes and often causes mild infections in snakes emerging from hibernation. This new information, together with what is already available in the scientific literature, advances our knowledge of the cause, pathogenesis and ecology of SFD. However, additional research is necessary to elucidate the factors driving the emergence of this disease and develop strategies to mitigate its impacts.

  20. Mandibular osteosynthesis in a Boa constrictor snake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luiz Costa Castro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays are observed an increase in the finding of certain wild animals in urban areas, due to environmental changes caused by deforestation and economic use of natural areas. It causes disappearance of usual prey and forces these animals, including snakes, to migrate to urban areas, becoming vulnerable to injuries caused by aggressions, car accidents and capture. Mandibular and maxillar fractures are common in many animal species, representing about 3-6% of all bone fractures in dogs and cats. Mandibular trauma usually occurs as a result of fights, car accidents and improper handling and/or restraint, and fractures can be closed or open, clean or contaminated. The jaw is a flat bone with differences from the long bones that should be taken into consideration for successful treatment, being minimal muscle coverage and need to maintain occlusion factors that influence the definition of the best ostheosynthesis method. The methods of stabilization include using intramedullary pins, wires, external skeletal fixation, bone plate, and acrylic resin. Conventional bone plates are efficient but related to some complications, such as the necessity of muscular elevation and high risk of injuries to mandibular structures. This article describes the successful results of the application of plate and screws in the ostheosynthesis of a mandibular fracture in a female Boa constrictor snake with weight of 8.0 kg and length of 1.80 m, at the RIOZOO Foundation (Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

  1. Venomous Snake Bite Injuries at Kitui District Hospital | Kihiko ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Snake bites are a neglected public health issue in poor rural communities, and the true burden of snake bites is not known. Kitui County has a high incidence of snake bites and no functional snake bite control programs exists. Diagnostic tests for snake species identification are not available and management ...

  2. The Protocol of Choice for Treatment of Snake Bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Mohammad Alizadeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study is to compare three different methods of treatment of snake bite to determine the most efficient one. To unify the protocol of snake bite treatment in our center, we retrospectively reviewed files of the snake-bitten patients who had been referred to us between 2010 and 2014. They were contacted for follow-up using phone calls. Demographic and on-arrival characteristics, protocol used for treatment (WHO/Haddad/GF, and outcome/complications were evaluated. Patients were entered into one of the protocol groups and compared. Of a total of 63 patients, 56 (89% were males. Five, 19, and 28 patients were managed by Haddad, WHO, or GF protocols, respectively. Eleven patients had fallen into both GF and WHO protocols and were excluded. Serum sickness was significantly more common when WHO protocol was used while 100% of the compartment syndromes and 71% of deformities had been reported after GF protocol. The most important complications were considered to be deformity, compartment syndrome, and amputation and were more frequent after the use of WHO and GF protocols (23.1% versus 76.9%; none in Haddad; P = NS. Haddad protocol seems to be the best for treatment of snake-bitten patients in our region. However, this cannot be strictly concluded because of the limited sample size and nonsignificant P values.

  3. Tolerance of Snakes to Hypergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillywhite, H. B.; Ballard, R. E.; Hargens, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    Sensitivity of carotid blood flow to +Gz (head-to-tail) acceleration was studied in six species of snakes hypothesized to show varied adaptive cardiovascular responses to gravity. Blood flow in the proximal carotid artery was measured in 15 snakes before, during and following stepwise increments of +0.25Gz force produced on a 2.4 m diameter centrifuge. During centrifugation each snake was confined to a straight position within an individually- fitted acrylic tube with the head facing the center of rotation. We measured the centrifugal force at the tail of the snake in order to quantify the maximum intensity of force gradient promoting antero-posterior pooling of blood. Tolerance to increased gravity was quantified as the acceleration force at which carotid blood flow ceased. This parameter varied according to the gravitational adaptation of species defined by their ecology and behavior. At the extremes, carotid blood flow decreased in response to increasing gravity and approached zero near +1Gz in aquatic and ground-dwelling species, whereas in climbing species carotid flow was maintained at forces in excess of +2Gz. Surprisingly, tolerant (arboreal) species withstood hypergravic forces of +2 to +3 G. for periods up to 1 h without cessation of carotid blood flow or apparent loss of consciousness. Data suggest that relatively tight skin of the tolerant species provides a natural antigravity suit which is of prime importance in counteracting Gz stress on blood circulation.

  4. Regina rigida (glossy crayfish snake)

    Science.gov (United States)

    David A. Steen; James A. Stiles; Sierra H. Stiles; Craig Guyer; Josh B. Pierce; D. Craig Rudolph; Lora L. Smith

    2011-01-01

    The overland movements and upland habitat use of wetland-associated reptiles has important conservation implications (Semlitsch and Bodie 2003. Conserv. BioI. 17:1219-1228). However, for many species, particularly snakes, we lack a basic understanding of spatial ecology and habitat use. Regina rigida is a poorly known species for which "observations of any kind...

  5. Snakes of the Guianan region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    The study of snaks from the Guianan region got an early start in 1705 when several species were pictured by Merian. As relatively large proportion of the snakes described by Linnaeus originated from Surinam. Interest for and knowledge of this group of animals steadily increased in the 18th and 19th

  6. Use of field-portable ultrasonography reveals differences in developmental phenology and maternal egg provisioning in two sympatric viviparous snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparkman, Amanda M; Chism, Kenneth R; Bronikowski, Anne M; Brummett, Lilly J; Combrink, Lucia L; Davis, Courtney L; Holden, Kaitlyn G; Kabey, Nicole M; Miller, David A W

    2018-03-01

    A thorough understanding of the life cycles underlying the demography of wild species is limited by the difficulty of observing hidden life-history traits, such as embryonic development. Major aspects of embryonic development, such as the rate and timing of development, and maternal-fetal interactions can be critical features of early-life fitness and may impact population trends via effects on individual survival. While information on development in wild snakes and lizards is particularly limited, the repeated evolution of viviparity and diversity of reproductive mode in this clade make it a valuable subject of study. We used field-portable ultrasonography to investigate embryonic development in two sympatric garter snake species, Thamnophis sirtalis and Thamnophis elegans in the Sierra Nevada mountains of California. This approach allowed us to examine previously hidden reproductive traits including the timing and annual variation in development and differences in parental investment in young. Both species are viviparous, occupy similar ecological niches, and experience the same annual environmental conditions. We found that T. sirtalis embryos were more developmentally advanced than T. elegans embryos during June of three consecutive years. We also found that eggs increased in volume more substantially across developmental stages in T. elegans than in T. sirtalis , indicating differences in maternal provisioning of embryos via placental transfer of water. These findings shed light on interspecific differences in parental investment and timing of development within the same environmental context and demonstrate the value of field ultrasonography for pursuing questions relating to the evolution of reproductive modes, and the ecology of development.

  7. Independent Innovation in the Evolution of Paddle-Shaped Tails in Viviparous Sea Snakes (Elapidae: Hydrophiinae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanders, Kate; Redsted Rasmussen, Arne; Elmberg, Johan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The viviparous sea snakes (Hydrophiinae) comprise ∼90% of living marine reptiles and display many physical and behavioral adaptations for breathing, diving, and achieving osmotic balance in marine habitats. Among the most important innovations found in marine snakes are their paddle......-shaped (dorsoventrally expanded) tails, which provide propulsive thrust in the dense aquatic medium. Here, we reconstruct the evolution of caudal paddles in viviparous sea snakes using a dated molecular phylogeny for all major lineages and computed tomography of internal osteological structures. Bayesian ancestral state...... reconstructions show that extremely large caudal paddles supported by elongated vertebral processes are unlikely to have been present in the most recent common ancestor of extant sea snakes. Instead, these characters appear to have been acquired independently in two highly marine lineages of relatively recent...

  8. A study on endoparasitic and ectoparasitic fauna of snakes in Mizoram, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam Patra

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To record the prevalence of parasitic fauna of snakes from different parts of Mizoram, India. Methods: Collected fecal samples of different snakes were examined by sedimentation and floatation techniques. Similarly, blood samples were examined for presence of any haemoprotozoa following Giemsa staining technique. Ectoparasites were identified on the basis of morphological keys. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was performed for detailed surface structure studies of few parasites. Results: Sixty one percent (40/65 snakes examined were found positive for parasitic infection. The predominant endoparasites included five species of nematodes, one species of cestodes, one species of tissue protozoa, and two species of haemoprotozoa. Ectoparasites recorded were ticks of the genera Aponomma and Amblyomma. The most abundant nematode recorded was Kalicephalus species. Conclusions: The study indicates that parasitic infection of snakes is quite common in this part of India and deserves attention for zoological studies.

  9. Analysis of Fang Puncture Wound Patterns in Isfahan Province’s, Iran, Venomous and Non-Venomous Snakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehghani R.1 PhD,

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims Venomous snake bites are public health problems in different parts of the world. The most specific mainstay in the treatment of envenomation is anti-venom. To treat the envenomation, it is very important to identify the offending species. This study was designed to determine the penetrating pattern of fangs and teeth of some viper snakes. Materials & Methods This descriptive study was performed on live venomous and nonvenomous snakes from 2010 till 2011. All 47 sample snakes were collected from different regions of Isfahan province such as Kashan City, Ghamsar, Niasar, Mashhad Ardehal, Taher- Abad and Khozagh. Their mouths were inspected every two weeks and development of their fangs and teeth were recorded by taking clear digital photos. Fangs and teeth patterns of samples were drawn and the results were compared. Findings One or two wounds appeared as typical fang marks at the bite site of venomous snakes while non-venomous snakes had two carved rows of small teeth. Three different teeth and fang patterns were recognized in venomous snakes which were completely different. Conclusion The fang marks of venomous snakes do not always have a common and classic pattern and there are at least 3 different patterns in Isfahan province, Iran.

  10. Observations of Snake Resonance in RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Mei; Lee, Shyh-Yuan; Lin, Fanglei; MacKay, William; Ptitsyn, Vadim; Roser, Thomas; Tepikian, Steven

    2005-01-01

    Siberian snakes now become essential in the polarized proton acceleration. With proper configuration of Siberian snakes, the spin precession tune of the beam becomes $\\frac{1}{2}$ which avoids all the spin depolarizing resonance. However, the enhancement of the perturbations on the spin motion can still occur when the betatron tune is near some low order fractional numbers, called snake resonances, and the beam can be depolarized when passing through the resonance. The snake resonances have been confirmed in the spin tracking calculations, and observed in RHIC with polarized proton beam. Equipped with two full Siberian snakes in each ring, RHIC provides us a perfect facility for snake resonance studies. This paper presents latest experimental results. New insights are also discussed.

  11. The Study on the Snake by TOXICON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-wook Kim

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to investigate the researches of Snake which was published papers in the TOXICON(1990-2.000, one of the most famous Journal of toxicology. And the results were as follows: 1. The number related with Snake is 195papers. 2. There were great papers related wih Cobra, and next is Tigris, Viper, etc. 3. There were great papers related wih protein in the composition of snake venom. 4. There were great papers related wih neurotoxin in the research of poisonous character. 5. There were great papers related wih Viper according to the anticoagulation. 6. Eight papers were published to study the immune response of snake venom. 7. The papers of molecular study of snake venom were seven. 8. The papers of anti-snake venom study were three.

  12. Snake scales, partial exposure, and the Snake Detection Theory: A human event-related potentials study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Strien, Jan W.; Isbell, Lynne A.

    2017-01-01

    Studies of event-related potentials in humans have established larger early posterior negativity (EPN) in response to pictures depicting snakes than to pictures depicting other creatures. Ethological research has recently shown that macaques and wild vervet monkeys respond strongly to partially exposed snake models and scale patterns on the snake skin. Here, we examined whether snake skin patterns and partially exposed snakes elicit a larger EPN in humans. In Task 1, we employed pictures with close-ups of snake skins, lizard skins, and bird plumage. In task 2, we employed pictures of partially exposed snakes, lizards, and birds. Participants watched a random rapid serial visual presentation of these pictures. The EPN was scored as the mean activity (225–300 ms after picture onset) at occipital and parieto-occipital electrodes. Consistent with previous studies, and with the Snake Detection Theory, the EPN was significantly larger for snake skin pictures than for lizard skin and bird plumage pictures, and for lizard skin pictures than for bird plumage pictures. Likewise, the EPN was larger for partially exposed snakes than for partially exposed lizards and birds. The results suggest that the EPN snake effect is partly driven by snake skin scale patterns which are otherwise rare in nature. PMID:28387376

  13. Helical Siberian snakes using dipole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wienands, U.

    1990-09-01

    A family of multi-twist transverse-field spin rotators using discrete bending magnets is described that can be used as Siberian snakes. By varying the number of twists, snakes with quite small excursions can be constructed at only a small penalty in the overall field integral. Examples for a 1/4-twist snake and a 3-twist snake are presented, the first suitable for a very high energy machine and the second for use in the proposed TRIUMF Kaon Factory. (Author) (3 refs.)

  14. Indiana: Siberian Snake saves spin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1990-01-15

    A team working at the Indiana University Cooler Ring has used a 'Siberian Snake' system to accelerate a spin-polarized proton beam through two depolarizing resonances with no loss of spin. The Michigan/lndiana/Brookhaven team under Alan Krisch overcame their first imperfection resonance hurdle at 108 MeV, and in a subsequent run vanquished a further resonance at 177 MeV.

  15. Indiana: Siberian Snake saves spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    A team working at the Indiana University Cooler Ring has used a 'Siberian Snake' system to accelerate a spin-polarized proton beam through two depolarizing resonances with no loss of spin. The Michigan/lndiana/Brookhaven team under Alan Krisch overcame their first imperfection resonance hurdle at 108 MeV, and in a subsequent run vanquished a further resonance at 177 MeV

  16. Experimental research of specificity of fear of snake: coral snake pattern

    OpenAIRE

    Průšová, Lucie

    2013-01-01

    Due to shared coevolutionary history of snakes and primates with snakes acting as their main predators, snakes elicit fear in most of the primates, humans included. Humans are able to notice a stimulus that elicits fear, e.g., a snake, much faster. Such ability might have surely positively affected their survival in the past. In the nature, aposematic coloration acts as a warning of a dangerous prey to its predators not to devour it. The highly poisonous American coral snakes have this colora...

  17. Phylogenetic relationship of Hepatozoon blood parasites found in snakes from Africa, America and Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haklová, B; Majláthová, V; Majláth, I; Harris, D J; Petrilla, V; Litschka-Koen, T; Oros, M; Peťko, B

    2014-03-01

    The blood parasites from the genus Hepatozoon Miller, 1908 (Apicomplexa: Adeleida: Hepatozoidae) represent the most common intracellular protozoan parasites found in snakes. In the present study, we examined 209 individuals of snakes, from different zoogeographical regions (Africa, America, Asia and Europe), for the occurrence of blood parasites using both molecular and microscopic examination methods, and assess phylogenetic relationships of all Hepatozoon parasites from snakes for the first time. In total, 178 blood smears obtained from 209 individuals, representing 40 species, were examined, from which Hepatozoon unicellular parasites were found in 26 samples (14·6% prevalence). Out of 180 samples tested by molecular method polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the presence of parasites was observed in 21 individuals (prevalence 11·6%): 14 snakes from Africa belonging to six genera (Dendroaspis, Dispholidus, Mehelya, Naja, Philothamnus and Python), five snakes from Asia from the genus Morelia and two snakes from America, from two genera (Coluber and Corallus). The intensity of infection varied from one to 1433 infected cells per 10 000 erythrocytes. Results of phylogenetic analyses (Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood) revealed the existence of five haplotypes divided into four main lineages. The present data also indicate neither geographical pattern of studied Hepatozoon sp., nor congruency in the host association.

  18. Presentation and outcome of snake bite among children in Sokoto, North-Western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman M Sani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Snake bite with envenomation is a medical emergency. Children are at risk of severe manifestations due to small body mass. Unlike adult population, there is limited data on snake bite among children in Sokoto, North-Western Nigeria. We described the presentation and outcome of snake bite in children presenting to the Emergency Pediatric Unit of Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto. Materials and Methods: Case records of all children managed for snake bites from 1 st January 2003 to 31 st December 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic and other relevant information were retrieved and data analyzed using Microsoft Excel. Results: Out of 23,570 Pediatric admissions, 36 children had snake bites giving prevalence of 0.0015 (1.5/1000. Male: Female ratio was 1.6:1, with a mean (standard deviation age of 9.6 ± 2.8 years (range = 1-14 years. Snakebites involved the lower limbs in 52.8%; and at home in 69.4%, and during the night in 58.3% of patients. The highest prevalence of bite was between April and July. Features of envenomation included local swelling (100%, prolonged clotting time (61.1% and spontaneous hemorrhage (epistaxis and hematemesis in 11.1%. One patient (2.8% had seizure which may be incidental, though common causes such as hypoglycemia, malaria and meningitis were excluded by laboratory investigations. Polyvalent anti-snake venom was administered in 29 (80.6% children, with adverse reaction observed in 13.8% (4/29 of the patients. Thirteen patients (36.1% signed against medical advice while the remaining 23 (63.9% were discharged home. Conclusion: Snake envenomation is associated with low morbidity and mortality in our study. Measures aimed at eliminating snake habitats around residential areas should be encouraged.

  19. Breaking Snake Camouflage: Humans Detect Snakes More Accurately than Other Animals under Less Discernible Visual Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Nobuyuki; He, Hongshen

    2016-01-01

    Humans and non-human primates are extremely sensitive to snakes as exemplified by their ability to detect pictures of snakes more quickly than those of other animals. These findings are consistent with the Snake Detection Theory, which hypothesizes that as predators, snakes were a major source of evolutionary selection that favored expansion of the visual system of primates for rapid snake detection. Many snakes use camouflage to conceal themselves from both prey and their own predators, making it very challenging to detect them. If snakes have acted as a selective pressure on primate visual systems, they should be more easily detected than other animals under difficult visual conditions. Here we tested whether humans discerned images of snakes more accurately than those of non-threatening animals (e.g., birds, cats, or fish) under conditions of less perceptual information by presenting a series of degraded images with the Random Image Structure Evolution technique (interpolation of random noise). We find that participants recognize mosaic images of snakes, which were regarded as functionally equivalent to camouflage, more accurately than those of other animals under dissolved conditions. The present study supports the Snake Detection Theory by showing that humans have a visual system that accurately recognizes snakes under less discernible visual conditions.

  20. Breaking Snake Camouflage: Humans Detect Snakes More Accurately than Other Animals under Less Discernible Visual Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Kawai

    Full Text Available Humans and non-human primates are extremely sensitive to snakes as exemplified by their ability to detect pictures of snakes more quickly than those of other animals. These findings are consistent with the Snake Detection Theory, which hypothesizes that as predators, snakes were a major source of evolutionary selection that favored expansion of the visual system of primates for rapid snake detection. Many snakes use camouflage to conceal themselves from both prey and their own predators, making it very challenging to detect them. If snakes have acted as a selective pressure on primate visual systems, they should be more easily detected than other animals under difficult visual conditions. Here we tested whether humans discerned images of snakes more accurately than those of non-threatening animals (e.g., birds, cats, or fish under conditions of less perceptual information by presenting a series of degraded images with the Random Image Structure Evolution technique (interpolation of random noise. We find that participants recognize mosaic images of snakes, which were regarded as functionally equivalent to camouflage, more accurately than those of other animals under dissolved conditions. The present study supports the Snake Detection Theory by showing that humans have a visual system that accurately recognizes snakes under less discernible visual conditions.

  1. Revisiting Notechis scutatus venom: on shotgun proteomics and neutralization by the "bivalent" Sea Snake Antivenom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Choo Hock; Tan, Kae Yi; Tan, Nget Hong

    2016-07-20

    Recent advances in proteomics enable deep profiling of the compositional details of snake venoms for improved understanding on envenomation pathophysiology and immunological neutralization. In this study, the venom of Australian tiger snake (Notechis scutatus) was trypsin-digested in solution and subjected to nano-ESI-LCMS/MS. Applying a relative quantitative proteomic approach, the findings revealed a proteome comprising 42 toxin subtypes clustered into 12 protein families. Phospholipases A2 constitute the most abundant toxins (74.5% of total venom proteins) followed by Kunitz serine protease inhibitors (6.9%), snake venom serine proteases (5.9%), alpha-neurotoxins (5.6%) and several toxins of lower abundance. The proteome correlates with N. scutatus envenoming effects including pre-synaptic and post-synaptic neurotoxicity and consumptive coagulopathy. The venom is highly lethal in mice (intravenous median lethal dose=0.09μg/g). BioCSL Sea Snake Antivenom, raised against the venoms of beaked sea snake (Hydrophis schistosus) and N. scutatus (added for enhanced immunogenicity), neutralized the lethal effect of N. scutatus venom (potency=2.95mg/ml) much more effectively than the targeted H.schistosus venom (potency=0.48mg/ml). The combined venom immunogen may have improved the neutralization against phospholipases A2 which are abundant in both venoms, but not short-neurotoxins which are predominant only in H. schistosus venom. A shotgun proteomic approach adopted in this study revealed the compositional details of the venom of common tiger snake from Australia, Notechis scutatus. The proteomic findings provided additional information on the relative abundances of toxins and the detection of proteins of minor expression unreported previously. The potent lethal effect of the venom was neutralized by bioCSL Sea Snake Antivenom, an anticipated finding due to the fact that the Sea Snake Antivenom is actually bivalent in nature, being raised against a mix of venoms of the

  2. 33 CFR 117.385 - Snake River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Snake River. 117.385 Section 117.385 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Idaho § 117.385 Snake River. The drawspan of the U.S. 12 bridge...

  3. An unusual complication of snake bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Grace

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anterior pituitary hypofunction is a well-known complication following snake bite. However, central diabetes insipidus as a complication of snake bite is only rarely reported in the literature. We are reporting a case of central diabetes insipidus, which developed as sequelae to viper bite.

  4. On a collection of Snakes from Dehli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lidth de Jeude, van Th.W.

    1890-01-01

    During his stay in Laboean (Delili, East-Sumatra) Dr. B. Hagen, to whom the Leyden Museum is indebted for large series of mammals, birds and insects, also collected a large number of snakes, the greater part of which were sent to our Museum. Dr. Hagen took a lively interest in snakes, and being

  5. Evolutionary stability of sex chromosomes in snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovatsos, Michail; Vukić, Jasna; Lymberakis, Petros; Kratochvíl, Lukáš

    2015-12-22

    Amniote vertebrates possess various mechanisms of sex determination, but their variability is not equally distributed. The large evolutionary stability of sex chromosomes in viviparous mammals and birds was believed to be connected with their endothermy. However, some ectotherm lineages seem to be comparably conserved in sex determination, but previously there was a lack of molecular evidence to confirm this. Here, we document a stability of sex chromosomes in advanced snakes based on the testing of Z-specificity of genes using quantitative PCR (qPCR) across 37 snake species (our qPCR technique is suitable for molecular sexing in potentially all advanced snakes). We discovered that at least part of sex chromosomes is homologous across all families of caenophidian snakes (Acrochordidae, Xenodermatidae, Pareatidae, Viperidae, Homalopsidae, Colubridae, Elapidae and Lamprophiidae). The emergence of differentiated sex chromosomes can be dated back to about 60 Ma and preceded the extensive diversification of advanced snakes, the group with more than 3000 species. The Z-specific genes of caenophidian snakes are (pseudo)autosomal in the members of the snake families Pythonidae, Xenopeltidae, Boidae, Erycidae and Sanziniidae, as well as in outgroups with differentiated sex chromosomes such as monitor lizards, iguanas and chameleons. Along with iguanas, advanced snakes are therefore another example of ectothermic amniotes with a long-term stability of sex chromosomes comparable with endotherms. © 2015 The Author(s).

  6. Snake venom instability | Willemse | African Zoology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian cobra Naja haje haje) and puffadder (Bills arietans). Considerable differences in electrophoretic characteristics were found between fresh venom and commercial venom samples from the same species of snake. These differences could be attributed partly to the instability of snake venom under conditions of drying ...

  7. Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon life history investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhardt, John M.; Bickford, Brad; Hemingway, Rulon J.; Rhodes, Tobyn N.; Tiffan, Kenneth F.

    2017-01-01

    Predation by nonnative fishes is one factor that has been implicated in the decline of juvenile salmonids in the Pacific Northwest. Impoundment of much of the Snake and Columbia rivers has altered food webs and created habitat favorable for species such as Smallmouth Bass Micropterus dolomieu. Smallmouth Bass are common throughout the Columbia River basin and have become the most abundant predator in lower Snake River reservoirs (Zimmerman and Parker 1995). This is a concern for Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (hereafter, subyearlings) that may be particularly vulnerable due to their relatively small size and because their main-stem rearing habitats often overlap or are in close proximity to habitats used by Smallmouth Bass (Curet 1993; Tabor et al. 1993). Concern over juvenile salmon predation spawned a number of large-scale studies to quantify its effect in the late 1980s, 1990s, and early 2000s (Poe et al. 1991; Rieman et al. 1991; Vigg et al. 1991; Fritts and Pearsons 2004; Naughton et al. 2004). Smallmouth Bass predation represented 9% of total salmon consumption by predatory fishes in John Day Reservoir, Columbia River, from 1983 through 1986 (Rieman et al. 1991). In transitional habitat between the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River and McNary Reservoir, juvenile salmon (presumably subyearlings) were found in 65% of Smallmouth Bass (>200 mm) stomachs and comprised 59% of the diet by weight (Tabor et al. 1993). Within Lower Granite Reservoir on the Snake River, Naughton et al. (2004) showed that monthly consumption (based on weight) ranged from 5% in the upper reaches of the reservoir to 11% in the forebay. However, studies in the Snake River were conducted soon after Endangered Species Act (ESA) listing of Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon (NMFS 1992). During this time, Fall Chinook Salmon abundance was at an historic low, which may explain why consumption rates were relatively low compared to those from studies conducted in the

  8. Snake Genome Sequencing: Results and Future Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkkamp, Harald M I; Kini, R Manjunatha; Pospelov, Alexey S; Vonk, Freek J; Henkel, Christiaan V; Richardson, Michael K

    2016-12-01

    Snake genome sequencing is in its infancy-very much behind the progress made in sequencing the genomes of humans, model organisms and pathogens relevant to biomedical research, and agricultural species. We provide here an overview of some of the snake genome projects in progress, and discuss the biological findings, with special emphasis on toxinology, from the small number of draft snake genomes already published. We discuss the future of snake genomics, pointing out that new sequencing technologies will help overcome the problem of repetitive sequences in assembling snake genomes. Genome sequences are also likely to be valuable in examining the clustering of toxin genes on the chromosomes, in designing recombinant antivenoms and in studying the epigenetic regulation of toxin gene expression.

  9. Snake Genome Sequencing: Results and Future Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald M. I. Kerkkamp

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Snake genome sequencing is in its infancy—very much behind the progress made in sequencing the genomes of humans, model organisms and pathogens relevant to biomedical research, and agricultural species. We provide here an overview of some of the snake genome projects in progress, and discuss the biological findings, with special emphasis on toxinology, from the small number of draft snake genomes already published. We discuss the future of snake genomics, pointing out that new sequencing technologies will help overcome the problem of repetitive sequences in assembling snake genomes. Genome sequences are also likely to be valuable in examining the clustering of toxin genes on the chromosomes, in designing recombinant antivenoms and in studying the epigenetic regulation of toxin gene expression.

  10. 27 CFR 9.208 - Snake River Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Snake River Valley. 9.208... Snake River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Snake River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Snake River Valley” is a term of viticultural...

  11. 77 FR 10960 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Snake Creek, Islamorada, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... Operation Regulation; Snake Creek, Islamorada, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary... deviation from the regulation governing the operation of Snake Creek Bridge, mile 0.5, across Snake Creek... schedule of Snake Creek Bridge in Islamorada, Florida. This deviation will result in the bridge opening...

  12. Epidemiology of Snake Bites among Selected Communities in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Snake is one of the major group of games feared by people in many localities because of their venoms, yet snakes are equally afraid of human beings. This balance of terror apart from affecting both man and snakes has also led to their deaths. Epidemiology of snake bites among selected communities in the enclave of ...

  13. Venomous snake bites, scorpions, and spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kularatne, S A M; Senanayake, Nimal

    2014-01-01

    Neurologic dysfunction due to natural neurotoxins is an important, but neglected, public health hazard in many parts of the world, particularly in the tropics. These toxins are produced by or found among a variety of live forms that include venomous snakes, arthropods such as scorpions, spiders, centipedes, stinging insects (Hymenoptera), ticks, certain poisonous fish, shellfish, crabs, cone shells, skin secretions of dart-poison frogs, and bacterial poisons such as botulinum toxin. These toxins commonly act on neuromuscular transmission at the neuromuscular junction where acetylcholine is the neurotransmitter, but in certain situations the toxins interfere with neurotransmitters such as GABA, noradrenaline, adrenaline, dopamine, and γ-aminobutyrate. Of the toxins, α-toxins and κ-toxins (e.g., Chinese krait, Bungarus multicinctus) act on the postsynaptic membrane, blocking the receptors, whilst β-toxin (e.g., common krait, B. caeruleus) acts on the presynaptic membrane, causing impairment of acetylcholine release. Conversely, dendrotoxins of the African mamba enhance acetylcholine release. The toxins of scorpions and spiders commonly interfere with voltage-gated ion channels. Clinically, the cardinal manifestation is muscle paralysis. In severe cases respiratory paralysis could be fatal. Effective antivenoms are the mainstay of treatment of envenoming, but their lack of availability is the major concern in the regions of the globe where they are desperately needed. Interestingly, some toxins have proved to be valuable pharmaceutical agents, while some others are widely exploited to study neuromuscular physiology and pathology. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Sea Snake Harvest in the Gulf of Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Cao, Nguyen; Thien Tao, Nguyen; Moore, Amelia

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Conservation of sea snakes is virtually nonexistent in Asia, and its role in human–snake interactions in terms of catch, trade, and snakebites as an occupational hazard is mostly unexplored. We collected data on sea snake landings from the Gulf of Thailand, a hotspot for sea snake harvest...... years), and the treatment of sea snake bites with rhinoceros horn. Emerging markets in Southeast Asia drive the harvest of venomous sea snakes in the Gulf of Thailand and sea snake bites present a potentially lethal occupational hazard. We call for implementation of monitoring programs to further...... address the conservation implications of this large-scale marine reptile exploitation....

  15. Exponential asymptotics of homoclinic snaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, A D; Matthews, P C; Cox, S M; King, J R

    2011-01-01

    We study homoclinic snaking in the cubic-quintic Swift–Hohenberg equation (SHE) close to the onset of a subcritical pattern-forming instability. Application of the usual multiple-scales method produces a leading-order stationary front solution, connecting the trivial solution to the patterned state. A localized pattern may therefore be constructed by matching between two distant fronts placed back-to-back. However, the asymptotic expansion of the front is divergent, and hence should be truncated. By truncating optimally, such that the resultant remainder is exponentially small, an exponentially small parameter range is derived within which stationary fronts exist. This is shown to be a direct result of the 'locking' between the phase of the underlying pattern and its slowly varying envelope. The locking mechanism remains unobservable at any algebraic order, and can only be derived by explicitly considering beyond-all-orders effects in the tail of the asymptotic expansion, following the method of Kozyreff and Chapman as applied to the quadratic-cubic SHE (Chapman and Kozyreff 2009 Physica D 238 319–54, Kozyreff and Chapman 2006 Phys. Rev. Lett. 97 44502). Exponentially small, but exponentially growing, contributions appear in the tail of the expansion, which must be included when constructing localized patterns in order to reproduce the full snaking diagram. Implicit within the bifurcation equations is an analytical formula for the width of the snaking region. Due to the linear nature of the beyond-all-orders calculation, the bifurcation equations contain an analytically indeterminable constant, estimated in the previous work by Chapman and Kozyreff using a best fit approximation. A more accurate estimate of the equivalent constant in the cubic-quintic case is calculated from the iteration of a recurrence relation, and the subsequent analytical bifurcation diagram compared with numerical simulations, with good agreement

  16. 50 CFR Table 3 to Part 226 - Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River Spring/Summer and Fall Chinook Salmon 3 Table 3 to... Part 226—Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River... Snake—Asotin 17060103 17060103 17060103 Upper Grande Ronde 17060104 Wallowa 17060105 Lower Grande Ronde...

  17. Diversification rates and phenotypic evolution in venomous snakes (Elapidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael S Y; Sanders, Kate L; King, Benedict; Palci, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between rates of diversification and of body size change (a common proxy for phenotypic evolution) was investigated across Elapidae, the largest radiation of highly venomous snakes. Time-calibrated phylogenetic trees for 175 species of elapids (more than 50% of known taxa) were constructed using seven mitochondrial and nuclear genes. Analyses using these trees revealed no evidence for a link between speciation rates and changes in body size. Two clades (Hydrophis, Micrurus) show anomalously high rates of diversification within Elapidae, yet exhibit rates of body size evolution almost identical to the general elapid 'background' rate. Although correlations between speciation rates and rates of body size change exist in certain groups (e.g. ray-finned fishes, passerine birds), the two processes appear to be uncoupled in elapid snakes. There is also no detectable shift in diversification dynamics associated with the colonization of Australasia, which is surprising given that elapids appear to be the first clade of venomous snakes to reach the continent.

  18. Efficiency of snake sampling methods in the Brazilian semiarid region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Paula C M D; Passos, Daniel C; Cechin, Sonia Z

    2013-09-01

    The choice of sampling methods is a crucial step in every field survey in herpetology. In countries where time and financial support are limited, the choice of the methods is critical. The methods used to sample snakes often lack objective criteria, and the traditional methods have apparently been more important when making the choice. Consequently researches using not-standardized methods are frequently found in the literature. We have compared four commonly used methods for sampling snake assemblages in a semiarid area in Brazil. We compared the efficacy of each method based on the cost-benefit regarding the number of individuals and species captured, time, and financial investment. We found that pitfall traps were the less effective method in all aspects that were evaluated and it was not complementary to the other methods in terms of abundance of species and assemblage structure. We conclude that methods can only be considered complementary if they are standardized to the objectives of the study. The use of pitfall traps in short-term surveys of the snake fauna in areas with shrubby vegetation and stony soil is not recommended.

  19. Mimicry's palette: widespread use of conserved pigments in the aposematic signals of snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, David W; Seymoure, Brett M; Pfennig, David W

    2014-03-01

    Mimicry, where one species resembles another species because of the selective benefits of sharing a common signal, is especially common in snakes. Snakes might be particularly prone to evolving mimicry if all species share some of the same proximate mechanisms that can be used to produce aposematic/mimetic signals. We evaluated this possibility by examining color pigments in 11 species of snakes from four different families, three species of which participate in a coral snake mimicry complex involving convergence in coloration. We found that all 11 species used combinations of two pteridine pigments and melanin in their coloration, regardless of whether or not they were mimics. Furthermore, the presence or absence of red pteridines was strongly correlated with the relative excitation of medium- and long-wavelength photoreceptors in birds, thereby linking shared pigmentation to perception of those pigments by likely agents of selection. Thus, precise color mimicry might be relatively easy to evolve among snakes owing to symplesiomorphies in pigmentation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Computational Studies of Snake Venom Toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, Paola G; Ramírez, David; Alzate-Morales, Jans; Caballero, Julio; Kaas, Quentin; González, Wendy

    2017-12-22

    Most snake venom toxins are proteins, and participate to envenomation through a diverse array of bioactivities, such as bleeding, inflammation, and pain, cytotoxic, cardiotoxic or neurotoxic effects. The venom of a single snake species contains hundreds of toxins, and the venoms of the 725 species of venomous snakes represent a large pool of potentially bioactive proteins. Despite considerable discovery efforts, most of the snake venom toxins are still uncharacterized. Modern bioinformatics tools have been recently developed to mine snake venoms, helping focus experimental research on the most potentially interesting toxins. Some computational techniques predict toxin molecular targets, and the binding mode to these targets. This review gives an overview of current knowledge on the ~2200 sequences, and more than 400 three-dimensional structures of snake toxins deposited in public repositories, as well as of molecular modeling studies of the interaction between these toxins and their molecular targets. We also describe how modern bioinformatics have been used to study the snake venom protein phospholipase A2, the small basic myotoxin Crotamine, and the three-finger peptide Mambalgin.

  1. Computational Studies of Snake Venom Toxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola G. Ojeda

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Most snake venom toxins are proteins, and participate to envenomation through a diverse array of bioactivities, such as bleeding, inflammation, and pain, cytotoxic, cardiotoxic or neurotoxic effects. The venom of a single snake species contains hundreds of toxins, and the venoms of the 725 species of venomous snakes represent a large pool of potentially bioactive proteins. Despite considerable discovery efforts, most of the snake venom toxins are still uncharacterized. Modern bioinformatics tools have been recently developed to mine snake venoms, helping focus experimental research on the most potentially interesting toxins. Some computational techniques predict toxin molecular targets, and the binding mode to these targets. This review gives an overview of current knowledge on the ~2200 sequences, and more than 400 three-dimensional structures of snake toxins deposited in public repositories, as well as of molecular modeling studies of the interaction between these toxins and their molecular targets. We also describe how modern bioinformatics have been used to study the snake venom protein phospholipase A2, the small basic myotoxin Crotamine, and the three-finger peptide Mambalgin.

  2. North American snake and scorpion envenomations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbeck, Jennifer; Gresham, Chip

    2013-06-01

    Envenomations by snakes and scorpions in North America, although uncommon, do occur, and the victims may seek medical treatment. Combined, snake and scorpion encounters result in more than 25,000 calls a year to poison centers. Although some similarities exist with respect to general signs of envenomation and treatment, specific nuances distinguish the medical care to be anticipated and therapies available. Regardless of geographic practice area, exposures will occur that may result in a significant envenomation. This article provides critical care nurses with fundamental knowledge of varied snake and scorpion envenomation presentations and treatments to assist in optimizing patient outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. On some labelings of triangular snake and central graph of triangular snake graph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agasthi, P.; Parvathi, N.

    2018-04-01

    A Triangular snake Tn is obtained from a path u 1 u 2 … u n by joining ui and u i+1 to a new vertex wi for 1≤i≤n‑1. A Central graph of Triangular snake C(T n ) is obtained by subdividing each edge of Tn exactly once and joining all the non adjacent vertices of Tn . In this paper the ways to construct square sum, square difference, Root Mean square, strongly Multiplicative, Even Mean and Odd Mean labeling for Triangular Snake and Central graph of Triangular Snake graphs are reported.

  4. First documented case of snake fungal disease in a free-ranging wild snake in Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glorioso, Brad M.; Waddle, J. Hardin; Green, David E.; Lorch, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Snake fungal disease (SFD) is a recently documented mycotic disease characterized by scabs or crusty scales, subcutaneous nodules, abnormal molting, cloudiness of the eyes (not associated with molting), and localized thickening or crusting of the skin. SFD has been documented in many species in the Eastern and Midwestern United States within the last decade. SFD has proven lethal in many snakes, and the disease is recognized as an emerging threat to wild snake populations. Here, we describe the first documented case of SFD in Louisiana in a free-ranging wild snake.

  5. Safe Handling of Snakes in an ED Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockrell, Melanie; Swanson, Kristofer; Sanders, April; Prater, Samuel; von Wenckstern, Toni; Mick, JoAnn

    2017-01-01

    Efforts to improve consistency in management of snakes and venomous snake bites in the emergency department (ED) can improve patient and staff safety and outcomes, as well as improve surveillance data accuracy. The emergency department at a large academic medical center identified an opportunity to implement a standardized process for snake disposal and identification to reduce staff risk exposure to snake venom from snakes patients brought with them to the ED. A local snake consultation vendor and zoo Herpetologist assisted with development of a process for snake identification and disposal. All snakes have been identified and securely disposed of using the newly implemented process and no safety incidents have been reported. Other emergency department settings may consider developing a standardized process for snake disposal using listed specialized consultants combined with local resources and suppliers to promote employee and patient safety. Copyright © 2017 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. New progress in snake mitochondrial gene rearrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nian; Zhao, Shujin

    2009-08-01

    To further understand the evolution of snake mitochondrial genomes, the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences were determined for representative species from two snake families: the Many-banded krait, the Banded krait, the Chinese cobra, the King cobra, the Hundred-pace viper, the Short-tailed mamushi, and the Chain viper. Thirteen protein-coding genes, 22-23 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 2 control regions were identified in these mtDNAs. Duplication of the control region and translocation of the tRNAPro gene were two notable features of the snake mtDNAs. These results from the gene rearrangement comparisons confirm the correctness of traditional classification schemes and validate the utility of comparing complete mtDNA sequences for snake phylogeny reconstruction.

  7. 2015 OLC FEMA Lidar: Snake River, ID

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Quantum Spatial has collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Oregon LiDAR Consortium (OLC) Snake River FEMA study area. This study area is located...

  8. First Observation of a Snake Depolarizing Resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelps, R.; Anferov, V.; Blinov, B.; Crandell, D.; Koutin, S.; Krisch, A.; Liu, T.; Ratner, L.; Wong, V.; Chu, C.; Lee, S.; Rinckel, T.; Schwandt, P.; Sperisen, F.; Stephenson, E.; von Przewoski, B.; Sato, H.

    1997-01-01

    Using a 104MeV stored polarized proton beam and a full Siberian snake, we recently found evidence for a so-called open-quotes snakeclose quotes depolarizing resonance. A full Siberian snake forces the spin tune ν s to be a half integer. Thus, if the vertical betatron tune ν y is set near a quarter integer, then the ν s =n±2ν y second-order snake resonance can depolarize the beam. Indeed, with a full Siberian snake, we found a deep depolarization dip when ν y was equal to 4.756; moreover, when ν y was changed to 4.781, the deep dip disappeared and the polarization was preserved. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  9. Friction enhancement in concertina locomotion of snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvi, Hamidreza; Hu, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Narrow crevices are challenging terrain for most organisms and biomimetic robots. Snakes move through crevices using sequential folding and unfolding of their bodies in the manner of an accordion or concertina. In this combined experimental and theoretical investigation, we elucidate this effective means of moving through channels. We measure the frictional properties of corn snakes, their body kinematics and the transverse forces they apply to channels of varying width and inclination. To climb channels inclined at 60°, we find snakes use a combination of ingenious friction-enhancing techniques, including digging their ventral scales to double their frictional coefficient and pushing channel walls transversely with up to nine times body weight. Theoretical modelling of a one-dimensional n-linked crawler is used to calculate the transverse force factor of safety: we find snakes push up to four times more than required to prevent sliding backwards, presumably trading metabolic energy for an assurance of wall stability. PMID:22728386

  10. A test of reproductive power in snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boback, Scott M; Guyer, Craig

    2008-05-01

    Reproductive power is a contentious concept among ecologists, and the model has been criticized on theoretical and empirical grounds. Despite these criticisms, the model has successfully predicted the modal (optimal) size in three large taxonomic groups and the shape of the body size distribution in two of these groups. We tested the reproductive power model on snakes, a group that differs markedly in physiology, foraging ecology, and body shape from the endothermic groups upon which the model was derived. Using detailed field data from the published literature, snake-specific constants associated with reproductive power were determined using allometric relationships of energy invested annually in egg production and population productivity. The resultant model accurately predicted the mode and left side of the size distribution for snakes but failed to predict the right side of that distribution. If the model correctly describes what is possible in snakes, observed size diversity is limited, especially in the largest size classes.

  11. Experimental Infection of Snakes with Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola Causes Pathological Changes That Typify Snake Fungal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Jeffrey M; Lankton, Julia; Werner, Katrien; Falendysz, Elizabeth A; McCurley, Kevin; Blehert, David S

    2015-11-17

    Snake fungal disease (SFD) is an emerging skin infection of wild snakes in eastern North America. The fungus Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola is frequently associated with the skin lesions that are characteristic of SFD, but a causal relationship between the fungus and the disease has not been established. We experimentally infected captive-bred corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus) in the laboratory with pure cultures of O. ophiodiicola. All snakes in the infected group (n = 8) developed gross and microscopic lesions identical to those observed in wild snakes with SFD; snakes in the control group (n = 7) did not develop skin infections. Furthermore, the same strain of O. ophiodiicola used to inoculate snakes was recovered from lesions of all animals in the infected group, but no fungi were isolated from individuals in the control group. Monitoring progression of lesions throughout the experiment captured a range of presentations of SFD that have been described in wild snakes. The host response to the infection included marked recruitment of granulocytes to sites of fungal invasion, increased frequency of molting, and abnormal behaviors, such as anorexia and resting in conspicuous areas of enclosures. While these responses may help snakes to fight infection, they could also impact host fitness and may contribute to mortality in wild snakes with chronic O. ophiodiicola infection. This work provides a basis for understanding the pathogenicity of O. ophiodiicola and the ecology of SFD by using a model system that incorporates a host species that is easy to procure and maintain in the laboratory. Skin infections in snakes, referred to as snake fungal disease (SFD), have been reported with increasing frequency in wild snakes in the eastern United States. While most of these infections are associated with the fungus Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola, there has been no conclusive evidence to implicate this fungus as a primary pathogen. Furthermore, it is not understood why the

  12. Prey handling and diet of Louisiana pine snakes (Pituophis ruthveni) and black pine snakes (P. melanoleucus lodingi), with comparisons to other selected colubrid snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Craig Rudolph; Shirley J. Burgdorf; Richard N. Conner; Christopher S. Collins; Daniel Saenz; Richard R. Schaefer; Toni Trees; C. Michael Duran; Marc Ealy; John G. Himes

    2002-01-01

    Diet and prey handling behavior were determined for Louisiana pine snakes (Pituophis ruthveni) and black pine snakes (P. melanoleucus lodingi). Louisiana pine snakes prey heavily on Baird's pocket gophers (Geomys breviceps), with which they are sympatric, and exhibit specialized behaviors that facilitate...

  13. Evaluation of Snake Bites with Bedside Ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef E Jolissaint

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: While watering his lawn, a 36-year-old man felt two sharp bites to his bilateral ankles. He reports that he then saw a light brown, 2-foot snake slither away from him. He came to the emergency department because of pain and swelling in his ankles and inability to bear weight. Physical examination revealed bilateral ankle swelling and puncture marks on his left lateral heel and medial right ankle. Palpation, passive flexion and extension elicited severe pain bilaterally. Blood work including prothrombin time (PT, partial thromboplastin time (PTT, international normalized ratio (INR, and fibrinogen were within normal limits. Consultation with Poison Control indicated the snake was likely a copperhead, which is a venomous snake whose bites rarely require antivenin. Significant findings: In this case, ultrasonography of the lateral surface of the left foot revealed soft tissue edema (red arrow and fluid collection (white asterisk adjacent to the extensor tendon (white arrow. The edematous area resembles cobblestones, with hypoechoic areas of fluid spanning relatively hyperechoic fat lobules. The tendon is surrounded by anechoic fluid, expanding the potential space in the sheath. No hyperechoic foreign objects were noted. Discussion: The patient was diagnosed with soft tissue injury and extensor tenosynovitis after a snake envenomation. Snake venom contains metalloproteinases and other enzymatic proteins that cause local tissue edema and necrosis.1 After a snake bite, ultrasound can be used to assess for retained fangs, soft tissue edema, tendon sheath fluid, muscle fasciculation, and injury to deeper musculature that may not be readily apparent on physical exam.2,3 Most patients with tenosynovitis will recover with immobilization of the joint and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications.4 Rarely, the tendon may become infected requiring antibiotics and surgical intervention.4 Topics: Ultrasound, snake envenomation

  14. A partial snake for the AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratner, L.G.

    1990-01-01

    Based on snake experiments at the Indian University Cyclotron Facility and computer simulations at Brookhaven National Laboratory, as well as the conclusions of a BNL mini-workshop, we feel that a partial Siberian snake is a practical device for the AGS. It is anticipated that such a device could reduce the polarized beam tune-up time from 2--3 weeks to 2--3 days

  15. Cardiovascular responses of snakes to hypergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillywhite, H. B.; Ballard, R. E.; Hargens, A. R.; Rosenberg, H. I.

    1997-01-01

    Snakes have provided useful vertebrate models for understanding circulatory adaptation to gravity, attributable to their elongate body shape and evolutionary diversificaton in terms of ecology and behavior. Recently we have studied cardiovascular responses of snakes to hypergravic acceleration forces produced acutely in the head-to-tail direction (+Gz) on a short-arm centrifuge. Snakes were held in a nearly straight position within a horizontal plastic tube and subjected to a linear force gradient during acceleration. Carotid blood flow provided an integrated measure of cardiovascular performance. Thus, cardiovascular tolerance of snakes to stepwise increments of Gz was measured as the caudal Gz force at which carotid blood flow ceased. Tolerance to increasing Gz varies according to adaptive evolutionary history inferred from the ecology and behavior of species. With respect to data for six species we investigated, multiple regression analysis demonstrates that Gz tolerance correlates with gravitational habitat, independently of body length. Relative to aquatic and non-climbing species, carotid blood flow is better maintained in arboreal or scansorial species, which tolerate hypergravic forces of +2 to +3.5 Gz. Additionally, semi-arboreal rat snakes (Elaphe obsoleta) exhibit plasticity of responses to long-term, intermittent +1.5 Gz stress. Compared to non-acclimated controls, acclimated snakes show greater increases of heart rate during head-up tilt or acceleration, greater sensitivity of arterial pressure to circulating catecholamines, higher blood levels of prostaglandin ratios favorable to maintenance of arterial blood pressure, and medial hypertrophy in major arteries and veins. As in other vertebrates, Gz tolerance of snakes is enhanced by acclimation, high arterial pressure, comparatively large blood volume, and body movements. Vascular studies of snakes suggest the importance to acclimation of local responses involving vascular tissue, in addition to

  16. Are snake populations in widespread decline?

    OpenAIRE

    Reading, C. J.; Luiselli, L. M.; Akani, G. C.; Bonnet, X.; Amori, G.; Ballouard, J. M.; Filippi, E.; Naulleau, G.; Pearson, D.; Rugiero, L.

    2010-01-01

    Long-term studies have revealed population declines in fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. In birds, and particularly amphibians, these declines are a global phenomenon whose causes are often unclear. Among reptiles, snakes are top predators and therefore a decline in their numbers may have serious consequences for the functioning of many ecosystems. Our results show that, of 17 snake populations (eight species) from the UK, France, Italy, Nigeria and Australia, 11 have declined ...

  17. Negative snakes in JET: evidence for negative shear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, R D; Alper, B; Edwards, A W [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Pearson, D [Reading Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1994-07-01

    The signature of the negative snakes from the soft X-ray cameras is very similar to the more usual snakes except that the localised region of the snake has, compared with its surroundings, decreased rather than increased emission. Circumstances where negative snakes have been seen are reviewed. The negative snake appears as a region of increased resistance and of increased impurity density. The relationship between the shear and the current perturbation is shown, and it seem probable that the magnetic shear is reversed at the point of the negative snake, i.e. that q is decreasing with radius. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  18. Negative snakes in JET: evidence for negative shear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, R.D.; Alper, B.; Edwards, A.W.

    1994-01-01

    The signature of the negative snakes from the soft X-ray cameras is very similar to the more usual snakes except that the localised region of the snake has, compared with its surroundings, decreased rather than increased emission. Circumstances where negative snakes have been seen are reviewed. The negative snake appears as a region of increased resistance and of increased impurity density. The relationship between the shear and the current perturbation is shown, and it seem probable that the magnetic shear is reversed at the point of the negative snake, i.e. that q is decreasing with radius. 6 refs., 6 figs

  19. Beam polarization during a Siberian snake turn-on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anferov, Vladimir A.

    1999-01-01

    Installing Siberian snakes in a circular proton accelerator allows one to overcome all spin depolarizing resonances even at very high energies. However, Siberian snake application at low energies is technically rather difficult. Turning snake on at some energy during acceleration would allow using Siberian snakes even in rings with low injection energies. It is shown that the beam polarization would be preserved during the snake ramp, provided that the snake is turned on in more than ten turns, and the energy is set near a half-integer Gγ

  20. Snake studies on TORE-SUPRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristofani, P.; Desgranges, C.; Garbet, X.; Geraud, A.; Gil, C.; Hoang, G.T.; Joffrin, E.; Pecquet, A.L.

    1994-01-01

    Snakes have been achieved after pellet injection in TORE-SUPRA during ohmic as well as ICRH discharges as it has already been observed in other machines. They are usually localized on a region around the q=1 surface, and correspond mainly to a perturbation of the density profile. The formation of the snake depends on the penetration depth L p of the pellet: the maximum of ablation must be well inside the q=1 surface, this condition is necessary but not sufficient to produce snakes. For example on TORE-SUPRA high speed H 2 pellets (1500 m/s and approximately 10 21 atoms) were injected into D 2 plasmas with following parameters: I p =1.4 MA, B Φ =3 T, T e =1.7 KeV, e >=2-3 10 19 m -3 , a=0.78 m, R=2.4 m, and q a =3.3. In such experimental conditions, the matter is deposited in the centre and snakes are produced in 50% of the cases, but they are created on a second much more internal q=1 surface leading probably to a non monotonic current profile. The first two paragraphs describe the properties of the snake and the induced current modification. The latter paragraph discusses the important role of the bootstrap current in the snake formation. (author) 5 refs., 7 figs

  1. MICHIGAN/INDIANA: Siberian Snakes strike again

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Full text: Siberian snakes are showing themselves to be even more deadly than expected in killing their prey, the depolarizing resonances which would make it very difficult to accelerate polarized protons to TeV energies at accelerators such as the Tevatron, UNK, LHC, and SSC. The snake concept was proposed in the mid-1970s by Siberians Yaroslav Derbenev and Anatoly Kondratenko at Novosibirsk, but the snakes lay almost dormant until Owen Chamberlain, Ernest Courant, Alan Krisch, and the late Kent Terwilliger organized the 1985 Superconducting Supercollider (SSC) polarized beam workshop in Ann Arbor, which highlighted the need to test the concept. The idea is to rotate the spin through 180° on each turn in the ring. With such successive spin flips, the depolarizing effects seen in one turn should be cancelled by an equal and opposite perturbation on the subsequent turn. The new Cooler Ring at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility then seemed an excellent test site for these eager but untested serpents. The Michigan/lndiana/Brookhaven team led by Krisch constructed the world's first snake and found that it could easily overcome its initial enemy, the imperfection depolarizing resonances caused by ring magnet imperfections (January/February 1990, page 20). In the next few years the growing team of ''herpetologists'' showed that Siberian snakes could overcome all kinds of depolarizing resonances, including the intrinsic kind (caused by the vertical betatron oscillations which keep the beam focused) and the synchrotron resonances (caused by synchrotron oscillations in energy). The team also discovered a new type of snake that was inadvertently built into the cooling section. This socalled type-3 snake rotates the spin around the vertical direction. A full type-1 snake (such as the team's superconducting solenoid magnet) rotates the spin by 180° around the beam direction; a type-2 snake rotates the spin around the radial direction

  2. snake and staff symbolism and healing 1. introduction 2. the snake

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since time immemorial the snake has been venerated as an enigmatic creature with supernatural ... ticular reference to their significance in the field of health care. 2. THE SNAKE IN ... as an aid in walking and as a weapon, it was also used by rulers in .... always included an abaton (open porch with roof) where patients un-.

  3. Experimental infection of snakes with Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola causes pathological changes that typify snake fungal disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Lankton, Julia S.; Werner, Katrien; Falendysz, Elizabeth A.; McCurley, Kevin; Blehert, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Snake fungal disease (SFD) is an emerging skin infection of wild snakes in eastern North America. The fungus Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola is frequently associated with the skin lesions that are characteristic of SFD, but a causal relationship between the fungus and the disease has not been established. We experimentally infected captive-bred corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus) in the laboratory with pure cultures of O. ophiodiicola. All snakes in the infected group (n = 8) developed gross and microscopic lesions identical to those observed in wild snakes with SFD; snakes in the control group (n = 7) did not develop skin infections. Furthermore, the same strain of O. ophiodiicola used to inoculate snakes was recovered from lesions of all animals in the infected group, but no fungi were isolated from individuals in the control group. Monitoring progression of lesions throughout the experiment captured a range of presentations of SFD that have been described in wild snakes. The host response to the infection included marked recruitment of granulocytes to sites of fungal invasion, increased frequency of molting, and abnormal behaviors, such as anorexia and resting in conspicuous areas of enclosures. While these responses may help snakes to fight infection, they could also impact host fitness and may contribute to mortality in wild snakes with chronic O. ophiodiicola infection. This work provides a basis for understanding the pathogenicity of O. ophiodiicola and the ecology of SFD by using a model system that incorporates a host species that is easy to procure and maintain in the laboratory.

  4. Stress-induced reorientation of hydride precipitates in Zr-2.5Nb-0.5Cu garter springs under complex loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De, P.K.; John, J.T.; Raman, V.V.; Banerjee, S.

    1991-01-01

    Zr-2.5Nb-0.5Cu garter springs which are placed between coolant and calandria tubes in PHWRs experience complex loading due to simultaneous application of tension, compression and torus bending moment due to coolant tubes. The gradual pick up of hydrogen by the garter springs during service is likely to have hydride platelets reoriented under the applied stresses. In the present paper, the magnitudes and the directions of the principal stresses under the complex loading condition obtained have been calculated and the extent of hydride reorientation predicted. Simulation experiments consisting of simulated loading of hydrogen (upto 400 ppm) precharged springs at the service temperature (300degC) and also in-situ hydrogen charging of the springs under simulated loading conditions have been carried out. In addition, hydrogen precharged springs have been subjected to temperature cycling between 50 and 300degC under complex loading conditions, to evaluate the influence of temperature variation on hydride reorientation. Metallographic examination of the hydride platelets in the above springs has shown an excellent agreement with the analytical prediction. Torus bending moment values appear to play a significant role in reorienting the hydride platelets. It has been observed that under normal torus bending moment corresponding to 90 mm dia coolant tubes hydrogen platelets close to the outer rim of the spiral get reoriented in the radial direction. However, on application a torus bending moment corresponding to 30 mm dia tubes, hydride platelets get reoriented along the radial direction, irrespective of the magnitude of tensile and compression loading. (author). 9 refs., 15 figs., 1 appendix

  5. Development of a Novel Locomotion Algorithm for Snake Robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Raisuddin; Billah, Md Masum; Watanabe, Mitsuru; Shafie, A A

    2013-01-01

    A novel algorithm for snake robot locomotion is developed and analyzed in this paper. Serpentine is one of the renowned locomotion for snake robot in disaster recovery mission to overcome narrow space navigation. Several locomotion for snake navigation, such as concertina or rectilinear may be suitable for narrow spaces, but is highly inefficient if the same type of locomotion is used even in open spaces resulting friction reduction which make difficulties for snake movement. A novel locomotion algorithm has been proposed based on the modification of the multi-link snake robot, the modifications include alterations to the snake segments as well elements that mimic scales on the underside of the snake body. Snake robot can be able to navigate in the narrow space using this developed locomotion algorithm. The developed algorithm surmount the others locomotion limitation in narrow space navigation

  6. Cardiovascular Responses of Snakes to Gravitational Gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Shi-Tong T.; Lillywhite, H. B.; Ballard, R. E.; Hargens, A. R.; Holton, Emily M. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Snakes are useful vertebrates for studies of gravitational adaptation, owing to their elongate body and behavioral diversification. Scansorial species have evolved specializations for regulating hemodynamics during exposure to gravitational stress, whereas, such adaptations are less well developed in aquatic and non-climbing species. We examined responses of the amphibious snake,\\italicize (Nerodia rhombifera), to increments of Gz (head-to-tail) acceleration force on both a short- and long-arm centrifuge (1.5 vs. 3.7 m radius, from the hub to tail end of snake). We recorded heart rate, dorsal aortic pressure, and carotid arterial blood flow during stepwise 0.25 G increments of Gz force (referenced at the tail) in conscious animals. The Benz tolerance of a snake was determined as the Gz level at which carotid blood flow ceased and was found to be significantly greater at the short- than long-arm centrifuge radius (1.57 Gz vs. 2.0 Gz, respectively; P=0.016). A similar pattern of response was demonstrated in semi-arboreal rat snakes,\\italicize{Elaphe obsoleta}, which are generally more tolerant of Gz force (2.6 Gz at 1.5m radius) than are water snakes. The tolerance differences of the two species reflected cardiovascular responses, which differed quantitatively but not qualitatively: heart rates increased while arterial pressure and blood flow decreased in response to increasing levels of Gz. Thus, in both species of snakes, a reduced gradient of Gz force (associated with greater centrifuge radius) significantly decreases the Gz level that can be tolerated.

  7. THE ROLE OF PLANTATIONS OF THE AFRICAN PALM (ELAEIS GUINEENSIS JACQ. IN THE CONSERVATION OF SNAKES IN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOHN D. LYNCH

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Monocultures of the African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. were studied between 2006 and 2013 so as to determine which species of snakes frequented them and to estimate the abundances of each species encountered. Thirty five species of snakes (three boas, one coral, 27 colubrids, one tropidophid, one typhlopid, and two vipers were captured within palmeras. Palm plantations are revealed to (1 augment the densities of ten species of snakes well beyond the densities found by collectors in natural and/or relatively transformed habitats and (2 to not offer benefits to at least 75% of the snake community found in the vicinities of palm plantations. The majority of snake species (60% found in palmeras are nocturnal species. The most common species (defined by having 15 or more captures were Atractus univittatus, Bothrops asper, B. atrox, Epicrates maurus, Leptodeira annulata, Liophis melanotus, Ninia atrata, Oxyrhopus petolarius, Pseudoboa neuwiedii, and Tantilla melanocephala. Palm plantations permit substantial local population sizes for a fraction (< 25% of the local snake community. Internal practices of such plantations could be modified so as to protect a larger share of the fauna by means of two practices: (1 construction and maintenance of paleras as well as (2 creating a mosaic of palm plantations enclosing "islands" of secondary forests.

  8. A STUDY ON THE INCIDENCE AND ETIOLOGY OF ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY IN HEMOTOXIC SNAKE ENVENOMATION CASES IN A TERTIARY CARE CENTRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purushottam Rao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Snake bite envenomation is a frequently encountered problem in tropical countries like India, especially in the rural areas of south India. Most of the victims are farmers. The World Health Organization has estimated that nearly 1,25,000 deaths occur among 2,50,000 poisonous snake bites world - wide, of which India accounts for 10,000 deaths. Acute Kidney Injury (AKI is an important consequence of a snake bite and its proper supportive management after the anti - venom administration is of utmost importance, for a good patient outcome. AIM AND OBJECTIVES : To assess the incidence of Acute Kidney Injury in patients with hemotoxic snake envenomation . To assess the etiological factors involved in Acute Kidney Injury on snake bite victims. METHODOLOGY: This prospective study was carried out at King George Hospital, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh. It is a tertiary care government hospital, attached to Andhra Medical College, Visakhapatnam. STUDY DESIGN: This was a prospective and descriptive type of study. RESULTS: A total of 214 cases of hemotoxic snake bite were included in this study, who were admitted in the hospital from September 2012 to August 2014. The incidence of renal failure in hemotoxic snake bite is 23.3%. The probable etiology of AKI in snake bite victims is DIC in 48% of cases, direct nephrotoxicity in 24% of cases. CONCLUSION: This study concludes that Acute Kidney Injury occurs in 23.3% of cases of hemotoxic snake bite. DIC is the most common etiologic factor for AKI in snake bite followed by direct nephrotoxicity, hypotension, capillary leak syndrome and sepsis

  9. Effects of season, sex and body size on the feeding ecology of turtle-headed sea snakes ( Emydocephalus annulatus) on IndoPacific inshore coral reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goiran, C.; Dubey, S.; Shine, R.

    2013-06-01

    In terrestrial snakes, many cases of intraspecific shifts in dietary habits as a function of predator sex and body size are driven by gape limitation and hence are most common in species that feed on relatively large prey and exhibit a wide body-size range. Our data on sea snakes reveal an alternative mechanism for intraspecific niche partitioning, based on sex-specific seasonal anorexia induced by reproductive activities. Turtle-headed sea snakes ( Emydocephalus annulatus) on coral reefs in the New Caledonian Lagoon feed entirely on the eggs of demersal-spawning fishes. DNA sequence data (cytochrome b gene) on eggs that we palpated from stomachs of 37 snakes showed that despite this ontogenetic stage specialization, the prey comes from a taxonomically diverse array of species including damselfish (41 % of samples, at least 5 species), blennies (41 %, 4 species) and gobies (19 %, 5 species). The composition of snake diets shifted seasonally (with damselfish dominating in winter but not summer), presumably reflecting seasonality of fish reproduction. That seasonal shift affects male and female snakes differently, because reproduction is incompatible with foraging. Adult female sea snakes ceased feeding when they became heavily distended with developing embryos in late summer, and males ceased feeding while they were mate searching in winter. The sex divergence in foraging habits may be amplified by sexual size dimorphism; females grow larger than males, and larger snakes (of both sexes) feed more on damselfish (which often lay their eggs in exposed sites) than on blennies and gobies (whose eggs are hidden within narrow crevices). Specific features of reproductive biology of coral reef fish (seasonality and nest type) have generated intraspecific niche partitioning in these sea snakes, by mechanisms different from those that apply to terrestrial snakes.

  10. Pine snake (Pituophis ruthveni and Pituophis mellanoleucus lodingi) hibernacula

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.C. Rudolph; R.R. Schaefer; S.J. Burgdorf; M. Duran; R.N. Conner

    2007-01-01

    Snakes are often highly selective in the choice of sites for hibernation, and suitable sites can potentially be a limiting resource. Hibernating Louisiana Pine Snakes (Pituopllis ruthveni; N = 7) in eastern Texas and Black Pine Snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus lodingi; N = 5) in Mississippi were excavated to characterize their...

  11. Snakes in the Grass: Weaving Success for Everyone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Janet L.

    2000-01-01

    Describes "Snakes in the Grass," a weaving project used with special needs students. Discusses the preliminary skill-building activities used, the process for creating the students' individual snakes, and the preparation and process for how the students wove the snakes. (CMK)

  12. Snake and staff symbolism in healing | Retief | Acta Theologica

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since time immemorial the snake has been venerated as an enigmatic creature with supernatural powers. As a snake and staff symbol it is also traditionally associated with the healing arts, either as the single-snake attribute of Asclepius, or as the doublesnake attribute of Hermes. In this article the mythological basis for this ...

  13. Chronic ulceration of the leg following extensive scarring due to a snake bite complicated by squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello, L.F.B.; Barcelos, M.G.; Nogueira Neto, N.C.; Meohas, W.; Pinto, L.W.; Melo, P.A.; Smith, J.

    2000-01-01

    Chronic ulcers of the leg are common in Brazil, perhaps more common than in the developed world. We report a case of a chronic ulcer of the leg following extensive scarring due to a bite by a venomous snake, which eventually led to a squamous cell carcinoma. (orig.)

  14. Function of snake mobbing in spectral tarsiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gursky, Sharon

    2006-04-01

    Numerous species are known for their tendency to approach and confront their predators as a group. This behavior is known as mobbing. Snakes seem to be one of the more consistent recipients of this type of predator-directed behavior. This paper explores individual differences (sex and age) in the mobbing behavior of the spectral tarsier toward live and model snakes. This study was conducted at Tangkoko Nature Reserve (Sulawesi, Indonesia) during 2003-2004. During this research, 11 natural mobbing events and 31 artificially induced mobbing events were observed. The mean number of individuals at a mobbing was 5.7. The duration of mobbing events was strongly correlated with the number of assembled mobbers. Adults were more likely than other age classes to participate in mobbings. Males were more likely than females to participate in mobbings. Mobbing groups often contained more than one adult male, despite the fact that no spectral tarsier group contains more than one adult male. No difference in body size between extragroup males and resident males was observed, refuting the "attract the mightier" hypothesis. The number of mobbers did not affect whether the tarsier or the snake retreated first, countering the "move-on" hypothesis. The "perception advertisement" hypothesis was tentatively supported, in that live snakes were rarely seen in the area following mobbing calls, in comparison to when tarsiers either ignored the snake or alarm call. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Tolerance of snakes to hypergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillywhite, H. B.; Ballard, R. E.; Hargens, A. R.

    1996-01-01

    Sensitivity of carotid blood flow to increased gravitational force acting in the head-to-tail direction(+Gz) was studied in diverse species of snakes hypothesized to show adaptive variation of response. Tolerance to increased gravity was measured red as the maximum graded acceleration force at which carotid blood flow ceased and was shown to vary according to gravitational adaptation of species defined by their ecology and behavior. Multiple regression analysis showed that gravitational habitat, but not body length, had a significant effect on Gz tolerance. At the extremes, carotid blood flow decreased in response to increasing G force and approached zero near +1 Gz in aquatic and ground-dwelling species, whereas in climbing species carotid flow was maintained at forces in excess of +2 Gz. Tolerant (arboreal) species were able to withstand hypergravic forces of +2 to +3 Gz for periods up to 1 h without cessation of carotid blood flow or loss of body movement and tongue flicking. Data suggest that the relatively tight skin characteristic of tolerant species provides a natural antigravity suit and is of prime importance in counteracting Gz stress on blood circulation.

  16. Protein profile analysis of Malaysian snake venoms by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Vejayan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Snake venoms comprise a highly complex mixture of proteins, which requires for their characterization the use of versatile two-dimensional electrophoresis techniques. In the present study, venoms obtained from eight snakes (Ophiophagus hannah, Naja kaouthia, Naja sumatrana, Bungarus fasciatus, Trimeresurus sumatranus, Tropidolaemus wagleri, Enhydrina schistosa and Calloselasma rhodostoma commonly found in Malaysia were separated based on two independent properties, isoelectric point (pI and molecular weight (MW. Many differences in snake venoms at the inter-family, inter-subfamily, inter-genus and inter-species levels were revealed. Notably, proteins from individuals of the Viperidae family - Trimeresurus sumatranus, Tropidolaemus wagleri and Calloselasma rhodostoma - were found to be numerous and scattered by the two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE specifically in regions between 37 and 100 kDa compared to the Elapidae venom proteins. The latter were clustered at the basic and lower molecular mass region (less than 20 kDa. Trains of spots were commonly observed, indicating that these proteins may be derived from post-translational modifications. Ophiophagus hannah (Elapidae revealed a great amount of protein spots in the higher molecular mass range when compared to Enhydrina schistosa, Naja kaouthia, Naja sumatrana and Bungarus fasciatus. Overall 2DE showed large differences in the venom profile of each species, which might be employed as an ancillary tool to the identification of venomous snake species.

  17. Snake Envenomation Causing Distant Tracheal Myonecrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Khimani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Snakebites are often believed to be poisonous. However, this is not always the case. In fact, each bite differs from snake to snake, depending on if the snake is poisonous and if there is envenomation. Venom in pit viper snakebites is often associated with local necrosis. The abundant literature selections and research articles justify local myonecrosis due to envenomation, but there is not much in the literature regarding myonecrosis at a site distant from the snakebite. We hereby present a case of a 42-year-old man who was transferred to our emergency department after a rattlesnake bit him twice. The patient, besides developing local myonecrosis at the site of the snakebite, developed necrosis of the scrotum as well as tracheal pressure myonecrosis at the site of the endotracheal tube balloon. In this review, we will attempt to discuss the myonecrosis pathophysiology and management related to the rattle snakebite.

  18. Helical spin rotators and snakes for RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ptitsin, V.I.; Shatunov, Yu.M.; Peggs, S.

    1995-01-01

    The RHIC collider, now under construction at BNL, will have the possibility of polarized proton-proton collisions up to a beam energy of 250 Gev. Polarized proton beams of such high energy can be only obtained with the use of siberian snakes, a special kind of spin rotator that rotates the particle spin by 180 degree around an axis lying in the horizontal plane. Siberian snakes help to preserve the beam polarization while numerous spin depolarizing resonances are crossed, during acceleration. In order to collide longitudinally polarized beams, it is also planned to install spin rotators around two interaction regions. This paper discusses snake and spin rotator designs based on sequences of four helical magnets. The schemes that were chosen to be applied at RHIC are presented

  19. SUPERCONDUCTING HELICAL SNAKE MAGNETS: CONSTRUCTION AND MEASUREMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackay, W.W.; Anerella, M.; Courant, E.

    1999-01-01

    In order to collide polarized protons, the RHIC project will have two snakes in each ring and four rotators around each of two interaction regions. Two snakes on opposite sides of each ring can minimize depolarization during acceleration by keeping the spin tune at a half. Since the spin direction is normally along the vertical direction in a flat ring, spin rotators must be used around an interaction point to have longitudinal polarization in a collider experiment. Each snake or rotator will be composed of four helical dipoles to provide the required rotation of spin with minimal transverse orbit excursions in a compact length of 10m. The basic helical dipole is a superconducting magnet producing a transverse dipole field which is twisted about the magnet axis through 360 o in a length of 2.4 m. The design and construction of the magnets is described in this paper

  20. Phylogeny, ecology, and heart position in snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartner, Gabriel E A; Hicks, James W; Manzani, Paulo R; Andrade, Denis V; Abe, Augusto S; Wang, Tobias; Secor, Stephen M; Garland, Theodore

    2010-01-01

    The cardiovascular system of all animals is affected by gravitational pressure gradients, the intensity of which varies according to organismic features, behavior, and habitat occupied. A previous nonphylogenetic analysis of heart position in snakes-which often assume vertical postures-found the heart located 15%-25% of total body length from the head in terrestrial and arboreal species but 25%-45% in aquatic species. It was hypothesized that a more anterior heart in arboreal species served to reduce the hydrostatic blood pressure when these animals adopt vertical postures during climbing, whereas an anterior heart position would not be needed in aquatic habitats, where the effects of gravity are less pronounced. We analyzed a new data set of 155 species from five major families of Alethinophidia (one of the two major branches of snakes, the other being blind snakes, Scolecophidia) using both conventional and phylogenetically based statistical methods. General linear models regressing log(10) snout-heart position on log(10) snout-vent length (SVL), as well as dummy variables coding for habitat and/or clade, were compared using likelihood ratio tests and the Akaike Information Criterion. Heart distance to the tip of the snout scaled isometrically with SVL. In all instances, phylogenetic models that incorporated transformation of the branch lengths under an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck model of evolution (to mimic stabilizing selection) better fit the data as compared with their nonphylogenetic counterparts. The best-fit model predicting snake heart position included aspects of both habitat and clade and indicated that arboreal snakes in our study tend to have hearts placed more posteriorly, opposite the trend identified in previous studies. Phylogenetic signal in relative heart position was apparent both within and among clades. Our results suggest that overcoming gravitational pressure gradients in snakes most likely involves the combined action of several cardiovascular and

  1. Study of spin resonances in the accelerators with snakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.

    1989-01-01

    Spin resonances in the circular accelerators with snakes are studied to understand the nature of snake resonances. We analyze the effect of snake configuration, and the snake superperiod on the resonance. Defining the critical resonance strength ε c as the maximum tolerable resonance strength without losing the beam polarization after passing through the resonance, we found that ε c is a sensitive function of the snake configuration, the snake superperiod at the first order snake resonance, the higher order snake resonance conditions and the spin matching condition. Under properly designed snake configuration, the critical resonance strength ε c is found to vary linearly with N S as left-angle ε c right-angle=(1/π)sin -1 (cos πν z | 1/2 )N S , where ν| z and N S are the betatron tune and the number of snakes respectively. We also study the effect of overlapping intrinsic and imperfection resonances. The imperfection resonance should be corrected to a magnitude of insignificance (e.g., ε≤0.1 for two snakes case) to maintain proper polarization

  2. Nocturnal arboreality in snakes in the swamplands of the Atchafalaya Basin of south-central Louisiana and Big Thicket National Preserve of Southeast Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glorioso, Brad M.; Waddle, J. Hardin

    2017-01-01

    The southeastern United States is home to a diverse assemblage of snakes, but only one species, the Rough Greensnake (Opheodrys aestivus), is considered specialized for a predominantly arboreal lifestyle. Other species, such as Ratsnakes (genus Pantherophis) and Ribbonsnakes/Gartersnakes (genus Thamnophis), are widely known to climb into vegetation and trees. Some explanations given for snake climbing behavior are foraging, thermoregulation, predator avoidance, and response to flood. Reports of arboreality in snake species typically not associated with life in the trees (such as terrestrial, aquatic, and even fossorial species) usually come from single observations, with no knowledge of prevalence of the behavior. Here, we report on arboreality of snake species detected during 8 years of night surveys in the Atchafalaya Basin of south-central Louisiana and 5+ years of night surveys in Big Thicket National Preserve in southeast Texas. We recorded a total of 1,088 detections of 19 snake species between the two study areas, with 348 detections above ground level (32%). The Rough Greensnake and Western Ribbonsnake (Thamnophis proximus) accounted for nearly 75% of total arboreal detections among the two study areas. However, with one exception, all snake species detected more than once between both study areas had at least one arboreal detection. These observations demonstrate that snakes with widely varying natural histories may be found in the trees at night, and for some species, this behavior may be more common than previously believed.

  3. The status of taxonomy and venom in sea snakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Redsted Rasmussen, Arne; Sanders, Kate L.

    2017-01-01

    The status of taxonomy and venom in sea snakesArne R Rasmussen1, Kate L Sanders21 The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture, Design & Conservation, Copenhagen, Denmark2 School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5000, AustraliaSea...... snakes form two aquatic groups of snakes with a flat vertically paddle-form tail (sea kraits and viviparous sea snakes). Sea snakes belong to the same family Elapidae, which also includes the terrestrial mambas, cobra, kraits, taipan and brown snake. All elapids are characterized by the anterior position...... of the poison-fangs on the maxillary bone (proteroglyphous). Globally there are some 70 species of sea snake found in the tropical and subtropical waters of the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean. Most species are found in the Indo-Malayan Archipelago, the China Sea, Indonesia, and the Australian region...

  4. Immunoreactivity between venoms and commercial antiserums in four Chinese snakes and venom identification by species-specific antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jian-Fang; Wang, Jin; Qu, Yan-Fu; Ma, Xiao-Mei; Ji, Xiang

    2013-01-31

    We studied the immunoreactivity between venoms and commercial antiserums in four Chinese venomous snakes, Bungarus multicinctus, Naja atra, Deinagkistrodon acutus and Gloydius brevicaudus. Venoms from the four snakes shared common antigenic components, and most venom components expressed antigenicity in the immunological reaction between venoms and antiserums. Antiserums cross-reacted with heterologous venoms. Homologous venom and antiserum expressed the highest reaction activity in all cross-reactions. Species-specific antibodies (SSAbs) were obtained from four antiserums by immunoaffinity chromatography: the whole antiserum against each species was gradually passed through a medium system coated with heterologous venoms, and the cross-reacting components in antiserum were immunoabsorbed by the common antigens in heterologous venoms; the unbound components (i.e., SSAbs) were collected, and passed through Hitrap G protein column and concentrated. The SSAbs were found to have high specificity by western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A 6-well ELISA strip coated with SSAbs was used to assign a venom sample and blood and urine samples from the envenomed rats to a given snake species. Our detections could differentiate positive and negative samples, and identify venoms of a snake species in about 35 min. The ELISA strips developed in this study are clinically useful in rapid and reliable identification of venoms from the above four snake species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Dry friction of microstructured polymer surfaces inspired by snake skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina J. Baum

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The microstructure investigated in this study was inspired by the anisotropic microornamentation of scales from the ventral body side of the California King Snake (Lampropeltis getula californiae. Frictional properties of snake-inspired microstructured polymer surface (SIMPS made of epoxy resin were characterised in contact with a smooth glass ball by a microtribometer in two perpendicular directions. The SIMPS exhibited a considerable frictional anisotropy: Frictional coefficients measured along the microstructure were about 33% lower than those measured in the opposite direction. Frictional coefficients were compared to those obtained on other types of surface microstructure: (i smooth ones, (ii rough ones, and (iii ones with periodic groove-like microstructures of different dimensions. The results demonstrate the existence of a common pattern of interaction between two general effects that influence friction: (1 molecular interaction depending on real contact area and (2 the mechanical interlocking of both contacting surfaces. The strongest reduction of the frictional coefficient, compared to the smooth reference surface, was observed at a medium range of surface structure dimensions suggesting a trade-off between these two effects.

  6. Dry friction of microstructured polymer surfaces inspired by snake skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Martina J; Heepe, Lars; Fadeeva, Elena; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2014-01-01

    The microstructure investigated in this study was inspired by the anisotropic microornamentation of scales from the ventral body side of the California King Snake (Lampropeltis getula californiae). Frictional properties of snake-inspired microstructured polymer surface (SIMPS) made of epoxy resin were characterised in contact with a smooth glass ball by a microtribometer in two perpendicular directions. The SIMPS exhibited a considerable frictional anisotropy: Frictional coefficients measured along the microstructure were about 33% lower than those measured in the opposite direction. Frictional coefficients were compared to those obtained on other types of surface microstructure: (i) smooth ones, (ii) rough ones, and (iii) ones with periodic groove-like microstructures of different dimensions. The results demonstrate the existence of a common pattern of interaction between two general effects that influence friction: (1) molecular interaction depending on real contact area and (2) the mechanical interlocking of both contacting surfaces. The strongest reduction of the frictional coefficient, compared to the smooth reference surface, was observed at a medium range of surface structure dimensions suggesting a trade-off between these two effects.

  7. Born Knowing: Tentacled Snakes Innately Predict Future Prey Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catania, Kenneth C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Aquatic tentacled snakes (Erpeton tentaculatus) can take advantage of their prey's escape response by startling fish with their body before striking. The feint usually startles fish toward the snake's approaching jaws. But when fish are oriented at a right angle to the jaws, the C-start escape response translates fish parallel to the snake's head. To exploit this latter response, snakes must predict the future location of the fish. Adult snakes can make this prediction. Is it learned, or are tentacled snakes born able to predict future fish behavior? Methods and Findings Laboratory-born, naïve snakes were investigated as they struck at fish. Trials were recorded at 250 or 500 frames per second. To prevent learning, snakes were placed in a water container with a clear transparency sheet or glass bottom. The chamber was placed over a channel in a separate aquarium with fish below. Thus snakes could see and strike at fish, without contact. The snake's body feint elicited C-starts in the fish below the transparency sheet, allowing strike accuracy to be quantified in relationship to the C-starts. When fish were oriented at a right angle to the jaws, naïve snakes biased their strikes to the future location of the escaping fish's head, such that the snake's jaws and the fish's translating head usually converged. Several different types of predictive strikes were observed. Conclusions The results show that some predators have adapted their nervous systems to directly compensate for the future behavior of prey in a sensory realm that usually requires learning. Instead of behavior selected during their lifetime, newborn tentacled snakes exhibit behavior that has been selected on a different scale—over many generations. Counter adaptations in fish are not expected, as tentacled snakes are rare predators exploiting fish responses that are usually adaptive. PMID:20585384

  8. Sea snake harvest in the gulf of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cao, Nguyen; Thien Tao, Nguyen; Moore, Amelia; Montoya, Alfred; Redsted Rasmussen, Arne; Broad, Kenneth; Voris, Harold K; Takacs, Zoltan

    2014-12-01

    Conservation of sea snakes is virtually nonexistent in Asia, and its role in human-snake interactions in terms of catch, trade, and snakebites as an occupational hazard is mostly unexplored. We collected data on sea snake landings from the Gulf of Thailand, a hotspot for sea snake harvest by squid fishers operating out of the ports of Song Doc and Khanh Hoi, Ca Mau Province, Vietnam. The data were collected during documentation of the steps of the trading process and through interviewers with participants in the trade. Squid vessels return to ports once per lunar synodic cycle and fishers sell snakes to merchants who sort, package, and ship the snakes to various destinations in Vietnam and China for human consumption and as a source of traditional remedies. Annually, 82 t, roughly equal to 225,500 individuals, of live sea snakes are brought to ports. To our knowledge, this rate of harvest constitutes one of the largest venomous snake and marine reptile harvest activities in the world today. Lapemis curtus and Hydrophis cyanocinctus constituted about 85% of the snake biomass, and Acalyptophis peronii, Aipysurus eydouxii, Hydrophis atriceps, H. belcheri, H. lamberti, and H. ornatus made up the remainder. Our results establish a quantitative baseline for characteristics of catch, trade, and uses of sea snakes. Other key observations include the timing of the trade to the lunar cycle, a decline of sea snakes harvested over the study period (approximately 30% decline in mass over 4 years), and the treatment of sea snake bites with rhinoceros horn. Emerging markets in Southeast Asia drive the harvest of venomous sea snakes in the Gulf of Thailand and sea snake bites present a potentially lethal occupational hazard. We call for implementation of monitoring programs to further address the conservation implications of this large-scale marine reptile exploitation. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  9. The upper cretaceous snake Dinilysia patagonica Smith-Woodward, 1901, and the crista circumfenestralis of snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palci, Alessandro; Caldwell, Michael W

    2014-10-01

    Studies on the phylogenetic relationships of snakes and lizards are plagued by problematic characterizations of anatomy that are then used to define characters and states in taxon-character matrices. State assignments and character descriptions must be clear characterizations of observable anatomy and topological relationships if homologies are to be hypothesized. A supposed homology among snakes, not observed in lizards, is the presence of a crista circumfenestralis (CCF), a system of bony crests surrounding the fenestra ovalis and lateral aperture of the recessus scalae tympani. We note that there are some fossil and extant snakes that lack a CCF, and some extant lizards that possess a morphological equivalent. The phylogenetically important upper Cretaceous fossil snake Dinilysia patagonica has been interpreted by different authors as either having or lacking a CCF. These conflicting results for Dinilysia were tested by re-examining the morphology of the otic region in a large sample of snakes and lizards. An unambiguous criterion arising from the test of topology is used to define the presence of a CCF: the enclosure of the ventral margin of the juxtastapedial recess by flanges of the otoccipital (crista tuberalis and crista interfenestralis) that extend forward to contact the posterior margin of the prootic. According to this criterion D. patagonica does not possess a CCF, therefore, this anatomical feature must have arisen later during the evolution of snakes. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Patterns of genetic diversity in Hepatozoon spp. infecting snakes from North Africa and the Mediterranean Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomé, Beatriz; Maia, João P; Salvi, Daniele; Brito, José C; Carretero, Miguel A; Perera, Ana; Meimberg, Harald; Harris, David James

    2014-03-01

    Species of Hepatozoon Miller, 1908 are blood parasites most commonly found in snakes but some have been described from all tetrapod groups and a wide variety of hematophagous invertebrates. Previous studies have suggested possible associations between Hepatozoon spp. found in predators and prey. Particularly, some saurophagous snakes from North Africa and the Mediterranean region have been found to be infected with Hepatozoon spp. similar to those of various sympatric lizard hosts. In this study, we have screened tissue samples of 111 North African and Mediterranean snakes, using specific primers for the 18S rRNA gene. In the phylogenetic analysis, the newly-generated Hepatozoon spp. sequences grouped separately into five main clusters. Three of these clusters were composed by Hepatozoon spp. also found in snakes and other reptiles from the Mediterranean Basin and North Africa. In the other two clusters, the new sequences were not closely related to geographically proximate known sequences. The phylogeny of Hepatozoon spp. inferred here was not associated with intermediate host taxonomy or geographical distribution. From the other factors that could explain these evolutionary patterns, the most likely seems series of intermediate hosts providing similar ribotypes of Hepatozoon and a high prevalence of host shifts for Hepatozoon spp. This is indicated by ribotypes of high similarity found in different reptile families, as well as by divergent ribotypes found in the same host species. This potentially low host specificity has profound implications for the systematics of Hepatozoon spp.

  11. TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction for detection of Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola, the fungus associated with snake fungal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohuski, Elizabeth; Lorch, Jeffrey M; Griffin, Kathryn M; Blehert, David S

    2015-04-15

    Fungal skin infections associated with Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola, a member of the Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii (CANV) complex, have been linked to an increasing number of cases of snake fungal disease (SFD) in captive snakes around the world and in wild snake populations in eastern North America. The emergence of SFD in both captive and wild situations has led to an increased need for tools to better diagnose and study the disease. We developed two TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays to rapidly detect O. ophiodiicola in clinical samples. One assay targets the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) of the fungal genome while the other targets the more variable intergenic spacer region (IGS). The PCR assays were qualified using skin samples collected from 50 snakes for which O. ophiodiicola had been previously detected by culture, 20 snakes with gross skin lesions suggestive of SFD but which were culture-negative for O. ophiodiicola, and 16 snakes with no clinical signs of infection. Both assays performed equivalently and proved to be more sensitive than traditional culture methods, detecting O. ophiodiicola in 98% of the culture-positive samples and in 40% of the culture-negative snakes that had clinical signs of SFD. In addition, the assays did not cross-react with a panel of 28 fungal species that are closely related to O. ophiodiicola or that commonly occur on the skin of snakes. The assays did, however, indicate that some asymptomatic snakes (~6%) may harbor low levels of the fungus, and that PCR should be paired with histology when a definitive diagnosis is required. These assays represent the first published methods to detect O. ophiodiicola by real-time PCR. The ITS assay has great utility for assisting with SFD diagnoses whereas the IGS assay offers a valuable tool for research-based applications.

  12. Spin with two snakes and overlapping resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.; Zhao, X.F.

    1987-01-01

    We study the effect of multiple spin depolarization resonances on the spin of the particles with two snakes. When two resonances are well separated, the polarization can be restored in passing through these resonances provided that the snake resonances are avoided. When two resonances are overlapping, the beam particles may be depolarized depending on the spacing between these two resonances. If the spacing between these two resonances is an odd number for two snakes, the beam particles may be depolarized depending on the strength of the resonance. When the spacing becomes an even number, the spin can tolerate a much larger resonance strength without depolarization. Numerical simulations can be shown to agree well with the analytic formula. However, the spin is susceptible to the combination of an intrinsic and an imperfection resonances even in the presence of the snakes. Numerical simulation indicates that the spin can be restored after the resonances provided that imperfection strength is less than 0.1 if intrinsic strength is fixed at 0.745

  13. A Schoolwide Endeavor: Our Exquisite Snake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Anne Marie

    2009-01-01

    The author was originally inspired by "The Exquisite Snake" exhibit she saw at a local museum. Two hundred contemporary artists contributed to this exhibit, which was an adaptation of the old parlor game called "The Exquisite Corpse" that Surrealist artists used to play in the late 1920s and '30s. The author just loved this idea and decided to…

  14. Snake oil and venoms for medical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, H. D.

    2011-04-01

    Some think that using derivatives of snake venom for medical purposes is the modern version of snake oil but they are seriously misjudging the research potentials of some of these toxins in medicines of the 2000's. Medical trials, using some of the compounds has proven their usefulness. Several venoms have shown the possibilities that could lead to anticoagulants, helpful in heart disease. The blood clotting protein from the taipan snake has been shown to rapidly stop excessive bleeding. The venom from the copperhead may hold an answer to breast cancer. The Malaysian pit viper shows promise in breaking blood clots. Cobra venom may hold keys to finding cures for Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's. Rattlesnake proteins from certain species have produced blood pressure medicines. Besides snake venoms, venom from the South American dart frog, mollusks (i.e. Cone Shell Snail), lizards (i.e. Gila Monster & Komodo Dragon), some species of spiders and tarantulas, Cephalopods, mammals (i.e. Platypus & Shrews), fish (i.e. sting rays, stone fish, puffer fish, blue bottle fish & box jelly fish), intertidal marine animals (echinoderms)(i.e. Crown of Thorn Star Fish & Flower Urchin) and the Honeybee are being investigated for potential medical benefits.

  15. Ontogenetic shifts of heart position in snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillywhite, Harvey B; Lillywhite, Steven M

    2017-08-01

    Heart position relative to total body length (TL) varies among snakes, with anterior hearts in arboreal species and more centrally located hearts in aquatic or ground-dwelling species. Anterior hearts decrease the cardiac work associated with cranial blood flow and minimize drops in cranial pressure and flow during head-up climbing. Here, we investigate whether heart position shifts intraspecifically during ontogenetic increases in TL. Insular Florida cottonmouth snakes, Agkistrodon conanti, are entirely ground-dwelling and have a mean heart position that is 33.32% TL from the head. In contrast, arboreal rat snakes, Pantherophis obsoleta, of similar lengths have a mean heart position that is 17.35% TL from the head. In both species, relative heart position shifts craniad during ontogeny, with negative slopes = -.035 and -.021% TL/cm TL in Agkistrodon and Pantherophis, respectively. Using a large morphometric data set available for Agkistrodon (N = 192 individuals, 23-140 cm TL), we demonstrate there is an anterior ontogenetic shift of the heart position within the trunk (= 4.56% trunk length from base of head to cloacal vent), independent of head and tail allometry which are both negative. However, in longer snakes > 100 cm, the heart position reverses and shifts caudally in longer Agkistrodon but continues toward the head in longer individuals of Pantherophis. Examination of data sets for two independent lineages of fully marine snakes (Acrochordus granulatus and Hydrophis platurus), which do not naturally experience postural gravity stress, demonstrate both ontogenetic patterns for heart position that are seen in the terrestrial snakes. The anterior migration of the heart is greater in the terrestrial species, even if TL is standardized to that of the longer P. obsoleta, and compensates for about 5 mmHg gravitational pressure head if they are fully upright. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Australian elapid snake envenomation in cats: Clinical priorities and approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcalees, Trudi J; Abraham, Linda A

    2017-11-01

    Practical relevance: No fewer than 140 species of terrestrial snakes reside in Australia, 92 of which possess venom glands. With the exception of the brown tree snake, the venom-producing snakes belong to the family Elapidae. The venom of a number of elapid species is more toxic than that of the Indian cobra and eastern diamondback rattle snake, which has earned Australia its reputation for being home to the world's most venomous snakes. Clinical challenges: The diagnosis of elapid snake envenomation is not always easy. Identification of Australian snakes is not straightforward and there are no pathognomonic clinical signs. In cats, diagnosis of envenomation is confounded by the fact that, in most cases, there is a delay in seeking veterinary attention, probably because snake encounters are not usually witnessed by owners, and also because of the tendency of cats to hide and seek seclusion when unwell. Although the administration of antivenom is associated with improved outcomes, the snake venom detection kit and antivenom are expensive and so their use may be precluded if there are financial constraints. Evidence base: In providing comprehensive guidance on the diagnosis and treatment of Australian elapid snake envenomation in cats, the authors of this review draw on the published veterinary, medical and toxicology literature, as well as their professional experience as specialists in medicine, and emergency medicine and critical care.

  17. Medicinal plants used to treat Snake bite by Fulani Herdsmen in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Ameen

    the use of village surrounding medicinal plants for the treatment of the snake bite. Recent efforts on ... treatment of snake bites. Information .... Snake venoms are complex mixture of enzymatic and .... treated, mode of diagnosis and medicinal.

  18. Chemical basis of prey recognition in thamnophiine snakes: the unexpected new roles of parvalbumins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maïté Smargiassi

    Full Text Available Detecting and locating prey are key to predatory success within trophic chains. Predators use various signals through specialized visual, olfactory, auditory or tactile sensory systems to pinpoint their prey. Snakes chemically sense their prey through a highly developed auxiliary olfactory sense organ, the vomeronasal organ (VNO. In natricine snakes that are able to feed on land and water, the VNO plays a critical role in predatory behavior by detecting cues, known as vomodors, which are produced by their potential prey. However, the chemical nature of these cues remains unclear. Recently, we demonstrated that specific proteins-parvalbumins-present in the cutaneous mucus of the common frog (Rana temporaria may be natural chemoattractive proteins for these snakes. Here, we show that parvalbumins and parvalbumin-like proteins, which are mainly intracellular, are physiologically present in the epidermal mucous cells and mucus of several frog and fish genera from both fresh and salt water. These proteins are located in many tissues and function as Ca(2+ buffers. In addition, we clarified the intrinsic role of parvalbumins present in the cutaneous mucus of amphibians and fishes. We demonstrate that these Ca(2+-binding proteins participate in innate bacterial defense mechanisms by means of calcium chelation. We show that these parvalbumins are chemoattractive for three different thamnophiine snakes, suggesting that these chemicals play a key role in their prey-recognition mechanism. Therefore, we suggest that recognition of parvalbumin-like proteins or other calcium-binding proteins by the VNO could be a generalized prey-recognition process in snakes. Detecting innate prey defense mechanism compounds may have driven the evolution of this predator-prey interaction.

  19. Mass awareness regarding snake bite induced early morning neuroparalysis can prevent many deaths in North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rupinder; Dogra, Varundeep; Sharma, Gurudutt; Chauhan, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    In North India snake bite deaths are predominantly seen with neurotoxic envenomations (NEs) whereas in South India the hemotoxic envenomation (HE) is more common. Krait is responsible for most deaths in North India. It bites people sleeping on the floors, mostly at night. We describe the profile of venomous snake bites over 1 year in 2013. The study was conducted in a rural tertiary care hospital in North India. Demographics, circumstances of bite, envenomation, first aid, delay, consultation, treatment, anti-venom, and outcomes were recorded for all victims of snake bite. We included all consecutive adult (>18 years) venomous snake bite victims admitted from January to December 2013. A total of 91 patients with venomous snake bites were included in the study. Pure NEs were 41 (45.1%), pure HE in 31 (34.1%), 7 (7.7%) had mixed NE + HE, and 12 (13.2%) had only local swelling. Forty patients (44%) were bitten during sleep presenting as NE (92.5%), NE + HE (5%), and HE (2.5%). Findings in the 51 patients (56%) bitten during activity were HE (58.8%), local swelling (23.5%), NE + HE (9.8%), and NE (7.8%) ( P NE patients out of which 23 (96%) went to alternate practitioners or religious healers. Almost all (97.5%) bites during sleep resulted in NE in our study. About 96% of NE sought first aid from alternate practitioners or religious healers in hope of some magical treatment. Thus, a deadly combination of krait bite during sleep and wrong health seeking behavior is responsible for high mortality krait bites in this region. Mass public awareness regarding krait bites can prevent mortality in many such cases.

  20. Abundance and population structure of eastern worm snakes in forest stands with various levels of overstory tree retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachary I. Felix; Yong Wang; Callie Jo Schweitzer

    2010-01-01

    In-depth analyses of a species’ response to canopy retention treatments can provide insight into reasons for observed changes in abundance. The eastern worm snake (Carphophis amoenus amoenus Say) is common in many eastern deciduous forests, yet little is known about the ecology of the species in managed forests. We examined the relationship between...

  1. Clinical Effects and Antivenom Use for Snake Bite Victims Treated at Three US Hospitals in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    been observed with Crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab therapy after crotaline snake envenomation.9 Additionally, fasciotomy, amputation, or other...purified, equine -derived F(ab)2 fragments and are able to treat a variety of the most commonly encountered vipers and elapids (including cobras) in the...antivenom therapy for severe crotaline snakebite. Ann Emerg Med. 2011;57:128–137. Heiner et al416

  2. Body size, reproductive biology and abundance of the rare pseudoboini snakes genera Clelia and Boiruna (Serpentes, Colubridae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Pizzatto

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Pseudoboini snakes of the genera Clelia and Boiruna are apparently rare in nature and certainly rare in collections. This work presents data on body size, reproduction and abundance of five Brazilian species of these genera, in the largest collection of snakes in Latin America, the Instituto Butantan. Despite scarcity of data, follicular cycle seems to be continuous in most species, except Clelia rustica, which occurs in highlands. Females are largerthan males in all species, and fecundity is low when compared to other pseudoboini. Abundance is very low for all species even considering 100 years of collecting, and it is decreasing in recent decades when compared to other snakes (Bothrops jararaca, Oxyrhopus guibei, O. clathratus, Philodryas patagoniensis, Sibynomorphus mikanii, and Spilotes pullatus. The studied species present at least five traits of commonly threatened species and require more attention in researches and conservation policies.

  3. Pathophysiological significance and therapeutic applications of snake venom protease inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Rupamoni; Mukherjee, Ashis K

    2017-06-01

    Protease inhibitors are important constituents of snake venom and play important roles in the pathophysiology of snakebite. Recently, research on snake venom protease inhibitors has provided valuable information to decipher the molecular details of various biological processes and offer insight for the development of some therapeutically important molecules from snake venom. The process of blood coagulation and fibrinolysis, in addition to affecting platelet function, are well known as the major targets of several snake venom protease inhibitors. This review summarizes the structure-functional aspects of snake venom protease inhibitors that have been described to date. Because diverse biological functions have been demonstrated by protease inhibitors, a comparative overview of their pharmacological and pathophysiological properties is also highlighted. In addition, since most snake venom protease inhibitors are non-toxic on their own, this review evaluates the different roles of individual protease inhibitors that could lead to the identification of drug candidates and diagnostic molecules. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Smart Material-Actuated Flexible Tendon-Based Snake Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohiuddin Ahmed

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A flexible snake robot has better navigation ability compare with the existing electrical motor-based rigid snake robot, due to its excellent bending capability during navigation inside a narrow maze. This paper discusses the modelling, simulation and experiment of a flexible snake robot. The modelling consists of the kinematic analysis and the dynamic analysis of the snake robot. A platform based on the Incompletely Restrained Positioning Mechanism (IRPM is proposed, which uses the external force provided by a compliant flexible beam in each of the actuators. The compliant central column allows the configuration to achieve three degrees of freedom (3DOFs with three tendons. The proposed flexible snake robot has been built using smart material, such as electroactive polymers (EAPs, which can be activated by applying power to it. Finally, the physical prototype of the snake robot has been built. An experiment has been performed in order to justify the proposed model.

  5. The Lurking Snake in the Grass: Interference of Snake Stimuli in Visually Taxing Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Cristina Soares

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on evolutionary considerations, it was hypothesized that humans have been shaped to easily spot snakes in visually cluttered scenes that might otherwise hide camouflaged snakes. This hypothesis was tested in a visual search experiment in which I assessed automatic attention capture to evolutionarily-relevant distractor stimuli (snakes, in comparison with another animal which is also feared but where this fear has a disputed evolutionary origin (spiders, and neutral stimuli (mushrooms. Sixty participants were engaged in a task that involved the detection of a target (a bird among pictures of fruits. Unexpectedly, on some trials, a snake, a spider, or a mushroom replaced one of the fruits. The question of interest was whether the distracting stimuli slowed the reaction times for finding the target (the bird to different degrees. Perceptual load of the task was manipulated by increments in the set size (6 or 12 items on different trials. The findings showed that snake stimuli were processed preferentially, particularly under conditions where attentional resources were depleted, which reinforced the role of this evolutionarily-relevant stimulus in accessing the visual system (Isbell, 2009.

  6. Effect of experience with pine (Pituophis melanoleucus) and king (Lampropeltis getulus) snake odors on Y-maze behavior of pine snake hatchlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, J; Boarman, W; Kurzava, L; Gochfeld, M

    1991-01-01

    The abilities of hatchling pine snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus) and king snakes (Lampropeltis getulus) to discriminate the chemical trails of pine and king snakes was investigated inY-maze experiments. Pine snakes were housed for 17 days either with shavings impregnated with pine snake odor, king snake odor, or no odor to test for the effect of experience on choice. Both pine and king snake hatchlings entered the arm with the pine snake odor and did not enter the arm with the king snake odor. The data support the hypothesis that hatchlings of both species can distinguish conspecific odors from other odors and that our manipulation of previous experience was without effect for pine snake hatchlings.

  7. Annual incidence of snake bite in rural bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwanur Rahman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Snake bite is a neglected public health problem in the world and one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity in many areas, particularly in the rural tropics. It also poses substantial economic burdens on the snake bite victims due to treatment related expenditure and loss of productivity. An accurate estimate of the risk of snake bite is largely unknown for most countries in the developing world, especially South-East Asia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We undertook a national epidemiological survey to determine the annual incidence density of snake bite among the rural Bangladeshi population. Information on frequency of snake bite and individuals' length of stay in selected households over the preceding twelve months was rigorously collected from the respondents through an interviewer administered questionnaire. Point estimates and confidence intervals of the incidence density of snake bite, weighted and adjusted for the multi-stage cluster sampling design, were obtained. Out of 18,857 study participants, over one year a total of 98 snake bites, including one death were reported in rural Bangladesh. The estimated incidence density of snake bite is 623.4/100,000 person years (95% C I 513.4-789.2/100,000 person years. Biting occurs mostly when individuals are at work. The majority of the victims (71% receive snake bites to their lower extremities. Eighty-six percent of the victims received some form of management within two hours of snake bite, although only three percent of the victims went directly to either a medical doctor or a hospital. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Incidence density of snake bite in rural Bangladesh is substantially higher than previously estimated. This is likely due to better ascertainment of the incidence through a population based survey. Poor access to health services increases snake bite related morbidity and mortality; therefore, effective public health actions are warranted.

  8. Monkey pulvinar neurons fire differentially to snake postures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Quan Van; Isbell, Lynne A; Matsumoto, Jumpei; Le, Van Quang; Hori, Etsuro; Tran, Anh Hai; Maior, Rafael S; Tomaz, Carlos; Ono, Taketoshi; Nishijo, Hisao

    2014-01-01

    There is growing evidence from both behavioral and neurophysiological approaches that primates are able to rapidly discriminate visually between snakes and innocuous stimuli. Recent behavioral evidence suggests that primates are also able to discriminate the level of threat posed by snakes, by responding more intensely to a snake model poised to strike than to snake models in coiled or sinusoidal postures (Etting and Isbell 2014). In the present study, we examine the potential for an underlying neurological basis for this ability. Previous research indicated that the pulvinar is highly sensitive to snake images. We thus recorded pulvinar neurons in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) while they viewed photos of snakes in striking and non-striking postures in a delayed non-matching to sample (DNMS) task. Of 821 neurons recorded, 78 visually responsive neurons were tested with the all snake images. We found that pulvinar neurons in the medial and dorsolateral pulvinar responded more strongly to snakes in threat displays poised to strike than snakes in non-threat-displaying postures with no significant difference in response latencies. A multidimensional scaling analysis of the 78 visually responsive neurons indicated that threat-displaying and non-threat-displaying snakes were separated into two different clusters in the first epoch of 50 ms after stimulus onset, suggesting bottom-up visual information processing. These results indicate that pulvinar neurons in primates discriminate between poised to strike from those in non-threat-displaying postures. This neuronal ability likely facilitates behavioral discrimination and has clear adaptive value. Our results are thus consistent with the Snake Detection Theory, which posits that snakes were instrumental in the evolution of primate visual systems.

  9. The snakes and ladders of FM service excellence

    OpenAIRE

    Price, Ilfryn; Mccarroll, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    A report to accompany a workshop and gamification event at EFMC 2015 in Glasgow.\\ud \\ud Snakes and Ladders is an ancient Indian board game regarded today as a worldwide classic. The historic version had its root in morality lessons, where a player's progression up the board represented a life journey complicated by virtues (ladders) and vices (snakes). Our version brings back the morality element by associating each ladder and snake with enablers or barriers to service excellence in FM all id...

  10. Molecular evidence of Sarcocystis species in captive snakes in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Niichiro; Matsubara, Katsuki; Tamukai, Kenichi; Miwa, Yasutsugu; Takami, Kazutoshi

    2015-08-01

    Sarcocystis nesbitti, using snakes as the definitive host, is a causative agent of acute human muscular sarcocystosis in Malaysia. Therefore, it is important to explore the distribution and prevalence of S. nesbitti in snakes. Nevertheless, epizootiological information of S. nesbitti in snakes remains insufficient because few surveys have assessed Sarcocystis infection in snakes in endemic countries. In Japan, snakes are popular exotic pet animals that are imported from overseas, but the degree of Sarcocystis infection in them remains unclear. The possibility exists that muscular sarcocystosis by S. nesbitti occurs in contact with captive snakes in non-endemic countries. For a total of 125 snake faecal samples from 67 snake species collected at animal hospitals, pet shops and a zoo, this study investigated the presence of Sarcocystis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the 18S ribosomal RNA gene (18S rDNA). Four (3.2%) faecal samples were positive by PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of the 18S rDNA sequences obtained from four amplification products revealed one isolate from a beauty snake (Elaphe taeniura), Sarcocystis zuoi, which uses rat snakes as the definitive host. The isolate from a Macklot's python (Liasis mackloti) was closely related with unidentified Sarcocystis sp. from reticulated pythons in Malaysia. The remaining two isolates from tree boas (Corallus spp.) were closely related with Sarcocystis lacertae, Sarcocystis gallotiae and unidentified Sarcocystis sp. from smooth snakes, Tenerife lizards and European shrews, respectively. This report is the first of a study examining the distribution of Sarcocystis species in captive snakes in Japan.

  11. Snake-like phenomena in Tore Supra following pellet injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecquet, A.L.; Cristofani, P.; Mattioli, M.; Garbet, X.; Laurent, L.; Geraud, A.; Gil, C.; Joffrin, E.; Sabot, R.

    1996-01-01

    Snakes are observed in Tore-Supra, after injection of high velocity solid hydrogen or deuterium pellets ablated inside the q=1 surface. They are detected, immediately after the ablation, as oscillations on the line integrated densities of the central interferometer channels. The corresponding oscillations on the soft X-ray signals detach from the noise about 70 ms later. Snakes survive sawtooth crashes, but are nevertheless affected by them. Variations, during the about 500 ms long lifetime, of the snake radius τ s , of the rotation frequency and of the rotation direction are discussed, stressing the effects of the sawtooth crashes. In many snakes τ s /τ q =1 is of the order of 0.5. Since the snake has a m=1, n=1 helicity, this points out the existence of a flat or inverted safety factor profile, confirmed by calculation of the current profile using Spitzer's resistivity. Combined simulations of the snake oscillations on both interferometer and soft X-ray signals have indicated that, starting about 80 ms after the snake formation, the impurity (carbon) density inside the snake is much larger than outside it. Since a change of regime seems to appear about 80 ms after the snake formation on the soft X-ray, it seems plausible that impurity (carbon) accumulation takes place at this time. A stability criterion taking into account both impurity and bootstrap effects is presented, the result agrees with the model proposed by Wesson. (authors)

  12. [New drug developments of snake venom polypeptides and progress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Sihai; Feng, Mei; Xiong, Yan

    2017-11-28

    The value of snake venom polypeptides in clinical application has drawn extensive attention, and the development of snake polypeptides into new drugs with anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, analgesic or antihypertensive properties has become the recent research hotspot. With the rapid development of molecular biology and biotechnology, the mechanisms of snake venom polypeptides are also gradually clarified. Numerous studies have demonstrated that snake venom polypeptides exert their pharmacological effects by regulating ion channels, cell proliferation, apoptosis, intracellular signaling pathway, and expression of cytokine as well as binding to relevant active sites or receptors.

  13. ACCELERATION OF POLARIZED BEAMS USING MULTIPLE STRONG PARTIAL SIBERIAN SNAKES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ROSER, T.; AHRENS, L.; BAI, M.

    2004-01-01

    Acceleration of polarized protons in the energy range of 5 to 25 GeV is particularly difficult since depolarizing spin resonances are strong enough to cause significant depolarization but full Siberian snakes cause intolerably large orbit excursions. Using a 20-30% partial Siberian snake both imperfection and intrinsic resonances can be overcome. Such a strong partial Siberian snake was designed for the Brookhaven AGS using a dual pitch helical superconducting dipole. Multiple strong partial snakes are also discussed for spin matching at beam injection and extraction

  14. Primary homologies of the circumorbital bones of snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palci, Alessandro; Caldwell, Michael W

    2013-09-01

    Some snakes have two circumorbital ossifications that in the current literature are usually referred to as the postorbital and supraorbital. We review the arguments that have been proposed to justify this interpretation and provide counter-arguments that reject those conjectures of primary homology based on the observation of 32 species of lizards and 81 species of snakes (both extant and fossil). We present similarity arguments, both topological and structural, for reinterpretation of the primary homologies of the dorsal and posterior orbital ossifications of snakes. Applying the test of similarity, we conclude that the posterior orbital ossification of snakes is topologically consistent as the homolog of the lacertilian jugal, and that the dorsal orbital ossification present in some snakes (e.g., pythons, Loxocemus, and Calabaria) is the homolog of the lacertilian postfrontal. We therefore propose that the terms postorbital and supraorbital should be abandoned as reference language for the circumorbital bones of snakes, and be replaced with the terms jugal and postfrontal, respectively. The primary homology claim for the snake "postorbital" fails the test of similarity, while the term "supraorbital" is an unnecessary and inaccurate application of the concept of a neomorphic ossification, for an element that passes the test of similarity as a postfrontal. This reinterpretation of the circumorbital bones of snakes is bound to have important repercussions for future phylogenetic analyses and consequently for our understanding of the origin and evolution of snakes. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Studies of polarized beam acceleration and Siberian Snakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.

    1992-01-01

    We studied depolarization mechanisms of polarized proton acceleration in high energy accelerators with snakes and found that the perturbed spin tune due to the imperfection resonance plays an important role in beam depolarization at snake resonances. We also found that even order snake resonances exist in the overlapping intrinsic and imperfection resonances. Due to the perturbed spin tune of imperfection resonances, each snake resonance splits into two. Thus the available betatron tune space becomes smaller. Some constraints on polarized beam colliders were also examined

  16. Serpents in jars: the snake wine industry in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Somaweera

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Exploitation of snakes in Vietnam takes place for different purposes, and among them the snake wine industry is prominent but has received far less attention than other dealings, such as the pet trade. Despite widespread commercialisation there is a general lack of information about this snake trade, which makes it difficult to evaluate its magnitude and impact on snake populations. This study documents the use of snakes in snake wine in four cities in Vietnam through surveys conducted in 127 locations selling snake wine in September 2009. This study provides a list of species used along with the number of individuals observed. While none of the species involved are listed in the IUCN Red List, seven species are listed in the Vietnam Red Data Book, of which five are regulated by CITES. On the other hand, the most abundant species used in the trade, Xenochrophis flavipunctatus, is not listed in any conservation document. The popularity and economic importance of snakes in the form of snake wine demonstrates the need for the development of sustainable use programs for these species.

  17. Texas coral snake (Micrurus tener) bites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, David L; Borys, Douglas J; Stanford, Rhandi; Kjar, Dean; Tobleman, William

    2007-02-01

    The clinical features of bites from Texas coral snakes (Micrurus tener) have not been well studied. Our goal was to review the largest number of victims of Texas coral snakebites to determine their characteristics, effects, treatment, and outcome. Retrospective case series of Micrurus tener exposures reported to the Texas Poison Center Network from 2000 to 2004. Eighty-two patients were included in the analysis. Most (57.3%) were 18 to 49-year-old men. Almost 90% had local swelling, pain, erythema, or paresthesias. Only 7.3% had systemic effects, and none of these were severe. Over half received coral snake antivenin, and 15.9% were given opioids for pain. No patient died and no patient required mechanical ventilation due to hypoventilation from the snakebite. There were more local findings and less severe systemic effects than previously reported. Antivenin is not needed for most of these patients, and opioids may be administered safely.

  18. Reading color barcodes using visual snakes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaub, Hanspeter (ORION International Technologies, Albuquerque, NM)

    2004-05-01

    Statistical pressure snakes are used to track a mono-color target in an unstructured environment using a video camera. The report discusses an algorithm to extract a bar code signal that is embedded within the target. The target is assumed to be rectangular in shape, with the bar code printed in a slightly different saturation and value in HSV color space. Thus, the visual snake, which primarily weighs hue tracking errors, will not be deterred by the presence of the color bar codes in the target. The bar code is generate with the standard 3 of 9 method. Using this method, the numeric bar codes reveal if the target is right-side-up or up-side-down.

  19. Field of a helical Siberian Snake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luccio, A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-02-01

    To preserve the spin polarization of a beam of high energy protons in a circular accelerator, magnets with periodic magnetic field, called Siberian Snakes are being used. Recently, it was proposed to build Siberian Snakes with superconducting helical dipoles. In a helical, or twisted dipole, the magnetic field is perpendicular to the axis of the helix and rotates around it as one proceeds along the magnet. In an engineering study of a 4 Tesla helical snake, the coil geometry is derived, by twisting, from the geometry of a cosine superconducting dipole. While waiting for magnetic measurement data on such a prototype, an analytical expression for the field of the helice is important, to calculate the particle trajectories and the spin precession in the helix. This model will also allow to determine the optical characteristics of the snake, as an insertion in the lattice of the accelerator. In particular, one can calculate the integrated multipoles through the magnet and the equivalent transfer matrix. An expression for the field in the helix body, i.e., excluding the fringe field was given in a classical paper. An alternate expression can be found by elaborating on the treatment of the field of a transverse wiggler obtained under the rather general conditions that the variables are separable. This expression exactly satisfies Maxwell`s div and curl equations for a stationary field, {del} {center_dot} B = 0, {del} x B = 0. This approach is useful in that it will allow one to use much of the work already done on the problem of inserting wigglers and undulators in the lattice of a circular accelerator.

  20. Diagnostic Imaging in Snakes and Lizards

    OpenAIRE

    Banzato , Tommaso

    2013-01-01

    The increasing popularity of snakes and lizards as pets has led to an increasing demand of specialised veterinary duties in these animals. Diagnostic imaging is often a fundamental step of the clinical investigation. The interpretation of diagnostic images is complex and requires a broad knowledge of anatomy, physiology and pathology of the species object of the clinical investigation. Moreover, in order to achieve a correct diagnosis, the comparison between normal and abnormal diagnostic im...

  1. An inspection of pipe by snake robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Trebuňa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with development and application of snake robot for inspection pipes. The first step involves the introduction of a design of mechanical and electrical parts of the snake robot. Next, the analysis of the robot locomotion is introduced. For the curved pipe, potential field method is used. By this method, the system is able to generate path for the head and rear robot, linking the environment with obstacles, which are represented by the walls of the pipe. Subsequently, the solution of potential field method is used in inverse kinematic model, which respects tasks as obstacle avoidance, joint limit avoidance, and singularity avoidance. Mentioned approach is then tested on snake robot in provisional pipe with rectangular cross section. For this research, software Matlab (2013b is used as the control system in cooperation with the control system of robot, which is based on microcontrollers. By experiments, it is shown that designed robot is able to pass through straight and also curved pipe.

  2. Endogenous hepadnaviruses, bornaviruses and circoviruses in snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, C; Meik, J M; Dashevsky, D; Card, D C; Castoe, T A; Schaack, S

    2014-09-22

    We report the discovery of endogenous viral elements (EVEs) from Hepadnaviridae, Bornaviridae and Circoviridae in the speckled rattlesnake, Crotalus mitchellii, the first viperid snake for which a draft whole genome sequence assembly is available. Analysis of the draft assembly reveals genome fragments from the three virus families were inserted into the genome of this snake over the past 50 Myr. Cross-species PCR screening of orthologous loci and computational scanning of the python and king cobra genomes reveals that circoviruses integrated most recently (within the last approx. 10 Myr), whereas bornaviruses and hepadnaviruses integrated at least approximately 13 and approximately 50 Ma, respectively. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of circo-, borna- and hepadnaviruses in snakes and the first characterization of non-retroviral EVEs in non-avian reptiles. Our study provides a window into the historical dynamics of viruses in these host lineages and shows that their evolution involved multiple host-switches between mammals and reptiles. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  3. Inventing an arsenal: adaptive evolution and neofunctionalization of snake venom phospholipase A2 genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynch Vincent J

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene duplication followed by functional divergence has long been hypothesized to be the main source of molecular novelty. Convincing examples of neofunctionalization, however, remain rare. Snake venom phospholipase A2 genes are members of large multigene families with many diverse functions, thus they are excellent models to study the emergence of novel functions after gene duplications. Results Here, I show that positive Darwinian selection and neofunctionalization is common in snake venom phospholipase A2 genes. The pattern of gene duplication and positive selection indicates that adaptive molecular evolution occurs immediately after duplication events as novel functions emerge and continues as gene families diversify and are refined. Surprisingly, adaptive evolution of group-I phospholipases in elapids is also associated with speciation events, suggesting adaptation of the phospholipase arsenal to novel prey species after niche shifts. Mapping the location of sites under positive selection onto the crystal structure of phospholipase A2 identified regions evolving under diversifying selection are located on the molecular surface and are likely protein-protein interactions sites essential for toxin functions. Conclusion These data show that increases in genomic complexity (through gene duplications can lead to phenotypic complexity (venom composition and that positive Darwinian selection is a common evolutionary force in snake venoms. Finally, regions identified under selection on the surface of phospholipase A2 enzymes are potential candidate sites for structure based antivenin design.

  4. Adverse drug reaction profile of anti-snake venom in a rural tertiary care teaching hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Rushikesh Prabhakar; Motghare, Vijay Motiram; Padwal, Sudhir Laxman; Pore, Rakesh Ramkrishna; Bhamare, Chetanraj Ghanshyam; Deshmukh, Vinod Shivaji; Pise, Harshal Nutan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The study was carried out with the aim of evaluation of the adverse drug reaction profile of anti-snake venom serum (ASV) in a rural tertiary care hospital. Methods An observational study was conducted in SRTR Medical College, Ambajogai, Maharashtra, India. A total number of 296 indoor case papers of snake bite from February to September 2011 and June to August 2012 were retrieved from the record section and the antivenom reactions were assessed. In addition, basic epidemiological data and prescribing practices of ASV were also analyzed. Results Vasculotoxic snake bites were more common (50.61%) than neuroparalytic ones (22.56%). Mild envenomation was the commonest presentation. A total of 92 (56.10%) patients who received ASV suffered from antivenom reactions. The most common nature of reaction was chills, rigors (69.56%) followed by nausea and vomiting (34.8%). 10-15% patients suffered from moderate to severe reactions like hypotension and sudden respiratory arrest. We did not find any dose response relationship of ASV to risk of reactions (odds ratio 0.37). Intradermal sensitivity test was performed in about 72% cases. Conclusion Our study showed a higher incidence of reactions to ASV at our institute. PMID:24396245

  5. Intra-genomic GC heterogeneity in sauropsids: evolutionary insights from cDNA mapping and GC3 profiling in snake

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Extant sauropsids (reptiles and birds) are divided into two major lineages, the lineage of Testudines (turtles) and Archosauria (crocodilians and birds) and the lineage of Lepidosauria (tuatara, lizards, worm lizards and snakes). Karyotypes of these sauropsidan groups generally consist of macrochromosomes and microchromosomes. In chicken, microchromosomes exhibit a higher GC-content than macrochromosomes. To examine the pattern of intra-genomic GC heterogeneity in lepidosaurian genomes, we constructed a cytogenetic map of the Japanese four-striped rat snake (Elaphe quadrivirgata) with 183 cDNA clones by fluorescence in situ hybridization, and examined the correlation between the GC-content of exonic third codon positions (GC3) of the genes and the size of chromosomes on which the genes were localized. Results Although GC3 distribution of snake genes was relatively homogeneous compared with those of the other amniotes, microchromosomal genes showed significantly higher GC3 than macrochromosomal genes as in chicken. Our snake cytogenetic map also identified several conserved segments between the snake macrochromosomes and the chicken microchromosomes. Cross-species comparisons revealed that GC3 of most snake orthologs in such macrochromosomal segments were GC-poor (GC3 < 50%) whereas those of chicken orthologs in microchromosomes were relatively GC-rich (GC3 ≥ 50%). Conclusion Our results suggest that the chromosome size-dependent GC heterogeneity had already occurred before the lepidosaur-archosaur split, 275 million years ago. This character was probably present in the common ancestor of lepidosaurs and but lost in the lineage leading to Anolis during the diversification of lepidosaurs. We also identified several genes whose GC-content might have been influenced by the size of the chromosomes on which they were harbored over the course of sauropsid evolution. PMID:23140509

  6. The partial Siberian snake experiment at the Brookhaven AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.; Caussyn, D.D.; Ellison, T.; Jones, B.; Lee, S.Y.; Schwandt, P.; Ahren, L.; Alessi, J.; Bleser, E.J.; Bunce, G.; Cameron, P.; Courant, E.D.; Foelsche, H.W.; Gardner, C.J.; Geller, J.; Lee, Y.Y.; Makdisi, Y.I.; Mane, S.R.; Ratner, L.; Reece, K.; Roser, T.; Skelly, J.F.; Soukas, A.; Tepikian, S.; Thern, R.E.; van Asselt, W.; Spinka, H.; Teng, L.; Underwood, D.G.; Yokosawa, A.; Wienands, U.; Bharadwaj, V.; Hsueh, S.; Hiramatsu, S.; Mori, Y.; Sato, H.; Yokoya, K.

    1992-01-01

    We are building a 4.7 Tesla-meter room temperature solenoid to be installed in a 10-foot long AGS straight section. This experiment will test the idea of using a partial snake to correct all depolarizing imperfection resonances and also test the feasibility of betatron tune jump in correction intrinsic resonances in the presence of a partial snake

  7. The snake as the symbol of medicine, toxicology and toxinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramoutsaki, I A; Haniotakis, S; Tsatsakis, A M

    2000-10-01

    We investigated the meaning and the roots of the snake's usage as a symbol of medicine, the medical profession, toxicology and toxinology by examining mythological, archeological data and a variety of texts from the ancient Greek world. The snake figure was associated with Asclepios, the ancient Greek God of medicine, and possessed benevolent properties. It was believed to be able to cure a patient or a wounded person just by touch. The snake is also connected with pharmacology and antisepsis, as snakes possess an antivenom against their own poison. The snake is related to sciences associated with poison and death, such as toxicology and toxinology, and it also implies a metaphysical idea. It is connected with the underworld, not only because it crawls on the ground, but because it can bring death, connecting the upper with the underground world. The ability of the snake to shed its skin has been associated with the circle of life, and the renaissance spirit also, ever since early Hellenic antiquity. Consequently, as a symbol of the modern medical profession, toxicology and toxinology, the snake twisted around a stick or the snake beside a pharmapeutic cup, which also implies the use of medicines or even poison, has its roots in the ancient Mediterranean area as proven by the archeological data combined with literary references. Its benevolent as well as its poisonous properties could be paralleled by the similar properties of medicines.

  8. Snake mortality associated with late season radio-transmitter implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Craig Rudolph; Shirley J. Burgdorf; Richard R. Schaefer; Richard N. Conner; Robert T. Zappalorth

    1998-01-01

    Radio-telemetry is an increasingly used procedure to obtain data on the biology of free-living snakes (Reinert 1992, 1994). In Texas and Louisiana we have been using the surgical technique of Weatherhead and Anderka (1984) to implant transmitters in timber rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus) and Louisiana pine snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus...

  9. Resonant depolarization in electron storage rings equipped with ''siberia snakes''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buon, J.

    1984-11-01

    Resonant depolarization induced by field errors and quantum emissions in an electron ring equipped with two ''siberian snakes'' is investigated with a first order perturbation calculation. It is shown that this depolarization is not reduced by the snakes when the operating energy is set out of the depolarization resonances [fr

  10. Skin lipid structure controls water permeability in snake molts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torri, Cristian; Mangoni, Alfonso; Teta, Roberta; Fattorusso, Ernesto; Alibardi, Lorenzo; Fermani, Simona; Bonacini, Irene; Gazzano, Massimo; Burghammer, Manfred; Fabbri, Daniele; Falini, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The role of lipids in controlling water exchange is fundamentally a matter of molecular organization. In the present study we have observed that in snake molt the water permeability drastically varies among species living in different climates and habitats. The analysis of molts from four snake species: tiger snake, Notechis scutatus, gabon viper, Bitis gabonica, rattle snake, Crotalus atrox, and grass snake, Natrix natrix, revealed correlations between the molecular composition and the structural organization of the lipid-rich mesos layer with control in water exchange as a function of temperature. It was discovered, merging data from micro-diffraction and micro-spectroscopy with those from thermal, NMR and chromatographic analyses, that this control is generated from a sophisticated structural organization that changes size and phase distribution of crystalline domains of specific lipid molecules as a function of temperature. Thus, the results of this research on four snake species suggest that in snake skins different structured lipid layers have evolved and adapted to different climates. Moreover, these lipid structures can protect, "safety", the snakes from water lost even at temperatures higher than those of their usual habitat. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Snakes of Sulawesi: checklist, key and additional Biogeographical remarks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, in den H.A.J.

    1985-01-01

    A checklist with concise synonymy and a key to the snakes of Sulawesi is presented, comprising 63 species in 38 genera; 3 subspecies and 15 species, of which one constitutes a monotypic genus, are considered endemic. There is a strong Indo-Malayan relationship. Sea-snakes and Candoia carinata

  12. Emerging fungal pathogen Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola in wild European snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklinos, Lydia H. V.; Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Bohuski, Elizabeth A.; Rodriguez-Ramos Fernandez, Julia; Wright, Owen; Fitzpatrick, Liam; Petrovan, Silviu; Durrant, Chris; Linton, Chris; Baláž, Vojtech; Cunningham, Andrew A; Lawson, Becki

    2017-01-01

    Snake fungal disease (SFD) is an emerging disease of conservation concern in eastern North America. Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola, the causative agent of SFD, has been isolated from over 30 species of wild snakes from six families in North America. Whilst O. ophiodiicola has been isolated from captive snakes outside North America, the pathogen has not been reported from wild snakes elsewhere. We screened 33 carcasses and 303 moulted skins from wild snakes collected from 2010–2016 in Great Britain and the Czech Republic for the presence of macroscopic skin lesions and O. ophiodiicola. The fungus was detected using real-time PCR in 26 (8.6%) specimens across the period of collection. Follow up culture and histopathologic analyses confirmed that both O. ophiodiicola and SFD occur in wild European snakes. Although skin lesions were mild in most cases, in some snakes they were severe and were considered likely to have contributed to mortality. Culture characterisations demonstrated that European isolates grew more slowly than those from the United States, and phylogenetic analyses indicated that isolates from European wild snakes reside in a clade distinct from the North American isolates examined. These genetic and phenotypic differences indicate that the European isolates represent novel strains of O. ophiodiicola. Further work is required to understand the individual and population level impact of this pathogen in Europe.

  13. Particle spin tune in a partially excited snake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.; Tepikian, S.; Courant, E.D.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper, we address the question on the effect of the particle spin when a snake is turned on adiabatically near a depolarization resonance while not accelerating. The spinor equation and its solution are reviewed briefly and the spin transfer matrix method in the presence of a snake are used to evaluate the spin tune and the precession axis

  14. An Unusual Case of Acute Asthma after Snake Bite | Ikuabe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Although the cytolytic, neurotoxic and haemolytic actions of snake venoms are well known, the ability of snake venom to induce asthma (as a distinct entity from just difficulty in breathing) is not previously reported in the literature. Methods The case records of the patient in the index case and a review of existing ...

  15. Vine snake (Thelotornis capensis bite in a dog : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Otto

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A vine snake bite in a dog is reported. There was continued minor bleeding from the assumed nose bite site for 4 days. Currently manufactured snakebite antivenom is not effective against vine snake bites and treatment is supportive.

  16. 78 FR 9727 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ..., California; take (capture, handle, mark, tag, collect tissue, and release) the giant garter snake (Thamnophis..., handle, and release) the San Francisco garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis tetrataenia) in conjunction with... activities throughout the range of each species in Alameda, Contra Costa, Fresno, Kings, Marin, Madera, Napa...

  17. Snake venom poisoning in the Plovdiv region from 2004 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliev, Yanko T; Tufkova, Stoilka G; Zagorov, Marin Y; Nikolova, Stanka M

    2014-01-01

    Envenomation by poisons of biological origin is very common globally in the tropical and subtropical areas mainly, where the biological diversity of the species clearly leads to evolution of highly toxic species. The weather warming trend in Bulgaria, whether cyclic or permanent, allows for a change in the biological response of reptiles and insects inhabiting the temperate zone by a possible migration of biological species from the subtropical zone towards the temperate zone because of the new environmental conditions. There are very few studies on snake bite envenoming in Bulgaria. The AIM of the study was to find the incidence of the acute accidental intoxication (AAI) caused by snake venom in adult individuals in a large region of Bulgaria between 2004 and 2012 and characterises it by number, type, main clinical features, course and socio-demographic parameters of the victims so that preventive measures can be taken, wherever necessary. We studied retrospectively all 68 cases of AAI caused by snake venom in adult individuals (> 18 years old) hospitalized in the Clinic of Toxicology in St. George University Hospital, Plovdiv over the period from 2004 to 2012 by 23 quantitative and qualitative parameters. We found that the average annual incidence of snake venom AAI in adult population in the region of Plovdiv was relatively low for the specified period (9.5 per 100000 residents); the snake venom AAI increases or decreases every other year, with no clearly delineated trend for now. The prevalence of envenomation by poisons of biological origin increased from 2.3% in 1990-1998 to 9.5-10.33% between 2007 and 2012. The main sociodemographic characteristics of snake bite victims are similar to those in other Balkan and Central European countries. The clinical response to poisons of biological origin is generally identical with the response to the viper (Vipera ammodytes)--mild to medium intensity with predominantly local toxic syndrome. The algorithm of Clinical

  18. Snake fungal disease caused by Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola in a free-ranging mud snake (Farancia abacura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Last, Lisa A; Fenton, Heather; Gonyor-McGuire, Jessica; Moore, Matthew; Yabsley, Michael J

    2016-11-01

    Snake fungal disease is an emerging infectious disease caused by the fungus Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola leading to severe dermatitis and facial disfiguration in numerous free-ranging and captive snakes. A free-ranging mud snake (Farancia abacura) from Bulloch County, Georgia, was presented for autopsy because of facial swelling and emaciation. Extensive ulceration of the skin, which was especially severe on the head, and retained shed were noted on external examination. Microscopic examination revealed severe heterophilic dermatitis with intralesional fungal hyphae and arthroconidia consistent with O. ophiodiicola A skin sample incubated on Sabouraud dextrose agar yielded a white-to-tan powdery fungal culture that was confirmed to be O. ophiodiicola by polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis. Heavy infestation with adult tapeworms (Ophiotaenia faranciae) was present within the intestine. Various bacterial and fungal species, interpreted to either be secondary invaders or postmortem contaminants, were associated with oral lesions. Although the role of these other organisms in the overall health of this individual is not known, factors such as concurrent infections or immunosuppression should be considered in order to better understand the overall manifestation of snake fungal disease, which remains poorly characterized in its host range and geographic distribution. © 2016 The Author(s).

  19. Snake scales, partial exposure, and the Snake Detection Theory: A human event-related potentials study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. van Strien (Jan); L.A. Isbell (Lynne A.)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractStudies of event-related potentials in humans have established larger early posterior negativity (EPN) in response to pictures depicting snakes than to pictures depicting other creatures. Ethological research has recently shown that macaques and wild vervet monkeys respond strongly to

  20. A survey of snake-inspired robot designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, James K; Spranklin, Brent W; Gupta, Satyandra K

    2009-01-01

    Body undulation used by snakes and the physical architecture of a snake body may offer significant benefits over typical legged or wheeled locomotion designs in certain types of scenarios. A large number of research groups have developed snake-inspired robots to exploit these benefits. The purpose of this review is to report different types of snake-inspired robot designs and categorize them based on their main characteristics. For each category, we discuss their relative advantages and disadvantages. This review will assist in familiarizing a newcomer to the field with the existing designs and their distinguishing features. We hope that by studying existing robots, future designers will be able to create new designs by adopting features from successful robots. The review also summarizes the design challenges associated with the further advancement of the field and deploying snake-inspired robots in practice. (topical review)

  1. Therapeutic potential of snake venom in cancer therapy: current perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Vivek Kumar; Brahmbhatt, Keyur; Bhatt, Hardik; Parmar, Utsav

    2013-01-01

    Many active secretions produced by animals have been employed in the development of new drugs to treat diseases such as hypertension and cancer. Snake venom toxins contributed significantly to the treatment of many medical conditions. There are many published studies describing and elucidating the anti-cancer potential of snake venom. Cancer therapy is one of the main areas for the use of protein peptides and enzymes originating from animals of different species. Some of these proteins or peptides and enzymes from snake venom when isolated and evaluated may bind specifically to cancer cell membranes, affecting the migration and proliferation of these cells. Some of substances found in the snake venom present a great potential as anti-tumor agent. In this review, we presented the main results of recent years of research involving the active compounds of snake venom that have anticancer activity. PMID:23593597

  2. NEOPLASIA IN SNAKES AT ZOO ATLANTA DURING 1992-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page-Karjian, Annie; Hahne, Megan; Leach, Kate; Murphy, Hayley; Lock, Brad; Rivera, Samuel

    2017-06-01

    A retrospective study was conducted to review neoplasia of captive snakes in the Zoo Atlanta collection from 1992 to 2012. Of 255 snakes that underwent necropsy and histopathologic examination at Zoo Atlanta during the study period, 37 were observed with neoplasia at necropsy. In those 37 snakes, 42 neoplastic lesions of 18 primary cell types were diagnosed. Thirty-five of those neoplasms (83.3%) were malignant, and of those, 19 were of mesenchymal origin, whereas 14 were of epithelial origin. The median annual rate of neoplasia at necropsy was 12.5% (interquartile range = 2.8-19.5%) over the 21-yr study period. The mean estimated age at death for snakes with neoplasia was 13.2 yr (range, 1-24 yr). Investigating the incidence and clinical significance of neoplasia in captive snakes is vital for developing effective preventative and treatment regimes.

  3. Snakes as hazards: modelling risk by chasing chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrew, William C

    2015-04-01

    Snakes are presumed to be hazards to primates, including humans, by the snake detection hypothesis (Isbell in J Hum Evol 51:1-35, 2006; Isbell, The fruit, the tree, and the serpent. Why we see so well, 2009). Quantitative, systematic data to test this idea are lacking for the behavioural ecology of living great apes and human foragers. An alternative proxy is snakes encountered by primatologists seeking, tracking, and observing wild chimpanzees. We present 4 years of such data from Mt. Assirik, Senegal. We encountered 14 species of snakes a total of 142 times. Almost two-thirds of encounters were with venomous snakes. Encounters occurred most often in forest and least often in grassland, and more often in the dry season. The hypothesis seems to be supported, if frequency of encounter reflects selective risk of morbidity or mortality.

  4. Simultaneous determination of nine kinds of dominating bile acids in various snake bile by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole linear iontrap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Fan, Yeqin; Gong, Yajun; Chen, Xiaoyong; Wan, Luosheng; Zhou, Chenggao; Zhou, Jiewen; Ma, Shuangcheng; Wei, Feng; Chen, Jiachun; Nie, Jing

    2017-11-15

    Snake bile is one of the most expensive traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). However, due to the complicated constitutes of snake bile and the poor ultraviolet absorbance of some trace bile acids (BAs), effective analysis methods for snake bile acids were still unavailable, making it difficult to solve adulteration problems. In present study, ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS) was applied to conduct a quantitative analysis on snake BAs. The mass spectrometer was monitored in the negative ion mode, and multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) program was used to determine the contents of BAs in snake bile. In all, 61 snake bile from 17 commonly used species of three families (Elapidae, Colubridae and Viperidae), along with five batches of commercial snake bile from four companies, were collected and detected. Nine components, Tauro-3α,12α-dihydroxy-7-oxo-5β-cholenoic acid (T1), Tauro-3α,7α,12α,23R-tetrahydroxy-5β-cholenoic acid (T2), taurocholic acid (TCA), glycocholic acid (GCA), taurochenodeoxycholic acid (TCDCA), taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA), cholic acid (CA), Tauro-3α,7α-dihydroxy-12-oxo-5β-cholenoic acid (T3), and Tauro-3α,7α,9α,16α-tetrahydroxy-5β-cholenoic acid (T4) were simultaneously and rapidly determined for the first time. In these BAs, T1 and T2, self-prepared with purity above 90%, were first reported with their quantitative determination, and the latter two (T3 and T4) were tentatively determined by quantitative analysis multi-components by single marker (QAMS) method for roughly estimating the components without reference. The developed method was validated with acceptable linearity (r 2 ≥0.995), precision (RSD<6.5%) and recovery (RSD<7.5%). It turned out that the contents of BAs among different species were also significantly different; T1 was one of the principle bile acids in some common snake bile, and also was the characteristic one in Viperidae

  5. The new conceptual design of snakes and spin rotators in RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.; Courant, E.D.

    1990-01-01

    We discuss the generalized snake configurations, which offers either the advantages of shorter total snake length and smaller horizontal orbit displacement in the compact configuration or the dual functions of a snake and a 90 degree spin rotation for the helicity state. The generalized snake is then applied to the polarized proton collision in RHIC. The possible schemes of obtaining high luminosity are discussed

  6. Comparison of Different Dosing Protocols of Anti-Snake Venom (ASV) in Snake Bite Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daswani, B R; Chandanwale, A S; Kadam, D B; Ghongane, B B; Ghorpade, V S; Manu, H C

    2017-09-01

    Considering the cost of Anti-Snake Venom (ASV) and irregularity in its supply, there is often a need to curtail doses of ASV, despite guidelines for management of snake bite. During June 2013 to September 2013, when ASV was in short supply, our institutional committee reviewed the overall hospital statistics of snake bite cases as well as scientific literature and formulated a working modified protocol that used low dose of ASV in snake bite cases. To retrospectively analyse and compare the modified ASV protocol versus conventional ASV protocol with respect to outcome, number of ASV vials required, duration of stay in the hospital/ ICU, and additional supportive interventions needed. This was a retrospective study conducted at a tertiary care teaching hospital, Maharashtra, India. Hospital records of inpatients admitted for snake bite during June 2013 to September 2013 (since introduction of the modified protocol) as well as during June 2012 to September 2012, (when patients received conventional protocol-historical controls) were retrospectively analysed to assess the number of ASV vials received by the patients during the stay, need for supportive therapy, duration of stay and outcome of the patients. There was a significant reduction in average number of ASV vials per patient, required vide the modified protocol compared to their historical controls (10.74±0.95 vs 28.17±2.75 pcost of management of each patient reduced by approximately 11974.41 INR per treated patient, based on the requirement of ASV. The modified ASV protocol used in this study is more cost effective as compared to the conventional protocol, deserves prospective evaluation and may be followed at least during prime time of scarcity of ASV.

  7. Public perceptions of snakes and snakebite management: implications for conservation and human health in southern Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Deb Prasad; Subedi Pandey, Gita; Devkota, Kamal; Goode, Matt

    2016-06-02

    Venomous snakebite and its effects are a source of fear for people living in southern Nepal. As a result, people have developed a negative attitude towards snakes, which can lead to human-snake conflicts that result in killing of snakes. Attempting to kill snakes increases the risk of snakebite, and actual killing of snakes contributes to loss of biodiversity. Currently, snake populations in southern Nepal are thought to be declining, but more research is needed to evaluate the conservation status of snakes. Therefore, we assessed attitudes, knowledge, and awareness of snakes and snakebite by Chitwan National Park's (CNP) buffer zone (BZ) inhabitants in an effort to better understand challenges to snake conservation and snakebite management. The results of this study have the potential to promote biodiversity conservation and increase human health in southern Nepal and beyond. We carried out face-to-face interviews of 150 randomly selected CNP BZ inhabitants, adopting a cross-sectional mixed research design and structured and semi-structured questionnaires from January-February 2013. Results indicated that 43 % of respondents disliked snakes, 49 % would exterminate all venomous snakes, and 86 % feared snakes. Farmers were the most negative and teachers were the most ambivalent towards snakes. Respondents were generally unable to identify different snake species, and were almost completely unaware of the need of conserve snakes and how to prevent snakebites. Belief in a snake god, and the ability of snakes to absorb poisonous gases from the atmosphere were among many superstitions that appeared to predispose negativity towards snakes of BZ residents. People with predisposed negativity towards snakes were not proponents of snake conservation. Fear, negativity, ambivalence towards, and ignorance about, snakes and the need for snake conservation were strong indicators of the propensity to harm or kill snakes. It seems that if wanton killing of snakes continues

  8. Water-quality conditions near the confluence of the Snake and Boise Rivers, Canyon County, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Molly S.; Etheridge, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    during the study show seasonal differences in all measured parameters. In particular, surprisingly high concentrations of chlorophyll-a were measured at all three main study sites in winter and early spring, likely due to changes in algal populations. Discharge conditions and dissolved orthophosphorus concentrations are key drivers for chlorophyll-a on a seasonal and annual basis on the Snake River. Discharge conditions and upstream periphyton growth are most likely the key drivers for chlorophyll-a in the Boise River. Phytoplankton growth is not limited or driven by nutrient availability in the Boise River. Lower discharges and minimal substrate disturbance in WY2010 in comparison with WY2009 may have caused prolonged and increased periphyton and macrophyte growth and a reduced amount of sloughed algae in suspension in the summer of WY2010. Chlorophyll-a measured in samples commonly is used as an indicator of sestonic algae biomass, but chlorophyll-a concentrations and fluorescence may not be the most appropriate surrogates for algae growth, eutrophication, and associated effects on beneficial uses. Assessment of the effects of algae growth on beneficial uses should evaluate not only sestonic algae, but also benthic algae and macrophytes. Alternatively, continuous monitoring of dissolved oxygen detects the influence of aquatic plant respiration for all types of algae and macrophytes and is likely a more direct measure of effects on beneficial uses such as aquatic habitat. Most measured water-quality parameters in the Snake River were statistically different upstream and downstream of the confluence with the Boise River. Higher concentrations and loads were measured at the downstream site (Snake River at Nyssa) than the upstream site (Snake River near Adrian) for total phosphorus, dissolved orthophosphorus, total nitrogen, dissolved nitrite and nitrate, suspended sediment, and turbidity. Higher dissolved oxygen concentrations and pH were measured at the upstream site

  9. [Case report: Snake bite - an odd case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Bettina; Muth, Claus-Martin; Georgieff, Michael; Dinse-Lambracht, Alexander

    2015-10-01

    Emergency medical service is called by a 54-year-old man bitten by his rattlesnake. Upon initial survey we find the patient in a cardiopulmonary stable condition. He has bite marks and pain on his rapidly swelling middle finger of his right hand. Our initial treatment is immobilization of the patient. The snake raiser has already called the poison control center in Munich. By the help of this institution we bring him to a hospital having the right antivenom on hand. © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Molecular Convergence of Infrared Vision in Snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Shozo; Altun, Ahmet; DeNardo, Dale F.

    2011-01-01

    It has been discovered that the transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) proteins of Boidae (boas), Pythonidae (pythons), and Crotalinae (pit vipers) are used to detect infrared radiation, but the molecular mechanism for detecting the infrared radiation is unknown. Here, relating the amino acid substitutions in their TRPA1 proteins and the functional differentiations, we propose that three parallel amino acid changes (L330M, Q391H, and S434T) are responsible for the development of infrared vision in the three groups of snakes. Protein modeling shows that the three amino acid changes alter the structures of the central region of their ankyrin repeats. PMID:20937734

  11. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the myotoxic venom of Pseudechis australis (mulga snake) in the anesthetised rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, A J; Hodgson, W C; O'Leary, M; Isbister, G K

    2014-07-01

    Myotoxicity is a common clinical effect of snake envenoming and results from either local or systemic myotoxins in snake venoms. Although numerous myotoxins have been isolated from snake venoms, there has been limited study on the relationship between the time course of venom concentrations (pharmacokinetics) and the time course of muscle injury measured as a rise in creatine kinase (CK) (pharmacodynamics). The aim of this study was to develop an in vivo model of myotoxicity to investigate the time course of myotoxicity and the effect of antivenom. Anesthetised rats were administered Pseudechis australis (mulga snake) venom either through i.v., i.m. or s.d. route, including a range of doses (5-100 μg/kg). Serial blood samples were collected for measurement of venom using enzyme immunoassay and measurement of CK and creatinine. Antivenom was administered before, 1 and 6 h after venom administration to investigate its effect on muscle injury. Plots of venom and CK versus time were made and the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated. There was a significant dose-dependent increase in CK concentration after administration of P. australis venom, which was greatest for i.v. administration. Timed measurement of venom concentrations showed a rapid absorption through s.d. and i.m. routes and a delayed rise in CK concentrations following any route. Antivenom prevented myotoxicity shown by a decrease in the CK AUC, which was most effective if given earliest. There was a rise in creatinine following i.v. venom administration. The study shows the delayed relationship between venom absorption and the rise in CK, consistent with the delayed onset of myotoxicity in human envenoming. Antivenom prevented myotoxicity more effectively if given earlier.

  12. Fatal snake bite in a brown bear (Ursus arctos L.: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romel Velev

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Poisoning from snake venom in animals is an emergency which requires immediate attention or otherwise, the delayed and inadequate treatment leads to untoward consequences and death. The present paper describes a case of venomous snakebite in a brown bear cub (Ursus arctos L. and its therapeutic management. The brown bear cub of which was found alone on the slopes of a mountain in the southwest part of the country was presented to the peripheral veterinary practice in Ohrid with a history of dullness, disorientation and excessive swelling around the left forepaw. It was diagnosed for snakebite based on the history and physical examination. The hematological parameters showed reduced values of hemoglobin, packed cell volume and increased total leukocyte count. The biochemical values showed elevated levels of alanine aminotransferase and creatinine. After immobilization of the animal, the treatment was conducted with fluids, corticosteroid and broad spectrum antibiotic with careful monitoring. Despite the treatment which was initiated immediately, it was only partially effective, and the animal died one hour after the beginning of its course. Poisonous snakes are common in the mountainous part of Macedonia and, just like humans, wild bears especially their cubs are susceptible to the deadly venom of some species. The severity of the reaction to snake venom and prognosis in animals depends on a number of factors: on the type and species of snake, on how much venom was injected, on the location of the bite, on the age, health and body weight of the animal and crucially, the time interval between the snakebite and the application of the treatment.

  13. Isolation and identification of bacterial populations of zoonotic importance from captive non-venomous snakes in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abba, Yusuf; Ilyasu, Yusuf Maina; Noordin, Mustapha Mohamed

    2017-07-01

    Captivity of non-venomous snakes such as python and boa are common in zoos, aquariums and as pets in households. Poor captivity conditions expose these reptiles to numerous pathogens which may result in disease conditions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the common bacteria isolated from necropsied captive snakes in Malaysia over a five year period. A total of 27 snake carcasses presented for necropsy at the Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) were used in this survey. Samples were aseptically obtained at necropsy from different organs/tissues (lung, liver, heart, kindey, oesophagus, lymph node, stomach, spinal cord, spleen, intestine) and cultured onto 5% blood and McConkey agar, respectively. Gram staining, morphological evaluation and biochemical test such as oxidase, catalase and coagulase were used to tentatively identify the presumptive bacterial isolates. Pythons had the highest number of cases (81.3%) followed by anaconda (14.8%) and boa (3.7%). Mixed infection accounted for 81.5% in all snakes and was highest in pythons (63%). However, single infection was only observed in pythons (18.5%). A total of 82.7%, 95.4% and 100% of the bacterial isolates from python, anaconda and boa, respectively were gram negative. Aeromonas spp was the most frequently isolated bacteria in pythons and anaconda with incidences of 25 (18%) and 8 (36.6%) with no difference (p > 0.05) in incidence, respectively, while Salmonella spp was the most frequently isolated in boa and significantly higher (p snakes have public health importance and have been incriminated in human infections worldwide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The impact of snake bite on household economy in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, S M K; Basher, A; Molla, A A; Sultana, N K; Faiz, M A

    2012-01-01

    The present study aims to assess the different types of costs for treatment of snake bite patients, to quantify household economic impact and to understand the coping mechanisms required to cover the costs for snake bite patients in Bangladesh. The patients admitted to four tertiary level hospitals in Bangladesh were interviewed using structured questionnaires including health-care-related expenditures and the way in which the expenditures were covered. Of the snakes which bit the patients, 54.2% were non-venomous, 45.8% were venomous and 42.2% of the patients were given polyvalent antivenom. The total expenditure related to snake bite varies from US$4 (US$1 = Taka 72) to US$2294 with a mean of US$124 and the mean income loss was US$93. Expenditure for venomous snake bite was US$231, which is about seven times higher than non-venomous snake bite (US$34). The treatment imposes a major economic burden on affected families, especially in venomous snake bite cases.

  15. A snail-eating snake recognizes prey handedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danaisawadi, Patchara; Asami, Takahiro; Ota, Hidetoshi; Sutcharit, Chirasak; Panha, Somsak

    2016-04-05

    Specialized predator-prey interactions can be a driving force for their coevolution. Southeast Asian snail-eating snakes (Pareas) have more teeth on the right mandible and specialize in predation on the clockwise-coiled (dextral) majority in shelled snails by soft-body extraction. Snails have countered the snakes' dextral-predation by recurrent coil reversal, which generates diverse counterclockwise-coiled (sinistral) prey where Pareas snakes live. However, whether the snake predator in turn evolves any response to prey reversal is unknown. We show that Pareas carinatus living with abundant sinistrals avoids approaching or striking at a sinistral that is more difficult and costly to handle than a dextral. Whenever it strikes, however, the snake succeeds in predation by handling dextral and sinistral prey in reverse. In contrast, P. iwasakii with little access to sinistrals on small peripheral islands attempts and frequently misses capturing a given sinistral. Prey-handedness recognition should be advantageous for right-handed snail-eating snakes where frequently encountering sinistrals. Under dextral-predation by Pareas snakes, adaptive fixation of a prey population for a reversal gene instantaneously generates a sinistral species because interchiral mating is rarely possible. The novel warning, instead of sheltering, effect of sinistrality benefitting both predators and prey could further accelerate single-gene ecological speciation by left-right reversal.

  16. Chemosensory age discrimination in the snake Boa constrictor (Serpentes: Boidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Gabirot

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Many snakes are able to use their chemosensory system to detect scent of conspecifics, which is important in many social contexts. Age discrimination based on chemical cues may be especially important to ensure access to sexually mature potential partners. In this study, we used 24 individual Boa constrictor snakes (12 adults mature and 12 non-mature individuals that had been captured in different areas of Ecuador, and were maintained in captivity at the Vivarium of Quito. We used tongue-flick experiments to examine whether these snakes were able to discriminate between scents from mature and non-mature individuals. Results showed that B. constrictor snakes used chemical cues to recognize conspecifics and that the scent of individuals of different ages elicited chemosensory responses of different magnitudes. The scents from adult conspecifics elicited the quickest and highest chemosensory responses (i.e., short latency times and high tongue-flick rates, although we did not find differential responses to scent of males and females. The magnitude of the responses was lower to scent of sub adult individuals, and then even lower to scent of juvenile snakes, but in all cases the scent of snakes was discriminated from a blank control. We discuss the potential chemical mechanisms that may allow age recognition and its implications for social and sexual behavior of this snake species.

  17. Radioactive elements definition in composition of snake venom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekhrabova, M.A.; Topchieva, Sh.F.; Abiev, G.A.; Nagiev, Dj.A.

    2010-11-01

    Full text: The given article presents questions concerned to usage of snake venom in medicine and pharmacy for medicinal drugs production, zootoxin base antidotes, thorough treatment of many deseases, especially onkological, also have a widespread in biology as a specific test-material for biological sistem analises. It is experimentally proved that certain amount of snake venom can replace morphine drugs, taking into acount that snake venom solutions make longer prolonged influence than other drugs, vithout causing an accustoming. It is also marked about possibility of usage of snake venom for cancer treatment. Many expeditions had been conducted with the purpose to research snake venom crytals on the territory of Azerbaijan. During these expeditions snakes capturing had been made with the purpose of taking the venom and also soil samples had been taken in order to research the quantity of radioactive elements. Measurements made with the help of electronic microscope C anberra . Revealed uranium activity in spectrum of venom as a result of radiation background, which appears under influence of ionizing radiation on the environment. On the base of analises data it can be ascertained that snake venom can be used for production of medicinal and also other necessary drugs. [ru

  18. Trump, Snakes and the Power of Fables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Stevens

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available At a recent rally, Donald Trump resumed a habit he had developed during his election-rallies and read out the lyrics to a song. It tells the Aesopian fable of The Farmer and the Snake: A half frozen snake is taken in by a kind-hearted person but bites them the moment it is revived. Trump tells the fable to make a point about Islamic immigrants and undocumented immigrants from Southern and Central America: He claims the immigrants will cause problems and much stricter immigration-policies are needed.  I assume that Trump treats the fable as an argumentative device for supporting his stance on immigration. He uses it as a source-analogue both for the conclusion that immigrants will cause problems and for changing the frame in which immigrants and those willing to let them enter are seen. This gives me opportunity to examine the effect fables have as argumentative devices. Fables are a popular and effective choice for political argumentation. They are slimmed down, semi-abstract narratives, well suited for directing the audience's attention to a few properties of an otherwise complex situation. However, this also makes it easy to use them for manipulating an audience into oversimplifying complex contexts and stereotyping human beings.

  19. Superconducting Helical Snake Magnet for the AGS

    CERN Document Server

    Willen, Erich; Escallier, John; Ganetis, George; Ghosh, Arup; Gupta, Ramesh C; Harrison, Michael; Jain, Animesh K; Luccio, Alfredo U; MacKay, William W; Marone, Andrew; Muratore, Joseph F; Okamura, Masahiro; Plate, Stephen R; Roser, Thomas; Tsoupas, Nicholaos; Wanderer, Peter

    2005-01-01

    A superconducting helical magnet has been built for polarized proton acceleration in the Brookhaven AGS. This "partial Snake" magnet will help to reduce the loss of polarization of the beam due to machine resonances. It is a 3 T magnet some 1940 mm in magnetic length in which the dipole field rotates with a pitch of 0.2053 degrees/mm for 1154 mm in the center and a pitch of 0.3920 degrees/mm for 393 mm in each end. The coil cross-section is made of two slotted cylinders containing superconductor. In order to minimize residual offsets and deflections of the beam on its orbit through the Snake, a careful balancing of the coil parameters was necessary. In addition to the main helical coils, a solenoid winding was built on the cold bore tube inside the main coils to compensate for the axial component of the field that is experienced by the beam when it is off-axis in this helical magnet. Also, two dipole corrector magnets were placed on the same tube with the solenoid. A low heat leak cryostat was built so that t...

  20. Analysis, reconstruction and manipulation using arterial snakes

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Guo

    2010-01-01

    Man-made objects often consist of detailed and interleaving structures, which are created using cane, coils, metal wires, rods, etc. The delicate structures, although manufactured using simple procedures, are challenging to scan and reconstruct. We observe that such structures are inherently 1D, and hence are naturally represented using an arrangement of generating curves. We refer to the resultant surfaces as arterial surfaces. In this paper we approach for analyzing, reconstructing, and manipulating such arterial surfaces. The core of the algorithm is a novel deformable model, called arterial snake, that simultaneously captures the topology and geometry of the arterial objects. The recovered snakes produce a natural decomposition of the raw scans, with the decomposed parts often capturing meaningful object sections. We demonstrate the robustness of our algorithm on a variety of arterial objects corrupted with noise, outliers, and with large parts missing. We present a range of applications including reconstruction, topology repairing, and manipulation of arterial surfaces by directly controlling the underlying curve network and the associated sectional profiles, which are otherwise challenging to perform. © 2010 ACM.

  1. Visual system evolution and the nature of the ancestral snake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, B F; Sampaio, F L; Jared, C; Antoniazzi, M M; Loew, E R; Bowmaker, J K; Rodriguez, A; Hart, N S; Hunt, D M; Partridge, J C; Gower, D J

    2015-07-01

    The dominant hypothesis for the evolutionary origin of snakes from 'lizards' (non-snake squamates) is that stem snakes acquired many snake features while passing through a profound burrowing (fossorial) phase. To investigate this, we examined the visual pigments and their encoding opsin genes in a range of squamate reptiles, focusing on fossorial lizards and snakes. We sequenced opsin transcripts isolated from retinal cDNA and used microspectrophotometry to measure directly the spectral absorbance of the photoreceptor visual pigments in a subset of samples. In snakes, but not lizards, dedicated fossoriality (as in Scolecophidia and the alethinophidian Anilius scytale) corresponds with loss of all visual opsins other than RH1 (λmax 490-497 nm); all other snakes (including less dedicated burrowers) also have functional sws1 and lws opsin genes. In contrast, the retinas of all lizards sampled, even highly fossorial amphisbaenians with reduced eyes, express functional lws, sws1, sws2 and rh1 genes, and most also express rh2 (i.e. they express all five of the visual opsin genes present in the ancestral vertebrate). Our evidence of visual pigment complements suggests that the visual system of stem snakes was partly reduced, with two (RH2 and SWS2) of the ancestral vertebrate visual pigments being eliminated, but that this did not extend to the extreme additional loss of SWS1 and LWS that subsequently occurred (probably independently) in highly fossorial extant scolecophidians and A. scytale. We therefore consider it unlikely that the ancestral snake was as fossorial as extant scolecophidians, whether or not the latter are para- or monophyletic. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  2. DETECTION OF OPHIDIOMYCES OPHIODIICOLA IN TWO CAPTIVE BOCOURT WATER SNAKES ( SUBSESSOR BOCOURTI) AND ONE CAPTIVE PUEBLAN MILK SNAKE ( LAMPROPELTIS TRIANGULUM CAMPBELLI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picquet, Pierre; Heckers, Kim O; Kolesnik, Ekaterina; Heusinger, Anton; Marschang, Rachel E

    2018-03-01

    Two captive Bocourt water snakes ( Subsessor bocourti) presented with chronic white skin lesions on their heads; Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola was identified by culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in skin scrapings from both snakes. Histopathology performed in one Bocourt water snake revealed fungal hyphae in epidermal structures of lesions. One Pueblan milk snake ( Lampropeltis triangulum campbelli) from the same zoologic institution presented with yellow crusts and white blisters on its body, from which O. ophiodiicola was identified by culture and PCR. Two of the three snakes apparently recovered from lesions after multiple natural sheds, whereas the third snake died. This is the first report of O. ophiodiicola infection in Bocourt water snakes and in a Pueblan milk snake, as well as the first report of O. ophiodiicola in France.

  3. Mast Cells Can Enhance Resistance to Snake and Honeybee Venoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Martin; Piliponsky, Adrian M.; Chen, Ching-Cheng; Lammel, Verena; Åbrink, Magnus; Pejler, Gunnar; Tsai, Mindy; Galli, Stephen J.

    2006-07-01

    Snake or honeybee envenomation can cause substantial morbidity and mortality, and it has been proposed that the activation of mast cells by snake or insect venoms can contribute to these effects. We show, in contrast, that mast cells can significantly reduce snake-venom-induced pathology in mice, at least in part by releasing carboxypeptidase A and possibly other proteases, which can degrade venom components. Mast cells also significantly reduced the morbidity and mortality induced by honeybee venom. These findings identify a new biological function for mast cells in enhancing resistance to the morbidity and mortality induced by animal venoms.

  4. Generalization of predator recognition: Velvet geckos display anti-predator behaviours in response to chemicals from non-dangerous elapid snakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan K. WEBB, Weiguo DU, David PIKE, Richard SHINE

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Many prey species detect chemical cues from predators and modify their behaviours in ways that reduce their risk of predation. Theory predicts that prey should modify their anti-predator responses according to the degree of threat posed by the predator. That is, prey should show the strongest responses to chemicals of highly dangerous prey, but should ignore or respond weakly to chemicals from non-dangerous predators. However, if anti-predator behaviours are not costly, and predators are rarely encountered, prey may exhibit generalised antipredator behaviours to dangerous and non-dangerous predators. In Australia, most elapid snakes eat lizards, and are therefore potentially dangerous to lizard prey. Recently, we found that the nocturnal velvet gecko Oedura lesueurii responds to chemicals from dangerous and non-dangerous elapid snakes, suggesting that it displays generalised anti-predator behaviours to chemicals from elapid snakes. To explore the generality of this result, we videotaped the behaviour of velvet geckos in the presence of chemical cues from two small elapid snakes that rarely consume geckos: the nocturnal golden-crowned snake Cacophis squamulosus and the diurnal marsh snake Hemiaspis signata. We also videotaped geckos in trials involving unscented cards (controls and cologne-scented cards (pungency controls. In trials involving Cacophis and Hemiaspis chemicals, 50% and 63% of geckos spent long time periods (> 3 min freezing whilst pressed flat against the substrate, respectively. Over half the geckos tested exhibited anti-predator behaviours (tail waving, tail vibration, running in response to Cacophis (67% or Hemiaspis (63% chemicals. These behaviours were not observed in control or pungency control trials. Our results support the idea that the velvet gecko displays generalised anti-predator responses to chemical cues from elapid snakes. Generalised responses to predator chemicals may be common in prey species that co-occur with

  5. Testing the snake-detection hypothesis: larger early posterior negativity in humans to pictures of snakes than to pictures of other reptiles, spiders and slugs

    OpenAIRE

    Van Strien, Jan W.; Franken, Ingmar H. A.; Huijding, Jorg

    2014-01-01

    According to the snake detection hypothesis (Isbell, 2006), fear specifically of snakes may have pushed evolutionary changes in the primate visual system allowing pre-attentional visual detection of fearful stimuli. A previous study demonstrated that snake pictures, when compared to spiders or bird pictures, draw more early attention as reflected by larger early posterior negativity (EPN). Here we report two studies that further tested the snake detection hypothesis. In Study, 1 we tested whe...

  6. Testing the Snake-Detection hypothesis : Larger early posterior negativity in humans to pictures of snakes than to pictures of other reptiles, spiders and slugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Strien, Jan W.; Franken, Ingmar H A; Huijding, Jorg

    2014-01-01

    According to the snake detection hypothesis (Isbell, 2006), fear specifically of snakes may have pushed evolutionary changes in the primate visual system allowing pre-attentional visual detection of fearful stimuli. A previous study demonstrated that snake pictures, when compared to spiders or bird

  7. Detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae in a collection of captive snakes and response to treatment with marbofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüegg, S R; Regenscheit, N; Origgi, F C; Kaiser, C; Borel, N

    2015-09-01

    In a collection of 58 snakes comprising predominantly Eurasian vipers in Switzerland, five snakes died unexpectedly during hibernation from 2009 to 2012. In one snake, organisms resembling chlamydiae were detected by immunohistochemistry in multiple histiocytic granulomas. Real-time quantitative PCR and microarray analysis were used to determine the presence of Chlamydia pneumoniae in tissue samples and cloacal/choanal swabs from snakes in the collection; 8/53 (15.1%) of the remaining snakes were positive. Although one infected snake had suppurative periglossitis, infection with C. pneumoniae did not appear to be associated with specific clinical signs in snakes. Of seven snakes treated with 5 mg/kg marbofloxacin IM once daily, five became PCR negative for C. pneumoniae following treatment, whereas one animal remained positive and one snake was lost to follow-up. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Molecular Evolution of the Infrared Sensory Gene TRPA1 in Snakes and Implications for Functional Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ke; Zhang, Peng

    2011-01-01

    TRPA1 is a calcium ion channel protein recently identified as the infrared receptor in pit organ-containing snakes. Therefore, understanding the molecular evolution of TRPA1 may help to illuminate the origin of “heat vision” in snakes and reveal the molecular mechanism of infrared sensitivity for TRPA1. To this end, we sequenced the infrared sensory gene TRPA1 in 24 snake species, representing nine snake families and multiple non-snake outgroups. We found that TRPA1 is under strong positive selection in the pit-bearing snakes studied, but not in other non-pit snakes and non-snake vertebrates. As a comparison, TRPV1, a gene closely related to TRPA1, was found to be under strong purifying selection in all the species studied, with no difference in the strength of selection between pit-bearing snakes and non-pit snakes. This finding demonstrates that the adaptive evolution of TRPA1 specifically occurred within the pit-bearing snakes and may be related to the functional modification for detecting infrared radiation. In addition, by comparing the TRPA1 protein sequences, we identified 11 amino acid sites that were diverged in pit-bearing snakes but conserved in non-pit snakes and other vertebrates, 21 sites that were diverged only within pit-vipers but conserved in the remaining snakes. These specific amino acid substitutions may be potentially functional important for infrared sensing. PMID:22163322

  9. The origin of snakes: revealing the ecology, behavior, and evolutionary history of early snakes using genomics, phenomics, and the fossil record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiang, Allison Y; Field, Daniel J; Webster, Timothy H; Behlke, Adam D B; Davis, Matthew B; Racicot, Rachel A; Gauthier, Jacques A

    2015-05-20

    The highly derived morphology and astounding diversity of snakes has long inspired debate regarding the ecological and evolutionary origin of both the snake total-group (Pan-Serpentes) and crown snakes (Serpentes). Although speculation abounds on the ecology, behavior, and provenance of the earliest snakes, a rigorous, clade-wide analysis of snake origins has yet to be attempted, in part due to a dearth of adequate paleontological data on early stem snakes. Here, we present the first comprehensive analytical reconstruction of the ancestor of crown snakes and the ancestor of the snake total-group, as inferred using multiple methods of ancestral state reconstruction. We use a combined-data approach that includes new information from the fossil record on extinct crown snakes, new data on the anatomy of the stem snakes Najash rionegrina, Dinilysia patagonica, and Coniophis precedens, and a deeper understanding of the distribution of phenotypic apomorphies among the major clades of fossil and Recent snakes. Additionally, we infer time-calibrated phylogenies using both new 'tip-dating' and traditional node-based approaches, providing new insights on temporal patterns in the early evolutionary history of snakes. Comprehensive ancestral state reconstructions reveal that both the ancestor of crown snakes and the ancestor of total-group snakes were nocturnal, widely foraging, non-constricting stealth hunters. They likely consumed soft-bodied vertebrate and invertebrate prey that was subequal to head size, and occupied terrestrial settings in warm, well-watered, and well-vegetated environments. The snake total-group - approximated by the Coniophis node - is inferred to have originated on land during the middle Early Cretaceous (~128.5 Ma), with the crown-group following about 20 million years later, during the Albian stage. Our inferred divergence dates provide strong evidence for a major radiation of henophidian snake diversity in the wake of the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K

  10. 2015 OLC FEMA Lidar DEM: Snake River, ID

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Quantum Spatial has collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Oregon LiDAR Consortium (OLC) Snake River FEMA study area. This study area is located...

  11. Venomous Snake Bite Injuries at Kitui District Hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    were school going children who lived in houses mostly made of .... Children and students accounted for 60% of all victims. Farmers 40%. ... family member. Table 1. .... due to its dry and hot climate. .... snake bite and treatment-seeking behavior.

  12. The status of taxonomy and venom in sea snakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Redsted Rasmussen, Arne; Sanders, Kate L.

    2017-01-01

    The status of taxonomy and venom in sea snakesArne R Rasmussen1, Kate L Sanders21 The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture, Design & Conservation, Copenhagen, Denmark2 School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5000, Australia......, the Aipysurus group was separated from the other viviparous sea snakes at around 5.8 million years before present and in the Hydrophis lineage the Hydrophis group was separated from the three semi-marine lineages at around 4.4 million years before present. The venoms of sea snakes are rather simple, typically...... containing a-neurotoxins and phospholipases A2 (PLA2s), and in terms of lethality are known to be more potent than the venoms from terrestrial snakes....

  13. Snake representation of a superprocess in random environment

    OpenAIRE

    Mytnik, Leonid; Xiong, Jie; Zeitouni, Ofer

    2011-01-01

    We consider (discrete time) branching particles in a random environment which is i.i.d. in time and possibly spatially correlated. We prove a representation of the limit process by means of a Brownian snake in random environment.

  14. SNAKE VENOM INSTABILITY • Department of Physiology, Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    preferable to desiccated samples for use in snake venom research (Bjork ... experimental results suggest that dried venom samples may be influenced by different ..... true for the commercial samples, as these are collectively pooled before ...

  15. Fish Culture data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  16. Spawning data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  17. Production data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  18. Growth data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  19. Broodyear data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  20. Dry friction of microstructured polymer surfaces inspired by snake skin

    OpenAIRE

    Martina J. Baum; Lars Heepe; Elena Fadeeva; Stanislav N. Gorb

    2014-01-01

    Summary The microstructure investigated in this study was inspired by the anisotropic microornamentation of scales from the ventral body side of the California King Snake (Lampropeltis getula californiae). Frictional properties of snake-inspired microstructured polymer surface (SIMPS) made of epoxy resin were characterised in contact with a smooth glass ball by a microtribometer in two perpendicular directions. The SIMPS exhibited a considerable frictional anisotropy: Frictional coefficients ...

  1. Ecological and phylogenetic influences on maxillary dentition in snakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Jackson

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The maxillary dentition of snakes was used as a system with which to investigate the relative importance of the interacting forces of ecological selective pressures and phylogenetic constraints indetermining morphology. The maxillary morphology of three groups of snakes having different diets, with each group comprising two distinct lineages — boids and colubroids — was examined. Our results suggest that dietary selective pressures may be more significantthan phylogenetic history in shaping maxillary morphology.

  2. Oxygenation properties and isoform diversity of snake hemoglobins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storz, Jay F; Natarajan, Chandrasekhar; Moriyama, Hideaki; Hoffmann, Federico G; Wang, Tobias; Fago, Angela; Malte, Hans; Overgaard, Johannes; Weber, Roy E

    2015-11-01

    Available data suggest that snake hemoglobins (Hbs) are characterized by a combination of unusual structural and functional properties relative to the Hbs of other amniote vertebrates, including oxygenation-linked tetramer-dimer dissociation. However, standardized comparative data are lacking for snake Hbs, and the Hb isoform composition of snake red blood cells has not been systematically characterized. Here we present the results of an integrated analysis of snake Hbs and the underlying α- and β-type globin genes to characterize 1) Hb isoform composition of definitive erythrocytes, and 2) the oxygenation properties of isolated isoforms as well as composite hemolysates. We used species from three families as subjects for experimental studies of Hb function: South American rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus (Viperidae); Indian python, Python molurus (Pythonidae); and yellow-bellied sea snake, Pelamis platura (Elapidae). We analyzed allosteric properties of snake Hbs in terms of the Monod-Wyman-Changeux model and Adair four-step thermodynamic model. Hbs from each of the three species exhibited high intrinsic O2 affinities, low cooperativities, small Bohr factors in the absence of phosphates, and high sensitivities to ATP. Oxygenation properties of the snake Hbs could be explained entirely by allosteric transitions in the quaternary structure of intact tetramers, suggesting that ligation-dependent dissociation of Hb tetramers into αβ-dimers is not a universal feature of snake Hbs. Surprisingly, the major Hb isoform of the South American rattlesnake is homologous to the minor HbD of other amniotes and, contrary to the pattern of Hb isoform differentiation in birds and turtles, exhibits a lower O2 affinity than the HbA isoform. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Factors underlying the natural resistance of animals against snake venoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Moussatché

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available The existence of mammals and reptilia with a natural resistance to snake venoms is known since a long time. This fact has been subjected to the study by several research workers. Our experiments showed us that in the marsupial Didelphis marsupialis, a mammal highly resistant to the venom of Bothrops jararaca, and other Bothrops venoms, has a genetically origin protein, a alpha-1, acid glycoprotein, now highly purified, with protective action in mice against the jararaca snake venom.

  4. FITTING HELICAL SNAKE AND ROTATOR FIELD STRENGTH MEASUREMENTS IN RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RANJBAR, V.; LUCCIO, A.U.; MACKAY, W.W.; TSOUPAS, N.

    2001-01-01

    We examined recent multi-pole measurements for the helical snakes and rotators in RHIC to generate a full field map. Since multi-pole measurements yield real field values for B, field components we developed a unique technique to evaluate the full fields using a traditional finite element analysis software [1]. From these measurements we employed SNIG [2] to generate orbit and Spin plots. From orbit values we generated a transfer matrix for the first snake

  5. Diadophis Puntatus Puntatus (Southern Ring-neck Snake) Predation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotte, Steve W.

    2016-01-01

    DIADOPHIS PUNCTATUS PUNCTATUS (Southern Ring-necked Snake). PREDATION. Here I present the first record of Buteo lineatus (Red-shouldered Hawk) predator on a Diadophis p. punctatus. At ca. 1100h on l2 February2 013,I observed a B. lineatus eating a katydid in Corkscrew Swamp Sanctuary (26.2730'N, 81.6079"W;WGS 84), Collier Co., Florida, USA. The hawk was in a Pond Cypress tree on the edge of a small prairie bordered on one side by a cypress swamp and by pine woodland on the other. Immediately upon consuming the katydid, the hawk flew to the ground ca. 1.5 m from an elevated boardwalk to grab an adult D. punctatus. It then flew with the snake in its talons to a branch 3 m high ca. l0 m from the boardwalk. The hawk stretched and otherwise manipulated the struggling snake (Fig.1) before consuming the still moving snake. Although snakes are a well-known component of B. lineatus diet (Clark1 987A. Field Guide to the Hawks of North America. Houghton Mifflin Co. Boston, Massachusetts 198 pp.), I found only one literature reference to Red-shouldered Hawks eating Ring-neck Snakes (Fisher 1893.Hawks and Owls of the United States in their Relation to Agriculture. U.S. Dept. Agric., Div Ornith. Mamm. Bull. 3). That specimen was from Canton, New York (taken 26 Oct IBBB) and would be a D. p. edwardisii (Northern Ring-necked Snake), while the snake reported on here is a Diadophis p. punctatus (USNM Herp Image 2847a -c). Based on evidence presented by Fontanella et al. (2008. Mol. Phylogenet Evol.46:1049-1070), D. p. edwardisii and D. p. punctatus are likely different species.

  6. A 3D motion planning framework for snake robots

    OpenAIRE

    Liljebäck, Pål; Pettersen, Kristin Ytterstad; Stavdahl, Øyvind; Gravdahl, Jan Tommy

    2014-01-01

    - Author's postprint This paper presents a motion planning framework for three-dimensional body shape control of snake robots. Whereas conventional motion planning approaches define the body shape of snake robots in terms of their individual joint angles, the proposed framework allows the body shape to be specified in terms of Cartesian coordinates in the environment of the robot. This approach simplifies motion planning since Cartesian coordinates are more intuitively mapped to the overal...

  7. Radiating sterilization of the venom of snake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abiyev, H.A.; Topchiyeva, Sh.A.; Rustamov, V.R.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Water solutions of venoms are unstable and they lose toxicity in some day. Snake venoms inactivate under action of some physical factors: the UV-irradiation, x-rays beams. The purpose of the present work was sterilization of venom Vipera lebetina obtusa under influence of small dozes γ-radiations. Object of research was integral venom of adult individuals. Transcaucasian viper, and also the water solutions of venom irradiated with small dozes scale of radiation. An irradiation of venom carried out to radioisotope installation 60NI. For experiment tests of dry venom, and also their water solutions have been taken. Water solutions of venom have been subjected -radiation up to dozes 1.35, 2.7, 4.05, 5.4 kGr simultaneously dry venom of vipers was exposed -radiation before absorption of a doze 5.4 kGr. In comparative aspect action scale of radiation on ultra-violet spectra of absorption of venom was studied. Ultra-violet spectra venom have been taken off on device Specord UV-VIS. In 12 months after an irradiation spectra of absorption of venom have been repeatedly taken off. In spectra irradiated dry and solutions of venom new maxima of absorption have been revealed in the field of 285 nm and 800 nm describing change of toxicity. It is shown, that the increase in absorption of a doze of radiation occurs decrease of intensity of strips of absorption reduction of intensity of absorption.It is revealed at 260 and 300 nm testifying to course of biochemical reactions of separate enzymes zootoxins. It is necessary to note, that at comparison of intensity of absorption of control samples of poison with irradiated up to dozes 1.35 kGr it has not been revealed essential changes. The subsequent increase in a doze scale of radiation up to 2.7, 4.05, 5.4 kGr promotes proportional reduction of intensity of the absorption, describing toxicity of snake venom. At repeated (later 12 months) measurement of the irradiated water solutions of venom are not revealed changes in

  8. Afibrinogenemia following snake bite (Crotalus durissus terrificus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F. S. Amaral

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports two cases of afibrinogenemia with normal platelet count following Crotalus durissus terrificus, snake bite Both patients presented high output acute renal failure and case two also had increased blood levels of CPK and LDH compatible with the diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis. Case one was given an unknown amount of antivenom and was treated with epsilonaminocaproic acid and a fresh whole blood transfusion and showed recovery of the coagulation disturbance 40 hours following these measures. Case two was given an adequate amount of crotalide antivenom and the coagulation tests performed 12 hours later showed a normal partial thromboplastin time and fibrinogen 86 mg/100ml. Case one presented no haemorrhagic disturbances. Case two presented persistent bleeding following venopuncture and after removal of impetigo crust in the legs. Acute renal failure was treated conservatively and both patients were discharged from the hospital with recovery of the renal function.

  9. Crystal structure of a snake venom cardiotoxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, B.; Samama, J.P.; Thierry, J.C.; Gilibert, M.; Fischer, J.; Schweitz, H.; Lazdunski, M.; Moras, D.

    1987-01-01

    Cardiotoxin V/sup II/4 from Naja mossambica crystallizes in space group P6 1 (a = b = 73.9 A; c = 59.0 A) with two molecules of toxin (molecular mass = 6715 Da) in the asymmetric unit. The structure was solved by using a combination of multiple isomorphous replacement and density modification methods. Model building and least-squares refinement led to an agreement factor of 27% for a data set to 3-A resolution prior to any inclusion of solvent molecules. The topology of the molecule is similar to that found in short and long snake neurotoxins, which block the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Major differences occur in the conformation of the central loop, resulting in a change in the concavity of the molecule. Hydrophobic residues are clustered in two distinct areas. The existence of stable dimeric entities in the crystalline state, with the formation of a six-stranded antiparallel β sheet, may be functionally relevant

  10. Effects of gamma radiation on snake venoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, N.; Spencer, P.J.; Andrade, H.F.; Guarnieri, M.C.; Rogero, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is able to detoxify several venoms, including snake venoms, without affecting significantly their immunogenic properties. In order to elucidate this phenomena, we conceived a comparative pharmacological study between native and irradiated (2,000 Gy) crotoxin, the main toxin of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus. Crotoxin was isolated and purified by molecular exclusion chromatography, pI precipitation and, subsequently submitted to irradiation. Gel filtration of the irradiated toxin resulted in some high molecular weight aggregates formation. Crotoxin toxicity decreased two folds after irradiation, as determined by LD 50 in mice. Native and irradiated crotoxin biodistribution ocurred in the same general manner, with renal elimination. However, in contrast to irradiated crotoxin, the native form was initially retained in kidneys. A later concentration (2-3 hr) appeared in phagocytic mononuclear cells rich organs (liver and spleen) and neural junction rich organs (muscle and brain)

  11. Water utilization in the Snake River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, William Glenn; Stabler, Herman

    1935-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the present utilization of the water in the Snake River Basin with special reference to irrigation and power and to present essential facts concerning possible future utilization. No detailed plan of development is suggested. An attempt has been made, however, to discuss features that should be taken into account in the formulation of a definite plan of development. On account of the size of the area involved, which is practically as large as the New England States and New York combined, and the magnitude of present development and future possibilities, considerable details have of necessity been omitted. The records of stream flow in the basin are contained in the reports on surface water supply published annually by the Geological Survey. These records are of the greatest value in connection with the present and future regulation and utilization of the basin's largest asset water.

  12. Trophic specialization drives morphological evolution in sea snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherratt, Emma; Rasmussen, Arne R; Sanders, Kate L

    2018-03-01

    Viviparous sea snakes are the most rapidly speciating reptiles known, yet the ecological factors underlying this radiation are poorly understood. Here, we reconstructed dated trees for 75% of sea snake species and quantified body shape (forebody relative to hindbody girth), maximum body length and trophic diversity to examine how dietary specialization has influenced morphological diversification in this rapid radiation. We show that sea snake body shape and size are strongly correlated with the proportion of burrowing prey in the diet. Specialist predators of burrowing eels have convergently evolved a 'microcephalic' morphotype with dramatically reduced forebody relative to hindbody girth and intermediate body length. By comparison, snakes that predominantly feed on burrowing gobies are generally short-bodied and small-headed, but there is no evidence of convergent evolution. The eel specialists also exhibit faster rates of size and shape evolution compared to all other sea snakes, including those that feed on gobies. Our results suggest that trophic specialization to particular burrowing prey (eels) has invoked strong selective pressures that manifest as predictable and rapid morphological changes. Further studies are needed to examine the genetic and developmental mechanisms underlying these dramatic morphological changes and assess their role in sea snake speciation.

  13. Snakes mimic earthworms: propulsion using rectilinear travelling waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvi, Hamidreza; Bridges, Jacob; Hu, David L.

    2013-01-01

    In rectilinear locomotion, snakes propel themselves using unidirectional travelling waves of muscular contraction, in a style similar to earthworms. In this combined experimental and theoretical study, we film rectilinear locomotion of three species of snakes, including red-tailed boa constrictors, Dumeril's boas and Gaboon vipers. The kinematics of a snake's extension–contraction travelling wave are characterized by wave frequency, amplitude and speed. We find wave frequency increases with increasing body size, an opposite trend than that for legged animals. We predict body speed with 73–97% accuracy using a mathematical model of a one-dimensional n-linked crawler that uses friction as the dominant propulsive force. We apply our model to show snakes have optimal wave frequencies: higher values increase Froude number causing the snake to slip; smaller values decrease thrust and so body speed. Other choices of kinematic variables, such as wave amplitude, are suboptimal and appear to be limited by anatomical constraints. Our model also shows that local body lifting increases a snake's speed by 31 per cent, demonstrating that rectilinear locomotion benefits from vertical motion similar to walking. PMID:23635494

  14. Volume of eggs in the clutches of Grass snake Natrix natrix and Dice snake N. tessellata: error correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klenina Anastasiya Aleksandrovna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors have made a mistake in calculating the volume of eggs in the clutches of snake family Natrix. In this article we correct the error. As a result, it was revealed, that the volume of eggs positively correlates with a female length and its mass, as well as with the quantity of eggs in the clutches. There is a positive correlation between the characteristics of newborn snakes (length and mass and the volume of eggs, from which they hatched.

  15. Molecular analysis of the diets of snakes: changes in prey exploitation during development of the rare smooth snake Coronella austriaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David S; Ebenezer, Katie L; Symondson, William O C

    2014-08-01

    Reptiles are declining in many parts of the world, mainly due to habitat loss and environmental change. A major factor in this is availability of suitable food. For many animals, dietary requirements shift during developmental stages and a habitat will only be suitable for conserving a species if it supports all stages. Conventional methods for establishing diet often rely on visual recognition of morphologically identifiable features of prey in faeces, regurgitation or stomach contents, which suffer from biases and poor resolution of taxa. DNA-based techniques facilitate noninvasive analysis of diet from faeces without these constraints. We tested the hypothesis that diet changes during growth stages of smooth snakes (Coronella austriaca), which have a highly restricted distribution in the UK but are widespread in continental Europe. Small numbers of the sympatric grass snake (Natrix natrix) were analysed for comparison. Faecal samples were collected from snakes and prey DNA analysed using PCR, targeting amphibians, reptiles, mammals and invertebrates. Over 85% of smooth snakes were found to have eaten reptiles and 28% had eaten mammals. Predation on mammals increased with age and was entirely absent among juveniles and subadults. Predation on reptiles did not change ontogenetically. Smooth snakes may, therefore, be restricted to areas of sufficiently high reptile densities to support young snakes. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Lower Snake River Juvenile Salmon Migration Feasibility Report/Environmental Impact Statement. Appendix I: Economics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    ... (collectively called the Lower Snake River Project) and their effects on four lower Snake River salmon and steelhead stocks listed for protection under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The U.S...

  17. Lower Snake River Juvenile Salmon Migration Feasibility Report/Environmental Impact Statement. Appendix C: Water Quality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    ... (collectively called the Lower-Snake River Project) and their effects on four lower Snake River salmon and steelhead stocks listed for protection under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The U.S...

  18. Lower Snake River Juvenile Salmon Migration Feasibility Report/Environmental Impact Statement. Appendix K: Real Estate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    ... (collectively called the Lower Snake River Project) and their effects-on four lower Snake River salmon and steelhead stocks listed for protection- under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The U.S...

  19. Lower Snake River Juvenile Salmon Migration Feasibility Report/Environmental Impact Statement. Summary

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    ... (collectively called the Lower Snake River Project) and their effects on four -lower Snake- Rive salmon and steelhead stocks listed for protection under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The U.S...

  20. Lower Snake River Juvenile Salmon Migration Feasibility Report/Environmental Impact Statement. Appendix J: Plan Formulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    ... (collectively called the Lower Snake River Project) and their effects on four lower Snake River salmon and steelhead stocks listed for protection under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The U.S...

  1. Numerical studies of Siberian snakes and spin rotators for RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luccio, A.

    1995-01-01

    For the program of polarized protons in RHIC, two Siberian snakes and four spin rotators per ring will be used. The Snakes will produce a complete spin flip. Spin Rotators, in pairs, will rotate the spin from the vertical direction to the horizontal plane at a given insertion, and back to the vertical after the insertion. Snakes, 180 degrees apart and with their axis of spin precession at 90 degrees to each other, are an effective means to avoid depolarization of the proton beam in traversing resonances. Classical snakes and rotators are made with magnetic solenoids or with a sequence of magnetic dipoles with fields alternately directed in the radial and vertical direction. Another possibility is to use helical magnets, essentially twisted dipoles, in which the field, transverse the axis of the magnet, continuously rotates as the particles proceed along it. After some comparative studies, the authors decided to adopt for RHIC an elegant solution with four helical magnets both for the snakes and the rotators proposed by Shatunov and Ptitsin. In order to simplify the construction of the magnets and to minimize cost, four identical super conducting helical modules will be used for each device. Snakes will be built with four right-handed helices. Spin rotators with two right-handed and two left-handed helices. The maximum field will be limited to 4 Tesla. While small bore helical undulators have been built for free electron lasers, large super conducting helical magnets have not been built yet. In spite of this difficulty, this choice is dictated by some distinctive advantages of helical over more conventional transverse snakes/rotators: (i) the devices are modular, they can be built with arrangements of identical modules, (ii) the maximum orbit excursion in the magnet is smaller, (iii) orbit excursion is independent from the separation between adjacent magnets, (iv) they allow an easier control of the spin rotation and the orientation of the spin precession axis

  2. Ecological and phylogenetic variability in the spinalis muscle of snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingle, J L; Gartner, G E A; Jayne, B C; Garland, T

    2017-11-01

    Understanding the origin and maintenance of functionally important subordinate traits is a major goal of evolutionary physiologists and ecomorphologists. Within the confines of a limbless body plan, snakes are diverse in terms of body size and ecology, but we know little about the functional traits that underlie this diversity. We used a phylogenetically diverse group of 131 snake species to examine associations between habitat use, sidewinding locomotion and constriction behaviour with the number of body vertebrae spanned by a single segment of the spinalis muscle, with total numbers of body vertebrae used as a covariate in statistical analyses. We compared models with combinations of these predictors to determine which best fit the data among all species and for the advanced snakes only (N = 114). We used both ordinary least-squares models and phylogenetic models in which the residuals were modelled as evolving by the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. Snakes with greater numbers of vertebrae tended to have spinalis muscles that spanned more vertebrae. Habitat effects dominated models for analyses of all species and advanced snakes only, with the spinalis length spanning more vertebrae in arboreal species and fewer vertebrae in aquatic and burrowing species. Sidewinding specialists had shorter muscle lengths than nonspecialists. The relationship between prey constriction and spinalis length was less clear. Differences among clades were also strong when considering all species, but not for advanced snakes alone. Overall, these results suggest that muscle morphology may have played a key role in the adaptive radiation of snakes. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  3. Black Bear Reactions to Venomous and Non-venomous Snakes in Eastern North America

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Lynn L; Mansfield, Susan A; Hornby, Kathleen; Hornby, Stewart; Debruyn, Terry D; Mize, Malvin; Clark, Rulon; Burghardt, Gordon M

    2014-01-01

    Bears are often considered ecological equivalents of large primates, but the latter often respond with fear, avoidance, and alarm calls to snakes, both venomous and non-venomous, there is sparse information on how bears respond to snakes. We videotaped or directly observed natural encounters between black bears (Ursus americanus) and snakes. Inside the range of venomous snakes in Arkansas and West Virginia, adolescent and adult black bears reacted fearfully in seven of seven encounters upon b...

  4. Body temperature variations of the Louisiana pine snake (Pituophis ruthveni) in a longleaf pine ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    John G. Himes; Laurence M. Hardy; D. Craig Rudolph; Shirley J. Burgdorf

    2006-01-01

    The thermal ecology of the Louisiana pine snake, Pituophis ruthveni, was studied from 1993-97 in Louisiana and Texas. All snakes were implanted with temperature-sensitive radiotransmitters. Temperatures were recorded from snakes located above ground and underground and were compared between size and sex classes (juveniles, adult males, adult females). Associated air...

  5. 78 FR 76175 - Notice of Public Meeting for the John Day-Snake Resource Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ...] Notice of Public Meeting for the John Day-Snake Resource Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Land... Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM), the John Day-Snake Resource Advisory Council (RAC) will meet as indicated below: DATES: The John Day-Snake RAC will hold a public meeting Thursday and Friday, January 9 and...

  6. 78 FR 64236 - Notice of Public Meeting for the John Day; Snake Resource Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ...] Notice of Public Meeting for the John Day; Snake Resource Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Land... Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM), the John Day--Snake Resource Advisory Council (RAC) will meet as indicated below: DATES: The John Day--Snake RAC will hold a public meeting Thursday and Friday, November 14...

  7. 75 FR 5803 - John Day/Snake Resource Advisory Council; Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    ...] John Day/Snake Resource Advisory Council; Meetings AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Meeting Notice for the John Day/Snake Resource Advisory Council. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the Federal Land..., Bureau of Land Management (BLM) John Day/Snake Resource Advisory Council (JDSRAC) will meet as indicated...

  8. 77 FR 3115 - Safety Zone; Grain-Shipment Vessels, Columbia and Snake Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Grain-Shipment Vessels, Columbia and Snake Rivers AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... Terminal, Longview, WA, while they are located on the Columbia and Snake Rivers. This safety zone extends... on the Columbia and Snake rivers when vessels begin arriving at EGT, Longview, WA. Under 5 U.S.C. 553...

  9. Prevalence of Amblyomma gervaisi ticks on captive snakes in Tamil Nadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catherine, B R; Jayathangaraj, M G; Soundararajan, C; Bala Guru, C; Yogaraj, D

    2017-12-01

    Ticks are the important ectoparasites that occur on snakes and transmit rickettsiosis, anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis. A total of 62 snakes (Reticulated python, Indian Rock Python, Rat snakes and Spectacled cobra) were examined for tick infestation at Chennai Snake Park Trust (Guindy), Arignar Anna Zoological Park (Vandalur) and Rescue centre (Velachery) in Tamil Nadu from September, 2015 to June, 2016. Ticks from infested snakes were collected and were identified as Amblyomma gervaisi (previously known as Aponomma gervaisi ). Overall occurrence of tick infestation on snakes was 66.13%. Highest prevalence of tick infestation was observed more on Reticulated Python ( Python reticulatus , 90.91%) followed by Indian Rock Python ( Python molurus , 88.89%), Spectacled cobra ( Naja naja, 33.33%) and Rat snake ( Ptyas mucosa, 21.05%). Highest prevalence of ticks were observed on snakes reared at Chennai Snake Park Trust, Guindy (83.33%), followed by Arignar Anna Zoological Park, Vandalur (60.00%) and low level prevalence of 37.50% on snakes at Rescue centre, Velachery. Among the system of management, the prevalence of ticks were more on captive snakes (70.37%) than the free ranging snakes (37.5%). The presences of ticks were more on the first quarter when compared to other three quarters and were highly significant ( P  ≤ 0.01).

  10. Hibernation Site Philopatry in Northern Pine Snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus) in New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Zappalorti, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Northern Pine Snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus) are one of the few snakes that spend the winter in underground hibernacula that they excavate. We report the use of hibernacula by Pine Snakes from 1986 to 2012 in the New Jersey Pine Barrens. We determined whether philopatry to a specific hibernaculum varied as a function of age, sex, and location of the hibernaculum. Three hibernacula were occupied nearly continuously for 27 yr by 1 to 27 snakes each year. With known-age snakes (N = 120), captured mainly as hatchlings and 2-yr-olds, we found that 23% were always philopatric. Philopatry was related to age of last capture, sex, and capture location. Philopatry was higher for 1) females compared with males, 2) snakes at two solitary hibernacula compared with a hibernaculum complex, and 3) snakes 6 yr old or younger, compared with older snakes. Of hatchlings found hibernating, 24% used the same hibernation site the next year, and 38% were located at year 4 or later. The number of snakes that always used the same hibernation site declined with the age of last capture. Snakes that entered hibernacula as hatchlings were found more often than those that entered as 2-yr-olds. For the seven snakes that were 14 yr or older, females were found 64– 86 % of the time, whereas males were found 15 to 50% of the time. Understanding the behavior and habitat requirements of snakes during different seasons is central to life-history analysis and for conserving viable populations. PMID:27011392

  11. Sets of disjoint snakes based on a Reed-Muller code and covering the hypercube

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Zanten, A.J.; Haryanto, L.

    2008-01-01

    A snake-in-the-box code (or snake) of word length n is a simple circuit in an n-dimensional cube Q n , with the additional property that any two non-neighboring words in the circuit differ in at least two positions. To construct such snakes a straightforward, non-recursive method is developed based

  12. A retrospective review of snake bite victims admitted in a tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Snake bite remains major public health problem worldwide. We present our experience with cases of snake bites managed in our tertiary care teaching center of South India. Materials and Methods: The details of all patients with snake bite admitted to a tertiary teaching care hospital from 2010 to 2012 were ...

  13. Testing the snake-detection hypothesis: larger early posterior negativity in humans to pictures of snakes than to pictures of other reptiles, spiders and slugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Strien, Jan W; Franken, Ingmar H A; Huijding, Jorg

    2014-01-01

    According to the snake detection hypothesis (Isbell, 2006), fear specifically of snakes may have pushed evolutionary changes in the primate visual system allowing pre-attentional visual detection of fearful stimuli. A previous study demonstrated that snake pictures, when compared to spiders or bird pictures, draw more early attention as reflected by larger early posterior negativity (EPN). Here we report two studies that further tested the snake detection hypothesis. In Study 1, we tested whether the enlarged EPN is specific for snakes or also generalizes to other reptiles. Twenty-four healthy, non-phobic women watched the random rapid serial presentation of snake, crocodile, and turtle pictures. The EPN was scored as the mean activity at occipital electrodes (PO3, O1, Oz, PO4, O2) in the 225-300 ms time window after picture onset. The EPN was significantly larger for snake pictures than for pictures of the other reptiles. In Study 2, we tested whether disgust plays a role in the modulation of the EPN and whether preferential processing of snakes also can be found in men. 12 men and 12 women watched snake, spider, and slug pictures. Both men and women exhibited the largest EPN amplitudes to snake pictures, intermediate amplitudes to spider pictures and the smallest amplitudes to slug pictures. Disgust ratings were not associated with EPN amplitudes. The results replicate previous findings and suggest that ancestral priorities modulate the early capture of visual attention.

  14. Mechanical diffraction in a sand-specialist snake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiebel, Perrin E.; Rieser, Jennifer M.; Hubbard, Alex M.; Chen, Lillian; Goldman, Daniel I.

    Limbless locomotors such as snakes move by pressing the trunk against terrain heterogeneities. Our laboratory studies of the desert-dwelling Mojave Shovel-nosed snake (C. occipitalis, 40cm long, N=9) reveal that these animals use a stereotyped sinusoidal traveling wave of curvature. However, this snake also encounters rigid obstacles in its natural environment, and the tradeoff between using a cyclic, shape controlled gait versus one which changes shape in response to the terrain is not well understood. We challenged individuals to move across a model deformable substrate (carpet) through a row of 6.4 mm diameter force-sensitive pegs, a model of obstacles such as grass, oriented perpendicular to the direction of motion. Instead of forward-directed reaction forces, reaction forces generated by the pegs were more often perpendicular to the direction of motion. Distributions of post-peg travel angles displayed preferred directions revealing a diffraction-like pattern with a central peak at zero and symmetric peaks at 193 ° and 415 °. We observed similar dynamics in a robotic snake using shape-based control. This suggests that this sand-specialist snake adheres to its preferred waveform as opposed to changing in response to heterogeneity.

  15. Does aquatic foraging impact head shape evolution in snakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segall, Marion; Cornette, Raphaël; Fabre, Anne-Claire; Godoy-Diana, Ramiro; Herrel, Anthony

    2016-08-31

    Evolutionary trajectories are often biased by developmental and historical factors. However, environmental factors can also impose constraints on the evolutionary trajectories of organisms leading to convergence of morphology in similar ecological contexts. The physical properties of water impose strong constraints on aquatic feeding animals by generating pressure waves that can alert prey and potentially push them away from the mouth. These hydrodynamic constraints have resulted in the independent evolution of suction feeding in most groups of secondarily aquatic tetrapods. Despite the fact that snakes cannot use suction, they have invaded the aquatic milieu many times independently. Here, we test whether the aquatic environment has constrained head shape evolution in snakes and whether shape converges on that predicted by biomechanical models. To do so, we used three-dimensional geometric morphometrics and comparative, phylogenetically informed analyses on a large sample of aquatic snake species. Our results show that aquatic snakes partially conform to our predictions and have a narrower anterior part of the head and dorsally positioned eyes and nostrils. This morphology is observed, irrespective of the phylogenetic relationships among species, suggesting that the aquatic environment does indeed drive the evolution of head shape in snakes, thus biasing the evolutionary trajectory of this group of animals. © 2016 The Author(s).

  16. Gravity and the Evolution of Cardiopulmonary Morphology in Snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillywhite, Harvey B.; Albert, James S.; Sheehy, Coleman M.; Seymour, Roger S.

    2011-01-01

    Physiological investigations of snakes have established the importance of heart position and pulmonary structure in contexts of gravity effects on blood circulation. Here we investigate morphological correlates of cardiopulmonary physiology in contexts related to ecology, behavior and evolution. We analyze data for heart position and length of vascular lung in 154 species of snakes that exhibit a broad range of characteristic behaviors and habitat associations. We construct a composite phylogeny for these species, and we codify gravitational stress according to species habitat and behavior. We use conventional regression and phylogenetically independent contrasts to evaluate whether trait diversity is correlated with gravitational habitat related to evolutionary transitions within the composite tree topology. We demonstrate that snake species living in arboreal habitats, or which express strongly climbing behaviors, possess relatively short blood columns between the heart and the head, as well as relatively short vascular lungs, compared to terrestrial species. Aquatic species, which experience little or no gravity stress in water, show the reverse – significantly longer heart–head distance and longer vascular lungs. These phylogenetic differences complement the results of physiological studies and are reflected in multiple habitat transitions during the evolutionary histories of these snake lineages, providing strong evidence that heart–to–head distance and length of vascular lung are co–adaptive cardiopulmonary features of snakes. PMID:22079804

  17. Parasitic fauna of captive snakes in Tamilnadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakulan Valsala Rajesh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the parasitic fauna on serpentines under captive condition in zoological park of Tamilnadu, India. Methods: Fecal samples were collected from (n = 247 serpentines, Arignar Anna Zoological Park (n = 22, Vandalur, Tamilnadu, India and Snake Park (n = 27, Guindy, Tamilnadu, India and screened for endoparasites using sedimentation techniques. Ectoparasites were also reported in this study. Results: Coprological examination (n = 247 from captive snakes (n = 49 on random analysis revealed strongyles were predominant in Arignar Anna Zoological Park, Vandalur and Snake Park, Guindy, however the parasites were absent in king cobras (Ophiophagus hannah. Eggs of Capillaria sp. showed less predominance in Vandalur and Gunidy. Rat snakes [Ptyas mucosus (P. mucosus] showed higher prevalence of strongyle infection in Vandalur, and Russell’s viper (Daboia russelii showed higher prevalence in Guindy. Study on ectoparasites revealed Aponomma gerviasii ticks in P. mucosus, Indian cobras (Naja naja, king cobras (Ophiophagus hannah, reticulated pythons (Python reticulates and Indian rock pythons (Python molurus, among them, the most heavy infestation was documented in P. mucosus (n = 9. Conclusions: Confinement favour stress and dysecdysis in captive condition affect the health status of snakes in zoological park.

  18. Snake venoms components with antitumor activity in murine melanoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queiroz, Rodrigo Guimaraes

    2012-01-01

    Despite the constant advances in the treatment of cancer, this disease remains one of the main causes of mortality worldwide. So, the development of new treatment modalities is imperative. Snake venom causes a variety of biological effects because they constitute a complex mixture of substances as disintegrins, proteases (serine and metalo), phospholipases A2, L-amino acid oxidases and others. The goal of the present work is to evaluate a anti-tumor activity of some snake venoms fractions. There are several studies of components derived from snake venoms with this kind of activity. After fractionation of snake venoms of the families Viperidae and Elapidae, the fractions were assayed towards murine melanoma cell line B16-F10 and fibroblasts L929. The results showed that the fractions of venom of the snake Notechis ater niger had higher specificity and potential antitumor activity on B16-F10 cell line than the other studied venoms. Since the components of this venom are not explored yet coupled with the potential activity showed in this work, we decided to choose this venom to develop further studies. The cytotoxic fractions were evaluated to identify and characterize the components that showed antitumoral activity. Western blot assays and zymography suggests that these proteins do not belong to the class of metallo and serine proteinases. (author)

  19. Snake states and their symmetries in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Rakesh; Liu, Yang; Brada, Matej; Bruder, C.; Kusmartsev, F. V.; Mele, E. J.

    Snake states are open trajectories for charged particles moving in two dimensions under the influence of a spatially varying perpendicular magnetic field. They can also occur in a constant perpendicular magnetic field when the particle density is made nonuniform as realized at a pn junction in a semiconductor, or in graphene. We examine the correspondence of such trajectories in monolayer graphene in the quantum limit for two families of domain walls: (a) a uniform doped carrier density in an antisymmetric perpendicular magnetic field and (b) antisymmetric carrier density distribution in a uniform perpendicular magnetic field. Although, these families support different internal symmetries, the pattern of the boundary and interface currents is the same in both cases. We demonstrate that these two physically different situations are gauge equivalent when rewritten in a Nambu doubled formulation of the two limiting problems. Using gauge transformations in particle-hole space to connect these two problems, we map the protected interfacial modes to the Bogoliubov quasiparticles of an interfacial one-dimensional p-wave paired state.

  20. Snakes, rotators, serpents and the octahedral group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fieguth, T.

    1986-04-01

    Specific configurations of horizontal and vertical bending magnets are given that, when acting on the spin polarization vector of a particle beam, generate a group of 24 operators isomorphic to the group of rotational symmetries of a cube, known as the octahedral group. Some of these configurations have the feature of converting transversely polarized beams to longitudinally polarized beams (or vice versa) at the midpoint of the configuration for, in principle, all beam energies. Since the first order optical transfer matrix for each half of these configurations is nearly that of a drift region, the external geometry remains unchanged and midpoint dispersion is not introduced. Changing field strengths and/or polarities allows a configuration to serve as either a Snake(1/sup st/ or 2/sup nd/ kind) or a Rotator, where in both cases the spin polarization is longitudinal at the midpoint. In this conceptualization, emphasis has been placed on electron beams and, indeed, for these beams some practical applications can be envisioned. However, due to the relatively high integrated field strengths required, application of these concepts to proton beams may be more promising

  1. Clinical effects and antivenom use for snake bite victims treated at three US hospitals in Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiner, Jason D; Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Varney, Shawn M; Bothwell, Jason D; Cronin, Aaron J

    2013-12-01

    Annually, more than 100,000 US and international military and civilian personnel work in Afghanistan within terrain harboring venomous snakes. Current literature insufficiently supports Afghan antivenom treatment and stocking guidelines. We report the clinical course and treatments for snakebite victims presenting to US military hospitals in Afghanistan. All snakebite victims presenting to 3 US military emergency departments between July 2010 and August 2011 in northern and southern Afghanistan were examined via chart review. Case information included patient demographics, snake description, bite details and complications, laboratory results, antivenom use and adverse effects, procedures performed, and hospital course. Of 17 cases, median patient age was 20 years (interquartile range [IQR], 12-30), 16 were male, and 82% were Afghans. All bites were to an extremity, and median time to care was 2.8 hours (IQR, 2-5.8). On arrival, 8 had tachycardia and none had hypotension or hypoxia. A viper was implicated in 5 cases. Ten cases received at least 1 dose of polyvalent antivenom, most commonly for coagulopathy, without adverse effects. Six received additional antivenom, 6 had an international normalized ratio (INR) > 10, and none developed delayed coagulopathy. Three received blood transfusions. Hospital stay ranged from 1 to 4 days. None required vasopressors, fasciotomy, or other surgery, and none died. All had resolution of marked coagulopathies and improved swelling and pain on discharge. We report the largest series of snake envenomations treated by US physicians in Afghanistan. Antivenom was tolerated well with improvement of coagulopathy and symptoms. All patients survived with minimal advanced interventions other than blood transfusion. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Revisiting the spectrum of lower motor neuron diseases with snake eyes appearance on magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebouteux, M-V; Franques, J; Guillevin, R; Delmont, E; Lenglet, T; Bede, P; Desnuelle, C; Pouget, J; Pascal-Mousselard, H; Pradat, P-F

    2014-09-01

    The 'snake eyes' sign refers to bilateral hyperintensities of the anterior horns on axial spinal cord imaging. Based on sporadic reports, it has been associated with a range of lower motor neuron (LMN) syndromes, such as spondylotic amyotrophy and Hirayama disease, as well as spinal cord infarction. The objective of our study was to comprehensively characterize the full diagnostic spectrum of LMN syndromes with this radiological clue and discuss potential aetiological factors. A large patient cohort with snake eyes sign and upper limb LMN degeneration was recruited from three French neuromuscular units. Patients underwent detailed electrophysiological, radiological, clinical and anamnestic profiling. Twenty-nine patients were ascertained and followed up for 9.5 ± 8.6 years. The majority of the patients were male (86.2%) with a mean age of 37.3 ± 14.4 years. Symptoms were bilateral in most cases (86.2%). Patients with predominantly proximal and distal deficits were equally represented (44.8% and 55.2%, respectively). A history of preceding trauma or intense physical activity was confirmed in 58.6% of the cases; 27.6% of the patients were given an initial clinical diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and 51.7% were originally suspected to have multifocal motor neuropathy. None of the patients developed ALS on longitudinal follow-up. The snake eyes sign on magnetic resonance imaging is associated with a wide spectrum of neurological conditions and is more common in young men with a history of strenuous activity or antecedent trauma. The recognition of this syndrome is crucial as many of these patients are initially misdiagnosed with ALS. © 2014 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2014 EAN.

  3. [Application of rapid PCR to authenticate medicinal snakes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kang; Jiang, Chao; Yuan, Yuan; Huang, Lu-Qi; Li, Man

    2014-10-01

    To obtained an accurate, rapid and efficient method for authenticate medicinal snakes listed in Chinese Pharmacopoeia (Zaocysd humnades, Bungarus multicinctus, Agkistrodon acutus), a rapid PCR method for authenticate snakes and its adulterants was established based on the classic molecular authentication methods. DNA was extracted by alkaline lysis and the specific primers were amplified by two-steps PCR amplification method. The denatured and annealing temperature and cycle numbers were optimized. When 100 x SYBR Green I was added in the PCR product, strong green fluorescence was visualized under 365 nm UV whereas adulterants without. The whole process can complete in 30-45 minutes. The established method provides the technical support for authentication of the snakes on field.

  4. Locomotion Gait Planning of Climber Snake-Like Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nezaminia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article a novel breed of snake-like climber robots has been introduced. Structure and operation of the first generation of snake-like climber robot "Marak I" has been discussed. The gait planning for two dimensional locomotion of a novel snake-like climber robot "Marak I" is presented. The types of locomotion investigated were rectilinear and wheeling gaits. The gaits of locomotion were experimented and their suitability for various applications has been mentioned. Some encountered practical problems plus solutions were addressed. Finally we found out that: the vertical motion was producing more fault than horizontal locomotion, and notably the fastest gait of locomotion was the wheeling gait

  5. STUDY OF ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY IN SNAKE BITE PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suma Dasaraju

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Snake venom is well known to cause toxic damage to the kidneys (Schreiner and Maher, 1965. This study is an attempt to evaluate the snakebite-induced Acute Kidney Injury (AKI. MATERIALS AND METHODS 50 patients with snakebite-induced acute kidney injury were selected randomly and their clinical profile was assessed. Acute kidney injury was evaluated using noninvasive laboratory methods. Inclusion Criteria- 1. History of snakebite; 2. Presence of AKI. Exclusion Criteria- Pre-existing renal diseases, after establishing the diagnosis, patients were started on conservative treatment including ASV, blood/blood products and haemodialysis as required. RESULTS Out of 50 patients included in the study, majority of them were males (62% with mean age of presentation 43.8 ± 12.63 years. The mean interval between snakebite and presentation to hospital was 15.37 hours. In them, 98% patients presented with local signs of inflammation, 52% of patients presented with coagulation abnormality and 60% with decreased urine output. Comparison between good outcome (recovered from AKI and poor outcome (not recovered from AKI shows significant pvalue for ‘lapse of time in hours’ in presenting to the hospital after snakebite (p value 0.005 and ‘alternative treatment taken’ before coming to the hospital (p value 0.001. CONCLUSION Poisonous snakebites have common manifestations of cellulitis, abnormal coagulation profile and decreased urine output. Overall mortality due to snakebite-induced AKI is 6%. Patients who did not recover from AKI had lapse of time in presenting to the hospital and abnormal coagulation profile.

  6. Snake venom serine proteinases specificity mapping by proteomic identification of cleavage sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelanis, André; Huesgen, Pitter F; Oliveira, Ana Karina; Tashima, Alexandre K; Serrano, Solange M T; Overall, Christopher M

    2015-01-15

    Many snake venom toxins are serine proteases but their specific in vivo targets are mostly unknown. Various act on components of the coagulation cascade, and fibrinolytic and kallikrein-kinin systems to trigger various pathological effects observed in the envenomation. Despite showing high similarity in terms of primary structure snake venom serine proteinases (SVSPs) show exquisite specificity towards macromolecular substrates. Therefore, the characterization of their peptide bond specificity is important for understanding the active site preference associated with effective proteolysis as well as for the design of peptide substrates and inhibitors. Bothrops jararaca contains various SVSPs among which Bothrops protease A is a specific fibrinogenolytic agent and PA-BJ is a platelet-activating enzyme. In this study we used proteome derived peptide libraries in the Proteomic Identification of protease Cleavage Sites (PICS) approach to explore the peptide bond specificity of Bothrops protease A and PA-BJ in order to determine their individual peptide cleavage sequences. A total of 371 cleavage sites (208 for Bothrops protease A and 163 for PA-BJ) were detected and both proteinases displayed a clear preference for arginine at the P1 position. Moreover, the analysis of the specificity profiles of Bothrops protease A and PA-BJ revealed subtle differences in the preferences along P6-P6', despite a common yet unusual preference for Pro at P2. Taken together, these results map the subsite specificity of both SVSPs and shed light in the functional differences between these proteinases. Proteolysis is key to various pathological effects observed upon envenomation by viperid snakes. The use of the Proteomic Identification of protease Cleavage Sites (PICS) approach for the easy mapping of proteinase subsite preferences at both the prime- and non-prime sides concurrently gives rise to a fresh understanding of the interaction of the snake venom serine proteinases with peptide and

  7. Spectroscopy of snake states using a graphene Hall bar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milovanović, S. P., E-mail: slavisa.milovanovic@gmail.com; Ramezani Masir, M., E-mail: mrmphys@gmail.com; Peeters, F. M., E-mail: francois.peeters@ua.ac.be [Departement Fysica, Universiteit Antwerpen, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2013-12-02

    An approach to observe snake states in a graphene Hall bar containing a pn-junction is proposed. The magnetic field dependence of the bend resistance in a ballistic graphene Hall bar structure containing a tilted pn-junction oscillates as a function of applied magnetic field. We show that each oscillation is due to a specific snake state that moves along the pn-interface. Furthermore, depending on the value of the magnetic field and applied potential, we can control the lead in which the electrons will end up and hence control the response of the system.

  8. Snake bite in dogs and its successful treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Ananda

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Two dog viz. Labrador and Alsatian cross were presented to the peripheral hospital with a history of frothy salivation, dull, depressed, abnormal gait and with recumbent position. They were diagnosed for snake bite based on the history and physical examination. The hematological parameters showed reduced values of hemoglobin, packed cell volume and increased total leukocyte count. The biochemical values showed elevated levels of alanine aminotransferase and creatinine. The successful treatment was done with anti-snake venom, fluid, corticosteroid, muscuranic receptor antagonist and antibiotic with careful monitoring. [Vet. World 2009; 2(2.000: 66-67

  9. Fascinating and forgotten: the conservation status of marine elapid snakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Australia. Three of the seven threatened species occur at Ashmore and Hibernia Reefs in the Timor Sea, while the remaining threatened taxa occur in the Philippines, Niue, and Solomon Islands. The majority of Data Deficient species are found in Southeast Asia. Threats to marine snakes include loss of coral...... reefs and coastal habitat, incidental bycatch in fisheries, as well as fisheries that target snakes for leather. The presence of two Critically Endangered and one Endangered species in the Timor Sea suggests the area is of particular conservation concern. More rigorous, long-term monitoring...

  10. EVOLUTION. A four-legged snake from the Early Cretaceous of Gondwana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martill, David M; Tischlinger, Helmut; Longrich, Nicholas R

    2015-07-24

    Snakes are a remarkably diverse and successful group today, but their evolutionary origins are obscure. The discovery of snakes with two legs has shed light on the transition from lizards to snakes, but no snake has been described with four limbs, and the ecology of early snakes is poorly known. We describe a four-limbed snake from the Early Cretaceous (Aptian) Crato Formation of Brazil. The snake has a serpentiform body plan with an elongate trunk, short tail, and large ventral scales suggesting characteristic serpentine locomotion, yet retains small prehensile limbs. Skull and body proportions as well as reduced neural spines indicate fossorial adaptation, suggesting that snakes evolved from burrowing rather than marine ancestors. Hooked teeth, an intramandibular joint, a flexible spine capable of constricting prey, and the presence of vertebrate remains in the guts indicate that this species preyed on vertebrates and that snakes made the transition to carnivory early in their history. The structure of the limbs suggests that they were adapted for grasping, either to seize prey or as claspers during mating. Together with a diverse fauna of basal snakes from the Cretaceous of South America, Africa, and India, this snake suggests that crown Serpentes originated in Gondwana. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  11. Yellowstone-Snake River Plain seismic profilling experiment: Crustal structure of the eastern Snake River Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braile, L.W.; Smith, R.B.; Ansorge, J.; Baker, M.R.; Sparlin, M.A.; Prodehl, C.; Schilly, M.M.; Healy, J.H.; Mueller, S.; Olsen, K.H.

    1982-01-01

    Seismic refraction profiles recorded along the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) in southeastern Idaho during the 1978 Yellowstone-Snake River Plain cooperative seismic profiling experiment are interpreted to infer the crustal velocity and attenuation (Q-1) structure of the ESRP. Travel-time and synthetic seismogram modeling of a 250 km reversed refraction profile as well as a 100 km detailed profile indicate that the crust of the ESRP is highly anomalous. Approximately 3 to 6 km of volcanic rocks (with some interbedded sediments) overlie an upper-crustal layer (compressional velocity approx. =6.1 km/s) which thins southwestward along the ESRP from a thickness of 10 km near Island Park Caldera to 2 to 3 km beneath the central and southwestern portions of the ESRP. An intermediate-velocity (approx. =6.5 km/s) layer extends from approx. =10 to approx. =20 km depth. a thick (approx. =22 km) lower crust of compressional velocity 6.8 km/s, a total crustall thickness of approx. =42 km, and a P/sub n/ velocity of approx. =7.9 km/s is observed in the ESRP, similar to the western Snake River Plain and the Rocky Mountains Provinces. High attenuation is evident on the amplitude corrected seismic data due to low-Q values in the volcanic rocks (Q/sub p/ = 20 to 200) and throughout the crust (Q/sub p/ = 160 to 300). Based on these characteristics of the crustal structure and volcanic-age progression data, it is suggested that the ESRP has resulted from an intensitive period of intrusion of mantle-derived basaltic magma into the upper crust generating explosive silicic volcanism and associated regional uplift and caldera collapse. This activity began about 15 m.y. ago in southwestern Idaho and has migrated northeast to its present position at Yellowstone. Subsequent cooling of the intruded upper crust results in the 6.5 km/s velocity intermediate layer. Crustal subsidence and periodic basaltic volcanism as represented by the ESRP complete the sequence of crustal evolution

  12. The spider and the snake - A psychometric study of two phobias and insights from the Hungarian validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsido, Andras N

    2017-11-01

    Specific phobias-particularly zoophobias-are prevalent worldwide and can have fairly dramatic health consequences. Self-report measurements play a crucial role in phobia research studies; thus, it is important to have a reliable tool in different languages. The present investigation examined the psychometric properties of the Hungarian version of two commonly used measures of fear: the Spider Phobia Questionnaire (i.e. SPQ) and the Snake Questionnaire (i.e. SNAQ). The SPQ and SNAQ scores both demonstrated excellent reliability, including a test-retest over a 4-week period. Supportive evidence for the validity of the SPQ and SNAQ scores was found using questions assessing fainting and avoidance history, regarding snakes and spiders, based on DSM-V criteria. Both questionnaires could discriminate between participants who reported such an event and those who did not. Further analyses also revealed a sex difference, with women scoring higher than men on both scales. Moreover, 9.5% and 4.24% of the respondents reached the cut-off point, set by previous studies, for spider and snake phobias, respectively. These findings suggest that the SPQ and SNAQ have excellent psychometric properties, making them suitable for use in further cross-cultural research and epidemiological studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Safety profile of snake antivenom (use) in Hong Kong - a review of 191 cases from 2008 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mong, Rupeng; Ng, Vember C H; Tse, Man Li

    2017-12-01

    The mainstay of treatment for significant envenoming from snakebites is antivenom. However, there is insufficient data regarding the safety of antivenom used in Hong Kong. We describe the incidence of hypersensitivity reactions from antivenom use and review the frequency and reasons for intensive care unit (ICU) admission. The Hong Kong Poisons Information Centre database was reviewed. All patients given snake antivenom between 2008 and 2015 were included. Patient demographics, species of snake involved, details of antivenom used, treatment location, use of pre-treatment, reasons for ICU admission (where applicable) and details of early and late antivenom reactions were extracted. There were 191 patients who received snake antivenom. Most (93%) were treated with either the green pit viper antivenom from Thailand or the Agkistrodon halys antivenom from China. The incidences of early hypersensitivity reactions to green pit viper antivenom and Agkistrodon Halys antivenom were 4.7% and 1.4%, respectively. Most patients (69%) were managed in the ED observation ward or general ward. There were 59 patients managed in ICU, most (90%) of whom were admitted for close monitoring during antivenom administration. There were no cases of significant morbidity from antivenom administration. Eight patients (5.6%) had features suggestive of mild serum sickness. The incidence of immediate hypersensitivity reaction to antivenom commonly used in Hong Kong is low. Majority of patients were managed safely in the emergency department observation ward or general ward. Serum sickness appears to be uncommon and possible cases presented with mild features.

  14. Identification of snake venom allergens by two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by immunoblotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yujing; Yang, Liming; Yang, Haiwei; He, Shaoheng; Wei, Ji-Fu

    2017-01-01

    This allergic reaction to snake venom was described to occur in patients after recurrent exposure through bites in amateur and professional snake handlers, which might be underestimated and contribute to fatal snakebites in victim, independently from the toxicity of the venom itself. Few allergens were identified from snake venoms by normal SDS-PAGE, which cannot separate the snake venom completely. In the present study, we identified nine potential allergens by two-dimensional (2D) electrophoresis followed by immunoblotting (named as allergenomics) in Protobothrops mucrosquamatus venom. By multidimensional liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry (MDLC-ESI-LTQ-MS/MS) analysis, six allergens showed sequence similarity to snake venom serine proteinases. Other allergens showed sequence similarity to snake venom metalloproteinase. These allergic reactions to snake venom allergens might contribute to fatal snakebites in victim, independently. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Optimization of AGS Polarized Proton Operation with the Warm Helical Snake

    CERN Document Server

    Takano, Junpei; Bai, Mei; Brown, Kevin A; Gardner, Chris J; Glenn, Joseph; Hattori, Toshiyuki; Huang, Haixin; Luccio, Alfredo U; MacKay, William W; Okamura, Masahiro; Roser, Thomas; Tepikian, Steven; Tsoupas, Nicholaos

    2005-01-01

    A normal conducting helical dipole partial Siberian snake (Warm Snake) has been installed in the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for overcoming all of imperfection depolarizing resonances and reducing the transverse coupling resonances caused by the solenoidal Siberian snake which had been operated in AGS before the last polarized run. The polarized proton beam has been accelerated successfully with the warm snake and the polarization at extraction of the AGS was increased to 50% as opposed to 40% with the solenoidal snake. The magnetic field and beam trajectory in the warm snake was calculated by using the OPERA-3D/TOSCA software. We present optimization of the warm snake with beam during RUN5.

  16. An antemortem guide for the assessment of stranded Australian sea snakes (Hydrophiinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, Amber K; Flint, Mark; Mills, Paul C

    2014-12-01

    Marine snakes of the subfamily Hydrophiinae are obligate ocean dwellers, unlike their amphibious counterparts, the sea kraits (Laticaudinae), and as such they are often referred to as 'true' sea snakes. This specialization means that the presence of a true sea snake on a beach is atypical and likely indicates disease or injury. Traumatic injuries such as eye, jaw, and spinal lesions have been observed in stranded sea snakes and may present as acute injury or progress to chronic debilitation. Diseases, such as neoplasia, leukemia, and parasite overburden, have also been seen in wild sea snakes, and these animals may present similarly. Sick, moribund, or deceased sea snakes are intermittently found washed ashore along Australian beaches, and these specimens may prove valuable as bioindicators of marine health. This review is intended as a guide to the diagnostic investigation of sick or injured sea snakes by suitably qualified people.

  17. Observations on the anterior testicular ducts in snakes with emphasis on sea snakes and ultrastructure in the yellow-bellied sea snake, Pelamis platurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, David M; Freeborn, Layla R

    2012-03-01

    The anterior testicular ducts of squamates transport sperm from the seminiferous tubules to the ductus deferens. These ducts consist of the rete testis, ductuli efferentes, and ductus epididymis. Many histological and a few ultrastructural studies of the squamate reproductive tract exist, but none concern the Hydrophiidae, the sea snakes and sea kraits. In this study, we describe the anterior testicular ducts of six species of hydrophiid snakes as well as representatives from the Elapidae, Homolapsidae, Leptotyphlopidae, and Uropeltidae. In addition, we examine the ultrastructure of these ducts in the yellow-bellied Sea Snake, Pelamis platurus, only the third such study on snakes. The anterior testicular ducts are similar in histology in all species examined. The rete testis is simple squamous or cuboidal epithelium and transports sperm from the seminiferous tubules to the ductuli efferentes in the extratesticular epididymal sheath. The ductuli efferentes are branched, convoluted tubules composed of simple cuboidal, ciliated epithelium, and many species possess periodic acid-Schiff+ granules in the cytoplasm. The ductus epididymis at the light microscopy level appears composed of pseudostratified columnar epithelium. At the ultrastructural level, the rete testis and ductuli efferentes of P. platurus possess numerous small coated vesicles and lack secretory vacuoles. Apocrine blebs in the ductuli efferentes, however, indicate secretory activity, possibly by a constitutive pathway. Ultrastructure reveals three types of cells in the ductus epididymis of P. platurus: columnar principal cells, squamous basal cells, and mitochondria-rich apical cells. This is the first report of apical cells in a snake. In addition, occasional principal cells possess a single cilium, which has not been reported in reptiles previously but is known in some birds. Finally, the ductus epididymis of P. platurus differs from other snakes that have been studied in possession of apical, biphasic

  18. Review of Eastern coral snake (Micrurus fulvius fulvius) exposures managed by the Florida Poison Information Center Network: 1998-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, A; Schauben, J; Thundiyil, J; Kunisaki, T; Sollee, D; Lewis-Younger, C; Bernstein, J; Weisman, R

    2013-01-01

    Envenomation by the Eastern coral snake is rare but may be associated with significant morbidity. While effective, acquisition of North American Coral Snake Antivenin (NACSAV) is difficult because production was discontinued for many years. The purpose of this study is to characterize coral snake exposures in Florida and determine the effects of varying treatment paradigms on patient outcomes. This study is an observational case series of cases received at Florida poison centers. Included cases were Eastern coral snake exposures occurring between January 1, 1998 and October 31, 2010. Excluded cases included those found to be unrelated or those not followed for at least 24 h post envenomation. Case comments were reviewed to obtain data. Comparisons were made between asymptomatic patients receiving empiric antivenom therapy (empiric group) and those asymptomatic patients who received antivenom upon developing signs of systemic envenomation (withhold group). Of the 553 cases identified, 387 were included in the final analysis. According to case comments, 56.3% of patients had no reported systemic symptoms. Most commonly, patients were reported to have pain (40.6%), paresthesias (28.4%), nausea (12.7%), and emesis (11.4%). NACSAV was administered to 252 patients (65%). Of those patients receiving NACSAV, 18.25% were reported to have had an adverse reaction. Patients in the withhold group (n = 106) had significantly fewer minor, moderate, and major outcomes than patients in the empiric group (n = 134, p < 0.01). While patients in the withhold group had favorable outcomes compared with those in the empiric group, this strategy cannot be applied to all patients presenting asymptomatic to healthcare facilities due to study limitations. Further studies are needed to determine what treatment strategy is most appropriate for asymptomatic patients presenting to healthcare facilities.

  19. Water exchange and permeability properties of the skin in three species of amphibious sea snakes (Laticauda spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillywhite, H B; Menon, J G; Menon, G K; Sheehy, C M; Tu, M C

    2009-06-01

    Evolutionary transitions between different environmental media such as air and water pose special problems with respect to skin permeability because of the dramatic changes in the driving gradients and nature of water exchange processes. Also, during the transitional periods prior to complete adaptation to a new medium, the skin is exposed to two very different sets of environmental conditions. Here, we report new data for transepidermal evaporative water loss (TEWL) and cutaneous resistance to evaporative water loss (R(s)) of sea snakes that are transitional in the sense of being amphibious and semi-terrestrial. We investigated three species of sea kraits (Elapidae: Laticaudinae) that are common to Orchid Island (Lanyu), Taiwan. Generally, R(s) of all three species is lower than that characteristic of terrestrial/xeric species of snakes measured in other taxa. Within Laticauda, R(s) is significantly greater (TEWL lower) in the more terrestrial species and lowest (TEWL highest) in the more aquatic species. Previously reported losses of water from snakes kept in seawater exhibit a reversed trend, with lower rates of loss in the more aquatic species. These data suggest selection for adaptive traits with respect to increasing exposure to the marine environment. Thus, a countergradient of traits is reflected in decreased TEWL in aerial environments and decreased net water efflux in marine environments, acting simultaneously in the three species. The pattern for TEWL correlates with ultrastructural evidence for increased lipogenesis in the stratum corneum of the more terrestrial species. The skin surfaces of all three species are hydrophobic. Species differences in this property possibly explain the pattern for water efflux when these snakes are in seawater, which remains to be investigated.

  20. Epidemiology of Snake, Spider and Scorpion Envenomation in Mashhad, Khorasan Razavi, Iran (2004-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Khadem-Rezaiyan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds: Envenomation is common in Asia including Iran that induces morbidity and mortality. This study investigated the epidemiological characteristics of cases with snake, spider and scorpion bites. Methods: In this cross-sectional design, epidemiologic data of admitted cases to the Toxicology Department of Imam Reza Hospital of Mashhad, Iran were analyzed across a 7-yr period, from 2004 to 2011. SPSS was used for data analysis. Results: This study reports 686 admissions due to animal envenomation with an incidence rate of 2.9 per 100000. Mean (SD, min-max age of admitted patients was 30 (19, 1-90 yr, and 471 (69% were male. Snakebite (n, percentage, annual incidence (299, 44%, 1.3 per 100000 and spider bite (188, 27%, 0.8 per 100000 and scorpion sting (126, 18.4%, 0.5 per 100000 were most frequent cases. Overall, case fatality rate was 0.09 per 100000 which were due to scorpion and unknown bite. No cases of snakebites died in this period. The highest age-specific incidence rate was 4.6 per 100000 and related to 10-20 yr of age. Conclusion: Animal envenomation is frequent in this area and a matter of health concern. While deaths related to snake bite are no longer reported-presumably due to using effective anti-venom - managing unknown and scorpion bites need to be addressed. Envenomation was not overtly an age-specific event in this province.

  1. An experimental evaluation of potential scavenger effects on snake road mortality detections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Kaylan A.; Chalfoun, Anna D.

    2012-01-01

    As road networks expand and collisions between vehicles and wildlife become more common, accurately quantifying mortality rates for the taxa that are most impacted will be critical. Snakes are especially vulnerable to collisions with vehicles because of their physiology and behavior. Reptile road mortality is typically quantified using driving or walking surveys; however, scavengers can rapidly remove carcasses from the road and cause underestimation of mortality. Our objective was to determine the effect that scavengers might have had on our ability to accurately detect reptile road mortality during over 150 h and 4,000 km of driving surveys through arid shrublands in southwest Wyoming, which resulted in only two observations of mortality. We developed unique simulated snake carcasses out of Burbot (Lota lota), a locally invasive fish species, and examined removal rates across three different road types at three study sites. Carcass size was not a significant predictor of time of removal, and carcass removal was comparable during the daytime and nighttime hours. However, removal of simulated carcasses was higher on paved roads than unpaved or two-track roads at all study sites, with an average of 75% of the carcasses missing within 60 h compared to 34% and 31%, respectively. Scavengers may therefore negatively impact the ability of researchers to accurately detect herpetofaunal road mortality, especially for paved roads where road mortality is likely the most prevalent.

  2. Low dose versus high dose anti-snake venom therapy in the treatment of haematotoxic snake bite in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Imanto M; Kuriakose, Cijoy K; Dev, Anand Vimal; Philip, George A

    2017-10-01

    Most of the studies on the appropriate dose of anti-snake venom (ASV) are from tertiary hospitals and the guidelines are unclear. Our observational study compared the outcomes of two prevalent treatment regimes for haematotoxic snake bite in a secondary care hospital in South India. The time to normalisation of whole blood clotting time, mortality and complications were not different between the groups. The average dose of ASV required in the low and high dose groups were 106 mL and 246 mL, respectively. Consequently, patients who received low dose ASV incurred approximately 50% less expense. Urticarial rashes were also significantly fewer in the low dose group.

  3. [Snake as a symbol in medicine and pharmacy - a historical study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, J; Kiyokawa, R

    2000-01-01

    The snake and snake venoms have stimulated the mind and imagination of humankind since the beginning of records about society. No animal has been more worshipped yet more cast out, more loved yet more despised than the snake. The essence of the fascination with fear of the snake lies within the creature's venom. Snakes have been used for worship, magic potions and, medicine, and they have been the symbol of love, health, disease, medicine, pharmacy, immortality, death and even wisdom. In the Sumer civilization (B.C. 2350-2150), designs with 2 snakes appeared. In Greek mythology (B.C. 2000-400), statues of Asclepius (God of Medicine), with "Caduceus" (made of two snakes and a staff), and his daughter Hygeia (God of Health), holding a snake and bowl, were created as symbols for medicine and health, respectively. A kind of Caduceus (1 snake and 1 staff) has been used as a symbol by the World Health Organization (WHO) and a snake and bowl as a symbol of pharmacies in Europe. Snakes have also been worshipped by old Indian peoples involved in Hinduism since 6-4th century B.C. In ancient Egypt, snake designs were used in hieroglyphs. In China, dried bodies of about 30 species of snakes are still using as Chinese medicines. In Japan, a painting of the symbol of "Genbu" (snake with tortoise) was found recently on the north wall of the Takamatsuzuka ancient tomb (7-8th century A.D.), however it is a symbol of a compass direction, and has probably less relation to medicine and pharmacy.

  4. Activity evaluation from different native or irradiated with 60 Co gamma rays snake venoms and their inhibitory effect on Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lourenco, Cecilia de Oliveira

    2000-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a disease, caused by Leishmania parasites, that occurs frequently in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Skin lesions that could results in disfiguring aspect characterize it. The treatment is based on few drugs as antimony salts or pentamidine that are toxic with increasing resistance by the parasite. Alternative forms of disease treatment are in constant search, including natural components as snake venoms. Previous studies demonstrate that some components of snake venoms have an inhibitory effect against those parasites, including Leishmania species. Although snake venoms presented high toxicity, several methods have been described to detoxify most or some of their toxic components, with favorable results by the use of gamma irradiation. In this report we tested several native and irradiated snake venoms for inhibitory effect against Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis parasite and LLCMK 2 mammalian cells, with enzymatic tests and electrophoresis. There are significant activity in Acanthophis antarcticus, Agkistrodon bilineatus, Bothrops moojeni, Bothrops jararaca, Hoplocephalus stephensi, Naja melanoleuca, Naja mossambica, Pseudechis australis, Pseudechis colletti, Pseudechis guttatus and Pseudechis porphyriacus, venom being inactive Pseudonaja textilis, Notechis ater niger, Notechis scutatus. Oxyuranus microlepidotus and Oxyuranus scutellatus venoms. After 2 KGy of 60 Co irradiation most venom loses significantly their activity. Venoms with antileishmanial activity presented L-amino acid oxidase (L-AO) activity and showed common protein with a molecular weight about 60kDa in SDS-PAGE. These results indicate that L-AO activity in those venoms are probably related with antileishmanial effect. (author)

  5. Common Courses for Common Purposes:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub Jr, Gary John

    2014-01-01

    (PME)? I suggest three alternative paths that increased cooperation in PME at the level of the command and staff course could take: a Nordic Defence College, standardized national command and staff courses, and a core curriculum of common courses for common purposes. I conclude with a discussion of how...

  6. QCI Common

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-11-18

    There are many common software patterns and utilities for the ORNL Quantum Computing Institute that can and should be shared across projects. Otherwise we find duplication of code which adds unwanted complexity. This is a software product seeks to alleviate this by providing common utilities such as object factories, graph data structures, parameter input mechanisms, etc., for other software products within the ORNL Quantum Computing Institute. This work enables pure basic research, has no export controlled utilities, and has no real commercial value.

  7. Gourds: Bitter, Bottle, Wax, Snake, Sponge and Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor cucurbits include bitter gourd, bottle gourd, wax gourd, snake gourd, and sponge and ridge gourd, which are significant dietary sources of nutrients such as vitamin A and C, iron and calcium. These cucurbits are cultivated and marketed by smallholder farmers and remain important components of ...

  8. Attention bias modification in specific fears: Spiders versus snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xijia; Ikani, Nessa; Barth, Anja; Rengers, Lea; Becker, Eni; Rinck, Mike

    2015-12-01

    Attention Bias Modification (ABM) is used to manipulate attention biases in anxiety disorders. It has been successful in reducing attention biases and anxious symptoms in social anxiety and generalized anxiety, but not yet in specific fears and phobias. We designed a new version of the dot-probe training task, aiming to train fearful participants' attention away from or towards pictures of threatening stimuli. Moreover, we studied whether the training also affected participants' avoidance behavior and their physical arousal upon being confronted with a real threat object. In Experiment 1, students with fear of spiders were trained. We found that the attention manipulation was successful, but the training failed to affect behavior or arousal. In Experiment 2, the same procedure was used on snake-fearful students. Again, attention was trained in the expected directions. Moreover, participants whose attention had been trained away from snakes showed lower physiological arousal upon being confronted with a real snake. The study involved healthy students with normal distribution of the fear of spider/snake. Future research with clinical sample could help with determining the generalizability of the current findings. The effect of ABM on specific phobia is still in question. The finding in the present study suggested the possibility to alter attentional bias with a dot-probe task with general positive stimuli and this training could even affect the behavior while encountering a real threat. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. SNAKE VENOM INSTABILITY • Department of Physiology, Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is generally accepted that the biological activities of snake venom dried in vacuum at room temperature remain unaltered (Christensen 1955). The possibility of an alteration in biochemical properties due to the method of drying has been demonstrated by Bjork &. Boman (1959), but this would not necessarily influence the ...

  10. The Egg-Eating Snake, Introductory Problem, Explorations in Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mid-Continent Regional Educational Lab., Inc., Kansas City, MO.

    The booklet is designed as an introduction to a series of topics which use the same format, and which are published separately. A series of photographs of a snake eating an egg are used to ask students to identify a puzzling event that they would want to investigate if they were biologists. A scrambled programed text format is used to direct…

  11. Australia´s Dangerous Snakes Identification, Biology and Envenoming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirtschin, Peter; Redsted Rasmussen, Arne; Weinstein, Scott A

    2017-01-01

    , the environmental roles of these snakes and the threats that are causing the decline of many of these reptiles are discussed. Drawing on the authors’ experience in the fields of herpetology, toxinology and clinical medicine, this book stimulates respect and admiration and dispels fear of Australia’s fascinating...

  12. Snakes from the Leeward Group, Venezuela and eastern Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brongersma, L.D.

    1940-01-01

    Dr. P. Wagenaar Hummelinck entrusted me with the study of the snakes, which he collected during his trips to the islands off the north coast of Venezuela, to the Venezuelan mainland, and to eastern Colombia. In the present paper the species collected by Dr. Hummelinck are listed with data on scale

  13. An additional trigeminal system in certain snakes possessing infrared receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, Gerard J.

    1974-01-01

    This communication describes a nucleus and tract of the trigeminal system whose existence is not mentioned in any account of brain stem architecture known to the present author. The structures were first recognised in the brain stem of a giant snake (Python reticulatus) and later were also found

  14. High brilliance multicusp ion source for hydrogen microscopy at SNAKE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, M., E-mail: marcus.moser@unibw.de [Universitaet der Bundeswehr Muenchen, Institut fuer Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, LRT2, Department fuer Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, 85577 Neubiberg (Germany); Reichart, P. [Universitaet der Bundeswehr Muenchen, Institut fuer Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, LRT2, Department fuer Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, 85577 Neubiberg (Germany); Carli, W. [Maier-Leibniz-Laboraturium der LMU und TU Muenchen, 85478 Garching (Germany); Greubel, C.; Peeper, K. [Universitaet der Bundeswehr Muenchen, Institut fuer Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, LRT2, Department fuer Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, 85577 Neubiberg (Germany); Hartung, P. [Maier-Leibniz-Laboraturium der LMU und TU Muenchen, 85478 Garching (Germany); Dollinger, G. [Universitaet der Bundeswehr Muenchen, Institut fuer Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, LRT2, Department fuer Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, 85577 Neubiberg (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    In order to improve the lateral resolution of the 3D hydrogen microscopy by proton-proton scattering at the Munich microprobe SNAKE, we have installed a new multicusp ion source for negative hydrogen ions manufactured by HVEE at the Munich 14 MV tandem accelerator that boosts the proton beam brilliance with the potential to reduce the beam diameter at the focal plane of SNAKE. We measured a beam brilliance B = 27 A m{sup -2} rad{sup -2} eV{sup -1} directly behind the ion source that is at the space charge limit for conventional ion sources. After preacceleration to in total 180 keV beam energy we measure a slightly reduced beam brilliance of B = 10 {mu}A mm{sup -2} mrad{sup -2} MeV{sup -1}. For injection into the tandem accelerator, the extracted H{sup -}-current of the multicusp source of 1 mA is reduced to about 10 {mu}A because of radiation safety regulations and heating problems at the object slits of SNAKE. Due to beam oscillations and influences of the terminal stripper of the tandem we measured a reduced beam brilliance of 0.8 {mu}A mm{sup -2} mrad{sup -2} MeV{sup -1} in front of SNAKE at 25 MeV but still being nearly 10 times larger than measured with any other ion source.

  15. High-throughput epitope profiling of snake venom toxins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engmark, Mikael; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam; Laustsen, Andreas Hougaard

    Insight into the molecular details of polyclonal antivenom antibody specificity is a prerequisite for accurate prediction of cross-reactivity and can provide a basis for design of novel antivenoms. In this work, a highthroughput approach was applied to characterize linear elements in epitopes in ...... toxins from four African mamba and three neurotoxic cobra snakes obtained from public databases....

  16. Pitfalls to avoid when using phage display for snake toxins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Andreas Hougaard; Lauridsen, Line Præst; Lomonte, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Antivenoms against bites and stings from snakes, spiders, and scorpions are associated with immunological side effects and high cost of production, since these therapies are still derived from the serum of hyper-immunized production animals. Biotechnological innovations within envenoming therapies...

  17. New Sarcocystis species with a snake-gecko life cycle

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šlapeta, J.; Modrý, D.; Koudela, Břetislav

    1998-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 1 (1998), s. 7 ISSN 1066-5234. [New Sarcocystis species with a snake -gecko life cycle. 01.01.1998-02.01.1998, Praha] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA508/95/0273 Subject RIV: fp - Other Medical Disciplines

  18. The problem of radiative depolarization in the 'Siberian Snake'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwitters, R.

    1979-01-01

    As pointed out by Derbenev and Kondratenko and by the LEP Study Group, a 'Siberian Snake' may be a convenient method for providing longitudinally polarized beams at LEP. The author shows that at the highest LEP energies (approximately>60 GeV) synchrotron radiation with spin-flip may depolarize the beams. (Auth.)

  19. Neuroradiologic findings in brown snake envenomation: Computed tomography demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midyett, F.A.

    1998-01-01

    A case of fatal brown snake (Pseudonaja textilis) envenomation is presented. The CT examinations show rapid development and progression of atypical bilateral intracerebral haematomas (ICH) which produce a fatal outcome despite correction of the underlying coagulopathy. The striking CT appearance suggests coagulopathy and is predictive of increased mortality. Copyright (1998) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  20. Structure and function of the hearts of lizards and snakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jensen, Bjarke; Moorman, Antoon F. M.; Wang, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    With approximately 7000 species, snakes and lizards, collectively known as squamates, are by far the most species-rich group of reptiles. It was from reptile-like ancestors that mammals and birds evolved and squamates can be viewed as phylogenetically positioned between them and fishes. Hence, their

  1. Of Mice and Snakes: A Tail of Oct4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shylo, Natalia A; Weatherbee, Scott D

    2016-08-08

    The vertebrate axial skeleton comprises regions of specialized vertebrae, which vary in length between lineages. Aires et al. (2016) uncover a key role for Oct4 in determining trunk length in mice. Additionally, a heterochronic shift in Oct4 expression may underlie the extreme elongation of the trunk in snakes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Snakes of Cerrado localities in western Bahia, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    de Freitas, Marco; Colli, Guarino; Entiauspe-Neto, Omar; Trinchão, Luiz; Araújo, Daniel; Lima, Tiago; de França, Daniella; Gaiga, Renato; Dias, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    We present a list of snake species found in 10 municipalities in the Cerrado of western Bahia state, Brazil. One hundred and twenty individuals of 46 species from seven families were examined. We also present a new state record for the genus Phalotris Cope, 1862 and a candidate new species for the genus Thamnodynastes Wagler, 1830.

  3. Diet of the Louisiana pine snake (Pituophis ruthveni)

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Craig Rudolph; Christopher A. Melder; Josh Pierce; Richard R. Schaefer; Beau Gregory

    2012-01-01

    The Louisiana Pine Snake (Pituophis ruthveni) is a large-bodied constrictor endemic to western Louisiana and eastern Texas (Sweet and Parker 1991). Surveys suggest that the species has declined in recent decades and is now restricted to isolated habitat patches (Reichling 1995; Rudolph et al. 2006). Pituophis ruthveni is listed as...

  4. Satiety and eating patterns in two species of constricting snakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben P; Jacobsen, Magnus W.; Wang, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    Satiety has been studied extensively in mammals, birds and fish but very little information exists on reptiles. Here we investigate time-dependent satiation in two species of constricting snakes, ball pythons (Python regius) and yellow anacondas (Eunectes notaeus). Satiation was shown to depend...

  5. Spectral transmittance of the spectacle scale of snakes and geckos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van K.; Sivak, J.G.

    2015-01-01

    The spectral transmittance of the optical media of the eye plays a substantial role in tuning the spectrum of light available for capture by the retina. Certain squamate reptiles, including snakes and most geckos, shield their eyes beneath a layer of transparent, cornified skin called the

  6. Acid Mine Drainage Potential of the Coral Snake Waste Dump ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper assessed the Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) potential of the Coral Snake Waste Dump located close to the Enkansu and Kaw streams in Obuasi. Ten water and fifty rock samples were analysed for physico-chemical parameters. Acid Base Accounting (ABA) determinations using static methods were employed to ...

  7. (IgY- antibodies) prepared against Walterinnesia aegyptia snake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four groups of eight chickens were immunized intramuscularly with Walterinnesia aegyptia snake venoms mixed with Freund's complete adjuvant during the period from 1st October 2009 to 1st October 2011 at the Center of Excellence in Biotechnology Research, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia. Three weeks later, the ...

  8. Rediscovery of the Rare Sea Snake Hydrophis parviceps Smith 1935

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Arne R.; Elmberg, Johan; Sanders, Kate L.

    2012-01-01

    Smith's small-headed sea snake, Hydrophis parviceps, was originally described in 1935 from a single type specimen collected in southern Vietnam. Since this time there has been only one further record for the species-a specimen collected near the type locality in 1960 that has since been lost...

  9. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy in a snake bite victim: a case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy occurs in patients with severe emotional or physiologic stress. The prognosis is usually favorable, and the left ventricular wall motion dyskinesis normalizes within days to weeks. In this paper we report a case of snake bite complicated by takotsubo cardiomyopathy. We advise physicians to ...

  10. Taste buds in the palatal mucosa of snakes | Berkhoudt | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An examination of the oral mucosa of Crotalus and several Scolecophidia revealed the presence of taste buds. The taste buds in these two divergent groups of snakes are similar in appearance, and correspond to previous descriptions of gustatory organs in other reptiles. Few taste buds were present in any specimen, and ...

  11. Sex, snakes and violence / Sherwin Das, Tim Ochser

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Das, Sherwin

    2006-01-01

    Patrick Süskindi krimiromaani "Parfüüm" ekraniseering "Perfume: The Story of a Murderer" : režissöör Tom Tykver : Ameerika Ühendriigid - Saksamaa 2006. Õuduspõnevik "Maod lennukis" ("Snakes on a Plane") : režissöör David R. Ellis : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2006

  12. Neurological manifestations in speech after snake bite: A rare case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neurological manifestations in speech after snake bite: A rare case. D Vir, D Gupta, M Modi, N Panda. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/pamj.v4i1.53597 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

  13. Predictive Factors for Death After Snake Envenomation in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Kyi-Phyu; Thanachartwet, Vipa; Soe, Chit; Desakorn, Varunee; Chamnanchanunt, Supat; Sahassananda, Duangjai; Supaporn, Thanom; Sitprija, Visith

    2018-06-01

    Factors predictive for death from snake envenomation vary between studies, possibly due to variation in host genetic factors and venom composition. This study aimed to evaluate predictive factors for death from snake envenomation in Myanmar. A prospective study was performed among adult patients with snakebite admitted to tertiary hospitals in Yangon, Myanmar, from May 2015 to August 2016. Data including clinical variables and laboratory parameters, management, and outcomes were evaluated. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to evaluate factors predictive for death at the time of presentation to the hospital. Of the 246 patients with snake envenomation recruited into the study, 225 (92%) survived and 21 (8%) died during hospitalization. The snake species responsible for a bite was identified in 74 (30%) of the patients; the majority of bites were from Russell's vipers (63 patients, 85%). The independent factors predictive for death included 1) duration from bite to arrival at the hospital >1 h (odds ratio [OR]: 9.0, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-75.2; P=0.04); 2) white blood cell counts >20 ×10 3 cells·μL -1 (OR: 8.9, 95% CI: 2.3-33.7; P=0.001); and 3) the presence of capillary leakage (OR: 3.7, 95% CI: 1.2-11.2; P=0.02). A delay in antivenom administration >4 h increases risk of death (11/21 deaths). Patients who present with these independent predictive factors should be recognized and provided with early appropriate intervention to reduce the mortality rate among adults with snake envenomation in Myanmar. Copyright © 2018 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Ontogenetic shifts and spatial associations in organ positions for snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Gretchen E; Secor, Stephen M

    2015-12-01

    Snakes possess an elongated body form and serial placement of organs which provides the opportunity to explore historic and adaptive mechanisms of organ position. We examined the influence of body size and sex on the position of, and spatial associations between, the heart, liver, small intestine, and right kidney for ten phylogenetically diverse species of snakes that vary in body shape and habitat. Snake snout-vent length explained much of the variation in the position of these four organs. For all ten species, the position of the heart and liver relative to snout-vent length decreased as a function of size. As body size increased from neonate to adult, these two organs shifted anteriorly an average of 4.7% and 5.7% of snout-vent length, respectively. Similarly, the small intestine and right kidney shifted anteriorly with an increase in snout-vent length for seven and five of the species, respectively. The absolute and relative positioning of these organs did not differ between male and female Burmese pythons (Python molurus). However, for diamondback water snakes (Nerodia rhombifer), the liver and small intestine were more anteriorly positioned in females as compared to males, whereas the right kidney was positioned more anteriorly for males. Correlations of residuals of organ position (deviation from predicted position) demonstrated significant spatial associations between organs for nine of the ten species. For seven species, individuals with hearts more anterior (or posterior) than predicted also tended to possess livers that were similarly anteriorly (or posteriorly) placed. Positive associations between liver and small intestine positions and between small intestine and right kidney positions were observed for six species, while spatial associations between the heart and small intestine, heart and right kidney, and liver and right kidney were observed in three or four species. This study demonstrates that size, sex, and spatial associations may have

  15. Kinematics, muscular activity and propulsion in gopher snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon; Gans

    1998-10-01

    Previous studies have addressed the physical principles and muscular activity patterns underlying terrestrial lateral undulation in snakes, but not the mechanism by which muscular activity produces curvature and propulsion. In this study, we used synchronized electromyography and videography to examine the muscular basis and propulsive mechanism of terrestrial lateral undulation in gopher snakes Pituophis melanoleucus affinis. Specifically, we used patch electrodes to record from the semispinalis, longissimus dorsi and iliocostalis muscles in snakes pushing against one or more pegs. Axial bends propagate posteriorly along the body and contact the pegs at or immediately posterior to an inflection of curvature, which then reverses anterior to the peg. The vertebral column bends broadly around a peg, whereas the body wall bends sharply and asymmetrically around the anterior surface of the peg. The epaxial muscles are always active contralateral to the point of contact with a peg; they are activated slightly before or at the point of maximal convexity and deactivated variably between the inflection point and the point of maximal concavity. This pattern is consistent with muscular shortening and the production of axial bends, although variability in the pattern indicates that other muscles may affect the mechanics of the epaxial muscles. The kinematic and motor patterns in snakes crawling against experimentally increased drag indicated that forces are produced largely by muscles that are active in the axial bend around each peg, rather than by distant muscles from which the forces might be transmitted by connective tissues. At each point of force exertion, the propulsive mechanism of terrestrial lateral undulation may be modeled as a type of cam-follower, in which continuous bending of the trunk around the peg produces translation of the snake.

  16. Development of hemipenes in the ball python snake Python regius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Francisca; Cohn, Martin J

    2015-01-01

    Within amniotes, external copulatory organs have undergone extensive morphological diversification. One of the most extreme examples is squamate (lizards and snakes) hemipenes, which are paired copulatory organs that extend from the lateral margins of the cloaca. Here, we describe the development of hemipenes in a basal snake, the ball python (Python regius). Snake hemipenes arise as a pair of lateral swellings on either side of the caudal part of the cloaca, and these paired outgrowths persist to form the left and right hemipenes. In non-squamate amniotes, external genitalia form from paired swellings that arise on the anterior side of the cloaca, which then fuse medially to form a single genital tubercle, the anlagen of the penis or clitoris. Whereas in non-squamate amniotes, Sonic hedgehog (Shh)-expressing cells of the cloacal endoderm form the urethral or sulcus epithelium and are required for phallus outgrowth, the hemipenes of squamates lack an endodermal contribution, and the sulcus does not express Shh. Thus, snake hemipenes differ from the genital tubercles of non-squamate amniotes both in their embryonic origins and in at least part of patterning mechanisms, which raises the possibility that hemipenes may not be direct homologs of the unpaired amniote penis. Nonetheless, we find that some developmental genes show similar expression patterns in snake hemipenes buds and non-squamate genital tubercles, suggesting that homologous developmental mechanisms are involved in aspects of external genital development across amniotes, even when these structures may have different developmental origins and may have arisen independently during evolution.

  17. A transitional snake from the Late Cretaceous period of North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longrich, Nicholas R; Bhullar, Bhart-Anjan S; Gauthier, Jacques A

    2012-08-09

    Snakes are the most diverse group of lizards, but their origins and early evolution remain poorly understood owing to a lack of transitional forms. Several major issues remain outstanding, such as whether snakes originated in a marine or terrestrial environment and how their unique feeding mechanism evolved. The Cretaceous Coniophis precedens was among the first Mesozoic snakes discovered, but until now only an isolated vertebra has been described and it has therefore been overlooked in discussions of snake evolution. Here we report on previously undescribed material from this ancient snake, including the maxilla, dentary and additional vertebrae. Coniophis is not an anilioid as previously thought a revised phylogenetic analysis of Ophidia shows that it instead represents the most primitive known snake. Accordingly, its morphology and ecology are critical to understanding snake evolution. Coniophis occurs in a continental floodplain environment, consistent with a terrestrial rather than a marine origin; furthermore, its small size and reduced neural spines indicate fossorial habits, suggesting that snakes evolved from burrowing lizards. The skull is intermediate between that of lizards and snakes. Hooked teeth and an intramandibular joint indicate that Coniophis fed on relatively large, soft-bodied prey. However, the maxilla is firmly united with the skull, indicating an akinetic rostrum. Coniophis therefore represents a transitional snake, combining a snake-like body and a lizard-like head. Subsequent to the evolution of a serpentine body and carnivory, snakes evolved a highly specialized, kinetic skull, which was followed by a major adaptive radiation in the Early Cretaceous period. This pattern suggests that the kinetic skull was a key innovation that permitted the diversification of snakes.

  18. Clinical profile & complications of neurotoxic snake bite & comparison of two regimens of polyvalent anti-snake venom in its treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Sarin

    2017-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: In this preliminary study, it was found that the national ASV protocol was as effective as the conventional regimen for neurotoxic snake bites. However, the findings need to be tested in a larger randomized controlled trial for definitive conclusions.

  19. Hypernatremia in Dice snakes (Natrix tessellata) from a coastal population: implications for osmoregulation in marine snake prototypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brischoux, François; Kornilev, Yurii V

    2014-01-01

    The widespread relationship between salt excreting structures (e.g., salt glands) and marine life strongly suggests that the ability to regulate salt balance has been crucial during the transition to marine life in tetrapods. Elevated natremia (plasma sodium) recorded in several marine snakes species suggests that the development of a tolerance toward hypernatremia, in addition to salt gland development, has been a critical feature in the evolution of marine snakes. However, data from intermediate stage (species lacking salt glands but occasionally using salty environments) are lacking to draw a comprehensive picture of the evolution of an euryhaline physiology in these organisms. In this study, we assessed natremia of free-ranging Dice snakes (Natrix tessellata, a predominantly fresh water natricine lacking salt glands) from a coastal population in Bulgaria. Our results show that coastal N. tessellata can display hypernatremia (up to 195.5 mmol x l(-1)) without any apparent effect on several physiological and behavioural traits (e.g., hematocrit, body condition, foraging). More generally, a review of natremia in species situated along a continuum of habitat use between fresh- and seawater shows that snake species display a concomitant tolerance toward hypernatremia, even in species lacking salt glands. Collectively, these data suggest that a physiological tolerance toward hypernatremia has been critical during the evolution of an euryhaline physiology, and may well have preceded the evolution of salt glands.

  20. Fall Chinook Salmon Survival and Supplementation Studies in the Snake River and Lower Snake River Reservoirs, 1995 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, John G.; Bjomn (Bjornn), Theodore C.

    1997-03-01

    In 1994, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the US Fish and Wildlife Service began a cooperative study to investigate migrational characteristics of subyearling fall chinook salmon in the Snake River. The primary study objectives were to (1) determine the feasibility of estimating detection and passage survival probabilities of natural and hatchery subyearling fall chinook salmon released in the Snake River (Chapter 1), (2) investigate relationships between detection and passage survival probabilities and travel time of subyearling fall chinook salmon and environmental influences such as flow volume and water temperature (Chapter 1), (3) monitor and evaluate dispersal of hatchery subyearling chinook salmon into nearshore rearing areas used by natural fish (Chapter 2), and (4) monitor and evaluate travel time to Lower Granite Dam, growth from release in the Snake River to recapture at Lower Granite Dam, ATPase levels of fish recaptured at Lower Granite Dam, and survival from release in the free-flowing Snake River to the tailrace of Lower Granite Dam (Chapter 2).

  1. Fall chinook salmon survival and supplementation studies in the Snake River and Lower Snake River reservoirs: Annual report 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, John G.; Bjornn, Theodore C.

    1997-01-01

    In 1994, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the US Fish and Wildlife Service began a cooperative study to investigate migrational characteristics of subyearling fall chinook salmon in the Snake River. The primary study objectives were to (1) determine the feasibility of estimating detection and passage survival probabilities of natural and hatchery subyearling fall chinook salmon released in the Snake River (Chapter 1), (2) investigate relationships between detection and passage survival probabilities and travel time of subyearling fall chinook salmon and environmental influences such as flow volume and water temperature (Chapter 1), (3) monitor and evaluate dispersal of hatchery subyearling chinook salmon into nearshore rearing areas used by natural fish (Chapter 2), and (4) monitor and evaluate travel time to Lower Granite Dam, growth from release in the Snake River to recapture at Lower Granite Dam, ATPase levels of fish recaptured at Lower Granite Dam, and survival from release in the free-flowing Snake River to the tailrace of Lower Granite Dam (Chapter 2)

  2. Postovipositional development of the sand snake Psammophis sibilans (Serpentes:Lamprophiidae) in comparison with other snake species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Khannoon, E. R.; Zahradníček, Oldřich

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 98, č. 2 (2017), s. 144-153 ISSN 0001-7272 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-37368G Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : embryonic development * Psammophis * snake Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology OBOR OECD: Developmental biology Impact factor: 1.211, year: 2016

  3. Hypernatremia in Dice snakes (Natrix tessellata from a coastal population: implications for osmoregulation in marine snake prototypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Brischoux

    Full Text Available The widespread relationship between salt excreting structures (e.g., salt glands and marine life strongly suggests that the ability to regulate salt balance has been crucial during the transition to marine life in tetrapods. Elevated natremia (plasma sodium recorded in several marine snakes species suggests that the development of a tolerance toward hypernatremia, in addition to salt gland development, has been a critical feature in the evolution of marine snakes. However, data from intermediate stage (species lacking salt glands but occasionally using salty environments are lacking to draw a comprehensive picture of the evolution of an euryhaline physiology in these organisms. In this study, we assessed natremia of free-ranging Dice snakes (Natrix tessellata, a predominantly fresh water natricine lacking salt glands from a coastal population in Bulgaria. Our results show that coastal N. tessellata can display hypernatremia (up to 195.5 mmol x l(-1 without any apparent effect on several physiological and behavioural traits (e.g., hematocrit, body condition, foraging. More generally, a review of natremia in species situated along a continuum of habitat use between fresh- and seawater shows that snake species display a concomitant tolerance toward hypernatremia, even in species lacking salt glands. Collectively, these data suggest that a physiological tolerance toward hypernatremia has been critical during the evolution of an euryhaline physiology, and may well have preceded the evolution of salt glands.

  4. Creative Commons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lone

    2006-01-01

    En Creative Commons licens giver en forfatter mulighed for at udbyde sit værk i en alternativ licensløsning, som befinder sig på forskellige trin på en skala mellem yderpunkterne "All rights reserved" og "No rights reserved". Derved opnås licensen "Some rights reserved"......En Creative Commons licens giver en forfatter mulighed for at udbyde sit værk i en alternativ licensløsning, som befinder sig på forskellige trin på en skala mellem yderpunkterne "All rights reserved" og "No rights reserved". Derved opnås licensen "Some rights reserved"...

  5. Science commons

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    SCP: Creative Commons licensing for open access publishing, Open Access Law journal-author agreements for converting journals to open access, and the Scholar's Copyright Addendum Engine for retaining rights to self-archive in meaningful formats and locations for future re-use. More than 250 science and technology journals already publish under Creative Commons licensing while 35 law journals utilize the Open Access Law agreements. The Addendum Engine is a new tool created in partnership with SPARC and U.S. universities. View John Wilbanks's biography

  6. A preliminary investigations on infective parasites in King rat snakes(Elaphe carinata and Red-banded wolf snakes(Dinodon rufozonatum in Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WU Youling

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the infective status of parasites in snakes from Shanghai,19 snakes from 2 species ( 9 Dinodon rufozonatum and 10 Elaphe carinata confiscated from the market were dissected.The viscera (body,subcutaneous,muscles,heart,lungs,liver,stomach,intestinal organs and blood smears of the snakes were examined.The parasites from these viscera were collected and observed by microscope.The results showed nematodes,tapeworms and Hepatozoon were found,but no ectoparasites,trematodes and acanthocephalan.The parasitic infection rate of snakes checked was 100%.The infection rate of nematodes,tapeworms and Hepatozoon were 77.88%,100%,0 in Dinodon rufozonatum and 100%,100%,100% in Elaphe carinata, respectively.A total of 192 nematodes and 1236 tapeworms were collected in 19 snakes,and 69.79% of nematodes and 86.55% of tapeworms were from Elaphe carinata.According to the viscera,93.20% of tapeworms were found in subcutaneous and 65.63% of nematodes in stomach.The results indicated the parasitic infection rate and intensity of snakes from Shanghai market were very high.Sparganum mansoni found in this investigation was zoonotic parasite,and it is easy to infect humans through eating snake skin,meat and gall.Therefore,protecting wild animals like snakes is also to protect human themselves.

  7. Design of a new therapy to treat snake envenomation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahidi Bonjar L

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Leyla Shahidi BonjarDepartment of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, International Campus, Kerman, IranAbstract: The prospective removal of snake venoms from the blood of snake-bitten patients is discussed here. Opportune neutralization of killer antigens from the blood of poisoned victims is a vital treatment step. Delays may lead to death, or cripple the patient permanently. The present procedure describes the elimination of venom antigens of a wide range of snakes from the blood of such patients. Compared to conventional treatments, the treatment is administrable in the lack of proper antivenoms, expected to be more effective with less side effects, covers a vast range of snake venoms, minimizes contact of venoms with internal tissues and organs, is applicable in patients sensitive to serum injections, has a high chance of effectiveness because there is no need to identity the snake involved to administer its specific antibody, and is capable of universal application. The principal component to this approach is a “polyvalent venom antibody column” (PVAC, which selectively traps venom antigens from blood in an extracorporeal circuit while detoxified blood returns back to the patient's body. The PVAC is intended for removal of numerous snake venom antigens in a relatively simple procedure. Detoxification is performed under the supervision of trained personnel using simple blood-circulating machines in which blood circulates from patient to PVAC and back to the patient aseptically. The device acts as a biological filter that selectively immobilizes harmful venom antigens from poisoned blood. For effective neutralization, the PVAC provides a large contact surface area with blood. The PVAC’s reactive sites would consist of carbon nanotubes, on which a vast spectra of venoms' antibodies are bonded to. In this extracorporeal detoxification process, nocent antigens conjugate with their antibodies and

  8. Common approach to common interests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    In referring to issues confronting the energy field in this region and options to be exercised in the future, I would like to mention the fundamental condition of the utmost importance. That can be summed up as follows: any subject in energy area can never be solved by one country alone, given the geographical and geopolitical characteristics intrinsically possessed by energy. So, a regional approach is needed and it is especially necessary for the main players in the region to jointly address problems common to them. Though it may be a matter to be pursued in the distant future, I am personally dreaming a 'Common Energy Market for Northeast Asia,' in which member countries' interests are adjusted so that the market can be integrated and the region can become a most economically efficient market, thus formulating an effective power to encounter the outside. It should be noted that Europe needed forty years to integrate its market as the unified common market. It is necessary for us to follow a number of steps over the period to eventually materialize our common market concept, too. Now is the time for us to take a first step to lay the foundation for our descendants to enjoy prosperity from such a common market.

  9. In vitro screening of snake venom against multidrug-resistant tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujay Kumar Bhunia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The re-emergence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB has brought to light the importance of screening effective novel drugs. In the present study, in vitro activities of different snake (Naja naja, Bungarus fasciatus, Daboia russelli russelli, Naja kaouthia venoms have been investigated against clinical isolate of MDR-TB strains. The treatment with all the venoms inhibited the mycobacterial growth for at least a week in common and two of them (Naja naja and Naja kaouthia showed significantly longer inhibition up to two weeks against the MDR-TB strain with single dose and a repetition of those two venoms exhibited inhibition up to more than four weeks.

  10. Snake Model Based on Improved Genetic Algorithm in Fingerprint Image Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingying Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Automatic fingerprint identification technology is a quite mature research field in biometric identification technology. As the preprocessing step in fingerprint identification, fingerprint segmentation can improve the accuracy of fingerprint feature extraction, and also reduce the time of fingerprint preprocessing, which has a great significance in improving the performance of the whole system. Based on the analysis of the commonly used methods of fingerprint segmentation, the existing segmentation algorithm is improved in this paper. The snake model is used to segment the fingerprint image. Additionally, it is improved by using the global optimization of the improved genetic algorithm. Experimental results show that the algorithm has obvious advantages both in the speed of image segmentation and in the segmentation effect.

  11. [On gods, snakes and staffs--the emblem of the medical profession].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinerson, David; Salzer, Liat; Gabbay-Benziv, Rinnat

    2014-10-01

    The commonly accepted emblems of the Medical Profession are the staff of the Greek god of medicine--Asklepios (or Asclepius], on which one serpent is entwined. Later, around the 16th century C.E., the wand of the herald of the Greek Gods, e.g., Hermes, on which two snakes are entwined and facing each other, became popular as the emblem of the medical profession. We elaborate on the history of the evolution of these emblems as symbols of medicine, including earlier influences from the times of the ancient Egyptians and Babylonians, which were followed by Judeo-Christian traditions and concepts. The relevance of the use of the wand of Hermes as an emblem of our profession is further discussed.

  12. Association Between Fear and Beauty Evaluation of Snakes: Cross-Cultural Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landová, Eva; Bakhshaliyeva, Natavan; Janovcová, Markéta; Peléšková, Šárka; Suleymanova, Mesma; Polák, Jakub; Guliev, Akif; Frynta, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    According to the fear module theory, humans are evolutionarily predisposed to perceive snakes as prioritized stimuli and exhibit a fast emotional and behavioral response toward them. In Europe, highly dangerous snake species are distributed almost exclusively in the Mediterranean and Caspian areas. While the risk of a snakebite is relatively low in Central Europe, Azerbaijan, on the other hand, has a high occurrence of the deadly venomous Levant viper ( Macrovipera lebetina ). We hypothesize that co-habitation with this dangerous snake has shaped the way in which humans evaluate snake species resembling it. For that purpose, we asked respondents from the Czech Republic and Azerbaijan to rank photographs depicting 36 snake species according to perceived fear and beauty. The results revealed a high cross-cultural agreement in both evaluations (fear r 2 = 0.683, p differences. This may provide some support for the evolutionary hypothesis of preparedness to fear snakes.

  13. Adiabatic partial Siberian snake turn-on with no beam depolarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelps, R.A.; Anferov, V.A.; Chu, C.M.; Courant, E.D.; Crandell, D.A.; Derbenev, Y.S.; Kaufman, W.A.; Koulsha, A.V.; Krisch, A.D.; Nurushev, T.S.; Raczkowksi, D.B.; Sund, S.E.; Wong, V.K.; Caussyn, D.D.; Ellison, T.J.P.; Lee, S.Y.; Sperisen, F.; Stephenson, E.J.; von Przewoski, B.; Baiod, R.; Khiari, F.Z.; Ratner, L.G.; Sato, H.

    1994-01-01

    A recent experiment in the IUCF cooler ring studied the adiabatic turn-on of a partial Siberian snake at 370 MeV, where the spin tune, ν s is 21/2 for all snake strengths. The snake consisted of two rampable warm solenoid magnets in series with a superconducting solenoid; this combination allowed varying the snake strength between about 0 and 25% at 370 MeV. We measured the beam polaraization after varying the snake either 1, 2, or 10 times; we found with good precision that no polarization was lost. This supports the conjecture that a Siberian snake can be ramped adiabatically at an energy where the spin tune is a half integer

  14. Pulvinar neurons reveal neurobiological evidence of past selection for rapid detection of snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Le, Quan; Isbell, Lynne A; Matsumoto, Jumpei; Nguyen, Minh; Hori, Etsuro; Maior, Rafael S; Tomaz, Carlos; Tran, Anh Hai; Ono, Taketoshi; Nishijo, Hisao

    2013-11-19

    Snakes and their relationships with humans and other primates have attracted broad attention from multiple fields of study, but not, surprisingly, from neuroscience, despite the involvement of the visual system and strong behavioral and physiological evidence that humans and other primates can detect snakes faster than innocuous objects. Here, we report the existence of neurons in the primate medial and dorsolateral pulvinar that respond selectively to visual images of snakes. Compared with three other categories of stimuli (monkey faces, monkey hands, and geometrical shapes), snakes elicited the strongest, fastest responses, and the responses were not reduced by low spatial filtering. These findings integrate neuroscience with evolutionary biology, anthropology, psychology, herpetology, and primatology by identifying a neurobiological basis for primates' heightened visual sensitivity to snakes, and adding a crucial component to the growing evolutionary perspective that snakes have long shaped our primate lineage.

  15. Biogeographic origins of the viviparous sea snake assemblage (Elapidae) of the Indian Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ukuwela, D P; Lee, Michael S. Y.; Redsted Rasmussen, Arne

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: One of the primary goals in biogeography is to understand how different biotas have been assembled in different regions of the world. The presence of the viviparous sea snakes in the Indian Ocean (IO) poses a unique question in this regard due to their evolutionary origins in Australasia...... (Australia and New Guinea). Here, we examined the origins and patterns of colonization of the IO sea snake assemblage through time-calibrated molecular phylogenies and ancestral area reconstructions. We further evaluated how past and present barriers to dispersal affect genetic diversity of IO sea snakes...... by examining the population genetic structure of the widespread sea snake, Hydrophis curtus. Our phylogenetic analyses and ancestral area reconstructions strongly indicate that the majority of the IO sea snakes are derived from the Southeast Asian (SEA) sea snake fauna through dispersal and colonization...

  16. Detection of Snake Fungal Disease Due to Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola in Virginia, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Amanda L; Knowles, Susan; Ballmann, Anne E; Lorch, Jeffrey M

    2016-01-01

    Snake fungal disease (SFD) is an emerging disease of wildlife believed to be caused by Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola. Although geographic and host ranges have yet to be determined, this disease is characterized by crusty scales, superficial pustules, and subcutaneous nodules, with subsequent morbidity and mortality in some snake species. To confirm the presence of SFD and O. ophiodiicola in snakes of eastern Virginia, US, we clinically examined 30 free-ranging snakes on public lands from April to October 2014. Skin biopsy samples were collected from nine snakes that had gross lesions suggestive of SFD; seven of these biopsies were suitable for histologic interpretation, and eight were suitable for culture and PCR detection of O. ophiodiicola. Seven snakes had histologic features consistent with SFD and eight were positive for O. ophiodiicola by PCR or fungal culture.

  17. Detection of snake fungal disease due to Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola in Virginia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Amanda L.; Knowles, Susan N.; Ballmann, Anne; Lorch, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Snake fungal disease (SFD) is an emerging disease of wildlife believed to be caused by Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola. Although geographic and host ranges have yet to be determined, this disease is characterized by crusty scales, superficial pustules, and subcutaneous nodules, with subsequent morbidity and mortality in some snake species. To confirm the presence of SFD and O. ophiodiicola in snakes of eastern Virginia, USA, we clinically examined 30 free-ranging snakes on public lands from April to October 2014. Skin biopsy samples were collected from nine snakes that had gross lesions suggestive of SFD; seven of these biopsies were suitable for histologic interpretation, and eight were suitable for culture and PCR detection of O. ophiodiicola. Seven snakes had histologic features consistent with SFD and were positive for O. ophiodiicola by PCR or fungal culture.

  18. Detection of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus RNA in North American snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Andrea M; Graham, Sean P; Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D; White, Gregory S; Hassan, Hassan K; Unnasch, Thomas R

    2012-12-01

    The role of non-avian vertebrates in the ecology of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV) is unresolved, but mounting evidence supports a potential role for snakes in the EEEV transmission cycle, especially as over-wintering hosts. To determine rates of exposure and infection, we examined serum samples from wild snakes at a focus of EEEV in Alabama for viral RNA using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Two species of vipers, the copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) and the cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus), were found to be positive for EEEV RNA using this assay. Prevalence of EEEV RNA was more frequent in seropositive snakes than seronegative snakes. Positivity for the quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in cottonmouths peaked in April and September. Body size and sex ratios were not significantly different between infected and uninfected snakes. These results support the hypothesis that snakes are involved in the ecology of EEEV in North America, possibly as over-wintering hosts for the virus.

  19. Venom Down Under: Dynamic Evolution of Australian Elapid Snake Toxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Timothy N. W.; Sunagar, Kartik; Undheim, Eivind A. B.; Koludarov, Ivan; Chan, Angelo H. C.; Sanders, Kate; Ali, Syed A.; Hendrikx, Iwan; Dunstan, Nathan; Fry, Bryan G.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the unparalleled diversity of venomous snakes in Australia, research has concentrated on a handful of medically significant species and even of these very few toxins have been fully sequenced. In this study, venom gland transcriptomes were sequenced from eleven species of small Australian elapid snakes, from eleven genera, spanning a broad phylogenetic range. The particularly large number of sequences obtained for three-finger toxin (3FTx) peptides allowed for robust reconstructions of their dynamic molecular evolutionary histories. We demonstrated that each species preferentially favoured different types of α-neurotoxic 3FTx, probably as a result of differing feeding ecologies. The three forms of α-neurotoxin [Type I (also known as (aka): short-chain), Type II (aka: long-chain) and Type III] not only adopted differential rates of evolution, but have also conserved a diversity of residues, presumably to potentiate prey-specific toxicity. Despite these differences, the different α-neurotoxin types were shown to accumulate mutations in similar regions of the protein, largely in the loops and structurally unimportant regions, highlighting the significant role of focal mutagenesis. We theorize that this phenomenon not only affects toxin potency or specificity, but also generates necessary variation for preventing/delaying prey animals from acquiring venom-resistance. This study also recovered the first full-length sequences for multimeric phospholipase A2 (PLA2) ‘taipoxin/paradoxin’ subunits from non-Oxyuranus species, confirming the early recruitment of this extremely potent neurotoxin complex to the venom arsenal of Australian elapid snakes. We also recovered the first natriuretic peptides from an elapid that lack the derived C-terminal tail and resemble the plesiotypic form (ancestral character state) found in viper venoms. This provides supporting evidence for a single early recruitment of natriuretic peptides into snake venoms. Novel forms of kunitz

  20. Making the Common Good Common

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    How are independent schools to be useful to the wider world? Beyond their common commitment to educate their students for meaningful lives in service of the greater good, can they educate a broader constituency and, thus, share their resources and skills more broadly? Their answers to this question will be shaped by their independence. Any…

  1. Abundance and species richness of snakes along the Middle Rio Grande riparian forest in New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather L. Bateman; Alice Chung-MacCoubrey; Howard L. Snell; Deborah M. Finch

    2009-01-01

    To understand the effects of removal of non-native plants and fuels on wildlife in the riparian forest of the Middle Rio Grande in New Mexico, we monitored snakes from 2000 to 2006 using trap arrays of drift fences, pitfalls, and funnel traps. We recorded 158 captures of 13 species of snakes from 12 study sites. We captured more snakes in funnel traps than in pitfalls...

  2. The king cobra genome reveals dynamic gene evolution and adaptation in the snake venom system

    OpenAIRE

    Vonk, Freek J.; Casewell, Nicholas R.; Henkel, Christiaan V.; Heimberg, Alysha M.; Jansen, Hans J.; McCleary, Ryan J. R.; Kerkkamp, Harald M. E.; Vos, Rutger A.; Guerreiro, Isabel; Calvete, Juan J.; Wüster, Wolfgang; Woods, Anthony E.; Logan, Jessica M.; Harrison, Robert A.; Castoe, Todd A.

    2013-01-01

    Snakes are limbless predators, and many species use venom to help overpower relatively large, agile prey. Snake venoms are complex protein mixtures encoded by several multilocus gene families that function synergistically to cause incapacitation. To examine venom evolution, we sequenced and interrogated the genome of a venomous snake, the king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah), and compared it, together with our unique transcriptome, microRNA, and proteome datasets from this species, with data from ...

  3. Comparing Syndromic Surveillance and Poison Center Data for Snake Bites in Missouri

    OpenAIRE

    Pugh, Karen H.; Kelsey, Amy; Tominack, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study intends to use two different surveillance systems available in Missouri to explore snake bite frequency and geographic distribution. Introduction In 2010, there were 4,796 snake bite exposures reported to Poison Centers nationwide (1). Health care providers frequently request help from poison centers regarding snake envenomations due to the unpredictability and complexity of prognosis and treatment. The Missouri Poison Center (MoPC) maintains a surveillance database keepi...

  4. Association Between Fear and Beauty Evaluation of Snakes: Cross-Cultural Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landová, Eva; Bakhshaliyeva, Natavan; Janovcová, Markéta; Peléšková, Šárka; Suleymanova, Mesma; Polák, Jakub; Guliev, Akif; Frynta, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    According to the fear module theory, humans are evolutionarily predisposed to perceive snakes as prioritized stimuli and exhibit a fast emotional and behavioral response toward them. In Europe, highly dangerous snake species are distributed almost exclusively in the Mediterranean and Caspian areas. While the risk of a snakebite is relatively low in Central Europe, Azerbaijan, on the other hand, has a high occurrence of the deadly venomous Levant viper (Macrovipera lebetina). We hypothesize that co-habitation with this dangerous snake has shaped the way in which humans evaluate snake species resembling it. For that purpose, we asked respondents from the Czech Republic and Azerbaijan to rank photographs depicting 36 snake species according to perceived fear and beauty. The results revealed a high cross-cultural agreement in both evaluations (fear r2 = 0.683, p < 0.0001; beauty: r2 = 0.816, p < 0.0001). Snakes species eliciting higher fear tend to be also perceived as more beautiful, yet people are able to clearly distinguish between these two dimensions. Deadly venomous snakes representing a serious risk are perceived as highly fearful. This is especially true for the vipers and allies (pit vipers) possessing a characteristic body shape with a distinct triangular head and thick body, which was found as the most fear evoking by respondents from both countries. Although the attitude toward snakes is more negative among the respondents from Azerbaijan, their fear evaluation is similar to the Czechs. For instance, despite co-habitation with the Levant viper, it was not rated by the Azerbaijanis as more fearful than other dangerous snakes. In conclusion, agreement in the evaluation of snake fear and beauty is cross-culturally high and relative fear attributed to selected snake species is not directly explainable by the current environmental and cultural differences. This may provide some support for the evolutionary hypothesis of preparedness to fear snakes. PMID:29615942

  5. Linking snake behavior to nest predation in a Midwestern bird community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherhead, Patrick J; Carfagno, Gerardo L F; Sperry, Jinelle H; Brawn, Jeffrey D; Robinson, Scott K

    2010-01-01

    Nest predators can adversely affect the viability of songbird populations, and their impact is exacerbated in fragmented habitats. Despite substantial research on this predator-prey interaction, however, almost all of the focus has been on the birds rather than their nest predators, thereby limiting our understanding of the factors that bring predators and nests into contact. We used radiotelemetry to document the activity of two snake species (rat snakes, Elaphe obsoleta; racers, Coluber constrictor) known to prey on nests in Midwestern bird communities and simultaneously monitored 300 songbird nests and tested the hypothesis that predation risk should increase for nests when snakes were more active and in edge habitat preferred by both snake species. Predation risk increased when rat snakes were more active, for all nests combined and for two of the six bird species for which we had sufficient nests to allow separate analyses. This result is consistent with rat snakes being more important nest predators than racers. We found no evidence, however, that nests closer to forest edges were at greater risk. These results are generally consistent with the one previous study that investigated rat snakes and nest predation simultaneously. The seemingly paradoxical failure to find higher predation risk in the snakes' preferred habitat (i.e., edge) might be explained by the snakes using edges at least in part for non-foraging activities. We propose that higher nest predation in fragmented habitats (at least that attributable to snakes) results indirectly from edges promoting larger snake populations, rather than from edges directly increasing the risk of nest predation by snakes. If so, the notion of edges per se functioning as ecological "traps" merits further study.

  6. Predation upon hatchling dinosaurs by a new snake from the late Cretaceous of India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A Wilson

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Derived large-mouthed snakes (macrostomatans possess numerous specializations in their skull and lower jaws that allow them to consume large vertebrate prey. In contrast, basal snakes lack these adaptations and feed primarily on small prey items. The sequence of osteological and behavioral modifications involved in the evolution of the macrostomatan condition has remained an open question because of disagreement about the origin and interrelationships of snakes, the paucity of well-preserved early snake fossils on many continental landmasses, and the lack of information about the feeding ecology of early snakes. We report on a partial skeleton of a new 3.5-m-long snake, Sanajeh indicus gen. et sp. nov., recovered from Upper Cretaceous rocks of western India. S. indicus was fossilized in association with a sauropod dinosaur egg clutch, coiled around an egg and adjacent to the remains of a ca. 0.5-m-long hatchling. Multiple snake-egg associations at the site strongly suggest that S. indicus frequented nesting grounds and preyed on hatchling sauropods. We interpret this pattern as "ethofossil" preservation of feeding behavior. S. indicus lacks specializations of modern egg-eaters and of macrostomatans, and skull and vertebral synapomorphies place it in an intermediate position in snake phylogeny. Sanajeh and its large-bodied madtsoiid sister taxa Yurlunggur camfieldensis and Wonambi naracoortensis from the Neogene of Australia show specializations for intraoral prey transport but lack the adaptations for wide gape that characterize living macrostomatan snakes. The Dholi Dungri fossils are the second definitive association between sauropod eggs and embryonic or hatchling remains. New fossils from western India provide direct evidence of feeding ecology in a Mesozoic snake and demonstrate predation risks for hatchling sauropod dinosaurs. Our results suggest that large body size and jaw mobility afforded some non-macrostomatan snakes a greater

  7. Snake-like chromatin in conjunctival cells of normal elderly persons and of patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome and other connective tissue diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Kirsten Birgitte

    1995-01-01

    Ophthalmology, snake-like chromatin, cytoplasm ratio, keratoconjunctivitis sicca, nucleus, goblet cell......Ophthalmology, snake-like chromatin, cytoplasm ratio, keratoconjunctivitis sicca, nucleus, goblet cell...

  8. A magnetostatic calculation of fringing field for the Rogowski pole boundary with floating snake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Chen; Fan Ming-Wu

    1984-01-01

    A boundary integral method has been used to calculate the fringing field distribution of Rogowski pole boundary with floating snake for QMG2 type of QDDD magnetic spectrograph and the experimental EFB is nearly reproduced from BIM calculation. As a further criteria, a calculation for clamped Rogowski pole but without snake is also performed and the calculated EFB shows perfect identity with the experiment. For evaluating the effect of snake quantitatively, this work also predicts the EFB values for two different positions of snake

  9. Snake fungal disease in North America: U.S. Geological Survey updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Noelle E.; Lankau, Emily W.; Moede Rogall, Gail

    2018-01-12

    Snake fungal disease (SFD) results from a skin infection that has been documented only in snakes. Historically, reports of snakes with skin infections of unknown origin have been sporadic. Recently, the number of reported cases of skin infections in snakes has increased substantially. This emerging infectious disease, confirmed in numerous species of snakes, is caused by the fungus Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola. As of August 2017, O. ophiodiicola has been detected in at least 23 States and one Canadian Province. However, researchers suspect that SFD may be more widely distributed than these documented cases suggest, because efforts to monitor the health of many snake populations are limited. Snake fungal disease may also be underreported in populations where it affects snakes infrequently or in species that develop less severe illness. Signs of SFD include crusted or ulcerated scales, nodules (that is, abnormal bumps) under the skin, and facial disfiguration that can be quite severe, leading to emaciation and death. Many snake populations are already in decline due to habitat loss and dwindling prey populations, and the recent emergence of SFD may accelerate this decline, causing certain species to disappear entirely from some locations.

  10. Transient snakes in an ohmic plasma associated with a minor disruption in the HT-7 Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Songtao; Xu, Liqing; Hu, Liqun; Chen, Kaiyun [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China)

    2014-05-15

    A transient burst (∼2 ms, an order of the fast-particle slowdown timescale) of a spontaneous snake is observed for the first time in a HT-7 heavy impurity ohmic plasma. The features of the low-Z impurity snake are presented. The flatten electron profile due to the heavy impurity reveals the formation of a large magnetic island. The foot of the impurity accumulation is consistent with the location of the transient snake. The strong frequency-chirping behaviors and the spatial structures of the snake are also presented.

  11. Magnetostatic calculation of fringing field for the Rogowski pole boundary with floating snake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yan; Ming-Wu, Fan [Institute of Atomic Energy, Peking (China)

    1984-01-01

    A boundary integral method has been used to calculate the fringing field distribution of Rogowski pole boundary with floating snake for QMG2 type of QDDD magnetic spectrograph and the experimental EFB is nearly reproduced from BIM calculation. As a further criteria, a calculation for clamped Rogowski pole but without snake is also performed and the calculated EFB shows perfect identity with the experiment. For evaluating the effect of snake quantitatively, this work also predicts the EFB values for two different positions of snake.

  12. Tick infestation on wild snakes in northern part of western Ghats of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Pranav; Bandivdekar, Ruta; Geevarghese, G; Pande, Satish; Mandke, Omkar

    2011-05-01

    In total, 167 individuals of 30 species of snakes belonging to 22 genera and five families were examined for tick infestation from November 2008 to March 2010. Only two species of snakes, Ptyas mucosa (L., 1758) (Indian rat snake) and Naja naja (L., 1758) (spectacled cobra), were found infested by ticks. All ticks collected were identified to be Amblyomma gervaisi [previously Aponomma gervaisi (Lucas, 1847) 1. The average prevalence of these ticks on Indian rat snakes (n=48) was 29.16%, with abundance of 7.02 ticks per individual; on spectacled cobras (n=20), average prevalence was 30.00%, with abundance of 6.9 ticks per individual. The nymphs and males were predominant. All the ticks were found on the dorsal aspect of the body of the snake, and no ticks were recorded on the head, tail, or ventral body. The rate of tick infestation was highest in scrubland and was lowest in evergreen forests. Female Indian rat snakes showed higher tick infestation rates than male Indian rat snakes. Using Mann-Whitney U test, we found that longer snakes of both species had significantly higher rate of tick infestation in both the species of snakes.

  13. A longitudinal study of Salmonella from snakes used in a public outreach program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goupil, Brad A; Trent, Ava M; Bender, Jeff; Olsen, Karen E; Morningstar, Brenda R; Wünschmann, Arno

    2012-12-01

    Snakes are considered to be a source of Salmonella infection for humans, but little is known about the actual serotype prevalence in healthy snakes over time. Twelve snakes involved in a public outreach program, representing seven different species, were tested weekly for shedding of Salmonella sp. over a period of 10 consecutive weeks. The snakes were housed in close proximity but in separate exhibits. Fresh fecal samples (when available) or cloacal swabs were cultured for Salmonella sp., and subsequent Salmonella isolates were serotyped. As representatives of the feed source, the feces of two mice and the intestines of one rat were cultured weekly. Fecal samples from 11 of the 12 snakes were positive for Salmonella at least once. Seven (58%) of 12 snakes were culture positive five times or more. The weekly prevalence of Salmonella shedding varied between 25% and 66%. Two or more different serotypes were isolated from nine snakes over time; however, a predominant serotype was generally isolated from each of these snakes. Altogether 15 different serotypes were identified. Serotypes of public health concern included Newport, Oranienburg, and Muenchen. Two samples from feeder rodents were positive for Salmonella. The results are consistent with previous studies showing high intestinal colonization rates with Salmonella sp. in snakes. Frequent and intermittent shedding of multiple serotypes was evident. Feeder rodents might serve as a source for intestinal colonization. Appropriate handling protocols should be implemented for all reptiles associated with public outreach programs to minimize risk of Salmonella transmission to the public.

  14. Skeletal heterochrony is associated with the anatomical specializations of snakes among squamate reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werneburg, Ingmar; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R

    2015-01-01

    Snakes possess a derived anatomy, characterized by limb reduction and reorganization of the skull and internal organs. To understand the origin of snakes from an ontogenetic point of view, we conducted comprehensive investigations on the timing of skeletal elements, based on published and new data, and reconstructed the evolution of the ossification sequence among squamates. We included for the first time Varanus, a critical taxon in phylogenetic context. There is comprehensive delay in the onset of ossification of most skeletal elements in snakes when compared to reference developmental events through evolution. We hypothesize that progressing deceleration accompanied limb reduction and reorganization of the snake skull. Molecular and morphological studies have suggested close relationship of snakes to either amphisbaenians, scincids, geckos, iguanids, or varanids. Likewise, alternative hypotheses on habitat for stem snakes have been postulated. Our comprehensive heterochrony analyses detected developmental shifts in ossification for each hypothesis of snake origin. Moreover, we show that reconstruction of ancestral developmental sequences is a valuable tool to understand ontogenetic mechanisms associated with major evolutionary changes and test homology hypotheses. The "supratemporal" of snakes could be homolog to squamosal of other squamates, which starts ossification early to become relatively large in snakes. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  15. Orbital parameters of proton and deuteron beams in the NICA collider with solenoid Siberian snakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalenko, A D; Butenko, A V; Kekelidze, V D; Mikhaylov, V A; Kondratenko, M A; Filatov, Yu N; Kondratenko, A M

    2016-01-01

    Two solenoid Siberian snakes are required to obtain ion polarization in the “spin transparency” mode of the NICA collider. The field integrals of the solenoid snakes for protons and deuterons at maximum momentum of 13.5 GeV/c are equal to 2×50 T·m and 2×160 T·m respectively. The snakes introduce strong betatron oscillation coupling. The calculations of orbital parameters of proton and deuteron beams in NICA collider with solenoid snakes are presented. (paper)

  16. Spin Transparency Mode in the NICA Collider with Solenoid Siberian Snakes for Proton and Deuteron Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, A. D.; Butenko, A. V.; Mikhaylov, V. A.; Kondratenko, M. A.; Kondratenko, A. M.; Filatov, Yu N.

    2017-12-01

    Two solenoid Siberian Snakes are required to obtain ion polarization in spin transparency mode of the NICA collider. The snake solenoids with a total field integral of 2×50 T·m are placed into the straight sections of the NICA collider. It allows one to control polarization of protons and deuterons up to 13.5 GeV/c and 4 GeV/c respectively. The snakes introduce a strong betatron oscillation coupling. The calculations of orbital parameters of proton and deuteron beams in the NICA collider with solenoid Snakes are presented.

  17. The diets of Hispaniolan colubrid snakes : I. Introduction and prey genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Robert W

    1984-05-01

    Approximately 1590 Hispaniolan colubrid snakes representing six genera and eight species were examined for prey remains (Alsophis cantherigerus, Antillophis parvifrons, Darlingtonia haetiana, Hypsirhynchus ferox, Ialtris dorsalis, Uromacer catesbyi, U. frenatus, and U. oxyrhynchus). The snakes were collected at many localities over a span of 80 years.Of 426 prey items, 77.9% were lizards (of which 69.6% were anoles), 19% frogs, 2.6% birds and mammals, and 0.5% other snakes. Darlingtonia was the only snake that did not exploit lizards; it fed exclusively on Eleutherodactylus frogs, including egg clutches. Disregarding Darlingtonia, there is no size class of Hispaniolan colubrids between 20-90 cm SVL that does not prey primarily on Anolis. Certain prey genera are added to, or deleted from, diets depending on snake size, but the data suggest that snake SVL alone does little to dictate what prey genera (or groups) are eaten. Shannon-Wiener values (H') indicate that Darlingtonia has the narrowest trophic niche, while Alsophis and Ialtris have the widest. Values of H' are not correlated with snake SVL, but highly significant (Peats diurnally active (anoles) and diurnally quiescent (hylid frogs) prey with almost equal frequency.Within Maglio's cantherigerus species assemblage, in which an Alsophis cantherigerus-like snake was ancestral to the other species, and in which longsnouted Uromacer are the most morphologically derived, there is an obvious trend toward trophic specialization on Hispaniola. The West Indies have provided an ideal natural laboratory for the investigation of many aspects of vertebrate ecology, and an arena in which to test theories of island biogeography. The most extensively studied West Indian vertebrates have been the lizards of the iguanid genus Anolis. Conversely, the ecology of West Indian snakes has been largely ignored. This is surprising in light of the fact that much has been written about Anolis predation, but little has been written about

  18. Environmental Assessment for the MC-12 Training Squadron Beddown

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Chelydra serpentina), eastern mud turtle (Kinosternon subrubrum), and yellow- bellied slider ( Trachemys scripta scipta). 3.2.5.2 Aquatic Communities...mountain garter snake (Thamnophis elegans elegans ), western pond turtle (Emys marmorata), western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis

  19. Spin Flipping in the Presence of a Full Siberian Snake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blinov, B.B.; Anferov, V.A.; Derbenev, Y.S.; Kageya, T.; Krisch, A.D.; Lorenzon, W.; Ratner, L.G.; Sivers, D.W.; Sourkont, K.V.; Wong, V.K.; Chu, C.M.; Lee, S.Y.; Rinckel, T.; Schwandt, P.; Sperisen, F.; Przewoski, B. von; Sato, H.

    1998-01-01

    We have demonstrated for the first time spin flipping of a polarized proton beam stored in a ring containing a nearly 100% Siberian snake; we did this using a 'snake' depolarizing resonance induced by an rf solenoid magnet. By varying the rf solenoid close-quote s ramp time, frequency range, and voltage, we reached a spin-flip efficiency of about 91% . This spin-flip efficiency was probably reduced because the horizontal stable spin direction was not perpendicular to the longitudinal field of the rf solenoid, and was possibly reduced by nearby synchrotron sideband resonances. The planned use of a vertical rf dipole may improve the spin-flip efficiency. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  20. Analysis of Brazilian snake venoms by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiki, M.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Rogero, J.R.; Cruz, M.C.G.

    1991-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been applied to multielemental determinations of Brazilian snake venoms from the species: Bothrops jararacussu, Crotalus durissus terrificus and Bothrops jararaca. Concentrations of Br, Ca, Cl, Cs, K, Mg, Na, Rb, Sb, Se and Zn have been determined in lyophilized venoms by using short and long irradiations in the IEA-RI nuclear reactor under a thermal neutron flux of 10 11 to 10 13 n · cm -2 · s -1 . The reference materials NIST Bovine Liver 1577 and IUPAC Bowen's Kale were also analyzed simultaneously with the venoms to evaluate the accuracy and the reproducibility of the method. The concentrations of the elements found in snake venoms from different species were compared. The Crotalus durissus terrificus venoms presented high concentration of Se but low concentrations of Zn when these results are compared with those obtained from genera Bothrops venoms. (author) 9 refs.; 2 tabs

  1. Design study of a normal conducting helical snake for AGS

    CERN Document Server

    Takano, Junpei; Okamura, Masahiro; Roser, Thomas; MacKay, William W; Luccio, Alfredo U; Takano, Koji

    2004-01-01

    A new normal conducting snake magnet is being fabricated for the Alternate Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). In the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) project, a superconducting type helical dipole magnets had been developed and it performed successfully in high-energy polarized proton acceleration. The new AGS helical snake has the same basic magnetic structure but is more complicated. To achieve no beam shift and no beam deflection in one magnetic device, helical pitches and rotating angles were carefully calculated. Compared to a superconducting magnet, a normal warm magnet must have a large cross- sectional area of conductors which make it difficult to design a magnet with large helical pitch. We developed a modified window frame structure to accommodate the large number of conductors. Its three dimensional magnetic field was simulated by using OPERA3D/TOSCA. 3 Refs.

  2. Skeleton extraction based on the topology and Snakes model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanxue Cai

    Full Text Available A new skeleton line extraction method based on topology and flux is proposed by analyzing the distribution characteristics of the gradient vector field in the Snakes model. The distribution characteristics of the skeleton line are accurately obtained by calculating the eigenvalues of the critical points and the flux of the gradient vector field. Then the skeleton lines can be effectively extracted. The results also show that there is no need for the pretreatment or binarization of the target image. The skeleton lines of complex gray images such as optical interference patterns can be effectively extracted by using this method. Compared to traditional methods, this method has many advantages, such as high extraction accuracy and fast processing speed. Keywords: Skeleton, Snakes model, Topology, Photoelasticity image

  3. Fossorial snake genus Apostolepis from South America (Serpentes: Colubridae: Elapomorphinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Lema, Thales

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available An update commented list of the snake genus Apostolepis from South America, with keys for identification of the species. They are fossorial snakes that present different coloration according their distribution: (a 7 to 3 dark stripes coloration, without light nuchal collar (if present, vestigial, with snout not projected beyond jaws - in Amazonian and enclaves within Caatinga domain; (b 5 dark striped dorsal pattern, snout projected, usually without white nuchal collars — from region of contact between Cerrado and Chaco domains; (c dorsal pattern coloration uniformly red, with nucho-cervical collars, snout usually projected — in Cerrado with dispersion to Chaco and Caatinga; (d 2 or none dark stripes dorsally, venter immaculate or with black blotches, snout projecting: (e an aberrant pattern with oblique black dorsal stripes, without collars, head black and snout projecting — one species in an enclave within Caatinga, with 17 rows of scales instead of 15.

  4. Lower Snake River Juvenile Salmon Migration Feasibility Report/Environmental Impact Statement. Appendix L: Lower Snake River Mitigation History and Status. Appendix M: Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    ... (collectively called the Lower Snake River Project) and their effects on four lower Snake River salmon and steelhead stocks listed for protection under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The U.S...

  5. Ballistic and snake photon imaging for locating optical endomicroscopy fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, M. G.; Choudhary, T. R.; Craven, T. H.; Mills, B.; Bradley, M.; Henderson, R. K.; Dhaliwal, K.; Thomson, R. R.

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate determination of the location of the distal-end of a fibre-optic device deep in tissue through the imaging of ballistic and snake photons using a time resolved single-photon detector array. The fibre was imaged with centimetre resolution, within clinically relevant settings and models. This technique can overcome the limitations imposed by tissue scattering in optically determining the in vivo location of fibre-optic medical instruments. PMID:28966848

  6. Oxygenation properties and isoform diversity of snake hemoglobins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storz, Jay F.; Natarajan, Chandrasekhar; Moriyama, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    Available data suggest that snake hemoglobins (Hbs) are characterized by a combination of unusual structural and functional properties relative to the Hbs of other amniote vertebrates, including oxygenation-linked tetramer- dimer dissociation. However, standardized comparative data are lacking fo...... isoform of the South American rattlesnake is homologous to the minor HbD of other amniotes and, contrary to the pattern of Hb isoform differentiation in birds and turtles, exhibits a lower O2 affinity than the HbA isoform....

  7. MSAP In Tiger Snakes: Island Populations Are Epigenetically More Divergent

    OpenAIRE

    Konate, Moumouni; Lopez, Carlos; Thomson, Vicki

    2017-01-01

    Research on changes in phenotypic plasticity within wild animal populations is centuries old, however far fewer studies have investigated the role that epigenetics play in the development or persistence of natural variation in response to environmental change. Tiger snakes (Notechis scutatus) are an ideal study organism to investigate the link between epigenetics and phenotypic responses to environmental change, as they live on a range of offshore islands with different environments and prey ...

  8. On the formation of m = 1, n = 1 density snakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, Linda E. [Laboratory for Nuclear Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139-4307 (United States)

    2013-03-15

    The m/n = 1/1 helical ion density 'snake' located near the q = 1 magnetic surface in a toroidal, magnetically confined plasma arises naturally in resistive MHD, when the plasma density evolves separately from pressure. Nonlinear numerical simulations show that a helical density perturbation applied around q = 1 can form a quasi-steady state over q Greater-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 1 with T(tilde sign) of opposite average sign to n. Two principal outcomes depend on the magnitude of n/n and the underlying stability of the 1/1 internal kink mode. For a small q<1 central region, a moderate helical density drives a new, slowly growing type of nonlinear 1/1 internal kink inside q<1, with small n and {nabla}p(tilde sign) Asymptotically-Equal-To {nabla}(nT(tilde sign)). The hot kink core moves away from, or perpendicular to, the high density region near q Asymptotically-Equal-To 1, preserving the snake density during a sawtooth crash. The mode resembles the early stage of heavy-impurity-ion snakes in ohmic discharges, including recent observations in Alcator C-Mod. For a larger, more unstable q<1 region, the helical density perturbation drives a conventional 1/1 kink where n aligns with T(tilde sign), leading to a rapid sawtooth crash. The crash redistributes the density to a localized helical concentration inside q Less-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 1, similar to experimentally observed snakes that are initiated by a sawtooth crash.

  9. New records of snakes (Reptilia: Squamata) in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Moura, Mario; Pirani, Renata; Silva, Vinícius

    2013-01-01

    We report new records of three poorly-known species of snakes in Minas Gerais: Bothrops lutzi (Miranda- Ribeiro, 1915), Psomophis joberti (Sauvage, 1884), and Trilepida brasiliensis (Laurent, 1949). The new records represent important filling gaps for all three species or even southern extensions in the geographic distribution of B. lutzi and P. joberti. The new records are located in areas indicated as priority regions for biodiversity conservation in Cerrado. Maps of known records of these ...

  10. An Unusual Case of Bilateral Vitreous Haemorrhage following Snake Bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipul Bhandari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A-45-year-old man presented to us with diminution of vision in both eye following snake bite. On examination vision in the right eye (RE was 6/36 and vision in left eye (LE was hand movement positive and fundus examination revealed a subhyloid haemorrhage, left eye showed vitreous haemorrhage. Patient was advised bed rest, vitamin C tablets and oral steroids.

  11. CORAL SNAKE ANTIVENOM PRODUCED IN CHICKENS (Gallus domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Aguilar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of anti-snake venom from large mammal's blood has been found to be low-yielding and arduous, consequently, antivenom immunoglobulins for treatment are achieved regularly as polyvalent serum. We have standardized an undemanding technique for making purified immunoglobulin IgY antivenom consisting of polyclonal antibodies against coral snake venom in the egg yolk of immunized hens. We have adapted a reported process of antibody purification from egg yolks, and achieved 90% antibody purity. The customized technique consisted of the removal of lipids from distilled water-diluted egg yolks by a freeze–thaw sequence. The specific immunoglobulins were present in the egg yolk for up to 180 days postimmunization. Therefore, by means of small venom quantities, a significant amount of immunoglobulins were found in an adequately purified state (The obtained material contained about 90% pure IgY. The antigen binding of the immunoglobulins was detected by a double immunodiffusion test. Titers of antibodies in the yolk were estimated with a serum protection assay (Median effective dose = ED50 (ED50= 477 mg/kg. Given that breeding hens is economically feasible, egg gathering is noninvasive and the purification of IgY antibodies is quick and easy, chicken immunization is an excellent alternative for the production of polyclonal antibodies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first coral snake antivenom prepared in birds.

  12. Minor snake venom proteins: Structure, function and potential applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldrini-França, Johara; Cologna, Camila Takeno; Pucca, Manuela Berto; Bordon, Karla de Castro Figueiredo; Amorim, Fernanda Gobbi; Anjolette, Fernando Antonio Pino; Cordeiro, Francielle Almeida; Wiezel, Gisele Adriano; Cerni, Felipe Augusto; Pinheiro-Junior, Ernesto Lopes; Shibao, Priscila Yumi Tanaka; Ferreira, Isabela Gobbo; de Oliveira, Isadora Sousa; Cardoso, Iara Aimê; Arantes, Eliane Candiani

    2017-04-01

    Snake venoms present a great diversity of pharmacologically active compounds that may be applied as research and biotechnological tools, as well as in drug development and diagnostic tests for certain diseases. The most abundant toxins have been extensively studied in the last decades and some of them have already been used for different purposes. Nevertheless, most of the minor snake venom protein classes remain poorly explored, even presenting potential application in diverse areas. The main difficulty in studying these proteins lies on the impossibility of obtaining sufficient amounts of them for a comprehensive investigation. The advent of more sensitive techniques in the last few years allowed the discovery of new venom components and the in-depth study of some already known minor proteins. This review summarizes information regarding some structural and functional aspects of low abundant snake venom proteins classes, such as growth factors, hyaluronidases, cysteine-rich secretory proteins, nucleases and nucleotidases, cobra venom factors, vespryns, protease inhibitors, antimicrobial peptides, among others. Some potential applications of these molecules are discussed herein in order to encourage researchers to explore the full venom repertoire and to discover new molecules or applications for the already known venom components. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Satiety and eating patterns in two species of constricting snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Torben P; Jacobsen, Magnus W; Wang, Tobias

    2011-01-10

    Satiety has been studied extensively in mammals, birds and fish but very little information exists on reptiles. Here we investigate time-dependent satiation in two species of constricting snakes, ball pythons (Python regius) and yellow anacondas (Eunectes notaeus). Satiation was shown to depend on both fasting time and prey size. In the ball pythons fed with mice of a relative prey mass RPM (mass of the prey/mass of the snake×100) of 15%, we observed a satiety response that developed between 6 and 12h after feeding, but after 24h pythons regained their appetite. With an RPM of 10% the pythons kept eating throughout the experiment. The anacondas showed a non-significant tendency for satiety to develop between 6 and 12h after ingesting a prey of 20% RPM. Unlike pythons, anacondas remained satiated after 24h. Handling time (from strike until prey swallowed) increased with RPM. We also found a significant decrease in handling time between the first and the second prey and a positive correlation between handling time and the mass of the snake. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. On the formation of m = 1, n = 1 density snakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Linda E.

    2013-01-01

    The m/n = 1/1 helical ion density “snake” located near the q = 1 magnetic surface in a toroidal, magnetically confined plasma arises naturally in resistive MHD, when the plasma density evolves separately from pressure. Nonlinear numerical simulations show that a helical density perturbation applied around q = 1 can form a quasi-steady state over q≳1 with T(tilde sign) of opposite average sign to ñ. Two principal outcomes depend on the magnitude of ñ/n and the underlying stability of the 1/1 internal kink mode. For a small q<1 central region, a moderate helical density drives a new, slowly growing type of nonlinear 1/1 internal kink inside q<1, with small ñ and ∇p(tilde sign)≃∇(nT(tilde sign)). The hot kink core moves away from, or perpendicular to, the high density region near q≃1, preserving the snake density during a sawtooth crash. The mode resembles the early stage of heavy-impurity-ion snakes in ohmic discharges, including recent observations in Alcator C-Mod. For a larger, more unstable q<1 region, the helical density perturbation drives a conventional 1/1 kink where ñ aligns with T(tilde sign), leading to a rapid sawtooth crash. The crash redistributes the density to a localized helical concentration inside q≲1, similar to experimentally observed snakes that are initiated by a sawtooth crash.

  15. Micrurus snake venoms activate human complement system and generate anaphylatoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka Gabriela D

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Micrurus, coral snakes (Serpentes, Elapidae, comprises more than 120 species and subspecies distributed from the south United States to the south of South America. Micrurus snake bites can cause death by muscle paralysis and further respiratory arrest within a few hours after envenomation. Clinical observations show mainly neurotoxic symptoms, although other biological activities have also been experimentally observed, including cardiotoxicity, hemolysis, edema and myotoxicity. Results In the present study we have investigated the action of venoms from seven species of snakes from the genus Micrurus on the complement system in in vitro studies. Several of the Micrurus species could consume the classical and/or the lectin pathways, but not the alternative pathway, and C3a, C4a and C5a were generated in sera treated with the venoms as result of this complement activation. Micrurus venoms were also able to directly cleave the α chain of the component C3, but not of the C4, which was inhibited by 1,10 Phenanthroline, suggesting the presence of a C3α chain specific metalloprotease in Micrurus spp venoms. Furthermore, complement activation was in part associated with the cleavage of C1-Inhibitor by protease(s present in the venoms, which disrupts complement activation control. Conclusion Micrurus venoms can activate the complement system, generating a significant amount of anaphylatoxins, which may assist due to their vasodilatory effects, to enhance the spreading of other venom components during the envenomation process.

  16. An in-depth snake venom proteopeptidome characterization: Benchmarking Bothrops jararaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolau, Carolina A; Carvalho, Paulo C; Junqueira-de-Azevedo, Inácio L M; Teixeira-Ferreira, André; Junqueira, Magno; Perales, Jonas; Neves-Ferreira, Ana Gisele C; Valente, Richard H

    2017-01-16

    A large-scale proteomic approach was devised to advance the understanding of venom composition. Bothrops jararaca venom was fractionated by OFFGEL followed by chromatography, generating peptidic and proteic fractions. The latter was submitted to trypsin digestion. Both fractions were separately analyzed by reversed-phase nanochromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry. This strategy allowed deeper and joint characterizations of the peptidome and proteome (proteopeptidome) of this venom. Our results lead to the identification of 46 protein classes (with several uniquely assigned proteins per class) comprising eight high-abundance bona fide venom components, and 38 additional classes in smaller quantities. This last category included previously described B. jararaca venom proteins, common Elapidae venom constituents (cobra venom factor and three-finger toxin), and proteins typically encountered in lysosomes, cellular membranes and blood plasma. Furthermore, this report is the most complete snake venom peptidome described so far, both in number of peptides and in variety of unique proteins that could have originated them. It is hypothesized that such diversity could enclose cryptides, whose bioactivities would contribute to envenomation in yet undetermined ways. Finally, we propose that the broad range screening of B. jararaca peptidome will facilitate the discovery of bioactive molecules, eventually leading to valuable therapeutical agents. Our proteopeptidomic strategy yielded unprecedented insights into the remarkable diversity of B. jararaca venom composition, both at the peptide and protein levels. These results bring a substantial contribution to the actual pursuit of large-scale protein-level assignment in snake venomics. The detection of typical elapidic venom components, in a Viperidae venom, reinforces our view that the use of this approach (hand-in-hand with transcriptomic and genomic data) for venom proteomic analysis, at the specimen

  17. Lower Snake River Juvenile Salmon Migration Feasibility Report/Environmental Impact Statement. Appendix D: Natural River Drawdown Engineering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    ... (collectively called the Lower Snake River Project) and their effects on four lower Snake River salmon and steelhead stocks listed for protection under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The U.S...

  18. Lower Snake River Juvenile Salmon Migration Feasibility Report/Environmental Impact Statement. Part II: Chapters 5-13

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2003-01-01

    ... (collectively called the Lower Snake River Project) and their effects on four lower Snake River salmon and steelhead stocks listed for protection under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The U.S...

  19. The interaction of the antitoxin DM43 with a snake venom metalloproteinase analyzed by mass spectrometry and surface plasmon resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brand, Guilherme D; Salbo, Rune; Jørgensen, Thomas J D

    2012-01-01

    DM43 is a circulating dimeric antitoxin isolated from Didelphis aurita, a South American marsupial naturally immune to snake envenomation. This endogenous inhibitor binds non-covalently to jararhagin, the main hemorrhagic metalloproteinase from Bothrops jararaca snake venom, and efficiently...

  20. Snake-like chromatin in conjunctival cells of a population aged 30-60 years from Copenhagen City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Kirsten Birgitte

    1998-01-01

    ophthalmology, keratoconjunctivitis sicca, Sjögrens Syndrome, epidemiology, imprint biopsy, snake-like chromatin......ophthalmology, keratoconjunctivitis sicca, Sjögrens Syndrome, epidemiology, imprint biopsy, snake-like chromatin...