WorldWideScience

Sample records for common cuttlefish sepia

  1. Saccadic Movement Strategy in Common Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmer, Desiree; Geurten, Bart R H; Dehnhardt, Guido; Hanke, Frederike D

    2016-01-01

    Most moving animals segregate their locomotion trajectories in short burst like rotations and prolonged translations, to enhance distance information from optic flow, as only translational, but not rotational optic flow holds distance information. Underwater, optic flow is a valuable source of information as it is in the terrestrial habitat, however, so far, it has gained only little attention. To extend the knowledge on underwater optic flow perception and use, we filmed the movement pattern of six common cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) with a high speed camera in this study. In the subsequent analysis, the center of mass of the cuttlefish body was manually traced to gain thrust, slip, and yaw of the cuttlefish movements over time. Cuttlefish indeed performed short rotations, saccades, with rotational velocities up to 343°/s. They clearly separated rotations from translations in line with the saccadic movement strategy documented for animals inhabiting the terrestrial habitat as well as for the semiaquatic harbor seals before. However, this separation only occurred during fin motion. In contrast, during jet propelled swimming, the separation between rotational and translational movements and thus probably distance estimation on the basis of the optic flow field is abolished in favor of high movement velocities. In conclusion, this study provides first evidence that an aquatic invertebrate, the cuttlefish, adopts a saccadic movement strategy depending on the behavioral context that could enhance the information gained from optic flow.

  2. Prophenoloxidase system, lysozyme and protease inhibitor distribution in the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Pabic, Charles; Safi, Georges; Serpentini, Antoine; Lebel, Jean-Marc; Robin, Jean-Paul; Koueta, Noussithé

    2014-01-01

    The immune system of cephalopods remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to determine the specific activity of immune enzymes in epithelial barriers, circulatory and digestive systems of the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis. Three enzyme groups with putative functions in immunity were investigated: phenoloxidases (POs), lysozymes and protease inhibitors (PIs). Consistent with a role in immunity, highest PO activities were found in the integument as well as the respiratory and circulatory organs under zymogenic (proPO) and active form. Surprisingly, high PO activities were also found in the digestive gland and its appendages. Similarly, high lysozyme activities were detected in the integument and circulatory organs, but also in the posterior salivary glands, highlighting the implication of this antibacterial enzyme group in most tissues exposed to the environment but also within the circulatory system. Albeit highest in digestive organs, the ubiquitous detection of PI activity in assayed compartments suggests immune function(s) in a wide range of tissues. Our study reports proPO/PO, lysozyme and PI distributions in S. officinalis body compartments for the first time, and thus provides the fundamental basis for a better understanding of the humoral immune system in cephalopods as well as invertebrates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Biokinetics of Hg and Pb accumulation in the encapsulated egg of the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis: Radiotracer experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacoue-Labarthe, T.; Warnau, M.; Metian, M.; Oberhaensli, F.; Rouleau, C.; Bustamante, P.

    2009-01-01

    Uptake and depuration kinetics of dissolved 203 Hg and 210 Pb were determined during the entire embryonic development of the eggs of the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis (50 d at 17 o C). 203 Hg and 210 Pb were accumulated continuously by the eggs all along the development time reaching load/concentration ratio (LCR) of 467 ± 43 and 1301 ± 126 g, respectively. During the first month, most of the 203 Hg and 210 Pb remained associated with the eggshell indicating that the latter acted as an efficient shield against metal penetration. From this time onwards, 203 Hg accumulated in the embryo, indicating that it passed through the eggshell, whereas 210 Pb did not cross the chorion during the whole exposure time. It also demonstrated that translocation of Hg associated with the inner layers of the eggshell is a significant source of exposure for the embryo. This study highlighted that the maturing embryo could be subjected to the toxic effects of Hg in the coastal waters where the embryonic development is taking place.

  4. Biokinetics of Hg and Pb accumulation in the encapsulated egg of the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis: Radiotracer experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacoue-Labarthe, T., E-mail: tlacouel@gmail.com [Littoral, Environnement et Societes (LIENSs), UMR 6250, CNRS-Universite de La Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, F-17042 La Rochelle Cedex 01 (France); Warnau, M., E-mail: warnaumichel@yahoo.com [International Atomic Energy Agency - Marine Environment Laboratories, 4 Quai Antoine Ier, MC-98000 (Monaco); Metian, M. [Littoral, Environnement et Societes (LIENSs), UMR 6250, CNRS-Universite de La Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, F-17042 La Rochelle Cedex 01 (France); International Atomic Energy Agency - Marine Environment Laboratories, 4 Quai Antoine Ier, MC-98000 (Monaco); Oberhaensli, F. [International Atomic Energy Agency - Marine Environment Laboratories, 4 Quai Antoine Ier, MC-98000 (Monaco); Rouleau, C. [Institut Maurice-Lamontagne, 850 Route de la Mer, C.P. 1000, Mont-Joli, Quebec (Canada); Bustamante, P., E-mail: pbustama@univ-lr.fr [Littoral, Environnement et Societes (LIENSs), UMR 6250, CNRS-Universite de La Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, F-17042 La Rochelle Cedex 01 (France)

    2009-12-01

    Uptake and depuration kinetics of dissolved {sup 203}Hg and {sup 210}Pb were determined during the entire embryonic development of the eggs of the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis (50 d at 17 {sup o}C). {sup 203}Hg and {sup 210}Pb were accumulated continuously by the eggs all along the development time reaching load/concentration ratio (LCR) of 467 {+-} 43 and 1301 {+-} 126 g, respectively. During the first month, most of the {sup 203}Hg and {sup 210}Pb remained associated with the eggshell indicating that the latter acted as an efficient shield against metal penetration. From this time onwards, {sup 203}Hg accumulated in the embryo, indicating that it passed through the eggshell, whereas {sup 210}Pb did not cross the chorion during the whole exposure time. It also demonstrated that translocation of Hg associated with the inner layers of the eggshell is a significant source of exposure for the embryo. This study highlighted that the maturing embryo could be subjected to the toxic effects of Hg in the coastal waters where the embryonic development is taking place.

  5. On the respiratory flow in the cuttlefish sepia officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone, Q; Brown, E; Travers, G

    1994-09-01

    The respiratory flow of water over the gills of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis at rest is produced by the alternate activity of the radial muscles of the mantle and the musculature of the collar flaps; mantle circular muscle fibres are not involved. Inspiration takes place as the radial fibres contract, thinning the mantle and expanding the mantle cavity. The rise in mantle cavity pressure (up to 0.15 kPa), expelling water via the siphon during expiration, is brought about by inward movement of the collar flaps and (probably) mainly by elastic recoil of the mantle connective tissue network 'wound up' by radial fibre contraction during inspiration. Sepia also shows a second respiratory pattern, in which mantle cavity pressures during expiration are greater (up to 0.25 kPa). Here, the mantle circular fibres are involved, as they are during the large pressure transients (up to 10 kPa) seen during escape jetting. Active contraction of the muscles of the collar flaps is seen in all three patterns of expulsion of water from the mantle cavity, electrical activity increasing with increasing mantle cavity pressures. Respiratory expiration in the resting squid Loligo vulgaris is probably driven as in Sepia, whereas in the resting octopus Eledone cirrhosa, the mantle circular musculature is active during expiration. The significance of these observations is discussed.

  6. Camouflage during movement in the European cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josef, Noam; Berenshtein, Igal; Fiorito, Graziano; Sykes, António V; Shashar, Nadav

    2015-11-01

    A moving object is considered conspicuous because of the movement itself. When moving from one background to another, even dynamic camouflage experts such as cephalopods should sacrifice their extraordinary camouflage. Therefore, minimizing detection at this stage is crucial and highly beneficial. In this study, we describe a background-matching mechanism during movement, which aids the cuttlefish to downplay its presence throughout movement. In situ behavioural experiments using video and image analysis, revealed a delayed, sigmoidal, colour-changing mechanism during movement of Sepia officinalis across uniform black and grey backgrounds. This is a first important step in understanding dynamic camouflage during movement, and this new behavioural mechanism may be incorporated and applied to any dynamic camouflaging animal or man-made system on the move. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Color blindness and contrast perception in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) determined by a visual sensorimotor assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäthger, Lydia M; Barbosa, Alexandra; Miner, Simon; Hanlon, Roger T

    2006-05-01

    We tested color perception based upon a robust behavioral response in which cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) respond to visual stimuli (a black and white checkerboard) with a quantifiable, neurally controlled motor response (a body pattern). In the first experiment, we created 16 checkerboard substrates in which 16 grey shades (from white to black) were paired with one green shade (matched to the maximum absorption wavelength of S. officinalis' sole visual pigment, 492 nm), assuming that one of the grey shades would give a similar achromatic signal to the tested green. In the second experiment, we created a checkerboard using one blue and one yellow shade whose intensities were matched to the cuttlefish's visual system. In both assays it was tested whether cuttlefish would show disruptive coloration on these checkerboards, indicating their ability to distinguish checkers based solely on wavelength (i.e., color). Here, we show clearly that cuttlefish must be color blind, as they showed non-disruptive coloration on the checkerboards whose color intensities were matched to the Sepia visual system, suggesting that the substrates appeared to their eyes as uniform backgrounds. Furthermore, we show that cuttlefish are able to perceive objects in their background that differ in contrast by approximately 15%. This study adds support to previous reports that S. officinalis is color blind, yet the question of how cuttlefish achieve "color-blind camouflage" in chromatically rich environments still remains.

  8. Perception of visual texture and the expression of disruptive camouflage by the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelman, E.J; Baddeley, R.J; Shohet, A.J; Osorio, D

    2007-01-01

    Juvenile cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) camouflage themselves by changing their body pattern according to the background. This behaviour can be used to investigate visual perception in these molluscs and may also give insight into camouflage design. Edge detection is an important aspect of vision, and here we compare the body patterns that cuttlefish produced in response to checkerboard backgrounds with responses to backgrounds that have the same spatial frequency power spectrum as the checkerboards, but randomized spatial phase. For humans, phase randomization removes visual edges. To describe the cuttlefish body patterns, we scored the level of expression of 20 separate pattern ‘components’, and then derived principal components (PCs) from these scores. After varimax rotation, the first component (PC1) corresponded closely to the so-called disruptive body pattern, and the second (PC2) to the mottle pattern. PC1 was predominantly expressed on checkerboards, and PC2 on phase-randomized backgrounds. Thus, cuttlefish probably have edge detectors that control the expression of disruptive pattern. Although the experiments used unnatural backgrounds, it seems probable that cuttlefish display disruptive camouflage when there are edges in the visual background caused by discrete objects such as pebbles. We discuss the implications of these findings for our understanding of disruptive camouflage. PMID:17389219

  9. Size Matters: Observed and Modeled Camouflage Response of European Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) to Different Substrate Patch Sizes during Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josef, Noam; Berenshtein, Igal; Rousseau, Meghan; Scata, Gabriella; Fiorito, Graziano; Shashar, Nadav

    2016-01-01

    Camouflage is common throughout the phylogenetic tree and is largely used to minimize detection by predator or prey. Cephalopods, and in particular Sepia officinalis cuttlefish, are common models for camouflage studies. Predator avoidance behavior is particularly important in this group of soft-bodied animals that lack significant physical defenses. While previous studies have suggested that immobile cephalopods selectively camouflage to objects in their immediate surroundings, the camouflage characteristics of cuttlefish during movement are largely unknown. In a heterogenic environment, the visual background and substrate feature changes quickly as the animal swim across it, wherein substrate patch is a distinctive and high contrast patch of substrate in the animal's trajectory. In the current study, we examine the effect of substrate patch size on cuttlefish camouflage, and specifically the minimal size of an object for eliciting intensity matching response while moving. Our results indicated that substrate patch size has a positive effect on animal's reflectance change, and that the threshold patch size resulting in camouflage response falls between 10 and 19 cm (width). These observations suggest that the animal's length (7.2-12.3 cm mantle length in our case) serves as a possible threshold filter below which objects are considered irrelevant for camouflage, reducing the frequency of reflectance changes-which may lead to detection. Accordingly, we have constructed a computational model capturing the main features of the observed camouflaging behavior, provided for cephalopod camouflage during movement.

  10. Invertebrate predation on egg masses of the European cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis: An experimental approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Catarina P. P.; Fernández-Álvarez, Fernando Á.; Villanueva, Roger

    2018-01-01

    The eggs of the European cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, develop attached to the seafloor in shallow water habitats and possess a relatively thick black capsule that protects them from the surrounding environment. Since embryological development may take several months, eggs are vulnerable to a variety of threats present in shallow waters, including predation. This study investigates predation of S. officinalis eggs by benthic invertebrates. Twenty-eight invertebrate species from 6 different phyla and with diverse feeding habits were tested as potential predators under laboratory conditions. We also investigated how the feeding traits of these species are related to the mechanical ability to break the egg capsule and prey upon cuttlefish embryos. Species that fed on cuttlefish eggs were the sea snail Bolinus brandaris, the crab Cancer pagurus, the hermit crab Dardanus arrosor, the lobster Homarus gammarus, the invasive blue crab Callinectes sapidus, the shrimp Squilla mantis, the sea urchins Echinus melo, Cidaris sp. and Paracentrotus lividus and the starfish Astropecten aranciacus. It is of note that C. sapidus is a potential predatory crab, which raises the concern that this invasive species may constitute a novel threat for cuttlefish eggs as more populations become established in NE Atlantic waters. Of the biological traits examined, prey capture tools in the tested species best explained the experimental feeding results, suggesting that predation of S. officinalis eggs was determined generally by a mechanical factor and highlighting the importance of the protective egg capsule against predators. However, chemosensory factors are likely to be implicated as well. Thus, this work contributes to the understanding of the ecology of early life stages of cuttlefish and the factors that can affect offspring survival and subsequently impact the recruitment of this species.

  11. Bioaccumulation of PCBs in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis from seawater, sediment and food pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danis, B.; Bustamante, P.; Cotret, O.; Teyssie, J.L.; Fowler, S.W.; Warnau, M.

    2005-01-01

    The cuttlefish Sepia officinalis was selected as a model cephalopod to study PCB bioaccumulation via seawater, sediments and food. Newly hatched, juvenile cuttlefish were exposed for 17 days to environmentally realistic concentrations of 14 C-labeled 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB no. 153) (18 ng PCB l -1 seawater; 30 ng PCB g -1 dry wt sediments; Artemia salina exposed to 18 ng PCB l -1 seawater). Accumulation of PCB no. 153 was followed in three body compartments: digestive gland, cuttlebone and the combined remaining tissues. Results showed that (1) uptake kinetics were source- and body compartment-dependent, (2) for each body compartment, the accumulation was far greater when S. officinalis was exposed via seawater, (3) the cuttlebone accumulated little of the contaminant regardless of the source, and (4) the PCB congener showed a similar distribution pattern among the different body compartments following exposure to contaminated seawater, sediment or food with the lowest concentrations in the cuttlebone and the highest in the remaining tissues. The use of radiotracer techniques allowed delineating PCB kinetics in small whole organisms as well as in their separate tissues. The results underscore the enhanced ability of cephalopods to concentrate organic pollutants such as PCBs, and raise the question of potential risk to their predators in contaminated areas. - Bioaccumulation of PCBs by cuttlefish is studied, via seawater, sediments and their food

  12. Inter-cohort growth patterns of pharaoh cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis (Sepioidea: Sepiidae in Eastern Arabian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetha Sasikumar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Sepia pharaonis is an important commercial species endemic to the tropical Indo-Pacific region. Despite its commercial significance, only few information on natural populations is available. This study was aimed to describe the aspects of size-composition, length-weight relationship, catch rates, seasonal recruitment and inter-cohort growth patterns of S. pharaonis population (Clade C, distributed along the Eastern Arabian Sea (South-West coast of India. For this, the Dorsal Mantle Length (DML and weight of cuttlefishes was obtained from commercial trawl catches, from April 2002 to October 2006. Data was analyzed by normal length-weight methods such as von Bertalanffy. A total of 12 454 cuttlefishes, ranging in length from four to 41cm were analyzed. Size-composition patterns discriminated two pulses in recruitment to the fishery, discernible by a decrease in the monthly mean size of the population. The DMLs of the two seasonal cohorts were subjected to modalprogression analysis using the Bhattacharya’s method for the estimation of growth. The estimated parameters L∞ and K in von Bertalanffy Growth Function (VBGF were used to model growth curves in length for the cohorts. The first cohort, (post-monsoon cohort which supports the major fishery, was composed of mediumsized, fast growing individuals, whereas the second cohort (pre-monsoon cohort, comprised of slow growing and large-sized individuals. There were differential growth characteristics between the sexes and the life span was estimated at less than 2.3years for males and 2.1years for females. Negative allometric growth in weight (W with length (L was observed for males (W=0.33069.L2.5389 and females (W=0.32542.L2.6057. The females were heavier compared to males at any given mantle length, and the males were found to attain larger ultimate lengths. The major fishing season for cuttlefish was from May to November, when higher monthly catch rates of 1.67-13.02kg/h were observed in

  13. Inter-cohort growth patterns of pharaoh cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis (Sepioidea: Sepiidae) in Eastern Arabian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasikumarl, Geetha; Mohamed, K S; Bhat, U S

    2013-03-01

    Sepia pharaonis is an important commercial species endemic to the tropical Indo-Pacific region. Despite its commercial significance, only few information on natural populations is available. This study was aimed to describe the aspects of size-composition, length-weight relationship, catch rates, seasonal recruitment and inter-cohort growth patterns of S. pharaonis population (Clade C), distributed along the Eastern Arabian Sea (South-West coast of India). For this, the Dorsal Mantle Length (DML) and weight of cuttlefishes was obtained from commercial trawl catches, from April 2002 to October 2006. Data was analyzed by normal length-weight methods such as von Bertalanffy. A total of 12454 cuttlefishes, ranging in length from four to 41cm were analyzed. Size-composition patterns discriminated two pulses in recruitment to the fishery, discernible by a decrease in the monthly mean size of the population. The DMLs of the two seasonal cohorts were subjected to modal-progression analysis using the Bhattacharya's method for the estimation of growth. The estimated parameters Linfinity and K in von Bertalanffy Growth Function (VBGF) were used to model growth curves in length for the cohorts. The first cohort, (post-monsoon cohort) which supports the major fishery, was composed of medium-sized, fast growing individuals, whereas the second cohort (pre-monsoon cohort), comprised of slow growing and large-sized individuals. There were differential growth characteristics between the sexes and the life span was estimated at less than 2.3 years for males and 2.1 years for females. Negative allometric growth in weight (W) with length (L) was observed for males (W=0.33069.L2.5389) and females (W=0.32542.L26057). The females were heavier compared to males at any given mantle length, and the males were found to attain larger ultimate lengths. The major fishing season for cuttlefish was from May to November, when higher monthly catch rates of 1.67-13.02kg/h were observed in comparison

  14. Inter-cohort growth patterns of pharaoh cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis (Sepioidea: Sepiidae in Eastern Arabian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetha Sasikumar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Sepia pharaonis is an important commercial species endemic to the tropical Indo-Pacific region. Despite its commercial significance, only few information on natural populations is available. This study was aimed to describe the aspects of size-composition, length-weight relationship, catch rates, seasonal recruitment and inter-cohort growth patterns of S. pharaonis population (Clade C, distributed along the Eastern Arabian Sea (South-West coast of India. For this, the Dorsal Mantle Length (DML and weight of cuttlefishes was obtained from commercial trawl catches, from April 2002 to October 2006. Data was analyzed by normal length-weight methods such as von Bertalanffy. A total of 12 454 cuttlefishes, ranging in length from four to 41cm were analyzed. Size-composition patterns discriminated two pulses in recruitment to the fishery, discernible by a decrease in the monthly mean size of the population. The DMLs of the two seasonal cohorts were subjected to modalprogression analysis using the Bhattacharya’s method for the estimation of growth. The estimated parameters L∞ and K in von Bertalanffy Growth Function (VBGF were used to model growth curves in length for the cohorts. The first cohort, (post-monsoon cohort which supports the major fishery, was composed of mediumsized, fast growing individuals, whereas the second cohort (pre-monsoon cohort, comprised of slow growing and large-sized individuals. There were differential growth characteristics between the sexes and the life span was estimated at less than 2.3years for males and 2.1years for females. Negative allometric growth in weight (W with length (L was observed for males (W=0.33069.L2.5389 and females (W=0.32542.L2.6057. The females were heavier compared to males at any given mantle length, and the males were found to attain larger ultimate lengths. The major fishing season for cuttlefish was from May to November, when higher monthly catch rates of 1.67-13.02kg/h were observed in

  15. Maturation of polarization and luminance contrast sensitivities in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartron, Lelia; Dickel, Ludovic; Shashar, Nadav; Darmaillacq, Anne-Sophie

    2013-06-01

    Polarization sensitivity is a characteristic of the visual system of cephalopods. It has been well documented in adult cuttlefish, which use polarization sensitivity in a large range of tasks such as communication, orientation and predation. Because cuttlefish do not benefit from parental care, their visual system (including the ability to detect motion) must be efficient from hatching to enable them to detect prey or predators. We studied the maturation and functionality of polarization sensitivity in newly hatched cuttlefish. In a first experiment, we examined the response of juvenile cuttlefish from hatching to the age of 1 month towards a moving, vertically oriented grating (contrasting and polarized stripes) using an optomotor response apparatus. Cuttlefish showed differences in maturation of polarization versus luminance contrast motion detection. In a second experiment, we examined the involvement of polarization information in prey preference and detection in cuttlefish of the same age. Cuttlefish preferentially chose not to attack transparent prey whose polarization contrast had been removed with a depolarizing filter. Performances of prey detection based on luminance contrast improved with age. Polarization contrast can help cuttlefish detect transparent prey. Our results suggest that polarization is not a simple modulation of luminance information, but rather that it is processed as a distinct channel of visual information. Both luminance and polarization sensitivity are functional, though not fully matured, in newly hatched cuttlefish and seem to help in prey detection.

  16. Data supporting the anticancer activity of posterior salivary gland (PSG toxin from the cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis Ehrenberg (1831

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandran Karthik

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The data presented illustrated the in vitro anti-proliferative effect of the PSG toxin from the cuttlefish, Sepia pharaonis. The cytostatic potentials of the PSG toxin were determined by the lymphocyte migration inhibition assay. The PSG toxin (50 μg/ml exhibited commendable inhibition of the migration of lymphocytes across the agarose gel matrix under the presence of lipopolysaccharide mitogen, with a mean migration index of 0.625. The cytotoxicity of the PSG toxin against selected cancer cell lines was determined using the MTT assay. The PSG toxin exhibited dose-dependent cytotoxicity against the MCF-7 breast cancer cells followed by KB (oral, HeLa (cervical and A549 (lung cancer cell lines. The PSG toxin also exhibited proportional release of LDH leakage by mitochondrial damage with an IC50 of 13.85 μM against MCF-7 breast cancer cells. The in vitro anticancer activity of the PSG toxin against the selected cell lines was evaluated by Karthik et al. (2017 [1].

  17. Depth perception: cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) respond to visual texture density gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josef, Noam; Mann, Ofri; Sykes, António V; Fiorito, Graziano; Reis, João; Maccusker, Steven; Shashar, Nadav

    2014-11-01

    Studies concerning the perceptual processes of animals are not only interesting, but are fundamental to the understanding of other developments in information processing among non-humans. Carefully used visual illusions have been proven to be an informative tool for understanding visual perception. In this behavioral study, we demonstrate that cuttlefish are responsive to visual cues involving texture gradients. Specifically, 12 out of 14 animals avoided swimming over a solid surface with a gradient picture that to humans resembles an illusionary crevasse, while only 5 out of 14 avoided a non-illusionary texture. Since texture gradients are well-known cues for depth perception in vertebrates, we suggest that these cephalopods were responding to the depth illusion created by the texture density gradient. Density gradients and relative densities are key features in distance perception in vertebrates. Our results suggest that they are fundamental features of vision in general, appearing also in cephalopods.

  18. The influence of different salting processes on protein loss of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Ünlüsayın

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sübye (Sepia officinalis’nin protein kayıpları üzerine farklı tuzlama yöntemlerinin etkileri. Bu çalışmanın amacı; farklı tuzlama metotlarıyla tuzlanan sübye (Sepia officinalis L., 1758’nin protein kayıplarını araştırmaktır. %8 ve %20 konsantrasyonlarında NaCl içeren iki farklı tuz solüsyonu çalışılmıştır. Üçüncü yöntem olan kuru tuzlama yöntemi ise balık yüzeyinin tamamı tuz ile kaplanarak yapılmıştır. Taze ve %8’lik solüsyonla tuzlanan sübyelerin nem içeriğindeki değişimler önemsizdi (P>0,05. %8 ve %20’lik konsantrasyonlarla tuzlanan sübyelerin protein içeriğindeki (kuru ağırlık üzerinden değişimler önemsiz (P>0,05 olarak belirlenmiştir. Tuzlamadan sonra tüm gruplarda sübyelerin toplam protein içeriği azalmıştır (P

  19. Antibacterial Activity of Melanin from Cuttlefish and Squid Ink

    OpenAIRE

    Yuspihana Fitrial; Iin Khusnul Khotimah

    2017-01-01

    Marine environment comprises of many organism which are known to posses bioactive compound as a common means of self-defense or for the protection of eggs and embryos. Class Cephalopods (such as squidand cuttlefish) are notable for their defences, such as jetting escape movements, changes in colouration, toxic venom and inking.This study aims to compare the antibacterial activity of melanin from cuttlefish ink (Sepia sp.) with squid ink (Loligo sp.) against E. coli. Extraction and purificatio...

  20. To be seen or to hide: visual characteristics of body patterns for camouflage and communication in the Australian giant cuttlefish Sepia apama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zylinski, S; How, M J; Osorio, D; Hanlon, R T; Marshall, N J

    2011-05-01

    It might seem obvious that a camouflaged animal must generally match its background whereas to be conspicuous an organism must differ from the background. However, the image parameters (or statistics) that evaluate the conspicuousness of patterns and textures are seldom well defined, and animal coloration patterns are rarely compared quantitatively with their respective backgrounds. Here we examine this issue in the Australian giant cuttlefish Sepia apama. We confine our analysis to the best-known and simplest image statistic, the correlation in intensity between neighboring pixels. Sepia apama can rapidly change their body patterns from assumed conspicuous signaling to assumed camouflage, thus providing an excellent and unique opportunity to investigate how such patterns differ in a single visual habitat. We describe the intensity variance and spatial frequency power spectra of these differing body patterns and compare these patterns with the backgrounds against which they are viewed. The measured image statistics of camouflaged animals closely resemble their backgrounds, while signaling animals differ significantly from their backgrounds. Our findings may provide the basis for a set of general rules for crypsis and signals. Furthermore, our methods may be widely applicable to the quantitative study of animal coloration.

  1. A Potential Adjuvant Agent of Chemotherapy: Sepia Ink Polysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangping Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sepia ink polysaccharide (SIP isolated from squid and cuttlefish ink is a kind of acid mucopolysaccharide that has been identified in three types of primary structures from squid (Illex argentinus and Ommastrephes bartrami, cuttlefish Sepiella maindroni, and cuttlefish Sepia esculenta ink. Although SIP has been proved to be multifaceted, most of the reported evidence has illuminated its chemopreventive and antineoplastic activities. As a natural product playing a role in cancer treatment, SIP may be used as chemotherapeutic ancillary agent or functional food. Based on the current findings on SIP, we have summarized four topics in this review, including: chemopreventive, antineoplastic, chemosensitive, and procoagulant and anticoagulant activities, which are correlative closely with the actions of anticancer agents on cancer patients, such as anticancer, toxicity and thrombogenesis, with the latter two actions being common causes of death in cancer cases exposed to chemotherapeutic agents.

  2. Cuttlefish Sepia officinalis Preferentially Respond to Bottom Rather than Side Stimuli When Not Allowed Adjacent to Tank Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-14

    especially because cuttlefish are colorblind. Another possible concern is the flicker frequency of the plasma screens. The plasma screens used in... flicker . Given these reasons, we believe that the most reliable behavior with the least amount of human disturbance resulted from our use of the...0138690 October 14, 2015 15 / 18 Image analysis To mitigate the likelihood of autocorrelation, we used the two usable (i.e., non-blurry) images that were

  3. Spectral and spatial properties of polarized light reflections from the arms of squid (Loligo pealeii) and cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Tsyr-Huei; Mäthger, Lydia M; Hanlon, Roger T; Cronin, Thomas W

    2007-10-01

    On every arm of cuttlefish and squid there is a stripe of high-reflectance iridophores that reflects highly polarized light. Since cephalopods possess polarization vision, it has been hypothesized that these polarized stripes could serve an intraspecific communication function. We determined how polarization changes when these boneless arms move. By measuring the spectral and polarizing properties of the reflected light from samples at various angles of tilt and rotation, we found that the actual posture of the arm has little or no effect on partial polarization or the e-vector angle of the reflected light. However, when the illumination angle changed, the partial polarization of the reflected light also changed. The spectral reflections of the signals were also affected by the angle of illumination but not by the orientation of the sample. Electron microscope samples showed that these stripes are composed of several groups of multilayer platelets within the iridophores. The surface normal to each group is oriented at a different angle, which produces essentially constant reflection of polarized light over a range of viewing angles. These results demonstrate that cuttlefish and squid could send out reliable polarization signals to a receiver regardless of arm orientation.

  4. Edge detection and texture classification by cuttlefish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zylinski, Sarah; Osorio, Daniel; Shohet, Adam J

    2009-12-14

    Cephalopod mollusks including octopus and cuttlefish are adept at adaptive camouflage, varying their appearance to suit the surroundings. This behavior allows unique access into the vision of a non-human species because one can ask how these animals use spatial information to control their coloration pattern. There is particular interest in factors that affect the relative levels of expression of the Mottle and the Disruptive body patterns. Broadly speaking, the Mottle is displayed on continuous patterned surfaces whereas the Disruptive is used on discrete objects such as pebbles. Recent evidence from common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, suggests that multiple cues are relevant, including spatial scale, contrast, and depth. We analyze the body pattern responses of juvenile cuttlefish to a range of checkerboard stimuli. Our results suggest that the choice of camouflage pattern is consistent with a simple model of how cuttlefish classify visual textures, according to whether they are Uniform or patterned, and whether the pattern includes visual edges. In particular, cuttlefish appear to detect edges by sensing the relative spatial phases of two spatial frequency components (e.g., fundamental and the third harmonic Fourier component in a square wave). We discuss the relevance of these findings to vision and camouflage in aquatic environments.

  5. Antibacterial Activity of Melanin from Cuttlefish and Squid Ink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuspihana Fitrial

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Marine environment comprises of many organism which are known to posses bioactive compound as a common means of self-defense or for the protection of eggs and embryos. Class Cephalopods (such as squidand cuttlefish are notable for their defences, such as jetting escape movements, changes in colouration, toxic venom and inking.This study aims to compare the antibacterial activity of melanin from cuttlefish ink (Sepia sp. with squid ink (Loligo sp. against E. coli. Extraction and purification studies were carried out on Sepia and Loligo melanin using a hydrochloric acid 0,5M treatment under mechanical.The melanins were obtained and further evaluated their activity by direct contact methods between melanin and E. coli in nutrient broth.Total microbes was counted by total plate count.Both inks also was tested their activity against E. coli. The results showed that melanin from cuttlefish and squid inks had inhibitory activity at concentrations of 10 mg / ml and 20 mg / mL, respectively reaching 99.99% against E. coli.The inks of both Cephalopods at the same concentration as melanin, did not show any inhibitory activity against E. coli.  The melanin of Sepia sp. have a higher antibacterial activity than the melanin of Loligo sp.

  6. Graded behavioral responses and habituation to sound in the common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samson, J.E.; Mooney, T.A.; Gussekloo, S.W.S.; Hanlon, R.T.

    2014-01-01

    Sound is a widely available and vital cue in aquatic environments yet most bioacoustic research has focused on marine vertebrates, leaving sound detection in invertebrates poorly understood. Cephalopods are an ecologically key taxon that likely use sound and may be impacted by increasing

  7. The influence of cuttlebone on the target strength of live golden cuttlefish (Sepia esculenta at 70 and 120 kHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daejae Lee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To quantitatively estimate the influence of cuttlebone on the target strength (TS of golden cuttlefish, the cuttlebone was carefully extracted from 19 live cuttlefish caught using traps in the inshore waters around Geojedo, Korea, in early May 2010 and the TS was measured using split-beam echosounders (Simrad ES60 and EY500. The TS-length relationships for the cuttlefish (before the extraction of cuttlebone, Fish Aquat Sci. 17:361–7, 2014 and the corresponding cuttlebone were compared. The cuttlebone length (L b ranged from 151 to 195 mm (mean L b  = 168.3 mm and the mass (W b ranged from 29.3 to 53.2 g (mean W b  = 38.8 g. The mean TS values at 70 and 120 kHz were −33.60 dB (std = 1.12 dB and −32.24 dB (std = 1.87 dB, respectively. The mean TS values of cuttlebone were 0.19 dB and 0.04 dB lower than those of cuttlefish at 70 and 120 kHz, respectively. For 70 and 120 kHz combined, the mean TS value of cuttlebone was −32.87 dB, 0.11 dB lower than that of cuttlefish (−32.76 dB. On the other hand, the mean TS value of cuttlebone predicted by the regression (TS b  = 24.86 log10 L b – 4.86 log10 λ – 22.58, r 2 = 0.85, N = 38, P < 0.01 was −33.10 dB, 0.04 dB lower than that of cuttlefish predicted by the regression (TS c  = 24.62 log10 L c – 4.62 log10 λ – 22.64, r 2 = 0.85, N = 38, P < 0.01. That is, the contribution of cuttlebone to the cuttlefish TS determined by the measured results was slightly greater than that by the predicted results. These results suggest that cuttlebone is responsible for the TS of cuttlefish, and the contribution is estimated to be at least 99 % of the total echo strength.

  8. Visual Equivalence and Amodal Completion in Cuttlefish

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, I-Rong; Chiao, Chuan-Chin

    2017-01-01

    Modern cephalopods are notably the most intelligent invertebrates and this is accompanied by keen vision. Despite extensive studies investigating the visual systems of cephalopods, little is known about their visual perception and object recognition. In the present study, we investigated the visual processing of the cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis, including visual equivalence and amodal completion. Cuttlefish were trained to discriminate images of shrimp and fish using the operant conditioning pa...

  9. Digestive enzyme ratios are good indicators of hatchling yolk reserve and digestive gland maturation in early life stages of cuttlefish Sepia officinalis L.: application of these new tools in ecology and aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safi, Georges; Martinez, A S; Le Pabic, C; Le Bihan, E; Robin, J P; Koueta, N

    2018-01-01

    In Sepia officinalis (Linnaeus, 1758), the digestive gland matures during the first month post-hatching, while a shift from intracellular acid to extracellular alkaline digestion occurs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of using enzymatic ratios for the description of digestive system maturation in early life stages of S. officinalis. Second, it is intended to apply these new tools as eco-physiological indicators for understanding the impact of cuttlefish eggs' life history from different spawning sites of the English Channel on digestive performance of juveniles. An experimental rearing was performed over 35 days after hatching (DAH) on juveniles from wild collected eggs in 2010 and 2011. Four digestive enzyme activities and their ratios [i.e., trypsin, cathepsin, acid (ACP), and alkaline (ALP) phosphatase, ALP/ACP, and trypsin/cathepsin] were studied along with histological features (e.g., internal yolk surface and digestive gland development). The two enzyme ratios were good indicators of digestive system maturation allowing the study of the digestive gland's development. They were highly correlated to juveniles' weight increase and histological features of the gland in early DAH. These ratios described more accurately the shift occurring between the intracellular acid and the extracellular alkaline modes of digestion in S. officinalis and were more specific than separated enzyme activities. Their application as eco-physiological tools revealed that enzyme ratios reflected yolk content and digestive gland development in new hatching juveniles. Finally, ALP/ACP ratio was shown to be a powerful tool to describe growth performance of S. officinalis which is useful for aquaculture optimization.

  10. De novo assembly and comparison of the ovarian transcriptomes of the common Chinese cuttlefish (Sepiella japonica with different gonadal development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenming Lü

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The common Chinese cuttlefish (Sepiella japonica has been considered one of the most economically important marine Cephalopod species in East Asia and seed breeding technology has been established for massive aquaculture and stock enhancement. In the present study, we used Illumina HiSeq2000 to sequence, assemble and annotate the transcriptome of the ovary tissues of S. japonica for the first time. A total of 53,116,650 and 53,446,640 reads were obtained from the immature and matured ovaries, respectively (NCBI SRA database SRX1409472 and SRX1409473, and 70,039 contigs (N50 = 1443 bp were obtained after de novo assembling with Trinity software. Digital gene expression analysis reveals 47,288 contigs show differential expression profile and 793 contigs are highly expressed in the immature ovary, while 38 contigs are highly expressed in the mature ovary with FPKM >100. We hope that the ovarian transcriptome and those stage-enriched transcripts of S. japonica can provide some insight into the understanding of genome-wide transcriptome profile of cuttlefish gonad tissue and give useful information in cuttlefish gonad development. Keywords: Cuttlefish, Gonad development, Transcriptome

  11. Lateralization of eye use in cuttlefish: opposite direction for anti-predatory and predatory behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Kerstin Schnell

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrates with laterally placed eyes typically exhibit preferential eye use for ecological activities such as scanning for predators or prey. Processing visual information predominately through the left or right visual field has been associated with specialized function of the left and right brain. Lateralized vertebrates often share a general pattern of lateralized brain function at the population level, whereby the left hemisphere controls routine behaviors and the right hemisphere controls emergency responses. Recent studies have shown evidence of preferential eye use in some invertebrates, but whether the visual fields are predominately associated with specific ecological activities remains untested. We used the European common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, to investigate whether the visual field they use is the same, or different, during anti-predatory and predatory behavior. To test for lateralization of anti-predatory behavior, individual cuttlefish were placed in a new environment with opaque walls, thereby obliging them to choose which eye to orient away from the opaque wall to scan for potential predators (i.e. vigilant scanning. To test for lateralization of predatory behavior, individual cuttlefish were placed in the apex of an isosceles triangular arena and presented with two shrimp in opposite vertexes, thus requiring the cuttlefish to choose between attacking a prey item to the left or to the right of them. Cuttlefish were significantly more likely to favor the left visual field to scan for potential predators and the right visual field for prey attack. Moreover, individual cuttlefish that were leftward directed for vigilant scanning were predominately rightward directed for prey attack. Lateralized individuals also showed faster decision-making when presented with prey simultaneously. Cuttlefish appear to have opposite directions of lateralization for anti-predatory and predatory behavior, suggesting that there is functional

  12. Lateralization of Eye Use in Cuttlefish: Opposite Direction for Anti-Predatory and Predatory Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Alexandra K; Hanlon, Roger T; Benkada, Aïcha; Jozet-Alves, Christelle

    2016-01-01

    Vertebrates with laterally placed eyes typically exhibit preferential eye use for ecological activities such as scanning for predators or prey. Processing visual information predominately through the left or right visual field has been associated with specialized function of the left and right brain. Lateralized vertebrates often share a general pattern of lateralized brain function at the population level, whereby the left hemisphere controls routine behaviors and the right hemisphere controls emergency responses. Recent studies have shown evidence of preferential eye use in some invertebrates, but whether the visual fields are predominately associated with specific ecological activities remains untested. We used the European common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis , to investigate whether the visual field they use is the same, or different, during anti-predatory, and predatory behavior. To test for lateralization of anti-predatory behavior, individual cuttlefish were placed in a new environment with opaque walls, thereby obliging them to choose which eye to orient away from the opaque wall to scan for potential predators (i.e., vigilant scanning). To test for lateralization of predatory behavior, individual cuttlefish were placed in the apex of an isosceles triangular arena and presented with two shrimp in opposite vertexes, thus requiring the cuttlefish to choose between attacking a prey item to the left or to the right of them. Cuttlefish were significantly more likely to favor the left visual field to scan for potential predators and the right visual field for prey attack. Moreover, individual cuttlefish that were leftward directed for vigilant scanning were predominately rightward directed for prey attack. Lateralized individuals also showed faster decision-making when presented with prey simultaneously. Cuttlefish appear to have opposite directions of lateralization for anti-predatory and predatory behavior, suggesting that there is functional specialization of

  13. Visual Equivalence and Amodal Completion in Cuttlefish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, I-Rong; Chiao, Chuan-Chin

    2017-01-01

    Modern cephalopods are notably the most intelligent invertebrates and this is accompanied by keen vision. Despite extensive studies investigating the visual systems of cephalopods, little is known about their visual perception and object recognition. In the present study, we investigated the visual processing of the cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis , including visual equivalence and amodal completion. Cuttlefish were trained to discriminate images of shrimp and fish using the operant conditioning paradigm. After cuttlefish reached the learning criteria, a series of discrimination tasks were conducted. In the visual equivalence experiment, several transformed versions of the training images, such as images reduced in size, images reduced in contrast, sketches of the images, the contours of the images, and silhouettes of the images, were used. In the amodal completion experiment, partially occluded views of the original images were used. The results showed that cuttlefish were able to treat the training images of reduced size and sketches as the visual equivalence. Cuttlefish were also capable of recognizing partially occluded versions of the training image. Furthermore, individual differences in performance suggest that some cuttlefish may be able to recognize objects when visual information was partly removed. These findings support the hypothesis that the visual perception of cuttlefish involves both visual equivalence and amodal completion. The results from this research also provide insights into the visual processing mechanisms used by cephalopods.

  14. Effets du zinc sur la physiologie du stade juvénile de la seiche commune Sepia officinalis et étude du système immunitaire pour le développement d’outils in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Le Pabic , Charles

    2014-01-01

    Cuttlefish eggs and juveniles grow inshore where anthropic contamination is high. Following studies on the impact of trace metals on Sepia officinalis egg stage, this work intends to determine the sensitivity of cuttlefish juvenile stage against the trace metal zinc, using diverse biomarkers. Our results showed the low ability of juvenile cuttlefish to regulate the assimilation of dissolved zinc, resulting in an important zinc-sensitivity. Non-lethal exposures (i.e. < 200 μg L -1 ) for period...

  15. Molecular cloning and transcriptional analysis of a NPY receptor-like in common Chinese cuttlefish Sepiella japonica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jingwen; Xu, Yuchao; Xu, Ke; Ping, Hongling; Shi, Huilai; Lü, Zhenming; Wu, Changwen; Wang, Tianming

    2017-08-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) has a pivotal role in the regulation of many physiological processes. In this study, the gene encoding a NPY receptor-like from the common Chinese cuttlefish Sepiella japonica (SjNPYR-like) was identified and characterized. The full-length SjNPYR-like cDNA was cloned containing a 492-bp of 5' untranslated region (UTR), 1 182 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein of 393 amino acid residues, and 228 bp of 3' UTR. The putative protein was predicted to have a molecular weight of 45.54 kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) of 8.13. By informatic analyses, SjNPYR-like was identified as belonging to the class A G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) family (the rhodopsin-type). The amino acid sequence contained 12 potential phosphorylation sites and five predicted N-linked glycosylation sites. Multiple sequence alignment and 3D structure modeling were conducted to clarify SjNPYR bioinformatics characteristics. Phylogenetic analysis identifies it as an NPYR with identity of 33% to Lymnaea stagnalis NPFR. Transmembrane properties of SjNPYR-like were demonstrated in vitro using HEK293 cells and the pEGFP-N1 plasmid. Relative quantification of SjNPYR-like mRNA level confirmed a high level expression and broad distribution of SjNPYR - like in various tissues of female S. japonica. In addition, the transcriptional profile of SjNPYR - like in the brain, liver, and ovary during gonadal development was analyzed. The results provide basic understanding on the molecular characteristics of SjNPYR-like and its potentially physical functions.

  16. Polarization vision in cuttlefish in a concealed communication channel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashar; Rutledge; Cronin

    1996-01-01

    Polarization sensitivity is well documented in marine animals, but its function is not yet well understood. Of the cephalopods, squid and octopus are known to be sensitive to the orientation of polarization of incoming light. This sensitivity arises from the orthogonal orientation of neighboring photoreceptors. Electron microscopical examination of the retina of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis L. revealed the same orthogonal structure, suggesting that cuttlefish are also sensitive to linearly polarized light. Viewing cuttlefish through an imaging polarized light analyzer revealed a prominent polarization pattern on the arms, around the eyes and on the forehead of the animals. The polarization pattern disappeared when individuals lay camouflaged on the bottom and also during extreme aggression display, attacks on prey, copulation and egg-laying behavior in females. In behavioral experiments, the responses of cuttlefish to their images reflected from a mirror changed when the polarization patterns of the reflected images were distorted. These results suggest that cuttlefish use polarization vision and display for intraspecific recognition and communication.

  17. Vertical visual features have a strong influence on cuttlefish camouflage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, K M; Buresch, K C; Kossodo, M M; Mäthger, L M; Siemann, L A; Hanlon, R T

    2013-04-01

    Cuttlefish and other cephalopods use visual cues from their surroundings to adaptively change their body pattern for camouflage. Numerous previous experiments have demonstrated the influence of two-dimensional (2D) substrates (e.g., sand and gravel habitats) on camouflage, yet many marine habitats have varied three-dimensional (3D) structures among which cuttlefish camouflage from predators, including benthic predators that view cuttlefish horizontally against such 3D backgrounds. We conducted laboratory experiments, using Sepia officinalis, to test the relative influence of horizontal versus vertical visual cues on cuttlefish camouflage: 2D patterns on benthic substrates were tested versus 2D wall patterns and 3D objects with patterns. Specifically, we investigated the influence of (i) quantity and (ii) placement of high-contrast elements on a 3D object or a 2D wall, as well as (iii) the diameter and (iv) number of 3D objects with high-contrast elements on cuttlefish body pattern expression. Additionally, we tested the influence of high-contrast visual stimuli covering the entire 2D benthic substrate versus the entire 2D wall. In all experiments, visual cues presented in the vertical plane evoked the strongest body pattern response in cuttlefish. These experiments support field observations that, in some marine habitats, cuttlefish will respond to vertically oriented background features even when the preponderance of visual information in their field of view seems to be from the 2D surrounding substrate. Such choices highlight the selective decision-making that occurs in cephalopods with their adaptive camouflage capability.

  18. Cuttlefish dynamic camouflage: responses to substrate choice and integration of multiple visual cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Justine J; Mäthger, Lydia M; Barbosa, Alexandra; Buresch, Kendra C; Sogin, Emilia; Schwartz, Jillian; Chubb, Charles; Hanlon, Roger T

    2010-04-07

    Prey camouflage is an evolutionary response to predation pressure. Cephalopods have extensive camouflage capabilities and studying them can offer insight into effective camouflage design. Here, we examine whether cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, show substrate or camouflage pattern preferences. In the first two experiments, cuttlefish were presented with a choice between different artificial substrates or between different natural substrates. First, the ability of cuttlefish to show substrate preference on artificial and natural substrates was established. Next, cuttlefish were offered substrates known to evoke three main camouflage body pattern types these animals show: Uniform or Mottle (function by background matching); or Disruptive. In a third experiment, cuttlefish were presented with conflicting visual cues on their left and right sides to assess their camouflage response. Given a choice between substrates they might encounter in nature, we found no strong substrate preference except when cuttlefish could bury themselves. Additionally, cuttlefish responded to conflicting visual cues with mixed body patterns in both the substrate preference and split substrate experiments. These results suggest that differences in energy costs for different camouflage body patterns may be minor and that pattern mixing and symmetry may play important roles in camouflage.

  19. Element characterization of african cuttlefish, Sepia bertheloti from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... US recommended dietary reference intakes for people of different age groups. These elements are of great nutritional value for proper and healthy growth of humans. The accuracy and precision of the technique were assured by analyzing the BCR reference materials BCR 185 (bovine liver), and BCR 186 (pig kidney).

  20. During studies on the circulatory system of the cuttlefish Sepia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    Texas, Galveston, either (B. U. Budelmann pers. comm.). The malformation consisted of a truncus- or cord- like structure that in most cases originated from a cone-like evagination on the left cranio-apical area of the heart ventricle. It joined the atypical elongated right apical part of the ventricle on the inner side just below the ...

  1. Cuttlefish see shape from shading, fine-tuning coloration in response to pictorial depth cues and directional illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zylinski, Sarah; Osorio, D; Johnsen, Sonke

    2016-03-16

    Humans use shading as a cue to three-dimensional form by combining low-level information about light intensity with high-level knowledge about objects and the environment. Here, we examine how cuttlefish Sepia officinalis respond to light and shadow to shade the white square (WS) feature in their body pattern. Cuttlefish display the WS in the presence of pebble-like objects, and they can shade it to render the appearance of surface curvature to a human observer, which might benefit camouflage. Here we test how they colour the WS on visual backgrounds containing two-dimensional circular stimuli, some of which were shaded to suggest surface curvature, whereas others were uniformly coloured or divided into dark and light semicircles. WS shading, measured by lateral asymmetry, was greatest when the animal rested on a background of shaded circles and three-dimensional hemispheres, and less on plain white circles or black/white semicircles. In addition, shading was enhanced when light fell from the lighter side of the shaded stimulus, as expected for real convex surfaces. Thus, the cuttlefish acts as if it perceives surface curvature from shading, and takes account of the direction of illumination. However, the direction of WS shading is insensitive to the directions of background shading and illumination; instead the cuttlefish tend to turn to face the light source. © 2016 The Author(s).

  2. Comparative morphology of changeable skin papillae in octopus and cuttlefish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Justine J; Bell, George R R; Kuzirian, Alan M; Velankar, Sachin S; Hanlon, Roger T

    2014-04-01

    A major component of cephalopod adaptive camouflage behavior has rarely been studied: their ability to change the three-dimensionality of their skin by morphing their malleable dermal papillae. Recent work has established that simple, conical papillae in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) function as muscular hydrostats; that is, the muscles that extend a papilla also provide its structural support. We used brightfield and scanning electron microscopy to investigate and compare the functional morphology of nine types of papillae of different shapes, sizes and complexity in six species: S. officinalis small dorsal papillae, Octopus vulgaris small dorsal and ventral eye papillae, Macrotritopus defilippi dorsal eye papillae, Abdopus aculeatus major mantle papillae, O. bimaculoides arm, minor mantle, and dorsal eye papillae, and S. apama face ridge papillae. Most papillae have two sets of muscles responsible for extension: circular dermal erector muscles arranged in a concentric pattern to lift the papilla away from the body surface and horizontal dermal erector muscles to pull the papilla's perimeter toward its core and determine shape. A third set of muscles, retractors, appears to be responsible for pulling a papilla's apex down toward the body surface while stretching out its base. Connective tissue infiltrated with mucopolysaccharides assists with structural support. S. apama face ridge papillae are different: the contraction of erector muscles perpendicular to the ridge causes overlying tissues to buckle. In this case, mucopolysaccharide-rich connective tissue provides structural support. These six species possess changeable papillae that are diverse in size and shape, yet with one exception they share somewhat similar functional morphologies. Future research on papilla morphology, biomechanics and neural control in the many unexamined species of octopus and cuttlefish may uncover new principles of actuation in soft, flexible tissue.

  3. Melanin and Melanin-Related Polymers as Materials with Biomedical and Biotechnological Applications-Cuttlefish Ink and Mussel Foot Proteins as Inspired Biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, Francisco

    2017-07-18

    The huge development of bioengineering during the last years has boosted the search for new bioinspired materials, with tunable chemical, mechanical, and optoelectronic properties for the design of semiconductors, batteries, biosensors, imaging and therapy probes, adhesive hydrogels, tissue restoration, photoprotectors, etc. These new materials should complement or replace metallic or organic polymers that cause cytotoxicity and some adverse health effects. One of the most interesting biomaterials is melanin and synthetic melanin-related molecules. Melanin has a controversial molecular structure, dependent on the conditions of polymerization, and therefore tunable. It is found in animal hair and skin, although one of the common sources is cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) ink. On the other hand, mussels synthesize adhesive proteins to anchor these marine animals to wet surfaces. Both melanin and mussel foot proteins contain a high number of catecholic residues, and their properties are related to these groups. Dopamine (DA) can easily polymerize to get polydopamine melanin (PDAM), that somehow shares properties with melanin and mussel proteins. Furthermore, PDAM can easily be conjugated with other components. This review accounts for the main aspects of melanin, as well as DA-based melanin-like materials, related to their biomedical and biotechnological applications.

  4. Melanin and Melanin-Related Polymers as Materials with Biomedical and Biotechnological Applications—Cuttlefish Ink and Mussel Foot Proteins as Inspired Biomolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The huge development of bioengineering during the last years has boosted the search for new bioinspired materials, with tunable chemical, mechanical, and optoelectronic properties for the design of semiconductors, batteries, biosensors, imaging and therapy probes, adhesive hydrogels, tissue restoration, photoprotectors, etc. These new materials should complement or replace metallic or organic polymers that cause cytotoxicity and some adverse health effects. One of the most interesting biomaterials is melanin and synthetic melanin-related molecules. Melanin has a controversial molecular structure, dependent on the conditions of polymerization, and therefore tunable. It is found in animal hair and skin, although one of the common sources is cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) ink. On the other hand, mussels synthesize adhesive proteins to anchor these marine animals to wet surfaces. Both melanin and mussel foot proteins contain a high number of catecholic residues, and their properties are related to these groups. Dopamine (DA) can easily polymerize to get polydopamine melanin (PDAM), that somehow shares properties with melanin and mussel proteins. Furthermore, PDAM can easily be conjugated with other components. This review accounts for the main aspects of melanin, as well as DA-based melanin-like materials, related to their biomedical and biotechnological applications. PMID:28718807

  5. Melanin and Melanin-Related Polymers as Materials with Biomedical and Biotechnological Applications—Cuttlefish Ink and Mussel Foot Proteins as Inspired Biomolecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Solano

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The huge development of bioengineering during the last years has boosted the search for new bioinspired materials, with tunable chemical, mechanical, and optoelectronic properties for the design of semiconductors, batteries, biosensors, imaging and therapy probes, adhesive hydrogels, tissue restoration, photoprotectors, etc. These new materials should complement or replace metallic or organic polymers that cause cytotoxicity and some adverse health effects. One of the most interesting biomaterials is melanin and synthetic melanin-related molecules. Melanin has a controversial molecular structure, dependent on the conditions of polymerization, and therefore tunable. It is found in animal hair and skin, although one of the common sources is cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis ink. On the other hand, mussels synthesize adhesive proteins to anchor these marine animals to wet surfaces. Both melanin and mussel foot proteins contain a high number of catecholic residues, and their properties are related to these groups. Dopamine (DA can easily polymerize to get polydopamine melanin (PDAM, that somehow shares properties with melanin and mussel proteins. Furthermore, PDAM can easily be conjugated with other components. This review accounts for the main aspects of melanin, as well as DA-based melanin-like materials, related to their biomedical and biotechnological applications.

  6. Cuttlefish bone scaffold for tissue engineering: a novel hydrothermal transformation, chemical-physical, and biological characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battistella, Elisa; Mele, Silvia; Foltran, Ismaela; Lesci, Isidoro Giorgio; Roveri, Norberto; Sabatino, Piera; Rimondini, Lia

    2012-09-27

    Natural resources are receiving growing interest because of their possible conversion from a cheap and easily available material into a biomedical product. Cuttlefish bone from Sepia Officinalis was investigated in order to obtain an hydroxyapatite porous scaffold using hydrothermal transformation. Complete conversion of the previous calcium carbonate (aragonite) phase into a calcium phosphate (hydroxyapatite) phase was performed with an hydrothermal transformation at 200 °C (~ 15 atm), for four hours, with an aqueous solution of KH2PO4 in order to set the molar ratio Ca/P = 10/6 in a reactor (Parr 4382). The complete conversion was then analyzed by TGA, ATR-FTIR, x-ray diffraction, and SEM. Moreover, the material was biologically investigated with MC3T3-E1 in static cultures, using both osteogenic and maintenance media. The expression of osteogenic markers as ALP and osteocalcin and the cell proliferation were investigated. Cuttlefish bone has been successfully transformed from calcium carbonate into calcium phosphate. Biological characterization revealed that osteogenic markers are expressed using both osteogenic and maintenance conditions. Cell proliferation is influenced by the static culture condition used for this three-dimensional scaffold. The new scaffold composed by hydroxyapatite and derived for a natural source presents good biocompatibility and can be used for further investigations using dynamic cultures in order to improve cell proliferation and differentiation for bone tissue engineering.

  7. Composition and metabolism of phospholipids in Octopus vulgaris and Sepia officinalis hatchlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Diana B; Acosta, Nieves G; Almansa, Eduardo; Tocher, Douglas R; Andrade, José P; Sykes, António V; Rodríguez, Covadonga

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to characterise the fatty acid (FA) profiles of the major phospholipids, of Octopus vulgaris and Sepia officinalis hatchlings, namely phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylinositol (PI) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE); and to evaluate the capability of both cephalopod species on dietary phospholipid remodelling. Thus, O. vulgaris and S. officinalis hatchlings were in vivo incubated with 0.3μM of L-∝-1-palmitoyl-2-[1-(14)C]arachidonyl-PC or L-∝-1-palmitoyl-2-[1-(14)C]arachidonyl-PE. Octopus and cuttlefish hatchlings phospholipids showed a characteristic FA profiles with PC presenting high contents of 16:0 and 22:6n-3 (DHA); PS having high 18:0, DHA and 20:5n-3 (EPA); PI a high content of saturated FA; and PE showing high contents of DHA and EPA. Interestingly, the highest content of 20:4n-6 (ARA) was found in PE rather than PI. Irrespective of the phospholipid in which [1-(14)C]ARA was initially bound (either PC or PE), the esterification pattern of [1-(14)C]ARA in octopus lipids was similar to that found in their tissues with high esterification of this FA into PE. In contrast, in cuttlefish hatchlings [1-(14)C]ARA was mainly recovered in the same phospholipid that was provided. These results showed a characteristic FA profiles in the major phospholipids of the two species, as well as a contrasting capability to remodel dietary phospholipids, which may suggest a difference in phospholipase activities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Environ: E00521 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00521 Cuttlefish oracle bones Sepiae os Sepia esculenta Hoyle Crude drug Calcium ...:515515], Sepia officinalis [TAX:6610] ... Sepia esculenta oracle bones (dried) Sepiidae Sepiella japonica, Sep...ia latimanus, Sepia lycidas, Sepia pharaonis, Sepia aculeata, Sepia andreana, Sepia officinalis oracle bones (dried) ...

  9. Preparation of a Sepia Melanin and Poly(ethylene-alt-maleic Anhydride Hybrid Material as an Adsorbent for Water Purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Panzarasa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Meeting the increasing demand of clean water requires the development of novel efficient adsorbent materials for the removal of organic pollutants. In this context the use of natural, renewable sources is of special relevance and sepia melanin, thanks to its ability to bind a variety of organic and inorganic species, has already attracted interest for water purification. Here we describe the synthesis of a material obtained by the combination of sepia melanin and poly(ethylene-alt-maleic anhydride (P(E-alt-MA. Compared to sepia melanin, the resulting hybrid displays a high and fast adsorption efficiency towards methylene blue (a common industrial dye for a wide pH range (from pH 2 to 12 and under high ionic strength conditions. It is easily recovered after use and can be reused up to three times. Given the wide availability of sepia melanin and P(E-alt-MA, the synthesis of our hybrid is simple and affordable, making it suitable for industrial water purification purposes.

  10. Visual Ecology and the Development of Visually Guided Behavior in the Cuttlefish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Sophie Darmaillacq

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cuttlefish are highly visual animals, a fact reflected in the large size of their eyes and visual-processing centers of their brain. Adults detect their prey visually, navigate using visual cues such as landmarks or the e-vector of polarized light and display intense visual patterns during mating and agonistic encounters. Although much is known about the visual system in adult cuttlefish, few studies have investigated its development and that of visually-guided behavior in juveniles. This review summarizes the results of studies of visual development in embryos and young juveniles. The visual system is the last to develop, as in vertebrates, and is functional before hatching. Indeed, embryonic exposure to prey, shelters or complex background alters postembryonic behavior. Visual acuity and lateralization, and polarization sensitivity improve throughout the first months after hatching. The production of body patterning in juveniles is not the simple stimulus-response process commonly presented in the literature. Rather, it likely requires the complex integration of visual information, and is subject to inter-individual differences. Though the focus of this review is vision in cuttlefish, it is important to note that other senses, particularly sensitivity to vibration and to waterborne chemical signals, also play a role in behavior. Considering the multimodal sensory dimensions of natural stimuli and their integration and processing by individuals offer new exciting avenues of future inquiry.

  11. Visual Ecology and the Development of Visually Guided Behavior in the Cuttlefish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmaillacq, Anne-Sophie; Mezrai, Nawel; O'Brien, Caitlin E; Dickel, Ludovic

    2017-01-01

    Cuttlefish are highly visual animals, a fact reflected in the large size of their eyes and visual-processing centers of their brain. Adults detect their prey visually, navigate using visual cues such as landmarks or the e -vector of polarized light and display intense visual patterns during mating and agonistic encounters. Although much is known about the visual system in adult cuttlefish, few studies have investigated its development and that of visually-guided behavior in juveniles. This review summarizes the results of studies of visual development in embryos and young juveniles. The visual system is the last to develop, as in vertebrates, and is functional before hatching. Indeed, embryonic exposure to prey, shelters or complex background alters postembryonic behavior. Visual acuity and lateralization, and polarization sensitivity improve throughout the first months after hatching. The production of body patterning in juveniles is not the simple stimulus-response process commonly presented in the literature. Rather, it likely requires the complex integration of visual information, and is subject to inter-individual differences. Though the focus of this review is vision in cuttlefish, it is important to note that other senses, particularly sensitivity to vibration and to waterborne chemical signals, also play a role in behavior. Considering the multimodal sensory dimensions of natural stimuli and their integration and processing by individuals offer new exciting avenues of future inquiry.

  12. Dynamic masquerade with morphing three-dimensional skin in cuttlefish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panetta, Deanna; Buresch, Kendra; Hanlon, Roger T

    2017-03-01

    Masquerade is a defence tactic in which a prey resembles an inedible or inanimate object thus causing predators to misclassify it. Most masquerade colour patterns are static although some species adopt postures or behaviours to enhance the effect. Dynamic masquerade in which the colour pattern can be changed is rare. Here we report a two-step sensory process that enables an additional novel capability known only in cuttlefish and octopus: morphing three-dimensional physical skin texture that further enhances the optical illusions created by coloured skin patterns. Our experimental design incorporated sequential sensory processes: addition of a three-dimensional rock to the testing arena, which attracted the cuttlefish to settle next to it; then visual processing by the cuttlefish of physical textures on the rock to guide expression of the skin papillae, which can range from fully relaxed (smooth skin) to fully expressed (bumpy skin). When a uniformly white smooth rock was presented, cuttlefish moved to the rock and deployed a uniform body pattern with mostly smooth skin. When a rock with small-scale fragments of contrasting shells was presented, the cuttlefish deployed mottled body patterns with strong papillae expression. These robust and reversible responses indicate a sophisticated visual sensorimotor system for dynamic masquerade. © 2017 The Author(s).

  13. Antifungal and Antihepatotoxic Effects of Sepia Ink Extract against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There is a great need for novel strategies to overcome the high mortality associated with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in immunocompromised patients. To evaluate the antifungal and antihepatotoxic potentials of Sepia ink extract, its effect on liver oxidative stress levels was analyzed against IPA in ...

  14. Simulated, Emulated, and Physical Investigative Analysis (SEPIA) of networked systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, David P.; Van Leeuwen, Brian P.; McDonald, Michael James; Onunkwo, Uzoma A.; Tarman, Thomas David; Urias, Vincent E.

    2009-09-01

    This report describes recent progress made in developing and utilizing hybrid Simulated, Emulated, and Physical Investigative Analysis (SEPIA) environments. Many organizations require advanced tools to analyze their information system's security, reliability, and resilience against cyber attack. Today's security analysis utilize real systems such as computers, network routers and other network equipment, computer emulations (e.g., virtual machines) and simulation models separately to analyze interplay between threats and safeguards. In contrast, this work developed new methods to combine these three approaches to provide integrated hybrid SEPIA environments. Our SEPIA environments enable an analyst to rapidly configure hybrid environments to pass network traffic and perform, from the outside, like real networks. This provides higher fidelity representations of key network nodes while still leveraging the scalability and cost advantages of simulation tools. The result is to rapidly produce large yet relatively low-cost multi-fidelity SEPIA networks of computers and routers that let analysts quickly investigate threats and test protection approaches.

  15. Morphological and chemical composition characterization of commercial sepia melanin

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mbonyiryivuze, A

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available granules with different size distributions that have been determined using image-J software. The small granule diameter obtained from different TEM and SEM micrographs were 100-200nm. EDS reveals that C and O were the most abundant in sepia melanin...

  16. SEPIA - a new single pixel receiver at the APEX telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belitsky, V.; Lapkin, I.; Fredrixon, M.; Meledin, D.; Sundin, E.; Billade, B.; Ferm, S.-E.; Pavolotsky, A.; Rashid, H.; Strandberg, M.; Desmaris, V.; Ermakov, A.; Krause, S.; Olberg, M.; Aghdam, P.; Shafiee, S.; Bergman, P.; Beck, E. De; Olofsson, H.; Conway, J.; Breuck, C. De; Immer, K.; Yagoubov, P.; Montenegro-Montes, F. M.; Torstensson, K.; Pérez-Beaupuits, J.-P.; Klein, T.; Boland, W.; Baryshev, A. M.; Hesper, R.; Barkhof, J.; Adema, J.; Bekema, M. E.; Koops, A.

    2018-04-01

    Context. We describe the new Swedish-ESO PI Instrument for APEX (SEPIA) receiver, which was designed and built by the Group for Advanced Receiver Development (GARD), at Onsala Space Observatory (OSO) in collaboration with ESO. It was installed and commissioned at the APEX telescope during 2015 with an ALMA Band 5 receiver channel and updated with a new frequency channel (ALMA Band 9) in February 2016. Aim. This manuscript aims to provide, for observers who use the SEPIA receiver, a reference in terms of the hardware description, optics and performance as well as the commissioning results. Methods: Out of three available receiver cartridge positions in SEPIA, the two current frequency channels, corresponding to ALMA Band 5, the RF band 158-211 GHz, and Band 9, the RF band 600-722 GHz, provide state-of-the-art dual polarization receivers. The Band 5 frequency channel uses 2SB SIS mixers with an average SSB noise temperature around 45 K with IF (intermediate frequency) band 4-8 GHz for each sideband providing total 4 × 4 GHz IF band. The Band 9 frequency channel uses DSB SIS mixers with a noise temperature of 75-125 K with IF band 4-12 GHz for each polarization. Results: Both current SEPIA receiver channels are available to all APEX observers.

  17. Congenital malformation of the systemic heart of Sepia officinalis l ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Numerous preparations of the circulatory system of Sepia officinalis L. caught from the Bay of Arcachon (Atlantic Coast of France) in 1989 and 1996 showed an obvious congenital malformation of the systemic heart complex. The malformation consisted of a cord- or truncus-like structure at the left cranio-apical ventricle.

  18. Tactical decisions for changeable cuttlefish camouflage: visual cues for choosing masquerade are relevant from a greater distance than visual cues used for background matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buresch, Kendra C; Ulmer, Kimberly M; Cramer, Corinne; McAnulty, Sarah; Davison, William; Mäthger, Lydia M; Hanlon, Roger T

    2015-10-01

    Cuttlefish use multiple camouflage tactics to evade their predators. Two common tactics are background matching (resembling the background to hinder detection) and masquerade (resembling an uninteresting or inanimate object to impede detection or recognition). We investigated how the distance and orientation of visual stimuli affected the choice of these two camouflage tactics. In the current experiments, cuttlefish were presented with three visual cues: 2D horizontal floor, 2D vertical wall, and 3D object. Each was placed at several distances: directly beneath (in a circle whose diameter was one body length (BL); at zero BL [(0BL); i.e., directly beside, but not beneath the cuttlefish]; at 1BL; and at 2BL. Cuttlefish continued to respond to 3D visual cues from a greater distance than to a horizontal or vertical stimulus. It appears that background matching is chosen when visual cues are relevant only in the immediate benthic surroundings. However, for masquerade, objects located multiple body lengths away remained relevant for choice of camouflage. © 2015 Marine Biological Laboratory.

  19. First descriptions of dicyemid mesozoans (Dicyemida: Dicyemidae) from Australian octopus (Octopodidae) and cuttlefish (Sepiidae), including a new record of Dicyemennea in Australian waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Sarah R

    2013-09-01

    Three new species of dicyemid mesozoans are described for the first time from Australian octopus and cuttlefish species. Dicyemennea floscephalum sp. n. is described from Octopus berrima Stranks et Norman (southern keeled octopus) collected from Spencer Gulf and Gulf St. Vincent, South Australia, Australia and represents the first description of a species of Dicyemennea Whitman, 1883 from Australian waters. Dicyema papuceum sp. n. and D. furuyi sp. n. are described from Sepia papuensis Hoyle (Papuan cuttlefish) collected from Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia. Dicyemennea floscephalum sp. n. is a medium to large species that reaches approximately 4.9 mm in length. The vermiform stages are characterised by having 23-28 peripheral cells, and a disc-shaped, flower-like calotte in larger individuals. An anterior abortive axial cell is absent in vermiform embryos and verruciform cells were not observed in nematogens and rhombogens. Infusoriform embryos comprise 37 cells; one nucleus is present in each urn cell. Dicyema papuceum sp. n. is a small species that reaches approximately 1.1 mm in length. The vermiform stages are characterised by having 30-33 peripheral cells and a relatively small, cap-shaped calotte. An anterior abortive axial cell is absent in vermiform embryos and verruciform cells were occasionally observed in nematogens. Infusoriform embryos comprise 37 cells; two nuclei are present in each urn cell. Dicyema furuyi sp. n. is a large species that reaches approximately 5.3 mm in length. The vermiform stages are characterised by having 22-24 peripheral cells and an elongate calotte. An anterior abortive axial cell is absent in vermiform embryos and verruciform cells were not observed in nematogens and rhombogens. Infusoriform embryos comprise 37 cells; one nucleus is present in each urn cell. Three secondary nematogens were also observed in the right renal appendages of two host individuals, confirming the occurrence of this form.

  20. Eye Development in Sepia officinalis Embryo: What the Uncommon Gene Expression Profiles Tell Us about Eye Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imarazene, Boudjema; Andouche, Aude; Bassaglia, Yann; Lopez, Pascal-Jean; Bonnaud-Ponticelli, Laure

    2017-01-01

    In metazoans, there is a remarkable diversity of photosensitive structures; their shapes, physiology, optical properties, and development are different. To approach the evolution of photosensitive structures and visual function, cephalopods are particularly interesting organisms due to their most highly centralized nervous system and their camerular eyes which constitute a convergence with those of vertebrates. The eye morphogenesis in numerous metazoans is controlled mainly by a conserved Retinal Determination Gene Network (RDGN) including pax, six, eya , and dac playing also key developmental roles in non-retinal structures and tissues of vertebrates and Drosophila . Here we have identified and explored the role of Sof-dac, Sof-six1/2, Sof-eya in eye morphogenesis, and nervous structures controlling the visual function in Sepia officinalis . We compare that with the already shown expressions in eye development of Sof-otx and Sof-pax genes. Rhodopsin is the pigment responsible for light sensitivity in metazoan, which correlate to correlate visual function and eye development. We studied Sof-rhodopsin expression during retina differentiation. By in situ hybridization, we show that (1) all of the RDGN genes, including Sof-pax6 , are expressed in the eye area during the early developmental stages but they are not expressed in the retina, unlike Sof-otx , which could have a role in retina differentiation; (2) Sof-rhodopsin is expressed in the retina just before vision gets functional, from stage 23 to hatching. Our results evidence a role of Sof-six1/2, Sof-eya , and Sof-dac in eye development. However, the gene network involved in the retinal photoreceptor differentiation remains to be determined. Moreover, for the first time, Sof-rhodopsin expression is shown in the embryonic retina of cuttlefish suggesting the evolutionary conservation of the role of rhodopsin in visual phototransduction within metazoans. These findings are correlated with the physiological and

  1. Eye Development in Sepia officinalis Embryo: What the Uncommon Gene Expression Profiles Tell Us about Eye Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boudjema Imarazene

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In metazoans, there is a remarkable diversity of photosensitive structures; their shapes, physiology, optical properties, and development are different. To approach the evolution of photosensitive structures and visual function, cephalopods are particularly interesting organisms due to their most highly centralized nervous system and their camerular eyes which constitute a convergence with those of vertebrates. The eye morphogenesis in numerous metazoans is controlled mainly by a conserved Retinal Determination Gene Network (RDGN including pax, six, eya, and dac playing also key developmental roles in non-retinal structures and tissues of vertebrates and Drosophila. Here we have identified and explored the role of Sof-dac, Sof-six1/2, Sof-eya in eye morphogenesis, and nervous structures controlling the visual function in Sepia officinalis. We compare that with the already shown expressions in eye development of Sof-otx and Sof-pax genes. Rhodopsin is the pigment responsible for light sensitivity in metazoan, which correlate to correlate visual function and eye development. We studied Sof-rhodopsin expression during retina differentiation. By in situ hybridization, we show that (1 all of the RDGN genes, including Sof-pax6, are expressed in the eye area during the early developmental stages but they are not expressed in the retina, unlike Sof-otx, which could have a role in retina differentiation; (2 Sof-rhodopsin is expressed in the retina just before vision gets functional, from stage 23 to hatching. Our results evidence a role of Sof-six1/2, Sof-eya, and Sof-dac in eye development. However, the gene network involved in the retinal photoreceptor differentiation remains to be determined. Moreover, for the first time, Sof-rhodopsin expression is shown in the embryonic retina of cuttlefish suggesting the evolutionary conservation of the role of rhodopsin in visual phototransduction within metazoans. These findings are correlated with the

  2. Antioxidative activity and emulsifying properties of cuttlefish skin gelatin modified by oxidised phenolic compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aewsiri, T.; Benjakul, S.; Visessanguan, W.; Eun, J.B.; Wierenga, P.A.; Gruppen, H.

    2009-01-01

    Antioxidative activity and emulsifying properties of cuttlefish skin gelatin modified by different oxidised phenolic compounds including caffeic acid, ferulic acid and tannic acid at different concentrations were investigated. Oxidised phenolic compounds were covalently attached to gelatin as

  3. Visual Ecology and the Development of Visually Guided Behavior in the Cuttlefish

    OpenAIRE

    Darmaillacq, Anne-Sophie; Mezrai, Nawel; O'Brien, Caitlin E.; Dickel, Ludovic

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Cuttlefish are highly visual animals, a fact reflected in the large size of their eyes and visual-processing centers of their brain. Adults detect their prey visually, navigate using visual cues such as landmarks or the e-vector of polarized light and display intense visual patterns during mating and agonistic encounters. Although much is known about the visual system in adult cuttlefish, few studies have investigated its development and that of visually-guided behavio...

  4. Hyperspectral imaging of cuttlefish camouflage indicates good color match in the eyes of fish predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, Chuan-Chin; Wickiser, J Kenneth; Allen, Justine J; Genter, Brock; Hanlon, Roger T

    2011-05-31

    Camouflage is a widespread phenomenon throughout nature and an important antipredator tactic in natural selection. Many visual predators have keen color perception, and thus camouflage patterns should provide some degree of color matching in addition to other visual factors such as pattern, contrast, and texture. Quantifying camouflage effectiveness in the eyes of the predator is a challenge from the perspectives of both biology and optical imaging technology. Here we take advantage of hyperspectral imaging (HSI), which records full-spectrum light data, to simultaneously visualize color match and pattern match in the spectral and the spatial domains, respectively. Cuttlefish can dynamically camouflage themselves on any natural substrate and, despite their colorblindness, produce body patterns that appear to have high-fidelity color matches to the substrate when viewed directly by humans or with RGB images. Live camouflaged cuttlefish on natural backgrounds were imaged using HSI, and subsequent spectral analysis revealed that most reflectance spectra of individual cuttlefish and substrates were similar, rendering the color match possible. Modeling color vision of potential di- and trichromatic fish predators of cuttlefish corroborated the spectral match analysis and demonstrated that camouflaged cuttlefish show good color match as well as pattern match in the eyes of fish predators. These findings (i) indicate the strong potential of HSI technology to enhance studies of biological coloration and (ii) provide supporting evidence that cuttlefish can produce color-coordinated camouflage on natural substrates despite lacking color vision.

  5. How Egg Case Proteins Can Protect Cuttlefish Offspring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornet, Valérie; Henry, Joël; Goux, Didier; Duval, Emilie; Bernay, Benoit; Le Corguillé, Gildas; Corre, Erwan; Zatylny-Gaudin, Céline

    2015-01-01

    Sepia officinalis egg protection is ensured by a complex capsule produced by the female accessory genital glands and the ink bag. Our study is focused on the proteins constituting the main egg case. De novo transcriptomes from female genital glands provided essential databases for protein identification. A proteomic approach in SDS-PAGE coupled with MS unveiled a new egg case protein family: SepECPs, for Sepia officinalis Egg Case Proteins. N-glycosylation was demonstrated by PAS staining SDS-PAGE gels. These glycoproteins are mainly produced in the main nidamental glands. SepECPs share high sequence homology, especially in the signal peptide and the three cysteine-rich domains. SepECPs have a high number of cysteines, with conserved motifs involved in 3D-structure. SDS-PAGE showed that SepECPs could form dimers; this result was confirmed by TEM observations, which also revealed a protein network. This network is similar to the capsule network, and it associates these structural proteins with polysaccharides, melanin and bacteria to form a tight mesh. Its hardness and elasticity provide physical protection to the embryo. In addition, SepECPs also have bacteriostatic antimicrobial activity on GRAM- bacteria. By observing the SepECP / Vibrio aestuarianus complex in SEM, we demonstrated the ability of these proteins to agglomerate bacteria and thus inhibit their growth. These original proteins identified from the outer egg case ensure the survival of the species by providing physical and chemical protection to the embryos released in the environment without any maternal protection. PMID:26168161

  6. How Egg Case Proteins Can Protect Cuttlefish Offspring?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Cornet

    Full Text Available Sepia officinalis egg protection is ensured by a complex capsule produced by the female accessory genital glands and the ink bag. Our study is focused on the proteins constituting the main egg case. De novo transcriptomes from female genital glands provided essential databases for protein identification. A proteomic approach in SDS-PAGE coupled with MS unveiled a new egg case protein family: SepECPs, for Sepia officinalis Egg Case Proteins. N-glycosylation was demonstrated by PAS staining SDS-PAGE gels. These glycoproteins are mainly produced in the main nidamental glands. SepECPs share high sequence homology, especially in the signal peptide and the three cysteine-rich domains. SepECPs have a high number of cysteines, with conserved motifs involved in 3D-structure. SDS-PAGE showed that SepECPs could form dimers; this result was confirmed by TEM observations, which also revealed a protein network. This network is similar to the capsule network, and it associates these structural proteins with polysaccharides, melanin and bacteria to form a tight mesh. Its hardness and elasticity provide physical protection to the embryo. In addition, SepECPs also have bacteriostatic antimicrobial activity on GRAM- bacteria. By observing the SepECP / Vibrio aestuarianus complex in SEM, we demonstrated the ability of these proteins to agglomerate bacteria and thus inhibit their growth. These original proteins identified from the outer egg case ensure the survival of the species by providing physical and chemical protection to the embryos released in the environment without any maternal protection.

  7. A review of visual perception mechanisms that regulate rapid adaptive camouflage in cuttlefish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, Chuan-Chin; Chubb, Charles; Hanlon, Roger T

    2015-09-01

    We review recent research on the visual mechanisms of rapid adaptive camouflage in cuttlefish. These neurophysiologically complex marine invertebrates can camouflage themselves against almost any background, yet their ability to quickly (0.5-2 s) alter their body patterns on different visual backgrounds poses a vexing challenge: how to pick the correct body pattern amongst their repertoire. The ability of cuttlefish to change appropriately requires a visual system that can rapidly assess complex visual scenes and produce the motor responses-the neurally controlled body patterns-that achieve camouflage. Using specifically designed visual backgrounds and assessing the corresponding body patterns quantitatively, we and others have uncovered several aspects of scene variation that are important in regulating cuttlefish patterning responses. These include spatial scale of background pattern, background intensity, background contrast, object edge properties, object contrast polarity, object depth, and the presence of 3D objects. Moreover, arm postures and skin papillae are also regulated visually for additional aspects of concealment. By integrating these visual cues, cuttlefish are able to rapidly select appropriate body patterns for concealment throughout diverse natural environments. This sensorimotor approach of studying cuttlefish camouflage thus provides unique insights into the mechanisms of visual perception in an invertebrate image-forming eye.

  8. Sepia ink as a surrogate for colloid transport tests in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Gómez, Diego; Pérez-Rodríguez, Paula; López-Periago, J. Eugenio; Paradelo, Marcos

    2016-08-01

    We examined the suitability of the ink of Sepia officinalis as a surrogate for transport studies of microorganisms and microparticles in porous media. Sepia ink is an organic pigment consisted on a suspension of eumelanin, and that has several advantages for its use as a promising material for introducing the frugal-innovation in the fields of public health and environmental research: very low cost, non-toxic, spherical shape, moderate polydispersivity, size near large viruses, non-anomalous electrokinetic behavior, low retention in the soil, and high stability. Electrokinetic determinations and transport experiments in quartz sand columns and soil columns were done with purified suspensions of sepia ink. Influence of ionic strength on the electrophoretic mobility of ink particles showed the typical behavior of polystyrene latex spheres. Breakthrough curve (BTC) and retention profile (RP) in quartz sand columns showed a depth dependent and blocking adsorption model with an increase in adsorption rates with the ionic strength. Partially saturated transport through undisturbed soil showed less retention than in quartz sand, and matrix exclusion was also observed. Quantification of ink in leachate fractions by light absorbance is direct, but quantification in the soil profile with moderate to high organic matter content was rather cumbersome. We concluded that sepia ink is a suitable cheap surrogate for exploring transport of pathogenic viruses, bacteria and particulate contaminants in groundwater, and could be used for developing frugal-innovation related with the assessment of soil and aquifer filtration function, and monitoring of water filtration systems in low-income regions.

  9. Hyperspectral Imaging of Cuttlefish Camouflage Indicates Good Color Match in the Eyes of Fish Predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    using point source spectrometers) has greatly ad- vanced our understanding of visual communication and camou- flage (5–12). Previous investigations of...x, y, λ, t) will ultimately change the way we study visual communication of animals in their nat- ural habitats. How Do Colorblind Cuttlefish Achieve

  10. Quality changes of cuttlefish stored under various atmosphere modifications and vacuum packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouletis, Achilleas D; Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis S; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Neofitou, Christos; Parlapani, Foteini F; Gkagtzis, Dimitrios C

    2016-06-01

    Seafood preservation and its shelf life prolongation are two of the main issues in the seafood industry. As a result, and in view of market globalization, research has been triggered in this direction by applying several techniques such as modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), vacuum packaging (VP) and active packaging (AP). However, seafood such as octopus, cuttlefish and others have not been thoroughly investigated up to now. The aim of this research was to determine the optimal conditions of modified atmosphere under which cuttlefish storage time and consequently shelf life time could be prolonged without endangering consumer safety. It was found that cuttlefish shelf life reached 2, 2, 4, 8 and 8 days for control, VP, MAP 1, MAP 2 and MAP 3 (20% CO2 -80% N2 , 50% CO2 -50% N2 and 70% CO2 -30% N2 for MAP 1, 2 and 3, respectively) samples, respectively, judging by their sensorial attributes. Elevated CO2 levels had a strong microbiostatic effect, whereas storage under vacuum did not offer significant advantages. All physicochemical attributes of MAP-treated samples were better preserved compared to control. Application of high CO2 atmospheres such as MAP 2 and MAP 3 proved to be an effective strategy toward preserving the characteristics and prolonging the shelf life of fresh cuttlefish and thereby improving its potential in the market. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Metal-ion interactions and the structural organization of Sepia eumelanin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Simon, John D

    2005-02-01

    The structural organization of melanin granules isolated from ink sacs of Sepia officinalis was examined as a function of metal ion content by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Exposing Sepia melanin granules to ethelenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) solution or to metal salt solutions changed the metal content in the melanin, but did not alter granular morphology. Thus ionic forces between the organic components and metal ions in melanin are not required to sustain the natural morphology once the granule is assembled. However, when aqueous suspensions of Sepia melanin granules of varying metal content are ultra-sonicated, EDTA-washed and Fe-saturated melanin samples lose material to the solution more readily than the corresponding Ca(II) and Mg(II)-loaded samples. The solubilized components are found to be 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid (DHICA)-rich constituents. Associated with different metal ions, Na(I), Ca(II) and Mg(II) or Fe(III), these DHICA-rich entities form distinct two-dimensional aggregation structures when dried on the flat surface of mica. The data suggest multiply-charged ions play an important role in assisting or templating the assembly of the metal-free organic components to form the three-dimensional substructure distributed along the protein scaffold within the granule.

  12. A congenital malformation of the systemic heart complex in Sepia officinalis L. (Cephalopoda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipp, R.; von Boletzky, S.; Jakobs, P.; Labourg, P. J.

    1998-03-01

    In semi-adult Sepia officinalis L. (Cephalopoda) from the Bay of Arcachon (France) a congenital malformation of the systemic heart is described by macro-and microscopical methods. It concerns an atypical doubling of the site of insertion at the cephalic aorta at the apical ventricle. Its comparison with the paired anlagen of the systemic heart complex in normal embryogenesis and the central circulatory system of Nautilus gives rise to interpret it as a form of atavism. The possible causal role of mutagenic antifoulings is discussed.

  13. Antioxidative activity and emulsifying properties of cuttlefish skin gelatin–tannic acid complex as influenced by types of interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aewsiri, T.; Benjakul, S.; Visessanguan, W.; Wierenga, P.A.; Gruppen, H.

    2010-01-01

    The non-covalent interaction between cuttlefish skin gelatin and tannic acid was observed in gelatin modified with unoxidized tannic acid at pH 7, whereas covalent interaction was found in gelatin modified with oxidized tannic acid at pH 9. Degree of tannic acid incorporation into gelatin via

  14. Emulsifying Property and Antioxidative Activity of Cuttlefish Skin Gelatin Modified with Oxidized Linoleic Acid and Oxidized Tannic Acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aewsiri, T.; Benjakul, S.; Visessanguan, W.; Wierenga, P.A.; Gruppen, H.

    2013-01-01

    Cuttlefish skin gelatins modified with oxidized linoleic acid (OLA) and oxidized tannic acid (OTA) were characterized and determined for emulsifying properties and antioxidative activity. Modification of gelatin with 5% OTA increased the total phenolic content and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl,

  15. Characterization and Potential Use of Cuttlefish Skin Gelatin Hydrolysates Prepared by Different Microbial Proteases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourad Jridi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Composition, functional properties, and in vitro antioxidant activities of gelatin hydrolysates prepared from cuttlefish skin were investigated. Cuttlefish skin gelatin hydrolysates (CSGHs were obtained by treatment with crude enzyme preparations from Bacillus licheniformis NH1, Bacillus mojavensis A21, Bacillus subtilis A26, and commercial alcalase. All CSGHs had high protein contents, 74.3–78.3%, and showed excellent solubility (over 90%. CSGH obtained by alcalase demonstrated high antioxidant activities monitored by β-carotene bleaching, DPPH radical scavenging, lipid peroxidation inhibition, and reducing power activity. Its antioxidant activity remained stable or increased in a wide range of pH (1–9, during heating treatment (100°C for 240 min and after gastrointestinal digestion simulation. In addition, alcalase-CSGH was incorporated into turkey meat sausage to determine its effect on lipid oxidation during 35 days of storage period. At 0.5 mg/g, alcalase-CSGH delayed lipid oxidation monitored by TBARS and conjugated diene up to 10 days compared to vitamin C. The results reveal that CSGHs could be used as food additives possessing both antioxidant activity and functional properties.

  16. Investigating body patterning in aquarium-raised flamboyant cuttlefish (Metasepia pfefferi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Amber; MacDonald, Christy

    2016-01-01

    Cuttlefish are known for their ability to quickly alter their total appearance, or body pattern, to camouflage or to communicate with predators, prey and conspecifics. The body patterns of some species have been extensively documented to gain a better understanding of their behaviors. However, the flamboyant cuttlefish (Metasepia pfefferi) is largely unstudied. Recently, aquarists have been able to breed, house and display M. pfefferi, giving researchers ample opportunities to study their behavior under those conditions. This study aimed to identify the dorsally-visible components of the body patterns used by 5 sexually-mature, freely-behaving, F5 generation M. pfefferi in their home aquarium at The Seas in Epcot at Walt Disney World Resorts(®), Lake Buena Vista, FL, USA. Furthermore, we aimed to determine the most probable patterns used by this population of animals and to create a database of components that can be used in future behavioral studies. We found that this population of M. pfefferi use a combination of 7 textural, 14 postural, 7 locomotor and between 42 and 75 chromatic components in their home aquarium. Using maximum likelihood analysis and AutoClass@IJM software, we found that these components combine to generate 11 distinct body patterns. The software was able to sort 98% of the live animal observations into one of the 11 patterns with 90% confidence and 88% of observations with 99% confidence. Unusually for cuttlefish, 8 of the 11 identified patterns contained at least one "traveling" component (i.e., traveling waves or blinking spots) in which the colors on the skin appeared to travel on the animal's mantle. In other species, these components are generally seen during hunting or aggression, but this population of M. pfefferi uses them frequently during a variety of contexts in their home aquarium. With few published data on the behavior of M. pfefferi in their natural environment, we cannot compare the behavior of the tank-raised individuals in

  17. Investigating body patterning in aquarium-raised flamboyant cuttlefish (Metasepia pfefferi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cuttlefish are known for their ability to quickly alter their total appearance, or body pattern, to camouflage or to communicate with predators, prey and conspecifics. The body patterns of some species have been extensively documented to gain a better understanding of their behaviors. However, the flamboyant cuttlefish (Metasepia pfefferi is largely unstudied. Recently, aquarists have been able to breed, house and display M. pfefferi, giving researchers ample opportunities to study their behavior under those conditions. This study aimed to identify the dorsally-visible components of the body patterns used by 5 sexually-mature, freely-behaving, F5 generation M. pfefferi in their home aquarium at The Seas in Epcot at Walt Disney World Resorts®, Lake Buena Vista, FL, USA. Furthermore, we aimed to determine the most probable patterns used by this population of animals and to create a database of components that can be used in future behavioral studies. We found that this population of M. pfefferi use a combination of 7 textural, 14 postural, 7 locomotor and between 42 and 75 chromatic components in their home aquarium. Using maximum likelihood analysis and AutoClass@IJM software, we found that these components combine to generate 11 distinct body patterns. The software was able to sort 98% of the live animal observations into one of the 11 patterns with 90% confidence and 88% of observations with 99% confidence. Unusually for cuttlefish, 8 of the 11 identified patterns contained at least one “traveling” component (i.e., traveling waves or blinking spots in which the colors on the skin appeared to travel on the animal’s mantle. In other species, these components are generally seen during hunting or aggression, but this population of M. pfefferi uses them frequently during a variety of contexts in their home aquarium. With few published data on the behavior of M. pfefferi in their natural environment, we cannot compare the behavior of the tank

  18. Topology Optimization of Lightweight Lattice Structural Composites Inspired by Cuttlefish Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhong; Gadipudi, Varun Kumar; Salem, David R.

    2018-03-01

    Lattice structural composites are of great interest to various industries where lightweight multifunctionality is important, especially aerospace. However, strong coupling among the composition, microstructure, porous topology, and fabrication of such materials impedes conventional trial-and-error experimental development. In this work, a discontinuous carbon fiber reinforced polymer matrix composite was adopted for structural design. A reliable and robust design approach for developing lightweight multifunctional lattice structural composites was proposed, inspired by biomimetics and based on topology optimization. Three-dimensional periodic lattice blocks were initially designed, inspired by the cuttlefish bone microstructure. The topologies of the three-dimensional periodic blocks were further optimized by computer modeling, and the mechanical properties of the topology optimized lightweight lattice structures were characterized by computer modeling. The lattice structures with optimal performance were identified.

  19. Using cuttlefish ink as an additive to produce -non-iridescent structural colors of high color visibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yafeng; Dong, Biqin; Chen, Ang; Liu, Xiaohan; Shi, Lei; Zi, Jian

    2015-08-26

    Non-iridescent structural colors of high color visibility are produced by amorphous photonic structures, in which -natural cuttlefish ink is used as an additive to break down the long-range order of the structures. The color hue and its spectral purity can be tuned by adjusting the diameter of the polystyrene (PS) spheres and the proportion of ink particles. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Interactive effects of size, contrast, intensity and configuration of background objects in evoking disruptive camouflage in cuttlefish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, Chuan-Chin; Chubb, Charles; Hanlon, Roger T

    2007-07-01

    Disruptive body coloration is a primary camouflage tactic of cuttlefish. Because rapid changeable coloration of cephalopods is guided visually, we can present different visual backgrounds (e.g., computer-generated, two-dimensional prints) and video record the animal's response by describing and grading its body pattern. We showed previously that strength of cuttlefish disruptive patterning depends on the size, contrast, and density of discrete light elements on a homogeneous dark background. Here we report five experiments on the interactions of these and other features. Results show that Weber contrast of light background elements is--in combination with element size--a powerful determinant of disruptive response strength. Furthermore, the strength of disruptive patterning decreases with increasing mean substrate intensity (with other factors held constant). Interestingly, when element size, Weber contrast and mean substrate intensity are kept constant, strength of disruptive patterning depends on the configuration of clusters of small light elements. This study highlights the interactions of multiple features of natural microhabitats that directly influence which camouflage pattern a cuttlefish will choose.

  1. Feel, smell and see in an egg: emergence of perception and learning in an immature invertebrate, the cuttlefish embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romagny, Sébastien; Darmaillacq, Anne-Sophie; Guibé, Mathieu; Bellanger, Cécile; Dickel, Ludovic

    2012-12-01

    It is now well established that prenatal sensory experience affects development itself and has long-term consequences in terms of postnatal behavior. This study focused on the functionality of the sensory system in cuttlefish in ovo. Embryos of stage 23, 25 and 30 received a tactile, chemical or visual stimulus. An increase of mantle contraction rhythm was taken to indicate a behavioral response to the stimulus. We clearly demonstrated that tactile and chemical systems are functional from stage 23, whereas the visual system is functional only from stage 25. At stage 25 and 30, embryos were also exposed to a repeated light stimulus. Stage 30 embryos were capable of habituation, showing a progressive decrease in contractions across stimulations. This process was not due to fatigue as we observed response recovery after a dishabituation tactile stimulus. This study is the first to show that cuttlefish embryos behaviorally respond to stimuli of different modalities and that the visual system is the last to become functional during embryonic development, as in vertebrate embryos. It also provides new evidence that the memory system develops in ovo in cuttlefish.

  2. PCL-coated hydroxyapatite scaffold derived from cuttlefish bone: In vitro cell culture studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milovac, Dajana; Gamboa-Martínez, Tatiana C.; Ivankovic, Marica; Gallego Ferrer, Gloria; Ivankovic, Hrvoje

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the potential of using highly porous poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL)-coated hydroxyapatite (HAp) scaffold derived from cuttlefish bone for bone tissue engineering applications. The cell culture studies were performed in vitro with preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells in static culture conditions. Comparisons were made with uncoated HAp scaffold. The attachment and spreading of preosteoblasts on scaffolds were observed by Live/Dead staining Kit. The cells grown on the HAp/PCL composite scaffold exhibited greater spreading than cells grown on the HAp scaffold. DNA quantification and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed a good proliferation of cells on the scaffolds. DNA content on the HAp/PCL scaffold was significantly higher compared to porous HAp scaffolds. The amount of collagen synthesis was determined using a hydroxyproline assay. The osteoblastic differentiation of the cells was evaluated by determining alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and collagen type I secretion. Furthermore, cell spreading and cell proliferation within scaffolds were observed using a fluorescence microscope. - Highlights: • Hydroxyapatite/poly(ε-caprolactone) scaffold with interconnected pores was prepared • Cytotoxicity test showed that the scaffold was not cytotoxic towards MC3T3-E1 cells • The scaffold supported the attachment, proliferation and differentiation of cells • A 3D cell colonization was confirmed using the fluorescence microscopy • The scaffold might be a promising candidate for bone tissue engineering

  3. Therapeutic effect of Sepia ink extract against invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohair R. Fahmy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA is a life-threatening disease in immunocompromised patients that requires aggressive therapy. Because of the widespread use of antibiotics, corticosteroids, antitumor drugs, and immunosuppressive drugs, the morbidity of IPA is currently increasing. The ink secretion of molluscan species was identified as one of the novel sources of bioactive compounds. So the present study designed to investigate the antifungal and antioxidant effects of Sepia officinalis ink extract against IPA in mice. Eighty neutropenic infected mice were randomly assigned into four main groups (20 mice/group. The 1st group was treated with saline, neutropenic infected, the 2nd group was treated with ink (200 mg/kg and the 3rd group was treated with amphotericin B (150 mg/kg and the 4th group was treated with ink plus amphotericin B (Ink 200 mg/kg and AMB 150 mg/kg. Treatment was started at 24 h after fungal inoculation and was administered for 3 consecutive days. The present study demonstrated good in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity of IE against Aspergillus fumigatus. Compared with IPA group; IE-treated, AMB-treated, and AMB + IE-treated animals had a 67.80%, 83.41%, and 72.68% reduction in the pulmonary fungal burden, respectively. Treatment with IE and/or AMB for one and three days significantly decreased MDA and increased GSH and SOD levels in the lung tissues as compared with the infected untreated group. In conclusion, the results of our in vivo and in vitro studies demonstrate that IE has therapeutic effect against invasive pulmonary aspergillosis via reducing oxidative stress.

  4. Species specific isotope dilution for the accurate and SI traceable determination of arsenobetaine and methylmercury in cuttlefish and prawn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumkrong, Paramee [National Research Council Canada, 1200 Montreal Rd, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0R6 (Canada); Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research, 35 Mu 3 Tambon Khlong Ha, Amphoe Khlong Luang, Pathum Thani, 12120 (Thailand); Thiensong, Benjaporn [Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research, 35 Mu 3 Tambon Khlong Ha, Amphoe Khlong Luang, Pathum Thani, 12120 (Thailand); Le, Phuong Mai; McRae, Garnet; Windust, Anthony [National Research Council Canada, 1200 Montreal Rd, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0R6 (Canada); Deawtong, Suladda [Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research, 35 Mu 3 Tambon Khlong Ha, Amphoe Khlong Luang, Pathum Thani, 12120 (Thailand); Meija, Juris; Maxwell, Paulette [National Research Council Canada, 1200 Montreal Rd, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0R6 (Canada); Yang, Lu, E-mail: Lu.yang@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [National Research Council Canada, 1200 Montreal Rd, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0R6 (Canada); Mester, Zoltán [National Research Council Canada, 1200 Montreal Rd, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0R6 (Canada)

    2016-11-02

    Methods based on species specific isotope dilution were developed for the accurate and SI traceable determination of arsenobetaine (AsBet) and methylmercury (MeHg) in prawn and cuttlefish tissues by LC-MS/MS and SPME GC-ICPMS. Quantitation of AsBet and MeHg were achieved by using a {sup 13}C-enriched AsBet spike (NRC CRM CBET-1) and an enriched spike of Me{sup 198}Hg (NRC CRM EMMS-1), respectively, wherein analyte mass fractions in enriched spikes were determined by reverse isotope dilution using natural abundance AsBet and MeHg primary standards. Purity of these primary standards were characterized by quantitative {sup 1}H-NMR with the use of NIST SRM 350b benzoic acid as a primary calibrator, ensuring the final measurement results traceable to SI. Validation of employed methods of ID LC-MS/MS and ID SPME GC-ICPMS was demonstrated by analysis of several biological CRMs (DORM-4, TORT-3, DOLT-5, BCR-627 and BCR-463) with satisfying results. The developed methods were applied for the determination of AsBet and MeHg in two new certified reference materials (CRMs) prawn (PRON-1) and cuttlefish (SQID-1) produced jointly by Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research (TISTR) and National Research Council Canada (NRC). With additional measurements of AsBet using LC-ICPMS with standard additions calibration and external calibration at NRC and TISTR, respectively, certified values of 1.206 ± 0.058 and 13.96 ± 0.54 mg kg{sup −1} for AsBet as As (expanded uncertainty, k = 2) were obtained for the new CRMs PRON-1 and SQID-1, respectively. The reference value of 0.324 ± 0.028 mg kg{sup −1} as Hg (expanded uncertainty, k = 2) for MeHg was obtained for the SQID-1 based on the results obtained by ID SPME GC-ICPMS method only, whereas MeHg in PRON-1 was found to be < 0.015 mg kg{sup −1}. It was found that AsBet comprised 69.7% and 99.0% of total As in the prawn and cuttlefish, respectively, whereas MeHg comprised 94.5% of total Hg in

  5. Species specific isotope dilution for the accurate and SI traceable determination of arsenobetaine and methylmercury in cuttlefish and prawn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumkrong, Paramee; Thiensong, Benjaporn; Le, Phuong Mai; McRae, Garnet; Windust, Anthony; Deawtong, Suladda; Meija, Juris; Maxwell, Paulette; Yang, Lu; Mester, Zoltán

    2016-01-01

    Methods based on species specific isotope dilution were developed for the accurate and SI traceable determination of arsenobetaine (AsBet) and methylmercury (MeHg) in prawn and cuttlefish tissues by LC-MS/MS and SPME GC-ICPMS. Quantitation of AsBet and MeHg were achieved by using a "1"3C-enriched AsBet spike (NRC CRM CBET-1) and an enriched spike of Me"1"9"8Hg (NRC CRM EMMS-1), respectively, wherein analyte mass fractions in enriched spikes were determined by reverse isotope dilution using natural abundance AsBet and MeHg primary standards. Purity of these primary standards were characterized by quantitative "1H-NMR with the use of NIST SRM 350b benzoic acid as a primary calibrator, ensuring the final measurement results traceable to SI. Validation of employed methods of ID LC-MS/MS and ID SPME GC-ICPMS was demonstrated by analysis of several biological CRMs (DORM-4, TORT-3, DOLT-5, BCR-627 and BCR-463) with satisfying results. The developed methods were applied for the determination of AsBet and MeHg in two new certified reference materials (CRMs) prawn (PRON-1) and cuttlefish (SQID-1) produced jointly by Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research (TISTR) and National Research Council Canada (NRC). With additional measurements of AsBet using LC-ICPMS with standard additions calibration and external calibration at NRC and TISTR, respectively, certified values of 1.206 ± 0.058 and 13.96 ± 0.54 mg kg"−"1 for AsBet as As (expanded uncertainty, k = 2) were obtained for the new CRMs PRON-1 and SQID-1, respectively. The reference value of 0.324 ± 0.028 mg kg"−"1 as Hg (expanded uncertainty, k = 2) for MeHg was obtained for the SQID-1 based on the results obtained by ID SPME GC-ICPMS method only, whereas MeHg in PRON-1 was found to be < 0.015 mg kg"−"1. It was found that AsBet comprised 69.7% and 99.0% of total As in the prawn and cuttlefish, respectively, whereas MeHg comprised 94.5% of total Hg in cuttlefish. - Highlights:

  6. A Limited Survey of Heavy Metal Concentrations in Fresh and Frozen Cuttlefish Ink and Mantle Used As Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conficoni, Daniele; Alberghini, Leonardo; Bissacco, Elisa; Contiero, Barbara; Giaccone, Valerio

    2018-02-01

    Cuttlefish ink is consumed as a delicacy worldwide. The current study is the first assessment of heavy metal concentrations in cuttlefish ink versus mantle under different storage methods. A total of 212 samples (64 of fresh mantle, 42 of frozen mantle, 64 of fresh ink, and 42 of frozen ink) were analyzed for the detection of the following heavy metals: arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and cadmium (Cd). The median As concentrations were 12.9 mg/kg for fresh mantle, 8.63 mg/kg for frozen mantle, 10.8 mg/kg for frozen ink, and 0.41 mg/kg for fresh ink. The median Cr concentrations were 0.06 mg/kg for fresh mantle and frozen ink, 0.03 mg/kg for frozen mantle, and below the limit of quantification (LOQ) for fresh ink. The median Fe concentrations were 4.08 mg/kg for frozen ink, 1.51 mg/kg for fresh mantle, 0.73 mg/kg for frozen mantle, and below the LOQ for fresh ink. The median Pb concentrations of almost all samples were below the LOQ; only two frozen ink, one fresh ink, one frozen mantle, and one fresh mantle sample exceeded the limit stipulated by the European Union. The Hg concentrations were statistically similar among the four categories of samples; the median Hg concentrations were below the LOQ, and the maximum concentrations were found in frozen ink, at 1.62 mg/kg. The median Cd concentrations were 0.69 mg/kg for frozen ink and 0.11 mg/kg for frozen mantle, fresh mantle and fresh ink concentrations were below the LOQ, and in 11.3% of the tested samples, Cd concentrations were higher than the European Union limit. The probability of samples having a Cd concentration above the legal limit was 35.75 times higher in frozen than in fresh products. Fresh ink had significantly lower concentrations of As, Cr, Fe, and Cd, but the concentrations of Hg and Pb were not significantly different from those of other products. Frozen ink had significantly higher concentrations of Cd, Cr, and Fe, but concentrations of As were lower than those in

  7. Improvement of the compressive strength of a cuttlefish bone-derived porous hydroxyapatite scaffold via polycaprolactone coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Beom-Su; Kang, Hyo Jin; Lee, Jun

    2013-10-01

    Cuttlefish bones (CBs) have emerged as attractive biomaterials because of their porous structure and components that can be converted into hydroxyapatite (HAp) via a hydrothermal reaction. However, their brittleness and low strength restrict their application in bone tissue engineering. Therefore, to improve the compressive strength of the scaffold following hydrothermal conversion to a HAp form of CB (CB-HAp), the scaffold was coated using a polycaprolactone (PCL) polymer at various concentrations. In this study, raw CB was successfully converted into HAp via a hydrothermal reaction. We then evaluated their surface properties and composition by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The CB-HAp coated with PCL showed improved compressive performance and retained a microporous structure. The compressive strength was significantly increased upon coating with 5 and 10% PCL, by 2.09- and 3.30-fold, respectively, as compared with uncoated CB-HAp. However, coating with 10% PCL resulted in a reduction in porosity. Furthermore, an in vitro biological evaluation demonstrated that MG-63 cells adhered well, proliferated and were able to be differentiated on the PCL-coated CB-HAp scaffold, which was noncytotoxic. These results suggest that a simple coating method is useful to improve the compressive strength of CB-HAp for bone tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. An electrochemical study of natural and chemically controlled eumelanin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ri Xu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Eumelanin is the most common form of the pigment melanin in the human body, with functions including antioxidant behavior, metal chelation, and free radical scavenging. This biopigment is of interest for biologically derived batteries and supercapacitors. In this work, we characterized the voltammetric properties of chemically controlled eumelanins produced from 5,6-dihydroxyindole (DHI and 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid (DHICA building blocks, namely, DHI-melanin, DHICA-melanin, and natural eumelanin, extracted from the ink sac of cuttlefish, Sepia melanin. Eumelanin electrodes were studied for their cyclic voltammetric properties in acidic buffers including Na+, K+, NH4+, and Cu2+ ions.

  9. An electrochemical study of natural and chemically controlled eumelanin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ri; Prontera, Carmela Tania; Di Mauro, Eduardo; Pezzella, Alessandro; Soavi, Francesca; Santato, Clara

    2017-12-01

    Eumelanin is the most common form of the pigment melanin in the human body, with functions including antioxidant behavior, metal chelation, and free radical scavenging. This biopigment is of interest for biologically derived batteries and supercapacitors. In this work, we characterized the voltammetric properties of chemically controlled eumelanins produced from 5,6-dihydroxyindole (DHI) and 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid (DHICA) building blocks, namely, DHI-melanin, DHICA-melanin, and natural eumelanin, extracted from the ink sac of cuttlefish, Sepia melanin. Eumelanin electrodes were studied for their cyclic voltammetric properties in acidic buffers including Na+, K+, NH4+, and Cu2+ ions.

  10. The effect of melanin-free extract from Sepia esculenta ink on lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and water-holding capacity of tilapia fillet during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Zhen-Hua; Liu, Hua-Zhong; Luo, Ping; Gu, Yi-Peng; Li, Yan-Qun

    2018-03-14

    Preservative effect of melanin-free extract of Sepia esculenta ink (MFESI) on Sparus latus fillet has been verified in our previous work. This study aims to further approach the mechanism of MFESI for extending the shelf-life of fish fillet during cold storage. Tilapia fillets were treated with different dosage of MFESI (0, 15, 25 and 35 mg/ml) and packed with preservative film for succedent cold-storage at 4 °C for scheduled time. Contents of total volatile basic nitrogen and sulfydryl and carbanyl groups were measured for evaluating protein oxidation. Malondialdehyde contents were measured for estimating lipid peroxidation and loss of water was used to determine water-holding capacity of fillet. The data indicated that MFESI not only possessed certain degree of antioxidant capacity in vitro, also lengthened shelf-life of tilapia fillet in cold-storage condition. Apart from 15 mg/ml, both 25 and 35 mg/ml of MFESI obviously prevented lipid and protein from oxidation and reduced loss of water from tilapia fillets, and the latter was more effective than the former. MFESI can repress lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation and reduce water loss, maintain the tilapia fillets quality and, thus, it could be an effective and natural preservative for extending the shelf-life of tilapia fillets during cold storage.

  11. Chromatographical Analysis of Amino Acids in Sepia Mutant of Drosophila melanogaster under Stress of Cypermethrin and Alphamethrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namrata Rana

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Insects are invertebrates that are taxonomically referred to as the class Insecta. They are the most numerous and most widespread terrestrial taxon within the phylum Arthropoda, and indeed the most diverse group of animals on the earth, with around 925,000 species described—more than all other animal groups combined. Insects may be found in nearly all environments on the planet, although only a small number of species have adapted to life in the oceans where crustaceans tend to predominate instead. HPTLC is a method commonly applied for the identification, assay and the testing for purity, stability, dissolution or content uniformity of raw materials (herbal and animal extracts, fermentation mixtures, drugs and excipients and formulated products (pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, nutrients. These flexible and cost-effective techniques present the advantage of the simultaneous processing of standards and samples with versatile detection possibilities, including a great variety of post-chromatographic derivatization reagents.

  12. Common Courses for Common Purposes:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub Jr, Gary John

    2014-01-01

    (PME)? I suggest three alternative paths that increased cooperation in PME at the level of the command and staff course could take: a Nordic Defence College, standardized national command and staff courses, and a core curriculum of common courses for common purposes. I conclude with a discussion of how...

  13. QCI Common

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-11-18

    There are many common software patterns and utilities for the ORNL Quantum Computing Institute that can and should be shared across projects. Otherwise we find duplication of code which adds unwanted complexity. This is a software product seeks to alleviate this by providing common utilities such as object factories, graph data structures, parameter input mechanisms, etc., for other software products within the ORNL Quantum Computing Institute. This work enables pure basic research, has no export controlled utilities, and has no real commercial value.

  14. Creative Commons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lone

    2006-01-01

    En Creative Commons licens giver en forfatter mulighed for at udbyde sit værk i en alternativ licensløsning, som befinder sig på forskellige trin på en skala mellem yderpunkterne "All rights reserved" og "No rights reserved". Derved opnås licensen "Some rights reserved"......En Creative Commons licens giver en forfatter mulighed for at udbyde sit værk i en alternativ licensløsning, som befinder sig på forskellige trin på en skala mellem yderpunkterne "All rights reserved" og "No rights reserved". Derved opnås licensen "Some rights reserved"...

  15. Science commons

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    SCP: Creative Commons licensing for open access publishing, Open Access Law journal-author agreements for converting journals to open access, and the Scholar's Copyright Addendum Engine for retaining rights to self-archive in meaningful formats and locations for future re-use. More than 250 science and technology journals already publish under Creative Commons licensing while 35 law journals utilize the Open Access Law agreements. The Addendum Engine is a new tool created in partnership with SPARC and U.S. universities. View John Wilbanks's biography

  16. Common approach to common interests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    In referring to issues confronting the energy field in this region and options to be exercised in the future, I would like to mention the fundamental condition of the utmost importance. That can be summed up as follows: any subject in energy area can never be solved by one country alone, given the geographical and geopolitical characteristics intrinsically possessed by energy. So, a regional approach is needed and it is especially necessary for the main players in the region to jointly address problems common to them. Though it may be a matter to be pursued in the distant future, I am personally dreaming a 'Common Energy Market for Northeast Asia,' in which member countries' interests are adjusted so that the market can be integrated and the region can become a most economically efficient market, thus formulating an effective power to encounter the outside. It should be noted that Europe needed forty years to integrate its market as the unified common market. It is necessary for us to follow a number of steps over the period to eventually materialize our common market concept, too. Now is the time for us to take a first step to lay the foundation for our descendants to enjoy prosperity from such a common market.

  17. Making the Common Good Common

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    How are independent schools to be useful to the wider world? Beyond their common commitment to educate their students for meaningful lives in service of the greater good, can they educate a broader constituency and, thus, share their resources and skills more broadly? Their answers to this question will be shaped by their independence. Any…

  18. [Studies on markers of exposure and early effect in areas with arsenic pollution: methods and results of the project SEpiAs. Epidemiological surveillance in areas with environmental pollution by natural or anthropogenic arsenic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustaffa, Elisa; Minichilli, Fabrizio; Andreassi, Maria Grazia; Carone, Simona; Coi, Alessio; Cori, Liliana; Faita, Francesca; Faita, Francesco; Grecchi, Sabina; Minoia, Claudio; Ronchi, Anna; Scovassi, Ivana; Sicari, Rosa; Stea, Francesco; Bianchi, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic and its inorganic compounds are classified as carcinogenic to humans. Exposures to inorganic arsenic (iAs) in drinking water are associated with both carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects. The risk assessment of exposures to low-moderate levels of environmental arsenic (As) is a challenging objective for research and public health. The SEpiAs study, funded by the Italian Ministry of Health (CCM), was carried out in four areas with arsenic pollution prevalently of natural origin, Amiata and Viterbo areas, or of industrial origin, Taranto and Gela. 271 subjects (132 men) aged 20-44, were randomly sampled stratifying by area, gender and age classes. Individual data on residential history, socio-economic status, environmental and occupational exposures, lifestyle and dietary habits, were collected through interviews using questionnaire. In urine samples of recruited subjects, the concentration of inorganic arsenic (iAs) and methylated species (MMA, DMA) was measured using inductively coupled mass spectrometer (DRCICP- MS), after chromatographic separation (HPLC). Molecular biomarkers and biomarkers of DNA damage, as well as markers of cardiovascular risk were measured The distributions of iAs and iAs+MMA+DMA were described by area and gender, geometric mean (GM), percentiles and standard deviation (SD). The associations between As species and variables collected by questionnaire were evaluated by multiple regression analysis. Results showed a high variability of As species within and among areas. Gela and Taranto samples showed higher iAs concentration compared to Viterbo and Amiata. Subjects with iAs>1,5 μg/L or iAs+MMA+DMA>15 μg/L (thresholds suggested by the Italian Society of Reference Values), are 137 (50,6%) and 68 (25,1%), respectively. A positive association between iAs and use of drinking water emerged in the Viterbo sample, between iAs and occupational exposure in the Gela and Taranto samples. Fish consumption was associated with higher i

  19. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for sepia melanin

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mbonyiryivuze, A

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Spectroscopy (FTIR) for assessing biogenic silica sample purity in geochemical analyses and palaeoenvironmental research,” Climate of the Past, vol. 7, p. 65- 74, 2011. [12] P. N. R. Sundar, Films minces à base de Si nanostructuré pour des cellules...

  20. Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol Updated:Jan 29,2018 How much do you ... are some common misconceptions — and the truth. High cholesterol isn’t a concern for children. High cholesterol ...

  1. How Common Is PTSD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Center for PTSD » Public » How Common Is PTSD? PTSD: National Center for PTSD Menu Menu PTSD PTSD Home For the Public ... here Enter ZIP code here How Common Is PTSD? Public This section is for Veterans, General Public, ...

  2. Common Law and Un-common Sense

    OpenAIRE

    Ballard, Roger

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the practical and conceptual differences which arise when juries are invited to apply their common sense in assessing reasonable behaviour in the midst of an ethnically plural society. The author explores the conundrums which the increasing salience of ethnic pluralism has now begun to pose in legal terms, most especially with respect to organisation of system for the equitable administration and delivery of justice in the context of an increasingly heterogeneous society. ...

  3. The common good

    OpenAIRE

    Argandoña, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The concept of the common good occupied a relevant place in classical social, political and economic philosophy. After losing ground in the Modern age, it has recently reappeared, although with different and sometimes confusing meanings. This paper is the draft of a chapter of a Handbook; it explains the meaning of common good in the Aristotelian-Thomistic philosophy and in the Social Doctrine of the Catholic Church; why the common good is relevant; and how it is different from the other uses...

  4. Efektivitas Instagram Common Grounds

    OpenAIRE

    Wifalin, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Efektivitas Instagram Common Grounds merupakan rumusan masalah yang diambil dalam penelitian ini. Efektivitas Instagram diukur menggunakan Customer Response Index (CRI), dimana responden diukur dalam berbagai tingkatan, mulai dari awareness, comprehend, interest, intentions dan action. Tingkatan respons inilah yang digunakan untuk mengukur efektivitas Instagram Common Grounds. Teori-teori yang digunakan untuk mendukung penelitian ini yaitu teori marketing Public Relations, teori iklan, efekti...

  5. Genomic Data Commons launches

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Genomic Data Commons (GDC), a unified data system that promotes sharing of genomic and clinical data between researchers, launched today with a visit from Vice President Joe Biden to the operations center at the University of Chicago.

  6. Common Mental Health Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Susan R.; Levine, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of common student mental health issues and approaches for student affairs practitioners who are working with students with mental illness, and ways to support the overall mental health of students on campus.

  7. Five Common Glaucoma Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Us Donate In This Section Five Common Glaucoma Tests en Español email Send this article to ... year or two after age 35. A Comprehensive Glaucoma Exam To be safe and accurate, five factors ...

  8. Common symptoms during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... keep your gums healthy Swelling, Varicose Veins, and Hemorrhoids Swelling in your legs is common. You may ... In your rectum, veins that swell are called hemorrhoids. To reduce swelling: Raise your legs and rest ...

  9. The Common Good

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt, Liv Egholm

    At present voluntary and philanthropic organisations are experiencing significant public attention and academic discussions about their role in society. Central to the debate is on one side the question of how they contribute to “the common good”, and on the other the question of how they can avoid...... and concepts continuously over time have blurred the different sectors and “polluted” contemporary definitions of the “common good”. The analysis shows that “the common good” is not an autonomous concept owned or developed by specific spheres of society. The analysis stresses that historically, “the common...... good” has always been a contested concept. It is established through messy and blurred heterogeneity of knowledge, purposes and goal achievements originating from a multitude of scientific, religious, political and civil society spheres contested not only in terms of words and definitions but also...

  10. Childhood Obesity: Common Misconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Childhood Obesity: Common Misconceptions Page Content Article Body Everyone, it ... for less than 1% of the cases of childhood obesity. Yes, hypothyroidism (a deficit in thyroid secretion) and ...

  11. Common Childhood Orthopedic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & ... pain. Toe Walking Toe walking is common among toddlers as they learn to walk, especially during the ...

  12. Common Ground and Delegation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobrajska, Magdalena; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Lyngsie, Jacob

    preconditions of increasing delegation. We argue that key HR practices?namely, hiring, training and job-rotation?are associated with delegation of decision-making authority. These practices assist in the creation of shared knowledge conditions between managers and employees. In turn, such a ?common ground......? influences the confidence with which managers delegate decision authority to employees, as managers improve their knowledge of the educational background, firm-specific knowledge, and perhaps even the possible actions of those to whom they delegate such authority. To test these ideas, we match a large......-scale questionnaire survey with unique population-wide employer-employee data. We find evidence of a direct and positive influence of hiring decisions (proxied by common educational background), and the training and job rotation of employees on delegation. Moreover, we find a positive interaction between common...

  13. Towards common technical standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmat, H.; Suardi, A.R.

    1993-01-01

    In 1989, PETRONAS launched its Total Quality Management (TQM) program. In the same year the decision was taken by the PETRONAS Management to introduce common technical standards group wide. These standards apply to the design, construction, operation and maintenance of all PETRONAS installations in the upstream, downstream and petrochemical sectors. The introduction of common company standards is seen as part of an overall technical management system, which is an integral part of Total Quality Management. The Engineering and Safety Unit in the PETRONAS Central Office in Kuala Lumpur has been charged with the task of putting in place a set of technical standards throughout PETRONAS and its operating units

  14. COMMON FISCAL POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Mursa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to demonstrate that a common fiscal policy, designed to support the euro currency, has some significant drawbacks. The greatest danger is the possibility of leveling the tax burden in all countries. This leveling of the tax is to the disadvantage of countries in Eastern Europe, in principle, countries poorly endowed with capital, that use a lax fiscal policy (Romania, Bulgaria, etc. to attract foreign investment from rich countries of the European Union. In addition, common fiscal policy can lead to a higher degree of centralization of budgetary expenditures in the European Union.

  15. Common Privacy Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the common myths: Health information cannot be faxed – FALSE Your information may be shared between healthcare providers by faxing ... E-mail cannot be used to transmit health information – FALSE E-mail can be used to transmit information, ...

  16. Common envelope evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taam, Ronald E.; Ricker, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    The common envelope phase of binary star evolution plays a central role in many evolutionary pathways leading to the formation of compact objects in short period systems. Using three dimensional hydrodynamical computations, we review the major features of this evolutionary phase, focusing on the

  17. Common Breastfeeding Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or duplicated without permission of the Office on Women’s Health in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Citation of the source is appreciated. Page last updated: March 02, 2018. Common breastfeeding challenges Breastfeeding can be ...

  18. Common mistakes of investors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuen Wai Pong Raymond

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral finance is an actively discussed topic in the academic and investment circle. The main reason is because behavioral finance challenges the validity of a cornerstone of the modern financial theory: rationality of investors. In this paper, the common irrational behaviors of investors are discussed

  19. The Analgesic Acetaminophen and the Antipsychotic Clozapine Can Each Redox-Cycle with Melanin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temoçin, Zülfikar; Kim, Eunkyoung; Li, Jinyang; Panzella, Lucia; Alfieri, Maria Laura; Napolitano, Alessandra; Kelly, Deanna L; Bentley, William E; Payne, Gregory F

    2017-12-20

    Melanins are ubiquitous but their complexity and insolubility has hindered characterization of their structures and functions. We are developing electrochemical reverse engineering methodologies that focus on properties and especially on redox properties. Previous studies have shown that melanins (i) are redox-active and can rapidly and repeatedly exchange electrons with diffusible oxidants and reductants, and (ii) have redox potentials in midregion of the physiological range. These properties suggest the functional activities of melanins will depend on their redox context. The brain has a complex redox context with steep local gradients in O 2 that can promote redox-cycling between melanin and diffusible redox-active chemical species. Here, we performed in vitro reverse engineering studies and report that melanins can redox-cycle with two common redox-active drugs. Experimentally, we used two melanin models: a convenient natural melanin derived from cuttlefish (Sepia melanin) and a synthetic cysteinyldopamine-dopamine core-shell model of neuromelanin. One drug, acetaminophen (APAP), has been used clinically for over a century, and recent studies suggest that low doses of APAP can protect the brain from oxidative-stress-induced toxicity and neurodegeneration, while higher doses can have toxic effects in the brain. The second drug, clozapine (CLZ), is a second generation antipsychotic with polypharmacological activities that remain incompletely understood. These in vitro observations suggest that the redox activities of drugs may be relevant to their modes-of-action, and that melanins may interact with drugs in ways that affect their activities, metabolism, and toxicities.

  20. Common tester platform concept.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, Michael James

    2008-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a case study on the doctrine of a common tester platform, a concept of a standardized platform that can be applicable across the broad spectrum of testing requirements throughout the various stages of a weapons program, as well as across the various weapons programs. The common tester concept strives to define an affordable, next-generation design that will meet testing requirements with the flexibility to grow and expand; supporting the initial development stages of a weapons program through to the final production and surveillance stages. This report discusses a concept investing key leveraging technologies and operational concepts combined with prototype tester-development experiences and practical lessons learned gleaned from past weapons programs.

  1. Common anorectal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxx-Orenstein, Amy E; Umar, Sarah B; Crowell, Michael D

    2014-05-01

    Anorectal disorders result in many visits to healthcare specialists. These disorders include benign conditions such as hemorrhoids to more serious conditions such as malignancy; thus, it is important for the clinician to be familiar with these disorders as well as know how to conduct an appropriate history and physical examination. This article reviews the most common anorectal disorders, including hemorrhoids, anal fissures, fecal incontinence, proctalgia fugax, excessive perineal descent, and pruritus ani, and provides guidelines on comprehensive evaluation and management.

  2. Common sense codified

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    At CERN, people of more than a hundred different nationalities and hundreds of different professions work together towards a common goal. The new Code of Conduct is a tool that has been designed to help us keep our workplace pleasant and productive through common standards of behaviour. Its basic principle is mutual respect and common sense. This is only natural, but not trivial…  The Director-General announced it in his speech at the beginning of the year, and the Bulletin wrote about it immediately afterwards. "It" is the new Code of Conduct, the document that lists our Organization's values and describes the basic standards of behaviour that we should both adopt and expect from others. "The Code of Conduct is not going to establish new rights or new obligations," explains Anne-Sylvie Catherin, Head of the Human Resources Department (HR). But what it will do is provide a framework for our existing rights and obligations." The aim of a co...

  3. Common Vestibular Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios G. Balatsouras

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The three most common vestibular diseases, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV, Meniere's disease (MD and vestibular neuritis (VN, are presented in this paper. BPPV, which is the most common peripheral vestibular disorder, can be defined as transient vertigo induced by a rapid head position change, associated with a characteristic paroxysmal positional nystagmus. Canalolithiasis of the posterior semicircular canal is considered the most convincing theory of its pathogenesis and the development of appropriate therapeutic maneuvers resulted in its effective treatment. However, involvement of the horizontal or the anterior canal has been found in a significant rate and the recognition and treatment of these variants completed the clinical picture of the disease. MD is a chronic condition characterized by episodic attacks of vertigo, fluctuating hearing loss, tinnitus, aural pressure and a progressive loss of audiovestibular functions. Presence of endolymphatic hydrops on postmortem examination is its pathologic correlate. MD continues to be a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Patients with the disease range from minimally symptomatic, highly functional individuals to severely affected, disabled patients. Current management strategies are designed to control the acute and recurrent vestibulopathy but offer minimal remedy for the progressive cochlear dysfunction. VN is the most common cause of acute spontaneous vertigo, attributed to acute unilateral loss of vestibular function. Key signs and symptoms are an acute onset of spinning vertigo, postural imbalance and nausea as well as a horizontal rotatory nystagmus beating towards the non-affected side, a pathological headimpulse test and no evidence for central vestibular or ocular motor dysfunction. Vestibular neuritis preferentially involves the superior vestibular labyrinth and its afferents. Symptomatic medication is indicated only during the acute phase to relieve the vertigo and nausea

  4. Common Influence Join

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yiu, Man Lung; Mamoulis, Nikos; Karras, Panagiotis

    2008-01-01

    We identify and formalize a novel join operator for two spatial pointsets P and Q. The common influence join (CIJ) returns the pairs of points (p,q),p isin P,q isin Q, such that there exists a location in space, being closer to p than to any other point in P and at the same time closer to q than ......-demand, is very efficient in practice, incurring only slightly higher I/O cost than the theoretical lower bound cost for the problem....

  5. English for common entrance

    CERN Document Server

    Kossuth, Kornel

    2013-01-01

    Succeed in the exam with this revision guide, designed specifically for the brand new Common Entrance English syllabus. It breaks down the content into manageable and straightforward chunks with easy-to-use, step-by-step instructions that should take away the fear of CE and guide you through all aspects of the exam. - Gives you step-by-step guidance on how to recognise various types of comprehension questions and answer them. - Shows you how to write creatively as well as for a purpose for the section B questions. - Reinforces and consolidates learning with tips, guidance and exercises through

  6. Building the common

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Oscar Garcia

    document, A Common Immigration Policy for Europe: Principles, actions and tools (2008) as a part of Hague Programme (2004) on actions against terrorism, organised crime and migration and asylum management and influenced by the renewed Lisbon Strategy (2005-2010) for growth and jobs. My aim is to explore...... policy in the European Union is constructed and the categories and themes that are discussed. I will look also at the discourse strategies to show the linguistic representations of the social actors, who are excluded from or include in such representations. I will analysis a European Commission’s policy...

  7. Managing common marital stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, A C; Starling, B P

    1989-10-01

    Marital conflict and divorce are problems of great magnitude in our society, and nurse practitioners are frequently asked by patients to address marital problems in clinical practice. "Family life cycle theory" provides a framework for understanding the common stresses of marital life and for developing nursing strategies to improve marital satisfaction. If unaddressed, marital difficulties have serious adverse consequences for a couple's health, leading to greater dysfunction and a decline in overall wellness. This article focuses on identifying couples in crisis, assisting them to achieve pre-crisis equilibrium or an even higher level of functioning, and providing appropriate referral if complex relationship problems exist.

  8. Common Sense Biblical Hermeneutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B. Mangini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the noetics of moderate realism provide a firm foundation upon which to build a hermeneutic of common sense, in the first part of his paper the author adopts Thomas Howe’s argument that the noetical aspect of moderate realism is a necessary condition for correct, universally valid biblical interpretation, but he adds, “insofar as it gives us hope in discovering the true meaning of a given passage.” In the second part, the author relies on John Deely’s work to show how semiotics may help interpreters go beyond meaning and seek the significance of the persons, places, events, ideas, etc., of which the meaning of the text has presented as objects to be interpreted. It is in significance that the unity of Scripture is found. The chief aim is what every passage of the Bible signifies. Considered as a genus, Scripture is composed of many parts/species that are ordered to a chief aim. This is the structure of common sense hermeneutics; therefore in the third part the author restates Peter Redpath’s exposition of Aristotle and St. Thomas’s ontology of the one and the many and analogously applies it to the question of how an exegete can discern the proper significance and faithfully interpret the word of God.

  9. True and common balsams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayana L. Custódio

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Balsams have been used since ancient times, due to their therapeutic and healing properties; in the perfume industry, they are used as fixatives, and in the cosmetics industry and in cookery, they are used as preservatives and aromatizers. They are generally defined as vegetable material with highly aromatic properties that supposedly have the ability to heal diseases, not only of the body, but also of the soul. When viewed according to this concept, many substances can be considered balsams. A more modern concept is based on its chemical composition and origin: a secretion or exudate of plants that contain cinnamic and benzoic acids, and their derivatives, in their composition. The most common naturally-occurring balsams (i.e. true balsams are the Benzoins, Liquid Storaque and the Balsams of Tolu and Peru. Many other aromatic exudates, such as Copaiba Oil and Canada Balsam, are wrongly called balsam. These usually belong to other classes of natural products, such as essential oils, resins and oleoresins. Despite the understanding of some plants, many plants are still called balsams. This article presents a chemical and pharmacological review of the most common balsams.

  10. Disscusion on the common

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Negri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this interview taken shortly after the launch of the Italian translation of the Commonwealth, Antonio Negri, besides discussing details of his collaboration with Michael Hardt, addresses the most important topics of the book, which could remain unclear for the readers. He gives a wide range of answers for the questions on, for example, importance of revision and revitalization of seventeenth century’s categories, what does it mean to be a communist today, elaboration of the thesis of real subsumption. He also stresses the significance of the struggle over the common and processes of its institutionalization for contemporary revolutionary politics and faces criticism of the conception of immaterial and biopolitical labour.

  11. CPL: Common Pipeline Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    ESO CPL Development Team

    2014-02-01

    The Common Pipeline Library (CPL) is a set of ISO-C libraries that provide a comprehensive, efficient and robust software toolkit to create automated astronomical data reduction pipelines. Though initially developed as a standardized way to build VLT instrument pipelines, the CPL may be more generally applied to any similar application. The code also provides a variety of general purpose image- and signal-processing functions, making it an excellent framework for the creation of more generic data handling packages. The CPL handles low-level data types (images, tables, matrices, strings, property lists, etc.) and medium-level data access methods (a simple data abstraction layer for FITS files). It also provides table organization and manipulation, keyword/value handling and management, and support for dynamic loading of recipe modules using programs such as EsoRex (ascl:1504.003).

  12. Common Superficial Bursitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaee, Morteza

    2017-02-15

    Superficial bursitis most often occurs in the olecranon and prepatellar bursae. Less common locations are the superficial infrapatellar and subcutaneous (superficial) calcaneal bursae. Chronic microtrauma (e.g., kneeling on the prepatellar bursa) is the most common cause of superficial bursitis. Other causes include acute trauma/hemorrhage, inflammatory disorders such as gout or rheumatoid arthritis, and infection (septic bursitis). Diagnosis is usually based on clinical presentation, with a particular focus on signs of septic bursitis. Ultrasonography can help distinguish bursitis from cellulitis. Blood testing (white blood cell count, inflammatory markers) and magnetic resonance imaging can help distinguish infectious from noninfectious causes. If infection is suspected, bursal aspiration should be performed and fluid examined using Gram stain, crystal analysis, glucose measurement, blood cell count, and culture. Management depends on the type of bursitis. Acute traumatic/hemorrhagic bursitis is treated conservatively with ice, elevation, rest, and analgesics; aspiration may shorten the duration of symptoms. Chronic microtraumatic bursitis should be treated conservatively, and the underlying cause addressed. Bursal aspiration of microtraumatic bursitis is generally not recommended because of the risk of iatrogenic septic bursitis. Although intrabursal corticosteroid injections are sometimes used to treat microtraumatic bursitis, high-quality evidence demonstrating any benefit is unavailable. Chronic inflammatory bursitis (e.g., gout, rheumatoid arthritis) is treated by addressing the underlying condition, and intrabursal corticosteroid injections are often used. For septic bursitis, antibiotics effective against Staphylococcus aureus are generally the initial treatment, with surgery reserved for bursitis not responsive to antibiotics or for recurrent cases. Outpatient antibiotics may be considered in those who are not acutely ill; patients who are acutely ill

  13. APME launches common method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    A common approach for carrying out ecological balances for commodity thermoplastics is due to be launched by the Association of Plastics Manufacturers in Europe (APME; Brussels) and its affiliate, The European Centre for Plastics in the Environment (PWMI) this week. The methodology report is the latest stage of a program started in 1990 that aims to describe all operations up to the production of polymer powder or granules at the plant gate. Information gathered will be made freely available to companies considering the use of polymers. An industry task force, headed by PWMI executive director Vince Matthews, has gathered information on the plastics production processes from oil to granule, and an independent panel of specialists, chaired by Ian Boustead of the U.K.'s Open University, devised the methodology and analysis. The methodology report stresses the need to define the system being analyzed and discusses how complex chemical processes can be analyzed in terms of consumption of fuels, energy, and raw materials, as well as solid, liquid, and gaseous emissions

  14. Reformulating the commons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostrom Elinor

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The western hemisphere is richly endowed with a diversity of natural resource systems that are governed by complex local and national institutional arrangements that have not, until recently, been well understood. While many local communities that possess a high degree of autonomy to govern local resources have been highly successful over long periods of time, others fail to take action to prevent overuse and degradation of forests, inshore fisheries, and other natural resources. The conventional theory used to predict and explain how local users will relate to resources that they share makes a uniform prediction that users themselves will be unable to extricate themselves from the tragedy of the commons. Using this theoretical view of the world, there is no variance in the performance of self-organized groups. In theory, there are no self-organized groups. Empirical evidence tells us, however, that considerable variance in performance exists and many more local users self-organize and are more successful than it is consistent with the conventional theory . Parts of a new theory are presented here.

  15. Threads of common knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Icamina, P

    1993-04-01

    Indigenous knowledge is examined as it is affected by development and scientific exploration. The indigenous culture of shamanism, which originated in northern and southeast Asia, is a "political and religious technique for managing societies through rituals, myths, and world views." There is respect for the natural environment and community life as a social common good. This world view is still practiced by many in Latin America and in Colombia specifically. Colombian shamanism has an environmental accounting system, but the Brazilian government has established its own system of land tenure and political representation which does not adequately represent shamanism. In 1992 a conference was held in the Philippines by the International Institute for Rural Reconstruction and IDRC on sustainable development and indigenous knowledge. The link between the two is necessary. Unfortunately, there are already examples in the Philippines of loss of traditional crop diversity after the introduction of modern farming techniques and new crop varieties. An attempt was made to collect species, but without proper identification. Opposition was expressed to the preservation of wilderness preserves; the desire was to allow indigenous people to maintain their homeland and use their time-tested sustainable resource management strategies. Property rights were also discussed during the conference. Of particular concern was the protection of knowledge rights about biological diversity or pharmaceutical properties of indigenous plant species. The original owners and keepers of the knowledge must retain access and control. The research gaps were identified and found to be expansive. Reference was made to a study of Mexican Indian children who knew 138 plant species while non-Indian children knew only 37. Sometimes there is conflict of interest where foresters prefer timber forests and farmers desire fuelwood supplies and fodder and grazing land, which is provided by shrubland. Information

  16. It pays to cheat: tactical deception in a cephalopod social signalling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Culum; Garwood, Martin P; Williamson, Jane E

    2012-10-23

    Signals in intraspecific communication should be inherently honest; otherwise the system is prone to collapse. Theory predicts, however, that honest signalling systems are susceptible to invasion by cheats, the extent of which is largely mediated by fear of reprisal. Cuttlefish facultatively change their shape and colour, an ability that evolved to avoid predators and capture prey. Here, we show that this ability is tactically employed by male mourning cuttlefish (Sepia plangon) to mislead conspecifics during courtship in a specific social context amenable to cheating 39 per cent of the time, while it was never employed in other social contexts. Males deceive rival males by displaying male courtship patterns to receptive females on one side of the body, and simultaneously displaying female patterns to a single rival male on the other, thus preventing the rival from disrupting courtship. The use of tactical deception in such a complex communication network indicates that sociality has played a key role in the cognitive evolution of cephalopods.

  17. Common Sleep Problems (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Common Sleep Problems KidsHealth / For Teens / Common Sleep Problems What's ... have emotional problems, like depression. What Happens During Sleep? You don't notice it, of course, but ...

  18. 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents ... AP Photo/Herald-Mail, Kevin G. Gilbert Skin Cancer Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer ...

  19. Otwarty model licencjonowania Creative Commons

    OpenAIRE

    Tarkowski, Alek

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents a family of Creative Commons licenses (which form nowadays one of the basic legal tools used in the Open Access movement), as well as a genesis of the licenses – inspired by Open Software Licenses and the concept of commons. Then legal tools such as individual Creative Commons licenses are discussed as well as how to use them, with a special emphasis on practical applications in science and education. The author discusses also his research results on scientific publishers a...

  20. Five Theses on the Common

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gigi Roggero

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available I present five theses on the common within the context of the transformations of capitalist social relations as well as their contemporary global crisis. My framework involves ‘‘cognitive capitalism,’’ new processes of class composition, and the production of living knowledge and subjectivity. The commons is often discussed today in reference to the privatizationand commodification of ‘‘common goods.’’ This suggests a naturalistic and conservative image of the common, unhooked from the relations of production. I distinguish between commons and the common: the first model is related to Karl Polanyi, the second to Karl Marx. As elaborated in the postoperaista debate, the common assumes an antagonistic double status: it is boththe plane of the autonomy of living labor and it is subjected to capitalist ‘‘capture.’’ Consequently, what is at stake is not the conservation of ‘‘commons,’’ but rather the production of the common and its organization into new institutions that would take us beyond the exhausted dialectic between public and private.

  1. The common ancestry of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Yuri I

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is common belief that all cellular life forms on earth have a common origin. This view is supported by the universality of the genetic code and the universal conservation of multiple genes, particularly those that encode key components of the translation system. A remarkable recent study claims to provide a formal, homology independent test of the Universal Common Ancestry hypothesis by comparing the ability of a common-ancestry model and a multiple-ancestry model to predict sequences of universally conserved proteins. Results We devised a computational experiment on a concatenated alignment of universally conserved proteins which shows that the purported demonstration of the universal common ancestry is a trivial consequence of significant sequence similarity between the analyzed proteins. The nature and origin of this similarity are irrelevant for the prediction of "common ancestry" of by the model-comparison approach. Thus, homology (common origin of the compared proteins remains an inference from sequence similarity rather than an independent property demonstrated by the likelihood analysis. Conclusion A formal demonstration of the Universal Common Ancestry hypothesis has not been achieved and is unlikely to be feasible in principle. Nevertheless, the evidence in support of this hypothesis provided by comparative genomics is overwhelming. Reviewers this article was reviewed by William Martin, Ivan Iossifov (nominated by Andrey Rzhetsky and Arcady Mushegian. For the complete reviews, see the Reviewers' Report section.

  2. The Tragedy of the Commons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The tragedy of the commons is one of the principal tenets of ecology. Recent developments in experiential computer-based simulation of the tragedy of the commons are described. A virtual learning environment is developed using the popular video game "Minecraft". The virtual learning environment is used to experience first-hand depletion…

  3. Facts about the Common Cold

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... different viruses. Rhinovirus is the most common cause, accounting for 10 to 40 percent of colds. Other common cold viruses include coronavirus and ... RSS | Terms Of Use | Privacy | Sitemap Our Family Of Sites ... Introduction Risk Factors Screening Symptoms Tumor Testing Summary '; var ...

  4. Governing of common cause failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bock, H.W.

    1998-01-01

    Agreed strategy is to govern common cause failures by the application of diversity, to assure that the overall plant safety objectives are met even in the case that a common cause failure of a system with all redundant trains is assumed. The presented strategy aims on the application of functional diversity without the implementation of equipment diversity. In the focus are the design criteria which have to be met for the design of independent systems in such a way that the time-correlated failure of such independent systems according a common cause can be excluded deterministically. (author)

  5. The illusion of common ground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowley, Stephen; Harvey, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    When people talk about “common ground”, they invoke shared experiences, convictions, and emotions. In the language sciences, however, ‘common ground’ also has a technical sense. Many taking a representational view of language and cognition seek to explain that everyday feeling in terms of how...... isolated individuals “use” language to communicate. Autonomous cognitive agents are said to use words to communicate inner thoughts and experiences; in such a framework, ‘common ground’ describes a body of information that people allegedly share, hold common, and use to reason about how intentions have......, together with concerted bodily (and vocal) activity, serve to organize, regulate and coordinate both attention and the verbal and non-verbal activity that it gives rise to. Since wordings are normative, they can be used to develop skills for making cultural sense of environments and other peoples’ doings...

  6. NIH Common Data Elements Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The NIH Common Data Elements (CDE) Repository has been designed to provide access to structured human and machine-readable definitions of data elements that have...

  7. 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... of colon cancer. Photo: AP Photo/Ron Edmonds Colorectal Cancer Cancer of the colon (large intestine) or rectum ( ...

  8. 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents ... Desperate Housewives. (Photo ©2005 Kathy Hutchins / Hutchins) Lung Cancer Lung cancer causes more deaths than the next three ...

  9. Common High Blood Pressure Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common High Blood Pressure Myths Updated:May 4,2018 Knowing the facts ... This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP Introduction What ...

  10. Common mode and coupled failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.R.

    1975-10-01

    Based on examples and data from Abnormal Occurence Reports for nuclear reactors, a classification of common mode or coupled failures is given, and some simple statistical models are investigated. (author)

  11. Common Systems Integration Lab (CSIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Common Systems Integration Lab (CSIL)supports the PMA-209 Air Combat Electronics Program Office. CSIL also supports development, test, integration and life cycle...

  12. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... slow her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that ...

  13. Communication, timing, and common learning

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Steiner, Jakub; Stewart, C.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 146, č. 1 (2011), s. 230-247 ISSN 0022-0531 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : common knowledge * learning * communication Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.235, year: 2011

  14. Philosophy vs the common sense

    OpenAIRE

    V. V. Chernyshov

    2017-01-01

    The paper deals with the antinomy of philosophy and the common sense. Philosophy emerges as a way of specifically human knowledge, which purposes analytics of the reality of subjective experience. The study reveals that in order to alienate philosophy from the common sense it was essential to revise the understanding of wisdom. The new, philosophical interpretation of wisdom – offered by Pythagoras – has laid the foundation of any future philosophy. Thus, philosophy emerges, alienating itself...

  15. Sustainability of common pool resources

    OpenAIRE

    Timilsina, Raja Rajendra; Kotani, Koji; Kamijo, Yoshio

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability has become a key issue in managing natural resources together with growing concerns for capitalism, environmental and resource problems. We hypothesize that the ongoing modernization of competitive societies, which we refer to as "capitalism," affects human nature for utilizing common pool resources, thus compromising sustainability. To test this hypothesis, we design and implement a set of dynamic common pool resource games and experiments in the following two types of Nepales...

  16. Whose commons are mobilities spaces?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freudendal-Pedersen, Malene

    2015-01-01

    for cyclists and cycling to be given greater consideration in broader societal understandings of the common good. I argue that this is in fact not the case. Rather the specific project identities that are nurtured by Copenhagen’s cycling community inhibit it from advocating publicly or aggressively...... for a vision of the common good that gives cyclists greater and more protected access to the city’s mobility spaces...

  17. Casuistry as common law morality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulo, Norbert

    2015-12-01

    This article elaborates on the relation between ethical casuistry and common law reasoning. Despite the frequent talk of casuistry as common law morality, remarks on this issue largely remain at the purely metaphorical level. The article outlines and scrutinizes Albert Jonsen and Stephen Toulmin's version of casuistry and its basic elements. Drawing lessons for casuistry from common law reasoning, it is argued that one generally has to be faithful to ethical paradigms. There are, however, limitations for the binding force of paradigms. The most important limitations--the possibilities of overruling and distinguishing paradigm norms--are similar in common law and in casuistry, or so it is argued. These limitations explain why casuistry is not necessarily overly conservative and conventional, which is one line of criticism to which casuists can now better respond. Another line of criticism has it that the very reasoning from case to case is extremely unclear in casuistry. I suggest a certain model of analogical reasoning to address this critique. All my suggestions to understand and to enhance casuistry make use of common law reasoning whilst remaining faithful to Jonsen and Toulmin's main ideas and commitments. Further developed along these lines, casuistry can appropriately be called "common law morality."

  18. Philosophy vs the common sense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Chernyshov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the antinomy of philosophy and the common sense. Philosophy emerges as a way of specifically human knowledge, which purposes analytics of the reality of subjective experience. The study reveals that in order to alienate philosophy from the common sense it was essential to revise the understanding of wisdom. The new, philosophical interpretation of wisdom – offered by Pythagoras – has laid the foundation of any future philosophy. Thus, philosophy emerges, alienating itself from the common sense, which refers to the common or collective experience. Moreover, the study examines the role of emotions, conformity and conventionality which they play with respect to the common sense. Next the author focuses on the role of philosophical intuition, guided with principles of rationality, nonconformity and scepticism, which the author professes the foundation stones of any sound philosophy. The common sense, described as deeply routed in the world of human emotions, aims at empathy, as the purpose of philosophy is to provide the rational means of knowledge. Therefore, philosophy uses thinking, keeping the permanent efforts to check and recheck data of its own experience. Thus, the first task of philosophical thinking appears to overcome the suggestion of the common sense, which purposes the social empathy, as philosophical intuition aims at independent thinking, the analytics of subjective experience. The study describes the fundamental principles of the common sense, on the one hand, and those of philosophy, on the other. The author arrives to conclusion that the common sense is unable to exceed the limits of sensual experience. Even there, where it apparently rises to a form of any «spiritual unity», even there it cannot avoid referring to the data of commonly shared sensual experience; though, philosophy, meanwhile, goes beyond sensuality, creating a discourse that would be able to alienate from it, and to make its rational

  19. [Common household traditional Chinese medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu-Yuan; Li, Mei; Fu, Dan; Liu, Yang; Wang, Hui; Tan, Wei

    2016-02-01

    With the enhancement in the awareness of self-diagnosis among residents, it's very common for each family to prepare common medicines for unexpected needs. Meanwhile, with the popularization of the traditional Chinese medicine knowledge, the proportion of common traditional Chinese medicines prepared at residents' families is increasingly higher than western medicines year by year. To make it clear, both pre-research and closed questionnaire research were adopted for residents in Chaoyang District, Beijing, excluding residents with a medical background. Based on the results of data, a analysis was made to define the role and influence on the quality of life of residents and give suggestions for relevant departments to improve the traditional Chinese medicine popularization and promote the traditional Chinese medicine market. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  20. Governing for the Common Good.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2015-12-01

    The proper object of global health governance (GHG) should be the common good, ensuring that all people have the opportunity to flourish. A well-organized global society that promotes the common good is to everyone's advantage. Enabling people to flourish includes enabling their ability to be healthy. Thus, we must assess health governance by its effectiveness in enhancing health capabilities. Current GHG fails to support human flourishing, diminishes health capabilities and thus does not serve the common good. The provincial globalism theory of health governance proposes a Global Health Constitution and an accompanying Global Institute of Health and Medicine that together propose to transform health governance. Multiple lines of empirical research suggest that these institutions would be effective, offering the most promising path to a healthier, more just world.

  1. The Messiness of Common Good

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt, Liv Egholm

    Civil society and its philanthropic and voluntary organisations are currently experiencing public and political attention and demands to safeguard society’s ‘common good’ through social cohesion and as providers of welfare services. This has raised the question by both practitioners and researchers...... that a distinction between the non-civil and the civil is more fruitful, if we want to understand the past, present and future messiness in place in defining the common good. Based on an ethnographic case analysis of a Danish corporate foundation between 1920 and 2014 the paper shows how philanthropic gift......-giving concepts, practices and operational forms throughout history have played a significant role in defining the common good and its future avenues. Through an analytical attitude based on microhistory, conceptual history and the sociology of translation it shows that civil society’s institutional logic always...

  2. UMTS Common Channel Sensitivity Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pratas, Nuno; Rodrigues, António; Santos, Frederico

    2006-01-01

    and as such it is necessary that both channels be available across the cell radius. This requirement makes the choice of the transmission parameters a fundamental one. This paper presents a sensitivity analysis regarding the transmission parameters of two UMTS common channels: RACH and FACH. Optimization of these channels...... is performed and values for the key transmission parameters in both common channels are obtained. On RACH these parameters are the message to preamble offset, the initial SIR target and the preamble power step while on FACH it is the transmission power offset....

  3. Modular Organization of Dynamic Camouflage Body Patterning in Cuttlefish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-28

    in the higher command center of the brain. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Biochemistry Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188...organization in the higher command center of the brain. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Biochemistry 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Same as...many marine predators (fish, marine mammals, and even birds ), thus the selection pressure on them is enormous throughout the evolution. It is likely

  4. Five Common Cancers in Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolandoozan, Shadi; Sadjadi, Alireza; Radmard, Amir Reza; Khademi, Hooman

    Iran as a developing nation is in epidemiological transition from communicable to non-communicable diseases. Although, cancer is the third cause of death in Iran, ifs mortality are on the rise during recent decades. This mini-review was carried out to provide a general viewpoint on common cancers

  5. Experiments on common property management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Soest, D.P.; Shogren, J.F.

    2013-01-01

    Common property resources are (renewable) natural resources where current excessive extraction reduces future resource availability, and the use of which is de facto restricted to a specific set of agents, such as inhabitants of a village or members of a community; think of community-owned forests,

  6. The Parody of the Commons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilis Kostakis

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay builds on the idea that Commons-based peer production is a social advancement within capitalism but with various post-capitalistic aspects, in need of protection, enforcement, stimulation and connection with progressive social movements. We use theory and examples to claim that peer-to-peer economic relations can be undermined in the long run, distorted by the extra-economic means of a political context designed to maintain profit-driven relations of production into power. This subversion can arguably become a state policy, and the subsequent outcome is the full absorption of the Commons as well as of the underpinning peer-to-peer relations into the dominant mode of production. To tackle this threat, we argue in favour of a certain working agenda for Commons-based communities. Such an agenda should aim the enforcement of the circulation of the Commons. Therefore, any useful social transformation will be meaningful if the people themselves decide and apply policies for their own benefit, optimally with the support of a sovereign partner state. If peer production is to become dominant, it has to control capital accumulation with the aim to marginalise and eventually transcend capitalism.

  7. Parents' common pitfalls of discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witoonchart, Chatree; Fangsa-ard, Thitiporn; Chaoaree, Supamit; Ketumarn, Panom; Kaewpornsawan, Titawee; Phatthrayuttawat, Sucheera

    2005-11-01

    Problems of discipline are common among parents. These may be the results of the parents' pitfalls in disciplining their children. To find out common pitfalls of parents in disciplining their children. Parents of students with ages ranged between 60-72 months old in Bangkok-Noi district, Bangkok, were selected by random sampling. Total number of 1947 children ages between 60-72 months were recruited. Parents of these children were interviewed with a questionnaire designed to probe into problems in child rearing. There hindered and fifty questionnaires were used for data analyses. Parents had high concerns about problems in discipline their children and needed support from professional personnel. They had limited knowledge and possessed lots of wrong attitude towards discipline. Common pitfalls on the topics were problems in, 1) limit setting 2) rewarding and punishment 3) supervision on children watching TV and bedtime routines. Parents of children with ages 60-72 months old in Bangkok-Noi district, Bangkok, had several common pitfalls in disciplining their children, including attitude, knowledge and practice.

  8. The Common Vision. Reviews: Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattin-McNichols, John

    1998-01-01

    Reviews Marshak's book describing the work of educators Maria Montessori, Rudolf Steiner, Aurobindo Ghose, and Inayat Khan. Maintains that the book gives clear, concise information on each educator and presents a common vision for children and their education; also maintains that it gives theoretical and practical information and discusses…

  9. Twenty-First Century Diseases: Commonly Rare and Rarely Common?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daunert, Sylvia; Sittampalam, Gurusingham Sitta; Goldschmidt-Clermont, Pascal J

    2017-09-20

    Alzheimer's drugs are failing at a rate of 99.6%, and success rate for drugs designed to help patients with this form of dementia is 47 times less than for drugs designed to help patients with cancers ( www.scientificamerican.com/article/why-alzheimer-s-drugs-keep-failing/2014 ). How can it be so difficult to produce a valuable drug for Alzheimer's disease? Each human has a unique genetic and epigenetic makeup, thus endowing individuals with a highly unique complement of genes, polymorphisms, mutations, RNAs, proteins, lipids, and complex sugars, resulting in distinct genome, proteome, metabolome, and also microbiome identity. This editorial is taking into account the uniqueness of each individual and surrounding environment, and stresses the point that a more accurate definition of a "common" disorder could be simply the amalgamation of a myriad of "rare" diseases. These rare diseases are being grouped together because they share a rather constant complement of common features and, indeed, generally respond to empirically developed treatments, leading to a positive outcome consistently. We make the case that it is highly unlikely that such treatments, despite their statistical success measured with large cohorts using standardized clinical research, will be effective on all patients until we increase the depth and fidelity of our understanding of the individual "rare" diseases that are grouped together in the "buckets" of common illnesses. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 27, 511-516.

  10. Common sense and the common morality in theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Patrick

    2014-06-01

    The unfinished nature of Beauchamp and Childress's account of the common morality after 34 years and seven editions raises questions about what is lacking, specifically in the way they carry out their project, more generally in the presuppositions of the classical liberal tradition on which they rely. Their wide-ranging review of ethical theories has not provided a method by which to move beyond a hypothetical approach to justification or, on a practical level regarding values conflict, beyond a questionable appeal to consensus. My major purpose in this paper is to introduce the thought of Bernard Lonergan as offering a way toward such a methodological breakthrough. In the first section, I consider Beauchamp and Childress's defense of their theory of the common morality. In the second, I relate a persisting vacillation in their argument regarding the relative importance of reason and experience to a similar tension in classical liberal theory. In the third, I consider aspects of Lonergan's generalized empirical method as a way to address problems that surface in the first two sections of the paper: (1) the structural relation of reason and experience in human action; and (2) the importance of theory for practice in terms of what Lonergan calls "common sense" and "general bias."

  11. Common Readout System in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Jubin, Mitra

    2016-01-01

    The ALICE experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider is going for a major physics upgrade in 2018. This upgrade is necessary for getting high statistics and high precision measurement for probing into rare physics channels needed to understand the dynamics of the condensed phase of QCD. The high interaction rate and the large event size in the upgraded detectors will result in an experimental data flow traffic of about 1 TB/s from the detectors to the on-line computing system. A dedicated Common Readout Unit (CRU) is proposed for data concentration, multiplexing, and trigger distribution. CRU, as common interface unit, handles timing, data and control signals between on-detector systems and online-offline computing system. An overview of the CRU architecture is presented in this manuscript.

  12. Common Readout System in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Jubin, Mitra

    2017-01-01

    The ALICE experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider is going for a major physics upgrade in 2018. This upgrade is necessary for getting high statistics and high precision measurement for probing into rare physics channels needed to understand the dynamics of the condensed phase of QCD. The high interaction rate and the large event size in the upgraded detectors will result in an experimental data flow traffic of about 1 TB/s from the detectors to the on-line computing system. A dedicated Common Readout Unit (CRU) is proposed for data concentration, multiplexing, and trigger distribution. CRU, as common interface unit, handles timing, data and control signals between on-detector systems and online-offline computing system. An overview of the CRU architecture is presented in this manuscript.

  13. Sustainability of common pool resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timilsina, Raja Rajendra; Kotani, Koji; Kamijo, Yoshio

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability has become a key issue in managing natural resources together with growing concerns for capitalism, environmental and resource problems. We hypothesize that the ongoing modernization of competitive societies, which we refer to as "capitalism," affects human nature for utilizing common pool resources, thus compromising sustainability. To test this hypothesis, we design and implement a set of dynamic common pool resource games and experiments in the following two types of Nepalese areas: (i) rural (non-capitalistic) and (ii) urban (capitalistic) areas. We find that a proportion of prosocial individuals in urban areas is lower than that in rural areas, and urban residents deplete resources more quickly than rural residents. The composition of proself and prosocial individuals in a group and the degree of capitalism are crucial in that an increase in prosocial members in a group and the rural dummy positively affect resource sustainability by 65% and 63%, respectively. Overall, this paper shows that when societies move toward more capitalistic environments, the sustainability of common pool resources tends to decrease with the changes in individual preferences, social norms, customs and views to others through human interactions. This result implies that individuals may be losing their coordination abilities for social dilemmas of resource sustainability in capitalistic societies.

  14. Common morality and moral reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, K A

    2009-01-01

    The idea of moral reform requires that morality be more than a description of what people do value, for there has to be some measure against which to assess progress. Otherwise, any change is not reform, but simply difference. Therefore, I discuss moral reform in relation to two prescriptive approaches to common morality, which I distinguish as the foundational and the pragmatic. A foundational approach to common morality (e.g., Bernard Gert's) suggests that there is no reform of morality, but of beliefs, values, customs, and practices so as to conform with an unchanging, foundational morality. If, however, there were revision in its foundation (e.g., in rationality), then reform in morality itself would be possible. On a pragmatic view, on the other hand, common morality is relative to human flourishing, and its justification consists in its effectiveness in promoting flourishing. Morality is dependent on what in fact does promote human flourishing and therefore, could be reformed. However, a pragmatic approach, which appears more open to the possibility of moral reform, would need a more robust account of norms by which reform is measured.

  15. George Combe and common sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyde, Sean

    2015-06-01

    This article examines the history of two fields of enquiry in late eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century Scotland: the rise and fall of the common sense school of philosophy and phrenology as presented in the works of George Combe. Although many previous historians have construed these histories as separate, indeed sometimes incommensurate, I propose that their paths were intertwined to a greater extent than has previously been given credit. The philosophy of common sense was a response to problems raised by Enlightenment thinkers, particularly David Hume, and spurred a theory of the mind and its mode of study. In order to succeed, or even to be considered a rival of these established understandings, phrenologists adapted their arguments for the sake of engaging in philosophical dispute. I argue that this debate contributed to the relative success of these groups: phrenology as a well-known historical subject, common sense now largely forgotten. Moreover, this history seeks to question the place of phrenology within the sciences of mind in nineteenth-century Britain.

  16. Common Ground Between Three Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Dunnivan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Triwizard program with Israel brought together students from three different communities: an Israeli Arab school, an Israeli Jewish school, and an American public school with few Jews and even fewer Muslims. The two Israeli groups met in Israel to find common ground and overcome their differences through dialogue and understanding. They communicated with the American school via technology such as video-conferencing, Skype, and emails. The program culminated with a visit to the U.S. The goal of the program was to embark upon a process that would bring about intercultural awareness and acceptance at the subjective level, guiding all involved to develop empathy and an insider's view of the other's culture. It was an attempt to have a group of Israeli high school students and a group of Arab Israeli students who had a fearful, distrustful perception of each other find common ground and become friends. TriWizard was designed to have participants begin a dialogue about issues, beliefs, and emotions based on the premise that cross-cultural training strategies that are effective in changing knowledge are those that engage the emotions, and actively develop empathy and an insider's views of another culture focused on what they have in common. Participants learned that they could become friends despite their cultural differences.

  17. COMMON APPROACH ON WASTE MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREESCU Nicoleta Alina

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The world population has doubled since the 60’s, now reaching 7 billion – it is estimated it will continue growing. If in more advanced economies, the population is starting to grow old and even reduce in numbers, in less developed countries, population numbers are registering a fast growth. Across the world, the ecosystems are exposed to critical levels of pollution in more and more complex combinations. Human activities, population growth and shifting patterns in consumer nature are the main factors that are at the base of thin ever-growing burden on our environment. Globalization means that the consumer and production patterns from a country or a region contribute to the pressures on the environment in totally different parts of the world. With the rise of environmental problems, the search for solutions also begun, such as methods and actions aimed to protect the environment and to lead to a better correlation between economic growth and the environment. The common goals of these endeavors from participating states was to come up with medium and long term regulations that would lead to successfully solving environmental issues. In this paper, we have analyzed the way in which countries started collaborating in the 1970’s at an international level in order to come up with a common policy that would have a positive impact on the environment. The European Union has come up with its own common policy, a policy that each member state must implement. In this context, Romania has developed its National Strategy for Waste Management, a program that Romania wishes to use to reduce the quantity of waste and better dispose of it.

  18. Modeling Common-Sense Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Michail

    This paper presents a methodology for efficient synthesis of dynamical model simulating a common-sense decision making process. The approach is based upon the extension of the physics' First Principles that includes behavior of living systems. The new architecture consists of motor dynamics simulating actual behavior of the object, and mental dynamics representing evolution of the corresponding knowledge-base and incorporating it in the form of information flows into the motor dynamics. The autonomy of the decision making process is achieved by a feedback from mental to motor dynamics. This feedback replaces unavailable external information by an internal knowledgebase stored in the mental model in the form of probability distributions.

  19. The common European flexicurity principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailand, Mikkel

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses the decision-making process underlying the adoption of common EU flexicurity principles. Supporters of the initiative succeeded in convincing the sceptics one by one; the change of government in France and the last-minute support of the European social partner organizations...... were instrumental in this regard. However, the critics succeeded in weakening the initially strong focus on the transition from job security to employment security and the divisions between insiders and outsiders in the labour market. In contrast to some decision-making on the European Employment...

  20. Common blocks for ASQS(12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Milazzo

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available An ASQS(v is a particular Steiner system featuring a set of v vertices and two separate families of blocks, B and G, whose elements have a respective cardinality of 4 and 6. It has the property that any three vertices of X belong either to a B-block or to a G-block. The parameter cb is the number of common blocks in two separate ASQSs, both defined on the same set of vertices X . In this paper it is shown that cb ≤ 29 for any pair of ASQSs(12.

  1. Urban ambiances as common ground?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Paul Thibaud

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to point out various arguments which question ambiance as a common ground of everyday urban experience. Such a project involves four major points. First, we have to move beyond the exclusive practical aspects of everyday life and bring the sensory to the forefront. Under such conditions, sensory cultures emerge where feeling and acting come together. Second, we must put common experience into perspectiveby initiating a dual dynamics of socialising the sensory and sensitising social life. Ambiances involve a complex web comprised of an ‘existential’ dimension (empathy with the ambient world, a ‘contextual’ dimension (degree of presence in the situation, and an ‘interactional’ dimension (forms of sociability expressed in the tonality. Third, we have to initiate a political ecology of ambiances in order to better understand how ambiances deal with fundamental design and planning issues. Far from being neutral, the notion of ambiance appears to be bound up with the socio-aesthetic strategies underpinning changes to the sensory urban environment of the future. Fourth, we have to question what in situ experience is all about. Three major research pointers enable to address this issue: the embodiment of situated experiences, the porous nature of sensory spaces, and the sensory efficiency of the build environment. Ambiances sensitize urban design as well as social lifeforms.

  2. Common questions about infectious mononucleosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womack, Jason; Jimenez, Marissa

    2015-03-15

    Epstein-Barr is a ubiquitous virus that infects 95% of the world population at some point in life. Although Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections are often asymptomatic, some patients present with the clinical syndrome of infectious mononucleosis (IM). The syndrome most commonly occurs between 15 and 24 years of age. It should be suspected in patients presenting with sore throat, fever, tonsillar enlargement, fatigue, lymphadenopathy, pharyngeal inflammation, and palatal petechiae. A heterophile antibody test is the best initial test for diagnosis of EBV infection, with 71% to 90% accuracy for diagnosing IM. However, the test has a 25% false-negative rate in the first week of illness. IM is unlikely if the lymphocyte count is less than 4,000 mm3. The presence of EBV-specific immunoglobulin M antibodies confirms infection, but the test is more costly and results take longer than the heterophile antibody test. Symptomatic relief is the mainstay of treatment. Glucocorticoids and antivirals do not reduce the length or severity of illness. Splenic rupture is an uncommon complication of IM. Because physical activity within the first three weeks of illness may increase the risk of splenic rupture, athletic participation is not recommended during this time. Children are at the highest risk of airway obstruction, which is the most common cause of hospitalization from IM. Patients with immunosuppression are more likely to have fulminant EBV infection.

  3. DNA/SNLA commonality program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, D.V.; Watts, A.J.; Rice, D.A.; Powe, J.; Beezhold, W.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of the Commonality program, initiated by DNA in 1978, was to evaluate e-beam material testing procedures and techniques by comparing material stress and spall data from various US and UK e-beam facilities and experimenters. As part of this joint DNA/SNL/UK Commonality effort, Sandia and Ktech used four different electron-beam machines to investigate various aspects of e-beam energy deposition in three materials. The deposition duration and the deposition profiles were varied, and the resulting stresses were measured. The materials studied were: (1) a low-Z material (A1), (2) a high-Z material (Ta), and (3) a typical porous material, a cermet. Aluminium and tantalum were irradiated using the DNA Blackjack 3 accelerator (60 ns pulse width), the DNA Blackjack 3' accelerator (30 ns pulse width), and the SNLA REHYD accelerator (100 ns pulse width). Propagating stresses were measured using x-cut quartz gauges, carbon gauges, and laser interferometry techniques. Data to determine the influence of deposition duration were obtained over a wide range of energy loadings. The cermet material was studied using the SNLA REHYD and HERMES II accelerators. The e-beam from REHYD generated propagating stresses which were monitored with quartz gauges as a function of sample thickness and energy loadings. The HERMES II accelerator was used to uniformly heat the cermet to determine the Grueneisen parameter and identify the incipient spall condition. Results of these experiments are presented

  4. Common primary headaches in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha Mitra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Headache is a very common problem in pregnancy. Evaluation of a complaint of headache requires categorizing it as primary or secondary. Migrainous headaches are known to be influenced by fluctuation of estrogen levels with high levels improving it and low levels deteriorating the symptoms. Tension-type Headaches (TTHs are the most common and usually less severe types of headache with female to male ratio 3:1. Women known to have primary headache before conception who present with a headache that is different from their usual headache, or women not known to have primary headache before conception who present with new-onset of headache during pregnancy need neurologic assessments for potential secondary cause for their headache. In addition to proper history and physical examination, both non-contrast computed tomography (CT and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI are considered safe to be performed in pregnant women when indicated. Treatment of abortive and prophylactic therapy should include non-pharmacologic tools, judicious use of drugs which are safe for mother and fetus.

  5. Common Β- Thalassaemia Mutations in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Azarfam

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: β –Thalassaemia was first explained by Thomas Cooly as Cooly’s anaemia in 1925. The β- thalassaemias are hereditary autosomal disorders with decreased or absent β-globin chain synthesis. The most common genetic defects in β-thalassaemias are caused by point mutations, micro deletions or insertions within the β-globin gene. Material and Methods: In this research , 142 blood samples (64 from childrens hospital of Tabriz , 15 samples from Shahid Gazi hospital of Tabriz , 18 from Urumia and 45 samples from Aliasghar hospital of Ardebil were taken from thalassaemic patients (who were previously diagnosed .Then 117 non-familial samples were selected . The DNA of the lymphocytes of blood samples was extracted by boiling and Proteinase K- SDS procedure, and mutations were detected by ARMS-PCR methods. Results: From the results obtained, eleven most common mutations,most of which were Mediterranean mutations were detected as follows; IVS-I-110(G-A, IVS-I-1(G-A ،IVS-I-5(G-C ,Frameshift Codon 44 (-C,( codon5(-CT,IVS-1-6(T-C, IVS-I-25(-25bp del ,Frameshift 8.9 (+G ,IVS-II-1(G-A ,Codon 39(C-T, Codon 30(G-C the mutations of the samples were defined. The results showed that Frameshift 8.9 (+G, IVS-I-110 (G-A ,IVS-II-I(G-A, IVS-I-5(G-C, IVS-I-1(G-A , Frameshift Codon 44(-C , codon5(-CT , IVS-1-6(T-C , IVS-I-25(-25bp del with a frequency of 29.9%, 25.47%,17.83%, 7.00%, 6.36% , 6.63% , 3.8% , 2.5% , 0.63% represented the most common mutations in North - west Iran. No mutations in Codon 39(C-T and Codon 30(G-C were detected. Cunclusion: The frequency of the same mutations in patients from North - West of Iran seems to be different as compared to other regions like Turkey, Pakistan, Lebanon and Fars province of Iran. The pattern of mutations in this region is more or less the same as in the Mediterranean region, but different from South west Asia and East Asia.

  6. Harvesting NASA's Common Metadata Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shum, D.; Mitchell, A. E.; Durbin, C.; Norton, J.

    2017-12-01

    As part of NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS), the Common Metadata Repository (CMR) stores metadata for over 30,000 datasets from both NASA and international providers along with over 300M granules. This metadata enables sub-second discovery and facilitates data access. While the CMR offers a robust temporal, spatial and keyword search functionality to the general public and international community, it is sometimes more desirable for international partners to harvest the CMR metadata and merge the CMR metadata into a partner's existing metadata repository. This poster will focus on best practices to follow when harvesting CMR metadata to ensure that any changes made to the CMR can also be updated in a partner's own repository. Additionally, since each partner has distinct metadata formats they are able to consume, the best practices will also include guidance on retrieving the metadata in the desired metadata format using CMR's Unified Metadata Model translation software.

  7. Why is migraine so common?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmeads, J

    1998-08-01

    Migraine is clearly a very common biological disorder, but this knowledge has not been sufficient as yet to ensure completely effective treatment strategies. There appears to be discrepancy between what migraine patients desire as the outcome of consultations and what doctors think patients want. Patients seem, from Packard's selective study (11), to want explanation and reassurance before they get pain relief, whereas doctors view pain relief as the most important aim of management. It is possible that doctors still have underlying assumptions about psychological elements of migraine which color their perceptions of their patients. Communicating the relevance of scientific progress in migraine to neurologists and PCPs is an important challenge, as is calling attention to the patient's expectations from treatment. To be effective in improving education in this area, perhaps we should first ascertain the level of knowledge about the biology and treatment of headache among general neurologists.

  8. Sustainable models of audiovisual commons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayo Fuster Morell

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses an emerging phenomenon characterized by continuous change and experimentation: the collaborative commons creation of audiovisual content online. The analysis wants to focus on models of sustainability of collaborative online creation, paying particular attention to the use of different forms of advertising. This article is an excerpt of a larger investigation, which unit of analysis are cases of Online Creation Communities that take as their central node of activity the Catalan territory. From 22 selected cases, the methodology combines quantitative analysis, through a questionnaire delivered to all cases, and qualitative analysis through face interviews conducted in 8 cases studied. The research, which conclusions we summarize in this article,in this article, leads us to conclude that the sustainability of the project depends largely on relationships of trust and interdependence between different voluntary agents, the non-monetary contributions and retributions as well as resources and infrastructure of free use. All together leads us to understand that this is and will be a very important area for the future of audiovisual content and its sustainability, which will imply changes in the policies that govern them.

  9. Longest Common Extensions via Fingerprinting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Kristensen, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    query time, no extra space and no preprocessing achieves significantly better average case performance. We show a new algorithm, Fingerprint k , which for a parameter k, 1 ≤ k ≤ [log n], on a string of length n and alphabet size σ, gives O(k n1/k) query time using O(k n) space and O(k n + sort......(n,σ)) preprocessing time, where sort(n,σ) is the time it takes to sort n numbers from σ. Though this solution is asymptotically strictly worse than the asymptotically best previously known algorithms, it outperforms them in practice in average case and is almost as fast as the simple linear time algorithm. On worst....... The LCE problem can be solved in linear space with constant query time and a preprocessing of sorting complexity. There are two known approaches achieving these bounds, which use nearest common ancestors and range minimum queries, respectively. However, in practice a much simpler approach with linear...

  10. Common bus multinode sensor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, T.F.; Naviasky, E.H.; Evans, W.P.; Jefferies, D.W.; Smith, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear power plant including a common bus multinode sensor system for sensors in the nuclear power plant, each sensor producing a sensor signal. The system consists of: a power supply providing power; a communication cable coupled to the power supply; plural remote sensor units coupled between the cable and one or more sensors, and comprising: a direct current power supply, connected to the cable and converting the power on the cable into direct current; an analog-to-digital converter connected to the direct current power supply; an oscillator reference; a filter; and an integrated circuit sensor interface connected to the direct current power supply, the analog-to-digital converter, the oscillator crystal and the filter, the interface comprising: a counter receiving a frequency designation word from external to the interface; a phase-frequency comparator connected to the counter; an oscillator connected to the oscillator reference; a timing counter connected to the oscillator, the phase/frequency comparator and the analog-to-digital converter; an analog multiplexer connectable to the sensors and the analog-to-digital converter, and connected to the timing counter; a shift register operatively connected to the timing counter and the analog-to-digital converter; an encoder connected to the shift register and connectable to the filter; and a voltage controlled oscillator connected to the filter and the cable

  11. Common hyperspectral image database design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lixun; Liao, Ningfang; Chai, Ali

    2009-11-01

    This paper is to introduce Common hyperspectral image database with a demand-oriented Database design method (CHIDB), which comprehensively set ground-based spectra, standardized hyperspectral cube, spectral analysis together to meet some applications. The paper presents an integrated approach to retrieving spectral and spatial patterns from remotely sensed imagery using state-of-the-art data mining and advanced database technologies, some data mining ideas and functions were associated into CHIDB to make it more suitable to serve in agriculture, geological and environmental areas. A broad range of data from multiple regions of the electromagnetic spectrum is supported, including ultraviolet, visible, near-infrared, thermal infrared, and fluorescence. CHIDB is based on dotnet framework and designed by MVC architecture including five main functional modules: Data importer/exporter, Image/spectrum Viewer, Data Processor, Parameter Extractor, and On-line Analyzer. The original data were all stored in SQL server2008 for efficient search, query and update, and some advance Spectral image data Processing technology are used such as Parallel processing in C#; Finally an application case is presented in agricultural disease detecting area.

  12. Longest common extensions in trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gawrychowski, Pawel; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2016-01-01

    to trees and suggest a few applications of LCE in trees to tries and XML databases. Given a labeled and rooted tree T of size n, the goal is to preprocess T into a compact data structure that support the following LCE queries between subpaths and subtrees in T. Let v1, v2, w1, and w2 be nodes of T...... such that w1 and w2 are descendants of v1 and v2 respectively. - LCEPP(v1, w1, v2, w2): (path-path LCE) return the longest common prefix of the paths v1 ~→ w1 and v2 ~→ w2. - LCEPT(v1, w1, v2): (path-tree LCE) return maximal path-path LCE of the path v1 ~→ w1 and any path from v2 to a descendant leaf. - LCETT......(v1, v2): (tree-tree LCE) return a maximal path-path LCE of any pair of paths from v1 and v2 to descendant leaves. We present the first non-trivial bounds for supporting these queries. For LCEPP queries, we present a linear-space solution with O(log* n) query time. For LCEPT queries, we present...

  13. Longest Common Extensions in Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gawrychowski, Pawel; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2015-01-01

    to trees and suggest a few applications of LCE in trees to tries and XML databases. Given a labeled and rooted tree T of size n, the goal is to preprocess T into a compact data structure that support the following LCE queries between subpaths and subtrees in T. Let v1, v2, w1, and w2 be nodes of T...... such that w1 and w2 are descendants of v1 and v2 respectively. - LCEPP(v1, w1, v2, w2): (path-path LCE) return the longest common prefix of the paths v1 ~→ w1 and v2 ~→ w2. - LCEPT(v1, w1, v2): (path-tree LCE) return maximal path-path LCE of the path v1 ~→ w1 and any path from v2 to a descendant leaf. - LCETT......(v1, v2): (tree-tree LCE) return a maximal path-path LCE of any pair of paths from v1 and v2 to descendant leaves. We present the first non-trivial bounds for supporting these queries. For LCEPP queries, we present a linear-space solution with O(log* n) query time. For LCEPT queries, we present...

  14. Common Questions About Chronic Prostatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, James D; Garrett, W Allan; McCurry, Tyler K; Teichman, Joel M H

    2016-02-15

    Chronic prostatitis is relatively common, with a lifetime prevalence of 1.8% to 8.2%. Risk factors include conditions that facilitate introduction of bacteria into the urethra and prostate (which also predispose the patient to urinary tract infections) and conditions that can lead to chronic neuropathic pain. Chronic prostatitis must be differentiated from other causes of chronic pelvic pain, such as interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and pelvic floor dysfunction; prostate and bladder cancers; benign prostatic hyperplasia; urolithiasis; and other causes of dysuria, urinary frequency, and nocturia. The National Institutes of Health divides prostatitis into four syndromes: acute bacterial prostatitis, chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP), chronic nonbacterial prostatitis (CNP)/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS), and asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis. CBP and CNP/CPPS both lead to pelvic pain and lower urinary tract symptoms. CBP presents as recurrent urinary tract infections with the same organism identified on repeated cultures; it responds to a prolonged course of an antibiotic that adequately penetrates the prostate, if the urine culture suggests sensitivity. If four to six weeks of antibiotic therapy is effective but symptoms recur, another course may be prescribed, perhaps in combination with alpha blockers or nonopioid analgesics. CNP/CPPS, accounting for more than 90% of chronic prostatitis cases, presents as prostatic pain lasting at least three months without consistent culture results. Weak evidence supports the use of alpha blockers, pain medications, and a four- to six-week course of antibiotics for the treatment of CNP/CPPS. Patients may also be referred to a psychologist experienced in managing chronic pain. Experts on this condition recommend a combination of treatments tailored to the patient's phenotypic presentation. Urology referral should be considered when appropriate treatment is ineffective. Additional treatments include pelvic

  15. Coordinating towards a Common Good

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Francisco C.; Pacheco, Jorge M.

    2010-09-01

    Throughout their life, humans often engage in collective endeavors ranging from family related issues to global warming. In all cases, the tragedy of the commons threatens the possibility of reaching the optimal solution associated with global cooperation, a scenario predicted by theory and demonstrated by many experiments. Using the toolbox of evolutionary game theory, I will address two important aspects of evolutionary dynamics that have been neglected so far in the context of public goods games and evolution of cooperation. On one hand, the fact that often there is a threshold above which a public good is reached [1, 2]. On the other hand, the fact that individuals often participate in several games, related to the their social context and pattern of social ties, defined by a social network [3, 4, 5]. In the first case, the existence of a threshold above which collective action is materialized dictates a rich pattern of evolutionary dynamics where the direction of natural selection can be inverted compared to standard expectations. Scenarios of defector dominance, pure coordination or coexistence may arise simultaneously. Both finite and infinite population models are analyzed. In networked games, cooperation blooms whenever the act of contributing is more important than the effort contributed. In particular, the heterogeneous nature of social networks naturally induces a symmetry breaking of the dilemmas of cooperation, as contributions made by cooperators may become contingent on the social context in which the individual is embedded. This diversity in context provides an advantage to cooperators, which is particularly strong when both wealth and social ties follow a power-law distribution, providing clues on the self-organization of social communities. Finally, in both situations, it can be shown that individuals no longer play a defection dominance dilemma, but effectively engage in a general N-person coordination game. Even if locally defection may seem

  16. Designing the Microbial Research Commons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhlir, Paul F. [Board on Research Data and Information Policy and Global Affairs, Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Recent decades have witnessed an ever-increasing range and volume of digital data. All elements of the pillars of science--whether observation, experiment, or theory and modeling--are being transformed by the continuous cycle of generation, dissemination, and use of factual information. This is even more so in terms of the re-using and re-purposing of digital scientific data beyond the original intent of the data collectors, often with dramatic results. We all know about the potential benefits and impacts of digital data, but we are also aware of the barriers, the challenges in maximizing the access, and use of such data. There is thus a need to think about how a data infrastructure can enhance capabilities for finding, using, and integrating information to accelerate discovery and innovation. How can we best implement an accessible, interoperable digital environment so that the data can be repeatedly used by a wide variety of users in different settings and with different applications? With this objective: to use the microbial communities and microbial data, literature, and the research materials themselves as a test case, the Board on Research Data and Information held an International Symposium on Designing the Microbial Research Commons at the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, DC on 8-9 October 2009. The symposium addressed topics such as models to lower the transaction costs and support access to and use of microbiological materials and digital resources from the perspective of publicly funded research, public-private interactions, and developing country concerns. The overall goal of the symposium was to stimulate more research and implementation of improved legal and institutional models for publicly funded research in microbiology.

  17. Influence of variation in eumelanin content on absorbance spectra of liquid skin-like phantoms

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smit, Jacoba E

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available are often always limited. Hence the use of skin-like phantoms. Bashkatov et al. (25) measured the optical properties of gelatin skin-like phantoms prepared from different concentrations of synthetic and natural (from Sepia officianalis) melanin. Fat... emulsions like Intralipid are commonly used to mimic light propagation in turbit media (26) and hence Shimada et al. (27) used similar gelatin and Sepia melanin phantoms and added Intralipid to mimic the scattering properties of human skin. The purpose...

  18. Science for common entrance physics : answers

    CERN Document Server

    Pickering, W R

    2015-01-01

    This book contains answers to all exercises featured in the accompanying textbook Science for Common Entrance: Physics , which covers every Level 1 and 2 topic in the ISEB 13+ Physics Common Entrance exam syllabus. - Clean, clear layout for easy marking. - Includes examples of high-scoring answers with diagrams and workings. - Suitable for ISEB 13+ Mathematics Common Entrance exams taken from Autumn 2017 onwards. Also available to purchase from the Galore Park website www.galorepark.co.uk :. - Science for Common Entrance: Physics. - Science for Common Entrance: Biology. - Science for Common En

  19. Common Core: Teaching Optimum Topic Exploration (TOTE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karge, Belinda Dunnick; Moore, Roxane Kushner

    2015-01-01

    The Common Core has become a household term and yet many educators do not understand what it means. This article explains the historical perspectives of the Common Core and gives guidance to teachers in application of Teaching Optimum Topic Exploration (TOTE) necessary for full implementation of the Common Core State Standards. An effective…

  20. A School for the Common Good

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baines, Lawrence; Foster, Hal

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the history and the concept of the common school from the Common School Movement reformers of the 1850s to the present. These reformers envisioned schools that were to be tuition free and open to everyone, places where rich and poor met and learned together on equal terms. Central to the concept of the common school is its…

  1. 49 CFR 1185.5 - Common control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Common control. 1185.5 Section 1185.5... OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE INTERLOCKING OFFICERS § 1185.5 Common control. It shall not be... carriers if such carriers are operated under common control or management either: (a) Pursuant to approval...

  2. Simplifying the ELA Common Core; Demystifying Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmoker, Mike; Jago, Carol

    2013-01-01

    The English Language Arts (ELA) Common Core State Standards ([CCSS], 2010) could have a transformational effect on American education. Though the process seems daunting, one can begin immediately integrating the essence of the ELA Common Core in every subject area. This article shows how one could implement the Common Core and create coherent,…

  3. Common Frame of Reference and social justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.; Satyanarayana, R.

    2009-01-01

    The article "Common Frame of Reference and Social Justice" by Martijn W. Hesselink evaluates the Draft Common Frame of Reference (DCFR) of social justice. It discusses the important areas, namely a common frame of Reference in a broad sense, social justice and contract law, private law and

  4. Common cause failures of reactor pressure components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankamo, T.

    1978-01-01

    The common cause failure is defined as a multiple failure event due to a common cause. The existence of common failure causes may ruin the potential advantages of applying redundancy for reliability improvement. Examples relevant to large mechanical components are presented. Preventive measures against common cause failures, such as physical separation, equipment diversity, quality assurance, and feedback from experience are discussed. Despite the large number of potential interdependencies, the analysis of common cause failures can be done within the framework of conventional reliability analysis, utilizing, for example, the method of deriving minimal cut sets from a system fault tree. Tools for the description and evaluation of dependencies between components are discussed: these include the model of conditional failure causes that are common to many components, and evaluation of the reliability of redundant components subjected to a common load. (author)

  5. Algorithms for solving common fixed point problems

    CERN Document Server

    Zaslavski, Alexander J

    2018-01-01

    This book details approximate solutions to common fixed point problems and convex feasibility problems in the presence of perturbations. Convex feasibility problems search for a common point of a finite collection of subsets in a Hilbert space; common fixed point problems pursue a common fixed point of a finite collection of self-mappings in a Hilbert space. A variety of algorithms are considered in this book for solving both types of problems, the study of which has fueled a rapidly growing area of research. This monograph is timely and highlights the numerous applications to engineering, computed tomography, and radiation therapy planning. Totaling eight chapters, this book begins with an introduction to foundational material and moves on to examine iterative methods in metric spaces. The dynamic string-averaging methods for common fixed point problems in normed space are analyzed in Chapter 3. Dynamic string methods, for common fixed point problems in a metric space are introduced and discussed in Chapter ...

  6. Mathematics for common entrance three (extension) answers

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Serena

    2015-01-01

    This book contains answers to all exercises featured in the accompanying textbook Mathematics for Common Entrance Three (Extension) , which provides essential preparation for Level 3 of the ISEB 13+ Mathematics exam, as well as for CASE and other scholarship exams. - Clean, clear layout for easy marking. - Includes examples of high-scoring answers with diagrams and workings. Also available to purchase from the Galore Park website www.galorepark.co.uk :. - Mathematics for Common Entrance Three (Extension). - Mathematics for Common Entrance One. - Mathematics for Common Entrance One Answers. - M

  7. Common Property Resource Management, Institutional Change and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Common Property Resource Management, Institutional Change and ... Most contemporary discussions on African development since independence forty ... theories on CPR Resource Management in a specific ecological and political setting.

  8. Evaluation of Chromosomal Abnormalities and Common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of Chromosomal Abnormalities and Common Trombophilic Mutations in Cases with Recurrent Miscarriage. Ahmet Karatas, Recep Eroz, Mustafa Albayrak, Tulay Ozlu, Bulent Cakmak, Fatih Keskin ...

  9. Justifying group-specific common morality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Carson

    2008-01-01

    Some defenders of the view that there is a common morality have conceived such morality as being universal, in the sense of extending across all cultures and times. Those who deny the existence of such a common morality often argue that the universality claim is implausible. Defense of common morality must take account of the distinction between descriptive and normative claims that there is a common morality. This essay considers these claims separately and identifies the nature of the arguments for each claim. It argues that the claim that there is a universal common morality in the descriptive sense has not been successfully defended to date. It maintains that the claim that there is a common morality in the normative sense need not be understood as universalist. This paper advocates the concept of group specific common morality, including country-specific versions. It suggests that both the descriptive and the normative claims that there are country-specific common moralities are plausible, and that a country-specific normative common morality could provide the basis for a country's bioethics.

  10. Probabilistic analysis of ''common mode failures''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterling, R.G.

    1978-01-01

    Common mode failure is a topic of considerable interest in reliability and safety analyses of nuclear reactors. Common mode failures are often discussed in terms of examples: two systems fail simultaneously due to an external event such as an earthquake; two components in redundant channels fail because of a common manufacturing defect; two systems fail because a component common to both fails; the failure of one system increases the stress on other systems and they fail. The common thread running through these is a dependence of some sort--statistical or physical--among multiple failure events. However, the nature of the dependence is not the same in all these examples. An attempt is made to model situations, such as the above examples, which have been termed ''common mode failures.'' In doing so, it is found that standard probability concepts and terms, such as statistically dependent and independent events, and conditional and unconditional probabilities, suffice. Thus, it is proposed that the term ''common mode failures'' be dropped, at least from technical discussions of these problems. A corollary is that the complementary term, ''random failures,'' should also be dropped. The mathematical model presented may not cover all situations which have been termed ''common mode failures,'' but provides insight into the difficulty of obtaining estimates of the probabilities of these events

  11. The gastro-oesophageal common cavity revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aanen, M. C.; Bredenoord, A. J.; Samsom, M.; Smout, A. J. P. M.

    2006-01-01

    The manometric common cavity phenomenon has been used as indicator of gastro-oesophageal reflux of liquid or gaseous substances. Using combined pH and impedance recording as reference standard the value of a common cavity as indicator of gastro-oesophageal reflux was tested. Ten healthy male

  12. Common Core in the Real World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Frederick M.; McShane, Michael Q.

    2013-01-01

    There are at least four key places where the Common Core intersects with current efforts to improve education in the United States--testing, professional development, expectations, and accountability. Understanding them can help educators, parents, and policymakers maximize the chance that the Common Core is helpful to these efforts and, perhaps…

  13. Tragedy of the commons in Melipona bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenseleers, Tom; Ratnieks, Francis L W

    2004-01-01

    In human society selfish use of common resources can lead to disaster, a situation known as the 'tragedy of the commons' (TOC). Although a TOC is usually prevented by coercion, theory predicts that close kinship ties can also favour reduced exploitation. We test this prediction using data on a TOC occurring in Melipona bee societies. PMID:15504003

  14. Tragedy of the commons in Melipona bees

    OpenAIRE

    Wenseleers, Tom; Ratnieks, Francis L.W.

    2004-01-01

    In human society selfish use of common resources can lead to disaster, a situation known as the 'tragedy of the commons' (TOC). Although a TOC is usually prevented by coercion, theory predicts that close kinship ties can also favour reduced exploitation. We test this prediction using data on a TOC occurring in Melipona bee societies.

  15. Characteristics of common infections in Nicaragua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matute Moreno, A.J.

    2006-01-01

    The main purpose of the studies outlined in this thesis was to gain empirical epidemiological and therapeutic knowledge of some common infectious diseases in Nicaragua. So far, relatively little was known about the incidence, etiology, management and antibiotic resistance patterns of common

  16. Common carotid artery disease in Takayasu's arteritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamdan, Nabil; Calderon, Luis I; Castro, Pablo and others

    2004-01-01

    Takayasu's arteritis is a disease of unknown etiology with main involvement of the common carotid 5 artery and its branches. we report the case of a 69 years old female patient with Tokays arteritis with 2 bilateral involvements of the common carotid arteries, treated with percutaneous angioplasty and Stent implantation

  17. common problems affecting supranational attempts in africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Politico-legal Framework for Integration in Africa: Exploring the Attainability of a ... laws, the common international trade policy, the common fisheries policy and the .... among the member states according to the annual imports, production and ...... Fredland R (eds) Integration and Disintegration in East Africa (University.

  18. Common micronutrient deficiencies among food aid beneficiaries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    Abstract. Background: Ethiopia is amongst the African countries that have received significant food aid. Nonetheless, the common micronutrient deficiencies among food aid beneficiaries are not well documented. Objective: To find out the common micronutrient deficiencies among food aid beneficiaries in the country based ...

  19. Laboratories of commons: experimentation, recursivity and activism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Estalella Fernández

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The urban public space, digital creations or the air, all of them are objects that have been traditionally thought within the dichotomous logic of the public and private property but in the last decade they have started to be considered as common resources. Commons is an old concept that has been recovered with intensity in the last decade; it refers to collective resources and goods that are governed collectively and whose property regime is different from the public and private. This article introduces the contributions to a monograph devoted to the topic of ‘Laboratories of commons’. Contributors discuss the diverse modalities of commons in different social domains like art, activism, the rural and the urban domain. This introduction contextualizes these contributions and identifies some of the issues that cross the different articles. In this exercise we introduce a tentative argument according to which the commons and the commons research take an exceptional configuration in Spain. Very briefly: commons are brought into existence as an epistemic object, an experimental domain quite different from the conventional conceptualizations that conceive it as a property regime or a type of good. This peculiar configuration gives a distinctive condition to commons in Spain that are different from other geographies; this is evidenced in a double shift: the emergence of new objects that are thought as commons and the location of their research in the domain of cultural and creative production.

  20. Clinical chemistry of common apolipoprotein E isoforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, DAJ; vanDoormaal, JJ; Muskiet, FAJ

    1996-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E plays a central role in clearance of lipoprotein remnants by serving as a ligand for low-density lipoprotein and apolipoprotein E receptors. Three common alleles (apolipoprotein E(2), E(3) and E(4)) give rise to six phenotypes. Apolipoprotein E(3) is the ancestral form. Common

  1. Young Children's Understanding of Cultural Common Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebal, Kristin; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Human social interaction depends on individuals identifying the common ground they have with others, based both on personally shared experiences and on cultural common ground that all members of the group share. We introduced 3- and 5-year-old children to a culturally well-known object and a novel object. An experimenter then entered and asked,…

  2. Data needs for common cause failure analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parry, G.W.; Paula, H.M.; Rasmuson, D.; Whitehead, D.

    1990-01-01

    The procedures guide for common cause failure analysis published jointly by USNRC and EPRI requires a detailed historical event analysis. Recent work on the further development of the cause-defense picture of common cause failures introduced in that guide identified the information that is necessary to perform the detailed analysis in an objective manner. This paper summarizes these information needs

  3. Common Frame of Reference & social justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper evaluates the draft Common Frame of Reference (DCFR) in terms of social justice. It concludes the DCFR has all the characteristics of a typical European compromise. Ideological and esthetical purists will certainly be disappointed. In this respect, it has much in common with the

  4. Common-cause analysis using sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worrell, R.B.; Stack, D.W.

    1977-12-01

    Common-cause analysis was developed at the Aerojet Nuclear Company for studying the behavior of a system that is affected by special conditions and secondary causes. Common-cause analysis is related to fault tree analysis. Common-cause candidates are minimal cut sets whose primary events are closely linked by a special condition or are susceptible to the same secondary cause. It is shown that common-cause candidates can be identified using the Set Equation Transformation System (SETS). A Boolean equation is used to establish the special conditions and secondary cause susceptibilities for each primary event in the fault tree. A transformation of variables (substituting equals for equals), executed on a minimal cut set equation, results in replacing each primary event by the right side of its special condition/secondary cause equation and leads to the identification of the common-cause candidates

  5. Common Injuries of Collegiate Tennis Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Wisdom Magtajas Valleser

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the common injuries of Filipino collegiate tennis players; 110 varsity tennis players with a mean of 20 years old (SD ± 1.7 with an average playing experience of 12 years participated in the study. There was a 100% occurrence of at least one injury with an average rate of 5.98 injuries per person. The authors observed that the most commonly injured anatomical region is the lower extremity; ankles were recorded as the most commonly injured part. Other commonly injured areas included the shoulders and lower back. Furthermore, the most common injury type is tendinitis, sprains, and strains. The recorded injuries were mostly associated with overuse injuries, and the findings were similar to those of most other studies on tennis injuries. A larger sample size may provide more conclusive findings on tennis injuries, particularly in different levels of competition, such as recreational or professional athletes.

  6. Suehiro Jurisprudence and John R. Commons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tackney, Charles T.

    This is a comparative history study at the interface of industrial / employment relations and stakeholder theory. The focus concerns decades of post-World War II Japanese and U.S. path dependent national divergence from common labor legislation enactments separated by only 15 years: 1933...... or Suehiro hōgaku) document a dramatic, fascinating historical parting of two nations due to Japanese deep appreciation of the labor law and institutional economics research legacy of John R. Commons, the father of U.S. industrial relations. Understanding this common, shared source opens industrial relations...

  7. Accounting and marketing: searching a common denominator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S. Murphy

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Accounting and marketing are very different disciplines. The analysis of customer profitability is one concept that can unite accounting and marketing as a common denominator. In this article I search for common ground between accounting and marketing in the analysis of customer profitability to determine if a common denominator really exists between the two. This analysis focuses on accounting profitability, customer lifetime value, and customer equity. The article ends with a summary of what accountants can do to move the analysis of customer value forward, as an analytical tool, within companies.

  8. Ecology and the Tragedy of the Commons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Roopnarine

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops mathematical models of the tragedy of the commons analogous to ecological models of resource consumption. Tragedies differ fundamentally from predator–prey relationships in nature because human consumers of a resource are rarely controlled solely by that resource. Tragedies do occur, however, at the level of the ecosystem, where multiple species interactions are involved. Human resource systems are converging rapidly toward ecosystem-type systems as the number of exploited resources increase, raising the probability of system-wide tragedies in the human world. Nevertheless, common interests exclusive of exploited commons provide feasible options for avoiding tragedy in a converged world.

  9. The common polymorphism of apolipoprotein E

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdes, Ulrik

    2003-01-01

    from only 10-15% in southern Europe to 40-50% in the north. The gradient may be a trace of the demic expansion of agriculture that began about 10,000 years ago, but it may also reflect the possibility that APOE*4 carriers are less likely to develop vitamin D deficiency. The common APOE polymorphism......Apolipoprotein E (apoE) has important functions in systemic and local lipid transport, but also has other functions. The gene (APOE) shows a common polymorphism with three alleles--APOE*2, APOE*3, and APOE*4. Their frequencies vary substantially around the world, but APOE*3 is the most common...

  10. Decoding Dyslexia, a Common Learning Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if they continue to struggle. Read More "Dyslexic" Articles In Their Own Words: Dealing with Dyslexia / Decoding Dyslexia, a Common Learning Disability / What is Dyslexia? / Special Education and Research ...

  11. SmallSat Common Electronics Board (SCEB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to design a low-power general-purpose SmallSat Common Electronics Board (SCEB).  The SCEB design will be based on input received from a group of...

  12. Phenotyping common beans for adaptation to drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Stephen E.; Rao, Idupulapati M.; Blair, Matthew W.; Acosta-Gallegos, Jorge A.

    2013-01-01

    Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) originated in the New World and are the grain legume of greatest production for direct human consumption. Common bean production is subject to frequent droughts in highland Mexico, in the Pacific coast of Central America, in northeast Brazil, and in eastern and southern Africa from Ethiopia to South Africa. This article reviews efforts to improve common bean for drought tolerance, referring to genetic diversity for drought response, the physiology of drought tolerance mechanisms, and breeding strategies. Different races of common bean respond differently to drought, with race Durango of highland Mexico being a major source of genes. Sister species of P. vulgaris likewise have unique traits, especially P. acutifolius which is well adapted to dryland conditions. Diverse sources of tolerance may have different mechanisms of plant response, implying the need for different methods of phenotyping to recognize the relevant traits. Practical considerations of field management are discussed including: trial planning; water management; and field preparation. PMID:23507928

  13. Common Cold in Babies: Symptoms and Causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... clear at first but might thicken and turn yellow or green Other signs and symptoms of a common cold in a baby may include: Fever Sneezing Coughing Decreased appetite Irritability Difficulty sleeping Trouble ...

  14. Potential Logistics Cost Savings from Engine Commonality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henderson, Robert L; Higer, Matthew W

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this MBA Project is to determine potential logistics cost savings the USAF and DoD could have realized through the life of the F-16 fighter aircraft had they required engine commonality...

  15. Social Justice and the Environmental Commons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Constance A; Byington, Rachel; Gallay, Erin; Sambo, Allison

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we build on the scholarship on youth civic engagement by turning attention to the environmental commons as a space for political action. We begin with a definition of the term and arguments about ways that social justice is implied in it. Following that, we raise several psychological challenges to motivating action on behalf of the environmental commons and discuss the critical experiences and actions that can defy those challenges. Finally, drawing from Ostrom's empirical evidence opposing a tragedy of the commons, we discuss practices consistent with a social justice approach that nurture in younger generations an identification with and commitment to the environmental commons and discuss how this orientation would benefit human beings, democracies, and the earth. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The common operational picture as collective sensemaking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolbers, J.J.; Boersma, F.K.

    2013-01-01

    The common operational picture is used to overcome coordination and information management problems during emergency response. Increasingly, this approach is incorporated in more advanced information systems. This is rooted in an 'information warehouse' perspective, which implies information can be

  17. Vulvovaginitis and other common childhood gynaecological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garden, Anne S

    2011-04-01

    Paediatric gynaecological problems, especially those involving the vulvar area, are common in childhood. The conditions frequently seen include recurrent bacterial vulvovaginitis, vulvar irritation, labial adhesions and dermatological conditions. The presentation and management of these conditions will be reviewed.

  18. Common SIDS and SUID Terms and Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... media links Common SIDS and SUID Terms and Definitions Page Content Health care providers and others may ... NICHD Home Accessibility NICHD Contact Disclaimer NICHD Accounts: Facebook Twitter Pinterest YouTube NIH...Turning Discovery Into Health ® ...

  19. Dense Breasts: Answers to Commonly Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prevention Genetics of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Dense Breasts: Answers to Commonly Asked Questions What are dense breasts? Breasts contain glandular, connective, and fat tissue. Breast density is a term that describes the ...

  20. Common acquired kidney diseases in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    5. Common acquired kidney diseases in children. Examination of the urine is probably the most important investigation ... result from the same streptococcal infection. .... musculoskeletal system. ... Prediction of histopathology from clinical.

  1. Urban gardens: catalysts for restorative commons infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Seitz

    2009-01-01

    One of 18 articles inspired by the Meristem 2007 Forum, "Restorative Commons for Community Health." The articles include interviews, case studies, thought pieces, and interdisciplinary theoretical works that explore the relationship between human health and the urban...

  2. Secondary Syphilis: Uncommon Manifestations a Common Disease

    OpenAIRE

    McPhee, Stephen J.

    1984-01-01

    Reports of cases of primary and secondary syphilis are increasing in the United States, particularly in urban areas and among homosexual men. While primary syphilis poses little diagnostic difficulty, many physicians are unfamiliar with the multisystem nature of secondary lues. Patients who have secondary syphilis commonly present with systemic signs, skin rash, mucous membrane lesions and generalized adenopathy. Less commonly, secondary syphilis may occur as acute meningitis, sensorineural h...

  3. Tuning chaos in network sharing common nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Asir, M.; Jeevarekha, A.; Philominathan, P.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a novel type of network called network sharing common nonlinearity comprising both autonomous and non-autonomous oscillators have been investigated. We propose that these networks are robust for operating at desired modes i.e., chaotic or periodic by altering the v-i characteristics of common nonlinear element alone. The dynamics of these networks were examined through numerical, analytical, experimental and Multisim simulations.

  4. Common congenital malformations of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naidich, T.P.; Zimmerman, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    In nearly all cases, congenital malformations are characterized most easily by their anatomic features and are best images with T1-weighted short TR/short TE pulse sequences. T2-weighted, long TR/long TE images are used primarily for the phakomatoses that are commonly associated with brain tumors. This chapter reviews the features of the most common congenital malformations and illustrates their typical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance

  5. Common Metrics for Human-Robot Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfeld, Aaron; Lewis, Michael; Fong, Terrence; Scholtz, Jean; Schultz, Alan; Kaber, David; Goodrich, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes an effort to identify common metrics for task-oriented human-robot interaction (HRI). We begin by discussing the need for a toolkit of HRI metrics. We then describe the framework of our work and identify important biasing factors that must be taken into consideration. Finally, we present suggested common metrics for standardization and a case study. Preparation of a larger, more detailed toolkit is in progress.

  6. Learning commons evolution and collaborative essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Schader, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    This book examines successfully planned and implemented learning commons at several different academic institutions around the world. These case studies provide a methodology for effective planning, implementation and assessment. Practical information is provided on how to collaborate with campus stakeholders, estimate budgeting and staffing and determine the equipment, hardware and software needs. Also provided are memoranda of understandings (MOUs), planning checklists and assessment tools. This book reflects a unifying focus on both the evolution of learning commons to learning spaces and t

  7. Commons, Piracy and the Crisis of Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Arvanitakis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article takes the politicisation of copyright and file sharing as a starting point to discuss the concept of the commons and the construction of property. Empirically, the article draws on a series of interviews with Pirate Party members in Sweden, Australia, Germany, the UK and USA; placed in the theoretical framework of the commons. We argue that piracy, as an act and an ideology, interrogates common understandings of property as something self-evident, natural and uncontestable. Such constructions found liberal market ideology. The article has two broad aims: to outline the different phases of enclosure, from the physical commons, to the institutional and finally the cultural commons; and to discuss the way that piracy highlights the emergent crisis in private property rights, brought to the fore by the global financial crisis and ongoing privatization of public resources. We conclude by questioning what new modes of enclosure are emerging in a digital economy driven by excessive data mining and centralized streaming services.

  8. Management of common head and neck masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Thomas F; Muratore, Christopher S

    2007-02-01

    Head and neck masses are a common clinical concern in infants, children, and adolescents. The differential diagnosis for a head or neck mass includes congenital, inflammatory, and neoplastic lesions. An orderly and thorough examination of the head and neck with an appropriate directed workup will facilitate the diagnosis. The most common entities occur repeatedly within the various age groups and can be differentiated with a clear understanding of embryology and anatomy of the region, and an understanding of the natural history of a specific lesion. Congenital lesions most commonly found in the pediatric population include the thyroglossal duct cyst and the branchial cleft and arch anomalies. The inflammatory masses are secondary to local or systemic infections. The most common etiology for cervical adenopathy in children is reactive lymphadenopathy following a viral or bacterial illness. Persistent adenopathy raises more concerns, especially enlarged lymph nodes within the posterior triangle or supraclavicular space, nodes that are painless, firm, and not mobile, or a single dominant node that persists for more than 6 weeks should all heighten concern for malignancy. In this review, we discuss the current principles of surgical management of the most common head and neck masses that present to pediatricians and pediatric surgeons.

  9. The most common friend first immunization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nian Fu-Zhong; Hu Cha-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a standard susceptible-infected-recovered-susceptible(SIRS) epidemic model based on the Watts–Strogatz (WS) small-world network model and the Barabsi–Albert (BA) scale-free network model is established, and a new immunization scheme — “the most common friend first immunization” is proposed, in which the most common friend’s node is described as being the first immune on the second layer protection of complex networks. The propagation situations of three different immunization schemes — random immunization, high-risk immunization, and the most common friend first immunization are studied. At the same time, the dynamic behaviors are also studied on the WS small-world and the BA scale-free network. Moreover, the analytic and simulated results indicate that the immune effect of the most common friend first immunization is better than random immunization, but slightly worse than high-risk immunization. However, high-risk immunization still has some limitations. For example, it is difficult to accurately define who a direct neighbor in the life is. Compared with the traditional immunization strategies having some shortcomings, the most common friend first immunization is effective, and it is nicely consistent with the actual situation. (paper)

  10. Common morality: comment on Beauchamp and Childress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauprich, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    The notion of common morality plays a prominent role in some of the most influential theories of biomedical ethics. Here, I focus on Beauchamp and Childress's models in the fourth and fifth edition of Principles of Biomedical Ethics as well as on a revision that Beauchamp proposed in a recent article. Although there are significant differences in these works that require separate analysis, all include a role for common morality as starting point and normative framework for theory construction in combination with a coherence theory of moral justification. I defend to some extent the existence and empirical significance of common morality, as delineated by Beauchamp and Childress in different versions, but criticize its normative role. It is neither convincing as a moral foundation nor well compatible with a standard coherentist justification. I suggest that the authors should give up the foundational account for a more modest account of common morality as resource of well-established moral insights and experiences, which have proved generally valid but neither sufficient nor infallible. Beauchamp's latest proposal appears as a step in this direction; indeed, it may be the beginning of the end of his common-morality theory.

  11. Gestalt grouping and common onset masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, Todd A; Mathis, Katherine M

    2002-11-01

    A four-dot mask that surrounds and is presented simultaneously with a briefly presented target will reduce a person's ability to identity that target if the mask persists beyond target offset and attention is divided (Enns & Di Lollo, 1997, 2000). This masking effect, referred to as common onset masking, reflects reentrant processing in the visual system and can best be explained with a theory of object substitution (Di Lollo, Enns, & Rensink, 2000). In the present experiments, we investigated whether Gestalt grouping variables would influence the strength of common onset masking. The results indicated that (1) masking was impervious to grouping by form, similarity of color, position, luminance polarity, and common region and (2) masking increased with the number of elements in the masking display.

  12. Structures for common-cause failure analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaurio, J.K.

    1981-01-01

    Common-cause failure methodology and terminology have been reviewed and structured to provide a systematical basis for addressing and developing models and methods for quantification. The structure is based on (1) a specific set of definitions, (2) categories based on the way faults are attributable to a common cause, and (3) classes based on the time of entry and the time of elimination of the faults. The failure events are then characterized by their likelihood or frequency and the average residence time. The structure provides a basis for selecting computational models, collecting and evaluating data and assessing the importance of various failure types, and for developing effective defences against common-cause failure. The relationships of this and several other structures are described

  13. Attachments to the common-place

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blok, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This article builds on ethnographic work concerning on-going collective efforts in the Japanese city of Kyoto aiming to reposition a vernacular style of wooden housing, known as kyō-machiya, into a hybrid eco-design widely considered an appropriate local response to the global challenges of climate...... change. To understand the dynamic interplay of architecture and community-building in this case, the article stages a theoretical debate on the politics of shared attachments between three proponents of French pragmatic sociology: Bruno Latour, Antoine Hennion, and Laurent Thévenot. Drawing in particular...... on Thévenot's notion of ‘commonality in the plural’, the article shows how a range of personal affinities to the architectural form of the kyō-machiya, positioned as an urban ‘common-place’, serves to coordinate across otherwise divergent interests. By taking seriously the role of attachments to common...

  14. Economic Analysis of Social Common Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzawa, Hirofumi

    2005-06-01

    Social common capital provides members of society with those services and institutional arrangements that are crucial in maintaining human and cultural life. The term æsocial common capital' is comprised of three categories: natural capital, social infrastructure, and institutional capital. Natural capital consists of all natural environment and natural resources including the earth's atmosphere. Social infrastructure consists of roads, bridges, public transportation systems, electricity, and other public utilities. Institutional capital includes hospitals, educational institutions, judicial and police systems, public administrative services, financial and monetary institutions, and cultural capital. This book attempts to modify and extend the theoretical premises of orthodox economic theory to make them broad enough to analyze the economic implications of social common capital. It further aims to find the institutional arrangements and policy measures that will bring about the optimal state of affairs.

  15. Organising pneumonia in common variable immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boujaoude, Ziad; Arya, Rohan; Rafferty, William; Dammert, Pedro

    2013-06-07

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most common of the primary immunodeficiency disorders. Pulmonary manifestations are characterised by recurrent rhinosinusitis, respiratory tract infections and bronchiectasis. Less commonly the lung may be affected by lymphoid disorders and sarcoid-like granulomas. Organising pneumonia (OP) is a rare pulmonary manifestation. We report the case of a 32-year-old woman with CVID who presented with fever, dyspnoea and persistent lung infiltrates despite antibiotic therapy. CT of the chest showed bilateral patchy alveolar infiltrates. Pulmonary function tests revealed moderate restriction and reduction in diffusion capacity. Initial bronchoscopy with transbronchial biopsies did not yield a diagnosis but surgical lung biopsies identified OP. Significant clinical, radiographic and physiological improvement was achieved after institution of corticosteroid therapy.

  16. The Common and its potential creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Oscar Garcia

    2015-01-01

    of capital in exploiting it but it can also contribute to shaping other scenarios. In the first case, creative capitalism moves towards a mode of production based on clustering, mostly in the cities, to produce untraded externalities or interdependencies. In the second case, the interconnected and potential...... creativity of the common allows for the production of other forms of life. This article explores an alternative model of creative capitalism, whereby the common is expropriated through its marketization and individualization. This model is based on three pillars: the city as the place of creation of new...... social bonds, the production of general intellect and the transformation of public spaces; the precarious multitude as a new class composition opposed to the entrepreneurial conception of creative class; and the cultural commons as an exit strategy from the dichotomy between private and public leading...

  17. The Common Framework for Earth Observation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, J.; Stryker, T. S.; Sherman, R.

    2016-12-01

    Each year, the Federal government records petabytes of data about our home planet. That massive amount of data in turn provides enormous benefits to society through weather reports, agricultural forecasts, air and water quality warnings, and countless other applications. To maximize the ease of transforming the data into useful information for research and for public services, the U.S. Group on Earth Observations released the first Common Framework for Earth Observation Data in March 2016. The Common Framework recommends practices for Federal agencies to adopt in order to improve the ability of all users to discover, access, and use Federal Earth observations data. The U.S. Government is committed to making data from civil Earth observation assets freely available to all users. Building on the Administration's commitment to promoting open data, open science, and open government, the Common Framework goes beyond removing financial barriers to data access, and attempts to minimize the technical impediments that limit data utility. While Earth observation systems typically collect data for a specific purpose, these data are often also useful in applications unforeseen during development of the systems. Managing and preserving these data with a common approach makes it easier for a wide range of users to find, evaluate, understand, and utilize the data, which in turn leads to the development of a wide range of innovative applications. The Common Framework provides Federal agencies with a recommended set of standards and practices to follow in order to achieve this goal. Federal agencies can follow these best practices as they develop new observing systems or modernize their existing collections of data. This presentation will give a brief on the context and content of the Common Framework, along with future directions for implementation and keeping its recommendations up-to-date with developing technology.

  18. Acquisition through common slave (servus communis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogunović Mirjana B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Common slave (servus communis is a slave who belongs to two masters. Both masters may entirely dispose with the slave because their joint ownership allows it. However, acquisitions through common slave (servus communis is not that clear. Does a slave evenly oblige co-masters or only the master on whose behalf he has acted? Is it possible for a slave to work in the interest of one master and oblige another? Who does the unconscientious slave correspond to, the third party or a betrayed master? This paper will analyze the opinions of two Roman iurists, which will partly solve doubts that this institute causes.

  19. Acquisition through common slave (servus communis)

    OpenAIRE

    Bogunović Mirjana B.

    2016-01-01

    Common slave (servus communis) is a slave who belongs to two masters. Both masters may entirely dispose with the slave because their joint ownership allows it. However, acquisitions through common slave (servus communis) is not that clear. Does a slave evenly oblige co-masters or only the master on whose behalf he has acted? Is it possible for a slave to work in the interest of one master and oblige another? Who does the unconscientious slave correspond to, the third party or a betrayed maste...

  20. Common views of potentially attractive fusion concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, S.J.

    1986-01-01

    Fusion is viewed through three windows to help determine what constitutes a very attractive fusion concept. These windows are economics, maintenance and reliability, and safety and environment. Achievement of many desired features cannot yet be quantified. Although these differing perspectives can lead to some conflicting desires, five common desired features are apparent - (a) minimum failure rates, (b) minimum failure effects, (c) minimum complexity, (d) minimum short-term radioactivity, and (e) maximum mass power density. Some innovative fusion concepts are briefly examined in the light of these commonalities

  1. Common anorectal disorders: diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Brian E; Weiser, Kirsten

    2009-10-01

    Anorectal disorders affect men and women of all ages. Their management is not limited to the evaluation and treatment of hemorrhoids. Rather, a spectrum of anorectal disorders ranges from benign and irritating (pruritus ani) to potentially life-threatening (anorectal cancer). Symptoms are nonspecific, which can make the evaluation of patients difficult. In addition, treatment can be frustrating because clinicians are hamstrung by a lack of well-designed, prospective, clinical trials. Some of the most common anorectal disorders include fecal incontinence, pelvic floor dyssynergia, anal fissures, pruritus ani, proctalgia fugax, and solitary rectal ulcer syndrome. This article provides an update on the evaluation and treatment of common anorectal disorders.

  2. Biometrics and Psychometrics: Origins, Commonalities and Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Gower

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Starting with the common origins of biometrics and psychometrics at the beginning of the twentieth century, the paper compares and contrasts subsequent developments, informed by the author's 35 years at Rothamsted Experimental Station followed by a period with the data theory group in Leiden and thereafter. Although the methods used by biometricians and psychometricians have much in common, there are important differences arising from the different fields of study. Similar differences arise wherever data are generated and may be regarded as a major driving force in the development of statistical ideas.

  3. Development of a Common Nordic Balance Settlement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-02-15

    NordREG finds it essential for the customers that a common integrated end-user electricity market is developed and that all end-users are able to take part in the Nordic market. A common Nordic balance settlement is one important part of such a change. However, attention has to be paid to the comments that a badly designed common system is worse than well-designed national systems. It is thus important that the change to a common balance settlement is so thoroughly investigated that the common system gives a basis for a well-functioning market. An important basis for such a change is an agreed vision for the process: The present different systems for balance settlement shall by the year 2010 be replaced by a common Nordic balance settlement. This means that: It will be possible for a supplier to sell to the whole Nordic market from one legal entity and using only one system for customer management and reporting. The common Nordic balance settlement will be designed in such a way that it contributes to a well functioning market. This means for example that it will be attractive even for small suppliers and some end-users to be balance responsible parties. It is feasible that the first phase is focused on those present differences that are most decisive for fulfilment of the vision. NordREG recommends that the following issues shall be discussed and agreed in co-operation between NordREG, Nordel and relevant stakeholders in the first phase: The definition shall include how the common Nordic balance settlement shall interact with the balance control and the balance regulation of the interconnected power system and the balance settlement between countries performed by the TSOs. The definition should include the cost-base for common Nordic balance settlement in relation to other system responsibility costs. The core activities of system responsibility have also been analyzed by NordREG. It is important to find a balance between inter alia the need for simplicity and the

  4. Development of a Common Nordic Balance Settlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-02-01

    NordREG finds it essential for the customers that a common integrated end-user electricity market is developed and that all end-users are able to take part in the Nordic market. A common Nordic balance settlement is one important part of such a change. However, attention has to be paid to the comments that a badly designed common system is worse than well-designed national systems. It is thus important that the change to a common balance settlement is so thoroughly investigated that the common system gives a basis for a well-functioning market. An important basis for such a change is an agreed vision for the process: The present different systems for balance settlement shall by the year 2010 be replaced by a common Nordic balance settlement. This means that: It will be possible for a supplier to sell to the whole Nordic market from one legal entity and using only one system for customer management and reporting. The common Nordic balance settlement will be designed in such a way that it contributes to a well functioning market. This means for example that it will be attractive even for small suppliers and some end-users to be balance responsible parties. It is feasible that the first phase is focused on those present differences that are most decisive for fulfilment of the vision. NordREG recommends that the following issues shall be discussed and agreed in co-operation between NordREG, Nordel and relevant stakeholders in the first phase: The definition shall include how the common Nordic balance settlement shall interact with the balance control and the balance regulation of the interconnected power system and the balance settlement between countries performed by the TSOs. The definition should include the cost-base for common Nordic balance settlement in relation to other system responsibility costs. The core activities of system responsibility have also been analyzed by NordREG. It is important to find a balance between inter alia the need for simplicity and the

  5. A study of common-mode failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, G.T.; Watson, I.A.

    1979-07-01

    The purpose of the report is to investigate problems of the identification of the common failure mode (CFM) the reliability models used and the data required for their solution, particularly with regard to automatic protection systems for nuclear reactors. The available literature which was surveyed during the study is quoted and used as a basis for the main work of the study. The type of redundancy system under consideration is initially described and the types of CFM to which these systems are prone are identified before a general definition of the term 'common mode failure' is proposed. The definition and proposed classification system for CMF are based on the common cause of failure, so identifying the primary events. Defences against CFM are included and proposals for an overall strategy and detailed recommendations for design and operation are made. Common mode failures in US nuclear reactor systems, aircraft systems, and other sources including chemical plant systems are surveyed. The data indicates the importance of the human error problem in the causes of CMF in design, maintenance and operation. From a study of the collected data a redundancy sub-system model for CMF is developed which identifies three main categories of failure, non-recurrent engineering design errors, maintenance and test errors, and random interest events. The model proposed allows for the improvement in sub-system reliability where appropriate defences are applied. (author)

  6. Common echocardiographic abnormalities in Nigerians of different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-09-17

    Sep 17, 2012 ... artery disease, cardiac murmurs, atrial fibrillation, stroke, and transient ischaemic attack.[4,5] In some circumstances, the examination is an appropriate screening test even in the absence of cardiovascular symptoms, especially. Common echocardiographic abnormalities in. Nigerians of different age groups.

  7. Desalination and the commons : tragedy or triumph?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    David, Zetland

    2016-01-01

    A policy is more likely to be economically efficient when its costs and benefits fall on the same group, but politicians can allocate costs and benefits to different groups within their jurisdictional commons. This article examines the distribution of costs and benefits from desalination projects

  8. Common Developmental Tasks in Forming Reconstituted Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, Judith

    1979-01-01

    Developmental tasks common to the formation of a reconstituted family are described, particularly the continued mourning of the old family; the formation of a solid marital relationship despite the difficulties presented by past failures and the presence of children; and the formation of sibling alliances across family lines. (Author)

  9. Syncope- a common challenge to medical practitioners ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Syncope is a common presentation in medical practice, and is associated with a higher than normal risk of mortality and morbidity in older individuals; It is essential that an accurate clinical history of the episode described as syncope be obtained, including the events preceding, the observations of eye-witnesses, and the ...

  10. Haematological and Histological Changes in Common Carp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... a worsening effect of excess dietary copper exposure on the fish. Gills and intestines of both diet 2 and diet 3 were normal during and after exposure, but fatty change was observed throughout the experiment. In conclusion, increasing the copper level of common carp, which it required for its normal physiological function, ...

  11. Common and distinct components in data fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smilde, Age Klaas; Mage, Ingrid; Næs, Tormod

    2016-01-01

    and understanding their relative merits. This paper provides a unifying framework for this subfield of data fusion by using rigorous arguments from linear algebra. The most frequently used methods for distinguishing common and distinct components are explained in this framework and some practical examples are given...

  12. 47 CFR 1.9080 - Private commons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... infrastructure (e.g., base stations, mobile stations, or other related elements). In a private commons... radiofrequency radiation) and maintaining the ability to ensure such compliance; and, (3) Retains direct... applicable technical and service rules, including requirements relating to radiofrequency radiation and...

  13. Chromosome Connections: Compelling Clues to Common Ancestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flammer, Larry

    2013-01-01

    Students compare banding patterns on hominid chromosomes and see striking evidence of their common ancestry. To test this, human chromosome no. 2 is matched with two shorter chimpanzee chromosomes, leading to the hypothesis that human chromosome 2 resulted from the fusion of the two shorter chromosomes. Students test that hypothesis by looking for…

  14. Anaesthesia for Ambulatory Paediatric Surgery: Common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Ambulatory surgical care accounts for over 70% of elective procedures in Northern America. Ambulatory paediatric surgical practice is not widespread in Nigeria. This report examined clinical indicators for quality care in paediatric ambulatory surgery using common outcomes after day case procedures as ...

  15. Translating the Common Core State Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tienken, Christopher H.; Orlich, Donald C.

    2013-01-01

    As the authors describe in Chapter 7 of their new book, "The School Reform Landscape: Fraud, Myth, and Lies," the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) initiative continues to ramble on, without evidence to support its efficacy. That is because education reform in the United States is being driven largely by ideology, rhetoric, and dogma instead of…

  16. Modeling in the Common Core State Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Kai Chung

    2011-01-01

    The inclusion of modeling and applications into the mathematics curriculum has proven to be a challenging task over the last fifty years. The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) has made mathematical modeling both one of its Standards for Mathematical Practice and one of its Conceptual Categories. This article discusses the need for mathematical…

  17. Human Brucellosis in Khartoum State: A Commonly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human Brucellosis in Khartoum State: A Commonly Underdiagnosed Disease. AAA Mustafa, HS Hassan. Abstract. Back ground: Human brucellosis is a major debilitating zoonotic disease. It is caused by bacteria of the genus Brucella Methods: The serum antibody titres to Brucella melitensis and Brucella abortus of one ...

  18. Exploring Function Transformations Using the Common Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Becky; Giacin, Rich

    2013-01-01

    When examining transformations of the plane in geometry, teachers typically have students experiment with transformations of polygons. Students are usually quick to notice patterns with ordered pairs. The Common Core State Standard, Geometry, Congruence 2 (G-CO.2), requires students to describe transformations as functions that take points in the…

  19. Common Sense and Education of Young Journalists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasser, Theodore L.; Ettema, James S.

    1989-01-01

    Argues that the criteria used in deciding news value has little to do with how editors and reporters operate in the everyday world of journalism. Contends that journalists' knowledge of news is reducible to their common-sensical understanding of it. (MS)

  20. Common Fixed Points for Weakly Compatible Maps

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The purpose of this paper is to prove a common fixed point theorem, from the class of compatible continuous maps to a larger class of maps having weakly compatible maps without appeal to continuity, which generalized the results of Jungck [3], Fisher [1], Kang and Kim [8], Jachymski [2], and Rhoades [9].

  1. Student Voice and the Common Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonezawa, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Common Core proponents and detractors debate its merits, but students have voiced their opinion for years. Using a decade's worth of data gathered through design-research on youth voice, this article discusses what high school students have long described as more ideal learning environments for themselves--and how remarkably similar the Common…

  2. Mathematics for common entrance two answers

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Serena

    2015-01-01

    Enables efficient assessment of pupils' performance at Levels 1 and 2 of the ISEB 13+ Common Entrance syllabus. Clear layout saves time marking work and identifies areas requiring further attention. Includes diagrams and working where necessary, to demonstrate how to present high-scoring answers in Level 1 and 2 exams.

  3. Common Group Problems: A Field Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Sanford B.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    A field study of a naturally functioning group (N=125) was conducted to identify common group problems. Trained observers attended group meetings and described the problems encountered. Difficulties of cohesion, leadership, sub-group formation, and personality conflict were identified. (RC)

  4. Imposex in the common whelk, Buccinum undatum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink, B.P.

    1999-01-01

    The research described in this thesis concerned the perhaps best known and studied common gastropod from the open North Sea of which only limited information was available. With the present research more insight has been obtained concerning this long-lived, off-shore snail species, which

  5. Pulse amplifier with high 'common mode rejection'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijlst, P.

    1987-01-01

    The input signal of a pulse amplifier contains large 'common-mode' signals which have to be suppressed. A transformer, especially constructed for this purpose, is described. It has been tried to optimize the signal to noise ratio of the pulse amplifier by means of noise analysis. (Auth.)

  6. Making It Happen: Common Core Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This one-of-a-kind guide identifies and highlights the ways in which NCTM (National Council of Teachers of Mathematics) resources can support teachers as they implement and supplement the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) in their states. The guide and accompanying charts are tools to help educators as they continue to make…

  7. Handle With Care: 10 Common School Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryer, Judith E.

    1978-01-01

    Accidents, mishaps, injuries can happen in any classroom, cafeteria, gym, hallway, playground and the teacher is probably the first adult to arrive on the scene. These guidelines on how to respond to 10 common school accidents explain what steps to take. (Author/RK)

  8. Effect of Common Visual Dysfunctions on Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPartland, Brian P.

    1985-01-01

    Six common visual dysfunctions are briefly explained and their relationships to reading noted: (1) ametropia, refractive error; (2) inaccurate saccades, the small jumping eye movements used in reading; (3) inefficient binocularity/fusion; (4) insufficient convergence/divergence; (5) heterophoria, imbalance in extra-ocular muscles; and (6)…

  9. Population based reference intervals for common blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Population based reference intervals for common blood haematological and biochemical parameters in the Akuapem north district. K.A Koram, M.M Addae, J.C Ocran, S Adu-amankwah, W.O Rogers, F.K Nkrumah ...

  10. Lesson Planning with the Common Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Linda A.; McDuffie, Amy Roth; Tate, Cathie

    2014-01-01

    Planning a lesson can be similar to planning a road trip--a metaphor the authors use to describe how they applied research and theory to their lesson planning process. A map and mode of transportation, the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) and textbooks as resources, can lead to desired destinations, such as students engaging in…

  11. Common bean and cowpea improvement in Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    During 2014 and 2015, the Instituto de Investigação Agronómica (IIA) evaluated the performance of common bean (Phaselolus vulgaris L.) breeding lines and improved cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) varieties. The field experiments were planted in the lowlands at Mazozo and in the highlands at Chian...

  12. A comparative assessment of commonly employed staining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Following an increase in the number of reports of Cryptosporidium infections and the problems encountered in detecting these organisms in faecal smears, a comparative assessment of a modification of the Sheather's flotation technique and other commonly employed staining procedures proved the modified Sheather's ...

  13. Mathematics for common entrance one answers

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Serena

    2015-01-01

    Enables efficient assessment of pupils' performance at Levels 1 and 2 of the ISEB 13+ Common Entrance syllabus. Clear layout saves time marking work and identifies areas requiring further attention. Includes diagrams and working where necessary, to demonstrate how to present high-scoring answers in Level 1 and 2 exams

  14. John R. Commons: Pioneer in Labor Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbash, Jack

    1989-01-01

    John R. Commons has contributed in one way or another to pratically every piece of social and labor legislation that has been enacted in the twentieth century. He has made his mark on such diverse aspects of American labor as apprenticeship, vocational education, workers' compensation, and the administration of labor law. (Author/JOW)

  15. Common-Reliability Cumulative-Binomial Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuer, Ernest, M.; Bowerman, Paul N.

    1989-01-01

    Cumulative-binomial computer program, CROSSER, one of set of three programs, calculates cumulative binomial probability distributions for arbitrary inputs. CROSSER, CUMBIN (NPO-17555), and NEWTONP (NPO-17556), used independently of one another. Point of equality between reliability of system and common reliability of components found. Used by statisticians and users of statistical procedures, test planners, designers, and numerical analysts. Program written in C.

  16. Recipe of the project Common Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencio Cabello Fernández-Delgado

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The recipe presented in this paper aims at synthetising metaphorically the methodology deployed in the project Commons Translation, an effort of distributed cooperative translation of books related to free culture and the commons carried out by university lecturers and students, as well as external collaborators. This recipe of what we call “commons-based peer translation” is inspired in the ideas of lots of cooks, and some of those ideas are extracted from the same works we translate. In this sense, two cookery books have been especially helpful: the first one is Yochai Benkler's The Wealth of Networks, a crucial recipe book about the art of commons-based peer production; the second one is Chris Kelty's Two Bits, where the anthropologist analyses thoroughly (and exquisitely the condiment characteristic of the best cooking of free software: recursion. Both works are an inspiration for our translation efforts and at the same time constituye the objects of such translation: the cooking of new communities and knowledges.

  17. Brucellosis of the common vole (Microtus arvalis)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubálek, Zdeněk; Scholz, H.; Sedláček, I.; Melzer, F.; Sanogo, Yibayiri Osée; Nesvadbová, Jiřina

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 4 (2007), s. 679-688 ISSN 1530-3667 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : common vole * brucellosis Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.919, year: 2007

  18. The Common Forces: Conservative or Nonconservative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeports, David

    2006-01-01

    Of the forces commonly encountered when solving problems in Newtonian mechanics, introductory texts usually limit illustrations of the definitions of conservative and nonconservative forces to gravity, spring forces, kinetic friction and fluid resistance. However, at the expense of very little class time, the question of whether each of the common…

  19. Voter Perceptions: Common Core State Standards & Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achieve, Inc., 2014

    2014-01-01

    Since June 2010, 46 states and Washington DC have adopted the Common Core State Standards (CCSS)--K-12 standards in mathematics and English language arts/literacy developed through a multi-state initiative led by the National Governors Association and the Council of Chief State School Officers. Implementation of the standards is underway in all of…

  20. Ky. Road-Tests Common Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujifusa, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Results from new state tests in Kentucky--the first in the nation explicitly tied to the Common Core State Standards--show that the share of students scoring "proficient" or better in reading and math dropped by roughly a third or more in both elementary and middle school the first year the tests were given. Kentucky in 2010 was the…

  1. Variation and Commonality in Phenomenographic Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerlind, Gerlese S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the data analysis stage of phenomenographic research, elucidating what is involved in terms of both commonality and variation in accepted practice. The analysis stage of phenomenographic research is often not well understood. This paper helps to clarify the process, initially by collecting together in one location the more…

  2. Epidemiology and clinical profile of common musculoskeletal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Epidemiology and clinical profile of common musculoskeletal diseases in patients with diabetes mellitus at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. ... or worsening of MSD. Keywords: musculoskeletal complications; diabetic foot; foot care; trigger finger; Dupuytren's contracture; stiff frozen shoulder ...

  3. Catholic Schools and the Common Good

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFiore, Leonard

    2006-01-01

    There are at least two ways to think about the Common Good. One is the intentional, direct attempt to provide benefits to those beyond oneself and those connected to oneself. The second consists of those unintended consequences of the pursuit of some other benefit, usually private but not necessarily so. Probably the best-known example is that of…

  4. Canada, Copyright, and the Common Good

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslett, K. Mark

    2009-01-01

    Advocacy on public policy issues such as copyright is a common concern of the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) and the Canadian Association of Research Libraries (CARL). Duane Webster has been instrumental in facilitating a collaborative approach to such advocacy. Part of this involves concerted efforts to ensure that fair use (United…

  5. The Common Good in Classical Political Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, V. Bradley

    2006-01-01

    The term "common good" names the end (or final cause) of political and social life in the tradition of moral thought that owes its main substance to Aristotle and St. Thomas Aquinas. It names a genuine good ("bonum honestum") and not merely an instrumental or secondary good defeasible in the face of particular goods. However, at the same time, it…

  6. Which Scientific Knowledge is a Common Good?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radder, Hans

    2017-01-01

    In this article, I address the question of whether science can and should be seen as a common good. For this purpose, the first section focuses on the notion of (scientific) knowledge and examines its main characteristics. I discuss and assess the core view of analytic epistemology, that knowledge

  7. Leading Change: Transitioning to the Common Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Brian

    2012-01-01

    For many school districts in the United States, making the transition to the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) is proving to be a challenge at a time when they are already facing many obstacles, not the least of which is dwindling financial resources. A change of this magnitude cannot be made haphazardly; to be successful in its goal of helping…

  8. common problems affecting supranational attempts in africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    1902), a common currency (1905), a Postal Union (1917) and a Customs ..... established in 1994 as a measure to address the attendant effects of the devaluation ..... According to the IMF, in spite of the establishment of a customs union within ...

  9. Thread-Skip: An Undefined Common Observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Peter; Allan, William DE

    When a screw-retained implant prosthesis is removed, a click is heard and a slight axial shift is felt, indicating the screw has been fully removed from the retaining thread. This common observation has never been described in the literature. This article describes the click, and it is proposed it be termed thread-skip.

  10. What did we find? Common Ground!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahnfeldt-Mollerup, Merete

    2010-01-01

    Within the field of planning, an important task is the creation of a common understanding of the issues at hand. Over the course of 7 years, we have been studying how architectural and anthropological methods can contribute to this. Our studies interchange between experimental practice and theory....

  11. Short Communication Behavioural observations of the common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Observations on the behaviour of the common octopus Octopus vulgaris were made during daytime and night-time sampling on an unexploited rocky reef habitat in Baía dos Tigres, southern Angola. The relative numerical abundance sampled was 0.47 octopus person–1 h–1 during the day and 5.33 octopus person–1 h–1 ...

  12. Common Threads: Teaching Immigration in Elementary Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBee, Robin Haskell; Bone, Kristine; Mossop, Gail; Owens, Carrie

    1998-01-01

    Brings together ideas on teaching about immigration from a number of elementary-school teachers in New Jersey and summarizes common themes. Outlines three specific projects based on the Statue of Liberty and Ellis Island, family history, and children's fiction. Includes a brief list of children's literature and other teaching resources. (DSK)

  13. Genetic divergence of common bean cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloso, J S; Silva, W; Pinheiro, L R; Dos Santos, J B; Fonseca, N S; Euzebio, M P

    2015-09-22

    The aim of this study was to evaluate genetic divergence in the 'Carioca' (beige with brown stripes) common bean cultivar used by different institutions and in 16 other common bean cultivars used in the Rede Cooperativa de Pesquisa de Feijão (Cooperative Network of Common Bean Research), by using simple sequence repeats associated with agronomic traits that are highly distributed in the common bean genome. We evaluated 22 polymorphic loci using bulks containing DNA from 30 plants. There was genetic divergence among the Carioca cultivar provided by the institutions. Nevertheless, there was lower divergence among them than among the other cultivars. The cultivar used by Instituto Agronômico do Paraná was the most divergent in relation to the Carioca samples. The least divergence was observed among the samples used by Universidade Federal de Lavras and by Embrapa Arroz e Feijão. Of all the cultivars, 'CNFP 10104' and 'BRSMG Realce' showed the greatest dissimilarity. The cultivars were separated in two groups of greatest similarity using the Structure software. Genetic variation among cultivars was greater than the variation within or between the groups formed. This fact, together with the high estimate of heterozygosity observed and the genetic divergence of the samples of the Carioca cultivar in relation to the original provided by Instituto Agronômico de Campinas, indicates a mixture of cultivars. The high divergence among cultivars provides potential for the utilization of this genetic variability in plant breeding.

  14. Public Schools and the Common Good.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, William J.

    1988-01-01

    Improving public school education, especially for the poor, requires defining and articulating some vision of the common good. This article reviews key positions taken by liberals and conservatives regarding educational reform during the 19th and 20th centuries and critiques these positions with regard to their disservice to the poor. (IAH)

  15. Hardware compression using common portions of data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jichuan; Viswanathan, Krishnamurthy

    2015-03-24

    Methods and devices are provided for data compression. Data compression can include receiving a plurality of data chunks, sampling at least some of the plurality of data chunks extracting a common portion from a number of the plurality of data chunks based on the sampling, and storing a remainder of the plurality of data chunks in memory.

  16. Are male reproductive disorders a common entity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boisen, K A; Main, K M; Rajpert-De Meyts, E

    2001-01-01

    of one common entity, a testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS). Experimental and epidemiological studies suggest that TDS is a result of disruption of embryonal programming and gonadal development during fetal life. The recent rise in the prevalence of TDS may be causally linked to endocrine disrupters...

  17. Logical Normativity and Common Sense Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Agazzi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Logic, considered as a technical discipline inaugurated by Aristotle and typically represented by the variety of the modern logical calculi, constitutes a clarification and refinement of a conviction and practice present in common sense, that is, the fact that humans believe that truth can be acquired not only by immediate evidence, but also by means of arguments. As a first step logic can be seen as a “descriptive” record of the main forms of the arguments present in common sense, but the fact that some of these patterns can actually allow for the derivation of false consequences from true premises imposes the task of making explicit what patterns correspond to a “correct reasoning” and what not. At this point logic (that contains the presentation of such patterns appears endowed with a “normative” characteristic. This amounts to saying that logical calculi are intended to adequately mirror the intuitive notion of “logical consequence” and in this sense they cannot be totally arbitrary or conventional, but must satisfy certain basic requirements such as the conditions of soundness and (as far as possible of semantic completeness. In such a way they are “judged” according to the fundamental requirements present at the level of common sense and appear as “idealizations” of the kinds of reasoning practiced in common sense. For this reason also several kinds of logical calculi are fully justified since they make explicit in an idealized form the concrete ways of reasoning that are imposed by the particular domain of reference of the discipline in which they are used and which are basically recognized in common sense.

  18. Decreased risk of stroke in patients receiving traditional Chinese medicine for vertigo: A population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tzung-Yi; Li, Chung-Yi; Livneh, Hanoch; Lin, I-Hsin; Lu, Ming-Chi; Yeh, Chia-Chou

    2016-05-26

    Patients with vertigo are reported to exhibit a higher risk of subsequent stroke. However, it remains unclear if Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), the most common form of complementary and alternative medicine, can help lower the risk of stroke for these patients. So the aim of the study was to investigate the effects of TCM on stroke risk among patients with vertigo. This longitudinal cohort study used the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database to identify 112,458 newly diagnosed vertigo patients aged ≥20 years who received treatment between 1998 and 2007. Among these patients, 53,203 (47.31%) received TCM after vertigo onset (TCM users), and the remaining 59,201 patients were designated as a control group (non-TCM users). All enrollees received follow-up until the end of 2012 to measure stroke incidence. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to compute the hazard ratio (HR) of stroke in recipients of TCM services. During 15-year follow-up, 5532 TCM users and 12,295 non-TCM users developed stroke, representing an incidence rate of 13.10% and 25.71% per 1000 person-years. TCM users had a significantly reduced risk of stroke compared to non-TCM users (adjusted HR=0.64; 95% confidence interval CI=0.59-0.74). The predominant effect was observed for those receiving TCM for more than 180 days (adjusted HR=0.52; 95% CI=0.49-0.56). Commonly used TCM formulae, including Ban-Xia-Bai-Zhu-Tian-Ma-Tang, Ling-Gui-Zhu-Gan-Tang, Bai Zhi (Angelica dahurica (Hoffm.) Benth. & Hook.f. ex Franch. & Sav., root), Ge Gen (Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi, root) and Hai Piao Xiao (Endoconcha Sepiae, Cuttlefish Bone) were significantly associated with lower risk of stroke. Results of this population-based study support the effects of TCM on reducing stroke risk, and may provide a reference for stroke prevention strategies. The study results may also help to integrate TCM into clinical intervention programs that provide a favorable prognosis for vertigo patients

  19. Ruling the Commons. Introducing a new methodology for the analysis of historical commons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine de Moor

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite significant progress in recent years, the evolution of commons over the long run remains an under-explored area within commons studies. During the last years an international team of historians have worked under the umbrella of the Common Rules Project in order to design and test a new methodology aimed at advancing our knowledge on the dynamics of institutions for collective action – in particular commons. This project aims to contribute to the current debate on commons on three different fronts. Theoretically, it explicitly draws our attention to issues of change and adaptation in the commons – contrasting with more static analyses. Empirically, it highlights the value of historical records as a rich source of information for longitudinal analysis of the functioning of commons. Methodologically, it develops a systematic way of analyzing and comparing commons’ regulations across regions and time, setting a number of variables that have been defined on the basis of the “most common denominators” in commons regulation across countries and time periods. In this paper we introduce the project, describe our sources and methodology, and present the preliminary results of our analysis.

  20. Commoning in the periphery – The role of the commons for understanding rural continuities and change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Sandström

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how commons reproduce over time and introduces the concept of commoning to discuss rural continuities and change. The point of departure is that commons are essential for local community development in that they have an important role for mediating social change and for local identity production. Through an ethnographic and historical study of a number of commons systems from the village of Ängersjö in the Midwest of Sweden, the paper argues for a more historically and socially grounded understanding of how commons evolve. The paper examines Ängersjö’s commons within two broad historical time frames – the pre-industrial (4th to 20th century and the post-industrial time periods (20th century to the present – in order to understand commons, not just as arenas for resource extraction and resource struggles, but also as important contexts for identity formation, local mobilisation and for shaping rural change. The paper reveals how the commons have co-evolved with changes in society at large and how the meanings and functions of the commons have changed throughout history – from being important economic resources – to cultural and symbolic resources that have created new avenues for collective action.

  1. Headings for an EEC common energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, R.

    1976-01-01

    Although self-sufficiency in energy supplies during the 1980s may make a purely national UK energy policy look attractive, the author argues that it is in the long-term interest of all nine community members if policy is coordinated on an EEC scale. Any possible common energy policy would probably consist of separate policies for coal, oil, natural gas and nuclear power. It would follow the same general principles as the Common Agricultural Policy in maximising production of coal, natural gas and nuclear power but oil would be covered by negotiating with OPEC for current supplies and treating indigenous supplies as a strategic reserve, with Community finance available for development of marginal fields. (author)

  2. Nickel hydrogen common pressure vessel battery development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kenneth R.; Zagrodnik, Jeffrey P.

    1992-01-01

    Our present design for a common pressure vessel (CPV) battery, a nickel hydrogen battery system to combine all of the cells into a common pressure vessel, uses an open disk which allows the cell to be set into a shallow cavity; subsequent cells are stacked on each other with the total number based on the battery voltage required. This approach not only eliminates the assembly error threat, but also more readily assures equal contact pressure to the heat fin between each cell, which further assures balanced heat transfer. These heat fin dishes with their appropriate cell stacks are held together with tie bars which in turn are connected to the pressure vessel weld rings at each end of the tube.

  3. MUS81 promotes common fragile site expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ying, Songmin; Minocherhomji, Sheroy; Chan, Kok Lung

    2013-01-01

    Fragile sites are chromosomal loci with a propensity to form gaps or breaks during early mitosis, and their instability is implicated as being causative in certain neurological disorders and cancers. Recent work has demonstrated that the so-called common fragile sites (CFSs) often impair the fait......Fragile sites are chromosomal loci with a propensity to form gaps or breaks during early mitosis, and their instability is implicated as being causative in certain neurological disorders and cancers. Recent work has demonstrated that the so-called common fragile sites (CFSs) often impair...... the faithful disjunction of sister chromatids in mitosis. However, the mechanisms by which CFSs express their fragility, and the cellular factors required to suppress CFS instability, remain largely undefined. Here, we report that the DNA structure-specific nuclease MUS81-EME1 localizes to CFS loci in early...

  4. The Commons revisited: The tragedy continues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, Bob

    2007-01-01

    Garrett Hardin's classic paper ''Tragedy of the Commons'' published in Science in 1968 struck a chord with scientists and non-scientists alike and has continued to provide a key reference point to how a number of ''Commons''-related problems can be viewed. Hardin's paper will be in looked at in view of both anthropogenic global warming and peak oil and some of the solutions he posed for the ''population problem'' applied to the post-peak era. Possible solutions are compared with the Kyoto Protocol for global warming and the Rimini Protocol for peak oil. A carbon-indexed, universal tax on non-renewable energy resources 'Unitax' is mooted as a longer-term possibility to overcoming both global warming and the financing of post-peak oil problems. Alas, the process of dealing with global warming and peak oil seems to be falling into the ''no technical solution'' category that Hardin identified for population. (author)

  5. Shoulder Ultrasonography: Performance and Common Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Gaitini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound (US of the shoulder is the most commonly requested examination in musculoskeletal US diagnosis. Sports injuries and degenerative and inflammatory processes are the main sources of shoulder pain and functional limitations. Because of its availability, low cost, dynamic examination process, absence of radiation exposure, and ease of patient compliance, US is the preferred mode for shoulder imaging over other, more sophisticated, and expensive methods. Operator dependence is the main disadvantage of US examinations. Use of high range equipment with high resolution transducers, adhering to a strict examination protocol, good knowledge of normal anatomy and pathological processes and an awareness of common pitfalls are essential for the optimal performance and interpretation of shoulder US. This article addresses examination techniques, the normal sonographic appearance of tendons, bursae and joints, and the main pathological conditions found in shoulder ultrasonography.

  6. Our Common Landscapes For The Future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    Foreword for Marc Antrop and Veerle van Eetvelde: Landscape Perspectives – The Holistic Nature of Landscapes Our common landscapes for the future by Jesper Brandt The solution of the ecological crisis through a transformation towards sustainable development is the most urgent challenge in our time....... It is not just a question of CO2 and conversion toward renewable energy. The reestablishment and conscious development of our common landscapes at all spatial scales for the combined benefits of biodiversity, our cultural heritage and the preservation and development of ecosystem services will probably...... be the most comprehensive and necessary social task in the future, if a conversion towards a sustainable development shall succeed in due time. This is so because it will be necessary to ensure that the potential material wealth of modern society will be transformed into a good, fruitful and healthy life...

  7. Genetics in psychiatry: common variant association studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buxbaum Joseph D

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many psychiatric conditions and traits are associated with significant heritability. Genetic risk for psychiatric conditions encompass rare variants, identified due to major effect, as well as common variants, the latter analyzed by association analyses. We review guidelines for common variant association analyses, undertaking after assessing evidence of heritability. We highlight the importance of: suitably large sample sizes; an experimental design that controls for ancestry; careful data cleaning; correction for multiple testing; small P values for positive findings; assessment of effect size for positive findings; and, inclusion of an independent replication sample. We also note the importance of a critical discussion of any prior findings, biological follow-up where possible, and a means of accessing the raw data.

  8. Open Data as a New Commons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morelli, Nicola; Mulder, Ingrid; Concilio, Grazia

    2017-01-01

    and environmental opportunities around them and government choices. Developing spacesmeans for enabling citizens to harness the opportunities coming from the use of this new resource, offers thus a substantial promise of social innovation. This means that open data is vi (still) virtually a new resource that could...... become a new commons with the engagement of interested and active communities. The condition for open data becoming a new common is that citizens become aware of the potential of this resource, that they use it for creating new services and that new practices and infrastructures are defined, that would......An increasing computing capability is raising the opportunities to use a large amount of publicly available data for creating new applications and a new generation of public services. But while it is easy to find some early examples of services concerning control systems (e.g. traffic, meteo...

  9. Optimum operating regimes of common paramagnetic refrigerants

    CERN Document Server

    Wikus, P; Figueroa-Feliciano, E

    2011-01-01

    Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators (ADRs) are commonly used in cryogenic laboratories to achieve subkelvin temperatures. ADRs are also the technology of choice for several space borne instruments which make use of cryogenic microcalorimeters or bolometers {[}1-4]. For these applications, refrigerants with high ratios of cooling capacity to volume, or cooling capacity to mass are usually required. In this manuscript, two charts for the simple selection of the most suitable of several common refrigerants (CAA, CMN, CPA, DGG, FAA, GGG, GLF and MAS) are presented. These graphs are valid for single stage cycles. The selection of the refrigerants is uniquely dependent on the starting conditions of the refrigeration cycle (temperature and magnetic field density) and the desired final temperature. Only thermodynamic properties of the refrigerants have been taken into account, and other important factors such as availability and manufacturability have not been considered. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserve...

  10. Common fixed points for weakly compatible maps

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Springer Verlag Heidelberg #4 2048 1996 Dec 15 10:16:45

    In 1976, Jungck [4] proved a common fixed point theorem for commuting maps generalizing the Banach's fixed point theorem, which states that, 'let (X, d) be a complete metric space. If T satisfies d(Tx,Ty) ≤ kd(x,y) for each x,y ∈ X where 0 ≤ k < 1, then T has a unique fixed point in X'. This theorem has many applications, ...

  11. Interpretation of commonly used statistical regression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasza, Jessica; Wolfe, Rory

    2014-01-01

    A review of some regression models commonly used in respiratory health applications is provided in this article. Simple linear regression, multiple linear regression, logistic regression and ordinal logistic regression are considered. The focus of this article is on the interpretation of the regression coefficients of each model, which are illustrated through the application of these models to a respiratory health research study. © 2013 The Authors. Respirology © 2013 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  12. Obesity and common respiratory diseases in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthopoulos, Melissa; Tapia, Ignacio E

    2017-06-01

    Obesity has become an important public health problem worldwide that disproportionally affects the underserved. Obesity has been associated with many diseases and unfortunately has not spared the respiratory system. Specifically, the prevalence of common respiratory problems, such as asthma and obstructive sleep apnoea, is higher in obese children. Further, the treatment outcomes of these frequent conditions is also worse in obese children compared to lean controls. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Common Errors in Ecological Data Sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert B. Cook

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: (1 to identify common errors in data organization and metadata completeness that would preclude a “reader” from being able to interpret and re-use the data for a new purpose; and (2 to develop a set of best practices derived from these common errors that would guide researchers in creating more usable data products that could be readily shared, interpreted, and used.Methods: We used directed qualitative content analysis to assess and categorize data and metadata errors identified by peer reviewers of data papers published in the Ecological Society of America’s (ESA Ecological Archives. Descriptive statistics provided the relative frequency of the errors identified during the peer review process.Results: There were seven overarching error categories: Collection & Organization, Assure, Description, Preserve, Discover, Integrate, and Analyze/Visualize. These categories represent errors researchers regularly make at each stage of the Data Life Cycle. Collection & Organization and Description errors were some of the most common errors, both of which occurred in over 90% of the papers.Conclusions: Publishing data for sharing and reuse is error prone, and each stage of the Data Life Cycle presents opportunities for mistakes. The most common errors occurred when the researcher did not provide adequate metadata to enable others to interpret and potentially re-use the data. Fortunately, there are ways to minimize these mistakes through carefully recording all details about study context, data collection, QA/ QC, and analytical procedures from the beginning of a research project and then including this descriptive information in the metadata.

  14. DIAGNOSTICS AND REGENERATION OF COMMON RAIL INJECTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz KONIECZNY

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the methodology of Common Rail injector diagnostic, regeneration and regulation with use of professional test stands. The EPS 815 machine can be used to test and repair all BOSCH injectors fully satisfying the producer requirements and standards. The article describes an example injector diagnosis with use of such test stand and additionally presents appropriate injector regeneration and encoding techniques

  15. Is synaesthesia more common in autism?

    OpenAIRE

    Baron-Cohen, Simon; Johnson, Donielle; Asher, Julian; Wheelwright, Sally; Fisher, Simon E; Gregersen, Peter K; Allison, Carrie

    2013-01-01

    Background Synaesthesia is a neurodevelopmental condition in which a sensation in one modality triggers a perception in a second modality. Autism (shorthand for Autism Spectrum Conditions) is a neurodevelopmental condition involving social-communication disability alongside resistance to change and unusually narrow interests or activities. Whilst on the surface they appear distinct, they have been suggested to share common atypical neural connectivity. Methods In the present study, we carried...

  16. Plutonium uptake by common soil aerobes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, Seth; Rugglero, Christy; Hersman, Larry; Neu, Mary

    2000-01-01

    Radionuclide contamination in soils and groundwater poses a risk to both human and environmental health. The DOE has identified 12 sites with significant U contamination in the soils and ground water, and 10 sites with Pu contamination.1 It is important to study the interactions of common soil microbes with these radionuclides both to understand the environmental fate of these contaminants and to evaluate the potential of biological techniques to remediate contaminated soils and water

  17. A common law agenda for labour law

    OpenAIRE

    Hough, Barry; Spowart-Taylor, Ann

    1999-01-01

    This article assesses the purposes of a re-contractualisation of the employment relationship. It examines in particular the implied duty to act in good faith, and argues that in developing this and other implied terms the judiciary only extends employment protection to further wealth maximisation. It is argued that the common law sees its contribution to labour law as a device for maximising the efficiency of the enterprise and promoting the creation of wealth for the benefit of the national ...

  18. Genetic Parameters of Common Wheat in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Bal Krishna Joshi; Dhruba Bahadur Thapa; Madan Raj Bhatta

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge on variation within traits and their genetics are prerequisites in crop improvement program. Thus, in present paper we aimed to estimate genetic and environmental indices of common wheat genotypes. For the purpose, eight quantitative traits were measured from 30 wheat genotypes, which were in randomized complete block design with 3 replicates. Components of variance and covariance were estimated along with heritability, genetic gain, realized heritability, coheritability and correla...

  19. Giant anurysin of the common hepatic artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montenegro Gaite, T.; Gonzalez Garcia, A.; Cortes Gonzalez, A.; Mayol Deya, A.; Fernandez de Bobadilla, M.

    1994-01-01

    Hepatic artery aneurysms are relatively infrequent and asymptomatic processes, but are very important since their rupture can prove fatal. We present a case of partially thrombosed giant aneurysm of the common hepatic artery in a 55-year-old man. The patient presented relatively nonspecific clinical signs (pain in right abdomen was the major symptom), and was diagnosed by ultrasound computerized tomography (CT) and digital subtraction angiography. (Author) 12 refs

  20. Common cause failures - a dilemma in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.M.; Watson, I.A.

    1980-01-01

    This paper identifies the broad spectrum of common cause failure (CCF) definitions used by various authors. These definitions, as applied to real aircraft and nuclear reactor failure events, lead to a divergence of interpretation and a resultant confusion that obscures meaningful progress in CCF analysis. A new definition is proposed, explained, and tested against the examples. Technical as well as administrative practices are cited as ways to control or eliminate the product defects that lead to CCF. (author)

  1. Common mode failures in redundancy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, I.A.; Edwards, G.T.

    1978-01-01

    Difficulties are experienced in assessing the impact of common mode failures on the reliability of safety systems. The paper first covers the investigation, definition and classification of CMF based on an extensive study of the nature of CMF. This is used as a basis for analysing data from nuclear reactor safety systems and aircraft systems. Design and maintenance errors are shown to be the prdominant cause of CMF. The analysis has laid the grounds for work on relating CMF modelling and defences. (author)

  2. Less Common Etiologies of Status Epilepticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleck, Thomas P

    2010-01-01

    Status epilepticus is treated as a neurologic emergency and only later are the potential etiologies assessed. While sometimes the cause for status epilepticus is apparent (e.g., antiepileptic drug withdrawal), all too often it is not identified, even after extensive diagnostic testing has been performed. With emphasis on the less-common etiologies, this review will cover various probable and known causes of status epilepticus among adults, children, and those patients with refractory epilepsy. PMID:20231917

  3. Genes and (Common) Pathways Underlying Drug Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuan-Yun; Mao, Xizeng; Wei, Liping

    2008-01-01

    Drug addiction is a serious worldwide problem with strong genetic and environmental influences. Different technologies have revealed a variety of genes and pathways underlying addiction; however, each individual technology can be biased and incomplete. We integrated 2,343 items of evidence from peer-reviewed publications between 1976 and 2006 linking genes and chromosome regions to addiction by single-gene strategies, microrray, proteomics, or genetic studies. We identified 1,500 human addiction-related genes and developed KARG (http://karg.cbi.pku.edu.cn), the first molecular database for addiction-related genes with extensive annotations and a friendly Web interface. We then performed a meta-analysis of 396 genes that were supported by two or more independent items of evidence to identify 18 molecular pathways that were statistically significantly enriched, covering both upstream signaling events and downstream effects. Five molecular pathways significantly enriched for all four different types of addictive drugs were identified as common pathways which may underlie shared rewarding and addictive actions, including two new ones, GnRH signaling pathway and gap junction. We connected the common pathways into a hypothetical common molecular network for addiction. We observed that fast and slow positive feedback loops were interlinked through CAMKII, which may provide clues to explain some of the irreversible features of addiction. PMID:18179280

  4. Efficient heuristics for maximum common substructure search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, Péter; Kovács, Péter

    2015-05-26

    Maximum common substructure search is a computationally hard optimization problem with diverse applications in the field of cheminformatics, including similarity search, lead optimization, molecule alignment, and clustering. Most of these applications have strict constraints on running time, so heuristic methods are often preferred. However, the development of an algorithm that is both fast enough and accurate enough for most practical purposes is still a challenge. Moreover, in some applications, the quality of a common substructure depends not only on its size but also on various topological features of the one-to-one atom correspondence it defines. Two state-of-the-art heuristic algorithms for finding maximum common substructures have been implemented at ChemAxon Ltd., and effective heuristics have been developed to improve both their efficiency and the relevance of the atom mappings they provide. The implementations have been thoroughly evaluated and compared with existing solutions (KCOMBU and Indigo). The heuristics have been found to greatly improve the performance and applicability of the algorithms. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the applied methods and present the experimental results.

  5. Common pass decentered annular ring resonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, D. A.; Waite, T. R.

    1985-04-30

    An optical resonator having an annular cylindrical gain region for use in a chemical laser or the like in which two ring-shaped mirrors having substantially conical reflecting surfaces are spaced apart along a common axis of revolution of the respective conical surfaces. A central conical mirror reflects incident light directed along said axis radially outwardly to the reflecting surface of a first one of the ring-shaped mirrors. The radial light rays are reflected by the first ring mirror to the second ring mirror within an annular cylindrical volume concentric with said common axis and forming a gain region. Light rays impinging on the second ring mirror are reflected to diametrically opposite points on the same conical mirror surfaces and back to the first ring mirror through the same annular cylindrical volume. The return rays are then reflected by the conical mirror surface of the first ring mirror back to the central conical mirror. The mirror surfaces are angled such that the return rays are reflected back along the common axis by the central mirror in a concentric annular cylindrical volume. A scraper mirror having a central opening centered on said axis and an offset opening reflects all but the rays passing through the two openings in an output beam. The rays passing through the second opening are reflected back through the first opening to provide feedback.

  6. Information-Theoretic Inference of Common Ancestors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastian Steudel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A directed acyclic graph (DAG partially represents the conditional independence structure among observations of a system if the local Markov condition holds, that is if every variable is independent of its non-descendants given its parents. In general, there is a whole class of DAGs that represents a given set of conditional independence relations. We are interested in properties of this class that can be derived from observations of a subsystem only. To this end, we prove an information-theoretic inequality that allows for the inference of common ancestors of observed parts in any DAG representing some unknown larger system. More explicitly, we show that a large amount of dependence in terms of mutual information among the observations implies the existence of a common ancestor that distributes this information. Within the causal interpretation of DAGs, our result can be seen as a quantitative extension of Reichenbach’s principle of common cause to more than two variables. Our conclusions are valid also for non-probabilistic observations, such as binary strings, since we state the proof for an axiomatized notion of “mutual information” that includes the stochastic as well as the algorithmic version.

  7. Liability for damage to the global commons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leigh, K.

    1993-01-01

    The 'global commons' discussed in this paper are the areas beyond the limits of national jurisdiction. Responsibility to prevent environmental damage to these areas is clearly recognized in customary international law. On the other hand, although liability for such damage undoubtedly has a useful role to play in protecting these areas, the precise nature of liability for such damage is unclear. Some issues, such as whether liability for such damage is strict or tied to breaching a standard of care and the definition of environmental damage, equally arise in relation to damage to the environment of States. Others, such as who could take action to enforce the liability and the nature of the remedy, raise special problems in the case of damage to the global commons. The work under way in the IAEA Standing Committee on Liability for Nuclear Damage provides an opportunity for clarifying these issues in relation to nuclear damage to the global commons. Treaties dealing with particular types of damage which have recently been adopted or are currently being developed in other fields provide a starting point in dealing with this matter. More work, however, needs to be done

  8. Common Variable Immunodeficiency Caused by FANC Mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekinaka, Yujin; Mitsuiki, Noriko; Imai, Kohsuke; Yabe, Miharu; Yabe, Hiromasa; Mitsui-Sekinaka, Kanako; Honma, Kenichi; Takagi, Masatoshi; Arai, Ayako; Yoshida, Kenichi; Okuno, Yusuke; Shiraishi, Yuichi; Chiba, Kenichi; Tanaka, Hiroko; Miyano, Satoru; Muramatsu, Hideki; Kojima, Seiji; Hira, Asuka; Takata, Minoru; Ohara, Osamu; Ogawa, Seishi; Morio, Tomohiro; Nonoyama, Shigeaki

    2017-07-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most common adult-onset primary antibody deficiency disease due to various causative genes. Several genes, which are known to be the cause of different diseases, have recently been reported as the cause of CVID in patients by performing whole exome sequencing (WES) analysis. Here, we found FANC gene mutations as a cause of adult-onset CVID in two patients. B cells were absent and CD4 + T cells were skewed toward CD45RO + memory T cells. T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) and signal joint kappa-deleting recombination excision circles (sjKRECs) were undetectable in both patients. Both patients had no anemia, neutropenia, or thrombocytopenia. Using WES, we identified compound heterozygous mutations of FANCE in one patient and homozygous mutation of FANCA in another patient. The impaired function of FANC protein complex was confirmed by a monoubiquitination assay and by chromosome fragility test. We then performed several immunological evaluations including quantitative lymphocyte analysis and TRECs/sjKRECs analysis for 32 individuals with Fanconi anemia (FA). In total, 22 FA patients (68.8%) were found to have immunological abnormalities, suggesting that such immunological findings may be common in FA patients. These data indicate that FANC mutations are involved in impaired lymphogenesis probably by the accumulation of DNA replication stress, leading to CVID. It is important to diagnose FA because it drastically changes clinical management. We propose that FANC mutations can cause isolated immunodeficiency in addition to bone marrow failure and malignancy.

  9. Evaluation of common organisms causing vaginal discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shazia A; Amir, Fauzia; Altaf, Shagufta; Tanveer, Raazia

    2009-01-01

    Vaginal discharge is very common problem among females. Alteration in balance of normal vaginal organisms can cause the overgrowth of the bacteria that creates vaginal discharge. It is common among sexually active women yet there still remain gaps in our knowledge of this infectious disorder. To evaluate the frequency of bacterial vaginosis (BV), vaginal candidiasis (VC), vaginal trichomoniasis and Group B streptococcus in women complaining of vaginal discharge in our setup. A total of 100 women of reproductive age group with the complaint of vaginal discharge were included in the study. After filling proforma patients were examined by speculum examination and two high vaginal swabs (HVS) were collected aseptically from each patient. One swab was used for making wet mount for clue cells, pus cells and for motility of Trichomonas vaginalis. The other swab was used to check pH and Amine test. The growth was confirmed by Gram staining in each case. Gardnerrella vaginalis were isolated in 28%, Group B streptococcus in 5% and T. vaginolis in 4% of women. Gardnerella vaginalis causing BV is the most common cause of vaginal discharge in otherwise healthy women of reproductive age group in our setup.

  10. Genes and (common pathways underlying drug addiction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-Yun Li

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug addiction is a serious worldwide problem with strong genetic and environmental influences. Different technologies have revealed a variety of genes and pathways underlying addiction; however, each individual technology can be biased and incomplete. We integrated 2,343 items of evidence from peer-reviewed publications between 1976 and 2006 linking genes and chromosome regions to addiction by single-gene strategies, microrray, proteomics, or genetic studies. We identified 1,500 human addiction-related genes and developed KARG (http://karg.cbi.pku.edu.cn, the first molecular database for addiction-related genes with extensive annotations and a friendly Web interface. We then performed a meta-analysis of 396 genes that were supported by two or more independent items of evidence to identify 18 molecular pathways that were statistically significantly enriched, covering both upstream signaling events and downstream effects. Five molecular pathways significantly enriched for all four different types of addictive drugs were identified as common pathways which may underlie shared rewarding and addictive actions, including two new ones, GnRH signaling pathway and gap junction. We connected the common pathways into a hypothetical common molecular network for addiction. We observed that fast and slow positive feedback loops were interlinked through CAMKII, which may provide clues to explain some of the irreversible features of addiction.

  11. Combined Common Person and Common Item Equating of Medical Science Examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Paul R.

    This equating study of the National Board of Medical Examiners Examinations was a combined common persons and common items equating, using the Rasch model. The 1,000-item test was administered to about 3,000 second-year medical students in seven equal-length subtests: anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pathology, microbiology, pharmacology, and…

  12. Temperature effects on hemocyanin oxygen binding in an antarctic cephalopod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, S; Sartoris, F J; Pörtner, H O

    2001-02-01

    The functional relevance of oxygen transport by hemocyanin of the Antarctic octopod Megaleledone senoi and of the eurythermal cuttlefish Sepia officinalis was analyzed by continuous and simultaneous recordings of changes in pH and hemocyanin oxygen saturation in whole blood at various temperatures. These data were compared to literature data on other temperate and cold-water cephalopods (octopods and giant squid). In S. officinalis, the oxygen affinity of hemocyanin changed at deltaP50/degrees C = 0.12 kPa (pH 7.4) with increasing temperatures; this is similar to observations in temperate octopods. In M. senoi, thermal sensitivity was much smaller (delta log P50/delta pH) increased with increasing temperature in both the cuttlefish and the Antarctic octopod. At low PO2 (1.0 kPa) and pH (7.2), the presence of a large venous oxygen reserve (43% saturation) insensitive to pH reflects reduced pH sensitivity and high oxygen affinity in M. senoi hemocyanin at 0 degrees C. In S. officinalis, this reserve was 19% at pH 7.4, 20 degrees C, and 1.7 kPa O2, a level still higher than in squid. These findings suggest that the lower metabolic rate of octopods and cuttlefish compared to squid is reflected in less pH-dependent oxygen transport. Results of the hemocyanin analysis for the Antarctic octopod were similar to those reported for Vampyroteuthis--an extremely high oxygen affinity supporting a very low metabolic rate. In contrast to findings in cold-adapted giant squid, the minimized thermal sensitivity of oxygen transport in Antarctic octopods will reduce metabolic scope and thereby contribute to their stenothermality.

  13. Common patterns in 558 diagnostic radiology errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald, Jennifer J; Barnard, Stuart A

    2012-04-01

    As a Quality Improvement initiative our department has held regular discrepancy meetings since 2003. We performed a retrospective analysis of the cases presented and identified the most common pattern of error. A total of 558 cases were referred for discussion over 92 months, and errors were classified as perceptual or interpretative. The most common patterns of error for each imaging modality were analysed, and the misses were scored by consensus as subtle or non-subtle. Of 558 diagnostic errors, 447 (80%) were perceptual and 111 (20%) were interpretative errors. Plain radiography and computed tomography (CT) scans were the most frequent imaging modalities accounting for 246 (44%) and 241 (43%) of the total number of errors, respectively. In the plain radiography group 120 (49%) of the errors occurred in chest X-ray reports with perceptual miss of a lung nodule occurring in 40% of this subgroup. In the axial and appendicular skeleton missed fractures occurred most frequently, and metastatic bone disease was overlooked in 12 of 50 plain X-rays of the pelvis or spine. The majority of errors within the CT group were in reports of body scans with the commonest perceptual errors identified including 16 missed significant bone lesions, 14 cases of thromboembolic disease and 14 gastrointestinal tumours. Of the 558 errors, 312 (56%) were considered subtle and 246 (44%) non-subtle. Diagnostic errors are not uncommon and are most frequently perceptual in nature. Identification of the most common patterns of error has the potential to improve the quality of reporting by improving the search behaviour of radiologists. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology © 2012 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  14. Autoimmune Cytopenias In Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshini Sarah Abraham

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID is a humoral immunodeficiency whose primary diagnostic features include hypogammaglobulinemia involving two or more immunoglobulin isotypes and impaired functional antibody responses in the majority of patients. While increased susceptibility to respiratory and other infections is a common thread that binds a large cross-section of CVID patients, the presence of autoimmune complications in this immunologically and clinically heterogeneous disorder is recognized in up to two-thirds of patients. Among the autoimmune manifestations reported in CVID (20-50%(Chapel et al., 2008;Cunningham-Rundles, 2008, autoimmune cytopenias are by far the most common occurring variably in 4-20% (Michel et al., 2004;Chapel et al., 2008 of these patients who have some form of autoimmunity. Association of autoimmune cytopenias with granulomatous disease and splenomegaly has been reported. The spectrum of autoimmune cytopenias includes thrombocytopenia, anemia and neutropenia. While it may seem paradoxical prima facie that autoimmunity is present in patients with primary immune deficiencies, in reality, it could be considered two sides of the same coin, each reflecting a different but inter-connected facet of immune dysregulation. The expansion of CD21low B cells in CVID patients with autoimmune cytopenias and other autoimmune features has also been previously reported. It has been demonstrated that this unique subset of B cells is enriched for autoreactive germline antibodies. Further, a correlation has been observed between various B cell subsets, such as class-switched memory B cells and plasmablasts, and autoimmunity in CVID. This review attempts to explore the most recent concepts and highlights, along with treatment of autoimmune hematological manifestations of CVID.

  15. Freeing data through The Polar Information Commons

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, T.; Chen, R. S.; Parsons, M. A.; Carlson, D. J.; Cass, K.; Finney, K.; Wilbanks, J.; Jochum, K.

    2010-12-01

    The polar regions are changing rapidly with dramatic global effect. Wise management of resources, improved decision support, and effective international cooperation on resource and geopolitical issues require deeper understanding and better prediction of these changes. Unfortunately, polar data and information remain scattered, scarce, and sporadic. Inspired by the Antarctic Treaty of 1959 that established the Antarctic as a global commons to be used only for peaceful purposes and scientific research, we assert that data and information about the polar regions are themselves “public goods” that should be shared ethically and with minimal constraint. ICSU’s Committee on Data (CODATA) therefore started the Polar Information Commons (PIC) as an open, virtual repository for vital scientific data and information. The PIC provides a shared, community-based cyber-infrastructure fostering innovation, improving scientific efficiency, and encouraging participation in polar research, education, planning, and management. The PIC builds on the legacy of the International Polar Year (IPY), providing a long-term framework for access to and preservation of both existing and future data and information about the polar regions. Rapid change demands rapid data access. The PIC system enables scientists to quickly expose their data to the world and share them through open protocols on the Internet. A PIC digital label will alert users and data centers to new polar data and ensure that usage rights are clear. The PIC utilizes the Science Commons Protocol for Implementing Open Access Data, which promotes open data access through the public domain coupled with community norms of practice to ensure use of data in a fair and equitable manner. A set of PIC norms has been developed in consultation with key polar data organizations and other stakeholders. We welcome inputs from the broad science community as we further develop and refine the PIC approach and move ahead with

  16. Common Variable Immunodeficiency: Diagnosis, Management, and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Jordan K; Gelfand, Erwin W

    2015-11-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) refers to a grouping of antibody deficiencies that lack a more specific genetic or phenotypic classification. It is the immunodeficiency classification with the greatest number of constituents, likely because of the numerous ways in which antibody production can be impaired and the frequency in which antibody production becomes impaired in human beings. CVID comprises a heterogeneous group of rare diseases. Consequently, CVID presents a significant challenge for researchers and clinicians. Despite these difficulties, both our understanding of and ability to manage this grouping of complex immune diseases has advanced significantly over the past 60 years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Nuclear magnetic resonance common laboratory, quadrennial report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This quadrennial report of the nuclear magnetic resonance common laboratory gives an overview of the main activities. Among the different described activities, only one is interesting for the INIS database: it concerns the Solid NMR of cements used for radioactive wastes storage. In this case, the NMR is used to characterize the structure of the material and the composition, structure and kinetics of formation of the alteration layer which is formed at the surface of concrete during water leaching conditions. The NMR methodology is given. (O.M.)

  18. CERN's common Unix and X terminal environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cass, Tony

    1996-01-01

    The Desktop Infrastructure Group of CERN's Computing and Networks Division has developed a Common Unix and X Terminal Environment to case the migration to Unix based Interactive Computing. The CUTE architecture relies on a distributed flesystem - currently Transarc's AFS - to enable essentially interchangeable client workstation to access both home directory and program files transparently. Additionally, we provide a suite of programs to configure workstations for CUTE and to ensure continued compatibility. This paper describes the different components and the development of the CUTE architecture. (author)

  19. Common pitfalls to avoid during workover operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byars, R.R.

    1994-01-01

    Remedial well work has been, and will continue to be, an integral part of oil company operations. More than 16,000 workover operations were performed during 1993 in the US. The economic impact from workover operations is usually immediate due to flowlines, tank batteries and other equipment being in place and ready for service prior to the workover. Similarly, problems encountered during workover operations contribute an immediate negative impact to project economics. Guidelines for common mistake avoidance are presented. They will be especially helpful for those individuals not well trained in workover preparation and supervision

  20. Hip Arthroscopy: Common Problems and Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casp, Aaron; Gwathmey, Frank Winston

    2018-04-01

    The use of hip arthroscopy continues to expand. Understanding potential pitfalls and complications associated with hip arthroscopy is paramount to optimizing clinical outcomes and minimizing unfavorable results. Potential pitfalls and complications are associated with preoperative factors such as patient selection, intraoperative factors such as iatrogenic damage, traction-related complications, inadequate correction of deformity, and nerve injury, or postoperative factors such as poor rehabilitation. This article outlines common factors that contribute to less-than-favorable outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Common control system for the CERN accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rausch, R.; Serre, Ch.

    1992-01-01

    The PS and SPS Accelerator Control Systems are becoming obsolete and need urgent rejuvenation. After a control users forum, where users expressed their needs, two main Working Groups were set up, consisting of Control and Equipment Specialists and experienced Machine Operators. One Working Group studied the architecture and the front-end processing and the other a common approach to the application software needed to run the CERN accelerator complex. The paper presents the technical conclusion of their work and the policy to implement it, taking into account the necessity to operate both machines without interruption of the Physics Program. (author)

  2. Bidding in common value fair division games

    OpenAIRE

    Brünner, Tobias; Becker, Alice

    2013-01-01

    In a fair division game an indivisible object with an unknown common value is owned by a group of individuals and should be allocated to one of them while the others are compensated monetarily. Implementing fair division games in the lab, we fi nd many occurrences of the winner's curse under the first-price rule but only few occurrences under the second-price rule. Moreover, bidding behavior is very heterogeneous across subjects. A considerable share of our subjects anticipates that other bid...

  3. Parametric Portfolio Policies with Common Volatility Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ergemen, Yunus Emre; Taamouti, Abderrahim

    A parametric portfolio policy function is considered that incorporates common stock volatility dynamics to optimally determine portfolio weights. Reducing dimension of the traditional portfolio selection problem significantly, only a number of policy parameters corresponding to first- and second......-order characteristics are estimated based on a standard method-of-moments technique. The method, allowing for the calculation of portfolio weight and return statistics, is illustrated with an empirical application to 30 U.S. industries to study the economic activity before and after the recent financial crisis....

  4. Personal and common meanings of sexualised coercion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    In 2003 a research project on the personal and common meanings of sexualised coercion was initiated at the Centre for Victims of Sexual Assault at the University Hospital of Copenhagen. Right from its start in the year 2000 first and second generation migrant women were among those seeking help...... on their difficulties in the aftermath of their experience of sexualised coercion. Reversely, a point of departure in psychiatric diagnosis such as PTSD and depression may contribute to the symbolic violence implicit in many dominant discourses concerning gender, violence as well as ethnicity. My presentation...

  5. Reptile Critical Care and Common Emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Music, Meera Kumar; Strunk, Anneliese

    2016-05-01

    Reptile emergencies are an important part of exotic animal critical care, both true emergencies and those perceived as emergencies by owners. The most common presentations for reptile emergencies are addressed here, with information on differential diagnoses, helpful diagnostics, and approach to treatment. In many cases, reptile emergencies are actually acute presentations originating from a chronic problem, and the treatment plan must include both clinical treatment and addressing husbandry and dietary deficiencies at home. Accurate owner expectations must be set in order to have owner compliance to long-term treatment plans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Common views of potentially attractive fusion concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, S.J.

    1986-01-01

    Several innovative fusion concepts have recently been proposed with the intent of improving radically the attractiveness of fusion energy. Before their assessment is complete, however, the question of what constitutes an especially attractive fusion product should be examined from multiple viewpoints. The primary purpose of this paper is to examine views of potentially attractive fusion concepts from three perspectives, trying to determine commonalities. These viewpoints are (a) economics, (b) maintenance and reliability, and (c) safety and environment. The secondary purpose of the paper is to review some innovative concepts from these viewpoints

  7. Cognitive Architecture of Common and Scientific Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarábek, Paul

    2010-07-01

    The cognitive architecture of concept is a specific structure consisting of the concept core, concept periphery, the semantic frame as the meaning and the sense of the concept, and the relations among all components of this structure. The model of the cognitive architecture of scientific and common concepts is a conceptual meta-model built upon Vygotsky's concept theory, Fillmore's semantic frame, semantic triangle, on widespread ideas of the structuring of conceptual systems, and the Hestenes' Modeling Theory. The method of semantic mapping of concepts flowing from the model is designed.

  8. Introduction: Regionalising the Common Fisheries Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raakjær, Jesper; Hegland, Troels Jacob

    2012-01-01

    The idea of putting together a special issue of MAST on the issue of regionalisation of the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP), was born in late 2010. Having participated in an EU funded research project looking into how an eco-system based approach to fisheries management could be operationalised...... in the European Union (EU) with particular focus on regionalisation, we found that the coming reform of the CFP would be a good opportunity to make a substantial contribution on the topic of regionalisation, which we felt ought to be a central component of the reform discussions....

  9. Audits reveal ten common environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buys, M.W.

    1992-01-01

    The old saying that open-quotes an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cureclose quotes rings particularly true in environmental matters in the 1990s. Environmental problems can potentially lead to expensive fines, costly cleanups, negative public relations, and even criminal sanctions against members of the corporation. A recurring pattern of problems has been noted during the performance of environmental disposition, acquisition, and compliance assessments of many different operators in most of the producing states. The ten most common problems found in oilfield audits are discussed here in an effort to enhance the awareness of operators

  10. In Vivo Recording of Neural and Behavioral Correlates of Anesthesia Induction, Reversal, and Euthanasia in Cephalopod Molluscs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna M. Butler-Struben

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cephalopod molluscs are among the most behaviorally and neurologically complex invertebrates. As they are now included in research animal welfare regulations in many countries, humane and effective anesthesia is required during invasive procedures. However, currently there is no evidence that agents believed to act as anesthetics produce effects beyond immobility. In this study we demonstrate, for the first time, that two of the most commonly used agents in cephalopod general anesthesia, magnesium chloride and ethanol, are capable of producing strong and reversible blockade of afferent and efferent neural signal; thus they are genuine anesthetics, rather than simply sedating agents that render animals immobile but not insensible. Additionally, we demonstrate that injected magnesium chloride and lidocaine are effective local anesthetic agents. This represents a considerable advance for cephalopod welfare. Using a reversible, minimally invasive recording procedure, we measured activity in the pallial nerve of cuttlefish (Sepia bandensis and octopus (Abdopus aculeatus, Octopus bocki, during induction and reversal for five putative general anesthetic and two local anesthetic agents. We describe the temporal relationship between loss of behavioral responses (immobility, loss of efferent neural signal (loss of “consciousness” and loss of afferent neural signal (anesthesia for general anesthesia, and loss of afferent signal for local anesthesia. Both ethanol and magnesium chloride were effective as bath-applied general anesthetics, causing immobility, complete loss of behavioral responsiveness and complete loss of afferent and efferent neural signal. Cold seawater, diethyl ether, and MS-222 (tricaine were ineffective. Subcutaneous injection of either lidocaine or magnesium chloride blocked behavioral and neural responses to pinch in the injected area, and we conclude that both are effective local anesthetic agents for cephalopods. Lastly, we

  11. In Vivo Recording of Neural and Behavioral Correlates of Anesthesia Induction, Reversal, and Euthanasia in Cephalopod Molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler-Struben, Hanna M; Brophy, Samantha M; Johnson, Nasira A; Crook, Robyn J

    2018-01-01

    Cephalopod molluscs are among the most behaviorally and neurologically complex invertebrates. As they are now included in research animal welfare regulations in many countries, humane and effective anesthesia is required during invasive procedures. However, currently there is no evidence that agents believed to act as anesthetics produce effects beyond immobility. In this study we demonstrate, for the first time, that two of the most commonly used agents in cephalopod general anesthesia, magnesium chloride and ethanol, are capable of producing strong and reversible blockade of afferent and efferent neural signal; thus they are genuine anesthetics, rather than simply sedating agents that render animals immobile but not insensible. Additionally, we demonstrate that injected magnesium chloride and lidocaine are effective local anesthetic agents. This represents a considerable advance for cephalopod welfare. Using a reversible, minimally invasive recording procedure, we measured activity in the pallial nerve of cuttlefish ( Sepia bandensis ) and octopus ( Abdopus aculeatus, Octopus bocki ), during induction and reversal for five putative general anesthetic and two local anesthetic agents. We describe the temporal relationship between loss of behavioral responses (immobility), loss of efferent neural signal (loss of "consciousness") and loss of afferent neural signal (anesthesia) for general anesthesia, and loss of afferent signal for local anesthesia. Both ethanol and magnesium chloride were effective as bath-applied general anesthetics, causing immobility, complete loss of behavioral responsiveness and complete loss of afferent and efferent neural signal. Cold seawater, diethyl ether, and MS-222 (tricaine) were ineffective. Subcutaneous injection of either lidocaine or magnesium chloride blocked behavioral and neural responses to pinch in the injected area, and we conclude that both are effective local anesthetic agents for cephalopods. Lastly, we demonstrate that a

  12. Auditory verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia and post-traumatic stress disorder: common phenomenology, common cause, common interventions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Longden, Eleanor

    2015-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH: 'hearing voices') are found in both schizophrenia and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In this paper we first demonstrate that AVH in these two diagnoses share a qualitatively similar phenomenology. We then show that the presence of AVH in schizophrenia is often associated with earlier exposure to traumatic/emotionally overwhelming events, as it is by definition in PTSD. We next argue that the content of AVH relates to earlier traumatic events in a similar way in both PTSD and schizophrenia, most commonly having direct or indirect thematic links to emotionally overwhelming events, rather than being direct re-experiencing. We then propose, following cognitive models of PTSD, that the reconstructive nature of memory may be able to account for the nature of these associations between trauma and AVH content, as may threat-hypervigilance and the individual's personal goals. We conclude that a notable subset of people diagnosed with schizophrenia with AVH are having phenomenologically and aetiologically identical experiences to PTSD patients who hear voices. As such we propose that the iron curtain between AVH in PTSD (often termed 'dissociative AVH') and AVH in schizophrenia (so-called 'psychotic AVH') needs to be torn down, as these are often the same experience. One implication of this is that these trauma-related AVH require a common trans-diagnostic treatment strategy. Whilst antipsychotics are already increasingly being used to treat AVH in PTSD, we argue for the centrality of trauma-based interventions for trauma-based AVH in both PTSD and in people diagnosed with schizophrenia.

  13. Auditory verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia and post-traumatic stress disorder: common phenomenology, common cause, common interventions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon eMccarthy-Jones

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH: ‘hearing voices’ are found in both schizophrenia and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. In this paper we first demonstrate that AVH in these two diagnoses share a qualitatively similar phenomenology. We then show that the presence of AVH in schizophrenia is often associated with earlier exposure to traumatic/emotionally overwhelming events, as it is by definition in PTSD. We next argue that the content of AVH relates to earlier traumatic events in a similar way in both PTSD and schizophrenia, most commonly having direct or indirect thematic links to emotionally overwhelming events, rather than being direct re-experiencing. We then propose, following cognitive models of PTSD, that the reconstructive nature of memory may be able to account for the nature of these associations between trauma and AVH content, as may threat-hypervigilance and the individual’s personal goals. We conclude that a notable subset of people diagnosed with schizophrenia with AVH are having phenomenologically and aetiologically identical experiences to PTSD patients who hear voices. As such we propose that the iron curtain between AVH in PTSD (often termed ‘dissociative AVH’ and AVH in schizophrenia (so-called ‘psychotic AVH’ needs to be torn down, as these are often the same experience. One implication of this is that these trauma-related AVH require a common trans-diagnostic treatment strategy. Whilst antipsychotics are already increasingly being used to treat AVH in PTSD, we argue for the centrality of trauma-based interventions for trauma-based AVH in both PTSD and in people diagnosed with schizophrenia.

  14. Common Spatialities: The Production of the Multitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Jalón Oyrazún

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Gezi Park barricades in Istanbul, the OWS occupation of Zucotti Park in New York City, the tents of the Indignados movement in Spain, the London Blackberry riots and the seizure of Tahrir Square in Cairo to demand the overthrow of a dictator. As new forms of social coexistence and relationships are being configured, and new spaces for encounter and conflict are produced, architecture feels that essential questions regarding its activity are being addressed in each and every one of these situations. And yet we seem unable to relate to them and grasp their significance as we repeatedly turn to old metaphors and tools. If modern architecture pursues the modern liberal state techniques of management and administration of life, then recent forms of political action, which claim a new relation to the sensible, demand – and might help develop – a new understanding of architecture. We are moving from technical and disciplinary knowledge towards a critical practice that integrates with the action of the multitude. Starting from a definition of commons as the production of the multitude, we seek not only to understand the spatial dimension of this production, but also to acknowledge space as common

  15. Yukon's common oil and gas regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Love, B.

    1998-01-01

    The Yukon's common oil and gas regime was developed in partnership with First Nations and it sets out the rules that will apply throughout the Yukon and on Yukon and First Nation lands. While separate and distinct, it conforms with and is compatible with other government systems and regimes. The major elements of the common regime include the Oil and Gas Act, regulations, policies, processes and agreements. The specific opportunities that are available in each phase of oil and gas development in the Yukon are described, with a map showing all basins, reserves and sites of current oil and gas activity. The Yukon has eight potential oil and gas basins: North Coast, Old Crow, Kandik, Eagle Plain, Peel Plateau, Bonnet Plume, Whitehorse Trough, and Liard Plateau. Only three of the eight, the Liard Plateau, Whitehorse Trough and Eagle Plain, have been explored. No wells have been drilled in several of Yukon's basins. Factors influencing economic opportunities in the Territory are also described, including: (1) international events and energy markets, (2) North American gas markets, (3) environmental factors, (4) competitiveness of the Yukon regime, and (5) the commitment of industry resources. 4 figs

  16. Common genotypes of hepatitis B virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idrees, M.; Khan, S.; Riazuddin, S.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To find out the frequency of common genotypes of hepatitis-B virus (HBV). Subjects and Methods: HBV genotypes were determined in 112 HBV DNA positive sera by a simple and precise molecular genotyping system base on PCR using type-specific primers for the determination of genotypes of HBV A through H. Results: Four genotypes (A,B,C and D) out of total eight reported genotypes so far were identified. Genotypes A, B and C were predominant. HBV genotype C was the most predominant in this collection, appearing in 46 samples (41.7%). However, the genotypes of a total of 5 (4.46%) samples could not be determined with the present genotyping system. Mixed genotypes were seen in 8(7.14% HBV) isolates. Five of these were infected with genotypes A/D whereas two were with genotypes C/D. One patient was infected with 4 genotypes (A/B/C/D). Genotype A (68%) was predominant in Sindh genotype C was most predominant in North West Frontier Province (NWFP) (68.96) whereas genotype C and B were dominant in Punjab (39.65% and 25.86% respectively). Conclusion: All the four common genotypes of HBV found worldwide (A,B,C and D) were isolated. Genotype C is the predominant Genotypes B and C are predominant in Punjab and N.W.F.P. whereas genotype A is predominant in Sindh. (author)

  17. USGEO Common Framework For Earth Observation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, J.; de la Beaujardiere, J.; Bristol, S.

    2015-12-01

    The United States Group on Earth Observations (USGEO) Data Management Working Group (DMWG) is an interagency body established by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP). The primary purpose of this group is to foster interagency cooperation and collaboration for improving the life cycle data management practices and interoperability of federally held earth observation data consistent with White House documents including the National Strategy for Civil Earth Observations, the National Plan for Civil Earth Observations, and the May 2013 Executive Order on Open Data (M-13-13). The members of the USGEO DMWG are working on developing a Common Framework for Earth Observation Data that consists of recommended standards and approaches for realizing these goals as well as improving the discoverability, accessibility, and usability of federally held earth observation data. These recommendations will also guide work being performed under the Big Earth Data Initiative (BEDI). This talk will summarize the Common Framework, the philosophy behind it, and next steps forward.

  18. Renewable and nuclear power: A common future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbruggen, Aviel

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear power and renewable energy are the main options to bring down the carbon intensity of commercial energy supply. What technology is unlimited backstop supply depends on its performance on the sustainability criteria: democratic decided, globally accessible, environmental benign, low risk, affordable. Renewable power meets all criteria, with affordability under debate. Maximizing energy efficiency as prerequisite, the affordable sustainable option in fact is the twin efficiency/renewable power. Nuclear power falls short on the sustainability criteria and its public acceptance is low. Nuclear proponents now propose nuclear and renewable energy as a suitable couple to address the climate change challenge. The two antagonists however are mutually exclusive on the five major directions of future power systems. First, nuclear power has been architect of the expansive 'business-as-usual' energy economy since the 1950s. Second, add-on by fossil-fuelled power plants is bulky and expansive for nuclear power, but is distributed, flexible and contracting over time for renewable power. Third, power grids for spreading bulky nuclear outputs are other than the interconnection between millions of distributed power sources requires. Fourth, risks and externalities and the proper technology itself of nuclear power limit its development perspectives, while efficiency/renewable power are still in their infancy. Fifth, their stalemate for R and D resources and for production capacities will intensify. Nuclear power and renewable power have no common future in safeguarding 'Our Common Future'

  19. Common Mathematical Model of Fatigue Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Maléř

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new common mathematical model which is able to describe fatigue characteristics in the whole necessary range by one equation only:log N = A(R + B(R ∙ log Sawhere A(R = AR2 + BR + C and B(R = DR2 + AR + F.This model was verified by five sets of fatigue data taken from the literature and by our own three additional original fatigue sets. The fatigue data usually described the region of N 104 to 3 x 106 and stress ratio of R = -2 to 0.5. In all these cases the proposed model described fatigue results with small scatter. Studying this model, following knowledge was obtained:– the parameter ”stress ratio R” was a good physical characteristic– the proposed model provided a good description of the eight collections of fatigue test results by one equation only– the scatter of the results through the whole scope is only a little greater than that round the individual S/N curve– using this model while testing may reduce the number of test samples and shorten the test time– as the proposed model represents a common form of the S/N curve, it may be used for processing uniform objective fatigue life results, which may enable mutual comparison of fatigue characteristics.

  20. Active agents in common skin care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draelos, Zoe Diana

    2010-02-01

    Skin care products are numerous and perplexing, yet the majority fall into the moisturizer category. Moisturizers are substances designed to improve and maintain the skin barrier. They serve as a vehicle for the delivery of active ingredients that minimize facial lines of dehydration, deliver photoprotection, and provide antioxidant properties. Moisturizers are based on occlusive substances, such as petrolatum and dimethicone, and humectant substances, such as glycerin, with a variety of sunscreens and botanicals for added functionality and marketing impact. This article reviews these common active agents. The plethora of over-the-counter skin care products available for patient purchase is overwhelming, yet there is certain commonality among 80 percent of the formulations. The majority of the products are moisturizers with added ingredients to support marketing claims. Whether the product is a facial foundation, an antiaging night cream, a sunscreen, a topical antioxidant, or a skin-lightening serum, the formulation is basically a moisturizer. Sunscreen is the most biologically active antiaging ingredient in skin care products, but the antiinflammatory and antioxidant effects of botanicals possess tremendous marketing appeal.

  1. Diagnosis and Management of Common Foot Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bica, David; Sprouse, Ryan A; Armen, Joseph

    2016-02-01

    Foot fractures are among the most common foot injuries evaluated by primary care physicians. They most often involve the metatarsals and toes. Patients typically present with varying signs and symptoms, the most common being pain and trouble with ambulation. Diagnosis requires radiographic evaluation, although emerging evidence demonstrates that ultrasonography may be just as accurate. Management is determined by the location of the fracture and its effect on balance and weight bearing. Metatarsal shaft fractures are initially treated with a posterior splint and avoidance of weight-bearing activities; subsequent treatment consists of a short leg walking cast or boot for four to six weeks. Proximal fifth metatarsal fractures have different treatments depending on the location of the fracture. A fifth metatarsal tuberosity avulsion fracture can be treated acutely with a compressive dressing, then the patient can be transitioned to a short leg walking boot for two weeks, with progressive mobility as tolerated after initial immobilization. A Jones fracture has a higher risk of nonunion and requires at least six to eight weeks in a short leg non-weight-bearing cast; healing time can be as long as 10 to 12 weeks. Great toe fractures are treated with a short leg walking boot or cast with toe plate for two to three weeks, then a rigid-sole shoe for an additional three to four weeks. Lesser toe fractures can be treated with buddy taping and a rigid-sole shoe for four to six weeks.

  2. Toxicity of common ions to marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillard, D.A.; DuFresne, D.L.; Evans, J.

    1995-01-01

    Produced waters from oil and gas drilling operations are typically very saline, and these may cause acute toxicity to marine organisms due to osmotic imbalances as well as to an excess or deficiency of specific common ions. In order to better understand the relationship between toxicity and ion concentration, laboratory toxicity tests were conducted using mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia), sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus), and inland silverside (Menidia beryllina). For each species the ionic concentration of standard laboratory water was proportionally increased or decreased to produce test solutions with a range of salinities. Organisms were exposed for 48 hours. Individual ions (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnetsium, strontium, chloride, bromide, sulfate, bicarbonate, and borate) were also manipulated to examine individual ion toxicity. The three test species differ in their tolerance of salinity. Mysid shrimp show a marked decrease in survival at salinities less than approximately 5 ppt. Both fish species tolerated low salinity water, however, silversides were less tolerant of saline waters (salinity greater than 40 ppt). There were also significant differences in the responses of the organisms to different ions. The results show that the salinity of the test solution may play an important role in the responses of the organisms to the produced water effluent. Predictable toxicity/ion relationships developed in this study can be used to estimate whether toxicity in a produced water is a result of common ions, salinity, or some other unknown toxicant

  3. Bald eagle predation on common loon egg

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeStefano, Stephen; McCarthy, Kyle P.; Laskowski, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The Common Loon (Gavia immer) must defend against many potential egg predators during incubation, including corvids, Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus), raccoons (Procyon lotor), striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis), fisher (Martes pennanti), and mink (Neovison vison) (McIntyre 1988, Evers 2004, McCann et al. 2005). Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) have been documented as predators of both adult Common Loons and their chicks (Vliestra and Paruk 1997, Paruk et al. 1999, Erlandson et al. 2007, Piper et al. 2008). In Wisconsin, where nesting Bald Eagles are abundant (>1200 nesting pairs, >1 young/pair/year), field biologists observed four instances of eagle predation of eggs in loon nests during the period 2002–2004 (M. Meyer pers. comm.). In addition, four cases of eagle predation of incubating adult loons were inferred from evidence found at the loon nest (dozens of plucked adult loon feathers, no carcass remains) and/or loon leg, neck, and skull bones beneath two active eagle nests, including leg bones containing the bands of the nearby (nest surveillance video camera on Lake Umbagog, a large lake (32 km2) at Umbagog National Wildlife Refuge (UNWR) in Maine.

  4. Common Running Overuse Injuries and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žiga Kozinc

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Runners are particularly prone to developing overuse injuries. The most common running-related injuries include medial tibial stress syndrome, Achilles tendinopathy, plantar fasciitis, patellar tendinopathy, iliotibial band syndrome, tibial stress fractures, and patellofemoral pain syndrome. Two of the most significant risk factors appear to be injury history and weekly distance. Several trials have successfully identified biomechanical risk factors for specific injuries, with increased ground reaction forces, excessive foot pronation, hip internal rotation and hip adduction during stance phase being mentioned most often. However, evidence on interventions for lowering injury risk is limited, especially regarding exercise-based interventions. Biofeedback training for lowering ground reaction forces is one of the few methods proven to be effective. It seems that the best way to approach running injury prevention is through individualized treatment. Each athlete should be assessed separately and scanned for risk factors, which should be then addressed with specific exercises. This review provides an overview of most common running-related injuries, with a particular focus on risk factors, and emphasizes the problems encountered in preventing running-related injuries.

  5. Watershed Management: Lessons from Common Property Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kerr

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Watershed development is an important component of rural development and natural resource management strategies in many countries. A watershed is a special kind of common pool resource: an area defined by hydrological linkages where optimal management requires coordinated use of natural resources by all users. Management is difficult because natural resources comprising the watershed system have multiple, conflicting uses, so any given management approach will spread benefits and costs unevenly among users. To address these challenges, watershed approaches have evolved from more technocratic to a greater focus on social organization and participation. However, the latter cannot necessarily be widely replicated. In addition, participatory approaches have worked better at a small scale, but hydrological relationships cover a larger scale and some projects have faced tradeoffs in choosing between the two. Optimal approaches for future efforts are not clear, and theories from common property research do not support the idea that complex watershed management can succeed everywhere. Solutions may include simplifying watershed projects, pursuing watershed projects where conditions are favorable, and making other investments elsewhere, including building the organizational capacity that can facilitate watershed management.

  6. Canada: variations on a common theme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raisa B. Deber

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Canada faces health care challenges common to all industrialized countries – how to ensure timely access to high quality care, close to home, at an affordable cost. Addressing these challenges is complicated by interjurisdictional variation in both how health care is managed and delivered, and in health outcomes. Canada can be described as a non-system of 10 provincial and three territorial health insurance plans which mandate publicly-funded coverage for medically necessary hospital and physician services, based upon common principles and shaped by a federal governance structure that affords substantial power and autonomy to the provinces/territories over matters of health and health care. This article first examines the structural context of the health care system in Canada, including the range of services publicly funded, the public-private mix, and the complexities of current governance arrangements. It then discusses several issues affecting health policy reform: costs versus access; questions of sustainability, quality, and performance; human resources capacity; and the provision of public and population health services.

  7. Common diseases as determinants of menopausal age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingmei; Eriksson, Mikael; Czene, Kamila; Hall, Per; Rodriguez-Wallberg, Kenny A

    2016-12-01

    Can the diagnosis of common diseases before menopause influence age at natural menopause (ANM) onset? Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and depression were observed to delay menopause. It has been observed that women who undergo early menopause experience a higher burden of health problems related to metabolic syndromes, heart disease and depression, but whether ANM can be influenced by common adult diseases has not been studied extensively. All women attending mammography screening or clinical mammography at four hospitals in Sweden were invited to participate in the Karolinska Mammography Project for Risk Prediction of Breast Cancer (KARMA) study. Between January 2011 and March 2013, 70 877 women were recruited. Information from the baseline questionnaire filled out upon enrollment was used in this cross-sectional analysis on predictors of ANM onset. We limited our analyses to 61 936 women with complete data on ANM and covariates and a follow-up time (from birth to menopause or censoring) of at least 35 years. Premenopausal diagnoses of depression, anorexia, bulimia, PCOS, ovarian cyst, heart failure, myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, stroke, preeclampsia, diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidemia were examined as time-dependent variables in multivariable Cox regression analyses, adjusting for reproductive factors (age at menarche, menstrual cycle regularity in adult life, number of children and premenopausal oral contraceptive use) and risk factors of common diseases (education, physical activity at 18 years and information at the time of questionnaire including BMI, ever smoking and alcohol consumption). Women with PCOS and depression were independently associated with later menopause (hazard ratio (95% CI): 0.44 (0.28-0.71) and 0.95 (0.91-1.00), respectively), compared to women with no such histories. The associations remained significant in a subset of women who had never received gynecological surgery or hormone treatment (n = 32313, 0.21 (0

  8. The promise of common pool resource theory and the reality of commons projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred P. Saunders

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Commons projects, such as community-based natural resource management, have widespread appeal, which has enabled them to shrug off a mixed performance in practice. This paper discusses how the theoretical assumptions of common pool resource (CPR theory may have inadvertently contributed to the unfulfilled expectations of commons projects. The paper argues that the individual ‘rational resource user’, encapsulated in the CPR design principles, struggles to provide clear direction for meaningful consideration of local norms, values and interests in commons projects. The focus of CPR theory on efficiency and functionality results in a tendency in commons projects to overlook how local conditions are forged through relations at multiple scales. Commonly politically complex and changing relations are reduced to institutional design problems based on deriving the incentives and disincentives of ‘rational resource users. The corollary is that CPR theory oversimplifies the project context that it is seeking to change because it offers little or no direction to deal with the social embeddedness of resource use or implications of different stratifications.

  9. Common pediatric and adolescent skin conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfilippo, Angela M; Barrio, Victoria; Kulp-Shorten, Carol; Callen, Jeffrey P

    2003-10-01

    Skin lesions are encountered in all areas of medicine, and it is therefore important for physicians to understand the fundamentals of explaining and diagnosing common skin conditions. This article begins with a discussion of description and documentation of skin lesions based on color, size, morphology, and distribution. Pigmentation disorders such as vitiligo are depicted. Cutaneous growths that are found in the pediatric and adolescent population include acrochordons, dermatofibromas, keloids, milia, neurofibromas, and pyogenic granulomas. Treatment of these growths usually involves observation or curettage with electrodessication.Psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, poison ivy, and eczema are comprised of scaling patches and plaques; poison ivy and atopic dermatitis may also present with bullous and vesicular changes. Therapy typically consists of topical emollients and corticosteroids; phototherapy is reserved for refractory cases. Acne vulgaris is the most common skin disease of the pediatric and adolescent population. This condition can be psychologically debilitating and, therefore, proper treatment is of paramount importance. Therapeutic options include topical as well as oral antibiotics and retinoids. Extreme caution must be used when prescribing retinoids to post-pubescent females, as these agents are teratogenic. Vascular anomalies are most commonly exemplified as port wine stains and hemangiomas. Port wine stains may be treated with pulsed dye laser or may be observed if they are not of concern to the patient or physician. Hemangiomas typically spontaneously regress by age ten; however, there has been recent concern that certain cases may need to be treated. Dermal rashes may be localized or generalized. Treatment of generalized drug eruptions involves elimination of the inciting agent, topical antipruritics, and systemic corticosteroids for severe reactions. Infectious etiologic agents of skin disease include bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Many sexually

  10. Lightning attachment process to common buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, M. M. F.; Paiva, A. R.; Schumann, C.; Ferro, M. A. S.; Naccarato, K. P.; Silva, J. C. O.; Siqueira, F. V. C.; Custódio, D. M.

    2017-05-01

    The physical mechanism of lightning attachment to grounded structures is one of the most important issues in lightning physics research, and it is the basis for the design of the lightning protection systems. Most of what is known about the attachment process comes from leader propagation models that are mostly based on laboratory observations of long electrical discharges or from observations of lightning attachment to tall structures. In this paper we use high-speed videos to analyze the attachment process of downward lightning flashes to an ordinary residential building. For the first time, we present characteristics of the attachment process to common structures that are present in almost every city (in this case, two buildings under 60 m in São Paulo City, Brazil). Parameters like striking distance and connecting leaders speed, largely used in lightning attachment models and in lightning protection standards, are revealed in this work.Plain Language SummarySince the time of Benjamin Franklin, no one has ever recorded high-speed video images of a lightning connection to a common building. It is very difficult to do it. Cameras need to be very close to the structure chosen to be observed, and long observation time is required to register one lightning strike to that particular structure. Models and theories used to determine the zone of protection of a lightning rod have been developed, but they all suffer from the lack of field data. The submitted manuscript provides results from high-speed video observations of lightning attachment to low buildings that are commonly found in almost every populated area around the world. The proximity of the camera and the high frame rate allowed us to see interesting details that will improve the understanding of the attachment process and, consequently, the models and theories used by lightning protection standards. This paper also presents spectacular images and videos of lightning flashes connecting lightning rods that

  11. Bioenergy potential of eight common aquatic weeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasi, S.A.; Nipaney, P.C.; Schaumberg, G.D. (Pondicherry (Central) Univ. (IN). Salim Ali School of Ecology)

    1990-01-01

    Eight common aquatic weeds Salvinia molesta, Hydrilla verticillata, Nymphaea stellata, Azolla pinnata, Ceratopteris sp. Scirpus sp. Cyperus sp, and Utricularia reticulata were digested anaerobically to produce methane. The carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio, carbon to phosphorus (C/P) ratio, and the volatile solids (VS) content of the weeds varied widely. No trend between these factors and the methane yield was discernable; the possible reasons are discussed. The energy potential of the weeds per unit area of the weed crop was worked out. Natural stands of salvinia, such as the one employed in the present investigation, would yield energy (methane) of the order of 10{sup 8} Kcal/ha/yr. (author).

  12. Common origin of visible and dark universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Peihong; Sarkar, Utpal

    2010-01-01

    Dark matter, baryonic matter, and dark energy have different properties but contribute comparable energy density to the present Universe. We point out that they may have a common origin. As the dark energy has a scale far lower than all known scales in particle physics but very close to neutrino masses, while the excess matter over antimatter in the baryonic sector is probably related to the neutrino-mass generation, we unify the origin of the dark and visible universe in a variant of the seesaw model. In our model (i) the dark matter relic density is a dark matter asymmetry emerged simultaneously with the baryon asymmetry from leptogenesis; (ii) the dark energy is due to a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone-Boson associated with the neutrino-mass generation.

  13. Object permanence in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Natacha; Huber, Ludwig

    2004-03-01

    A series of 9 search tasks corresponding to the Piagetian Stages 3-6 of object permanence were administered to 11 common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). Success rates varied strongly among tasks and marmosets, but the performances of most subjects were above chance level on the majority of tasks of visible and invisible displacements. Although up to 24 trials were administered in the tests, subjects did not improve their performance across trials. Errors were due to preferences for specific locations or boxes, simple search strategies, and attentional deficits. The performances of at least 2 subjects that achieved very high scores up to the successive invisible displacement task suggest that this species is able to represent the existence and the movements of unperceived objects. ((c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)

  14. Common variable immunodeficiency in a horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaminio, M Julia B F; LaCombe, Veronique; Kohn, Catherine W; Antczak, Douglas F

    2002-11-01

    A 12-year-old Quarter Horse mare that was nonresponsive to medical treatment was evaluated for chronic respiratory disease and hepatobiliary disease. Serum immunoglobulin concentrations were measured by use of radial immunodiffusion that revealed trace to nondetectable concentrations of IgG, IgG(T), IgM, and IgA. Use of serum protein electrophoresis confirmed agammaglobulinemia by the absence of the expected peak in the gamma region. In addition, vaccination with tetanus toxoid did not result in specific immunoglobulin production. Flow cytometric analysis of blood lymphocyte subpopulations revealed the absence of B cells in blood. Immunohistochemical analysis of tissue sections revealed the absence of B lymphocytes in bone marrow and spleen, with occasional B cells in the peripheral lymph nodes. Blood lymphocyte proliferation assays revealed weak responses to pokeweed mitogen and no response to stimulation with lipopolysaccharide. Considering the age and sex of the horse, results of the immunologic tests suggested a diagnosis of common variable immunodeficiency.

  15. Endogenous vs. exogenous regulations in the commons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abatayo, Anna Lou; Lynham, John

    2016-01-01

    It is widely believed that there is strong experimental evidence to support the idea that exogenously imposed regulations crowd out the intrinsic motivations of common pool resource (CPR) users to refrain from over-harvesting. We introduce a novel experimental design that attempts to disentangle...... potential confounds in previous experiments. A key feature of our experimental design is to have the exact same regulations chosen endogenously as those that are imposed exogenously. When we compare the same regulations chosen endogenously to those externally imposed, we observe no differences in extraction...... endogenous regulations with communication and exogenous regulations without communication. Our results suggest that externally imposed regulations do not crowd out intrinsic motivations in the lab and they confirm that communication facilitates cooperation to reduce extraction....

  16. Common bunt resistant wheat composite cross populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffan, Philipp Matthias; Borgen, A.; Backes, Gunter Martin

    stability. However, a number of challenges must be met before diverse wheat populations can be introduced into commercial wheat production: one of these is the development of breeding technologies based on mass selection which enable breeders and farmers to improve specific traits in populations...... and maintain diversity at the same time. BIOBREED is a project which commenced in Denmark in 2011 to meet these challenges for wheat population breeding. The project focuses on the development of tools and methods for mass selection of traits relevant for organic and low input production, where it is expected...... that the highest benefits of utilizing diverse populations can be achieved. BIOBREED focuses on three main aspects of wheat population breeding for organic and low input production systems: i) common bunt (caused by Tilletia caries) resistance, ii) selection for improved protein content and iii) the influence...

  17. Hypertriglyceridemia, a common dyslipidemia of complex definition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Trenti

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypertriglyceridemia is a common biochemical finding. Depending on the triglyceride levels it can be associated with increased risk of acute pancreatitis and of cardiovascular disease. The most severe forms have a genetic basis. Clinical case: We report a case of a 60-year-old woman with very high triglycerides (800- 3,000 mg/dL and normal cholesterol levels. The patient is a non smoker, on hypolipemic diet, non alcoholic consumer, and on regular physical exercise. Her blood pressure is normal, BMI is 20, waist circumference is 78 cm. Thyroid, renal and hepatic function are normal. She has never had acute pancreatitis or cardiovascular disease. Discussion: The diagnostic and therapeutic management of this case is discussed. Causes of primary (genetic and secondary hypertriglyceridemia are also reviewed, together with clinical features and management on every day practice. We focused on severe hypertriglyceridemia.

  18. Common postural defects among music students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Piñeiro, Patricia; Díaz-Pereira, M Pino; Martínez, Aurora

    2015-07-01

    Postural quality during musical performance affects both musculoskeletal health and the quality of the performance. In this study we examined the posture of 100 students at a Higher Conservatory of Music in Spain. By analysing video tapes and photographs of the students while performing, a panel of experts extracted values of 11 variables reflecting aspects of overall postural quality or the postural quality of various parts of the body. The most common postural defects were identified, together with the situations in which they occur. It is concluded that most students incur in unphysiological postures during performance. It is hoped that use of the results of this study will help correct these errors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Gamma radiosensitivity of a common bean cultivar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colaco, W.; Martinez, C.R.

    1995-01-01

    A preliminary experiment was conducted to evaluate the radiosensitivity of common bean (Phaseolous vulgaris L.), cultivar to gamma rays from a 60 Co source. Sets of seeds (60 seed/sample) irradiated with 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 Gy, were compared to a control without irradiation (0 Gy), under greenhouse conditions. The radiosensitivity was evaluated through seedling height reduction, determined at 15 days after emergence (DAE), and also through seedling survival, root length, and dry matter production of leaves, shoots and roots. Seedling height was significantly reduced for the treatments with 150 and 250 Gy, in relation to the control. The dose causing reduction of 50% seedling height was between 150 and 200 Gy. Survival rates corresponding to these doses, were, respectively, 85% and 60%. Root length and dry matter of leaves, shoots and roots, were inversely related to the doses. (author). 15 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  20. ASPECTS OF THE FUTURE COMMON AGRICULTURAL POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo GAJO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to present the main CAP reforms imposed by the actual situation of agriculture development in the EU. The Common Agriculture Policy is focused on decoupling, modulation and cross-compliance. The single payment scheme will assure aids only for farms where production complies with environment, food safety, animal and plant health, animal welfare, and agricultural land maintenance in good condition. The new legislation provides the introduction of "green payments" related to the adoption of agricultural practices beneficial for the climate and the environment. The demographic growth imposes more production and a better distribution of food in the world. The EU has to be prepared to produce more because of the mass emigration to the rich countries from the region where food demand can not be covered.

  1. Converter topologies for common mode voltage reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Fernando

    2017-11-21

    An inverter includes a three-winding transformer, a DC-AC inverter electrically coupled to the first winding of the transformer, a cycloconverter electrically coupled to the second winding of the transformer, and an active filter electrically coupled to the third winding of the transformer. The DC-AC inverter is adapted to convert the input DC waveform to an AC waveform delivered to the transformer at the first winding. The cycloconverter is adapted to convert an AC waveform received at the second winding of the transformer to the output AC waveform having a grid frequency of the AC grid. The active filter is adapted to sink and source power with one or more energy storage devices based on a mismatch in power between the DC source and the AC grid. At least two of the DC-AC inverter, the cycloconverter, or the active filter are electrically coupled via a common reference electrical interconnect.

  2. The Common Sense Initiative: Petroleum refining sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, M.M.

    1995-01-01

    The Common Sense Initiative is trying to answer three questions: (1) ''How does one leverage the change in corporate attitudes for more efficient compliance with pollution prevention and greater use of innovative technologies?'' (2) ''How does one incorporate new approaches into the traditional menu of EPA compliance tools?'' (3) ''How can one accomplish cleaner, cheaper, smarter results?'' One answer is to create a process that includes all stakeholders that have to either implement or live with EPA decisions. This is being done by creating stake-holder groups representing labor, communities, national and grassroots environmental organization, industries and States. The focus is on realizing improvements in: pollution prevention; innovative technologies; permitting; regulations; compliance; and reporting and recordkeeping

  3. Common mullein, pharmacological and chemical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Riaz

    Full Text Available Verbascum thapsus L. [Khardhag or Common mullein], a member of the family Scrophulariaceae, is a famous herb that is found all over Europe, in temperate Asia, in North America and is well-reputed due to its medicinal properties. This medicinal herb contains various chemical constituents like saponins, iridoid and phenylethanoid glycosides, flavonoids, vitamin C and minerals. It is famous in various communities worldwide for the treatment of various disorders of both humans and animals aliments. A number of pharmacological activities such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer, antimicrobial, antiviral, antihepatotoxic and anti-hyperlipidemic activity have been ascribed to this plant. The plant is used to treat tuberculosis also, earache and bronchitis. In the present paper botanical and ethnomedicinal description, pharmacological profile and phytochemistry of this herb is being discussed.

  4. Common pitfalls in preclinical cancer target validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaelin, William G

    2017-07-01

    An alarming number of papers from laboratories nominating new cancer drug targets contain findings that cannot be reproduced by others or are simply not robust enough to justify drug discovery efforts. This problem probably has many causes, including an underappreciation of the danger of being misled by off-target effects when using pharmacological or genetic perturbants in complex biological assays. This danger is particularly acute when, as is often the case in cancer pharmacology, the biological phenotype being measured is a 'down' readout (such as decreased proliferation, decreased viability or decreased tumour growth) that could simply reflect a nonspecific loss of cellular fitness. These problems are compounded by multiple hypothesis testing, such as when candidate targets emerge from high-throughput screens that interrogate multiple targets in parallel, and by a publication and promotion system that preferentially rewards positive findings. In this Perspective, I outline some of the common pitfalls in preclinical cancer target identification and some potential approaches to mitigate them.

  5. Common paths to ASD and PTSD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Maj; Armour, Cherie; Wittmann, Lutz

    Numerous studies have investigated the prediction of acute and long term posttraumatic symptoms following traumatic exposure. As a result several factors have been shown to be predictive of Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) respectively. Furthermore, research...... suggests a strong relationship between ASD severity and subsequent PTSD severity. However, little is known in relation to whether there are common pathways to the development of ASD and PTSD. Peritraumatic responses to trauma are found to be associated with both the development of ASD and PTSD. Although...... of peritraumatic factors such as symptoms of tonic immobility, panic, and dissociation on the development of ASD (N = 458) and PTSD (n = 378) symptoms in a national study of Danish bank robbery victims. The estimated ASD rate was 11.1 % (n = 41) and the estimated PTSD rate was 6.2 % (n = 23). The results...

  6. CMLOG: A common message logging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.; Akers, W.; Bickley, M.; Wu, D.; Watson, W. III

    1997-01-01

    The Common Message Logging (CMLOG) system is an object-oriented and distributed system that not only allows applications and systems to log data (messages) of any type into a centralized database but also lets applications view incoming messages in real-time or retrieve stored data from the database according to selection rules. It consists of a concurrent Unix server that handles incoming logging or searching messages, a Motif browser that can view incoming messages in real-time or display stored data in the database, a client daemon that buffers and sends logging messages to the server, and libraries that can be used by applications to send data to or retrieve data from the database via the server. This paper presents the design and implementation of the CMLOG system meanwhile it will also address the issue of integration of CMLOG into existing control systems. CMLOG into existing control systems

  7. A common sense approach to nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styles, M M

    1990-01-01

    Two events conspired to force me to develop and then articulate a political or power perspective on nursing research. During my term as president of the American Nurses' Association (ANA) experience taught me that knowledge is the currency of politics--politics defined broadly as governance by the institution, by the profession, by the industry or by the Congress. Data describe. Data explain. Data persuade. And, where the mind is made up, data justify. The second event was the June 1988 meeting in Jerusalem of the Workshop of European Nurse Researchers (WERN) where I was invited to speak on The Power of Knowledge: The Knowledge of Power. This was the challenge to put into words what I had learned on this subject throughout a career as academician topped with a tour in professional politics. The result is a common sense approach to nursing research that I would like to present to the nursing community for further debate.

  8. Valuation of common and preferred stocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Ljubica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Buying stocks is a modern way of investing. The investors may place the available capital on the domestic and foreign stock market, they may buy more stocks of a single issuer or distribute money to purchase stocks of various public (stock-exchange companies, and they may form a portfolio of various securities. The investors' decisions on these options are based on their estimate on returns and risks underlying individual security instruments (securities. The two basic approaches to valuation of common stocks are: the Present Value Approach (method of valuating the capitalization of income and the P/E Ratio Approach (the method of valuating the multiple of per-share earnings. Instead of viewing these methods as competing alternatives, they should better be viewed as mutually complementary methods. Both methods are equally useful and their concurrent use may provide better grounds for the analysts' valuation of stocks.

  9. Energy Crops and the Common Agricultural Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, Kes; Nilsson, Helen; Tomescu, Mihail [Lund Univ. (Sweden). International Inst. for Industrial Environmental Economics (IIIEE)

    2006-07-15

    The Biomass Action Plan (BAP) for Europe outlines how to achieve the targets for bioenergy and energy crops defined by the European Commission and member states. However, it is the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) that shapes the utilisation of agricultural land. This paper therefore reviews the supportive measures for energy crops in recent CAP reforms and investigates the effects on farmers in 'real-life' case studies from Sweden, Italy and Austria. This paper explores if the recent CAP reforms are sufficient to motivate farmers to cultivate energy crops; identifies the barriers and drivers for energy crops from the perspective of farmers; and suggests how to enhance supportive measures in the CAP to overcome barriers and complement the BAP.

  10. Common Elements in Operational Events across Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bley, Dennis C.; Wreathall, John; Cooper, Susan E.

    1998-01-01

    The ATHEANA project, sponsored by the US NRC, began as a study of operational events during low power and shutdown conditions at US commercial nuclear power plants. The purpose was to develop an approach for human reliability analysis that is supported by the experience; i.e., with the history of operational events. As the analysis of operational events progressed, a multidisciplinary framework evolved that can structure the analysis, highlighting significant aspects of each event. The ATHEANA multidisciplinary framework has been used as the basis for retrospective analysis of human performance in operational events in the nuclear power, chemical process, aviation, and medical technologies. The results of these analyses are exemplified by three operational events from different industries. Attention is drawn to those common elements in serious operational events that have negative impacts on human performance. (authors)

  11. Common occupational classification system - revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahlman, E.J.; Lewis, R.E.

    1996-05-01

    Workforce planning has become an increasing concern within the DOE community as the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER/WM or EM) seeks to consolidate and refocus its activities and the Office of Defense Programs (DP) closes production sites. Attempts to manage the growth and skills mix of the EM workforce while retaining the critical skills of the DP workforce have been difficult due to the lack of a consistent set of occupational titles and definitions across the complex. Two reasons for this difficulty may be cited. First, classification systems commonly used in industry often fail to cover in sufficient depth the unique demands of DOE`s nuclear energy and research community. Second, the government practice of contracting the operation of government facilities to the private sector has introduced numerous contractor-specific classification schemes to the DOE complex. As a result, sites/contractors report their workforce needs using unique classification systems. It becomes difficult, therefore, to roll these data up to the national level necessary to support strategic planning and analysis. The Common Occupational Classification System (COCS) is designed to overcome these workforce planning barriers. The COCS is based on earlier workforce planning activities and the input of technical, workforce planning, and human resource managers from across the DOE complex. It provides a set of mutually-exclusive occupation titles and definitions that cover the broad range of activities present in the DOE complex. The COCS is not a required record-keeping or data management guide. Neither is it intended to replace contractor/DOE-specific classification systems. Instead, the system provides a consistent, high- level, functional structure of occupations to which contractors can crosswalk (map) their job titles.

  12. Common aperture multispectral spotter camera: Spectro XR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrushevsky, Vladimir; Freiman, Dov; Diamant, Idan; Giladi, Shira; Leibovich, Maor

    2017-10-01

    The Spectro XRTM is an advanced color/NIR/SWIR/MWIR 16'' payload recently developed by Elbit Systems / ELOP. The payload's primary sensor is a spotter camera with common 7'' aperture. The sensor suite includes also MWIR zoom, EO zoom, laser designator or rangefinder, laser pointer / illuminator and laser spot tracker. Rigid structure, vibration damping and 4-axes gimbals enable high level of line-of-sight stabilization. The payload's list of features include multi-target video tracker, precise boresight, strap-on IMU, embedded moving map, geodetic calculations suite, and image fusion. The paper describes main technical characteristics of the spotter camera. Visible-quality, all-metal front catadioptric telescope maintains optical performance in wide range of environmental conditions. High-efficiency coatings separate the incoming light into EO, SWIR and MWIR band channels. Both EO and SWIR bands have dual FOV and 3 spectral filters each. Several variants of focal plane array formats are supported. The common aperture design facilitates superior DRI performance in EO and SWIR, in comparison to the conventionally configured payloads. Special spectral calibration and color correction extend the effective range of color imaging. An advanced CMOS FPA and low F-number of the optics facilitate low light performance. SWIR band provides further atmospheric penetration, as well as see-spot capability at especially long ranges, due to asynchronous pulse detection. MWIR band has good sharpness in the entire field-of-view and (with full HD FPA) delivers amount of detail far exceeding one of VGA-equipped FLIRs. The Spectro XR offers level of performance typically associated with larger and heavier payloads.

  13. How Hemorrhage Control Became Common Sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Alan James

    2018-02-27

    Just over 200 years ago, surgeons were puzzled that the use of the tourniquet to control hemorrhage as common sense during surgery was a relatively recent development. Within the last 20 years, much progress has been made to controlling hemorrhage in the prehospital context. Then, as now, it was surprising that progress on something that appeared obvious had occurred only recently, begging the question how controlling blood loss was common sense in a surgical context, but not for emergency treatment. Paper is a historical survey of the evolution of the medical understanding of hemorrhage along with technological response. The danger of blood loss had historically been consistently underestimated as physicians looked at other explanations for symptoms of how the human body responded to trauma. As the danger from hemorrhage became apparent, even obvious, responsibility for hemorrhage control was delegated down from the surgeon to the paramedic and eventually to individual service members and civilian bystanders with training to "Stop the Bleed." Hippocratic medicine assumed that blood diffused centrifugally into periphery through arteries. William Harvey's observation in 1615 that blood ran through a closed circulatory system gradually transformed conventional wisdom about blood loss, leading to the development of the tourniquet about a century later by Jean-Louis Petit, which made amputation of limbs survivable. However, physicians were cautious about their application during the First World War over concerns over effects on patient recovery. Hemorrhage had generally been seen as symptom to be managed until the patient would be seen by a surgeon who would stop the bleeding. More thorough collection and analysis of data related to case histories of soldiers wounded during the Vietnam Conflict transformed how surgeons understood the importance to hemorrhage leading to development of the doctrine of Tactical Combat Casualty Care in the late 1990's. economic

  14. Labor Dystocia: A Common Approach to Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Jeremy L; Lowe, Nancy K; Schorn, Mavis N; Holley, Sharon L; Ryan, Sharon L; Buxton, Margaret; Wilson-Liverman, Angela M

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary labor and birth population norms should be the basis for evaluating labor progression and determining slow progress that may benefit from intervention. The aim of this article is to present guidelines for a common, evidence-based approach for determination of active labor onset and diagnosis of labor dystocia based on a synthesis of existing professional guidelines and relevant contemporary publications. A 3-point approach for diagnosing active labor onset and classifying labor dystocia-related labor aberrations into well-defined, mutually exclusive categories that can be used clinically and validated by researchers is proposed. The approach comprises identification of 1) an objective point that strictly defines active labor onset (point of active labor determination); 2) an objective point that identifies when labor progress becomes atypical, beyond which interventions aimed at correcting labor dystocia may be justified (point of protraction diagnosis); and 3) an objective point that identifies when interventions aimed at correcting labor dystocia, if used, can first be determined to be unsuccessful, beyond which assisted vaginal or cesarean birth may be justified (earliest point of arrest diagnosis). Widespread adoption of a common approach for diagnosing labor dystocia will facilitate consistent evaluation of labor progress, improve communications between clinicians and laboring women, indicate when intervention aimed at speeding labor progress or facilitating birth may be appropriate, and allow for more efficient translation of safe and effective management strategies into clinical practice. Correct application of the diagnosis of labor dystocia may lead to a decrease in the rate of cesarean birth, decreased health care costs, and improved health of childbearing women and neonates. © 2015 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  15. Rights Expression Languages: DRM vs. Creative Commons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Moscon

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Lo sviluppo delle nuove tecnologie e l’utilizzo sempre più ampio del web hanno trasformato radicalmente la riproduzione e la diffusione dell’informazione. Il panorama vede contrapposto un approccio legato al rigido mantenimento dei diritti d'autore, attraverso l’utilizzo di Digital Rights Management (DRM, a nuove e più elastiche soluzioni, come quelle rappresentate dalle Creative Commons Licenses (CCLs. I DRM hanno lo scopo di rendere riconoscibili da software le restrizioni su utilizzo e circolazione dell'oggetto digitale, rendendolo immodificabile e ad accesso ristretto. Le licenze CC, invece, nascono dalla necessità di contrastare un rigido e centralizzato controllo della conoscenza, cercando di accrescere la collaborazione online. Le licenze CC danno all'utente libertà di accesso, di riproduzione e di distribuzione della risorsa e permettono all'autore di scegliere il livello di protezione dell'opera, consentendo o negando l'uso commerciale o la modifica di essa, o imponendo l'obbligo di mantenere lo stesso tipo di diritti sulle opere derivate. Il movimento alla base delle licenze Creative Commons rappresenta un punto di riferimento sia sotto l’aspetto ideologico che tecnologico; infatti, il procedimento con cui i DRM riescono ad essere efficaci nel controllo della diffusione dell’informazione viene impiegato nelle licenze CC per facilitare e incrementare la diffusione e l’utilizzo dei contenuti, con un controllo flessibile e decentralizzato. L’articolo si propone di descrivere i due modelli, evidenziandone le differenze e gli scopi.

  16. Commons problems, common ground: Earth-surface dynamics and the social-physical interdisciplinary frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, E.

    2015-12-01

    In the archetypal "tragedy of the commons" narrative, local farmers pasture their cows on the town common. Soon the common becomes crowded with cows, who graze it bare, and the arrangement of open access to a shared resource ultimately fails. The "tragedy" involves social and physical processes, but the denouement depends on who is telling the story. An economist might argue that the system collapses because each farmer always has a rational incentive to graze one more cow. An ecologist might remark that the rate of grass growth is an inherent control on the common's carrying capacity. And a geomorphologist might point out that processes of soil degradation almost always outstrip processes of soil production. Interdisciplinary research into human-environmental systems still tends to favor disciplinary vantages. In the context of Anthropocene grand challenges - including fundamental insight into dynamics of landscape resilience, and what the dominance of human activities means for processes of change and evolution on the Earth's surface - two disciplines in particular have more to talk about than they might think. Here, I use three examples - (1) beach nourishment, (2) upstream/downstream fluvial asymmetry, and (3) current and historical "land grabbing" - to illustrate a range of interconnections between physical Earth-surface science and common-pool resource economics. In many systems, decision-making and social complexity exert stronger controls on landscape expression than do physical geomorphological processes. Conversely, human-environmental research keeps encountering multi-scale, emergent problems of resource use made 'common-pool' by water, nutrient and sediment transport dynamics. Just as Earth-surface research can benefit from decades of work on common-pool resource systems, quantitative Earth-surface science can make essential contributions to efforts addressing complex problems in environmental sustainability.

  17. 29 CFR 779.221 - “Common control” defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... organizational units.” The meaning of “common control” is discussed comprehensively in part 776 of this chapter. ... Or Common Control § 779.221 “Common control” defined. Under the definition the “enterprise” includes all related activities performed through “common control” for a common business purpose. The word...

  18. Common cause failure analysis methodology for complex systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, D.P.; Cate, C.L.; Fussell, J.B.

    1977-01-01

    Common cause failure analysis, also called common mode failure analysis, is an integral part of a complex system reliability analysis. This paper extends existing methods of computer aided common cause failure analysis by allowing analysis of the complex systems often encountered in practice. The methods presented here aid in identifying potential common cause failures and also address quantitative common cause failure analysis

  19. Common slavic *komońь "horse"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loma Aleksandar

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The Common Slavic name for horse *koń', with a probably older, yet geographically more limited variant *komoń', has so far no generally accepted etymology. Given the great importance of this animal in the prehistory and the early history of the Indo-European and other peoples of Eurasia, this sets a problem not only for linguists, but also for historians and archeologists. The PIE word for horse, *ekuos, attested among all other branches of IE linguistic family, originally must have been common to the Slavs, as it was to their Baltic, Iranian and German neighbors, but at a later moment - which is hard to determine precisely, although we can assign it to a time before the disintegration of Slavic linguistic unity around the middle of the first millennium A. D. - for this inherited designation the new one *ko(moń' was substituted, either as a lexical innovation made by the Slavs themselves or as a borrowing from another language. Under the entries *komoń' and *koń' of the Moscow dictionary, where their continuations in Slavic languages are respectively listed, O. N. Trubachev gives a survey of previous etymological proposals and rejects all of them in favor of his own explanations. According to him, *komoń' is a Slavic onomatopoeic creation imitative of neigh, while *koń' is a loan-word, going back to Celtic *konkos/kankos 'horse' (originally 'springer'? through an intermediate form *konk', which was presumably understood as a diminutive in -'k'' and consequently shortened. Apart from the facts that the word in question is scarcely attested in comparison with two others Celtic designations for horse, *equo- (> Olr. ech, Gall, epo- and *marka-, and that in Slavic mouth it should have been reflected as *kok'', and not as *kon'k'', the very separation of both forms, *koń' and *komoń', seems unmethodical. With more reason Gamkrelidze and Ivanov recur to the old proposal connecting *koń' via *komoń' (<**kobn-? with *kobyla and further with

  20. Common Fixed Point Theorems in Fuzzy Metric Spaces Satisfying -Contractive Condition with Common Limit Range Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunny Chauhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to emphasize the role of “common limit range property” to ascertain the existence of common fixed point in fuzzy metric spaces. Some illustrative examples are furnished which demonstrate the validity of the hypotheses and degree of utility of our results. We derive a fixed point theorem for four finite families of self-mappings which can be utilized to derive common fixed point theorems involving any finite number of mappings. As an application to our main result, we prove an integral-type fixed point theorem in fuzzy metric space. Our results improve and extend a host of previously known results including the ones contained in Imdad et al. (2012.

  1. Employing Common Limit Range Property to Prove Unified Metrical Common Fixed Point Theorems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Imdad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the role of “common limit range property” to ascertain the existence of common fixed point in metric spaces satisfying an implicit function essentially due to the paper of Ali and Imdad (2008. As an application to our main result, we derive a fixed point theorem for four finite families of self-mappings which can be utilized to derive common fixed point theorems involving any finite number of mappings. Our results improve and extend a host of previously known results including the ones contained in the paper of Ali and Imdad (2008. We also furnish some illustrative examples to support our main results.

  2. Component Commonality and Its Cost Implications - Increasing the Commonality of the Right Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyly-Yrjänäinen, Jouni; Suomala, Petri; Israelsen, Poul

    Component commonality (Labro 2004, Zhou & Gruppström 2004) can be defined as the use of the same version of a component across multiple products. It is usually seen as a means to manage costs without sacrificing product variety. However, when managing costs with component commonality, the managers...... constructions was identified as the most important bottleneck for the delivery process causing many indirect costs, especially with respect to project-management-related activities. Interestingly, by eliminating the need for mechanical engineering, the context starts to approach assembly-to-order context, also...... should be able to identify rather rapidly which group of components would enable the most significant cost reductions. Unfortunately, the existing literature lacks profound discussion of how to identify the right components for increased component commonality. The objective of the paper is to discuss how...

  3. Using variable transformations to perform common event analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worrell, R.B.

    1977-01-01

    Any analytical method for studying the effect of common events on the behavior of a system is considered as being a form of common event analysis. The particular common events that are involved often represent quite different phenomena, and this has led to the development of different kinds of common event analysis. For example, common mode failure analysis, common cause analysis, critical location analysis, etc., are all different kinds of common event analysis for which the common events involved represent different phenomena. However, the problem that must be solved for each of these different kinds of common event analysis is essentially the same: Determine the effect of common events on the behavior of a system. Thus, a technique that is useful in achieving one kind of common event analysis is often useful in achieving other kinds of common event analysis

  4. Litigation-proof patents: avoiding the most common patent mistakes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goldstein, Larry M

    2014-01-01

    "Litigation-Proof Patents: Avoiding the Most Common Patent Mistakes explains the principles of excellent patents, presents the ten most common errors in patents, and details a step-by-step method for avoiding these common errors...

  5. How common is vitamin B-12 deficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Lindsay H

    2009-02-01

    In considering the vitamin B-12 fortification of flour, it is important to know who is at risk of vitamin B-12 deficiency and whether those individuals would benefit from flour fortification. This article reviews current knowledge of the prevalence and causes of vitamin B-12 deficiency and considers whether fortification would improve the status of deficient subgroups of the population. In large surveys in the United States and the United Kingdom, approximately 6% of those aged > or =60 y are vitamin B-12 deficient (plasma vitamin B-12 life. In developing countries, deficiency is much more common, starting in early life and persisting across the life span. Inadequate intake, due to low consumption of animal-source foods, is the main cause of low serum vitamin B-12 in younger adults and likely the main cause in poor populations worldwide; in most studies, serum vitamin B-12 concentration is correlated with intake of this vitamin. In older persons, food-bound cobalamin malabsorption becomes the predominant cause of deficiency, at least in part due to gastric atrophy, but it is likely that most elderly can absorb the vitamin from fortified food. Fortification of flour with vitamin B-12 is likely to improve the status of most persons with low stores of this vitamin. However, intervention studies are still needed to assess efficacy and functional benefits of increasing intake of the amounts likely to be consumed in flour, including in elderly persons with varying degrees of gastric atrophy.

  6. Error monitoring issues for common channel signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Victor T.; Kant, Krishna; Ramaswami, V.; Wang, Jonathan L.

    1994-04-01

    Motivated by field data which showed a large number of link changeovers and incidences of link oscillations between in-service and out-of-service states in common channel signaling (CCS) networks, a number of analyses of the link error monitoring procedures in the SS7 protocol were performed by the authors. This paper summarizes the results obtained thus far and include the following: (1) results of an exact analysis of the performance of the error monitoring procedures under both random and bursty errors; (2) a demonstration that there exists a range of error rates within which the error monitoring procedures of SS7 may induce frequent changeovers and changebacks; (3) an analysis of the performance ofthe SS7 level-2 transmission protocol to determine the tolerable error rates within which the delay requirements can be met; (4) a demonstration that the tolerable error rate depends strongly on various link and traffic characteristics, thereby implying that a single set of error monitor parameters will not work well in all situations; (5) some recommendations on a customizable/adaptable scheme of error monitoring with a discussion on their implementability. These issues may be particularly relevant in the presence of anticipated increases in SS7 traffic due to widespread deployment of Advanced Intelligent Network (AIN) and Personal Communications Service (PCS) as well as for developing procedures for high-speed SS7 links currently under consideration by standards bodies.

  7. This common inheritance. UK annual report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    This latest White Paper in the `This Common Inheritance` series assessing progress made by the United Kingdom in 1996 and priority issues of 1997 to address the issue of sustainable development. During the year the new National Air Quality Strategy has been published, the Noise Act has been enacted, an agenda for action on water resources and supply has been issued, pilot schemes have been developed to encourage the sale of energy services rather than the supply of energy alone and the landfill tax has been implemented. The report gives an overview of progress in each area and then presents, in tabular form, summaries of previous commitments, action in 1996 and commitments to action in 1997 and beyond in the areas: global atmosphere, air quality, freshwater, the sea, soil, wildlife and habitats, agriculture, forestry, fisheries, mineral extraction and supply, energy supply, manufacturing, biotechnology, waste, transport etc. Separate sections tabulate how sustainability is being put into practice and also tabulate actions being taken in Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. 3 apps.

  8. Optical Reflectance Measurements for Commonly Used Reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janecek, Martin; Moses, William W.

    2008-08-01

    When simulating light collection in scintillators, modeling the angular distribution of optical light reflectance from surfaces is very important. Since light reflectance is poorly understood, either purely specular or purely diffuse reflectance is generally assumed. In this paper we measure the optical reflectance distribution for eleven commonly used reflectors. A 440 nm, output power stabilized, un-polarized laser is shone onto a reflector at a fixed angle of incidence. The reflected light's angular distribution is measured by an array of silicon photodiodes. The photodiodes are movable to cover 2pi of solid angle. The light-induced current is, through a multiplexer, read out with a digital multimeter. A LabVIEW program controls the motion of the laser and the photodiode array, the multiplexer, and the data collection. The laser can be positioned at any angle with a position accuracy of 10 arc minutes. Each photodiode subtends 6.3deg, and the photodiode array can be positioned at any angle with up to 10 arc minute angular resolution. The dynamic range for the current measurements is 10 5:1. The measured light reflectance distribution was measured to be specular for several ESR films as well as for aluminum foil, mostly diffuse for polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) tape and titanium dioxide paint, and neither specular nor diffuse for Lumirrorreg, Melinexreg and Tyvekreg. Instead, a more complicated light distribution was measured for these three materials.

  9. Hair Loss: Common Causes and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, T Grant; Slomiany, W Paul; Allison, Robert

    2017-09-15

    Hair loss is often distressing and can have a significant effect on the patient's quality of life. Patients may present to their family physician first with diffuse or patchy hair loss. Scarring alopecia is best evaluated by a dermatologist. Nonscarring alopecias can be readily diagnosed and treated in the family physician's office. Androgenetic alopecia can be diagnosed clinically and treated with minoxidil. Alopecia areata is diagnosed by typical patches of hair loss and is self-limited. Tinea capitis causes patches of alopecia that may be erythematous and scaly and must be treated systemically. Telogen effluvium is a nonscarring, noninflammatory alopecia of relatively sudden onset caused by physiologic or emotional stress. Once the precipitating cause is removed, the hair typically will regrow. Trichotillomania is an impulse-control disorder; treatment is aimed at controlling the underlying psychiatric condition. Trichorrhexis nodosa occurs when hairs break secondary to trauma and is often a result of hair styling or overuse of hair products. Anagen effluvium is the abnormal diffuse loss of hair during the growth phase caused by an event that impairs the mitotic activity of the hair follicle, most commonly chemotherapy. Physician support is especially important for patients in this situation.

  10. Visiting CERN… like “common people”

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    Paul Young, the British pop star who made his name in the 80s, came to visit CERN on 17 December. His son brought him here because of his passion for science in general and physics in particular. Father and son found the visit exciting and CERN’s activities really thrilling. We could even expect a surprise for Paul's next visit…   The visiting group in the CMS Control Room (Photo credit: P. Geeraert, ESO). Paul Young, famous for his interpretation of “Love of the Common People”, came to CERN because his teenage son is going to be studying A-level physics at school next year and wanted to visit the Laboratory. “I was fascinated by the visit. CERN is a place I didn’t know much about, but my son knows a lot more about science than I do. The explanations we got were great. We enjoyed the visit very much,” he said enthusiastically. Paul Young and his son visited the CMS underground cavern with Michael Hoch. &...

  11. Common tongue conditions in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reamy, Brian V; Derby, Richard; Bunt, Christopher W

    2010-03-01

    Although easily examined, abnormalities of the tongue can present a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma for physicians. Recognition and diagnosis require a thorough history, including onset and duration, antecedent symptoms, and tobacco and alcohol use. Examination of tongue morphology and a careful assessment for lymphadenopathy are also important. Geographic tongue, fissured tongue, and hairy tongue are the most common tongue problems and do not require treatment. Median rhomboid glossitis is usually associated with a candidal infection and responds to topical antifungals. Atrophic glossitis is often linked to an underlying nutritional deficiency of iron, folic acid, vitamin B12, riboflavin, or niacin and resolves with correction of the underlying condition. Oral hairy leukoplakia, which can be a marker for underlying immunodeficiency, is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus and is treated with oral antivirals. Tongue growths usually require biopsy to differentiate benign lesions (e.g., granular cell tumors, fibromas, lymphoepithelial cysts) from premalignant leukoplakia or squamous cell carcinoma. Burning mouth syndrome often involves the tongue and has responded to treatment with alpha-lipoic acid, clonazepam, and cognitive behavior therapy in controlled trials. Several trials have also confirmed the effectiveness of surgical division of tongue-tie (ankyloglossia), in the context of optimizing the success of breastfeeding compared with education alone. Tongue lesions of unclear etiology may require biopsy or referral to an oral and maxillofacial surgeon, head and neck surgeon, or a dentist experienced in oral pathology.

  12. Oil producers facing a common challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galal, E.E.

    1992-01-01

    Among the numerous challenges facing our modern world, perhaps the most urgent and dominant are energy related. From the perspective of developing countries they are, in order of priorities, development, energy security and environment. Oil covers above 38% of the global commercial energy needs and gas about 20%. In some commanding sectors of the economy, like transport, oil is for now virtually the irreplaceable source of energy. In addition, oil and gas are two valuable primary materials of the chemical industry. It also happens that oil consumption is one of the sources of environmental pollution through the emission of CO 2 . Utilisation of the world's finite fossil energy resources (88% of total commercial energy) in the service of development reflects all the negative attributes of the mismanagement of the global economy, exemplified by waste, inefficiency, unfair terms of trade, market instability and short-sighted policies. These serious inequities have been further compounded by the growing menace of environmental and climatic degradation. In dealing with the interactions between these three complex systems, i.e., energy, environment and development, it is important for oil producers to delineate their priorities clearly, if they are to disentangle credible common goals for an international convention. (author)

  13. A common language in external radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerard, J.P.; Sentenac, I.; Carrie, C.; Barbet, N.

    1990-01-01

    In June 1989, an International meeting with the joint participation of Radiation Oncologists and Radiophysicists took place in Lyon. The aim of the meeting was to reach a common language in external radiotherapy. The ICRU report no 29 is the gold standard in that field. However it appears that it is not always used in practice. Some ambiguous points require further clarification. A consensus can be reached for the definition of concepts like, tumour volume, target volume, safety margin. A clear distinction must be made between prescribed dose (dose that the radiation oncologist wants to deliver in the target volume) and the reported or specified dose (dose used to describe the treatment after completion). With the modern techniques of irradiation, a rather homogeneous dose can be delivered in the target volume. It seems possible that a variation of -5% and +7-10% can be accepted in relation to a mean dose in the center of the target volume. A very important question remains unsolved. What is the dose which governs the likelihood of local control in the target volume. Is it a minimal dose at the periphery of the target volume or a mean dose in the center. The last hypothesis would have the advantage to simplify the relation between the prescribed and the reported dose. The reported or specified dose should always be mentioned according to the recommendation of the future revised ICRU report 29 [fr

  14. Zika Virus: Common Questions and Answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igbinosa, Irogue I; Rabe, Ingrid B; Oduyebo, Titilope; Rasmussen, Sonja A

    2017-04-15

    Since local mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus was first reported in Brazil in early 2015, the virus has spread rapidly, with active transmission reported in at least 61 countries and territories worldwide, including the United States. Zika virus infection during pregnancy is a cause of microcephaly and other severe brain anomalies. The virus is transmitted primarily through the bite of an infected Aedes mosquito, but other routes of transmission include sexual, mother-to-fetus during pregnancy, mother-to-infant at delivery, laboratory exposure, and, possibly, transfusion of blood products. Most persons with Zika virus infection are asymptomatic or have only mild symptoms; hospitalizations and deaths are rare. When symptoms are present, maculopapular rash, fever, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis are most common. Zika virus testing is recommended for persons with possible exposure (those who have traveled to or live in an area with active transmission, or persons who had sex without a condom with a person with possible exposure) if they have symptoms consistent with Zika virus disease. Testing is also recommended for pregnant women with possible exposure, regardless of whether symptoms are present. Treatment is supportive, and no vaccine is currently available. The primary methods of prevention include avoiding bites of infected Aedes mosquitoes and reducing the risk of sexual transmission. Pregnant women should not travel to areas with active Zika virus transmission, and men and women who are planning to conceive in the near future should consider avoiding nonessential travel to these areas. Condoms can reduce the risk of sexual transmission.

  15. Freedom and poverty in the fishery commons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svein Jentoft

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In fisheries, alleviating poverty sometimes requires strategies that are inherently in conflict. When aiming to develop a fishery as a means to reduce poverty, its common pool resource basis might be undermined, resulting in greater poverty. But poverty in fisheries is also linked to, or a part of deeper social issues and processes, for instance, the marginalization and exclusion of certain communities. Poverty also has many factors— income, health, literacy, gender, power, security, etc.—all of which make poverty alleviation a particularly “wicked problem” that would require a broad process of political, social and institutional reform. In other words, poverty alleviation is not only an issue of sustainable resource management but also one of societal governance. Drawing from research in small-scale fisheries communities in Nicaragua, Tanzania, and Bangladesh, this paper describes how fishing people cope with poverty. The paper discusses what the governance implications are for alleviating poverty at individual, household and community levels, and argue that both the definition of poverty and poverty alleviation in small-scale fisheries must be rooted in real life experiences.

  16. COMMON GROUNDS BETWEEN PRINTMAKING AND STREET ART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcak Balamber

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Graffiti movement, born as a result of an effort of the youth, who felt themselves socially excluded and alone, to show their existence and identities during the 1960s, expanded its scope owing to street based artists such as Keith Haring and Jean-Michel Basquiat entering to the galleries, and transformed into an artistic manner of expression having aesthetic concerns by adopting a more inclusive definition ‘street art’. During this transformation of street art,street artists experimented with various methods from many different disciplines and hence created works in a wide range of varieties in terms of plastic and artistic values. Among these disciplines, printmakinghastaken its own place in street artas a discipline thatdeeply influenced street artists.Printmaking has fascinated street artists and become a part of their production process, not only with its philosophy sharing common grounds with street art and advantages in terms of its tecnical practices but also its unique plastic and linear values.Thanks to the opportunities of printmaking, street art has succeeded creating a tremendous impression worldwide, and even positioned itself into today’s greatest museums/gallery halls. This article aims to show how and in what way printmaking has influenced street art being in a transformation since the 1960s, and to put an emphasis on theimportance of printmaking on today’s street art.

  17. Are stem nectaries common in Gentianaceae Juss.?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdnéa Casagrande Dalvi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Extrafloral nectaries (EFNs are specialized structures that produce and release nectar and are located on leaves, cotyledons and, more seldomly, stems. Peculiar leaf nectaries have been described for thirty-three Neotropical species of Gentianaceae, while stem nectaries have been reported for only nine. The aim of this study was to verify the occurrence of stem EFNs within Gentianaceae and investigate the existence of a correlation between their occurrence and the geographical distribution of species. Samples of internodal regions from field and herbarium specimens were submitted to standard light microscopy techniques. Data regarding the geographical distribution of species were acquired from herbarium specimens and the literature. A total of 37 species were investigated, representing 25 genera distributed among five tribes. Nectaries, composed of modified epidermal cells, were observed in 16 species restricted to the Neotropical tribes Helieae, Saccifolieae, Potalieae and Coutoubeinae; exceptions were Cicendia quadrangularis and Zygostigma australe, which both occur in the Neotropics but do not possess EFNs. These results demonstrate that stem EFNs are common among Neotropical taxa of Gentianaceae, and are typically absent from taxa in temperate regions.

  18. Brucellosis of the common vole (Microtus arvalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubálek, Z; Scholz, H C; Sedlácek, I; Melzer, F; Sanogo, Y O; Nesvadbová, J

    2007-01-01

    A systemic disease occurred in a wild population of the common vole Microtus arvalis in South Moravia (Czech Republic) during the years 1999-2003. Acute infections were characterized by edema of extremities, occasionally with colliquating abscesses, arthritis, lymphadenitis, perforations of the skin resulting from colliquated abscesses, orchitis, and peritoneal granulomas. From the clinical samples, small Gram-negative coccobacilli were isolated and identified as Ochrobactrum intermedium by API 20NE and colistin sensitivity profiles. However, subsequent rrs (16S rRNA) and recA (recombinase A) gene sequencing analysis of two isolates (CCM 4915=CAPM 6434; CCM 4916=CAPM 6435) identified them as Brucella sp. with sequence identities of 100% to other Brucella spp. Analysis of the omp2a/b genes confirmed the two isolates as Brucella. In AMOS polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a 2000-bp fragment was generated that was not seen in other brucellae. Experimental infection of outbred ICR mice with these isolates resulted in a mortality rate of 50%. Based on the results of the molecular investigations and the mortality observed in experimentally infected mice we conclude that the epizootic was caused by Brucella sp. and not by Ochrobactrum intermedium. The study demonstrates the limitations of commercial biochemical test systems in accurately differentiating among Ochrobactrum and Brucella.

  19. Genetic Parameters of Common Wheat in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bal Krishna Joshi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on variation within traits and their genetics are prerequisites in crop improvement program. Thus, in present paper we aimed to estimate genetic and environmental indices of common wheat genotypes. For the purpose, eight quantitative traits were measured from 30 wheat genotypes, which were in randomized complete block design with 3 replicates. Components of variance and covariance were estimated along with heritability, genetic gain, realized heritability, coheritability and correlated response. Differences between phenotypic and genotypic variances in heading days, maturity days and plant height were not large. Grain yield and plant height showed the highest phenotypic (18.189% and genotypic (12.06% coefficient of variances, respectively. Phenotypic covariance was higher than genotypic and environmental covariance in most of the traits. The highest heritability and realized heritability were of heading days followed by maturity days. Genetic gain for plant height was the highest. Co-heritability of 1000-grain weight with tillers number was the highest. The highest correlated response was expressed by grain yield with tillers number. This study indicates the possibility of improving wheat genotypes through selection utilizing existing variation in these traits.

  20. KEAGENAN BANK DALAM PERSPEKTIF COMMON LAW SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andika Persada Putera

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of the national economy and banking external environment, causing banking activities not only engage in activities that are primary (core business, but also non-core business such as agency activities as Mutual Fund Sales Agent (APERD and Bancassurance. In the concept of the common law system, the agency as the center of all business affairs as a business owner can not do your own business, so delegating affairs to agents as a mediator. There is a legal relationships and trust (fiduciary relationship between the principal and the agent acting on behalf principal. In addition, there is an element of supervision of the principal to the agent so that the agent must comply under the supervision of the principal. Supervision is an essential element that determines the existence of an agency relationship, so it is a vertical relationship between principal and agent. The principal control components in the form of action directives, orders, limitation of power agents and monitoring the agent's action.

  1. CFOs and strategists: forging a common framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaport, A

    1992-01-01

    Companies have become increasingly polarized into two divergent camps: those who consider shareholder value the key to managing the company and those who put their faith in gaining competitive advantage. Indeed, that age-old debate between investing for the long term and showing outstanding short-term results is back - only this time the camps are flying banners with the new buzzwords of corporate America: competitive advantage and shareholder value. In this article, Alfred Rappaport attempts to settle the debate once and for all, arguing forcefully that establishing competitive advantage and creating shareholder value both stem from a common economic framework. In fact, long-term productivity is the hinge from which both sustainable competitive advantage and consistent results for the shareholder hang. But many managers refuse to accept this theory and cling to the mistaken belief that the market does not actually value the long-term productivity of their company but judges it only by its short-term performance. They then jump to a second mistaken conclusion: assuming they must depart from the shareholder-value model to improve their competitive position. Rappaport attacks these mistaken beliefs, showing that the stock market does value the long-term productivity of a company and that it is not necessary to depart from the shareholder-value model to improve a company's competitive position. Maximum returns for current shareholders will materialize only when managers maximize long-term shareholder value and deliver interim results that attest credibly to sustainable competitive advantage.

  2. Tobacco and the European common agricultural policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joossens, L; Raw, M

    1991-10-01

    The common agricultural policy of the European Community subsidizes tobacco production to the tune of 1,300 million ecu a year (US$ 1,500 million, UK pounds 900 million). This amounts to 2,500 ecu ($3,100, pounds 1,700) per minute, and is more in one year than the total amount spent on tobacco subsidies by the US in the last 50 years. The purpose of this policy was to maintain farmers' incomes and adapt community production to demand. Demand for the dark tobaccos which dominate EC production has fallen, while demand for light flue cured tobacco like Virginia has risen. A complex system of production subsidies and quotas was intended to discourage production of the dark tobaccos, for which there is virtually no market, and lead to more Virginia production. The policy has failed. Expenditure has spiralled out of control, production of unmarketable tobacco varieties has risen enormously, and the EC is the world's largest importer of raw tobacco. As a result tobacco is being bought by the community for intervention storage and surpluses of the dark high tar varieties are being 'exported' to eastern Europe and north Africa at giveaway prices. There has been no effective monitoring or control of this policy. This paper explains how this has happened and argues that, in view of the health risks attached to tobacco, these subsidies should be abolished.

  3. Common methodological flaws in economic evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Michael; Sculpher, Mark

    2005-07-01

    Economic evaluations are increasingly being used by those bodies such as government agencies and managed care groups that make decisions about the reimbursement of health technologies. However, several reviews of economic evaluations point to numerous deficiencies in the methodology of studies or the failure to follow published methodological guidelines. This article, written for healthcare decision-makers and other users of economic evaluations, outlines the common methodological flaws in studies, focussing on those issues that are likely to be most important when deciding on the reimbursement, or guidance for use, of health technologies. The main flaws discussed are: (i) omission of important costs or benefits; (ii) inappropriate selection of alternatives for comparison; (iii) problems in making indirect comparisons; (iv) inadequate representation of the effectiveness data; (v) inappropriate extrapolation beyond the period observed in clinical studies; (vi) excessive use of assumptions rather than data; (vii) inadequate characterization of uncertainty; (viii) problems in aggregation of results; (ix) reporting of average cost-effectiveness ratios; (x) lack of consideration of generalizability issues; and (xi) selective reporting of findings. In each case examples are given from the literature and guidance is offered on how to detect flaws in economic evaluations.

  4. Discrimination of common myocardial tomography artifacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Hongcheng; Chen Shaoliang; Yao Zhifeng; Zhu Weimin; Liu Wenguan

    2002-01-01

    To study the characteristics of common myocardial tomography artifacts so as to increase the diagnosis accuracy, 132 patients with myocardial perfusion were reviewed. With careful recognition of artifacts, the patients were re-diagnosed and compared with previous results. It was found that attenuation artifacts and motion artifacts were found frequently in thallium SPECT images. Artifacts caused by thoracic wall were frequent in female and showed a fixed defect in anterior or lateral wall; attenuation artifacts caused by left hemi diaphragm were always found in male and showed that the inferior wall became thinner gradually from apex to bottom in vertical long axis slices. The coexistence of defects and hot areas was the characteristics of motion artifacts. Artifacts caused by non-target organs, liver and/or gastrointestinal tracts, were frequently seen in 99m Tc-MIBI SPECT image. By recognizing the artifacts, misdiagnosis rate decreased significantly from 13.6% to 6.8%. Authors' studies show that all kinds of artifacts have their prevalence rate and imaging feature, the artifacts could be eliminated effectively by careful analysis and some correction measures

  5. Psychedelics and hypnosis: Commonalities and therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemercier, Clément E; Terhune, Devin B

    2018-06-01

    Recent research on psychedelics and hypnosis demonstrates the value of both methods in the treatment of a range of psychopathologies with overlapping applications and neurophenomenological features. The potential of harnessing the power of suggestion to influence the phenomenological response to psychedelics toward more therapeutic action has remained unexplored in recent research and thereby warrants empirical attention. Here we aim to elucidate the phenomenological and neurophysiological similarities and dissimilarities between psychedelic states and hypnosis in order to revisit how contemporary knowledge may inform their conjunct usage in psychotherapy. We review recent advances in phenomenological and neurophysiological research on psychedelics and hypnosis, and we summarize early investigations on the coupling of psychedelics and hypnosis in scientific and therapeutic contexts. Results/outcomes: We highlight commonalities and differences between psychedelics and hypnosis that point to the potential efficacy of combining the two in psychotherapy. We propose multiple research paths for coupling these two phenomena at different stages in the preparation, acute phase and follow-up of psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy in order to prepare, guide and integrate the psychedelic experience with the aim of enhancing therapeutic outcomes. Harnessing the power of suggestion to modulate response to psychedelics could enhance their therapeutic efficacy by helping to increase the likelihood of positive responses, including mystical-type experiences.

  6. Commons - Whose Commons? - considering conceptual approaches to rural space of production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingemann, Jan Holm

    spectrum of connotations and is engaged for descriptive, prescriptive, and normative purposes. The content, character and meaning thus depend on context and dimensions in focus; the point is illustrated by means of the historical Danish commons. In a consecutive investigation of implicated concepts from...... at a lower level of abstraction. Returned to Danish farming – but now in its contemporary settings – it is concluded that the framework of commons not adequately can be copied-and-pasted into present context due to the complex interconnectivity where local agriculture have boundless prerequisites and effects....

  7. MDEP Common Position CP-DICWG-13. Common position on spurious actuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Spurious actuations produced by Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems are a safety concern if such actuations could challenge plant safety. Spurious actuations can lead to unnecessary challenges to safety equipment, challenge the ability of safety systems to provide their intended functions, or place the plant in an un-analysed state. Spurious actuation of plant equipment can be caused by factors including, but not limited to, single failures, common cause failures, human (e.g. operator) action, maintenance errors, design errors, or missing requirements. Modern I and C systems can have inter-connectivities, dependencies and commonalities that can, if the overall I and C architecture and the individual I and C systems are not adequately developed and operated, facilitate fault propagation, leading to potential spurious actuation of one or more trains of plant equipment. Sources and contributors of spurious actuations of multiple trains of plant equipment may include inadequate independence among redundant portions of I and C systems, inappropriate allocation of I and C functions, inadequate qualification or design of supporting systems (e.g. heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system), or non-classified systems that could have been erroneously classified. Spurious actuations are a type of hazard. Generic Common Position (GCP) DICWG-10 'Common Position on Hazard Identification and Controls for Digital Instrumentation and Control Systems' provides a set of common positions pertaining to identifying and controlling hazards in an I and C system. This common position was developed to add special considerations when identifying and controlling hazards that include spurious actuations. It is expected that GCP DICWG-10 and the common positions in this document be used together for a complete analysis of hazards and their controls (e.g. prevention of spurious actuations in the design of the system/component). Spurious actuations of concern

  8. A description of LUSTRA's common field sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berggren, Dan; Bergkvist, Bo; Johansson, Maj-Britt; Melkerud, Per-Arne; Nilsson, Aake; Olsson, Mats; Langvall, Ola; Majdi, Hooshang; Weslien, Per

    2004-01-01

    The LUSTRA program is focused on the greenhouse gases CO 2 and N 2 O, which are occurring in the atmosphere in increasing concentrations and causing a global warming effect. Carbon dioxide is being fixed in living biomass and released through respiration and decomposing processes. Nitrous oxide may be emitted, due to reduction processes, particularly from wet and nutrient-rich soils. Land use and soil management may significantly affect these processes, and a change in land use may induce reduced or increased emissions. The LUSTRA program vision is that strategic adaptation of land-use systems in managed forests in Sweden can greatly reduce net emissions of GHG. Forestry plays an important role through its potential to produce biomass for fossil fuel substitution and by sequestering carbon in standing biomass and soil organic matter including peat. Sweden has a land area of approximately 410,000 km 2 of which 226,000 km 2 (55 %) is forest land, defined as land suitable for forest production and with a potential mean stem production > 1m 3 /ha/y. With a population of around 9 million inhabitants this gives the second largest forest land area per capita in Europe. Due to this large forest land area, Sweden has a significant strategic potential to mitigate CO 2 emissions by management of forested land. During its first phase, 1999-2002, the primary objective of the program was to evaluate various land-use and management options with respect to emissions of GHG with the ultimate goal to suggest guidelines with strategies for optimized reduction in emissions. Since the start of LUSTRA, the external environment and conditions for the program have changed. First, the significance of the greenhouse-gas problem has increased partly due to growing common awareness of the magnitude of the problem and partly due and fueled by current extreme weather conditions. Secondly, the progress of international negotiations has stressed the national demand to participate on the global

  9. Common Avian Infection Plagued the Tyrant Dinosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Ewan D. S.; Salisbury, Steven W.; Horner, John R.; Varricchio, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Tyrannosaurus rex and other tyrannosaurid fossils often display multiple, smooth-edged full-thickness erosive lesions on the mandible, either unilaterally or bilaterally. The cause of these lesions in the Tyrannosaurus rex specimen FMNH PR2081 (known informally by the name ‘Sue’) has previously been attributed to actinomycosis, a bacterial bone infection, or bite wounds from other tyrannosaurids. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted an extensive survey of tyrannosaurid specimens and identified ten individuals with full-thickness erosive lesions. These lesions were described, measured and photographed for comparison with one another. We also conducted an extensive survey of related archosaurs for similar lesions. We show here that these lesions are consistent with those caused by an avian parasitic infection called trichomonosis, which causes similar abnormalities on the mandible of modern birds, in particular raptors. Conclusions/Significance This finding represents the first evidence for the ancient evolutionary origin of an avian transmissible disease in non-avian theropod dinosaurs. It also provides a valuable insight into the palaeobiology of these now extinct animals. Based on the frequency with which these lesions occur, we hypothesize that tyrannosaurids were commonly infected by a Trichomonas gallinae-like protozoan. For tyrannosaurid populations, the only non-avian dinosaur group that show trichomonosis-type lesions, it is likely that the disease became endemic and spread as a result of antagonistic intraspecific behavior, consumption of prey infected by a Trichomonas gallinae-like protozoan and possibly even cannibalism. The severity of trichomonosis-related lesions in specimens such as Tyrannosaurus rex FMNH PR2081 and Tyrannosaurus rex MOR 980, strongly suggests that these animals died as a direct result of this disease, mostly likely through starvation. PMID:19789646

  10. Visualizing common operating picture of critical infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummukainen, Lauri; Oksama, Lauri; Timonen, Jussi; Vankka, Jouko

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a solution for visualizing the common operating picture (COP) of the critical infrastructure (CI). The purpose is to improve the situational awareness (SA) of the strategic-level actor and the source system operator in order to support decision making. The information is obtained through the Situational Awareness of Critical Infrastructure and Networks (SACIN) framework. The system consists of an agent-based solution for gathering, storing, and analyzing the information, and a user interface (UI) is presented in this paper. The UI consists of multiple views visualizing information from the CI in different ways. Different CI actors are categorized in 11 separate sectors, and events are used to present meaningful incidents. Past and current states, together with geographical distribution and logical dependencies, are presented to the user. The current states are visualized as segmented circles to represent event categories. Geographical distribution of assets is displayed with a well-known map tool. Logical dependencies are presented in a simple directed graph, and users also have a timeline to review past events. The objective of the UI is to provide an easily understandable overview of the CI status. Therefore, testing methods, such as a walkthrough, an informal walkthrough, and the Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique (SAGAT), were used in the evaluation of the UI. Results showed that users were able to obtain an understanding of the current state of CI, and the usability of the UI was rated as good. In particular, the designated display for the CI overview and the timeline were found to be efficient.

  11. Common Nearest Neighbor Clustering—A Benchmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Lemke

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cluster analyses are often conducted with the goal to characterize an underlying probability density, for which the data-point density serves as an estimate for this probability density. We here test and benchmark the common nearest neighbor (CNN cluster algorithm. This algorithm assigns a spherical neighborhood R to each data point and estimates the data-point density between two data points as the number of data points N in the overlapping region of their neighborhoods (step 1. The main principle in the CNN cluster algorithm is cluster growing. This grows the clusters by sequentially adding data points and thereby effectively positions the border of the clusters along an iso-surface of the underlying probability density. This yields a strict partitioning with outliers, for which the cluster represents peaks in the underlying probability density—termed core sets (step 2. The removal of the outliers on the basis of a threshold criterion is optional (step 3. The benchmark datasets address a series of typical challenges, including datasets with a very high dimensional state space and datasets in which the cluster centroids are aligned along an underlying structure (Birch sets. The performance of the CNN algorithm is evaluated with respect to these challenges. The results indicate that the CNN cluster algorithm can be useful in a wide range of settings. Cluster algorithms are particularly important for the analysis of molecular dynamics (MD simulations. We demonstrate how the CNN cluster results can be used as a discretization of the molecular state space for the construction of a core-set model of the MD improving the accuracy compared to conventional full-partitioning models. The software for the CNN clustering is available on GitHub.

  12. Intergroup Cooperation in Common Pool Resource Dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowski, Jathan; Spierre, Susan G; Selinger, Evan; Seager, Thomas P; Adams, Elizabeth A; Berardy, Andrew

    2015-10-01

    Fundamental problems of environmental sustainability, including climate change and fisheries management, require collective action on a scale that transcends the political and cultural boundaries of the nation-state. Rational, self-interested neoclassical economic theories of human behavior predict tragedy in the absence of third party enforcement of agreements and practical difficulties that prevent privatization. Evolutionary biology offers a theory of cooperation, but more often than not in a context of discrimination against other groups. That is, in-group boundaries are necessarily defined by those excluded as members of out-groups. However, in some settings human's exhibit behavior that is inconsistent with both rational economic and group driven cooperation of evolutionary biological theory. This paper reports the results of a non-cooperative game-theoretic exercise that models a tragedy of the commons problem in which groups of players may advance their own positions only at the expense of other groups. Students enrolled from multiple universities and assigned to different multi-university identity groups participated in experiments that repeatedly resulted in cooperative outcomes despite intergroup conflicts and expressions of group identity. We offer three possible explanations: (1) students were cooperative because they were in an academic setting; (2) students may have viewed their instructors as the out-group; or (3) the emergence of a small number of influential, ethical leaders is sufficient to ensure cooperation amongst the larger groups. From our data and analysis, we draw out lessons that may help to inform approaches for institutional design and policy negotiations, particularly in climate change management.

  13. Monoterpene synthases from common sage (Salvia officinalis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croteau, Rodney Bruce (Pullman, WA); Wise, Mitchell Lynn (Pullman, WA); Katahira, Eva Joy (Pullman, WA); Savage, Thomas Jonathan (Christchurch 5, NZ)

    1999-01-01

    cDNAs encoding (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase from common sage (Salvia officinalis) have been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequences has been determined. Accordingly, isolated DNA sequences (SEQ ID No:1; SEQ ID No:3 and SEQ ID No:5) are provided which code for the expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase (SEQ ID No:2), 1,8-cineole synthase (SEQ ID No:4) and (+)-sabinene synthase SEQ ID No:6), respectively, from sage (Salvia officinalis). In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase, or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith. In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of the aforementioned recombinant monoterpene synthases that may be used to facilitate their production, isolation and purification in significant amounts. Recombinant (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase may be used to obtain expression or enhanced expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase in plants in order to enhance the production of monoterpenoids, or may be otherwise employed for the regulation or expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase, or the production of their products.

  14. OCCUPATION COMMONLY ASSOCIATED WITH CONTACT DERMATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elice Wijaya

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Occupational skin diseases are a widespread problem. Despite numerous protective mechanisms, the skin remains vulnerable to new irritants found in the workplace. As a result, many workers in different occupations suffer from occupational skin diseases. From the data at Sanglah Hospital in Dermatology Department, it should be noted that there is increasing number of new cases of contact dermatitis in period of January 2000 until December 2005, from 10,16% until 13,36% in the next year and relatively stable in the next four years. Occupations commonly associated with contact dermatitis are agriculture workers, construction workers, dental workers, electronic workers, florists, food workers, hairdressers, haousekeeping personnel, machinist, mechanics, medical workers, office workers, photographers, printers, textile workers. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  15. Common avian infection plagued the tyrant dinosaurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewan D S Wolff

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tyrannosaurus rex and other tyrannosaurid fossils often display multiple, smooth-edged full-thickness erosive lesions on the mandible, either unilaterally or bilaterally. The cause of these lesions in the Tyrannosaurus rex specimen FMNH PR2081 (known informally by the name 'Sue' has previously been attributed to actinomycosis, a bacterial bone infection, or bite wounds from other tyrannosaurids. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted an extensive survey of tyrannosaurid specimens and identified ten individuals with full-thickness erosive lesions. These lesions were described, measured and photographed for comparison with one another. We also conducted an extensive survey of related archosaurs for similar lesions. We show here that these lesions are consistent with those caused by an avian parasitic infection called trichomonosis, which causes similar abnormalities on the mandible of modern birds, in particular raptors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This finding represents the first evidence for the ancient evolutionary origin of an avian transmissible disease in non-avian theropod dinosaurs. It also provides a valuable insight into the palaeobiology of these now extinct animals. Based on the frequency with which these lesions occur, we hypothesize that tyrannosaurids were commonly infected by a Trichomonas gallinae-like protozoan. For tyrannosaurid populations, the only non-avian dinosaur group that show trichomonosis-type lesions, it is likely that the disease became endemic and spread as a result of antagonistic intraspecific behavior, consumption of prey infected by a Trichomonas gallinae-like protozoan and possibly even cannibalism. The severity of trichomonosis-related lesions in specimens such as Tyrannosaurus rex FMNH PR2081 and Tyrannosaurus rex MOR 980, strongly suggests that these animals died as a direct result of this disease, mostly likely through starvation.

  16. 29 CFR 779.219 - Unified operation may be achieved without common control or common ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Act May Apply; Enterprise Coverage Unified Operation Or Common Control § 779.219 Unified operation may... through “unified operation.” It is clear from the definition that if the described activities are performed through unified operation they will be part of the enterprise whether they are performed by one...

  17. Institutional property rights structure, common pool resource (CPR), tragedy of the urban commons: A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, G; Ho, C S; Ali, H M

    2014-01-01

    There have been a plethora of researches on the significance of public open space (POS) in contributing to societies' sustainability. However, by virtue of identified maladaptive policy-based-property rights structure, such a shared good becomes vulnerable to tragedy of the urban commons (overexploitation) that subsequently leads to burgeoning number of mismanaged POS e.g., degraded and unkempt urban public spaces. By scrutinising the literatures within property rights domain and commons resources, an objective is highlighted in this paper which is to insightfully discourse institutional property rights structure pertaining to the mechanism, roles and interrelationship between property-rights regimes, bundle of property rights and resource domains; types of goods on how they act upon and tie in the POS with the social quandary. In summary, urban POS tragedy can potentially be triggered by the institutional structure especially if the ownership is left under open-access resource regime and ill-defined property rights which both successively constitute the natures of Common Pool Resource (CPR) within the commons, POS. Therefore, this paper sparks an idea to policy makers that property rights structure is a determinant in sustainably governing the POS in which adaptive assignment of property regimes and property rights are impelled

  18. Institutional property rights structure, common pool resource (CPR), tragedy of the urban commons: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, G.; Ho, C. S.; Ali, H. M.

    2014-02-01

    There have been a plethora of researches on the significance of public open space (POS) in contributing to societies' sustainability. However, by virtue of identified maladaptive policy-based-property rights structure, such a shared good becomes vulnerable to tragedy of the urban commons (overexploitation) that subsequently leads to burgeoning number of mismanaged POS e.g., degraded and unkempt urban public spaces. By scrutinising the literatures within property rights domain and commons resources, an objective is highlighted in this paper which is to insightfully discourse institutional property rights structure pertaining to the mechanism, roles and interrelationship between property-rights regimes, bundle of property rights and resource domains; types of goods on how they act upon and tie in the POS with the social quandary. In summary, urban POS tragedy can potentially be triggered by the institutional structure especially if the ownership is left under open-access resource regime and ill-defined property rights which both successively constitute the natures of Common Pool Resource (CPR) within the commons, POS. Therefore, this paper sparks an idea to policy makers that property rights structure is a determinant in sustainably governing the POS in which adaptive assignment of property regimes and property rights are impelled.

  19. Childhood Obesity & Dental Disease: Common Causes, Common Solutions. Oral Health & Obesity Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children Now, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Too many California children suffer from high rates of preventable chronic conditions associated with childhood obesity and dental disease. The state is experiencing a crisis in both areas. Fortunately, common factors that contribute to both conditions--including the rates of breastfeeding, access to healthy food and the consumption of…

  20. What Is Common about Common Schooling? Rational Autonomy and Moral Agency in Liberal Democratic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Hanan

    2007-01-01

    In this essay I critique two influential accounts of rational autonomy in common schooling that conceive liberalism as an ideal form of life, and I offer an alternative approach to democratic education that views liberal theory as concerned with coexistence among rival ways of living. This view places moral agency, not rational autonomy, at the…

  1. From Common Struggles to Common Dreams: Neoliberalism and Multicultural Education in a Globalized Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pei-Lun

    2012-01-01

    Major troubling contours of neoliberalism and high-stakes education have common features. Consequently, the author discusses how multicultural education can serve as praxis for collective empowerment in a globalized context. The author asserts that equitable representation and localized multicultural knowledge production are the foundation of a…

  2. Common Ground with "A Common Faith": Dewey's Idea of the "Religious"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baurain, Bradley

    2011-01-01

    In "A Common Faith", Dewey rejects organized religion and belief in the supernatural, instead arguing for an authentically "religious" attitude which this interpretive essay analyzes in terms of four propositions: (1) Knowledge is unified. (2) Knowledge is democratic. (3) The pursuit of moral ideals requires moral faith. (4) The authority for…

  3. Collaborating with Staff: Sharing a Common Philosophy, Working To Achieve Common Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzman, Jeff

    1999-01-01

    A well-understood camp philosophy motivates the entire staff to work toward a common purpose, which is more meaningful than money. Camp administrators can ensure that staff members implement the camp philosophy by interviewing prospective staff members with the mission in mind, teaching staff the camp's vision, praising staff with specifics,…

  4. Might "Unique" Factors Be "Common"? On the Possibility of Indeterminate Common-Unique Covariances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, Dave

    2006-01-01

    The present paper shows that the usual factor analytic structured data dispersion matrix lambda psi lambda' + delta can readily arise from a set of scores y = lambda eta + epsilon, shere the "common" (eta) and "unique" (epsilon) factors have nonzero covariance: gamma = Cov epsilon,eta) is not equal to 0. Implications of this finding are discussed…

  5. Interrelated chemical-microstructural-nanomechanical variations in the structural units of the cuttlebone of Sepia officinalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, L.; Labonte, D.; Oyen, M. L.; Coleman, M. P.; Caliskan, H. B.; Johnston, R. E.

    2017-11-01

    "Cuttlebone," the internalized shell found in all members of the cephalopod family Sepiidae, is a sophisticated buoyancy device combining high porosity with considerable strength. Using a complementary suite of characterization tools, we identified significant structural, chemical, and mechanical variations across the different structural units of the cuttlebone: the dorsal shield consists of two stiff and hard layers with prismatic mineral organization which encapsulate a more ductile and compliant layer with a lamellar structure, enriched with organic matter. A similar organization is found in the chambers, which are separated by septa, and supported by meandering plates ("pillars"). Like the dorsal shield, septa contain two layers with lamellar and prismatic organization, respectively, which differ significantly in their mechanical properties: layers with prismatic organization are a factor of three stiffer and up to a factor of ten harder than those with lamellar organization. The combination of stiff and hard, and compliant and ductile components may serve to reduce the risk of catastrophic failure, and reflect the role of organic matter for the growth process of the cuttlebone. Mechanically "weaker" units may function as sacrificial structures, ensuring a stepwise failure of the individual chambers in cases of overloading, allowing the animals to retain near-neutral buoyancy even with partially damaged cuttlebones. Our findings have implications for our understanding of the structure-property-function relationship of cuttlebone, and may help to identify novel bioinspired design strategies for light-weight yet high-strength foams.

  6. Promoting Argumentation in Middle School Science Classrooms: A Project SEPIA Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duschl, Richard A.; Ellenbogen, Kirsten; Erduran, Sibel

    Effective argumentation is the distinguishing feature of a classroom that employs discovery teaching and student inquiry methodologies. In the long term, the objective of the program is to understand how to design learning environments and curriculum, instruction, and assessment models that promote student self-reflection. The study evaluates the…

  7. Microneedling dilates the follicular infundibulum and increases transfollicular absorption of liposomal sepia melanin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serrano G

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Gabriel Serrano,1 Patricia Almudéver,2 Juan M Serrano,3 Julio Cortijo,2 Carmen Faus,1 Magda Reyes,1 Inmaculada Expósito,3 Ana Torrens,3 Fernando Millán1 1Clínica Dermatológica Serrano, 2Department of Pharmacology, University of Valencia, 3Research and Development Department, Sesderma Laboratories, Valencia, Spain Abstract: Encapsulation of chemicals in liposomes and microneedling are currently used techniques to enhance the penetration of several substances through skin and hair. In this study, we apply a liposomal melanin–fluorescein compound to an ex vivo model of human skin, using a new electrical microneedling device (Nanopore turbo roller. The product was applied by hand massage (A or with the assistance of the electrical roller for 2 minutes (B. An additional test was performed free of product and with only the E-roller (C. Histological changes and product absorption were evaluated by optical and fluorescent microscopy 60 and 90 minutes after the treatment. Site B showed larger deposits of melanin–fluorescein at superficial and deep levels of hair structures in comparison to site A. Light, epidermal deposits of the melanin–fluorescein complex were also observed. Sites B and C showed a significant widening (47% of the follicular infundibulum which could explain the increased penetration of the formulation. Microneedling also removed the scales and sebum residues in the neighborhood of the infundibulum. Targeting hair follicles with melanin may be useful to dye poorly pigmented hairs, improving laser hair removal. The procedure accelerates the delivery of melanin into hair structures allowing an even absorption, larger pigment deposits, and deeper penetration of the formulation into the hair. Keywords: liposomes, melanin, microneedling, follicular infundibulum, hair removal

  8. Evaluation of antioxidant activities and chemical analysis of sulfated chitosan from Sepia prashadi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seedevi, Palaniappan; Moovendhan, Meivelu; Vairamani, Shanmugam; Shanmugam, Annaian

    2017-06-01

    The chitin and chitosan of S. prashadi was prepared through demineralization, deproteinzation, deacetylation process and sulfation were carried by chlorosulfonic acid in N,N-dimethylformamide. The sulfate content in chitosan was found to be 18.9%. The carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen composition of the sulfated chitosan were recorded 39.09%, 6.95% and 6.58% respectively. The structural analysis was done by using FT-IR and NMR spectroscopy technique. The DSC curves of sulfated chitosan showed a large endothermic peak resolved with T o value of 54.57°C and T P value of 97.46°C. The morphology of sulfated chitin and sulfated chitosan were studied by SEM. The Further in vitro antioxidant activity of sulfated chitosan was screened by scavenging activity of superoxide radical assay, hydroxyl radical scavenging assay, metal-ion chelating effect and reducing power. Its anticoagulant activity was tested for human plasma with respect to Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT) and Prothrombin Time (PT). Results prove that sulfated chitosan has potent antioxidant and anticoagulant activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Importance analysis for the systems with common cause failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Zhijie; Nonaka, Yasuo

    1995-01-01

    This paper extends the importance analysis technique to the research field of common cause failures to evaluate the structure importance, probability importance, and β-importance for the systems with common cause failures. These importance measures would help reliability analysts to limit the common cause failure analysis framework and find efficient defence strategies against common cause failures

  10. Workshop on transport for a common ion driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, C.C.; Lee, E.; Langdon, B.

    1994-01-01

    This report contains research in the following areas related to beam transport for a common ion driver: multi-gap acceleration; neutralization with electrons; gas neutralization; self-pinched transport; HIF and LIF transport, and relevance to common ion driver; LIF and HIF reactor concepts and relevance to common ion driver; atomic physics for common ion driver; code capabilities and needed improvement

  11. 20 CFR 404.1007 - Common-law employee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Common-law employee. 404.1007 Section 404... Common-law employee. (a) General. The common-law rules on employer-employee status are the basic test for.... Even though you are considered self-employed under the common-law rules, you may still be an employee...

  12. A case of fascioliasis in common bile duct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, Soo Youn; Park, Cheol Min; Chung, Kyu Byung; Lee, Chang Hong; Park, Seung Chul; Choi, Sang Yong; Lim, Han Jong [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-10-15

    A case of Fascioliasis of common bile duct is confirmed by visualization of adult fluke. Fascioliasis caused by Fasciola hepatica, is common parasitic disease in cattle and sheep. Human is an accidental host. ERCP demonstrated irregular linear conglomerated filling defects in common bile duct. Through surgical intervention, we found adult flukes of F. hepatica and adenomatous hyperplasia of common bile duct.

  13. A case of fascioliasis in common bile duct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, Soo Youn; Park, Cheol Min; Chung, Kyu Byung; Lee, Chang Hong; Park, Seung Chul; Choi, Sang Yong; Lim, Han Jong

    1989-01-01

    A case of Fascioliasis of common bile duct is confirmed by visualization of adult fluke. Fascioliasis caused by Fasciola hepatica, is common parasitic disease in cattle and sheep. Human is an accidental host. ERCP demonstrated irregular linear conglomerated filling defects in common bile duct. Through surgical intervention, we found adult flukes of F. hepatica and adenomatous hyperplasia of common bile duct

  14. Common features of tuberculosis and sarcoidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeil Mortaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is a disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Despite the availability of novel therapeutic approaches, TB is considered as one of the leading causes of death due to infectious diseases worldwide. Alveolar macrophages are the first line of defense against M. tuberculosis; they ingest and sequester the bacilli within granulomatous structures. Control and resolution of the infection requires activated T lymphocytes as well as Th1 cytokines. There are two forms of TB: active TB and latent TB. Latent TB is a state in which M. tuberculosis survives in the body without causing overt signs and symptoms. People with latent TB are noncontagious. However, M. tuberculosis can become active in the body, multiply, and cause overt TB. Sarcoidosis, on the other hand, is an autoimmune disease of unknown etiology which can affect multiple systems of the body. Nonspecific constitutional symptoms, such as fever, fatigue, malaise, and weight loss, are present in approximately one-third of patients. Chest X-ray usually shows hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Although the lungs are the most common sites of inflammation, sarcoidosis can also involve other organs, such as the eyes (intraocular and adnexal, skin, lymph nodes, salivary glands, heart, spleen, liver, and the nervous system. Recent investigations have provided further insights into the genetic basis of sarcoidosis and the way genotype determines the clinical presentation and phenotype of patients. Histopathologic features are usually insufficient for diagnosis of sarcoidosis. Diagnosis of sarcoidosis in endemic areas for TB can become a great challenge. Both TB and sarcoidosis are granulomatous diseases; TB is characterized by caseating granulomas, whereas sarcoidosis is characterized by noncaseating granulomas. New cases of sarcoidosis are increasingly being diagnosed in areas endemic for TB due to increased orientation of physicians and availability of diagnostic modalities

  15. Cycles and Common Cycles in Property and Related Sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Peijie Wang

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines cycles and common cycles in the property market and the economy. While focusing on common cycles, the study also incorporates common trends in the meantime, so it covers the whole spectrum of dynamic analysis. It has been found that property shares common cycles, particularly with those sectors that are the user markets of property. The mechanisms of common cycles and the relative magnitudes of cycles of the sectors related to property are discussed to shed light on proper...

  16. MDEP Common Position No EPR-01 - Common positions on the EPR instrumentation and controls design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the EPR Working Group (EPRWG) of the Multinational Design Evaluation Program (MDEP) is to identify common positions among the regulators reviewing the EPR Instrumentation and Controls (I and C) Systems in order to: 1. Promote understanding of each country 's regulatory decisions and basis for the decisions, 2. Enhance communication among the members and with external stakeholders, 3. Identify areas where harmonization and convergence of regulations, standards, and guidance can be achieved or improved, and 4. Supports standardization of new reactor designs. Since January 2008, the EPR I and C Technical Expert Subgroup (TESG) members met five times to exchange information regarding their country 's review of the EPR I and C design. The EPR I and C TESG consists of regulators from China, Canada, Finland, France, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The information exchange includes presentation of each country 's review status and technical issues, sharing of guidance documents, and sharing of regulatory decision documents. The TESG focused on the following four core areas of the EPR I and C design: 1. I and C System Independence (particularly for data communications), 2. Level of Defense and Diversity (back-up systems), 3. Qualification/quality of digital platforms, 4. Categorization/classification of systems and functions. As meetings were conducted, some areas were emphasized more depending on the significance of the issues for each country. During the TESG interactions, it became apparent that there were aspects of the EPR design where the countries had common agreement. On November 2, 2009, three of the subgroup countries, France, Finland and the United Kingdom, issued a joint regulatory position on the EPR I and C design as result of the 'Groupe Permanent' meeting in France. This statement of common positions expands upon that joint regulatory position

  17. Are common names becoming less common? The rise in uniqueness and individualism in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji eOgihara

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We examined whether Japanese culture has become more individualistic by investigating how the practice of naming babies has changed over time. Cultural psychology has revealed substantial cultural variation in human psychology and behavior, emphasizing the mutual construction of socio-cultural environment and mind. However, much of the past research did not account for the fact that culture is changing. Indeed, archival data on behavior (e.g., divorce rates suggest a rise in individualism in the U.S. and Japan. In addition to archival data, cultural products (which express an individual’s psyche and behavior outside the head; e.g., advertising can also reveal cultural change. However, little research has investigated the changes in individualism in East Asia using cultural products. To reveal the dynamic aspects of culture, it is important to present temporal data across cultures. In this study, we examined baby names as a cultural product. If Japanese culture has become more individualistic, parents would be expected to give their children unique names. Using two databases, we calculated the rate of popular baby names between 2004 and 2013. Both databases released the rankings of popular names and their rates within the sample. As Japanese names are generally comprised of both written Chinese characters and their pronunciations, we analyzed these two separately. We found that the rate of popular Chinese characters increased, whereas the rate of popular pronunciations decreased. However, only the rate of popular pronunciations was associated with a previously validated collectivism index. Moreover, we examined the pronunciation variation of common combinations of Chinese characters and the written form variation of common pronunciations. We found that the variation of written forms decreased, whereas the variation of pronunciations increased over time. Taken together, these results showed that parents are giving their children unique names by

  18. Are common names becoming less common? The rise in uniqueness and individualism in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogihara, Yuji; Fujita, Hiroyo; Tominaga, Hitoshi; Ishigaki, Sho; Kashimoto, Takuya; Takahashi, Ayano; Toyohara, Kyoko; Uchida, Yukiko

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether Japanese culture has become more individualistic by investigating how the practice of naming babies has changed over time. Cultural psychology has revealed substantial cultural variation in human psychology and behavior, emphasizing the mutual construction of socio-cultural environment and mind. However, much of the past research did not account for the fact that culture is changing. Indeed, archival data on behavior (e.g., divorce rates) suggest a rise in individualism in the U.S. and Japan. In addition to archival data, cultural products (which express an individual's psyche and behavior outside the head; e.g., advertising) can also reveal cultural change. However, little research has investigated the changes in individualism in East Asia using cultural products. To reveal the dynamic aspects of culture, it is important to present temporal data across cultures. In this study, we examined baby names as a cultural product. If Japanese culture has become more individualistic, parents would be expected to give their children unique names. Using two databases, we calculated the rate of popular baby names between 2004 and 2013. Both databases released the rankings of popular names and their rates within the sample. As Japanese names are generally comprised of both written Chinese characters and their pronunciations, we analyzed these two separately. We found that the rate of popular Chinese characters increased, whereas the rate of popular pronunciations decreased. However, only the rate of popular pronunciations was associated with a previously validated collectivism index. Moreover, we examined the pronunciation variation of common combinations of Chinese characters and the written form variation of common pronunciations. We found that the variation of written forms decreased, whereas the variation of pronunciations increased over time. Taken together, these results showed that parents are giving their children unique names by pairing common

  19. Are common names becoming less common? The rise in uniqueness and individualism in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogihara, Yuji; Fujita, Hiroyo; Tominaga, Hitoshi; Ishigaki, Sho; Kashimoto, Takuya; Takahashi, Ayano; Toyohara, Kyoko; Uchida, Yukiko

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether Japanese culture has become more individualistic by investigating how the practice of naming babies has changed over time. Cultural psychology has revealed substantial cultural variation in human psychology and behavior, emphasizing the mutual construction of socio-cultural environment and mind. However, much of the past research did not account for the fact that culture is changing. Indeed, archival data on behavior (e.g., divorce rates) suggest a rise in individualism in the U.S. and Japan. In addition to archival data, cultural products (which express an individual’s psyche and behavior outside the head; e.g., advertising) can also reveal cultural change. However, little research has investigated the changes in individualism in East Asia using cultural products. To reveal the dynamic aspects of culture, it is important to present temporal data across cultures. In this study, we examined baby names as a cultural product. If Japanese culture has become more individualistic, parents would be expected to give their children unique names. Using two databases, we calculated the rate of popular baby names between 2004 and 2013. Both databases released the rankings of popular names and their rates within the sample. As Japanese names are generally comprised of both written Chinese characters and their pronunciations, we analyzed these two separately. We found that the rate of popular Chinese characters increased, whereas the rate of popular pronunciations decreased. However, only the rate of popular pronunciations was associated with a previously validated collectivism index. Moreover, we examined the pronunciation variation of common combinations of Chinese characters and the written form variation of common pronunciations. We found that the variation of written forms decreased, whereas the variation of pronunciations increased over time. Taken together, these results showed that parents are giving their children unique names by pairing common

  20. Pressure-amplified Common Rail System for commercial vehicles; Druckuebersetztes Common-Rail-System fuer Nutzfahrzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonhard, Rolf; Parche, Marcus; Alvarez-Avila, Carlos [Bosch AG, Stuttgart (Germany). Diesel Systems; Krauss, Jost; Rosenau, Bernd [Bosch AG, Stuttgart (Germany). Common-Rail-Systeme

    2009-05-15

    The key to a successful layout of a combustion system for commercial vehicles is in the management of peak torque operation points. For this purpose, Bosch has enhanced its Common Rail System with increasing degrees of freedom - i.e. with flexible rate shaping. A second solenoid valve activates a pressure-amplifier inside the injector, an optimized offset of nozzle needle timing reduces the injection rate by half right at the start of injection, and the formation of nitrogen oxide is reduced considerably. This enables the engine manufacturer to adhere to the emission limits while further reducing fuel consumption and the engine-related effort for the air sytem. (orig.)

  1. Autism spectrum disorders and drug addiction: Common pathways, common molecules, distinct disorders?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick E. Rothwell

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs and drug addiction do not share substantial comorbidity or obvious similarities in etiology or symptomatology. It is thus surprising that a number of recent studies implicate overlapping neural circuits and molecular signaling pathways in both disorders. The purpose of this review is to highlight this emerging intersection and consider implications for understanding the pathophysiology of these seemingly distinct disorders. One area of overlap involves neural circuits and neuromodulatory systems in the striatum and basal ganglia, which play an established role in addiction and reward but are increasingly implicated in clinical and preclinical studies of ASDs. A second area of overlap relates to molecules like Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP and methyl CpG-binding protein-2 (MECP2, which are best known for their contribution to the pathogenesis of syndromic ASDs, but have recently been shown to regulate behavioral and neurobiological responses to addictive drug exposure. These shared pathways and molecules point to common dimensions of behavioral dysfunction, including the repetition of behavioral patterns and aberrant reward processing. The synthesis of knowledge gained through parallel investigations of ASDs and addiction may inspire the design of new therapeutic interventions to correct common elements of striatal dysfunction.

  2. Autism Spectrum Disorders and Drug Addiction: Common Pathways, Common Molecules, Distinct Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, Patrick E

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and drug addiction do not share substantial comorbidity or obvious similarities in etiology or symptomatology. It is thus surprising that a number of recent studies implicate overlapping neural circuits and molecular signaling pathways in both disorders. The purpose of this review is to highlight this emerging intersection and consider implications for understanding the pathophysiology of these seemingly distinct disorders. One area of overlap involves neural circuits and neuromodulatory systems in the striatum and basal ganglia, which play an established role in addiction and reward but are increasingly implicated in clinical and preclinical studies of ASDs. A second area of overlap relates to molecules like Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) and methyl CpG-binding protein-2 (MECP2), which are best known for their contribution to the pathogenesis of syndromic ASDs, but have recently been shown to regulate behavioral and neurobiological responses to addictive drug exposure. These shared pathways and molecules point to common dimensions of behavioral dysfunction, including the repetition of behavioral patterns and aberrant reward processing. The synthesis of knowledge gained through parallel investigations of ASDs and addiction may inspire the design of new therapeutic interventions to correct common elements of striatal dysfunction.

  3. Pre-Clinical Traumatic Brain Injury Common Data Elements: Toward a Common Language Across Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Douglas H; Hicks, Ramona R; Johnson, Victoria E; Bergstrom, Debra A; Cummings, Diana M; Noble, Linda J; Hovda, David; Whalen, Michael; Ahlers, Stephen T; LaPlaca, Michelle; Tortella, Frank C; Duhaime, Ann-Christine; Dixon, C Edward

    2015-11-15

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major public health issue exacting a substantial personal and economic burden globally. With the advent of "big data" approaches to understanding complex systems, there is the potential to greatly accelerate knowledge about mechanisms of injury and how to detect and modify them to improve patient outcomes. High quality, well-defined data are critical to the success of bioinformatics platforms, and a data dictionary of "common data elements" (CDEs), as well as "unique data elements" has been created for clinical TBI research. There is no data dictionary, however, for preclinical TBI research despite similar opportunities to accelerate knowledge. To address this gap, a committee of experts was tasked with creating a defined set of data elements to further collaboration across laboratories and enable the merging of data for meta-analysis. The CDEs were subdivided into a Core module for data elements relevant to most, if not all, studies, and Injury-Model-Specific modules for non-generalizable data elements. The purpose of this article is to provide both an overview of TBI models and the CDEs pertinent to these models to facilitate a common language for preclinical TBI research.

  4. Finding common ground in implementation: towards a theory of gradual commonality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Haar, Marian; Aarts, Noelle; Verhoeven, Piet

    2016-03-01

    This article reports on an empirical study that aimed to design a practice-based theory about collaboration on the local implementation of a nationally developed health-promoting intervention. The study's objective is to better understand the dynamic process of complex collaboration. The research is based on a Delphi study among some 100 individuals in local and regional networks, in which various professionals work together to implement the BeweegKuur, which translates as 'course of exercise'. The BeweegKuur is a combined lifestyle intervention aimed at promoting sufficient physical exercise and a healthy diet among people in the Netherlands who are overweight and at risk of diabetes. The Delphi study in three rounds systematically and interactively constructs a common perspective on implementation, reflecting stakeholders' ideas about the collaboration and providing an insight into how these ideas are influenced by the context of the implementation. The statistical and qualitative analyses of the responses to the feedback in the Delphi study form the basis for this practice-based theory on complex collaboration, called the theory of gradual commonality. During interaction, consensus gradually emerges about co-creation as a collaboration strategy. Co-creation leaves room for various ways of achieving the ambitions of the BeweegKuur. This article discusses the importance of this practice-based theory and the value of the Delphi research strategy for promoting health. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Common Virtual Path and Its Expedience for VBR Video Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Chromy

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with utilization of common Virtual Path (VP for variable bit rate (VBR video service. Video service is one of the main services for broadband networks. Research is oriented to statistical properties of common and separate VPs. Separate VP means that for each VBR traffic source one VP will be allocated. Common VP means that for multiple VBR sources one common VP is allocated. VBR video traffic source is modeled by discrete Markov chain.

  6. The agricultural policy of Serbia and common agricultural policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Milica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The agricultural sector has a relatively high importance in the economic structure of Serbia. The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP, Common Agricultural Policy is one of the main policies of the European Union. It is very important to point out the fundamental principles and objectives of the Common Agricultural Policy. Harmonization of the national agricultural policy of Serbia with the Common Agricultural Policy and acceptance of its mechanisms is crucial for the development of the agricultural sector as a whole.

  7. Advocacy: Emphasizing the Uncommon about the Common Core State Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Sandra N.

    2014-01-01

    The author describes key issues and uncommon concerns about the Common Core State Standards that fit within two categories: philosophical and pedagogical. Philosophically, Common Core State K-12 Standards should not be expected to be mastered at a specific grade level but based on developmental readiness. Pedagogically, Common Core State Standards…

  8. Common Core Implementation Decisions Made by Principals in Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Alexis Cienfuegos

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the decisions elementary principals have made during the Common Core State Standards reform. Specifically, (a) what decisions principals have made to support Common Core implementation, (b) what strategies elementary principals have employed to communicate with stakeholders about Common Core State…

  9. 49 CFR 1150.22 - Exemptions and common carrier status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the line itself, it will be considered a common carrier. However, when a State acquires a rail line... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exemptions and common carrier status. 1150.22... common carrier status. The acquisition by a State of a fully abandoned line is not subject to the...

  10. Using Digital Video Production to Meet the Common Core Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Maura

    2012-01-01

    The implementation of the Common Core Standards has just begun and these standards will impact a generation that communicates with technology more than anything else. Texting, cell phones, Facebook, YouTube, Skype, etc. are the ways they speak with their friends and the world. The Common Core Standards recognize this. According to the Common Core…

  11. CFP (Common Focus Point) redatuming: cinematic approach; Redatumacao CFP (Common Focus Point): uma abordagem cinematica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filgueiras, Erica C.C.S.; Santoro, Marcus V.L. [Halliburton Servicos Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Josias J. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE); Jesus, Carlos A.C. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The quality of seismic data can be degrade by effects originated from a complex near surface, like the presence of canyons in marine floor. Filgueiras (2007) introduced a new formulation for data recorded redatuming on surface that are influenced by canyons present in marine floor, using the concept of Common Focus Point (CFP) Gather, with wave field extrapolations without asymptotic approximations. This new formulation proposes to eliminate the effects of the floor marine topography (Filgueiras, 2007). It is based on the concepts of CFP technology introduced by Berkhout (1997 a. and 1997 b.) and the virtual source method, introduced by Bakulin and Calvert (2004). This procedure implies a new datum a final seismogram redatuming, capable to show the reflections with no canyons influence of the most all reflectors that are under the reference datum. From cinematic point at view, the results from synthetic data were satisfied. (author)

  12. The Nature of Common Sense and How We Can Use Common Sense to Renew the West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. Redpath

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since most pressing today on a global scale is to be able to unite religion, philosophy, and science into parts of a coherent civilizational whole, and since the ability to unite a multitude into parts of a coherent whole essentially requires understanding the natures of the things and the way they can or cannot be essentially related, this paper chiefly considers precisely why the modern world has been unable to effect this union. In so doing, it argues that the chief cause of this inability to unite these cultural natures has been because the contemporary world, and the West especially, has lost its understanding of philosophy and science and has intentionally divorced from essential connection to wisdom. Finally, it proposes a common sense way properly to understand these natures, reunite them to wisdom, and revive Western and global civilization.

  13. A Quantitative Method to Screen Common Bean Plants for Resistance to Bean common mosaic necrosis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strausbaugh, C A; Myers, J R; Forster, R L; McClean, P E

    2003-11-01

    ABSTRACT A quantitative method to screen common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) plants for resistance to Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) is described. Four parameters were assessed in developing the quantitative method: symptoms associated with systemic virus movement, plant vigor, virus titer, and plant dry weight. Based on these parameters, two rating systems (V and VV rating) were established. Plants from 21 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a Sierra (susceptible) x Olathe (partially resistant) cross inoculated with the BCMNV-NL-3 K strain were used to evaluate this quantitative approach. In all, 11 RILs exhibited very susceptible reactions and 10 RILs expressed partially resistant reactions, thus fitting a 1:1 susceptible/partially resistant ratio (chi(2) = 0.048, P = 0.827) and suggesting that the response is mediated by a single gene. Using the classical qualitative approach based only on symptom expression, the RILs were difficult to separate into phenotypic groups because of a continuum of responses. By plotting mean percent reduction in either V (based on visual symptoms) or VV (based on visual symptoms and vigor) rating versus enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) absorbance values, RILs could be separated clearly into different phenotypic groups. The utility of this quantitative approach also was evaluated on plants from 12 cultivars or pure lines inoculated with one of three strains of BCMNV. Using the mean VV rating and ELISA absorbance values, significant differences were established not only in cultivar and pure line comparisons but also in virus strain comparisons. This quantitative system should be particularly useful for the evaluation of the independent action of bc genes, the discovery of new genes associated with partial resistance, and assessing virulence of virus strains.

  14. Scientists and Faith Communities in Dialogue - Finding Common Ground to Care for our Common Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, L. M.

    2017-12-01

    World-wide, faith communities are a key place for education and outreach to the general adult population. The sacred responsibility to care for the earth, living sustainability and concern for the poor are nearly universal priorities across faith communities. Scientists and people of faith share in common experiences of awe and wonder and ethical roles as citizens. The majority of faith communities have statements on climate changes, environmental justice, and stewardship, and respond with education, action plans and advocacy. People of faith are increasingly seeking science expertise to better understand the science and best solutions to implement. Transformation of point of view often requires heart-felt motivation (domain of religion) as well as knowledge (science). Scientists can participate in alleviating environmental justice by providing data and education to communities. Expert testimony is a critical service. Pope Francis' environmental encyclical Laudato si, engaged diverse scientists in its writing and outreach. Francis invites our continued dialogue with people of faith and goodwill of all societal sectors and fields to achieve an integral ecology that integrates science, economics, and impacts on the poor. For scientists to be most effective in sharing expertise, and building understanding and trust in scientific findings, skill- building is needed in: communication, finding common ground, intercultural competency, working with diverse populations and religious literacy. Educational initiatives bridging scientists and faith-communities will be highlighted including within: the Ecological Society of America, American Assn for Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education, faith-based & Environmental Justice networks, Nature centers, Higher Education (including Seminary) Initiatives and the Hanley Sustainability Institute, and interfaith religious organizations engaged with scientists. Bridge-building and ongoing partnerships of scientists, EJ

  15. On 'Common time' in the four-dimensional symmetry framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulati, Shobha

    1980-01-01

    Recently Hsu has advanced a 'Four-Dimensional Symmetry Theory' with a 'Common time' for all inertial frames. He believes that such a 'Common time' is physically possible. However, as a consequence of 'Common time', Hsu asserts that the speed of light in some inertial frames is not necessarily invariant and isotropic - a result, quite contrary to Einstein's Principle of the constancy of the velocity of light. In the present paper, taking Hsu's 'Common time' at its face value, the author has demonstrated that his formulation itself leads to physically absurd results. A 'Common time' for all inertial frames is just not possible. (author)

  16. Characterization of a Common-Gate Amplifier Using Ferroelectric Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Mitchell; Sayyah, Rana; MacLeod, Todd C.; Ho, Fat D.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the empirical data collected through experiments performed using a FeFET in the common-gate amplifier circuit is presented. The FeFET common-gate amplifier was characterized by varying all parameters in the circuit, such as load resistance, biasing of the transistor, and input voltages. Due to the polarization of the ferroelectric layer, the particular behavior of the FeFET common-gate amplifier presents interesting results. Furthermore, the differences between a FeFET common-gate amplifier and a MOSFET common-gate amplifier are examined.

  17. Design principles for global commons: Natural resources and emerging technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C. Stern

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Ostrom’s design principles for managing common pool resources were developed largely by examining local commons involving natural resources. This paper enumerates several key characteristics that distinguish such commons from more complex commons involving global resources and the risks of emerging technologies. It considers the degree to which the design principles transfer to those commons and concludes that although they have considerable external validity, the list needs some modification and elaboration to apply to global resources and risk commons. A list of design principles is offered for global resource commons and the risks of emerging technologies. Applying Ostrom’s approach to global resources and emerging technologies can improve understanding and expand the solution set for these problems from international treaties, top-down national regulation, and interventions in market pricing systems to include non-governmental institutions that embody principles of self-governance.

  18. MDEP Common Position CP-VICWG-01. Common Position: Establishment of Common QA/QM Criteria for the Multinational Vendor Inspection CP-VICWG-01

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This document provides a set of common positions for harmonizing inspection criteria called 'Common QA/QM Criteria' which will be used in Multinational Vendor Inspections. This document was prepared by the Vendor Inspection Co-operation Working Group (VICWG) of the Multinational Design Evaluation Program (MDEP). The 'Common QA/QM Criteria' provides the basic areas for consideration when performing Vendor Inspections. The criteria have been developed in conformity with International Codes and Standards such as IAEA, ISO, etc. that MDEP member countries have adopted

  19. Joint Service Common Operating Environment (COE) Common Geographic Information System functional requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meitzler, W.D.

    1992-06-01

    In the context of this document and COE, the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are decision support systems involving the integration of spatially referenced data in a problem solving environment. They are digital computer systems for capturing, processing, managing, displaying, modeling, and analyzing geographically referenced spatial data which are described by attribute data and location. The ability to perform spatial analysis and the ability to combine two or more data sets to create new spatial information differentiates a GIS from other computer mapping systems. While the CCGIS allows for data editing and input, its primary purpose is not to prepare data, but rather to manipulate, analyte, and clarify it. The CCGIS defined herein provides GIS services and resources including the spatial and map related functionality common to all subsystems contained within the COE suite of C4I systems. The CCGIS, which is an integral component of the COE concept, relies on the other COE standard components to provide the definition for other support computing services required.

  20. MDEP Generic Common Position No DICWG-01. Common position on the treatment of common cause failure caused by software within digital safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Common cause failures (CCF)2 have been a significant safety concern for nuclear power plant systems. The increasing dependence on software-in safety systems for nuclear power plants has increased the safety significance of CCF caused by software, when software in redundant channels or portions of safety systems has some common dependency. For example, the effect of systematic failures can lead to a loss of safety in many ways: unwanted actuations, a safety function is not provided when needed. Therefore, nuclear power plants should be systematically protected from the effects of common cause failures caused by software in DI and C safety systems. Software for nuclear power plant safety systems should be of the high quality necessary to help assure against the loss of safety (i.e. developed with high-quality engineering practices, commensurate quality assurance applied, with continuous improvement through corrective actions based on lessons learned from operating experience). However, demonstrating adequate software quality only through verification and validation activities and controls on the development process has proved to be problematic. Therefore, this common position provides guidance for the assessment of the potential for CCF for software. It is recognized that programmable logic devices do not execute software in the conventional sense; however, the application development process using these devices have many similarities with software development, and the deficiencies that may be introduced during the application development process may induce errors in the programmable logic devices that can result in common cause failures of these devices of a type similar to software common cause failure. Although deficiencies with the potential to give rise to software common cause failures can be introduced at all phases of the software life cycle, this common position will only consider the potential for software common cause failures within digital safety system