WorldWideScience

Sample records for common cuttlefish sepia

  1. Biokinetics of Hg and Pb accumulation in the encapsulated egg of the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis: Radiotracer experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacoue-Labarthe, T., E-mail: tlacouel@gmail.com [Littoral, Environnement et Societes (LIENSs), UMR 6250, CNRS-Universite de La Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, F-17042 La Rochelle Cedex 01 (France); Warnau, M., E-mail: warnaumichel@yahoo.com [International Atomic Energy Agency - Marine Environment Laboratories, 4 Quai Antoine Ier, MC-98000 (Monaco); Metian, M. [Littoral, Environnement et Societes (LIENSs), UMR 6250, CNRS-Universite de La Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, F-17042 La Rochelle Cedex 01 (France); International Atomic Energy Agency - Marine Environment Laboratories, 4 Quai Antoine Ier, MC-98000 (Monaco); Oberhaensli, F. [International Atomic Energy Agency - Marine Environment Laboratories, 4 Quai Antoine Ier, MC-98000 (Monaco); Rouleau, C. [Institut Maurice-Lamontagne, 850 Route de la Mer, C.P. 1000, Mont-Joli, Quebec (Canada); Bustamante, P., E-mail: pbustama@univ-lr.fr [Littoral, Environnement et Societes (LIENSs), UMR 6250, CNRS-Universite de La Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, F-17042 La Rochelle Cedex 01 (France)

    2009-12-01

    Uptake and depuration kinetics of dissolved {sup 203}Hg and {sup 210}Pb were determined during the entire embryonic development of the eggs of the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis (50 d at 17 {sup o}C). {sup 203}Hg and {sup 210}Pb were accumulated continuously by the eggs all along the development time reaching load/concentration ratio (LCR) of 467 {+-} 43 and 1301 {+-} 126 g, respectively. During the first month, most of the {sup 203}Hg and {sup 210}Pb remained associated with the eggshell indicating that the latter acted as an efficient shield against metal penetration. From this time onwards, {sup 203}Hg accumulated in the embryo, indicating that it passed through the eggshell, whereas {sup 210}Pb did not cross the chorion during the whole exposure time. It also demonstrated that translocation of Hg associated with the inner layers of the eggshell is a significant source of exposure for the embryo. This study highlighted that the maturing embryo could be subjected to the toxic effects of Hg in the coastal waters where the embryonic development is taking place.

  2. Effects of increased pCO2 and temperature on trace element (Ag, Cd and Zn bioaccumulation in the eggs of the common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Markich

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Cephalopods play a key role in many marine trophic networks and constitute alternative fisheries resources, especially given the ongoing decline in finfish stocks. Along the European coast, the eggs of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis are characterized by an increasing permeability of the eggshell during development, which leads to selective accumulation of essential and non-essential elements in the embryo. Temperature and pH are two critical factors that affect the metabolism of marine organisms in the coastal shallow waters. In this study, we are testing the effects of pH and temperature through a crossed (3×2 laboratory experiment. Seawater pH showed a strong effect on the egg weight and non-significant impact on the hatchlings weight at the end of development implying egg swelling process and embryo growth disturbances. The lower pH of incubation seawater of eggs, the more the hatchlings accumulated 110m Ag in their tissues. The 109Cd CF decreased with increasing pH and 65Zn CF reached the maximal values pH 7.85, independent of temperature. Our results suggest that pH and temperature affected both the permeability properties of the eggshell and the embryo metabolism. To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the first studies on the ocean acidification and ocean warming consequences on the metal uptake in marine organisms, stimulating further interest to evaluate the likely ecotoxicological impact of the global change on the early-life stage of the cuttlefish.

  3. Spatial learning in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis: preference for vertical over horizontal information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scatà, Gabriella; Jozet-Alves, Christelle; Thomasse, Céline; Josef, Noam; Shashar, Nadav

    2016-09-15

    The world is three-dimensional; hence, even surface-bound animals need to learn vertical spatial information. Separate encoding of vertical and horizontal spatial information seems to be the common strategy regardless of the locomotory style of animals. However, a difference seems to exist in the way freely moving species, such as fish, learn and integrate spatial information as opposed to surface-bound species, which prioritize the horizontal dimension and encode it with a higher resolution. Thus, the locomotory style of an animal may shape how spatial information is learned and prioritized. An alternative hypothesis relates the preference for vertical information to the ability to sense hydrostatic pressure, a prominent cue unique to this dimension. Cuttlefish are mostly benthic animals, but they can move freely in a volume. Therefore, they present an optimal model to examine these hypotheses. We tested whether cuttlefish could separately recall the vertical and horizontal components of a learned two-dimensional target, and whether they have a preference for vertical or horizontal information. Sepia officinalis cuttlefish were trained to select one of two visual cues set along a 45 deg diagonal. The animals were then tested with the two visual cues arranged in a horizontal, vertical or opposite 45 deg configuration. We found that cuttlefish use vertical and horizontal spatial cues separately, and that they prefer vertical information to horizontal information. We propose that, as in fish, the availability of hydrostatic pressure, combined with the ecological value of vertical movements, determines the importance of vertical information. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. Color blindness and contrast perception in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) determined by a visual sensorimotor assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäthger, Lydia M; Barbosa, Alexandra; Miner, Simon; Hanlon, Roger T

    2006-05-01

    We tested color perception based upon a robust behavioral response in which cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) respond to visual stimuli (a black and white checkerboard) with a quantifiable, neurally controlled motor response (a body pattern). In the first experiment, we created 16 checkerboard substrates in which 16 grey shades (from white to black) were paired with one green shade (matched to the maximum absorption wavelength of S. officinalis' sole visual pigment, 492 nm), assuming that one of the grey shades would give a similar achromatic signal to the tested green. In the second experiment, we created a checkerboard using one blue and one yellow shade whose intensities were matched to the cuttlefish's visual system. In both assays it was tested whether cuttlefish would show disruptive coloration on these checkerboards, indicating their ability to distinguish checkers based solely on wavelength (i.e., color). Here, we show clearly that cuttlefish must be color blind, as they showed non-disruptive coloration on the checkerboards whose color intensities were matched to the Sepia visual system, suggesting that the substrates appeared to their eyes as uniform backgrounds. Furthermore, we show that cuttlefish are able to perceive objects in their background that differ in contrast by approximately 15%. This study adds support to previous reports that S. officinalis is color blind, yet the question of how cuttlefish achieve "color-blind camouflage" in chromatically rich environments still remains.

  5. Transcriptome Sequencing and De Novo Assembly of Golden Cuttlefish Sepia esculenta Hoyle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changlin Liu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Golden cuttlefish Sepia esculenta Hoyle is an economically important cephalopod species. However, artificial hatching is currently challenged by low survival rate of larvae due to abnormal embryonic development. Dissecting the genetic foundation and regulatory mechanisms in embryonic development requires genomic background knowledge. Therefore, we carried out a transcriptome sequencing on Sepia embryos and larvae via mRNA-Seq. 32,597,241 raw reads were filtered and assembled into 98,615 unigenes (N50 length at 911 bp which were annotated in NR database, GO and KEGG databases respectively. Digital gene expression analysis was carried out on cleavage stage embryos, healthy larvae and malformed larvae. Unigenes functioning in cell proliferation exhibited higher transcriptional levels at cleavage stage while those related to animal disease and organ development showed increased transcription in malformed larvae. Homologs of key genes in regulatory pathways related to early development of animals were identified in Sepia. Most of them exhibit higher transcriptional levels in cleavage stage than larvae, suggesting their potential roles in embryonic development of Sepia. The de novo assembly of Sepia transcriptome is fundamental genetic background for further exploration in Sepia research. Our demonstration on the transcriptional variations of genes in three developmental stages will provide new perspectives in understanding the molecular mechanisms in early embryonic development of cuttlefish.

  6. Comparison in nutritional quality between wild and cultured cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jing; Chen, Daohai; Zeng, Ling

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the proximate composition and the amino and fatty acid profiles of shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (prey) and wild and cultured cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis (the latter fed the prey) were determined and compared with FAO/WHO recommendations. The resulting scores for isoleucine, phenylalanine+tyrosine, histidine, lysine, threonine, and tryptophan in cultured cuttlefish were ≥150. The ratio of EAA (essential amino acids)/nonessential amino acids in cultured cuttlefish (0.82) was higher than in the wild form (0.80). All EAA amino acid scores for cultured cuttlefish were higher than their wild counterparts, except for histidine and tryptophan. Both groups of cuttlefish possessed similar saturated fatty acid content, with the cultured containing much more total (Σ) monounsaturated fatty acids, Σ n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 n-3) but less Σ n-3 PUFA, arachidonic acid (C20:4 n-6), and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3) than their wild counterparts. Therefore, the present results suggest that these cultured cuttlefish were better than the wild form for human health. Notably, these results also indicate that the nutritional composition of these cuttlefish might have been significantly affected by diet.

  7. Evidence for distributed light sensing in the skin of cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis

    OpenAIRE

    Mäthger, Lydia M.; Roberts, Steven B.; Hanlon, Roger T.

    2010-01-01

    We report that the skin of cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, contains opsin transcripts suggesting a possible role of distributed light sensing for dynamic camouflage and signalling. The mRNA coding for opsin from various body regions was amplified and sequenced, and gene expression was detected in fin and ventral skin samples. The amino acid sequence of the opsin polypeptide that these transcripts would produce was identical in retina and fin tissue samples, but the ventral skin opsin transcrip...

  8. Isozymes analysis of the golden cuttlefish Sepia esculenta (Cephalopoda: Sepiidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaodong; Zhao, Jianmin; Xiao, Shu; Wang, Rucai; Wang, Shidang; Zhou, Weiwu

    2004-04-01

    Thirty-nine isozymes in four tissues (mantle muscle, buccal bulb muscle, eye and liver) of Sepia esculenta were screened for enzymatic analysis using starch gel electrophoretic technique. Eighteen enzymes (G3PDH, LDH, MDH, MEP, IDHP, PGDH, GRS, NP, AAT, CK, AK, EST, ALP, ACP, FBP, MPI, GPI and PGM) show strong activities and good convergence in zymogram. They are proved to be suitable genetic markers in Sepia esculenta. Among the tissues used, mantle muscle is the best for electrophoretic analysis of isozymes. Eye and liver are fairly good for some special enzymes, such as LDH, EST, MPI, etc. Twenty-six loci are detected. The proportion of polymorphic loci is 0.115 in the Qingdao sample and 0.153 in the Rizhao sample (Pvalues of the observed and expected heterozygosity per locus of Qingdao sample are 0.016 and 0.017, while those of the Rizhao sample are 0.023 and 0.025 respectively.

  9. Taurine depresses cardiac contractility and enhances systemic heart glucose utilization in the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCormack, Tyson J; Callaghan, N I; Sykes, A V; Driedzic, W R

    2016-02-01

    Taurine is the most abundant amino acid in the blood of the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, where levels can exceed 200 mmol L(-1). In mammals, intracellular taurine modulates cardiac Ca(2+) handling and carbohydrate metabolism at much lower concentrations but it is not clear if it exerts similar actions in cephalopods. Blood Ca(2+) levels are high in cephalopods and we hypothesized that taurine would depress cardiac Ca(2+) flux and modulate contractility in systemic and branchial hearts of cuttlefish. Heart performance was assessed with an in situ perfused systemic heart preparation and contractility was evaluated using isometrically contracting systemic and branchial heart muscle rings. Stroke volume, cardiac output, and Ca(2+) sensitivity were significantly lower in systemic hearts perfused with supplemental taurine (100 mmol L(-1)) than in controls. In muscle ring preparations, taurine impaired relaxation at high contraction frequencies, an effect abolished by supra-physiological Ca(2+) levels. Taurine did not affect oxygen consumption in non-contracting systemic heart muscle, but extracellular glucose utilization was twice that of control preparations. Collectively, our results suggest that extracellular taurine depresses cardiac Ca(2+) flux and potentiates glucose utilization in cuttlefish. Variations in taurine levels may represent an important mechanism for regulating cardiovascular function and metabolism in cephalopods.

  10. Bioaccumulation of PCBs in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis from seawater, sediment and food pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danis, B. [Laboratoire de Biologie Marine (CP 160-15), Universite Libre de Bruxelles, 50 Av. F.D. Roosevelt, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)]. E-mail: bdanis@ulb.ac.be; Bustamante, P. [Laboratoire de Biologie et Environnement Marins, UPRES-EA 3168, Universite de La Rochelle, 22 Av. Michel Crepeau, F-17042 La Rochelle Cedex (France); Cotret, O. [Marine Environment Laboratory - International Atomic Energy Agency, 4 Quai Antoine Ier, Monaco, MC-98000 Monaco (Monaco); Teyssie, J.L. [Marine Environment Laboratory - International Atomic Energy Agency, 4 Quai Antoine Ier, Monaco, MC-98000 Monaco (Monaco); Fowler, S.W. [Marine Environment Laboratory - International Atomic Energy Agency, 4 Quai Antoine Ier, Monaco, MC-98000 Monaco (Monaco); Warnau, M. [Marine Environment Laboratory - International Atomic Energy Agency, 4 Quai Antoine Ier, Monaco, MC-98000 Monaco (Monaco)

    2005-03-01

    The cuttlefish Sepia officinalis was selected as a model cephalopod to study PCB bioaccumulation via seawater, sediments and food. Newly hatched, juvenile cuttlefish were exposed for 17 days to environmentally realistic concentrations of {sup 14}C-labeled 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB no. 153) (18 ng PCB l{sup -1} seawater; 30 ng PCB g{sup -1} dry wt sediments; Artemia salina exposed to 18 ng PCB l{sup -1} seawater). Accumulation of PCB no. 153 was followed in three body compartments: digestive gland, cuttlebone and the combined remaining tissues. Results showed that (1) uptake kinetics were source- and body compartment-dependent, (2) for each body compartment, the accumulation was far greater when S. officinalis was exposed via seawater, (3) the cuttlebone accumulated little of the contaminant regardless of the source, and (4) the PCB congener showed a similar distribution pattern among the different body compartments following exposure to contaminated seawater, sediment or food with the lowest concentrations in the cuttlebone and the highest in the remaining tissues. The use of radiotracer techniques allowed delineating PCB kinetics in small whole organisms as well as in their separate tissues. The results underscore the enhanced ability of cephalopods to concentrate organic pollutants such as PCBs, and raise the question of potential risk to their predators in contaminated areas. - Bioaccumulation of PCBs by cuttlefish is studied, via seawater, sediments and their food.

  11. First experiments on the maternal transfer of metals in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacoue-Labarthe, Thomas [Littoral, Environnement et Societes (LIENSs), UMR 6250, CNRS-Universite de La Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, F-17000 La Rochelle (France); Warnau, Michel [Marine Environment Laboratories, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA-MEL), 4 Quai Antoine Ier, MC 98000, Principality of Monaco (Monaco)], E-mail: warnaumichel@yahoo.com; Oberhaensli, Francois; Teyssie, Jean-Louis; Jeffree, Ross [Marine Environment Laboratories, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA-MEL), 4 Quai Antoine Ier, MC 98000, Principality of Monaco (Monaco); Bustamante, Paco [Littoral, Environnement et Societes (LIENSs), UMR 6250, CNRS-Universite de La Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, F-17000 La Rochelle (France)

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to provide a first insight on the incorporation of eight metals in the eggs of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis via maternal transfer, using radiotracer techniques ({sup 110m}Ag, {sup 241}Am, {sup 109}Cd, {sup 60}Co, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 54}Mn, {sup 75}Se and {sup 65}Zn). The cuttlefish was fed daily with radiolabelled crabs for two weeks; it then started to spawn every three days. Among the eight tracers, only {sup 110m}Ag, {sup 75}Se and {sup 65}Zn were significantly transferred to the eggs. The radiotracer distribution among the egg compartments showed that {sup 75}Se and {sup 65}Zn were accumulated mainly in the vitellus whereas {sup 110m}Ag was found in similar proportion in the vitellus and the eggshell. During the embryonic development, {sup 75}Se and {sup 65}Zn contained in the vitellus were progressively transferred to the embryo, likely to supply its metabolic needs in these essential elements. Although it has no known biological functions, Ag contained in both vitellus and eggshell was also transferred to the embryo. Overall, our results showed that transfer of Ag, Se, and Zn does actually occur from a female cuttlefish to its eggs, at least during the last two weeks before spawning.

  12. Histological and Histochemical Analyses of the Cuttlebone Sac of the Golden Cuttlefish Sepia esculenta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The secretion function of mantle is closely related to shell formation in some bivalves and gastropods. Up to now, few researches have been reported for cuttlebone formation in the class Cephalopoda. In this study, the structure and secretion function of cuttlebone sac of the golden cuttlefish Sepia esculenta was analyzed using the histological and histochemical methods. The results showed that high and columnar cells located in sac epithelium, and flat cells existed near the base membrane. A lot of fibroblasts were found in the lateral mantle collective tissue. Some mucus, mucopolysaccharide and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were found in the sac. The ultrastructural characteristics of Quasi-connective-tissue-calcium cells (QCTCC) were observed using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The relationship between cuttlebone sac secretion function and shell formation was discussed.

  13. A complex set of sex pheromones identified in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérémy Enault

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The cephalopod mollusk Sepia officinalis can be considered as a relevant model for studying reproduction strategies associated to seasonal migrations. Using transcriptomic and peptidomic approaches, we aim to identify peptide sex pheromones that are thought to induce the aggregation of mature cuttlefish in their egg-laying areas. RESULTS: To facilitate the identification of sex pheromones, 576 5'-expressed sequence tags (ESTs were sequenced from a single cDNA library generated from accessory sex glands of female cuttlefish. Our analysis yielded 223 unique sequences composed of 186 singletons and 37 contigs. Three major redundant ESTs called SPα, SPα' and SPβ were identified as good candidates for putative sex pheromone transcripts and are part of the 87 unique sequences classified as unknown. The alignment of translated SPα and SPα' revealed a high level of conservation, with 98.4% identity. Translation led to a 248-amino acid precursor containing six peptides with multiple putative disulfide bonds. The alignment of SPα-α' with SPβ revealed a partial structural conservation, with 37.3% identity. Translation of SPβ led to a 252-amino acid precursor containing five peptides. The occurrence of a signal peptide on SPα, SPα' and SPβ showed that the peptides were secreted. RT-PCR and mass spectrometry analyses revealed a co-localization of transcripts and expression products in the oviduct gland. Preliminary in vitro experiments performed on gills and penises revealed target organs involved in mating and ventilation. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis of the accessory sex gland transcriptome of Sepia officinalis led to the identification of peptidic sex pheromones. Although preliminary functional tests suggested the involvement of the α3 and β2 peptides in ventilation and mating stimulation, further functional investigations will make it possible to identify the complete set of biological activities expected from waterborne pheromones.

  14. Effect of NaCl on texture modification of cuttlefish mantle (Sepia brevimana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakree Tongraung

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties of cleaned cuttlefish mantle (Sepia brevimana before and after spinning in cold salt solution were characterized by tensile and shear test. The objective was to relate the physical changes of the cuttlefish mantle to the composition and microstructure changes mediated by spinning in 5 % (w/v NaCl solution at 0-(-50C for 10 min. Textural difference between outer and inner surface of the cleaned mantle was revealed by the tensile force applied to transverse direction of the longitudinal axis of the mantle. Shear test was found suitable to highlight textural modification due to the spinning. It was found that the operation increased the mantle total weight and caused mantle curvature and hardening. These changes were concomitant with an increase of the mantle moisture and salt content at specific layers in the mantle. Microstructure of the mantle obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM showed both expanded and packed fibers depending on their position. The results suggested that modification of the mantle texture due to spinning in the cold NaCl solution was a complex process coupled with changes in chemical composition and microstructure.

  15. Cuttlefish Sepia officinalis Preferentially Respond to Bottom Rather than Side Stimuli When Not Allowed Adjacent to Tank Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-14

    14 / 18 cam feed for signs of stress and agitation. The only adverse effects observed were that, occa- sionally, an animal would ink during transfer...responses in each of the twelve cam - ouflage categories for each of the five side stimulus groups. Comparisons of the proportion of responses in each of...Hanlon RT. Color blindness and contrast perception in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) determined by a visual sensorimotor assay . Vision Res. 2006; 46

  16. Inter-cohort growth patterns of pharaoh cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis (Sepioidea: Sepiidae in Eastern Arabian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetha Sasikumar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Sepia pharaonis is an important commercial species endemic to the tropical Indo-Pacific region. Despite its commercial significance, only few information on natural populations is available. This study was aimed to describe the aspects of size-composition, length-weight relationship, catch rates, seasonal recruitment and inter-cohort growth patterns of S. pharaonis population (Clade C, distributed along the Eastern Arabian Sea (South-West coast of India. For this, the Dorsal Mantle Length (DML and weight of cuttlefishes was obtained from commercial trawl catches, from April 2002 to October 2006. Data was analyzed by normal length-weight methods such as von Bertalanffy. A total of 12 454 cuttlefishes, ranging in length from four to 41cm were analyzed. Size-composition patterns discriminated two pulses in recruitment to the fishery, discernible by a decrease in the monthly mean size of the population. The DMLs of the two seasonal cohorts were subjected to modalprogression analysis using the Bhattacharya’s method for the estimation of growth. The estimated parameters L∞ and K in von Bertalanffy Growth Function (VBGF were used to model growth curves in length for the cohorts. The first cohort, (post-monsoon cohort which supports the major fishery, was composed of mediumsized, fast growing individuals, whereas the second cohort (pre-monsoon cohort, comprised of slow growing and large-sized individuals. There were differential growth characteristics between the sexes and the life span was estimated at less than 2.3years for males and 2.1years for females. Negative allometric growth in weight (W with length (L was observed for males (W=0.33069.L2.5389 and females (W=0.32542.L2.6057. The females were heavier compared to males at any given mantle length, and the males were found to attain larger ultimate lengths. The major fishing season for cuttlefish was from May to November, when higher monthly catch rates of 1.67-13.02kg/h were observed in

  17. The complete mitochondrial genomes of deep-sea squid (Bathyteuthis abyssicola), bob-tail squid (Semirossia patagonica) and four giant cuttlefish (Sepia apama, S. latimanus, S. lycidas and S. pharaonis), and their application to the phylogenetic analysis of Decapodiformes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Yuumi; Nishihara, Hidenori; Akasaki, Tetsuya; Nikaido, Masato; Tsuchiya, Kotaro; Segawa, Susumu; Okada, Norihiro

    2013-12-01

    We determined the complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes of the deep-sea squid (Bathyteuthis abyssicola; supperfamily Bathyteuthoidea), the bob-tail squid (Semirossia patagonica; order Sepiolida) and four giant cuttlefish (Sepia apama, S. latimanus, S. lycidas and S. pharaonis; order Sepiida). The unique structures of the mt genomes of Bathyteuthis and Semirossia provide new information about the evolution of decapodiform mt genomes. We show that the mt genome of B. abyssicola, like those of other oegopsids studied so far, has two long duplicated regions that include seven genes (COX1-3, ATP6 and ATP8, tRNA(Asn), and either ND2 or ND3) and that one of the duplicated COX3 genes has lost its function. The mt genome of S. patagonica is unlike any other decapodiforms and, like Nautilus, its ATP6 and ATP8 genes are not adjacent to each other. The four giant cuttlefish have identical mt gene order to other cuttlefish determined to date. Molecular phylogenetic analyses using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods suggest that traditional order Sepioidea (Sepiolida+Sepiida) is paraphyletic and Sepia (cuttlefish) has the sister-relationship with all other decapodiforms. Taking both the phylogenetic analyses and the mt gene order analyses into account, it is likely that the octopus-type mt genome is an ancestral state and that it had maintained from at least the Cephalopoda ancestor to the common ancestor of Oegopsida, Myopsida and Sepiolida.

  18. The W-shaped pupil in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis): functions for improving horizontal vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäthger, Lydia M; Hanlon, Roger T; Håkansson, Jonas; Nilsson, Dan-Eric

    2013-05-03

    The eyes of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) have a modified horizontal slit-pupil with a distinctive W-shape in bright light, while in darkness the pupil is circular. Two suggestions have previously been made for a function of the W-shape: (1) camouflaging the eye; (2) providing distance information. Since neither of these suggestions can fully explain the function of this pupil across the entire visual field, particularly the frontal and caudal periphery, we re-addressed the question of its functional significance. We took infra-red images of the eyes of live S. officinalis at different light intensities and from different viewing angles. This allowed us to determine the shape and light-admitting area of the pupil for different parts of the visual field. Our data show that the W-shaped pupil projects a blurred "W" directly onto the retina and that it effectively operates as vertical slits for the frontal and caudal parts of the visual field. We also took images of the natural habitat of S. officinalis and calculated the average vertical brightness distribution in the visual habitat. Computing a retinal illumination map shows that the W-shaped pupil is effective in balancing a vertically uneven light field: The constricted pupil reduces light from the dorsal part of the visual field significantly more than it reduces light from the horizontal band. This will cut the amount of direct sunlight that is scattered by the lens and ocular media, and thus improve image contrast particularly for the dimmer parts of the scene. We also conclude that the pupil provides even attenuation along the horizontal band, whereas a circular pupil would attenuate the image relatively more in the important frontal and caudal periphery of the visual field.

  19. Inter-cohort growth patterns of pharaoh cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis (Sepioidea: Sepiidae in Eastern Arabian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetha Sasikumar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Sepia pharaonis is an important commercial species endemic to the tropical Indo-Pacific region. Despite its commercial significance, only few information on natural populations is available. This study was aimed to describe the aspects of size-composition, length-weight relationship, catch rates, seasonal recruitment and inter-cohort growth patterns of S. pharaonis population (Clade C, distributed along the Eastern Arabian Sea (South-West coast of India. For this, the Dorsal Mantle Length (DML and weight of cuttlefishes was obtained from commercial trawl catches, from April 2002 to October 2006. Data was analyzed by normal length-weight methods such as von Bertalanffy. A total of 12 454 cuttlefishes, ranging in length from four to 41cm were analyzed. Size-composition patterns discriminated two pulses in recruitment to the fishery, discernible by a decrease in the monthly mean size of the population. The DMLs of the two seasonal cohorts were subjected to modalprogression analysis using the Bhattacharya’s method for the estimation of growth. The estimated parameters L∞ and K in von Bertalanffy Growth Function (VBGF were used to model growth curves in length for the cohorts. The first cohort, (post-monsoon cohort which supports the major fishery, was composed of mediumsized, fast growing individuals, whereas the second cohort (pre-monsoon cohort, comprised of slow growing and large-sized individuals. There were differential growth characteristics between the sexes and the life span was estimated at less than 2.3years for males and 2.1years for females. Negative allometric growth in weight (W with length (L was observed for males (W=0.33069.L2.5389 and females (W=0.32542.L2.6057. The females were heavier compared to males at any given mantle length, and the males were found to attain larger ultimate lengths. The major fishing season for cuttlefish was from May to November, when higher monthly catch rates of 1.67-13.02kg/h were observed in

  20. Influence of environmental parameters on the life-history and population dynamics of cuttlefish Sepia officinalis in the western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Stefanie; Valls, Maria; Hidalgo, Manuel; Quetglas, Antoni

    2014-05-01

    The cuttlefish Sepia officinalis constitutes an important fishery resource in the Mediterranean, where it is exploited by both the bottom trawl and small-scale fleet. However, there is currently scarce information on the Mediterranean stocks, since most studies on the population dynamics of this species have been undertaken in the northeast Atlantic. In this work we first analysed different aspects of the cuttlefish life-history from the western Mediterranean such as population structure, reproduction and the trade-offs between somatic condition and reproduction investments. Secondly, we investigated the effects of different environmental parameters (e.g. climate indices, sea surface temperature (SST), rainfall, chlorophyll-a concentration (Chla) and moon phase) on these populations, analysing several landing time series spanning the last 45 years. Our results revealed that Mediterranean cuttlefish populations exhibit strong seasonal variations owing to a reproductive migration towards coastal waters. The positive relationships between somatic and reproductive condition pointed to an income breeder strategy; this was reinforced by the percentage of empty stomachs, which was lowest just before the reproductive period peak. Despite the putative high sensitivity of cephalopod populations to external abiotic factors, our results showed that Mediterranean cuttlefish populations were not affected by most of the environmental parameters investigated. Significant effects were found for SST and a local climatic index, but no or very weak influences were evident for other parameters such as large-scale climatic phenomena (e.g. North Atlantic Oscillation, Mediterranean Oscillation) or other locally-related variables (e.g. rainfall, Chla). Our results revealed a shift in the cuttlefish population dynamics in the early 1980s, which could be related to important changes in the local hydroclimatology reported by previous authors.

  1. Enzymatic capacities of metabolic fuel use in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) and responses to food deprivation: insight into the metabolic organization and starvation survival strategy of cephalopods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speers-Roesch, Ben; Callaghan, Neal I; MacCormack, Tyson J; Lamarre, Simon G; Sykes, Antonio V; Driedzic, William R

    2016-08-01

    Food limitation is a common challenge for animals. Cephalopods are sensitive to starvation because of high metabolic rates and growth rates related to their "live fast, die young" life history. We investigated how enzymatic capacities of key metabolic pathways are modulated during starvation in the common cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) to gain insight into the metabolic organization of cephalopods and their strategies for coping with food limitation. In particular, lipids have traditionally been considered unimportant fuels in cephalopods, yet, puzzlingly, many species (including cuttlefish) mobilize the lipid stores in their digestive gland during starvation. Using a comprehensive multi-tissue assay of enzymatic capacities for energy metabolism, we show that, during long-term starvation (12 days), glycolytic capacity for glucose use is decreased in cuttlefish tissues, while capacities for use of lipid-based fuels (fatty acids and ketone bodies) and amino acid fuels are retained or increased. Specifically, the capacity to use the ketone body acetoacetate as fuel is widespread across tissues and gill has a previously unrecognized capacity for fatty acid catabolism, albeit at low rates. The capacity for de novo glucose synthesis (gluconeogenesis), important for glucose homeostasis, likely is restricted to the digestive gland, contrary to previous reports of widespread gluconeogenesis among cephalopod tissues. Short-term starvation (3-5 days) had few effects on enzymatic capacities. Similar to vertebrates, lipid-based fuels, putatively mobilized from fat stores in the digestive gland, appear to be important energy sources for cephalopods, especially during starvation when glycolytic capacity is decreased perhaps to conserve available glucose.

  2. Hypoxic Induced Decrease in Oxygen Consumption in Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) Is Associated with Minor Increases in Mantle Octopine but No Changes in Markers of Protein Turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capaz, Juan C; Tunnah, Louise; MacCormack, Tyson J; Lamarre, Simon G; Sykes, Antonio V; Driedzic, William R

    2017-01-01

    The common cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis), a dominant species in the north-east Atlantic ocean and Mediterranean Sea, is potentially subject to hypoxic conditions due to eutrophication of coastal waters and intensive aquaculture. Here we initiate studies on the biochemical response to an anticipated level of hypoxia. Cuttlefish challenged for 1 h at an oxygen level of 50% dissolved oxygen saturation showed a decrease in oxygen consumption of 37% associated with an 85% increase in ventilation rate. Octopine levels were increased to a small but significant level in mantle, whereas there was no change in gill or heart. There were no changes in mantle free glucose or glycogen levels. Similarly, the hypoxic period did not result in changes in HSP70 or polyubiquinated protein levels in mantle, gill, or heart. As such, it appears that although there was a decrease in metabolic rate there was only a minor increase in anaerobic metabolism as evidenced by octopine accumulation and no biochemical changes that are hallmarks of alterations in protein trafficking. Experiments with isolated preparations of mantle, gill, and heart revealed that pharmacological inhibition of protein synthesis could decrease oxygen consumption by 32 to 42% or Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity by 24 to 54% dependent upon tissue type. We propose that the decrease in whole animal oxygen consumption was potentially the result of controlled decreases in the energy demanding processes of both protein synthesis and Na+/K+ ATPase activity.

  3. Melanocyte-stimulating hormone plasma levels and environmental illumination in the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis: a role for the neurosecretory system of the vena cava in cephalopods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Christopher S; Metz, Juriaan R; Flik, Gert; Williamson, Roddy

    2002-02-15

    A melanotropin-like peptide (alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone or alpha-MSH) is suggested to be released into the circulatory system of cephalopods via the neurosecretory system of the vena cava or NSV, where neurosecretory vesicles contained within the axons of the NSV-neuropil on the inner surface of the vena cava lie in close contact with the venous circulation. Radioimmunoassay of blood plasma samples taken from the cephalic vein of anaesthetised cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis showed that immunoreactive alpha-MSH (ir alpha-MSH) was detectable within the cuttlefish circulatory system. The validity of the assay for determination of cuttlefish ir alpha-MSH was determined by parallelism of the alpha-MSH standard curve against serially diluted cuttlefish plasma samples. Plasma samples taken during a natural day-night-day illumination cycle showed a significant elevation in ir alpha-MSH concentration to 1.44 +/- 0.26 ng ml(-1) during the middle of the dark phase compared to concentrations of 0.48 +/- 0.13 and 0.35 +/- 0.10 ng ml(-1) in the middle of the light phases of the illumination cycle. So far, indirect evidence suggests Sepia officinalis may modulate chromatophore activity, body patterning, and behaviour via neuroendocrine release and circulating titres of this proopiomelanocortin-derived peptide. (C)2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  4. Differential bioaccumulation behaviour of Ag and Cd during the early development of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacoue-Labarthe, T. [Littoral Environnement et Societes, UMR 6250, CNRS-Universite de La Rochelle, 2 Rue Olympe de Gouges, F-17042 La Rochelle Cedex 01 (France); Warnau, M.; Oberhaensli, F.; Teyssie, J.-L. [International Atomic Energy Agency - Marine Environment Laboratories, 4 Quai Antoine Ier, MC-98000, Principality of Monaco (Monaco); Koueta, N. [Laboratoire de Biologie et Biotechnologies Marines, UMR 100, IFREMER-Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, Esplanade de la Paix, F-14032 Caen Cedex 05 (France); Bustamante, P. [Littoral Environnement et Societes, UMR 6250, CNRS-Universite de La Rochelle, 2 Rue Olympe de Gouges, F-17042 La Rochelle Cedex 01 (France)], E-mail: pbustama@univ-lr.fr

    2008-02-18

    Cuttlefish eggs were exposed to background concentrations of dissolved Ag and Cd, using the radiotracers {sup 110m}Ag and {sup 109}Cd. At different time of the embryonic development (50 days), some eggs were placed in non-contaminating conditions. During the experiment, the uptake and depuration kinetics, and distribution of these metals among the egg compartments (i.e. eggshell, vitellus, peri-vitelline fluid and embryo) were assessed. In parallel, experiments were conducted with sub-lethal concentrations of stable Ag and Cd (2 and 1 {mu}g l{sup -1}, respectively) to compare the metal behaviour at higher concentrations. From the spawning date up to 1 month of development, both metals were taken up efficiently by the eggs, reaching load/concentration ratio (LCR) of 1059 {+-} 75 and 239 {+-} 22 for {sup 110m}Ag and {sup 109}Cd, respectively. From this time onwards, {sup 110m}Ag activity continued to increase in eggs, whereas {sup 109}Cd kinetics displayed a significant decrease. Whatever the developmental stage, Cd was mainly associated with the eggshell all along the exposure experiment. In addition, both stable Cd concentrations and {sup 109}Cd LCR remained low in the embryo all along the embryonic development, indicating that the eggshell acted as an efficient shield against the penetration of this metal. In contrast, {sup 110m}Ag passed through the eggshell from day 30 onwards and was then accumulated in the embryo, which contained more than 40% of the whole egg metal burden at the end of the exposure period. In depuration conditions, it is noteworthy that Ag continued to accumulate in the embryo indicating translocation processes from the eggshell and a high affinity of the metal for the embryo tissues. Overall our results showed that at day 30 of the embryonic development the cuttlefish eggshell becomes permeable to Ag but not to Cd. Exposure to stable metals confirmed the saturation capacities of the eggshell for Cd and the Ag penetration properties.

  5. Comparative Study on Biochemical Properties and Antioxidative Activity of Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis Protein Hydrolysates Produced by Alcalase and Bacillus licheniformis NH1 Proteases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafik Balti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidative activities and biochemical properties of protein hydrolysates prepared from cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis using Alcalase 2.4 L and Bacillus licheniformis NH1 proteases with different degrees of hydrolysis (DH were determined. For the biochemical properties, hydrolysis by both enzymes increased protein solubility to above 75% over a wide pH range. The antioxidant activities of cuttlefish protein hydrolysates (CPHs increase with increasing DH. In addition, all CPHs exhibited antioxidative activity in a concentration-dependent manner. NH1-CPHs generally showed greater antioxidative activity than Alcalase protein hydrolysates (P<0.05 as indicated by the higher 1,1-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity and ferrous chelating activity. Both Alcalase and NH1 protein hydrolysates were able to retard lipid peroxidation and β-carotene-linoleic acid oxidation. Alcalase-CPH (DH = 12.5% and NH1-CPH (DH = 15% contained 75.36% and 80.11% protein, respectively, with histidine and arginine as the major amino acids, followed by glutamic acid/glutamine, serine, lysine, and leucine. In addition, CPHs have a high percentage of essential amino acids made up 48.85% and 50.04%. Cuttlefish muscle protein hydrolysates had a high nutritional value and could be used as supplement to poorly balanced dietary proteins.

  6. THE REPRODUCTION ETHOGRAM OF CUTTLEFISH SEPIA PHARAONIS%虎斑乌贼(Sepia pharaonis)繁殖行为谱分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈道海; 郑亚龙

    2013-01-01

    利用现场观察和数码摄像机记录的方法对虎斑乌贼(Sepia pharaonis)繁殖行为学进行研究.结果表明,虎斑乌贼的繁殖行为谱包括游泳、休息、捕食、求偶、争斗、交配、产卵等行为,虎斑乌贼早晚常离底游动觅食,白天下沉水底,捕食甲壳类和幼鱼等.在隐蔽阴暗处休息,在交配行为上不是“一夫一妻”制,存在一雌多雄交配现象,交配前有较复杂求偶行为,包括雄性争斗与对峙、雌性配偶的选择等,交配为头对头的方式,雌性受精不久便在产卵区轮流产卵,卵呈白色,半透明,卵群葡萄状,卵径约14-16mm,长径约27-34mm.

  7. Edge detection and texture classification by cuttlefish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zylinski, Sarah; Osorio, Daniel; Shohet, Adam J

    2009-12-14

    Cephalopod mollusks including octopus and cuttlefish are adept at adaptive camouflage, varying their appearance to suit the surroundings. This behavior allows unique access into the vision of a non-human species because one can ask how these animals use spatial information to control their coloration pattern. There is particular interest in factors that affect the relative levels of expression of the Mottle and the Disruptive body patterns. Broadly speaking, the Mottle is displayed on continuous patterned surfaces whereas the Disruptive is used on discrete objects such as pebbles. Recent evidence from common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, suggests that multiple cues are relevant, including spatial scale, contrast, and depth. We analyze the body pattern responses of juvenile cuttlefish to a range of checkerboard stimuli. Our results suggest that the choice of camouflage pattern is consistent with a simple model of how cuttlefish classify visual textures, according to whether they are Uniform or patterned, and whether the pattern includes visual edges. In particular, cuttlefish appear to detect edges by sensing the relative spatial phases of two spatial frequency components (e.g., fundamental and the third harmonic Fourier component in a square wave). We discuss the relevance of these findings to vision and camouflage in aquatic environments.

  8. The influence of cuttlebone on the target strength of live golden cuttlefish (Sepia esculenta at 70 and 120 kHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daejae Lee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To quantitatively estimate the influence of cuttlebone on the target strength (TS of golden cuttlefish, the cuttlebone was carefully extracted from 19 live cuttlefish caught using traps in the inshore waters around Geojedo, Korea, in early May 2010 and the TS was measured using split-beam echosounders (Simrad ES60 and EY500. The TS-length relationships for the cuttlefish (before the extraction of cuttlebone, Fish Aquat Sci. 17:361–7, 2014 and the corresponding cuttlebone were compared. The cuttlebone length (L b ranged from 151 to 195 mm (mean L b  = 168.3 mm and the mass (W b ranged from 29.3 to 53.2 g (mean W b  = 38.8 g. The mean TS values at 70 and 120 kHz were −33.60 dB (std = 1.12 dB and −32.24 dB (std = 1.87 dB, respectively. The mean TS values of cuttlebone were 0.19 dB and 0.04 dB lower than those of cuttlefish at 70 and 120 kHz, respectively. For 70 and 120 kHz combined, the mean TS value of cuttlebone was −32.87 dB, 0.11 dB lower than that of cuttlefish (−32.76 dB. On the other hand, the mean TS value of cuttlebone predicted by the regression (TS b  = 24.86 log10 L b – 4.86 log10 λ – 22.58, r 2 = 0.85, N = 38, P < 0.01 was −33.10 dB, 0.04 dB lower than that of cuttlefish predicted by the regression (TS c  = 24.62 log10 L c – 4.62 log10 λ – 22.64, r 2 = 0.85, N = 38, P < 0.01. That is, the contribution of cuttlebone to the cuttlefish TS determined by the measured results was slightly greater than that by the predicted results. These results suggest that cuttlebone is responsible for the TS of cuttlefish, and the contribution is estimated to be at least 99 % of the total echo strength.

  9. Lateralization of Eye Use in Cuttlefish: Opposite Direction for Anti-Predatory and Predatory Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Alexandra K.; Hanlon, Roger T.; Benkada, Aïcha; Jozet-Alves, Christelle

    2016-01-01

    Vertebrates with laterally placed eyes typically exhibit preferential eye use for ecological activities such as scanning for predators or prey. Processing visual information predominately through the left or right visual field has been associated with specialized function of the left and right brain. Lateralized vertebrates often share a general pattern of lateralized brain function at the population level, whereby the left hemisphere controls routine behaviors and the right hemisphere controls emergency responses. Recent studies have shown evidence of preferential eye use in some invertebrates, but whether the visual fields are predominately associated with specific ecological activities remains untested. We used the European common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, to investigate whether the visual field they use is the same, or different, during anti-predatory, and predatory behavior. To test for lateralization of anti-predatory behavior, individual cuttlefish were placed in a new environment with opaque walls, thereby obliging them to choose which eye to orient away from the opaque wall to scan for potential predators (i.e., vigilant scanning). To test for lateralization of predatory behavior, individual cuttlefish were placed in the apex of an isosceles triangular arena and presented with two shrimp in opposite vertexes, thus requiring the cuttlefish to choose between attacking a prey item to the left or to the right of them. Cuttlefish were significantly more likely to favor the left visual field to scan for potential predators and the right visual field for prey attack. Moreover, individual cuttlefish that were leftward directed for vigilant scanning were predominately rightward directed for prey attack. Lateralized individuals also showed faster decision-making when presented with prey simultaneously. Cuttlefish appear to have opposite directions of lateralization for anti-predatory and predatory behavior, suggesting that there is functional specialization of

  10. Lateralization of eye use in cuttlefish: opposite direction for anti-predatory and predatory behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Kerstin Schnell

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrates with laterally placed eyes typically exhibit preferential eye use for ecological activities such as scanning for predators or prey. Processing visual information predominately through the left or right visual field has been associated with specialized function of the left and right brain. Lateralized vertebrates often share a general pattern of lateralized brain function at the population level, whereby the left hemisphere controls routine behaviors and the right hemisphere controls emergency responses. Recent studies have shown evidence of preferential eye use in some invertebrates, but whether the visual fields are predominately associated with specific ecological activities remains untested. We used the European common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, to investigate whether the visual field they use is the same, or different, during anti-predatory and predatory behavior. To test for lateralization of anti-predatory behavior, individual cuttlefish were placed in a new environment with opaque walls, thereby obliging them to choose which eye to orient away from the opaque wall to scan for potential predators (i.e. vigilant scanning. To test for lateralization of predatory behavior, individual cuttlefish were placed in the apex of an isosceles triangular arena and presented with two shrimp in opposite vertexes, thus requiring the cuttlefish to choose between attacking a prey item to the left or to the right of them. Cuttlefish were significantly more likely to favor the left visual field to scan for potential predators and the right visual field for prey attack. Moreover, individual cuttlefish that were leftward directed for vigilant scanning were predominately rightward directed for prey attack. Lateralized individuals also showed faster decision-making when presented with prey simultaneously. Cuttlefish appear to have opposite directions of lateralization for anti-predatory and predatory behavior, suggesting that there is functional

  11. De novo assembly and comparison of the ovarian transcriptomes of the common Chinese cuttlefish (Sepiella japonica with different gonadal development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenming Lü

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The common Chinese cuttlefish (Sepiella japonica has been considered one of the most economically important marine Cephalopod species in East Asia and seed breeding technology has been established for massive aquaculture and stock enhancement. In the present study, we used Illumina HiSeq2000 to sequence, assemble and annotate the transcriptome of the ovary tissues of S. japonica for the first time. A total of 53,116,650 and 53,446,640 reads were obtained from the immature and matured ovaries, respectively (NCBI SRA database SRX1409472 and SRX1409473, and 70,039 contigs (N50 = 1443 bp were obtained after de novo assembling with Trinity software. Digital gene expression analysis reveals 47,288 contigs show differential expression profile and 793 contigs are highly expressed in the immature ovary, while 38 contigs are highly expressed in the mature ovary with FPKM >100. We hope that the ovarian transcriptome and those stage-enriched transcripts of S. japonica can provide some insight into the understanding of genome-wide transcriptome profile of cuttlefish gonad tissue and give useful information in cuttlefish gonad development.

  12. Visual Equivalence and Amodal Completion in Cuttlefish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, I-Rong; Chiao, Chuan-Chin

    2017-01-01

    Modern cephalopods are notably the most intelligent invertebrates and this is accompanied by keen vision. Despite extensive studies investigating the visual systems of cephalopods, little is known about their visual perception and object recognition. In the present study, we investigated the visual processing of the cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis, including visual equivalence and amodal completion. Cuttlefish were trained to discriminate images of shrimp and fish using the operant conditioning paradigm. After cuttlefish reached the learning criteria, a series of discrimination tasks were conducted. In the visual equivalence experiment, several transformed versions of the training images, such as images reduced in size, images reduced in contrast, sketches of the images, the contours of the images, and silhouettes of the images, were used. In the amodal completion experiment, partially occluded views of the original images were used. The results showed that cuttlefish were able to treat the training images of reduced size and sketches as the visual equivalence. Cuttlefish were also capable of recognizing partially occluded versions of the training image. Furthermore, individual differences in performance suggest that some cuttlefish may be able to recognize objects when visual information was partly removed. These findings support the hypothesis that the visual perception of cuttlefish involves both visual equivalence and amodal completion. The results from this research also provide insights into the visual processing mechanisms used by cephalopods.

  13. Visual Equivalence and Amodal Completion in Cuttlefish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, I-Rong; Chiao, Chuan-Chin

    2017-01-01

    Modern cephalopods are notably the most intelligent invertebrates and this is accompanied by keen vision. Despite extensive studies investigating the visual systems of cephalopods, little is known about their visual perception and object recognition. In the present study, we investigated the visual processing of the cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis, including visual equivalence and amodal completion. Cuttlefish were trained to discriminate images of shrimp and fish using the operant conditioning paradigm. After cuttlefish reached the learning criteria, a series of discrimination tasks were conducted. In the visual equivalence experiment, several transformed versions of the training images, such as images reduced in size, images reduced in contrast, sketches of the images, the contours of the images, and silhouettes of the images, were used. In the amodal completion experiment, partially occluded views of the original images were used. The results showed that cuttlefish were able to treat the training images of reduced size and sketches as the visual equivalence. Cuttlefish were also capable of recognizing partially occluded versions of the training image. Furthermore, individual differences in performance suggest that some cuttlefish may be able to recognize objects when visual information was partly removed. These findings support the hypothesis that the visual perception of cuttlefish involves both visual equivalence and amodal completion. The results from this research also provide insights into the visual processing mechanisms used by cephalopods. PMID:28220075

  14. Cuttlefish Egg Soup

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    The cuttlefish egg is in fact the eggs-binding gland of cuttlefish. It is elliptical and grows on the internal surface of ovary, with a layer of thin film coating the gland. Inside the gland are many small white "cuttlefish coins" which nestle closely to each other, To cook cuttlefish egg soup, prepare the cuttlefish coins by peeling each one carefully so they keep their original shape, then boil

  15. Molecular cloning and transcriptional analysis of a NPY receptor-like in common Chinese cuttlefish Sepiella japonica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jingwen; Xu, Yuchao; Xu, Ke; Ping, Hongling; Shi, Huilai; Lü, Zhenming; Wu, Changwen; Wang, Tianming

    2017-08-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) has a pivotal role in the regulation of many physiological processes. In this study, the gene encoding a NPY receptor-like from the common Chinese cuttlefish Sepiella japonica (SjNPYR-like) was identified and characterized. The full-length SjNPYR-like cDNA was cloned containing a 492-bp of 5' untranslated region (UTR), 1 182 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein of 393 amino acid residues, and 228 bp of 3' UTR. The putative protein was predicted to have a molecular weight of 45.54 kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) of 8.13. By informatic analyses, SjNPYR-like was identified as belonging to the class A G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) family (the rhodopsin-type). The amino acid sequence contained 12 potential phosphorylation sites and five predicted N-linked glycosylation sites. Multiple sequence alignment and 3D structure modeling were conducted to clarify SjNPYR bioinformatics characteristics. Phylogenetic analysis identifies it as an NPYR with identity of 33% to Lymnaea stagnalis NPFR. Transmembrane properties of SjNPYR-like were demonstrated in vitro using HEK293 cells and the pEGFP-N1 plasmid. Relative quantification of SjNPYR-like mRNA level confirmed a high level expression and broad distribution of SjNPYR - like in various tissues of female S. japonica. In addition, the transcriptional profile of SjNPYR - like in the brain, liver, and ovary during gonadal development was analyzed. The results provide basic understanding on the molecular characteristics of SjNPYR-like and its potentially physical functions.

  16. Freezing behaviour facilitates bioelectric crypsis in cuttlefish faced with predation risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedore, Christine N; Kajiura, Stephen M; Johnsen, Sönke

    2015-12-07

    Cephalopods, and in particular the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, are common models for studies of camouflage and predator avoidance behaviour. Preventing detection by predators is especially important to this group of animals, most of which are soft-bodied, lack physical defences, and are subject to both visually and non-visually mediated detection. Here, we report a novel cryptic mechanism in S. officinalis in which bioelectric cues are reduced via a behavioural freeze response to a predator stimulus. The reduction of bioelectric fields created by the freeze-simulating stimulus resulted in a possible decrease in shark predation risk by reducing detectability. The freeze response may also facilitate other non-visual cryptic mechanisms to lower predation risk from a wide range of predator types. © 2015 The Author(s).

  17. Cuttlefish capsule: An effective shield against contaminants in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Inês C; Raimundo, Joana; Lopes, Vanessa M; Brandão, Cláudio; Couto, Ana; Santos, Catarina; Cabecinhas, Adriana S; Cereja, Rui; Calado, Ricardo; Caetano, Miguel; Rosa, Rui

    2015-09-01

    Increasing anthropogenic pressures in estuaries are responsible for the rise of contaminants in several compartments of these ecosystems. Species that benefit from the nursery services provided by estuaries are exposed to such contaminants (e.g. metals and metalloids). It is therefore relevant to understand if marine invertebrates that use these areas as spawning grounds accumulate contaminants in their tissues throughout embryogenesis. This study aimed to quantify As, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Se, Pb, V and Zn concentrations in both capsule and embryos of the common cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) in Sado Estuary (Portugal). Moreover, embryos at their initial, intermediate and final stage of development were collected in sites subjected to different anthropogenic pressures. In general, the capsule accumulated higher element concentration throughout embryogenesis which indicates that the capsule acts as an effective barrier against contaminants uptake by the embryo. Although the capsule becomes thinner throughout embryogenesis, embryo's protection does not seem to be compromised at later development stages. Additionally, the higher concentrations of As, Cu, Se and Zn in the embryo in comparison to the capsule suggests important biological roles during the embryogenesis of this cephalopod mollusc. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Enhancement of Emulsifying Properties of Cuttlefish Skin Gelatin by Modification with N-hydroxysuccinimide Esters of Fatty Acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aewsiri, T.; Benjakul, S.; Visessanguan, W.; Encarnacion, A.B.; Wierenga, P.A.; Gruppen, H.

    2013-01-01

    Cuttlefish (Sepia pharaonis) skin gelatin modified with N-hydroxysuccinimide esters of various fatty acids including capric acid (C10:0), lauric acid (C12:0), and myristic acid (C14:0) at different molar ratios was characterized and determined for emulsifying property. Fatty acid esters were incorpo

  19. Preparing the perfect cuttlefish meal: complex prey handling by dolphins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Finn

    Full Text Available Dolphins are well known for their complex social and foraging behaviours. Direct underwater observations of wild dolphin feeding behaviour however are rare. At mass spawning aggregations of giant cuttlefish (Sepia apama in the Upper Spencer Gulf in South Australia, a wild female Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus was observed and recorded repeatedly catching, killing and preparing cuttlefish for consumption using a specific and ordered sequence of behaviours. Cuttlefish were herded to a sand substrate, pinned to the seafloor, killed by downward thrust, raised mid-water and beaten by the dolphin with its snout until the ink was released and drained. The deceased cuttlefish was then returned to the seafloor, inverted and forced along the sand substrate in order to strip the thin dorsal layer of skin off the mantle, thus releasing the buoyant calcareous cuttlebone. This stepped behavioural sequence significantly improves prey quality through 1 removal of the ink (with constituent melanin and tyrosine, and 2 the calcareous cuttlebone. Observations of foraging dolphin pods from above-water at this site (including the surfacing of intact clean cuttlebones suggest that some or all of this prey handling sequence may be used widely by dolphins in the region. Aspects of the unique mass spawning aggregations of giant cuttlefish in this region of South Australia may have contributed to the evolution of this behaviour through both high abundances of spawning and weakened post-spawning cuttlefish in a small area (>10,000 animals on several kilometres of narrow rocky reef, as well as potential long-term and regular visitation by dolphin pods to this site.

  20. Redox activity of melanin from the ink sac of Sepia officinalis by means of colorimetric oxidative assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisuk, Pathomthat; Correlo, Vitor M; Leonor, Isabel B; Palladino, Pasquale; Reis, Rui L

    2016-01-01

    The redox properties of natural extract from cuttlefish ink sac (Sepia officinalis) and synthetic melanin used as a biomimetic in melanin structural investigation were determined by comparison of this phenol-based heterogeneous pigment with gallic acid used as a standard in Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric assay widely employed for characterisation of oxidative properties of biomaterials. Reactivity of sepia melanin reported here is much higher than previously indicated and this protocol should allow the redox characterisation of all melanins irrespective of their origin and composition.

  1. Cuttlefish use visual cues to control three-dimensional skin papillae for camouflage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Justine J; Mäthger, Lydia M; Barbosa, Alexandra; Hanlon, Roger T

    2009-06-01

    Cephalopods (octopus, squid and cuttlefish) are known for their camouflage. Cuttlefish Sepia officinalis use chromatophores and light reflectors for color change, and papillae to change three-dimensional physical skin texture. Papillae vary in size, shape and coloration; nine distinct sets of papillae are described here. The objective was to determine whether cuttlefish use visual or tactile cues to control papillae expression. Cuttlefish were placed on natural substrates to evoke the three major camouflage body patterns: Uniform/Stipple, Mottle and Disruptive. Three versions of each substrate were presented: the actual substrate, the actual substrate covered with glass (removes tactile information) and a laminated photograph of the substrate (removes tactile and three-dimensional information because depth-of-field information is unavailable). No differences in Small dorsal papillae or Major lateral mantle papillae expression were observed among the three versions of each substrate. Thus, visual (not tactile) cues drive the expression of papillae in S. officinalis. Two sets of papillae (Major lateral mantle papillae and Major lateral eye papillae) showed irregular responses; their control requires future investigation. Finally, more Small dorsal papillae were shown in Uniform/Stipple and Mottle patterns than in Disruptive patterns, which may provide clues regarding the visual mechanisms of background matching versus disruptive coloration.

  2. Offshore exposure experiments on cuttlefish indicate received sound pressure and particle motion levels associated with acoustic trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé, Marta; Sigray, Peter; Lenoir, Marc; van der Schaar, Mike; Lalander, Emilia; André, Michel

    2017-04-01

    Recent findings on cephalopods in laboratory conditions showed that exposure to artificial noise had a direct consequence on the statocyst, sensory organs, which are responsible for their equilibrium and movements in the water column. The question remained about the contribution of the consequent near-field particle motion influence from the tank walls, to the triggering of the trauma. Offshore noise controlled exposure experiments (CEE) on common cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis), were conducted at three different depths and distances from the source and particle motion and sound pressure measurements were performed at each location. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed injuries in statocysts, which severity was quantified and found to be proportional to the distance to the transducer. These findings are the first evidence of cephalopods sensitivity to anthropogenic noise sources in their natural habitat. From the measured received power spectrum of the sweep, it was possible to determine that the animals were exposed at levels ranging from 139 to 142 dB re 1 μPa2 and from 139 to 141 dB re 1 μPa2, at 1/3 octave bands centred at 315 Hz and 400 Hz, respectively. These results could therefore be considered a coherent threshold estimation of noise levels that can trigger acoustic trauma in cephalopods.

  3. Assessment of the effect of the climate variations of coastal surface water and study of Sepia officinalis spawing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Giansante

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to establish whether climate change affected migratory behaviour of Sepia officinalis (Linnaeus, 1758, which is an important resource for small-scale fishermen of Abruzzo region (Italy. Starting at the beginning of March until the end of April, the cuttlefish in this area migrates from deep cold water towards warmer coastal waters, where they spawn. Small-scale fishing of cuttlefish is permitted in costal waters from March to September. During the study period, between March and September 2008, both cuttlefish traps and trammel nets were used in 5 sampling areas along the Abruzzo coast to test their relative efficiency in catching cuttlefish. Trapped specimens were counted, weighed and measured, their gender and sexual maturity were also determined. The data obtained from the sampling were correlated to surface water temperature to assess possible changes in migration behaviours. The obtained data show that during the first months of migration (March and April, a greater percentage of large males was caught, while females and smaller males predominated later in the year. The study also showed that surface water temperature did not reveal any significant shifts from the trend over the last 10 years. As for the efficiency of the fishing methods, traps were found to be more effective than trammel nets.

  4. Comparative morphology of changeable skin papillae in octopus and cuttlefish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Justine J; Bell, George R R; Kuzirian, Alan M; Velankar, Sachin S; Hanlon, Roger T

    2014-04-01

    A major component of cephalopod adaptive camouflage behavior has rarely been studied: their ability to change the three-dimensionality of their skin by morphing their malleable dermal papillae. Recent work has established that simple, conical papillae in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) function as muscular hydrostats; that is, the muscles that extend a papilla also provide its structural support. We used brightfield and scanning electron microscopy to investigate and compare the functional morphology of nine types of papillae of different shapes, sizes and complexity in six species: S. officinalis small dorsal papillae, Octopus vulgaris small dorsal and ventral eye papillae, Macrotritopus defilippi dorsal eye papillae, Abdopus aculeatus major mantle papillae, O. bimaculoides arm, minor mantle, and dorsal eye papillae, and S. apama face ridge papillae. Most papillae have two sets of muscles responsible for extension: circular dermal erector muscles arranged in a concentric pattern to lift the papilla away from the body surface and horizontal dermal erector muscles to pull the papilla's perimeter toward its core and determine shape. A third set of muscles, retractors, appears to be responsible for pulling a papilla's apex down toward the body surface while stretching out its base. Connective tissue infiltrated with mucopolysaccharides assists with structural support. S. apama face ridge papillae are different: the contraction of erector muscles perpendicular to the ridge causes overlying tissues to buckle. In this case, mucopolysaccharide-rich connective tissue provides structural support. These six species possess changeable papillae that are diverse in size and shape, yet with one exception they share somewhat similar functional morphologies. Future research on papilla morphology, biomechanics and neural control in the many unexamined species of octopus and cuttlefish may uncover new principles of actuation in soft, flexible tissue.

  5. Antioxidant Effect of Sepia Ink Extract on Extrahepatic Cholestasis Induced by Bile Duct Ligation in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hanan Saleh; Amel M Soliman; Ayman S Mohamed; Mohamed-Assem S Marie

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of our study was to assess the complications of hepatic fibrosis associated with bile duct ligation and the potential curative role of sepia ink extract in hepatic damage induced by bile duct ligation. Methods Rattus norvegicus rats were divided into 3 groups: Sham-operated group, model rats that underwent common bile duct ligation (BDL), and BDL rats treated orally with sepia ink extract (200 mg/kg body weight) for 7, 14, and 28 d after BDL. Results There was a significant reduction in hepatic enzymes, ALP, GGT, bilirubin levels, and oxidative stress in the BDL group after treatment with sepia ink extract. Collagen deposition reduced after sepia ink extract treatment as compared to BDL groups, suggesting that the liver was repaired. Histopathological examination of liver treated with sepia ink extract showed moderate degeneration in the hepatic architecture and mild degeneration in hepatocytes as compared to BDL groups. Conclusion Sepia ink extract provides a curative effect and an antioxidant capacity on BDL rats and could ameliorate the complications of liver cholestasis.

  6. Melanin and Melanin-Related Polymers as Materials with Biomedical and Biotechnological Applications—Cuttlefish Ink and Mussel Foot Proteins as Inspired Biomolecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Solano

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The huge development of bioengineering during the last years has boosted the search for new bioinspired materials, with tunable chemical, mechanical, and optoelectronic properties for the design of semiconductors, batteries, biosensors, imaging and therapy probes, adhesive hydrogels, tissue restoration, photoprotectors, etc. These new materials should complement or replace metallic or organic polymers that cause cytotoxicity and some adverse health effects. One of the most interesting biomaterials is melanin and synthetic melanin-related molecules. Melanin has a controversial molecular structure, dependent on the conditions of polymerization, and therefore tunable. It is found in animal hair and skin, although one of the common sources is cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis ink. On the other hand, mussels synthesize adhesive proteins to anchor these marine animals to wet surfaces. Both melanin and mussel foot proteins contain a high number of catecholic residues, and their properties are related to these groups. Dopamine (DA can easily polymerize to get polydopamine melanin (PDAM, that somehow shares properties with melanin and mussel proteins. Furthermore, PDAM can easily be conjugated with other components. This review accounts for the main aspects of melanin, as well as DA-based melanin-like materials, related to their biomedical and biotechnological applications.

  7. Melanin and Melanin-Related Polymers as Materials with Biomedical and Biotechnological Applications-Cuttlefish Ink and Mussel Foot Proteins as Inspired Biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, Francisco

    2017-07-18

    The huge development of bioengineering during the last years has boosted the search for new bioinspired materials, with tunable chemical, mechanical, and optoelectronic properties for the design of semiconductors, batteries, biosensors, imaging and therapy probes, adhesive hydrogels, tissue restoration, photoprotectors, etc. These new materials should complement or replace metallic or organic polymers that cause cytotoxicity and some adverse health effects. One of the most interesting biomaterials is melanin and synthetic melanin-related molecules. Melanin has a controversial molecular structure, dependent on the conditions of polymerization, and therefore tunable. It is found in animal hair and skin, although one of the common sources is cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) ink. On the other hand, mussels synthesize adhesive proteins to anchor these marine animals to wet surfaces. Both melanin and mussel foot proteins contain a high number of catecholic residues, and their properties are related to these groups. Dopamine (DA) can easily polymerize to get polydopamine melanin (PDAM), that somehow shares properties with melanin and mussel proteins. Furthermore, PDAM can easily be conjugated with other components. This review accounts for the main aspects of melanin, as well as DA-based melanin-like materials, related to their biomedical and biotechnological applications.

  8. Environ: E00521 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00521 Cuttlefish oracle bones Sepiae os Sepia esculenta Hoyle Crude drug Calcium c...515515], Sepia officinalis [TAX:6610] Sepia esculenta oracle bones (dried) Sepiidae Sepiella japonica, Sepia... latimanus, Sepia lycidas, Sepia pharaonis, Sepia aculeata, Sepia andreana, Sepia officinalis oracle bones (...dried) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Animals Mollusks E00521 Cuttlefish oracle bones ...

  9. Does kainic acid induce partial brain lesion in an invertebrate model: sepia officinalis? Comparison with electrolytic lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graindorge, Nicolas; Jozet-Alves, Christelle; Chichery, Raymond; Dickel, Ludovic; Bellanger, Cécile

    2008-10-31

    The present study investigates the feasibility of excitotoxic lesions in the cuttlefish in the mapping of brain functions in Cephalopods. Adult animals were injected locally with a neurotoxin, kainic acid. The brain region receiving the neurotoxin was the vertical lobe, a key brain structure for learning and memory processes. Brain damage induced by these injections was evaluated using different histological stainings: hematoxilin-eosin, Fink-Heimer and DAPI. The results were compared with histological changes after electrolytic lesion of the vertical lobe. Neurodegeneration was revealed in and around the injection site: an intense area of proliferative cells, degenerating terminal axon ramifications and cell death. In comparison with electrolytic lesion, excitotoxic lesion displays important advantages, since fibres of passage are not destroyed by kainic acid injection, which induces only a restricted lesion and so is an appropriate method of investigating the role of the vertical lobe or other brain regions in a Cephalopod model, Sepia officinalis.

  10. Variability of cadmium accumulation in cephalopods (Octopus vulgaris, Sepia officinalis, Loligo vulgaris and Todarodes sagittatus collected in Sardinia in 2008-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi Piras

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cephalopods are known to accumulate cadmium and play an important role in its biomagnification. They are an essential link in marine trophic chain and represent an important case in studies on cadmium transfer to man through the food chain. Since cadmium concentration widely varies in different tissues of the cephalopods – mainly accumulating in the hepatopancreas – evisceration represents a recommended preliminary step to reduce cadmium intake in view of cephalopods consumption; yet, the residual concentration in the edible part may still be a risk for public health. This study is intended to assess cadmium levels variability in the muscles of Cephalopoda, considering the different feeding habitats and marine trophic webs. In compliance with EU regulation, a survey on cadmium and other heavy metal levels in various sea food, including cephalopods, was conducted by the Istituto Zooprofilattico of Sardinia in co-operation with local health authorities. During a five-year survey (2008- 2012, 90 samples were collected from the following species: commons octopus (Octopus vulgaris, cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis, European squid (Loligo vulgaris, and flying squid (Todarodes sagittatus, located in different coastal areas and representatives of either benthic or nektonic habitats. Determination of cadmium levels was carried out according to Regulations (EC No. 882/2004, No. 1881/2006 and No. 333/2007. Analysis of the edible portion (muscle of fresh homogenised samples was carried out by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. The results showed a highly skewed distribution of data. No statistically significant differences were observed among four distributions of the natural logs of cadmium levels in the species considered.

  11. Phylogeny of the cuttlefishes (Mollusca:Cephalopoda) based on mitochondrial COI and 16S rRNA gene sequence data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Xiangzhi; ZHENG Xiaodong; XIAO Shu; WANG Rucai

    2004-01-01

    To clarify cuttlefish phylogeny, mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene and partial 16S rRNA gene are sequenced for 13 cephalopod species. Phylogenetic trees are constructed, with the neighbor-joining method.Coleoids are divided into two main lineages, Decabrachia and Octobrachia. The monophyly of the order Sepioidea,which includes the families Sepiidae, Sepiolidae and Idiosepiidae, is not supported. From the two families of Sepioidea examined, the Sepiolidae are polyphyletic and are excluded from the order. On the basis of 16S rRNA and amino acid of COI gene sequences data, the two genera (Sepiella and Sepia) from the Sepiidae can be distinguished, but do not have a visible boundary using COI gene sequences. The reason is explained. This suggests that the 16S rDNA of cephalopods is a precious tool to analyze taxonomic relationships at the genus level, and COI gene is fitter at a higher taxonomic level (i.e., family).

  12. Composition and metabolism of phospholipids in Octopus vulgaris and Sepia officinalis hatchlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Diana B; Acosta, Nieves G; Almansa, Eduardo; Tocher, Douglas R; Andrade, José P; Sykes, António V; Rodríguez, Covadonga

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to characterise the fatty acid (FA) profiles of the major phospholipids, of Octopus vulgaris and Sepia officinalis hatchlings, namely phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylinositol (PI) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE); and to evaluate the capability of both cephalopod species on dietary phospholipid remodelling. Thus, O. vulgaris and S. officinalis hatchlings were in vivo incubated with 0.3μM of L-∝-1-palmitoyl-2-[1-(14)C]arachidonyl-PC or L-∝-1-palmitoyl-2-[1-(14)C]arachidonyl-PE. Octopus and cuttlefish hatchlings phospholipids showed a characteristic FA profiles with PC presenting high contents of 16:0 and 22:6n-3 (DHA); PS having high 18:0, DHA and 20:5n-3 (EPA); PI a high content of saturated FA; and PE showing high contents of DHA and EPA. Interestingly, the highest content of 20:4n-6 (ARA) was found in PE rather than PI. Irrespective of the phospholipid in which [1-(14)C]ARA was initially bound (either PC or PE), the esterification pattern of [1-(14)C]ARA in octopus lipids was similar to that found in their tissues with high esterification of this FA into PE. In contrast, in cuttlefish hatchlings [1-(14)C]ARA was mainly recovered in the same phospholipid that was provided. These results showed a characteristic FA profiles in the major phospholipids of the two species, as well as a contrasting capability to remodel dietary phospholipids, which may suggest a difference in phospholipase activities.

  13. Turning performance in squid and cuttlefish: unique dual-mode, muscular hydrostatic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrebsky, Rachel A; Bartol, Ian K; Krueger, Paul S

    2016-05-01

    Although steady swimming has received considerable attention in prior studies, unsteady swimming movements represent a larger portion of many aquatic animals' locomotive repertoire and have not been examined extensively. Squids and cuttlefishes are cephalopods with unique muscular hydrostat-driven, dual-mode propulsive systems involving paired fins and a pulsed jet. These animals exhibit a wide range of swimming behavior, but turning performance has not been examined quantitatively. Brief squid, Lolliguncula brevis, and dwarf cuttlefish, Sepia bandensis, were filmed during turns using high-speed cameras. Kinematic features were tracked, including the length-specific radius of the turn (R/L), a measure of maneuverability, and angular velocity (ω), a measure of agility. Both L. brevis and S. bandensis demonstrated high maneuverability, with (R/L)min values of 3.4×10(-3)±5.9×10(-4) and 1.2×10(-3)±4.7×10(-4) (mean±s.e.m.), respectively, which are the lowest measures of R/L reported for any aquatic taxa. Lolliguncula brevis exhibited higher agility than S. bandensis (ωa,max=725.8 versus 485.0 deg s(-1)), and both cephalopods have intermediate agility when compared with flexible-bodied and rigid-bodied nekton of similar size, reflecting their hybrid body architecture. In L. brevis, jet flows were the principal driver of angular velocity. Asymmetric fin motions played a reduced role, and arm wrapping increased turning performance to varying degrees depending on the species. This study indicates that coordination between the jet and fins is important for turning performance, with L. brevis achieving faster turns than S. bandensis and S. bandensis achieving tighter, more controlled turns than L. brevis.

  14. Cuttlefish skin papilla morphology suggests a muscular hydrostatic function for rapid changeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Justine J; Bell, George R R; Kuzirian, Alan M; Hanlon, Roger T

    2013-06-01

    Coleoid cephalopods adaptively change their body patterns (color, contrast, locomotion, posture, and texture) for camouflage and signaling. Benthic octopuses and cuttlefish possess the capability, unique in the animal kingdom, to dramatically and quickly change their skin from smooth and flat to rugose and three-dimensional. The organs responsible for this physical change are the skin papillae, whose biomechanics have not been investigated. In this study, small dorsal papillae from cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) were preserved in their retracted or extended state, and examined with a variety of histological techniques including brightfield, confocal, and scanning electron microscopy. Analyses revealed that papillae are composed of an extensive network of dermal erector muscles, some of which are arranged in concentric rings while others extend across each papilla's diameter. Like cephalopod arms, tentacles, and suckers, skin papillae appear to function as muscular hydrostats. The collective action of dermal erector muscles provides both movement and structural support in the absence of rigid supporting elements. Specifically, concentric circular dermal erector muscles near the papilla's base contract and push the overlying tissue upward and away from the mantle surface, while horizontally arranged dermal erector muscles pull the papilla's perimeter toward its center and determine its shape. Each papilla has a white tip, which is produced by structural light reflectors (leucophores and iridophores) that lie between the papilla's muscular core and the skin layer that contains the pigmented chromatophores. In extended papillae, the connective tissue layer appeared thinner above the papilla's apex than in surrounding areas. This result suggests that papilla extension might create tension in the overlying connective tissue and chromatophore layers, storing energy for elastic retraction. Numerous, thin subepidermal muscles form a meshwork between the chromatophore layer

  15. Extraction and Characterization of Collagen from Skin of Sepia esculenta%乌贼皮胶原蛋白的提取及结构表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷静; 李和生; 张丽媛; 孙楠楠

    2012-01-01

    为了充分利用乌贼加工废弃物,分析了乌贼皮的基本组成成分,优化了从乌贼皮中提取胶原蛋白的工艺条件,并利用SDS-PAGE垂直电泳、紫外扫描和傅里叶变换红外光谱对所提取的胶原蛋白进行了结构表征.结果表明,乌贼皮中含有大量胶原蛋白,可作为胶原蛋白来源的补充.采用酸酶复合提取胶原蛋白的最佳条件为:酒石酸浓度为0.1mol/L,胃蛋白酶添加量为1400U/g,料液比为1:20(m:V,原料),4℃提取18h,提取率为12.08%.SDS-PAGE垂直电泳、紫外扫描和傅里叶变换红外光谱的结果表明,采用酸酶复合法从乌贼皮中提取的胶原蛋白为I型胶原蛋白,保持了完整的三螺旋结构.%In order to take full advantage of cuttlefish (Sepia esculenta) processing waste, the basic components of cuttlefish skin were analyzed and the extraction conditions for collagen from cuttlefish skin were optimized. Along with this,purified collagen was analyzed through SDS-PAGE vertical electrophoresis, UV scanning and FT-IR. The results showed that cuttlefish skin contained large amounts of collagen and it could be used as the source of complement for collagen. The optimum conditions for collagen with acid and pepsin were determined as follows : soaking cuttlefish skin in 0.1 mol/ L tartaric acid solution with a ratio of material to liquid of 1=20 (m: V,raw materials) at 4 ℃ for 18 h,the 1400 U/g pepsin was added in the beginning for the restriction hydrolysis,and the extraction yield of collagen was 12.08%. SDS-PAGE vertical electrophoresis, UV scanning and FT-IR results indicated that the extracted collagen was type I collagen and the unique triple helical structure of type I collagen remained well.

  16. 1 Species Diversity and Relative Abundance.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    The diversity and relative species abundance of fisheries resources were studied from Winneba to Cape Coast on ... method, which is used all year round (MoFA, .... 49. Thunnus sp. Tuna. *. 50. Sepiidae. Sepia officinalis. Common cuttlefish.

  17. Number sense and state-dependent valuation in cuttlefish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tsang-I; Chiao, Chuan-Chin

    2016-08-31

    Identifying the amount of prey available is an important part of an animal's foraging behaviour. The risk-sensitive foraging theory predicts that an organism's foraging decisions with regard to food rewards depending upon its satiation level. However, the precise interaction between optimal risk-tolerance and satiation level remains unclear. In this study, we examined, firstly, whether cuttlefish, with one of the most highly evolved nervous system among the invertebrates, have number sense, and secondly, whether their valuation of food reward is satiation state dependent. When food such as live shrimps is present, without training, cuttlefish turn toward the prey and initiate seizure behaviour. Using this visual attack behaviour as a measure, cuttlefish showed a preference for a larger quantity when faced with two-alternative forced choice tasks (1 versus 2, 2 versus 3, 3 versus 4 and 4 versus 5). However, cuttlefish preferred the small quantity when the choice was between one live and two dead shrimps. More importantly, when the choice was between one large live shrimp and two small live shrimps (a prey size and quantity trade-off), the cuttlefish chose the large single shrimp when they felt hunger, but chose the two smaller prey when they were satiated. These results demonstrate that cuttlefish are capable of number discrimination and that their choice of prey number depends on the quality of the prey and on their appetite state. The findings also suggest that cuttlefish integrate both internal and external information when making a foraging decision and that the cost of obtaining food is inversely correlated with their satiation level, a phenomenon similar to the observation that metabolic state alters economic decision making under risk among humans. © 2016 The Author(s).

  18. Simulated, Emulated, and Physical Investigative Analysis (SEPIA) of networked systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, David P.; Van Leeuwen, Brian P.; McDonald, Michael James; Onunkwo, Uzoma A.; Tarman, Thomas David; Urias, Vincent E.

    2009-09-01

    This report describes recent progress made in developing and utilizing hybrid Simulated, Emulated, and Physical Investigative Analysis (SEPIA) environments. Many organizations require advanced tools to analyze their information system's security, reliability, and resilience against cyber attack. Today's security analysis utilize real systems such as computers, network routers and other network equipment, computer emulations (e.g., virtual machines) and simulation models separately to analyze interplay between threats and safeguards. In contrast, this work developed new methods to combine these three approaches to provide integrated hybrid SEPIA environments. Our SEPIA environments enable an analyst to rapidly configure hybrid environments to pass network traffic and perform, from the outside, like real networks. This provides higher fidelity representations of key network nodes while still leveraging the scalability and cost advantages of simulation tools. The result is to rapidly produce large yet relatively low-cost multi-fidelity SEPIA networks of computers and routers that let analysts quickly investigate threats and test protection approaches.

  19. First descriptions of dicyemid mesozoans (Dicyemida: Dicyemidae) from Australian octopus (Octopodidae) and cuttlefish (Sepiidae), including a new record of Dicyemennea in Australian waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Sarah R

    2013-09-01

    Three new species of dicyemid mesozoans are described for the first time from Australian octopus and cuttlefish species. Dicyemennea floscephalum sp. n. is described from Octopus berrima Stranks et Norman (southern keeled octopus) collected from Spencer Gulf and Gulf St. Vincent, South Australia, Australia and represents the first description of a species of Dicyemennea Whitman, 1883 from Australian waters. Dicyema papuceum sp. n. and D. furuyi sp. n. are described from Sepia papuensis Hoyle (Papuan cuttlefish) collected from Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia. Dicyemennea floscephalum sp. n. is a medium to large species that reaches approximately 4.9 mm in length. The vermiform stages are characterised by having 23-28 peripheral cells, and a disc-shaped, flower-like calotte in larger individuals. An anterior abortive axial cell is absent in vermiform embryos and verruciform cells were not observed in nematogens and rhombogens. Infusoriform embryos comprise 37 cells; one nucleus is present in each urn cell. Dicyema papuceum sp. n. is a small species that reaches approximately 1.1 mm in length. The vermiform stages are characterised by having 30-33 peripheral cells and a relatively small, cap-shaped calotte. An anterior abortive axial cell is absent in vermiform embryos and verruciform cells were occasionally observed in nematogens. Infusoriform embryos comprise 37 cells; two nuclei are present in each urn cell. Dicyema furuyi sp. n. is a large species that reaches approximately 5.3 mm in length. The vermiform stages are characterised by having 22-24 peripheral cells and an elongate calotte. An anterior abortive axial cell is absent in vermiform embryos and verruciform cells were not observed in nematogens and rhombogens. Infusoriform embryos comprise 37 cells; one nucleus is present in each urn cell. Three secondary nematogens were also observed in the right renal appendages of two host individuals, confirming the occurrence of this form.

  20. Modular Organization of Dynamic Camouflage Body Patterning in Cuttlefish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-28

    Behavior Marine Biological Laboratory Woods Hole, MA 02543 USA Distribution A: Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited Summary...is determined by given voltages of an impulse. (a) The anatomical image shows the stimulus location (arrow). (b) The time sequence of stimulation...Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, USA). P A D V Distribution A: Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited Cuttlefish body

  1. Phenylboronic acid modified solid-phase extraction column: Preparation, characterization, and application to the analysis of amino acids in sepia capsule by removing the maltose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Mengzhe; Yin, Dengyang; Han, Jie; Zhang, Liyan; Li, Xiao; He, Dandan; Du, Yan; Tang, Daoquan

    2016-09-01

    Maltose, a common auxiliary material of pharmaceutical preparation, may disturb the analysis of total amino acids in sepia capsule by aldolization. Therefore, it is necessary to remove the maltose through a convenient method. In this work, a phenylboronic acid modified solid-phase extraction column has been synthesized and used to remove the maltose. The materials were synthesized by one step "thiol-ene" reaction and the parameters of the column such as absorption capacity, recovery, and absorption specificity have been investigated. The results showed the column (0.5 cm of length × 0.5 cm of inner diameter) can absorb 4.6 mg maltose with a linear absorption and absorption specificity. Then this technique was applied in the quantification of amino acids in sepia capsule. After the optimization of the method, four kinds of amino acids, which were the most abundant, were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The amounts of the four kinds of amino acids are 1.5∼2 times more than that without the treatment of solid-phase extraction column, which almost overcomes the influence of the maltose. All the results indicate that the phenylboronic acid modified solid-phase extraction column can successfully help to accurately quantify the total amino acids in sepia capsule.

  2. SEPIA — A New Instrument for the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immer, K.; Belitsky, V.; Olberg, M.; De Breuck, C.; Conway, J.; Montenegro-Montes, F. M.; Perez-Beaupuits, J.-P.; Torstensson, K.; Billade, B.; De Beck, E.; Ermakov, A.; Ferm, S.-E.; Fredrixon, M.; Lapkin, I.; Meledin, D.; Pavolotsky, A.; Strandberg, M.; Sundin, E.; Arumugam, V.; Galametz, M.; Humphreys, E.; Klein, T.; Adema, J.; Barkhof, J.; Baryshev, A.; Boland, W.; Hesper, R.; Klapwijk, T. M.

    2016-09-01

    The Swedish-ESO PI receiver for APEX (SEPIA) was installed at the APEX telescope in 2015. This instrument currently contains ALMA Band 5 (157-212 GHz) and Band 9 (600-722 GHz) receivers. Commissioning and science verification for Band 5 have been successfully completed but are still ongoing for Band 9. The SEPIA instrument is briefly described and the commissioning of the Band 5 receiver and results from the first science observations are presented.

  3. Delayed and asynchronous ganglionic maturation during cephalopod neurogenesis as evidenced by Sof-elav1 expression in embryos of Sepia officinalis (Mollusca, Cephalopoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buresi, Auxane; Canali, Ester; Bonnaud, Laure; Baratte, Sébastien

    2013-05-01

    Among the Lophotrochozoa, centralization of the nervous system reaches an exceptional level of complexity in cephalopods, where the typical molluscan ganglia become highly developed and fuse into hierarchized lobes. It is known that ganglionic primordia initially emerge early and simultaneously during cephalopod embryogenesis but no data exist on the process of neuron differentiation in this group. We searched for members of the elav/hu family in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, since they are one of the first genetic markers of postmitotic neural cells. Two paralogs were identified and the expression of the most neural-specific gene, Sof-elav1, was characterized during embryogenesis. Sof-elav1 is expressed in all ganglia at one time of development, which provides the first genetic map of neurogenesis in a cephalopod. Our results unexpectedly revealed that Sof-elav1 expression is not similar and not coordinated in all the prospective ganglia. Both palliovisceral ganglia show extensive Sof-elav1 expression soon after emergence, showing that most of their cells differentiate into neurons at an early stage. On the contrary, other ganglia, and especially both cerebral ganglia that contribute to the main parts of the brain learning centers, show a late extensive Sof-elav1 expression. These delayed expressions in ganglia suggest that most ganglionic cells retain their proliferative capacities and postpone differentiation. In other molluscs, where a larval nervous system predates the development of the definitive adult nervous system, cerebral ganglia are among the first to mature. Thus, such a difference may constitute a cue in understanding the peculiar brain evolution in cephalopods.

  4. Antioxidative activity and emulsifying properties of cuttlefish skin gelatin modified by oxidised phenolic compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aewsiri, T.; Benjakul, S.; Visessanguan, W.; Eun, J.B.; Wierenga, P.A.; Gruppen, H.

    2009-01-01

    Antioxidative activity and emulsifying properties of cuttlefish skin gelatin modified by different oxidised phenolic compounds including caffeic acid, ferulic acid and tannic acid at different concentrations were investigated. Oxidised phenolic compounds were covalently attached to gelatin as indica

  5. How Egg Case Proteins Can Protect Cuttlefish Offspring?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Cornet

    Full Text Available Sepia officinalis egg protection is ensured by a complex capsule produced by the female accessory genital glands and the ink bag. Our study is focused on the proteins constituting the main egg case. De novo transcriptomes from female genital glands provided essential databases for protein identification. A proteomic approach in SDS-PAGE coupled with MS unveiled a new egg case protein family: SepECPs, for Sepia officinalis Egg Case Proteins. N-glycosylation was demonstrated by PAS staining SDS-PAGE gels. These glycoproteins are mainly produced in the main nidamental glands. SepECPs share high sequence homology, especially in the signal peptide and the three cysteine-rich domains. SepECPs have a high number of cysteines, with conserved motifs involved in 3D-structure. SDS-PAGE showed that SepECPs could form dimers; this result was confirmed by TEM observations, which also revealed a protein network. This network is similar to the capsule network, and it associates these structural proteins with polysaccharides, melanin and bacteria to form a tight mesh. Its hardness and elasticity provide physical protection to the embryo. In addition, SepECPs also have bacteriostatic antimicrobial activity on GRAM- bacteria. By observing the SepECP / Vibrio aestuarianus complex in SEM, we demonstrated the ability of these proteins to agglomerate bacteria and thus inhibit their growth. These original proteins identified from the outer egg case ensure the survival of the species by providing physical and chemical protection to the embryos released in the environment without any maternal protection.

  6. Changeable cuttlefish camouflage is influenced by horizontal and vertical aspects of the visual background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Alexandra; Litman, Leib; Litman, Leonild; Hanlon, Roger T

    2008-04-01

    Cuttlefish change their appearance rapidly for camouflage on different backgrounds. Effective camouflage for a benthic organism such as cuttlefish must deceive predators viewing from above as well as from the side, thus the choice of camouflage skin pattern is expected to account for horizontal and vertical background information. Previous experiments dealt only with the former, and here we explore some influences of background patterns oriented vertically in the visual background. Two experiments were conducted: (1) to determine whether cuttlefish cue visually on vertical background information; and (2) if a visual cue presented singly (either horizontally or vertically) is less, equally or more influential than a visual cue presented both horizontally and vertically. Combinations of uniform and checkerboard backgrounds (either on the bottom or wall) evoked disruptive coloration in all cases, implying that high-contrast, non-uniform backgrounds are responded to with priority over uniform backgrounds. However, there were differences in the expression of disruptive components if the checkerboard was presented simultaneously on the bottom and wall, or solely on the wall or the bottom. These results demonstrate that cuttlefish respond to visual background stimuli both in the horizontal and vertical plane, a finding that supports field observations of cuttlefish and octopus camouflage.

  7. Sepia ink as a surrogate for colloid transport tests in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Gómez, Diego; Pérez-Rodríguez, Paula; López-Periago, J. Eugenio; Paradelo, Marcos

    2016-08-01

    We examined the suitability of the ink of Sepia officinalis as a surrogate for transport studies of microorganisms and microparticles in porous media. Sepia ink is an organic pigment consisted on a suspension of eumelanin, and that has several advantages for its use as a promising material for introducing the frugal-innovation in the fields of public health and environmental research: very low cost, non-toxic, spherical shape, moderate polydispersivity, size near large viruses, non-anomalous electrokinetic behavior, low retention in the soil, and high stability. Electrokinetic determinations and transport experiments in quartz sand columns and soil columns were done with purified suspensions of sepia ink. Influence of ionic strength on the electrophoretic mobility of ink particles showed the typical behavior of polystyrene latex spheres. Breakthrough curve (BTC) and retention profile (RP) in quartz sand columns showed a depth dependent and blocking adsorption model with an increase in adsorption rates with the ionic strength. Partially saturated transport through undisturbed soil showed less retention than in quartz sand, and matrix exclusion was also observed. Quantification of ink in leachate fractions by light absorbance is direct, but quantification in the soil profile with moderate to high organic matter content was rather cumbersome. We concluded that sepia ink is a suitable cheap surrogate for exploring transport of pathogenic viruses, bacteria and particulate contaminants in groundwater, and could be used for developing frugal-innovation related with the assessment of soil and aquifer filtration function, and monitoring of water filtration systems in low-income regions.

  8. Cuttlebone morphology limits habitat depth in eleven species of Sepia (Cephalopoda: Sepiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrard, K M

    2000-06-01

    The cuttlebone is a rigid buoyancy tank that imposes a depth limit on Sepia, the only living speciose cephalopod genus with a chambered shell. Sections of 59 cuttlebones from a geographically diverse sample of 11 species were examined using confocal microscopy. Sepia species that live at greater depths had thicker septa and less space between pillars than did shallow species. A plate theory analysis of cuttlebone strength based on these two measures predicted maximum capture depths accurately in most species. Thus cuttlebone morphology confers differing degrees of strength against implosion from hydrostatic pressure, which increases with increasing habitat depth. Greater strength may come at the cost of increased cuttlebone density, which impinges on the cuttlebone's buoyancy function.

  9. New insights into the physicochemical effects of ammonia/peroxide bleaching of hair and Sepia melanins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prem, Padmaja; Dube, Katherine J; Madison, Stephen A; Bartolone, John

    2003-01-01

    Chemically unaltered melanosomes from black hair were isolated using a mild enzymatic procedure reported by Novellino et al. involving sequential treatment of a homogenized hair sample with different protease enzymes. Time-dependent fluorescence studies show, under identical conditions, that the rate of bleaching upon NH3/H2O2 treatment of hair melanosomes is twice that of Sepia melanosomes. The structure and morphology of hair melanosomes are compared to Sepia eumelanin using ESEM and TEM imaging studies. Black hair melanosomes are aggregates of rice-shaped ellipsoidal particles (0.8-1.0 microm in length and 0.2-0.6 microm in width) surrounded by an amorphous material suspected to be made of non-proteinacious materials. Sepia eumelanin aggregates are larger (2-5 microm) particles with a "doughnut" shape comprised of 100-150-nm spherical particles. Time-dependent TEM imaging studies of ammonia-treated (pH 10) hair melanosomes showed an initial breakdown of melanosomal aggregates followed by rupture of the melanosomal membrane, releasing melanin nanoparticles and leaving a ghost membrane behind. After prolonged treatment with aqueous NH3, a total loss of characteristic melanosome morphology was observed leading to an amorphous material. By contrast, Sepia melanosomes under identical conditions of ammonia treatment did not show such changes, probably due to different surface properties and aggregation behavior. Sodium hydroxide or sodium carbonate at identical pH did not show similar changes to ammonia, suggesting that the changes are not merely due to alkaline pH, but, rather, are specific to ammonia. Co-treatment with ammonia and peroxide induced a faster disintegration of the melanosomes, resulting in a complete dissolution and discoloration of melanin in 30 minutes. The data suggest that ammonia helps to release melanin nanoparticles out of melanosomes, making them more susceptible to oxidative attack by H2O2.

  10. Microstructure, rheological and wound healing properties of collagen-based gel from cuttlefish skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jridi, Mourad; Bardaa, Sana; Moalla, Dorsaf; Rebaii, Tarak; Souissi, Nabil; Sahnoun, Zouheir; Nasri, Moncef

    2015-01-01

    Collagen-based biomaterials are of the utmost importance for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The aims of the present investigation were to evaluate structural and rheological properties of collagen-based gel obtained from cuttlefish skin, and to investigate its ability to enhance wound healing. Scanning electron microscopy of resulted gel showed a dense fibrillar microstructure with high interconnection network with a smaller pore size. In addition, the rheological characterization of collagen gel showed an excellent reversibility, when subjected to a temperature variation. Moreover, in the wound-healing study, topical application of collagen based gel increased significantly the percentage of wound closure over a period of 12 days, when compared to the untreated and CICAFLORA(®)-treated groups. Wound-healing activity of collagen gel was confirmed by histopathology study. Thus, cuttlefish collagen based gel might be useful as a wound healing agent.

  11. Guitarra sepia n.sp. from the Southwestern Atlantic (Demospongiae, Poecilosclerida, Guitarridae); first record of a Guitarra without placochelae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lerner, C.; Hajdu, E.; Custodio, M.R.; van Soest, R.W.M.

    2004-01-01

    This work reports on the first record of Guitarra Carter, 1874 for the southern/southeastern Brazilian Coast. Guitarra sepia n. sp. is described from the coasts of Santa Catarina, São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro states, from depths of 3 - 25 m. The new species is devoid of placochelae. Its status as

  12. Guitarra sepia n.sp. from the Southwestern Atlantic (Demospongiae, Poecilosclerida, Guitarridae); first record of a Guitarra without placochelae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lerner, C.; Hajdu, E.; Custodio, M.R.; van Soest, R.W.M.

    2004-01-01

    This work reports on the first record of Guitarra Carter, 1874 for the southern/southeastern Brazilian Coast. Guitarra sepia n. sp. is described from the coasts of Santa Catarina, São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro states, from depths of 3 - 25 m. The new species is devoid of placochelae. Its status as be

  13. PCL-coated hydroxyapatite scaffold derived from cuttlefish bone: Morphology, mechanical properties and bioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milovac, Dajana, E-mail: dmilovac@fkit.hr [Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, University of Zagreb (Croatia); Gallego Ferrer, Gloria [Center for Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia (Spain); Biomedical Research Networking Center in Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN) (Spain); Ivankovic, Marica; Ivankovic, Hrvoje [Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, University of Zagreb (Croatia)

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, poly(ε-caprolactone)-coated hydroxyapatite scaffold derived from cuttlefish bone was prepared. Hydrothermal transformation of aragonitic cuttlefish bone into hydroxyapatite (HAp) was performed at 200 °C retaining the cuttlebone architecture. The HAp scaffold was coated with a poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) using vacuum impregnation technique. The compositional and morphological properties of HAp and PCL-coated HAp scaffolds were studied by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. Bioactivity was tested by immersion in Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS) and mechanical tests were performed at compression. The results showed that PCL-coated HAp (HAp/PCL) scaffold resulted in a material with improved mechanical properties that keep the original interconnected porous structure indispensable for tissue growth and vascularization. The compressive strength (0.88 MPa) and the elastic modulus (15.5 MPa) are within the lower range of properties reported for human trabecular bones. The in vitro mineralization of calcium phosphate (CP) that produces the bone-like apatite was observed on both the pure HAp scaffold and the HAp/PCL composite scaffold. The prepared bioactive scaffold with enhanced mechanical properties is a good candidate for bone tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • Hydroxyapatite/poly(ε-caprolactone) scaffolds with interconnected pores were prepared. • Hydrothermal transformation of cuttlefish bone and vacuum impregnation were used. • A material with improved mechanical properties was obtained. • The in vitro mineralization of calcium phosphate was observed.

  14. Improvement of foaming properties of cuttlefish skin gelatin by modification with N-hydroxysuccinimide esters of fatty acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aewsiri, T.; Benjakul, S.; Visessanguan, W.; Wierenga, P.A.; Gruppen, H.

    2011-01-01

    Conformation and foaming properties of cuttlefish skin gelatin modified by N-hydroxysuccinimide esters of different saturated fatty acids including capric acid (C10:0), lauric acid (C12:0) and myristic acid (C14:0) at different molar ratios (0.25, 0.50, 1.00 and 2.00) were investigated. Covalent att

  15. Determination of fatty acids percentages and profile extracted from cuttlefish of Iranian coasts of Persian Gulf and Oman Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yosief Ali Asadpour

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the fatty acid profile extracted from cuttlefish of Persian Gulf and Oman Sea, including Ancistrocheirus, Enoploteuthidae, Cranchiidae, Ommastrephidae and Loliginidae. Methods:Oil was extracted by the Bligh and Dyer method. The fatty acid profile of the oil was determined by gas chromatography. Results:The results showed that (13±5)% of wet weight of cuttlefish is oil. The results also showed that cuttlefish oil has 29.40% saturated fatty acids and 23.70% single-band unsaturated fatty acids, and the total value of the unsaturated multiple-band is 40.20%, the contents of arachidonic acid 2.78%, linolenic acid 3.10%, linoleic acid 5.20%, docosahexaenoic acid 15.40%, and eicosapentaenoic acid 9.60% out of the total fatty acids of the same may be mentioned. Conclusions:The results of the current study described that cuttlefish is considered for the first time as the new and rich source of omega-3 and omega-6.

  16. Improvement of foaming properties of cuttlefish skin gelatin by modification with N-hydroxysuccinimide esters of fatty acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aewsiri, T.; Benjakul, S.; Visessanguan, W.; Wierenga, P.A.; Gruppen, H.

    2011-01-01

    Conformation and foaming properties of cuttlefish skin gelatin modified by N-hydroxysuccinimide esters of different saturated fatty acids including capric acid (C10:0), lauric acid (C12:0) and myristic acid (C14:0) at different molar ratios (0.25, 0.50, 1.00 and 2.00) were investigated. Covalent

  17. Characterization and Potential Use of Cuttlefish Skin Gelatin Hydrolysates Prepared by Different Microbial Proteases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jridi, Mourad; Lassoued, Imen; Nasri, Rim; Ayadi, Mohamed Ali; Nasri, Moncef

    2014-01-01

    Composition, functional properties, and in vitro antioxidant activities of gelatin hydrolysates prepared from cuttlefish skin were investigated. Cuttlefish skin gelatin hydrolysates (CSGHs) were obtained by treatment with crude enzyme preparations from Bacillus licheniformis NH1, Bacillus mojavensis A21, Bacillus subtilis A26, and commercial alcalase. All CSGHs had high protein contents, 74.3–78.3%, and showed excellent solubility (over 90%). CSGH obtained by alcalase demonstrated high antioxidant activities monitored by β-carotene bleaching, DPPH radical scavenging, lipid peroxidation inhibition, and reducing power activity. Its antioxidant activity remained stable or increased in a wide range of pH (1–9), during heating treatment (100°C for 240 min) and after gastrointestinal digestion simulation. In addition, alcalase-CSGH was incorporated into turkey meat sausage to determine its effect on lipid oxidation during 35 days of storage period. At 0.5 mg/g, alcalase-CSGH delayed lipid oxidation monitored by TBARS and conjugated diene up to 10 days compared to vitamin C. The results reveal that CSGHs could be used as food additives possessing both antioxidant activity and functional properties. PMID:25025053

  18. Characterization and Potential Use of Cuttlefish Skin Gelatin Hydrolysates Prepared by Different Microbial Proteases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourad Jridi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Composition, functional properties, and in vitro antioxidant activities of gelatin hydrolysates prepared from cuttlefish skin were investigated. Cuttlefish skin gelatin hydrolysates (CSGHs were obtained by treatment with crude enzyme preparations from Bacillus licheniformis NH1, Bacillus mojavensis A21, Bacillus subtilis A26, and commercial alcalase. All CSGHs had high protein contents, 74.3–78.3%, and showed excellent solubility (over 90%. CSGH obtained by alcalase demonstrated high antioxidant activities monitored by β-carotene bleaching, DPPH radical scavenging, lipid peroxidation inhibition, and reducing power activity. Its antioxidant activity remained stable or increased in a wide range of pH (1–9, during heating treatment (100°C for 240 min and after gastrointestinal digestion simulation. In addition, alcalase-CSGH was incorporated into turkey meat sausage to determine its effect on lipid oxidation during 35 days of storage period. At 0.5 mg/g, alcalase-CSGH delayed lipid oxidation monitored by TBARS and conjugated diene up to 10 days compared to vitamin C. The results reveal that CSGHs could be used as food additives possessing both antioxidant activity and functional properties.

  19. The cytoskeleton of chondrocytes of Sepia officinalis (Mollusca, Cephalopoda: an immunocytochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Leone

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Our previous electron microscope study showed that chondrocytes from cephalopod cartilage possess a highly developed cytoskeleton and numerous cytoplasmic processes that ramify extensively through the tissue. We have now carried out a light microscope immunocytochemical study of chondrocytes from the orbital cartilage of Sepia officinalis to obtain indications as to the nature of the cytoskeletal components. We found clear positivity to antibodies against mammalian tubulin, vimentin, GFAP, and actin, but not keratin. The simultaneous presence of several cytoskeletal components is consistent with the hypothesis that cephalopod chondrocytes have the characteristics of both chondrocytes and osteocytes of vertebrates, which endow the tissue as a whole with some of the properties of vertebrate bone. We confirm, therefore, the presence in molluscs of the ubiquitous cytoskeletal proteins of metazoan cells that have remained highly conserved throughout phylogenetic evolution.

  20. ESTs library from embryonic stages reveals tubulin and reflectin diversity in Sepia officinalis (Mollusca — Cephalopoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassaglia, Yann; Bekel, Thomas; Da Silva, Corinne; Poulain, Julie; Andouche, Aude; Navet, Sandra; Bonnaud, Laure

    2012-05-01

    New molecular resources regarding the so-called “non-standard models” in biology extend the present knowledge and are essential for molecular evolution and diversity studies (especially during the development) and evolutionary inferences about these zoological groups, or more practically for their fruitful management. Sepia officinalis, an economically important cephalopod species, is emerging as a new lophotrochozoan developmental model. We developed a large set of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from embryonic stages of S. officinalis, yielding 19,780 non-redundant sequences (NRS). Around 75% of these sequences have no homologs in existing available databases. This set is the first developmental ESTs library in cephalopods. By exploring these NRS for tubulin, a generic protein family, and reflectin, a cephalopod specific protein family,we point out for both families a striking molecular diversity in S. officinalis.

  1. A hedgehog-like signal is involved in slow muscle differentation in Sepia officinalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Grimaldi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the tentacle of Sepia officinalis, smooth-like, helical and cross-striated fibres deriving from different populations of myoblasts are present. Myoblasts appear at different times during the development and express two muscle-specific transcription factors: Myf5-like and MyoD-like factors. Myoblasts expressing Myf5 give rise to slow fibres, whereas fast fibres derive from MyoD+ myoblasts. We found that a Hedgehog (Hh-like signal was present in the central nerve cord of the tentacle from the early stages of development and in a specific population of myoblasts which are the precursors of slow muscle fibres. The model showed interesting similarities with vertebrates, in which Sonic hedgehog is a protein secreted by axial structures (the notochord and neurotube and is involved in slow muscle differentiation and in survival of muscle precursors.

  2. Investigating body patterning in aquarium-raised flamboyant cuttlefish (Metasepia pfefferi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Amber; MacDonald, Christy

    2016-01-01

    Cuttlefish are known for their ability to quickly alter their total appearance, or body pattern, to camouflage or to communicate with predators, prey and conspecifics. The body patterns of some species have been extensively documented to gain a better understanding of their behaviors. However, the flamboyant cuttlefish (Metasepia pfefferi) is largely unstudied. Recently, aquarists have been able to breed, house and display M. pfefferi, giving researchers ample opportunities to study their behavior under those conditions. This study aimed to identify the dorsally-visible components of the body patterns used by 5 sexually-mature, freely-behaving, F5 generation M. pfefferi in their home aquarium at The Seas in Epcot at Walt Disney World Resorts(®), Lake Buena Vista, FL, USA. Furthermore, we aimed to determine the most probable patterns used by this population of animals and to create a database of components that can be used in future behavioral studies. We found that this population of M. pfefferi use a combination of 7 textural, 14 postural, 7 locomotor and between 42 and 75 chromatic components in their home aquarium. Using maximum likelihood analysis and AutoClass@IJM software, we found that these components combine to generate 11 distinct body patterns. The software was able to sort 98% of the live animal observations into one of the 11 patterns with 90% confidence and 88% of observations with 99% confidence. Unusually for cuttlefish, 8 of the 11 identified patterns contained at least one "traveling" component (i.e., traveling waves or blinking spots) in which the colors on the skin appeared to travel on the animal's mantle. In other species, these components are generally seen during hunting or aggression, but this population of M. pfefferi uses them frequently during a variety of contexts in their home aquarium. With few published data on the behavior of M. pfefferi in their natural environment, we cannot compare the behavior of the tank-raised individuals in

  3. Investigating body patterning in aquarium-raised flamboyant cuttlefish (Metasepia pfefferi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cuttlefish are known for their ability to quickly alter their total appearance, or body pattern, to camouflage or to communicate with predators, prey and conspecifics. The body patterns of some species have been extensively documented to gain a better understanding of their behaviors. However, the flamboyant cuttlefish (Metasepia pfefferi is largely unstudied. Recently, aquarists have been able to breed, house and display M. pfefferi, giving researchers ample opportunities to study their behavior under those conditions. This study aimed to identify the dorsally-visible components of the body patterns used by 5 sexually-mature, freely-behaving, F5 generation M. pfefferi in their home aquarium at The Seas in Epcot at Walt Disney World Resorts®, Lake Buena Vista, FL, USA. Furthermore, we aimed to determine the most probable patterns used by this population of animals and to create a database of components that can be used in future behavioral studies. We found that this population of M. pfefferi use a combination of 7 textural, 14 postural, 7 locomotor and between 42 and 75 chromatic components in their home aquarium. Using maximum likelihood analysis and AutoClass@IJM software, we found that these components combine to generate 11 distinct body patterns. The software was able to sort 98% of the live animal observations into one of the 11 patterns with 90% confidence and 88% of observations with 99% confidence. Unusually for cuttlefish, 8 of the 11 identified patterns contained at least one “traveling” component (i.e., traveling waves or blinking spots in which the colors on the skin appeared to travel on the animal’s mantle. In other species, these components are generally seen during hunting or aggression, but this population of M. pfefferi uses them frequently during a variety of contexts in their home aquarium. With few published data on the behavior of M. pfefferi in their natural environment, we cannot compare the behavior of the tank

  4. Investigating body patterning in aquarium-raised flamboyant cuttlefish (Metasepia pfefferi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Christy

    2016-01-01

    Cuttlefish are known for their ability to quickly alter their total appearance, or body pattern, to camouflage or to communicate with predators, prey and conspecifics. The body patterns of some species have been extensively documented to gain a better understanding of their behaviors. However, the flamboyant cuttlefish (Metasepia pfefferi) is largely unstudied. Recently, aquarists have been able to breed, house and display M. pfefferi, giving researchers ample opportunities to study their behavior under those conditions. This study aimed to identify the dorsally-visible components of the body patterns used by 5 sexually-mature, freely-behaving, F5 generation M. pfefferi in their home aquarium at The Seas in Epcot at Walt Disney World Resorts®, Lake Buena Vista, FL, USA. Furthermore, we aimed to determine the most probable patterns used by this population of animals and to create a database of components that can be used in future behavioral studies. We found that this population of M. pfefferi use a combination of 7 textural, 14 postural, 7 locomotor and between 42 and 75 chromatic components in their home aquarium. Using maximum likelihood analysis and AutoClass@IJM software, we found that these components combine to generate 11 distinct body patterns. The software was able to sort 98% of the live animal observations into one of the 11 patterns with 90% confidence and 88% of observations with 99% confidence. Unusually for cuttlefish, 8 of the 11 identified patterns contained at least one “traveling” component (i.e., traveling waves or blinking spots) in which the colors on the skin appeared to travel on the animal’s mantle. In other species, these components are generally seen during hunting or aggression, but this population of M. pfefferi uses them frequently during a variety of contexts in their home aquarium. With few published data on the behavior of M. pfefferi in their natural environment, we cannot compare the behavior of the tank-raised individuals

  5. Characteristics of the tertiary egg membrane of cuttlefish Sepiella maindroni de Rochebrune

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunlin; Fan, Xiaoxu; Jiang, Xiamin; Song, Weiwei; Xu, Yongjian

    2010-11-01

    We separated tertiary egg membrane (TGM) from 2- and 25-day-old eggs of cuttlefish Sepiella maindroni de Rochebrune, and revealed its ultrastructure, physical (solubility, barrier property) and biochemical (histology, histochemistry, nutritional components, bacteriostasis) characteristics. The results show that TGM could not be dissolved with natural seawater, alcohol, ether or hydrochloric acid (HCl), but it could be dissolved with 2-chloroethanol, diethylamine, and sodium hydroxide (NaOH). The black TGM was more effective in blocking off mud particulates, microorganisms ( Chlorella vulgaris, Vibrio alginolyticus) and lighter than the white TGM. The elasticity of black and white TGMs was 1.8 N and 1.5 N, respectively. There were some ink particulates and rod-shaped bacteria in the black TGM. The nutritional components were different between black and white TGMs: Lipid content was lower and protein content was higher in the black TGM. TGM could also inhibit the growth of Vibrio alginolyticus.

  6. orthodenticle/otx ortholog expression in the anterior brain and eyes of Sepia officinalis (Mollusca, Cephalopoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buresi, Auxane; Baratte, Sébastien; Da Silva, Corinne; Bonnaud, Laure

    2012-01-01

    The origin of cerebral structures is a major issue in both developmental and evolutionary biology. Among Lophotrochozoans, cephalopods present both a derived nervous system and an original body plan, therefore they constitute a key model to study the evolution of nervous system and molecular processes that control the neural organization. We characterized a partial sequence of an ortholog of otx2 in Sepia officinalis embryos, a gene specific to the anterior nervous system and eye development. By in situ hybridization, we assessed the expression pattern of otx2 during S. officinalis organogenesis and we showed that otx is expressed (1) in the eyes, from early to late developmental stages as observed in other species (2) in the nervous system during late developmental stages. The otx ortholog does not appear to be required for the precocious emergence of the nervous ganglia in cephalopods and is later expressed only in the most anterior ganglia of the future brain. Finally, otx expression becomes restricted to localized part of the brain, where it could be involved in the functional specification of the central nervous system of S. officinalis. These results suggest a conserved involvement of otx in eye maturation and development of the anterior neural structures in S. officinalis.

  7. Isolation, purification, and characterization of avian antimicrobial glycopeptide from the posterior salivary gland of Sepia pharaonis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik, R; Saravanan, R; Ebenezar, K Kumar; Sivamalai, T

    2015-02-01

    A proteinaceous glycopeptide was isolated from the posterior salivary gland (PSG) of Sepia pharaonis by gel (Sephadex G-100) filtration chromatography and purified by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Among the collected fractions, fraction 12 showed a retention time (RT) of 31 min. The total protein and neutral sugar contents of the purified glycopeptide were recorded as 68.14 and 2.95 mg, respectively. The molecular weight of the purified glycopeptide was found to be ~50 kDa. The infrared (IR) and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy confirmed the presence of peptide and secondary structure in the purified glycopeptide. The antibacterial activity of the purified glycopeptide against avian bacterial strains was also determined. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of the purified glycopeptide revealed the likely compounds for the antibacterial activity such as 22, 23-dibromostigmasterol acetate, 3-methyl 2-(2-oxypropyl) furan, and 2,4,4-trimethyl-3-hydroxymethyl-5A-(3-methyl-but-2-enyl)-cyclohexene. These three compounds found in the purified glycopeptide could be responsible for the antibacterial activity against the avian pathogens. The results of this study suggest that the purified glycopeptide from the PSG of S. pharaonis could be an antibacterial agent against avian bacterial pathogens.

  8. PCL-coated hydroxyapatite scaffold derived from cuttlefish bone: In vitro cell culture studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milovac, Dajana, E-mail: dmilovac@fkit.hr [Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, University of Zagreb (Croatia); Gamboa-Martínez, Tatiana C. [Centre for Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de València (Spain); Ivankovic, Marica [Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, University of Zagreb (Croatia); Gallego Ferrer, Gloria [Centre for Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de València (Spain); Biomedical Research Networking Center in Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine, Valencia (Spain); Ivankovic, Hrvoje [Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, University of Zagreb (Croatia)

    2014-09-01

    In the present study, we examined the potential of using highly porous poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL)-coated hydroxyapatite (HAp) scaffold derived from cuttlefish bone for bone tissue engineering applications. The cell culture studies were performed in vitro with preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells in static culture conditions. Comparisons were made with uncoated HAp scaffold. The attachment and spreading of preosteoblasts on scaffolds were observed by Live/Dead staining Kit. The cells grown on the HAp/PCL composite scaffold exhibited greater spreading than cells grown on the HAp scaffold. DNA quantification and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed a good proliferation of cells on the scaffolds. DNA content on the HAp/PCL scaffold was significantly higher compared to porous HAp scaffolds. The amount of collagen synthesis was determined using a hydroxyproline assay. The osteoblastic differentiation of the cells was evaluated by determining alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and collagen type I secretion. Furthermore, cell spreading and cell proliferation within scaffolds were observed using a fluorescence microscope. - Highlights: • Hydroxyapatite/poly(ε-caprolactone) scaffold with interconnected pores was prepared • Cytotoxicity test showed that the scaffold was not cytotoxic towards MC3T3-E1 cells • The scaffold supported the attachment, proliferation and differentiation of cells • A 3D cell colonization was confirmed using the fluorescence microscopy • The scaffold might be a promising candidate for bone tissue engineering.

  9. Chemical constituents and anti-tuberculosis activity of ink extracts of cuttlefish, Sepiella inermis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muthusamy Ravichandiran; Selvam Thiripurasalini; Vaithilingam Ravitchandirane; Srinivasa Gopalane; Chelladurai Stella

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the chemical constituents and the anti-tuberculosis activity of methanol and chloroform ink extracts of Sepiella inermis.Methods:Chemical analysis was carried out by UV-VIS spectrophotometer, FT-IR and GC-MS. Crude extracts Pulverized ink powder was extracted separately with chloroform and methanol. were tested in vitro for their activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis using Lowenstein Jensen (L-J) medium. Activity in L-J medium was assessed by mean reduction in number of colonies on extract containing bottles as compared to extract free controls.Results:octadecadienoic acid, 9-octadecenoic acid and octadecanoic acid. The chloroform extract GC-MS of methanol extract revealed four compounds viz. hexadecanoic acid, 9, 12-containing fourteen compounds. The methanol extract exhibited anti-tuberculosis activity in L-J medium at 64 µg/mL with the observed inhibition of 14 CFU. Chloroform extract displayed a weak activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.Conclusions:Mycobacterium tuberculosis than chloroform extract. Since ink of sepia is available abundantly as This investigation showed the methanol extract exhibited significant activity against a waste material, further studies aimed at isolation and efficacy of active substances pave the way for new anti-tuberculosis drugs.

  10. Chemical constituents and anti-tuberculosis activity of ink extracts of cuttlefish, Sepiella inermis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthusamy Ravichandiran

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the chemical constituents and the anti-tuberculosis activity of methanol and chloroform ink extracts of Sepiella inermis. Methods: Pulverized ink powder was extracted separately with chloroform and methanol. Chemical analysis was carried out by UV-VIS spectrophotometer, FT-IR and GC-MS. Crude extracts were tested in vitro for their activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis using Lowenstein Jensen (L-J medium. Activity in L-J medium was assessed by mean reduction in number of colonies on extract containing bottles as compared to extract free controls. Results: GC-MS of methanol extract revealed four compounds viz. hexadecanoic acid, 9, 12- octadecadienoic acid, 9-octadecenoic acid and octadecanoic acid. The chloroform extract containing fourteen compounds. The methanol extract exhibited anti-tuberculosis activity in L-J medium at 64 µg/mL with the observed inhibition of 14 CFU. Chloroform extract displayed a weak activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Conclusions: This investigation showed the methanol extract exhibited significant activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis than chloroform extract. Since ink of sepia is available abundantly as a waste material, further studies aimed at isolation and efficacy of active substances pave the way for new anti-tuberculosis drugs.

  11. Sepia 200cH at 1:1000 dilution ameliorates salt stress in cowpea seedlings but its medium 90% ethanol proves ineffective at the same dilution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhimita Mondal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity severely affects crop yield all over the world. In a recent study we observed that Natrum mur 200cH, a homeopathic remedy, improved growth in germinating cowpea seeds. In the present study we have tested another remedy Sepia, which is complementary to Natrum mur, on cowpea seedlings under salt stress. Cowpea seedlings grown over moist filter paper in petridishes were divided into 4 groups: (1 control in sterile water, (2 in 50mM NaCl solution, (3 seeds pretreated with 90% ethanol diluted with water 1:100 and then transferred to 50mM NaCl solution, (4 seeds pretreated with Sepia 200cH diluted with water 1:100 and transferred to 50mM NaCl solution. In another experiment the groups were same, but the dilution of 90% ethanol and Sepia 200cH was 1:1000 instead of 1:100. The purpose was to further reduce the ethanol content in both the drug and its vehicle 90% ethanol, so that the alcohol effect is minimized or abolished. The data were analysed by ANOVA followed by t-test. Sepia 200cH at both 1:100 and 1:1000 dilutions significantly increased growth, sugar, chlorophyll, protein and water content in seedlings as compared to the untreated salt-stressed group. The effect with the1000th dilution of Sepia 200cH was more pronounced than with its 100th dilution. The vehicle 90% ethanol at 1:100 dilution produced some positive effect on the seedlings, but the 1000th dilution of the vehicle produced no such effect. It is, therefore, concluded that Sepia 200cH could ameliorate salt stress in cowpea seedlings and that the 1000th dilution is more effective than its 100th dilution. The alcohol effect is totally eliminated with the 1000th dilution of 90% ethanol. Thus the 1000th dilution could retain the drug effect and eliminate the vehicle effect.

  12. Genetic diversity and population structure of Sepia officinalis from the Tunisian cost revealed by mitochondrial COI sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meriam, Tir; Wafa, Tombari; Khawla, Telahigue; Tarek, Hajji; Abdeljelil, Ghram; Mhamed, Elcafsi

    2015-01-01

    Population substructure of Sepia officinalis sampled along the Tunisian coastline was studied. We have scored the genetic variation of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase 1. A total of 20 specimens from four sampling sites were analysed and revealed 12 different haplotypes. Haplotype diversity showed a decreasing north to south gradient which may be explained by the hydrogeography of the study area. The overall estimate of genetic divergence (FST) revealed significant genetic differentiation between the pair-wise population comparisons supported by the AMOVA analysis which reveals significant genetic divergence. Finally, populations showed an excess of rare haplotypes. The mismatch distribution and several population genetic statistics indicate that the excess of rare variants is due to a recent expansion for Djerba and Kelibia populations. For Rades and Bizerte populations a constant population size was detected. These findings are important for fisheries management to preserve this marine resource for long-term utilization.

  13. Screening of antimicrobial potential of polysaccharide from cuttlebone and methanolic extract from body tissue of Sepia prashadi Winkworth, 1936

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pasiyappazham Ramasamy; Aruldhason Barwin Vino; Ramachandran Saravanan; Namasivayam Subhapradha; Vairamani Shanmugam; Annaian Shanmugam

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of polysaccharide from cuttlebone and methanolic extract from body tissue of Sepia prashadi, against ten human pathogenic bacteria and five fungi. Methods:The activity of polysaccharide and methanolic extract was investigated against Vibrio cholerae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Vibrio alginolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Streptococcus sp., Streptococcus pneumoniae, Salmonella sp. and Escherichia coli, and five fungal strains such as Alternaria alternata, Candida tropicalis, Penicillium italicum, Fusarium equiseti and Candida albican using disc diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were also calculated. Results:Both polysaccharide and methanolic extract was active against gram positive than that of gram negative pathogenic bacteria but inactive against fungi. The MIC of both the extract ranging from 60 to 100 mg/mL. Conclusions: These results suggest that cephalopod polysaccharide and methanolic extract possess relatively good antibacterial activity.

  14. Using Sepia melanin as a PD model to describe the binding characteristics of neuromelanin - A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Rhiannon L; Double, Kay L; Gerber, Jacobus P

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is characterised pathologically by a relatively selective death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of the brain. The vulnerability of these neurons appears to be linked to the pigment neuromelanin. However, as yet there is limited understanding behind the mechanisms of this disease process. Complications arise due to the difficulty in obtaining appreciable quantities of neuromelanin. Furthermore, an appropriate model for studying neuromelanin has not been identified. To date there has been many studies looking at the binding and chemical characteristics of neuromelanin. However, a range of different synthetic and organic melanins have been used as models and leading to many varied conclusions being drawn. Therefore, the aim of this review is to present Sepia melanin as the most appropriate study model for the binding characteristics of neuromelanin. Considerations included chemical structure, surface characteristics and structural features of both synthetic and organic melanins.

  15. Therapeutic effect of low molecular weight chitosan containing sepia ink on ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Liu, Kang; Li, Lei; Li, Yingxin; Sui, Xianxian; Rao, Yinzhu; Wu, Jiahao; Wu, Qiuping

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the role of low molecular chitosan containing sepia ink (LMCS) in ethanol-induced (5 ml/kg) gastric ulcer in rats. Animals were divided into four groups (n = 12): normal group (Normal), negative control group (Con), experiment group (LMCS) and positive control Omeprazole group (OMZ). Gastric empty rate was detected in the first 7 days. Rats were sacrificed at 7, 14 and 21 day for histology and ELISA detections. Gastric empty was no significant differences among the groups (P > 0.05). Histological observation showed gastric mucosal LMCS treated had better healing effect. Hydroxyproline (Hyp) was significantly increased from 7 day (P gastric mucosa tissue repair, exert significant influences on oxidative and antioxidant enzyme activities and neutrophil infiltration.

  16. Effect of UV irradiation on free radicals in synthetic melanin and melanin biopolymer from Sepia officinalis – EPR examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdybel Magdalena

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Free radicals in synthetic melanin and melanin from Sepia officinalis were studied by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectroscopy. The effect of time of ultraviolet (UV irradiation on free radicals in these melanins was tested. The samples were exposed to UV during 15, 30, and 60 minutes. EPR spectra were measured with microwaves from an X-band (9.3 GHz in the range of microwave power of 2.2–70 mW. The performed EPR examinations indicate that high concentrations (~1021–1022 spin/g of o-semiquinone free radicals with g factors of 2.0039–2.0045 exist in all the tested samples. For nonirradiated samples, free radical concentration was higher in natural melanin than in synthetic melanin. UV irradiation caused the increase of free radical concentrations in synthetic melanin samples and this effect depends on the time of irradiation. The largest free radical formation in the both melanins was obtained for 60 min of UV irradiation. Free radical concentrations after the UV irradiation of melanins during 30 min were lower than during irradiation by 15 min, and probably this effect was the result of recombination of the radiatively formed free radicals. EPR lines of the tested samples broadened with increasing microwave power, so these lines were homogeneously broadened. The two types of melanins differed in the time of spin-lattice relaxation processes. Slower spin-lattice relaxation processes exist in melanin from Sepia officinalis than in synthetic melanin. UV irradiation did not change the time of spin-lattice relaxation processes in the tested melanins. The performed studies confirmed the usefulness of EPR spectroscopy in cosmetology and medicine.

  17. Ultrastructure and Antioxidative Activity of Melanin from Cuttlefish%乌贼墨黑色素的超微结构及抗氧化活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李和生; 李晓; 董亚辉; 雷静; 孙楠楠; 张丽媛

    2012-01-01

    应用电镜技术和体外培养试验等研究乌贼墨黑色素超微结构及其抗氧化等特性.结果表明,乌贼墨黑色素是由黑色素单体堆积而成,其单体颗粒呈圆形,表面清晰光滑,平均直径约118 nm.乌贼墨黑色素对大肠杆菌有较好的光保护效果.随着黑色素浓度的增加,其光保护作用增强.黑色素可有效抑制猪油的氧化反应.在乌贼墨黑色素同一添加量水平下,POV值均随着时间的延长而增大;在一定时间条件下,乌贼墨添加量越大,POV值越小,表明乌贼墨黑色素具有较强的抗氧化能力.黑色素对大鼠自发性脂质过氧化有明显的抑制作用,其抑制率达到53.3%.同时,黑色素对Fe2+-Cys诱导大鼠肝脂质过氧化也有较明显的抑制作用,其抑制率达到22.5%.%The ultrastruclure and antioxidation of melanin from cuttlefish were dealt with electron microscope technology and incubation in Vitro. The results were showed that the cuttlefish melanin was consisted hy the accumulation of the melanin monomers. The shape of monomer grain with mean diameter of about 0.118 μm was round, clear and smooth. The photoprotective effect of cuttlefish melanin to E. Coli was better and was increased with the melanin concentration. The oxidation of lard can be efficiently restrained by the cuttlefish melanin. POV (peroxide value) increased with time in the same addition of the cuttlefish melanin, but decreased with the addition in the same time. Those showed that the cuttlefish melanin had stronger, antioxidation ability. The restriction of endogenous LPO(lipid peroxidation) to rat liver homogenate was obvious and its inhibitory rate could reach to be 53.3%. Meanwhile, the restriction of Fe2+-Cys-induced LPO was also obvious and the inhibitory rate reached 22.5%.

  18. Identification of the Major ACE-Inhibitory Peptides Produced by Enzymatic Hydrolysis of a Protein Concentrate from Cuttlefish Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Rodríguez Amado

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was the purification and identification of the major angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory peptides produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of a protein concentrate recovered from a cuttlefish industrial manufacturing effluent. This process consisted on the ultrafiltration of cuttlefish softening wastewater, with a 10 kDa cut-off membrane, followed by the hydrolysis with alcalase of the retained fraction. Alcalase produced ACE inhibitors reaching the highest activity (IC50 = 76.8 ± 15.2 μg mL−1 after 8 h of proteolysis. Sequential ultrafiltration of the 8 h hydrolysate with molecular weight cut-off (MWCO membranes of 10 and 1 kDa resulted in the increased activity of each permeate, with a final IC50 value of 58.4 ± 4.6 μg mL−1. Permeate containing peptides lower than 1 kDa was separated by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC. Four fractions (A–D with potent ACE inhibitory activity were isolated and their main peptides identified using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to an electrospray ion trap Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometer (HPLC-ESI-IT-FTICR followed by comparison with databases and de novo sequencing. The amino acid sequences of the identified peptides contained at least one hydrophobic and/or a proline together with positively charged residues in at least one of the three C-terminal positions. The IC50 values of the fractions ranged from 1.92 to 8.83 μg mL−1, however this study fails to identify which of these peptides are ultimately responsible for the potent antihypertensive activity of these fractions.

  19. Neuropeptidome of the Cephalopod Sepia officinalis: Identification, Tissue Mapping, and Expression Pattern of Neuropeptides and Neurohormones during Egg Laying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatylny-Gaudin, Céline; Cornet, Valérie; Leduc, Alexandre; Zanuttini, Bruno; Corre, Erwan; Le Corguillé, Gildas; Bernay, Benoît; Garderes, Johan; Kraut, Alexandra; Couté, Yohan; Henry, Joël

    2016-01-01

    Cephalopods exhibit a wide variety of behaviors such as prey capture, communication, camouflage, and reproduction thanks to a complex central nervous system (CNS) divided into several functional lobes that express a wide range of neuropeptides involved in the modulation of behaviors and physiological mechanisms associated with the main stages of their life cycle. This work focuses on the neuropeptidome expressed during egg-laying through de novo construction of the CNS transcriptome using an RNAseq approach (Illumina sequencing). Then, we completed the in silico analysis of the transcriptome by characterizing and tissue-mapping neuropeptides by mass spectrometry. To identify neuropeptides involved in the egg-laying process, we determined (1) the neuropeptide contents of the neurohemal area, hemolymph (blood), and nerve endings in mature females and (2) the expression levels of these peptides. Among the 38 neuropeptide families identified from 55 transcripts, 30 were described for the first time in Sepia officinalis, 5 were described for the first time in the animal kingdom, and 14 were strongly overexpressed in egg-laying females as compared with mature males. Mass spectrometry screening of hemolymph and nerve ending contents allowed us to clarify the status of many neuropeptides, that is, to determine whether they were neuromodulators or neurohormones.

  20. Preparation, characterization and antibacterial activity of chitosan and phosphorylated chitosan from cuttlebone of Sepia kobiensis (Hoyle, 1885

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annaian Shanmugam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan is a commercially available derivative of chitin that has been extensively studied for its antimicrobial properties. In order to improve the water solubility and its biological activity, the chemical modification or derivatisation is attempted. In the present investigation, the chitosan prepared from the cuttlebone of Sepia kobiensis was being chemically modified by reacting it with orthophosphoric acid so as to obtain phosphorylated chitosan. Then the chitosan and phosphorylated chitosan were structurally characterized through FT-IR spectroscopy. Further the antibacterial activity of chitosan and phosphorylated chitosan was tested against clinically isolated human pathogens (Gram-positive: Streptococcus sp., Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative: Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, V. alginolyticus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella sp. and Proteus vulgaris by well diffusion method and the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC was also calculated. The results of the present study suggests that the chitosan and phosphorylated chitosan has concentration dependent antibacterial activity with variation against several pathogenic human pathogenic bacterial strains which indicates their possible use as antibacterial agents.

  1. Elevated seawater PCO₂ differentially affects branchial acid-base transporters over the course of development in the cephalopod Sepia officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Marian Y; Tseng, Yung-Che; Stumpp, Meike; Gutowska, Magdalena A; Kiko, Rainer; Lucassen, Magnus; Melzner, Frank

    2011-05-01

    The specific transporters involved in maintenance of blood pH homeostasis in cephalopod molluscs have not been identified to date. Using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical methods, we demonstrate that Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (soNKA), a V-type H(+)-ATPase (soV-HA), and Na(+)/HCO(3)(-) cotransporter (soNBC) are colocalized in NKA-rich cells in the gills of Sepia officinalis. mRNA expression patterns of these transporters and selected metabolic genes were examined in response to moderately elevated seawater Pco(2) (0.16 and 0.35 kPa) over a time course of 6 wk in different ontogenetic stages. The applied CO(2) concentrations are relevant for ocean acidification scenarios projected for the coming decades. We determined strong expression changes in late-stage embryos and hatchlings, with one to three log2-fold reductions in soNKA, soNBCe, socCAII, and COX. In contrast, no hypercapnia-induced changes in mRNA expression were observed in juveniles during both short- and long-term exposure. However, a transiently increased ion regulatory demand was evident during the initial acclimation reaction to elevated seawater Pco(2). Gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity and protein concentration were increased by ~15% during short (2-11 days) but not long-term (42-days) exposure. Our findings support the hypothesis that the energy budget of adult cephalopods is not significantly compromised during long-term exposure to moderate environmental hypercapnia. However, the downregulation of ion regulatory and metabolic genes in late-stage embryos, taken together with a significant reduction in somatic growth, indicates that cephalopod early life stages are challenged by elevated seawater Pco(2).

  2. Water, methanol and dense gas tracers in the local ULIRG Arp 220: results from the new SEPIA Band 5 Science Verification campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galametz, M.; Zhang, Z.-Y.; Immer, K.; Humphreys, E.; Aladro, R.; De Breuck, C.; Ginsburg, A.; Madden, S. C.; Møller, P.; Arumugam, V.

    2016-10-01

    We present a line survey of the ultraluminous infrared galaxy Arp 220, taken with the newly installed SEPIA (Swedish-European Southern Observatory PI receiver for APEX) Band 5 instrument on APEX (Atacama Pathfinder Experiment). We illustrate the capacity of SEPIA to detect the 183.3 GHz H2O 31,3-22,0 line against the atmospheric H2O absorption feature. We confirm the previous detection of the HCN(2-1) line, and detect new transitions of standard dense gas tracers such as HNC(2-1), HCO+(2-1), CS(4-3), C34S(4-3) and HC3N(20-19). We also detect HCN(2-1) v2 = 1 and the 193.5 GHz methanol (4-3) group for the first time. The absence of time variations in the megamaser water line compared to previous observations seems to rule out an AGN nuclear origin for the line. It could, on the contrary, favour a thermal origin instead, but also possibly be a sign that the megamaser emission is associated with star-forming cores washed out in the beam. We finally discuss how the new transitions of HCN, HNC and HCO+ refine our knowledge of the interstellar medium physical conditions in Arp 220.

  3. Water, methanol and dense gas tracers in the local ULIRG Arp 220: Results from the new SEPIA Band 5 Science Verification campaign

    CERN Document Server

    Galametz, M; Immer, K; Humphreys, E; Aladro, R; De Breuck, C; Ginsburg, A; Madden, S C; Møller, P; Arumugam, V

    2016-01-01

    We present a line survey of the ultra-luminous infrared galaxy Arp 220, taken with the newly installed SEPIA Band 5 instrument on APEX. We illustrate the capacity of SEPIA to detect the 183.3 GHz H2O 31,3-22,0 line against the atmospheric H2O absorption feature. We confirm the previous detection of the HCN(2-1) line, and detect new transitions of standard dense gas tracers such as HNC(2-1), HCO+(2-1), CS(4-3), C34S(4-3), HC3N(20-19). We also detect HCN(2-1) v2=1 and the 193.5 GHz methanol (4-3) group for the first time. The absence of time variations in the megamaser water line compared to previous observations seems to rule out an AGN nuclear origin for the line. It could, on the contrary, favor a thermal origin instead, but also possibly be a sign that the megamaser emission is associated with star-forming cores washed-out in the beam. We finally discuss how the new transitions of HCN, HNC, HCO+ refine our knowledge of the ISM physical conditions in Arp 220.

  4. Natural Models for Autonomous Control of Spatial Navigation, Sensing, and Guidance. Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-13

    vision in the cuttlefish Sepia plangon Cuttlefish from the waters near the UQ fieldwork station on Stradbroke Island were housed in glass seawater...Remote Sensing” by John R Schott , and represent the filters used to characterize the Stokes vector. This illustration in Schott’s book was produced

  5. Neural Regulation Of Chromatophore Function In Cephalopods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-19

    chromatophore layers in the skin; and, 3) histological investigations of the cuttlefish skin to determine the number of chromatophore layers and color...performed using ATLAS -Link and finally the contigs were extended and gaps filled using ATLAS -GapFill. This three-step process resulted in an...European cuttlefish Sepia officinalis. 22 Figure 13. Unstained histological section of an adult cuttlefish fin showing only two layers of

  6. Hyperspectral Imaging of Cuttlefish Camouflage Indicates Good Color Match in the Eyes of Fish Predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    as teleost fishes, diving birds , and marine mammals, which typically have di-, tri-, or even tetra-chromatic vision, in plain sight. The color...J Primatol 30:893-917. 19. Stoddard MC & Stevens M (2010) Pattern mimicry of host eggs by the common cuckoo , as seen through a bird’s eye. Proc...Am J Primatol 53:79-85. 39. Endler JA & Mielke PWJ (2005) Comparing color patterns as birds see them. Biol J Linn Soc 86:405-431. 40. Kelber A

  7. Common Warts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseases and Conditions Common warts By Mayo Clinic Staff Common warts are small, grainy skin growths that occur most often on your fingers or hands. Rough to the touch, common warts also often feature a pattern of tiny ...

  8. 水泥池养殖条件下虎斑乌贼的生长特性%Growth Characteristics of Sepia pharaonis under Pond-culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋霞敏; 罗江; 彭瑞冰; 唐锋; 高晓兰; 乐可鑫; 孙志鹏

    2014-01-01

    以体重、胴长、墨囊重和壳重4个指标变化情况,研究了水泥池养殖条件下虎斑乌贼(Sepia pharaonis)的生长特性.结果表明:体重呈指数增长,日均增重量(0.09~2.78 g)不断增加,瞬时增重率(11.86%~1.03%)呈下降趋势;胴长呈直线增长,日均增长量(0.03~0.13 cm)不断波动,瞬时增长率(4.99%~0.35%)呈下降趋势;墨囊重呈指数增长,日均增重量(0.01~0.09 g)呈上升趋势,瞬时增重率(11.95%~1.68%)呈下降趋势,墨囊指数3.06%~4.25%;壳重呈指数增长,日均增重量(0.01~0.13 g)呈上升趋势,瞬时增重率(10.73%~1.02%)呈下降趋势,壳指数为5.06%~7.65%.成活率在日龄0~45 d (90.69%~95.25%)和60~150 d (95.73%~98.89%)时平稳上升,而在日龄45~60 d(饵料转变过程中)下降至最低(50.01%).体重和胴长、墨囊重、壳重之间均具有显著相关性.%The growth characteristics of Sepia pharaonis under pond-culture are studied by observing the change of weight (W), mantle length (ML), weight of the Ink-sac (WIS), and weight of the Cuttle-bone (WCB). The results show that the W grows exponentially, the average daily weight gain (0.09-2.78 g) follows an upward trend, and the instantaneous growth rate (11.86%-1.03%) shows a downward trend. The ML grows linearly, the average daily length gain (0.03-0.13 cm) fluctuate constantly, and the instantaneous growth rate (4.99%-0.35%) is found with a downward trend. In comparison, the WIS also increases exponentially, the average daily weight gain (0.01-0.09 g) presents an upward trend, the instantaneous growth rate (11.95%-1.68%) indicates a downward trend, and the ink-sac index is 3.06%-4.25%. Finally, the WCB grows sharply, the average daily weight gain (0.01-0.13 g) also manifests an upward trend, the instantaneous growth rate (10.73%-1.02%) also follows a downward trend, the cuttle-bone index is 5.06%-7.65%. It is found that the survival rate increases steadily ranging 90.69%-95.25%within the age

  9. Polysaccharide from Sepia esculenta ink and cisplatin inhibit synergistically proliferation and metastasis of triple-negative breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Zhong Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: This paper aims to investigate synergistic inhibition of polysaccharide from Sepia esculenta ink (SIP, a newly isolated marine polysaccharide in our laboratory, on breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells exposed to cisplatin. Materials and Methods: Cell viability of MDA-MB-231 cells was determined by CCK 8 assay. Median-effect concentration was analyzed using Chou-Talalay method that was also subjected to determine cell inhibition ratio and combined index, as well as interaction between SIP and cisplatin. Proliferation and migration abilities were detected with plate colony formation assay and cell wound scratch assay, respectively. Expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 proteins was measured with Western blot assay. Results: Data showed that SIP not only suppressed proliferation and migration of MDA-MB-231 cells, and expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 proteins, also promoted inhibition of cisplatin on proliferation, migration and MMPs expression of MDA-MB-231 cells, which indicates synergy inhibition of drug combination of SIP and cisplatin on breast cancer cells. The median-effect concentrations of cisplatin and SIP were 4.9 and 1659.6 μg/ml, respectively. Whereas the concentration of combination drug was 158.5 μg/ml. The data indicated that drug combination can decrease dosages of the two single agents, especially the usual dosage of cisplatin. Conclusion: This research demonstrated that SIP repressed proliferation and metastasis of MDA-MB-231 cells and promoted anticancer effect of cisplatin on the breast cancer cells. The data suggested that SIP is a potential natural drug that can be used as an auxiliary medicine alongside chemotherapy in treating breast cancer.

  10. Polysaccharide from Sepia esculenta ink and cisplatin inhibit synergistically proliferation and metastasis of triple-negative breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua-Zhong; Xiao, Wei; Gu, Yi-Peng; Tao, Ye-Xing; Zhang, Da-Yan; Du, Hui; Shang, Jiang-Hua

    2016-12-01

    This paper aims to investigate synergistic inhibition of polysaccharide from Sepia esculenta ink (SIP), a newly isolated marine polysaccharide in our laboratory, on breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells exposed to cisplatin. Cell viability of MDA-MB-231 cells was determined by CCK 8 assay. Median-effect concentration was analyzed using Chou-Talalay method that was also subjected to determine cell inhibition ratio and combined index, as well as interaction between SIP and cisplatin. Proliferation and migration abilities were detected with plate colony formation assay and cell wound scratch assay, respectively. Expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 proteins was measured with Western blot assay. Data showed that SIP not only suppressed proliferation and migration of MDA-MB-231 cells, and expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 proteins, also promoted inhibition of cisplatin on proliferation, migration and MMPs expression of MDA-MB-231 cells, which indicates synergy inhibition of drug combination of SIP and cisplatin on breast cancer cells. The median-effect concentrations of cisplatin and SIP were 4.9 and 1659.6 μg/ml, respectively. Whereas the concentration of combination drug was 158.5 μg/ml. The data indicated that drug combination can decrease dosages of the two single agents, especially the usual dosage of cisplatin. This research demonstrated that SIP repressed proliferation and metastasis of MDA-MB-231 cells and promoted anticancer effect of cisplatin on the breast cancer cells. The data suggested that SIP is a potential natural drug that can be used as an auxiliary medicine alongside chemotherapy in treating breast cancer.

  11. Common Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen Common Terms Below is a list of diabetes-related ... a skin condition characterized by darkened skin patches; common in people whose body is not responding correctly ...

  12. Common Cold

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nose, coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In the course of a year, people ... avoid colds. There is no cure for the common cold. For relief, try Getting plenty of rest ...

  13. Electron microscope study on the relationship between macrophages of the alevolar space and spheroid alveolar epithelial cells on mice after injection of squid-ink (sepia-melanin solution into the trachea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwa,Kiichi

    1977-02-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between alveolar macrophages and spheroid alveolar epithelial cells was studied with the electron microscope after injection of squid-ink solution into the trachea of the mouse. At 20 hours after injection of squid-ink solution slight degeneration was evident in alveolar macrophages with sepia-melanin particles being phagocytized with partial digestion by lysosmes. Furthermore, hardly any changes were seen in mitochondria and inclusion bodies of the spheroid alveolar epithelial cells. In contrast, at one week after injection of squid-ink solution, almost all alveolar macrophages were degenerated with destruction of the ectoplasm in which the ingested sepia-melanin particles were digested by lysosomes into fine particles, and the mitochondria of spheroid alveolar epithelial cells were degenerated and the inclusion bodies were hardly formed. At three weeks after injection of squid-ink solution, alveolar macrophages as well as speroid alveolar epithelial cells showed almost complete recovery of functional structure. As the phagocyte in the alveolar space, neutrophile leucocytes were also observed in addition to the so-called alveolar macrophage.

  14. Student Commons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Student commons are no longer simply congregation spaces for students with time on their hands. They are integral to providing a welcoming environment and effective learning space for students. Many student commons have been transformed into spaces for socialization, an environment for alternative teaching methods, a forum for large group meetings…

  15. Common Courses for Common Purposes:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub Jr, Gary John

    2014-01-01

    (PME)? I suggest three alternative paths that increased cooperation in PME at the level of the command and staff course could take: a Nordic Defence College, standardized national command and staff courses, and a core curriculum of common courses for common purposes. I conclude with a discussion of how...

  16. Common Courses for Common Purposes:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub Jr, Gary John

    2014-01-01

    (PME)? I suggest three alternative paths that increased cooperation in PME at the level of the command and staff course could take: a Nordic Defence College, standardized national command and staff courses, and a core curriculum of common courses for common purposes. I conclude with a discussion of how...

  17. QCI Common

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-11-18

    There are many common software patterns and utilities for the ORNL Quantum Computing Institute that can and should be shared across projects. Otherwise we find duplication of code which adds unwanted complexity. This is a software product seeks to alleviate this by providing common utilities such as object factories, graph data structures, parameter input mechanisms, etc., for other software products within the ORNL Quantum Computing Institute. This work enables pure basic research, has no export controlled utilities, and has no real commercial value.

  18. Instituting Commoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . STEALTH.unlimited

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the origins of the notion of management, this paper explores how commons governance is constituted by the earlier influential research of Elinor Ostrom, and pursues this with reference to scholars such as Saki Bailey, who emphasises that the choice of regulatory frame is ultimately a political one. We then argue that commons have to be ‘instituted’ in an open manner in order to remain accessible. This demands a set of scripts, rules or agreements that keep the process of commoning in place, and, simultaneously, keep commoning in a constant process of reproduction. We examine this tension and look at the shift in understanding about what ‘institutions of the commons’ have entailed in practice over the course of the last century and a half. Finally, we return to the political dimension to touch upon the question of whether, with the disappearance of the welfare state, a coherent concept of society can emerge from the current upsurge of commons initiatives.

  19. Creative Commons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lone

    2006-01-01

    En Creative Commons licens giver en forfatter mulighed for at udbyde sit værk i en alternativ licensløsning, som befinder sig på forskellige trin på en skala mellem yderpunkterne "All rights reserved" og "No rights reserved". Derved opnås licensen "Some rights reserved"......En Creative Commons licens giver en forfatter mulighed for at udbyde sit værk i en alternativ licensløsning, som befinder sig på forskellige trin på en skala mellem yderpunkterne "All rights reserved" og "No rights reserved". Derved opnås licensen "Some rights reserved"...

  20. Science commons

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    SCP: Creative Commons licensing for open access publishing, Open Access Law journal-author agreements for converting journals to open access, and the Scholar's Copyright Addendum Engine for retaining rights to self-archive in meaningful formats and locations for future re-use. More than 250 science and technology journals already publish under Creative Commons licensing while 35 law journals utilize the Open Access Law agreements. The Addendum Engine is a new tool created in partnership with SPARC and U.S. universities. View John Wilbanks's biography

  1. Creative Commons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lone

    2006-01-01

    En Creative Commons licens giver en forfatter mulighed for at udbyde sit værk i en alternativ licensløsning, som befinder sig på forskellige trin på en skala mellem yderpunkterne "All rights reserved" og "No rights reserved". Derved opnås licensen "Some rights reserved"......En Creative Commons licens giver en forfatter mulighed for at udbyde sit værk i en alternativ licensløsning, som befinder sig på forskellige trin på en skala mellem yderpunkterne "All rights reserved" og "No rights reserved". Derved opnås licensen "Some rights reserved"...

  2. 金乌贼脑和视神经节蛋白质组比较分析%Comparison Analysis of Proteome of Both Cerebral and Optic Ganalions in Sepia esculenta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄福生; 陈海滨; 黄琳; 黄河清

    2009-01-01

    采用双向凝胶电泳(2D-PAGE)技术优化分离金乌贼的脑及视神经节全蛋白质,并选用肽质量指纹谱(Peptide mass fingerprinting,PMF)技术和数据库检索方法对2D-PAGE图谱上的部分蛋白质斑点进行鉴定,初步构建了金乌贼视神经节(Optic ganglion of Sepia esculenta,SEOG)和脑神经节(Cerebral ganglion of Sepia esculenta,SECG)部分分子解剖图谱.用Melanie 4 Trial软件分析脑神经节和视神经节蛋白质斑点总数量分别为682和594个,其中SECG蛋白质斑点数量明显多于SEOG.在脑神经节和视神经节中均发现了线粒体苹果酸脱氢酶前体(Mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase precursor,pre-MDH)及可溶性NSF连接蛋白(SNAP-type proteins).此外,延长因子(Elongation factor G)、微管蛋白(Tubulin)和肌动蛋白(Actin)等蛋白质也具有高匹配率.已鉴定的蛋白质,多数归属于假定蛋白和结构蛋白类.

  3. Evolution of the CT/CGRP family: comparative study with new data from models of teleosts, the eel, and cephalopod molluscs, the cuttlefish and the nautilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafont, Anne-Gaëlle; Dufour, Sylvie; Fouchereau-Peron, Martine

    2007-01-01

    In mammals, alternative splicing of the calcitonin gene generates two distinct peptides: calcitonin (CT), synthesised in the thyroid C cells and involved in the regulation of calcium metabolism, and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), brain neuromediator synthesised in the peripheral and central nerves. CGRP is well represented and molecularly conserved during evolution whereas CT has not been detected in any of the invertebrates analysed so far. In order to better understand the evolution of this CT/CGRP peptide family we reviewed the major data concerning its evolution from the literature and our recent data obtained in models of teleosts and cephalopod molluscs. The presence of both CGRP-like molecules and its specific bindings sites in the central nervous system of eel, cuttlefish and nautilus, suggests that the brain neurotransmitter role of CGRP could represent an ancient role in metazoa, already present in cephalopods and conserved among vertebrates, as still observed in mammals. In contrast, the presence of CGRP specific binding sites, and not the peptide itself, in the gills suggests an endocrine role for CGRP, in cephalopods and teleosts, that may have been lost during the evolution of the tetrapod lineage. These data, and the absence of CT-like molecules that we observed in cephalopods, support the hypothesis that CGRP represents the ancestral molecule of the CT/CGRP family, appeared in metazoa before the vertebrate emergence. The distinction between CT and CGRP receptors appears to be an event posterior to the emergence of ecdysozoan and lophotrochozoan protostomes, probably in relation to the CT appearance. The evolution of the CT/CGRP peptide family is probably similar to the evolution of the CT/CGRP receptor family. In fact, the genic duplication that induced the appearance of the two separate molecules, CT and CGRP, may constitute an event close to that, which induced the appearance of the two specific receptors. These events remain to be

  4. 响应面法优化金乌贼眼透明质酸的提取工艺%Optimization of Extraction Process for Hyaluronic Acid from Golden Cuttlefish Eyes Using Response Surface Methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽媛; 李和生; 孙楠楠; 雷静

    2011-01-01

    In order to make full use of golden cuttlefish eyes,the enzymatic preparation of hyaluronic acid(HA) from the waste of golden cuttlefish processing was studied.The results of a comparison of 3 proteases showed that neutral protease was more suitable to hydrolyze golden cuttlefish eyes than pepsin and trypsin,providing an HA extraction yield of 6.64%.Employing one-factor-at-a-time experiments and response surface methodology,the optimal conditions for HA extraction by neutral protease-catalyzed hydrolysis were determined as follows: 8200 U/g enzyme amount and 60 ℃ for a reaction duration of 3 h.Under these conditions,the experimental extraction yield of HA was up to 10.70%,in close agreement with the predicted value.Accordingly,the established extraction process was accurate and feasible.It was also found that enzyme amount was the most important fact the affects extraction yield of HA followed by temperature and reaction time.%为了充分利用乌贼下脚料乌贼眼,对酶法提取金乌贼眼中透明质酸工艺进行研究。结果表明,在胃蛋白酶、中性蛋白酶、胰蛋白酶的筛选实验中,中性蛋白酶的提取率最高,为6.64%,是酶解最适酶。采用单因素试验和响应面法研究中性蛋白酶酶解金乌贼眼中透明质酸的工艺条件。结果表明,影响提取率的工艺因素顺序为加酶量〉酶解时间〉酶解温度;其酶解最佳工艺条件为加酶量8200U/g、酶解时间3h、酶解温度60℃,在此条件下透明质酸提取率10.70%,与模型预测值基本相符。响应面优化酶法提取金乌贼眼透明质酸条件准确可行。

  5. 近期外文文献题录

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻萍; 严而清

    2004-01-01

    Experimental study of enriched froen diet on digestive enzymes and growth of jnvenile cuttlefish Sepia officinalis L.(Mollusca Cephalopoda),[刊,英]/PerrinA,Le Bihan E,Koueta N,//Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology,—2004,311(16)—267∽285.

  6. Radioisotopes demonstrate the contrasting bioaccumulation capacities of heavy metals in embryonic stages of cephalopod species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Lacoue-Labarthe

    Full Text Available Cephalopods play a key role in many marine trophic food webs and also constitute alternative fishery resources in the context of the ongoing decline in finfish stocks. Most coastal cephalopod species of commercial importance migrate into shallow waters during the breeding season to lay their eggs, and are consequently subjected to coastal contamination. Eggs of common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, European squid Loligo vulgaris, common octopus Octopus vulgaris and the sepiolid Rossia macrosoma were exposed during embryonic development to dissolved (110mAg, (109Cd, (60Co, (54Mn and (65Zn in order to determine their metal accumulation efficiencies and distribution among different egg compartments. Cuttlefish eggs, in which hard shells enclose the embryos, showed the lowest concentration factor (CF values despite a longer duration of exposure. In contrast, octopus eggs, which are only protected by the chorionic membrane, accumulated the most metal. Uptake appears to be linked to the selective retention properties of the egg envelopes with respect to each element. The study also demonstrated that the octopus embryo accumulated (110mAg directly from the dissolved phase and also indirectly through assimilation of the contaminated yolk. These results raise questions regarding the potential contrasting vulnerability of early life stages of cephalopods to the metallic contamination of coastal waters.

  7. No Common Opinion on the Common Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Michael B.; Peterson, Paul E.; West, Martin R.

    2015-01-01

    According to the three authors of this article, the 2014 "EdNext" poll yields four especially important new findings: (1) Opinion with respect to the Common Core has yet to coalesce. The idea of a common set of standards across the country has wide appeal, and the Common Core itself still commands the support of a majority of the public.…

  8. Common Privacy Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Information home > privacy + phrs > common privacy myths Common Privacy Myths With the new federal laws protecting ... Here are the truths to some of the common myths: Health information cannot be faxed – FALSE Your ...

  9. Common NICU Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... newborn intensive care unit (NICU) > Common NICU equipment Common NICU equipment E-mail to a friend Please ... Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your baby Common illnesses Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications ...

  10. Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID) Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is ... and acquired agammaglobulinemia. Why Is the Study of Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID) a Priority for NIAID? CVID ...

  11. Common Discomforts of Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Pregnancy > Prenatal care > Common discomforts of pregnancy Common discomforts of pregnancy E-mail to a friend ... like back ache and being really tired are common and shouldn’t make you worry. For most ...

  12. Finding Common Ground with the Common Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisan, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the journey of museum educators at the Chicago History Museum in understanding the Common Core State Standards and implementing them in our work with the school audience. The process raised questions about our teaching philosophy and our responsibility to our audience. Working with colleagues inside and outside of our…

  13. How Common Is the Common Core?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Amande; Edson, Alden J.

    2014-01-01

    Since the introduction of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) in 2010, stakeholders in adopting states have engaged in a variety of activities to understand CCSSM standards and transition from previous state standards. These efforts include research, professional development, assessment and modification of curriculum resources,…

  14. Finding Common Ground with the Common Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisan, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the journey of museum educators at the Chicago History Museum in understanding the Common Core State Standards and implementing them in our work with the school audience. The process raised questions about our teaching philosophy and our responsibility to our audience. Working with colleagues inside and outside of our…

  15. Commonly Abused Drugs Charts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Forms Common Ways Taken DEA Schedule Juice, Gym Candy, Pumpers, Roids Nandrolone (Oxandrin ® ), oxandrolone (Anadrol ® ), oxymetholone ( ... swings; tiredness; restlessness; loss of appetite; insomnia; lowered sex drive; depression, sometimes leading to suicide attempts. Treatment ...

  16. Common Asthma Triggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health Common Asthma Triggers Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... t avoid the triggers. Some of the most common triggers are: Tobacco Smoke Tobacco smoke is unhealthy ...

  17. Common Eye Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.cdc.gov/emailupdates/">What's this? Submit Button Common Eye Disorders Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... macular degeneration, cataract, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma. Other common eye disorders include amblyopia and strabismus. For a ...

  18. Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol Updated:Jul 5,2017 How ... do you know about cholesterol? Here are some common misconceptions — and the truth. High cholesterol isn’t ...

  19. Common Conditions in Newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Common Conditions in Newborns Page Content Article Body Some physical conditions are especially common during the first couple of weeks after birth. ...

  20. Common Tests for Arrhythmia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common Tests for Arrhythmia Updated:Dec 21,2016 Several ... diagnose an arrhythmia. View an animation of arrhythmia . Common Tests for Arrhythmia Holter monitor (continuous ambulatory electrocardiographic ...

  1. Tragedy of the Commons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    The tittle refers to an article from 1968 by Garrett Hardin, using the metaphore of the common grazing land in villages in old time. These 'Commons' were for free use for people in the commounity to have some sheep grazing. This system was based on a certain social solidarity and ethic....... With an individualistic and selfish attitude this would collaps, since each single citizen could benefit from putting more sheep on the common, which would eventually collapse by overgrazing. The metaphore is applied to our common planet, and our ability to built up institutions, economics and ethics, geared for sharing...

  2. The Common Good

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt, Liv Egholm

    At present voluntary and philanthropic organisations are experiencing significant public attention and academic discussions about their role in society. Central to the debate is on one side the question of how they contribute to “the common good”, and on the other the question of how they can avoid...... and concepts continuously over time have blurred the different sectors and “polluted” contemporary definitions of the “common good”. The analysis shows that “the common good” is not an autonomous concept owned or developed by specific spheres of society. The analysis stresses that historically, “the common...

  3. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for sepia melanin

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mbonyiryivuze, A

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available intensively studied biomolecule systems such as nucleic acid, proteins and carbohydrates. Melanins have been reported to have a diverse number of functions in the biosystem, including photosensitization, metal ion chelation, photoprotection to absorb a broad...

  4. The Common HOL Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The Common HOL project aims to facilitate porting source code and proofs between members of the HOL family of theorem provers. At the heart of the project is the Common HOL Platform, which defines a standard HOL theory and API that aims to be compatible with all HOL systems. So far, HOL Light and hol90 have been adapted for conformance, and HOL Zero was originally developed to conform. In this paper we provide motivation for a platform, give an overview of the Common HOL Platform's theory and...

  5. ACS: ALMA Common Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiozzi, Gianluca; Šekoranja, Matej

    2013-02-01

    ALMA Common Software (ACS) provides a software infrastructure common to all ALMA partners and consists of a documented collection of common patterns and components which implement those patterns. The heart of ACS is based on a distributed Component-Container model, with ACS Components implemented as CORBA objects in any of the supported programming languages. ACS provides common CORBA-based services such as logging, error and alarm management, configuration database and lifecycle management. Although designed for ALMA, ACS can and is being used in other control systems and distributed software projects, since it implements proven design patterns using state of the art, reliable technology. It also allows, through the use of well-known standard constructs and components, that other team members whom are not authors of ACS easily understand the architecture of software modules, making maintenance affordable even on a very large project.

  6. Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol Updated:Apr 3,2017 Cholesterol can be both ... misconceptions about cholesterol. Click on each misconception about cholesterol to see the truth: My choices about diet ...

  7. Common Knowledge on Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Liddell, Torrin M

    2015-01-01

    Common knowledge of intentions is crucial to basic social tasks ranging from cooperative hunting to oligopoly collusion, riots, revolutions, and the evolution of social norms and human culture. Yet little is known about how common knowledge leaves a trace on the dynamics of a social network. Here we show how an individual's network properties---primarily local clustering and betweenness centrality---provide strong signals of the ability to successfully participate in common knowledge tasks. These signals are distinct from those expected when practices are contagious, or when people use less-sophisticated heuristics that do not yield true coordination. This makes it possible to infer decision rules from observation. We also find that tasks that require common knowledge can yield significant inequalities in success, in contrast to the relative equality that results when practices spread by contagion alone.

  8. Five Common Glaucoma Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Us Donate In This Section Five Common Glaucoma Tests en Español email Send this article to ... year or two after age 35. A Comprehensive Glaucoma Exam To be safe and accurate, five factors ...

  9. Common elbow conditions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-09-02

    Sep 2, 2011 ... Chronic overuse is the most common reason for elbow injury. ... fingers. ECRB has been shown to be active with flexion, extension, ... such as lifting a kettle and shaking hands. ... proximal palmar crease to the tip of the.

  10. Genomic Data Commons launches

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Genomic Data Commons (GDC), a unified data system that promotes sharing of genomic and clinical data between researchers, launched today with a visit from Vice President Joe Biden to the operations center at the University of Chicago.

  11. MA Common Tern Census

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The official State census period for common terns was June 1-10. The survey was conducted on June 4 by Biologist Healey, Biotech Springfield, and Maintenance...

  12. UNDERSTANDING THE GLOBAL COMMONS

    OpenAIRE

    Bromley, Daniel W.; Cochrane, Jeffrey A.

    1994-01-01

    We want to clarify the way in which we think about the global commons, particularly the problem of global warming caused by greenhouse gas emissions and tropical deforestation. We develop a policy framework in which the policy goal is the sustainability of the earth's ability to absorb greenhouse gases. The framework considers the unequal incidence of benefits and costs of particular policies. We identify several resource management regimes and suggest that management under a common property ...

  13. Common clay and shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virta, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the latest developments in the global common clay and shale industry, particularly in the U.S. It claims that common clay and shale is mainly used in the manufacture of heavy clay products like brick, flue tile and sewer pipe. The main producing states in the U.S. include North Carolina, New York and Oklahoma. Among the firms that manufacture clay and shale-based products are Mid America Brick & Structural Clay Products LLC and Boral USA.

  14. The Common HOL Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Adams

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Common HOL project aims to facilitate porting source code and proofs between members of the HOL family of theorem provers. At the heart of the project is the Common HOL Platform, which defines a standard HOL theory and API that aims to be compatible with all HOL systems. So far, HOL Light and hol90 have been adapted for conformance, and HOL Zero was originally developed to conform. In this paper we provide motivation for a platform, give an overview of the Common HOL Platform's theory and API components, and show how to adapt legacy systems. We also report on the platform's successful application in the hand-translation of a few thousand lines of source code from HOL Light to HOL Zero.

  15. Analysis and Evaluation of Nutritional Components of the Nidamental Gland in Female Sepia pharaonis%雌性虎斑乌贼缠卵腺营养成分分析与评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴宏杰; 孙玉林; 冯梓欣; 文菁; 陈道海

    2016-01-01

    The general nutrients, amino acids, fatty acids, cholesterol and inorganic elements in the nidamental gland of female Sepia pharaonis (S. pharaonis) were analyzed to evaluate its nutritional value and developmental prospects. The results showed that the contents of moisture, crude protein, crude fat and ash in the nidamental gland of female S. pharaonis on fresh weight basis were 73.27%, 18.40%, 0.16%and 1.70%, respectively. Eighteen amino acids were detected in the nidamental gland of female S. pharaonis and the content of essential amino acids (EAA) was 5.54 g/100 g, which accounted for 41.47% of the total amino acids. The composition of EAAs met the FAO/WHO pattern. According to nutritional evaluation by amino acids score (AAS), the first limiting amino acid was Val, while the first limiting amino acid was Trp based on chemical score (CS). The total unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) in the nidamental gland of female S. pharaonis accounted for 63.21% of the total amount of fatty acids, and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) accounted for 12.55%and 33.19%of the total fatty acids, respectively. The content of cholesterol in the sample was 2.24 mg/g, which was evidently lower than that of egg yolk. Macroelements (K, Ca, Na, and Mg) and trace elements (Se, Cu, and Mn) were abundant in the nidamental gland of female S. pharaonis, but the content of As was 35.90 mg/kg, which highly exceeded the limit standard of 0.5 mg/kg. These results indicated that the nidamental gland of female S. pharaonis possesses high nutritional value, but there is a necessity for appropriate consumption and processing methods to ensure food safety.%为评估雌性虎斑乌贼缠卵腺的营养水平,确定其开发利用价值,对其一般营养成分、氨基酸组成、脂肪酸组成、胆固醇含量和无机元素进行分析。结果表明,雌性虎斑乌贼缠卵腺(鲜质量)中水分、粗蛋白、粗脂肪和灰分含量分别为73.27%、18.40%、0

  16. COMMON FISCAL POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Mursa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to demonstrate that a common fiscal policy, designed to support the euro currency, has some significant drawbacks. The greatest danger is the possibility of leveling the tax burden in all countries. This leveling of the tax is to the disadvantage of countries in Eastern Europe, in principle, countries poorly endowed with capital, that use a lax fiscal policy (Romania, Bulgaria, etc. to attract foreign investment from rich countries of the European Union. In addition, common fiscal policy can lead to a higher degree of centralization of budgetary expenditures in the European Union.

  17. Sequential Common Agency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prat, A.; Rustichini, A.

    1998-01-01

    In a common agency game a set of principals promises monetary transfers to an agent which depend on the action he will take. The agent then chooses the action, and is paid the corresponding transfers. Principals announce their transfers simultaneously. This game has many equilibria; Bernheim and Whi

  18. Common Magnets, Unexpected Polarities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I discuss a "misconception" in magnetism so simple and pervasive as to be typically unnoticed. That magnets have poles might be considered one of the more straightforward notions in introductory physics. However, the magnets common to students' experiences are likely different from those presented in educational…

  19. Chemicals of Common bitercress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Marenich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to the study of the chemical composition of Common bitter cress (Barbarea vulgaris R. Br.. Shows indicators of good quality, optimal parameters extraction, trace element composition, amino acid composition, content of biologically active substances and volatile of raw material.

  20. Testing Common Sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Explores the use of common sense testing and measurement as a means of predicting real-world performance. The authors discuss practical versus book knowledge, examine several empirical studies of practical intelligence, describe tacit knowledge and the instruments used for testing it, and present findings from a tacit knowledge research program.…

  1. Common File Formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Lauren

    2014-03-21

    An overview of the many file formats commonly used in bioinformatics and genome sequence analysis is presented, including various data file formats, alignment file formats, and annotation file formats. Example workflows illustrate how some of the different file types are typically used.

  2. Common Influence Join

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yiu, Man Lung; Mamoulis, Nikos; Karras, Panagiotis

    2008-01-01

    We identify and formalize a novel join operator for two spatial pointsets P and Q. The common influence join (CIJ) returns the pairs of points (p,q),p isin P,q isin Q, such that there exists a location in space, being closer to p than to any other point in P and at the same time closer to q than...

  3. 'Crossing a Bare Common'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balle, Søren Hattesen

    2006-01-01

    than not described as a ‘sublime rhetoric’. From the stock of rhetorical tropes the most favoured by Emerson and picked out as the trademark of his rhetorical sublimity critics mention in particular his use of hyperbole, chiasmus and metalepsis. Common to all three tropes is said to be their ability...

  4. Is Context Common Ground?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jens Sand

    2012-01-01

    This article will explore the relation between the how’s and why’s of humour, by gradually moving from the contextual compositionality of conversational implication to a broadened perspective on the open- ended nature of conversation and the purpose humour serves in developing ‘common ground’....

  5. Common tester platform concept.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, Michael James

    2008-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a case study on the doctrine of a common tester platform, a concept of a standardized platform that can be applicable across the broad spectrum of testing requirements throughout the various stages of a weapons program, as well as across the various weapons programs. The common tester concept strives to define an affordable, next-generation design that will meet testing requirements with the flexibility to grow and expand; supporting the initial development stages of a weapons program through to the final production and surveillance stages. This report discusses a concept investing key leveraging technologies and operational concepts combined with prototype tester-development experiences and practical lessons learned gleaned from past weapons programs.

  6. Commonly used endocrine drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Mário Miguel; Dias, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine drugs are agents directed to a malfunctioning endocrine path. Several agents are secreted in or target the nervous system, and are thus more prone to cause neurologic adverse events (AEs). This chapter focuses on commonly used endocrine agents directed to the hypothalamus-pituitary axis, thyroid, and antidiabetic agents. The therapeutic agents are discussed in terms of indication, mechanism of action, description, and frequency of AEs, and risk factors for occurrence where available. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Common HEP UNIX Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddei, Arnaud

    After it had been decided to design a common user environment for UNIX platforms among HEP laboratories, a joint project between DESY and CERN had been started. The project consists in 2 phases: 1. Provide a common user environment at shell level, 2. Provide a common user environment at graphical level (X11). Phase 1 is in production at DESY and at CERN as well as at PISA and RAL. It has been developed around the scripts originally designed at DESY Zeuthen improved and extended with a 2 months project at CERN with a contribution from DESY Hamburg. It consists of a set of files which are customizing the environment for the 6 main shells (sh, csh, ksh, bash, tcsh, zsh) on the main platforms (AIX, HP-UX, IRIX, SunOS, Solaris 2, OSF/1, ULTRIX, etc.) and it is divided at several "sociological" levels: HEP, site, machine, cluster, group of users and user with some levels which are optional. The second phase is under design and a first proposal has been published. A first version of the phase 2 exists already for AIX and Solaris, and it should be available for all other platforms, by the time of the conference. This is a major collective work between several HEP laboratories involved in the HEPiX-scripts and HEPiX-X11 working-groups.

  8. 'Historicising common sense'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millstone, Noah

    2012-12-01

    This essay is an expanded set of comments on the social psychology papers written for the special issue on History and Social Psychology. It considers what social psychology, and particularly the theory of social representations, might offer historians working on similar problems, and what historical methods might offer social psychology. The social history of thinking has been a major theme in twentieth and twenty-first century historical writing, represented most recently by the genre of 'cultural history'. Cultural history and the theory of social representations have common ancestors in early twentieth-century social science. Nevertheless, the two lines of research have developed in different ways and are better seen as complementary than similar. The theory of social representations usefully foregrounds issues, like social division and change over time, that cultural history relegates to the background. But for historians, the theory of social representations seems oddly fixated on comparing the thought styles associated with positivist science and 'common sense'. Using historical analysis, this essay tries to dissect the core opposition 'science : common sense' and argues for a more flexible approach to comparing modes of thought.

  9. Common sense codified

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    At CERN, people of more than a hundred different nationalities and hundreds of different professions work together towards a common goal. The new Code of Conduct is a tool that has been designed to help us keep our workplace pleasant and productive through common standards of behaviour. Its basic principle is mutual respect and common sense. This is only natural, but not trivial…  The Director-General announced it in his speech at the beginning of the year, and the Bulletin wrote about it immediately afterwards. "It" is the new Code of Conduct, the document that lists our Organization's values and describes the basic standards of behaviour that we should both adopt and expect from others. "The Code of Conduct is not going to establish new rights or new obligations," explains Anne-Sylvie Catherin, Head of the Human Resources Department (HR). But what it will do is provide a framework for our existing rights and obligations." The aim of a co...

  10. A small-scale fishery near a rocky littoral marine reserve in the northwestern Mediterranean (Medes Islands after two decades of fishing prohibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Martín

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Fishing in the Medes Islands Marine Reserve (511 ha, including a no-take zone and a buffer area was prohibited in 1983. This study is the result of a 2.5-year monitoring program (sampling on board fishing boats from June 2003 to December 2005 aimed at characterizing the small-scale fishing carried out near the reserve. A total of 109 species were identified. The various métiers in use with the fishing gears trammel net, longline and gillnet were identified on the basis of the landing profiles. The main fishing target species included striped red mullet (Mullus surmuletus, common sole (Solea solea, gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata, common cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis, common pandora (Pagellus erythrinus, seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax, spiny lobster (Palinurus elephas and hake (Merluccius merluccius. Most of the catches consisted of mature individuals and discards were very low or nil. The exception was Palinurus elephas, with catches made up mostly of juveniles. The estimated stock parameters for Mullus surmuletus, Pagellus erythrinus, Sparus aurata and Scorpaena porcus (Lc mean catch length; Lopt length at maximum yield per recruit; Y/Rc; Y/Rmax; Y/R at F(0.1, Y/R(0.1 and the distributions of the exploited sizes, with presence of very large individuals, suggest a situation of low fishing pressure.

  11. English for common entrance

    CERN Document Server

    Kossuth, Kornel

    2013-01-01

    Succeed in the exam with this revision guide, designed specifically for the brand new Common Entrance English syllabus. It breaks down the content into manageable and straightforward chunks with easy-to-use, step-by-step instructions that should take away the fear of CE and guide you through all aspects of the exam. - Gives you step-by-step guidance on how to recognise various types of comprehension questions and answer them. - Shows you how to write creatively as well as for a purpose for the section B questions. - Reinforces and consolidates learning with tips, guidance and exercises through

  12. Common Ground and Delegation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobrajska, Magdalena; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Lyngsie, Jacob

    Much recent research suggests that firms need to increase their level of delegation to better cope with, for example, the challenges introduced by dynamic rapid environments and the need to engage more with external knowledge sources. However, there is less insight into the organizational...... preconditions of increasing delegation. We argue that key HR practices?namely, hiring, training and job-rotation?are associated with delegation of decision-making authority. These practices assist in the creation of shared knowledge conditions between managers and employees. In turn, such a ?common ground...

  13. [Common vulvar dermatologic conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiltunen-Back, Eija; Jeskanen, Leila

    2012-01-01

    A wide range of cutaneous diseases can affect genital area. Some of these dermatoses are predominantly present in vulvar area while others primarily occur in extra-genital skin areas. Genital area is susceptible to maceration and the combination of moisture and warmth together with the increased penetration of topical agents make the region vulnerable for mechanical and chemical irritation. Lichen simplex chronicus (LSC) is a secondary condition precipitated by chronic itching and scratching. Scratching may be caused by some dermatoses or candida infection. Chronic systemic dermatoses most commonly affecting vulval area are various eczemas, psoriasis, lichen sclerorus and lichen planus.

  14. COMMON SENSE BIBLICAL HERMENEUTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B. Mangini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the noetics of moderate realism provide a firm foundation upon which to build a hermeneutic of common sense, in the first part of his paper the author adopts Thomas Howe’s argument that the noetical aspect of moderate realism is a necessary condition for correct, universally valid biblical interpretation, but he adds, “insofar as it gives us hope in discovering the true meaning of a given passage.” In the second part, the author relies on John Deely’s work to show how semiotics may help interpreters go beyond meaning and seek the significance of the persons, places, events, ideas, etc., of which the meaning of the text has presented as objects to be interpreted. It is in significance that the unity of Scripture is found. The chief aim is what every passage of the Bible signifies. Considered as a genus, Scripture is composed of many parts/species that are ordered to a chief aim. This is the structure of common sense hermeneutics; therefore in the third part the author restates Peter Redpath’s exposition of Aristotle and St. Thomas’s ontology of the one and the many and analogously applies it to the question of how an exegete can discern the proper significance and faithfully interpret the word of God.

  15. Common pediatric epilepsy syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun T; Shahid, Asim M; Jammoul, Adham

    2015-02-01

    Benign rolandic epilepsy (BRE), childhood idiopathic occipital epilepsy (CIOE), childhood absence epilepsy (CAE), and juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) are some of the common epilepsy syndromes in the pediatric age group. Among the four, BRE is the most commonly encountered. BRE remits by age 16 years with many children requiring no treatment. Seizures in CAE also remit at the rate of approximately 80%; whereas, JME is considered a lifelong condition even with the use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Neonates and infants may also present with seizures that are self-limited with no associated psychomotor disturbances. Benign familial neonatal convulsions caused by a channelopathy, and inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, have a favorable outcome with spontaneous resolution. Benign idiopathic neonatal seizures, also referred to as "fifth-day fits," are an example of another epilepsy syndrome in infants that carries a good prognosis. BRE, CIOE, benign familial neonatal convulsions, benign idiopathic neonatal seizures, and benign myoclonic epilepsy in infancy are characterized as "benign" idiopathic age-related epilepsies as they have favorable implications, no structural brain abnormality, are sensitive to AEDs, have a high remission rate, and have no associated psychomotor disturbances. However, sometimes selected patients may have associated comorbidities such as cognitive and language delay for which the term "benign" may not be appropriate.

  16. True and common balsams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayana L. Custódio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Balsams have been used since ancient times, due to their therapeutic and healing properties; in the perfume industry, they are used as fixatives, and in the cosmetics industry and in cookery, they are used as preservatives and aromatizers. They are generally defined as vegetable material with highly aromatic properties that supposedly have the ability to heal diseases, not only of the body, but also of the soul. When viewed according to this concept, many substances can be considered balsams. A more modern concept is based on its chemical composition and origin: a secretion or exudate of plants that contain cinnamic and benzoic acids, and their derivatives, in their composition. The most common naturally-occurring balsams (i.e. true balsams are the Benzoins, Liquid Storaque and the Balsams of Tolu and Peru. Many other aromatic exudates, such as Copaiba Oil and Canada Balsam, are wrongly called balsam. These usually belong to other classes of natural products, such as essential oils, resins and oleoresins. Despite the understanding of some plants, many plants are still called balsams. This article presents a chemical and pharmacological review of the most common balsams.

  17. Common Sense Biblical Hermeneutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B. Mangini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the noetics of moderate realism provide a firm foundation upon which to build a hermeneutic of common sense, in the first part of his paper the author adopts Thomas Howe’s argument that the noetical aspect of moderate realism is a necessary condition for correct, universally valid biblical interpretation, but he adds, “insofar as it gives us hope in discovering the true meaning of a given passage.” In the second part, the author relies on John Deely’s work to show how semiotics may help interpreters go beyond meaning and seek the significance of the persons, places, events, ideas, etc., of which the meaning of the text has presented as objects to be interpreted. It is in significance that the unity of Scripture is found. The chief aim is what every passage of the Bible signifies. Considered as a genus, Scripture is composed of many parts/species that are ordered to a chief aim. This is the structure of common sense hermeneutics; therefore in the third part the author restates Peter Redpath’s exposition of Aristotle and St. Thomas’s ontology of the one and the many and analogously applies it to the question of how an exegete can discern the proper significance and faithfully interpret the word of God.

  18. [Halitosis. A common problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, M L; Slot, D E; Danser, M M

    2011-12-01

    Halitosis is a frequently occurring problem, the cause of which is generally to be found in the mouth. The challenge for oral health care providers is to diagnose it correctly and treat it effectively. Differential diagnosis is of great importance in making a distinction between halitosis which originates in the mouth and which does not originate in the mouth. Oral halitosis can be treated effectively by good oral health care. Plaque accumulation on the tongue is the most common cause of oral halitosis. Tongue cleansing, possibly in combination with a specific mouth wash, is consequently recommended as an element of oral hygiene care. Other oral health problems, such as periodontal disease, caries and ill-fitting removable dentures should be treated adequately to eliminate these problems as potential causes of halitosis.

  19. Building the common

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Oscar Garcia

    In opposition to positivism the so called postpositivism reject the emphasis on the empirical truth and proposes an interpretative approach to the social world (Fischer, 1993). Policy analysis begins to address the sense-making constructions and the competing discourses on social meanings whilst...... the implications of the categorization of the immigration that the European Union wants to manage based on the ten common principles. I will attend to the creation of the European immigrant (third-country nationals) and its different categories (economic immigration, labour immigrants, potential immigrants, other...... categories of immigrants) under the more general legal immigrant. The economic discourse defined the immigrant in terms of adequacy to the European labour market through metaphors and new categories (immigration profiles, circular migration, brain waste – opposite brain drain). The new EU narrative...

  20. TMT common software update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Kim; Brighton, Allan; Buur, Hanne

    2016-08-01

    TMT Common Software (CSW). CSW consists of software services and library code that is used by developers to create the subsystems and components that participate in the software system. CSW also defines the types of components that can be constructed and their functional roles in the software system. TMT CSW has recently passed its preliminary design review. The unique features of CSW include its use of multiple, open-source products as the basis for services, and an approach that works to reduce the amount of CSW-provided infrastructure code. Considerable prototyping was completed during this phase to mitigate risk with results that demonstrate the validity of this design approach and the selected service implementation products. This paper describes the latest design of TMT CSW, key features, and results from the prototyping effort.

  1. CPL: Common Pipeline Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    ESO CPL Development Team

    2014-02-01

    The Common Pipeline Library (CPL) is a set of ISO-C libraries that provide a comprehensive, efficient and robust software toolkit to create automated astronomical data reduction pipelines. Though initially developed as a standardized way to build VLT instrument pipelines, the CPL may be more generally applied to any similar application. The code also provides a variety of general purpose image- and signal-processing functions, making it an excellent framework for the creation of more generic data handling packages. The CPL handles low-level data types (images, tables, matrices, strings, property lists, etc.) and medium-level data access methods (a simple data abstraction layer for FITS files). It also provides table organization and manipulation, keyword/value handling and management, and support for dynamic loading of recipe modules using programs such as EsoRex (ascl:1504.003).

  2. [Common anemias in neonatology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humbert, J; Wacker, P

    1999-01-28

    We describe the four most common groups of neonatal anemia and their treatments, with particular emphasis on erythropoietin therapy. The hemolytic anemias include the ABO incompatibility (much more frequent, nowadays, than the Rh incompatibility, which has nearly disappeared following the use of anti-D immunoglobulin in postpartum Rh-negative mothers), hereditary spherocytosis and G-6-PD deficiency. Among hypoplastic anemias, that caused by Parvovirus B19 predominates, by far, over Diamond-Blackfan anemia, alpha-thalassemia and the rare sideroblastic anemias. "Hemorrhagic" anemias occur during twin-to-twin transfusions, or during feto-maternal transfusions. Finally, the multifactorial anemia of prematurity develops principally as a result of the rapid expansion of the blood volume in this group of patients. Erythropoietin therapy, often at doses much higher than those used in the adult, should be seriously considered in most cases of non-hypoplastic neonatal anemias, to minimise maximally the use of transfusions.

  3. Common Superficial Bursitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaee, Morteza

    2017-02-15

    Superficial bursitis most often occurs in the olecranon and prepatellar bursae. Less common locations are the superficial infrapatellar and subcutaneous (superficial) calcaneal bursae. Chronic microtrauma (e.g., kneeling on the prepatellar bursa) is the most common cause of superficial bursitis. Other causes include acute trauma/hemorrhage, inflammatory disorders such as gout or rheumatoid arthritis, and infection (septic bursitis). Diagnosis is usually based on clinical presentation, with a particular focus on signs of septic bursitis. Ultrasonography can help distinguish bursitis from cellulitis. Blood testing (white blood cell count, inflammatory markers) and magnetic resonance imaging can help distinguish infectious from noninfectious causes. If infection is suspected, bursal aspiration should be performed and fluid examined using Gram stain, crystal analysis, glucose measurement, blood cell count, and culture. Management depends on the type of bursitis. Acute traumatic/hemorrhagic bursitis is treated conservatively with ice, elevation, rest, and analgesics; aspiration may shorten the duration of symptoms. Chronic microtraumatic bursitis should be treated conservatively, and the underlying cause addressed. Bursal aspiration of microtraumatic bursitis is generally not recommended because of the risk of iatrogenic septic bursitis. Although intrabursal corticosteroid injections are sometimes used to treat microtraumatic bursitis, high-quality evidence demonstrating any benefit is unavailable. Chronic inflammatory bursitis (e.g., gout, rheumatoid arthritis) is treated by addressing the underlying condition, and intrabursal corticosteroid injections are often used. For septic bursitis, antibiotics effective against Staphylococcus aureus are generally the initial treatment, with surgery reserved for bursitis not responsive to antibiotics or for recurrent cases. Outpatient antibiotics may be considered in those who are not acutely ill; patients who are acutely ill

  4. Common Control System Vulnerability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trent Nelson

    2005-12-01

    The Control Systems Security Program and other programs within the Idaho National Laboratory have discovered a vulnerability common to control systems in all sectors that allows an attacker to penetrate most control systems, spoof the operator, and gain full control of targeted system elements. This vulnerability has been identified on several systems that have been evaluated at INL, and in each case a 100% success rate of completing the attack paths that lead to full system compromise was observed. Since these systems are employed in multiple critical infrastructure sectors, this vulnerability is deemed common to control systems in all sectors. Modern control systems architectures can be considered analogous to today's information networks, and as such are usually approached by attackers using a common attack methodology to penetrate deeper and deeper into the network. This approach often is composed of several phases, including gaining access to the control network, reconnaissance, profiling of vulnerabilities, launching attacks, escalating privilege, maintaining access, and obscuring or removing information that indicates that an intruder was on the system. With irrefutable proof that an external attack can lead to a compromise of a computing resource on the organization's business local area network (LAN), access to the control network is usually considered the first phase in the attack plan. Once the attacker gains access to the control network through direct connections and/or the business LAN, the second phase of reconnaissance begins with traffic analysis within the control domain. Thus, the communications between the workstations and the field device controllers can be monitored and evaluated, allowing an attacker to capture, analyze, and evaluate the commands sent among the control equipment. Through manipulation of the communication protocols of control systems (a process generally referred to as ''reverse engineering''), an

  5. (UnCommonly Connected

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily M. Hodge

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As states continue to implement the Common Core State Standards (CCSS, state educational agencies (SEAs are providing professional development and curricular resources to help districts and teachers understand the standards. However, little is known about the resources SEAs endorse, the states and/or organizations sponsoring these resources, and how states and organizations are connected. This study investigates the secondary English/language arts resources provided by 51 SEAs (2,023 resources sponsored by 51 SEAs and 262 intermediary organizations. Social network analysis of states and sponsoring organizations revealed a core-periphery network in which certain states and organizations were frequently named as the sponsors of resources, while other organizations were named as resource sponsors by only one state. SEAs are providing a variety of types of resources, including professional development, curriculum guidelines, articles, and instructional aids. This study offers insight into the most influential actors providing CCSS resources at the state level, as well as how SEAs are supporting instructional capacity through the resources they provide for teachers.

  6. ``Mastering`` the global commons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stehr, N. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Peter Wall Inst. for Advanced Studies and Green Coll.

    1999-11-01

    The question of ``mastering`` the global commons will increasingly become a central socio-political issue, if it has not already attained this status. For example, the dilemmas brought about by anthropogenic climate change are in many ways unprecedented. They call for massive efforts to plan global climate change. In this context, knowledge about the physical nature of global climate changes is adequate in order to move from a comprehension to a solution of the problem. The record shows that past generations, too, have been fascinated with and concerned about the impact of climate on society, as well as, anthropogenic climate change. But these efforts have, for the most part, been informed by the doctrine of climate determinism. In much the same vein, the concept of climate policies as an ``optimal control problem`` is inadequate. Impact research has to be cognizant of the social construct of climate, as well as, fundamental secular societal changes that profoundly alter modern societies and the value orientations of its citizens. Climate policies as a form of large-scale and deliberate climate change, therefore, have to draw extensively on social science expertise. (orig.) 53 refs.

  7. Reformulating the commons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostrom Elinor

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The western hemisphere is richly endowed with a diversity of natural resource systems that are governed by complex local and national institutional arrangements that have not, until recently, been well understood. While many local communities that possess a high degree of autonomy to govern local resources have been highly successful over long periods of time, others fail to take action to prevent overuse and degradation of forests, inshore fisheries, and other natural resources. The conventional theory used to predict and explain how local users will relate to resources that they share makes a uniform prediction that users themselves will be unable to extricate themselves from the tragedy of the commons. Using this theoretical view of the world, there is no variance in the performance of self-organized groups. In theory, there are no self-organized groups. Empirical evidence tells us, however, that considerable variance in performance exists and many more local users self-organize and are more successful than it is consistent with the conventional theory . Parts of a new theory are presented here.

  8. Urban green commons: Insights on urban common property systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colding, J.; Barthel, S.; Bendt, P.; Snep, R.P.H.; Knaap, van der W.G.M.; Ernstson, H.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to shed new light on urban common property systems. We deal with urban commons in relation to urban green-space management, referring to them as urban green commons. Applying a property-rights analytic perspective, we synthesize information on urban green commons from three

  9. Urban green commons: Insights on urban common property systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colding, J.; Barthel, S.; Bendt, P.; Snep, R.P.H.; Knaap, van der W.G.M.; Ernstson, H.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to shed new light on urban common property systems. We deal with urban commons in relation to urban green-space management, referring to them as urban green commons. Applying a property-rights analytic perspective, we synthesize information on urban green commons from three

  10. 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table ... is unknown, but it is the second most common cause of death from cancer in men of ...

  11. 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table ... you should know about six of the most common cancers and some of the NCI funded research ...

  12. 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table ... Gilbert Skin Cancer Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States. The ...

  13. 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table ... the United States, it is the third most common cancer in men and women. Caught early, it ...

  14. Common Sleep Problems (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help Someone Who's Being Bullied? Volunteering Common Sleep Problems KidsHealth > For Teens > Common Sleep Problems Print A A A What's in ... insomnia — trouble falling or staying asleep. The most common cause of insomnia is stress . But all sorts ...

  15. The Commons Problem: Alternative Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edney, Julian J.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews four contrasting theories bearing on the concept of the commons dilemma, which deals with conflicts of individual v group interests over time. Focuses on the threats that commons problems pose to democratic principles in community structure. Discusses alternative directions for the resolution of resource crises. (Author/GC)

  16. Common injections in musculoskeletal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monseau, Aaron J; Nizran, Parminder Singh

    2013-12-01

    Musculoskeletal injections are a common procedure in primary care and sports medicine but can be intimidating for some clinicians. This article addresses current evidence for corticosteroid injections, and common injection indications and techniques, namely knee, subacromial bursa, glenohumeral joint, lateral epicondyle, de Quervain tenosynovitis, and greater trochanteric bursa injections. Preparation for injections and some evidence for ultrasound guidance are also reviewed.

  17. The Tragedy of the Commons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The tragedy of the commons is one of the principal tenets of ecology. Recent developments in experiential computer-based simulation of the tragedy of the commons are described. A virtual learning environment is developed using the popular video game "Minecraft". The virtual learning environment is used to experience first-hand depletion…

  18. The common ancestry of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Yuri I

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is common belief that all cellular life forms on earth have a common origin. This view is supported by the universality of the genetic code and the universal conservation of multiple genes, particularly those that encode key components of the translation system. A remarkable recent study claims to provide a formal, homology independent test of the Universal Common Ancestry hypothesis by comparing the ability of a common-ancestry model and a multiple-ancestry model to predict sequences of universally conserved proteins. Results We devised a computational experiment on a concatenated alignment of universally conserved proteins which shows that the purported demonstration of the universal common ancestry is a trivial consequence of significant sequence similarity between the analyzed proteins. The nature and origin of this similarity are irrelevant for the prediction of "common ancestry" of by the model-comparison approach. Thus, homology (common origin of the compared proteins remains an inference from sequence similarity rather than an independent property demonstrated by the likelihood analysis. Conclusion A formal demonstration of the Universal Common Ancestry hypothesis has not been achieved and is unlikely to be feasible in principle. Nevertheless, the evidence in support of this hypothesis provided by comparative genomics is overwhelming. Reviewers this article was reviewed by William Martin, Ivan Iossifov (nominated by Andrey Rzhetsky and Arcady Mushegian. For the complete reviews, see the Reviewers' Report section.

  19. Malheur - Common Carp Movement Control

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Invasive common carp Cyprinus carpio were introduced into the Harney Basin in the 1920’s and were recognized as a problem in Malheur Lake in 1952. The common carp...

  20. Common Disorders of the Pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... progressive disorder associated with the destruction of the pancreas. The disease is more common in men and usually develops ... can develop malnutrition and weight loss. If the pancreas becomes destroyed in the latter stages of the disease, patients may develop diabetes mellitus. The most common ...

  1. The Tragedy of the Commons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The tragedy of the commons is one of the principal tenets of ecology. Recent developments in experiential computer-based simulation of the tragedy of the commons are described. A virtual learning environment is developed using the popular video game "Minecraft". The virtual learning environment is used to experience first-hand depletion…

  2. Laparoscopic common bile duct exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, M E; Leveillee, R J; McCann, J C; Maini, B S

    1991-10-01

    Operative common bile duct exploration, performed in conjunction with cholecystectomy, has been considered the treatment of choice for choledocholithiasis in the presence of an intact gallbladder. With the advent of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, the management of common bile duct stones has been affected. More emphasis is being placed on endoscopic sphincterotomy and options other than operative common duct exploration. Because of this increasing demand, we have developed a new technique for laparoscopic common bile duct exploration performed in the same operative setting as laparoscopic cholecystectomy. A series of five patients who successfully underwent common bile duct exploration, flexible choledochoscopy with stone extraction, and T-tube drainage, all using laparoscopic technique, is reported. Mean postoperative length of hospital stay was 4.6 days. Outpatient T-tube cholangiography was performed in all cases and revealed normal ductal anatomy with no retained stones. Follow-up ranged from 6 weeks to 4 months, and all patients were asymptomatic and had normal liver function tests.

  3. Nonparametric Regression with Common Shocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A. Souza-Rodrigues

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers a nonparametric regression model for cross-sectional data in the presence of common shocks. Common shocks are allowed to be very general in nature; they do not need to be finite dimensional with a known (small number of factors. I investigate the properties of the Nadaraya-Watson kernel estimator and determine how general the common shocks can be while still obtaining meaningful kernel estimates. Restrictions on the common shocks are necessary because kernel estimators typically manipulate conditional densities, and conditional densities do not necessarily exist in the present case. By appealing to disintegration theory, I provide sufficient conditions for the existence of such conditional densities and show that the estimator converges in probability to the Kolmogorov conditional expectation given the sigma-field generated by the common shocks. I also establish the rate of convergence and the asymptotic distribution of the kernel estimator.

  4. Learning Commons in Academic Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa González Martínez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Like all human creations, institutions transform and evolve over time. Libraries also have changed to respond the needs of its users. Academic libraries physical spaces are one of the turned aspects, an example are the Learning Commons (spaces for collaborative work in academic libraries. The main purpose of this paper is to expose the characteristics of the Learning Commons model with a brief account of the history of planning and construction of academic libraries. This paper also aims to present the manner in which a Learning Commons has been implemented at the library of Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey (ITESM, Campus Monterrey in Mexico.

  5. NIH Common Data Elements Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The NIH Common Data Elements (CDE) Repository has been designed to provide access to structured human and machine-readable definitions of data elements that have...

  6. Common Systems Integration Lab (CSIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Common Systems Integration Lab (CSIL)supports the PMA-209 Air Combat Electronics Program Office. CSIL also supports development, test, integration and life cycle...

  7. Common Difficulties with Probabilistic Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Jack A.; Kelly, Ivan W.

    1983-01-01

    Several common errors reflecting difficulties in probabilistic reasoning are identified, relating to ambiguity, previous outcomes, sampling, unusual events, and estimating. Knowledge of these mistakes and interpretations may help mathematics teachers understand the thought processes of their students. (MNS)

  8. Approximate common divisors via lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Cohn, Henry

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the multivariate generalization of Howgrave-Graham's algorithm for the approximate common divisor problem. In the m-variable case with modulus N and approximate common divisor of size N^beta, this improves the size of the error tolerated from N^(beta^2) to N^(beta^((m+1)/m)), under a commonly used heuristic assumption. This gives a more detailed analysis of the hardness assumption underlying the recent fully homomorphic cryptosystem of van Dijk, Gentry, Halevi, and Vaikuntanathan. While these results do not challenge the suggested parameters, a 2^sqrt(n) approximation algorithm for lattice basis reduction in n dimensions could be used to break these parameters. We have implemented our algorithm, and it performs better in practice than the theoretical analysis suggests. Our results fit into a broader context of analogies between cryptanalysis and coding theory. The multivariate approximate common divisor problem is the number-theoretic analogue of noisy multivariate polynomial interpolation, and we ...

  9. THE PROBLEM OF COMMON GOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Landowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to discuss the relation between the understanding of human being and the concept of common good. On the one hand, materialist and spiritualist concepts of man lead to the univocal understanding of bonum commune, on the other hand, dualist anthropology entails a breakdown of the unity of common good. The author reveals weak points of these approaches and undertakes an attempt of examining realist vision of man and its impact on the notion of bonum commune. He starts with analyzing the complex structure of human being, which includes the potential and actual nature of human person. Against the background of the personalist anthropology, the author concludes that the common good has not only a material or instrumental, but above all a personal dimension, which makes this good both common and non-antagonistic. [The article written in Polish

  10. Quantum Mechanics and Common Sense

    CERN Document Server

    Gantsevich, S V

    2016-01-01

    A physical picture for Quantum Mechanics which permits to conciliate it with the usual common sense is proposed. The picture agrees with the canonical Copenhagen interpretation making more clear its statements.

  11. Common Systems Integration Lab (CSIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Common Systems Integration Lab (CSIL)supports the PMA-209 Air Combat Electronics Program Office. CSIL also supports development, test, integration and life cycle...

  12. Adolescents' theories of the commons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Constance; Gallay, Erin

    2014-01-01

    Drawing from research on civic engagement and environmental commitment, we make a case for the processes inherent in how adolescents' ideas about the commons (those things that bind a polity together) develop. Engagement in the public realm with a plethora of perspectives and a goal of finding common ground is fundamental. Adolescents participate in the public realm through mini-polities (e.g., schools, community organizations). Practices in those settings can reinforce or challenge dominant political narratives. Special attention is given to the natural environment as a commons that transcends generations and to the opportunities in schools and in community partnerships that enable adolescents to realize their interdependence with nature and to author decisions about the commons.

  13. The Messiness of Common Good

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt, Liv Egholm

    that a distinction between the non-civil and the civil is more fruitful, if we want to understand the past, present and future messiness in place in defining the common good. Based on an ethnographic case analysis of a Danish corporate foundation between 1920 and 2014 the paper shows how philanthropic gift...... has been messed up with other logics and that it is this mess that creates contemporary definitions of the common good....

  14. Whose commons are mobilities spaces?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freudendal-Pedersen, Malene

    2015-01-01

    for cyclists and cycling to be given greater consideration in broader societal understandings of the common good. I argue that this is in fact not the case. Rather the specific project identities that are nurtured by Copenhagen’s cycling community inhibit it from advocating publicly or aggressively...... for a vision of the common good that gives cyclists greater and more protected access to the city’s mobility spaces...

  15. A Case for the Commons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Brooks; Kourantidou, Melina; Fernandez, Linda

    -economic concerns regarding profitability in fisheries but also by several intriguing property rights and game theoretic questions. As the global fishing commons has shrunk over the past half century, we have seen how the details matter in determining the net benefits of what simply applied economic theory would...... define as a clear boon. We delineate and examine this complex story here in order to bring awareness to dimensions of commons management that the literature has yet to address....

  16. It pays to cheat: tactical deception in a cephalopod social signalling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Culum; Garwood, Martin P; Williamson, Jane E

    2012-10-23

    Signals in intraspecific communication should be inherently honest; otherwise the system is prone to collapse. Theory predicts, however, that honest signalling systems are susceptible to invasion by cheats, the extent of which is largely mediated by fear of reprisal. Cuttlefish facultatively change their shape and colour, an ability that evolved to avoid predators and capture prey. Here, we show that this ability is tactically employed by male mourning cuttlefish (Sepia plangon) to mislead conspecifics during courtship in a specific social context amenable to cheating 39 per cent of the time, while it was never employed in other social contexts. Males deceive rival males by displaying male courtship patterns to receptive females on one side of the body, and simultaneously displaying female patterns to a single rival male on the other, thus preventing the rival from disrupting courtship. The use of tactical deception in such a complex communication network indicates that sociality has played a key role in the cognitive evolution of cephalopods.

  17. Forest commons and local enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhatre, Ashwini; Agrawal, Arun

    2008-09-09

    This article examines the relationship between local enforcement and forests used as commons. It uses a unique multicountry dataset, created over the past 15 years by the International Forestry Resources and Institutions Research Program. Drawing on original enforcement and forest commons data from 9 countries, we find that higher levels of local enforcement have a strong and positive but complex relationship to the probability of forest regeneration. This relationship holds even when the influence of a number of other factors such as user group size, subsistence, and commercial importance of forests, size of forest, and collective action for forest improvement activities is taken into account. Although several of the above factors have a statistically significant relationship to changes in the condition of forest commons, differences in levels of local enforcement strongly moderate their link with forest commons outcomes. The research, using data from diverse political, social, and ecological contexts, shows both the importance of enforcement to forest commons and some of the limits of forest governance through commons arrangements.

  18. Induced artificial androgenesis in common tench, Tinca tinca (L., using common carp and common bream eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Kucharczyk

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents artificial induction using tench eggs, Tinca tinca (L., of androgenetic origin. The oocytes taken from common bream, Abramis brama (L. and common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. were genetically inactivated using UV irradiation and then inseminated using tench spermatozoa. Androgenetic origin (haploid or diploid embryos was checked using a recessive colour (blond and morphological markers. The percentage of hatched embryos in all experimental groups was much lower than in the control groups. All haploid embryos showed morphological abnormalities, which were recorded as haploid syndrome (stunted body, poorly formed retina, etc.. The optimal dose of UV irradiation of common bream and common carp eggs was 3456 J m–2. At this dose, almost 100% of haploid embryos were produced at a hatching rate of over 6%. Lower UV-ray doses affected abnormal embryo development. The highest yield of tench androgenesis (about 2% was noted when eggs were exposed to thermal shock 30 min after egg activation.

  19. Garlic for the common cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissiman, Elizabeth; Bhasale, Alice L; Cohen, Marc

    2014-11-11

    Background Garlic is alleged to have antimicrobial and antiviral properties that relieve the common cold, among other beneficial effects. There is widespread usage of garlic supplements. The common cold is associated with significant morbidity and economic consequences. On average, children have six to eight colds per year and adults have two to four.Objectives To determine whether garlic (Allium sativum) is effective for the prevention or treatment of the common cold, when compared to placebo, no treatment or other treatments.Search methods We searched CENTRAL (2014, Issue 7),OLDMEDLINE (1950 to 1965),MEDLINE (January 1966 to July week 5, 2014), EMBASE(1974 to August 2014) and AMED (1985 to August 2014).Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of common cold prevention and treatment comparing garlic with placebo, no treatment or standard treatment.Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently reviewed and selected trials from searches, assessed and rated study quality and extracted relevant data.Main results In this updated review, we identified eight trials as potentially relevant from our searches. Again, only one trial met the inclusion criteria.This trial randomly assigned 146 participants to either a garlic supplement (with 180 mg of allicin content) or a placebo (once daily)for 12 weeks. The trial reported 24 occurrences of the common cold in the garlic intervention group compared with 65 in the placebo group (P value garlic group compared with the placebo group (111 versus 366). The number of days to recovery from an occurrence of the common cold was similar in both groups (4.63 versus 5.63). Only one trial met the inclusion criteria, therefore limited conclusions can be drawn. The trial relied on self reported episodes of the common cold but was of reasonable quality in terms of randomisation and allocation concealment. Adverse effects included rash and odour. Authors' conclusions There is insufficient clinical trial evidence

  20. Assisted Common Information: Further Results

    CERN Document Server

    Prabhakaran, Vinod M

    2011-01-01

    We presented assisted common information as a generalization of G\\'acs-K\\"orner (GK) common information at ISIT 2010. The motivation for our formulation was to improve upperbounds on the efficiency of protocols for secure two-party sampling (which is a form of secure multi-party computation). Our upperbound was based on a monotonicity property of a rate-region (called the assisted residual information region) associated with the assisted common information formulation. In this note we present further results. We explore the connection of assisted common information with the Gray-Wyner system. We show that the assisted residual information region and the Gray-Wyner region are connected by a simple relationship: the assisted residual information region is the increasing hull of the Gray-Wyner region under an affine map. Several known relationships between GK common information and Gray-Wyner system fall out as consequences of this. Quantities which arise in other source coding contexts acquire new interpretatio...

  1. Creative Commons and Why It Should Be More Commonly Understood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Doug

    2009-01-01

    Authors, videographers, musicians, photographers, and almost anyone who creates materials and makes them publicly available has an alternative to standard copyright licensing: Creative Commons (CC). It is a tool that helps the creator display a licensing mark. The creator can assign a variety of rights for others to use his work--rights that are…

  2. Surveying the Commons: Current Implementation of Information Commons Web sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeder, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the content of 72 academic library Information Commons (IC) Web sites using content analysis, quantitative assessment and qualitative surveys of site administrators to analyze current implementation by the academic library community. Results show that IC Web sites vary widely in content, design and functionality, with few…

  3. Vibrio chromosomes share common history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gevers Dirk

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While most gamma proteobacteria have a single circular chromosome, Vibrionales have two circular chromosomes. Horizontal gene transfer is common among Vibrios, and in light of this genetic mobility, it is an open question to what extent the two chromosomes themselves share a common history since their formation. Results Single copy genes from each chromosome (142 genes from chromosome I and 42 genes from chromosome II were identified from 19 sequenced Vibrionales genomes and their phylogenetic comparison suggests consistent phylogenies for each chromosome. Additionally, study of the gene organization and phylogeny of the respective origins of replication confirmed the shared history. Conclusions Thus, while elements within the chromosomes may have experienced significant genetic mobility, the backbones share a common history. This allows conclusions based on multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA for one chromosome to be applied equally to both chromosomes.

  4. Longest Common Extensions via Fingerprinting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Kristensen, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    . The LCE problem can be solved in linear space with constant query time and a preprocessing of sorting complexity. There are two known approaches achieving these bounds, which use nearest common ancestors and range minimum queries, respectively. However, in practice a much simpler approach with linear......(n,σ)) preprocessing time, where sort(n,σ) is the time it takes to sort n numbers from σ. Though this solution is asymptotically strictly worse than the asymptotically best previously known algorithms, it outperforms them in practice in average case and is almost as fast as the simple linear time algorithm. On worst......The longest common extension (LCE) problem is to preprocess a string in order to allow for a large number of LCE queries, such that the queries are efficient. The LCE value, LCE s (i,j), is the length of the longest common prefix of the pair of suffixes starting at index i and j in the string s...

  5. Science for common entrance physics

    CERN Document Server

    Pickering, WR

    2015-01-01

    Cover everything required for the 13+ Common Entrance Physics exam with clearly presented content, lively illustrations and challenging end-of-chapter questions. This challenging and stimulating Science course has been reviewed by the ISEB subject editor and covers the content of both Levels 1 and 2 of the 13+ Physics exam. Designed for pupils in Years 7 and 8, it is an indispensable resource that lays the foundations for Common Entrance success. - Explores every Level 1 and 2 topic with clear explanations and examples - Includes topic-based exercises and extension questions - Builds on p

  6. Common queries in thalassemia care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahi, Inusha; Marwaha, Ram Kumar

    2006-06-01

    Beta thalassemia is a common genetic disorder in Indians. Around 10,000 thala-ssemia major cases are born every year. The treatment of thalassemia major patients imposes a financial burden on the family. Much progress has been made in last 15 years in understanding of the pathogenesis of thalassemia and development of effective management(1). These include development of a promising new oral iron chelator, intensive preparative regimens for stem cell transplantation and better vectors for gene therapy. In the present article, we highlight the common questions asked by the family and the general practitioners on thalassemia care.

  7. Single Common Powertrain Lubricant Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    laboratory building. Back-pressure was controlled via a butterfly valve located in the exhaust stack between the engine and the buildings common...Mass Changes .................................................................... 23 Table 11 – Repeatability Runs, Piston & Valve Ratings...operation at rated speed and load during the test cycle. Air was filtered through an OEM-style air filter housing with an adjusting valve to vary intake

  8. Five Common Cancers in Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolandoozan, Shadi; Sadjadi, Alireza; Radmard, Amir Reza; Khademi, Hooman

    2010-01-01

    Iran as a developing nation is in epidemiological transition from communicable to non-communicable diseases. Although, cancer is the third cause of death in Iran, ifs mortality are on the rise during recent decades. This mini-review was carried out to provide a general viewpoint on common cancers in

  9. A greatest common divisor algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belenkiy, A; Vidunas, R

    1998-01-01

    Algorithms of computation of the Greatest Common Divisor (GCD) of two integers play a principal role in all computational systems dealing with rational arithmetic. The simplest one (Euclidean) is not the best for large numbers (see D. E. Knuth's book "The Art of Computer Programming" for details). O

  10. Common Core: Solve Math Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Erich

    2012-01-01

    The new common core standards for mathematics demand that students (and teachers!) exhibit deeper conceptual understanding. That's music to the ears of education professor John Tapper, who says teachers have overemphasized teaching procedures--and getting right answers. In his new book, "Solving for Why," he makes a powerful case for moving beyond…

  11. Common Issues in Professional Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janosik, Steven M.

    2007-01-01

    Most conversations about ethics and professional behavior involve case studies and hypothetical situations. This study identifies and examines the most common concerns in professional behavior as reported by 303 student affairs practitioners in the field. Differences by gender, years of experience, organizational level, institutional type, and…

  12. Common Diagnoses in the NICU

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is more common in low birth weight and premature babies. What causes it? It's thought that a number of factors can contribute to the development of NEC, which is the necrosis, or death, of parts of the intestine. Although a full- ...

  13. Autism: Many Genes, Common Pathways?

    OpenAIRE

    Geschwind, Daniel H.

    2008-01-01

    Autism is a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental syndrome with a complex genetic etiology. It is still not clear whether autism comprises a vast collection of different disorders akin to intellectual disability or a few disorders sharing common aberrant pathways. Unifying principles among cases of autism are likely to be at the level of brain circuitry in addition to molecular pathways.

  14. Autism: many genes, common pathways?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geschwind, Daniel H

    2008-10-31

    Autism is a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental syndrome with a complex genetic etiology. It is still not clear whether autism comprises a vast collection of different disorders akin to intellectual disability or a few disorders sharing common aberrant pathways. Unifying principles among cases of autism are likely to be at the level of brain circuitry in addition to molecular pathways.

  15. Longest Common Extensions in Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gawrychowski, Pawel; Gørtz, Inge Li;

    2015-01-01

    The longest common extension (LCE) of two indices in a string is the length of the longest identical substrings starting at these two indices. The LCE problem asks to preprocess a string into a compact data structure that supports fast LCE queries. In this paper we generalize the LCE problem to t...

  16. Common High Blood Pressure Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common High Blood Pressure Myths Updated:Dec 9,2016 Knowing the facts ... health. This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP Introduction What ...

  17. Common parasite with uncommon associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonal Jain

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Filaariasis a quite common in some parts of the world including India. It has been reported as an incidental finding in cytology smears. Here we report three cases where microfilariae of Wuchereria Bancrofti were detected incidentally in bone marrow smears, in two cases in special stain slides. All these patients were being investigated for other hematological disorders.

  18. The Common Vision. Reviews: Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattin-McNichols, John

    1998-01-01

    Reviews Marshak's book describing the work of educators Maria Montessori, Rudolf Steiner, Aurobindo Ghose, and Inayat Khan. Maintains that the book gives clear, concise information on each educator and presents a common vision for children and their education; also maintains that it gives theoretical and practical information and discusses…

  19. Five Common Cancers in Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolandoozan, Shadi; Sadjadi, Alireza; Radmard, Amir Reza; Khademi, Hooman

    Iran as a developing nation is in epidemiological transition from communicable to non-communicable diseases. Although, cancer is the third cause of death in Iran, ifs mortality are on the rise during recent decades. This mini-review was carried out to provide a general viewpoint on common cancers

  20. Common Core: Victory Is Yours!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Jennifer L. W.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how to implement the Common Core State Standards in the classroom. She presents examples and activities that will leave teachers feeling "rosy" about tackling the new standards. She breaks down important benchmarks and shows how other teachers are doing the Core--and loving it!

  1. Muscle Cramp - A Common Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment Becoming a DO Video Library Muscle Cramp – A Common Pain Page Content Has a muscle ... body’s natural tendency toward self-healing. Causes of Muscle Cramps Muscle cramps can occur anywhere, anytime to anyone. “ ...

  2. The common European flexicurity principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailand, Mikkel

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses the decision-making process underlying the adoption of common EU flexicurity principles. Supporters of the initiative succeeded in convincing the sceptics one by one; the change of government in France and the last-minute support of the European social partner organizations...

  3. Vaccines for the common cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simancas-Racines, Daniel; Franco, Juan Va; Guerra, Claudia V; Felix, Maria L; Hidalgo, Ricardo; Martinez-Zapata, Maria José

    2017-05-18

    The common cold is a spontaneously remitting infection of the upper respiratory tract, characterised by a runny nose, nasal congestion, sneezing, cough, malaise, sore throat, and fever (usually Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (September 2016), MEDLINE (1948 to September 2016), Embase (1974 to September 2016), CINAHL (1981 to September 2016), and LILACS (1982 to September 2016). We also searched three trials registers for ongoing studies and four websites for additional trials (February 2017). We included no language or date restrictions. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of any virus vaccines compared with placebo to prevent the common cold in healthy people. Two review authors independently evaluated methodological quality and extracted trial data. We resolved disagreements by discussion or by consulting a third review author. We found no additional RCTs for inclusion in this update. This review includes one RCT dating from the 1960s with an overall high risk of bias. The RCT included 2307 healthy participants, all of whom were included in analyses. This trial compared the effect of an adenovirus vaccine against placebo. No statistically significant difference in common cold incidence was found: there were 13 (1.14%) events in 1139 participants in the vaccines group and 14 (1.19%) events in 1168 participants in the placebo group (risk ratio 0.95, 95% confidence interval 0.45 to 2.02; P = 0.90). No adverse events related to the live vaccine were reported. The quality of the evidence was low due to limitations in methodological quality and a wide 95% confidence interval. This Cochrane Review was based on one study with low-quality evidence. We found no conclusive results to support the use of vaccines for preventing the common cold in healthy people compared with placebo. We identified a need for well-designed, adequately powered RCTs to investigate vaccines for the common cold in healthy people. Any future trials on medical treatments for preventing the

  4. Common sense and the common morality in theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Patrick

    2014-06-01

    The unfinished nature of Beauchamp and Childress's account of the common morality after 34 years and seven editions raises questions about what is lacking, specifically in the way they carry out their project, more generally in the presuppositions of the classical liberal tradition on which they rely. Their wide-ranging review of ethical theories has not provided a method by which to move beyond a hypothetical approach to justification or, on a practical level regarding values conflict, beyond a questionable appeal to consensus. My major purpose in this paper is to introduce the thought of Bernard Lonergan as offering a way toward such a methodological breakthrough. In the first section, I consider Beauchamp and Childress's defense of their theory of the common morality. In the second, I relate a persisting vacillation in their argument regarding the relative importance of reason and experience to a similar tension in classical liberal theory. In the third, I consider aspects of Lonergan's generalized empirical method as a way to address problems that surface in the first two sections of the paper: (1) the structural relation of reason and experience in human action; and (2) the importance of theory for practice in terms of what Lonergan calls "common sense" and "general bias."

  5. Lipedema: A Relatively Common Disease with Extremely Common Misconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Karen L.

    2016-01-01

    Lipedema, or adiposis dolorosa, is a common adipose tissue disorder that is believed to affect nearly 11% of adult women worldwide. It is characterized most commonly by disproportionate adipocyte hypertrophy of the lower extremities, significant tenderness to palpation, and a failure to respond to extreme weight loss modalities. Women with lipedema report a rapid growth of the lipedema subcutaneous adipose tissue in the setting of stress, surgery, and/or hormonal changes. Women with later stages of lipedema have a classic “column leg” appearance, with masses of nodular fat, easy bruising, and pain. Despite this relatively common disease, there are few physicians who are aware of it. As a result, patients are often misdiagnosed with lifestyle-induced obesity, and/or lymphedema, and subjected to unnecessary medical interventions and fat-shaming. Diagnosis is largely clinical and based on criteria initially established in 1951. Treatment of lipedema is effective and includes lymphatic support, such as complete decongestive therapy, and specialized suction lipectomy to spare injury to lymphatic channels and remove the diseased lipedema fat. With an incidence that may affect nearly 1 in 9 adult women, it is important to generate appropriate awareness, conduct additional research, and identify better diagnostic and treatment modalities for lipedema so these women can obtain the care that they need and deserve.

  6. REDVET indexada desde Scientific Commons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    veterinaria.org

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available ResumenScientific Commons es un cosechador de metadatos desarrollado por laUniversidad de St. Gallen (Suiza en los idiomas inglés y alemán, utiliza el protocolo OAI-PMH y aunque aún está en versión beta, paulatinamente va adquiriendo números totales de revistas científicas que, como es el caso de REDVET Revista Electrónica de Veterinaria, publican en OA. Así si entramos a http://en.scientificcommons.org/redvet#search_string=REDVETVeremos como a fecha de hoy hay 644 artículos publicados en REDVETindexados en Scientific Commons:

  7. Common Readout System in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Jubin, Mitra

    2016-01-01

    The ALICE experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider is going for a major physics upgrade in 2018. This upgrade is necessary for getting high statistics and high precision measurement for probing into rare physics channels needed to understand the dynamics of the condensed phase of QCD. The high interaction rate and the large event size in the upgraded detectors will result in an experimental data flow traffic of about 1 TB/s from the detectors to the on-line computing system. A dedicated Common Readout Unit (CRU) is proposed for data concentration, multiplexing, and trigger distribution. CRU, as common interface unit, handles timing, data and control signals between on-detector systems and online-offline computing system. An overview of the CRU architecture is presented in this manuscript.

  8. The illusion of common ground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowley, Stephen; Harvey, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    , together with concerted bodily (and vocal) activity, serve to organize, regulate and coordinate both attention and the verbal and non-verbal activity that it gives rise to. Since wordings are normative, they can be used to develop skills for making cultural sense of environments and other peoples’ doings...... isolated individuals “use” language to communicate. Autonomous cognitive agents are said to use words to communicate inner thoughts and experiences; in such a framework, ‘common ground’ describes a body of information that people allegedly share, hold common, and use to reason about how intentions have...... language to synergetic coordination between biological agents who draw on wordings to act within cultural ecosystems. Crucially, human coordination depends on, not just bodies, but also salient patterns of articulatory movement (‘wordings’). These rich patterns function as non-local resources that...

  9. Common skin conditions during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunzi, Marc; Gray, Gary R

    2007-01-15

    Common skin conditions during pregnancy generally can be separated into three categories: hormone-related, preexisting, and pregnancy-specific. Normal hormone changes during pregnancy may cause benign skin conditions including striae gravidarum (stretch marks); hyperpigmentation (e.g., melasma); and hair, nail, and vascular changes. Preexisting skin conditions (e.g., atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, fungal infections, cutaneous tumors) may change during pregnancy. Pregnancy-specific skin conditions include pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy, prurigo of pregnancy, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, pemphigoid gestationis, impetigo herpetiformis, and pruritic folliculitis of pregnancy. Pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy are the most common of these disorders. Most skin conditions resolve postpartum and only require symptomatic treatment. However, there are specific treatments for some conditions (e.g., melasma, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, impetigo herpetiformis, pruritic folliculitis of pregnancy). Antepartum surveillance is recommended for patients with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, impetigo herpetiformis, and pemphigoid gestationis.

  10. Theorising Disability: Beyond Common Sense

    OpenAIRE

    Handley, Peter

    2003-01-01

    This article seeks to introduce the topic of disability to political theory via a discussion of some of the literature produced by disability theorists. The author argues that these more radical approaches conceptualise disability in ways that conflict with ‘common-sense’ notions of disability that tend to underpin political theoretical considerations of the topic. Furthermore, the author suggests that these more radical conceptualisations have profound implications for current debates on soc...

  11. Tragedy of the common canal

    OpenAIRE

    Holt, Charles A.; Johnson, Cathleen; Mallow, Courtney; Sullivan, Sean P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses laboratory experiments to investigate the effects of alternative solutions to a common-pool resource with a unidirectional flow. The focus is on the comparative economic efficiency of communications, bilateral “Coasian” bargaining, auctions and price-based allocations. All treatments improve allocative efficiency relative to a baseline environment. Communication and bilateral bargaining are not generally as effective as market allocations. An exogenously imposed, optimal fee...

  12. Common Perspectives in Qualitative Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Marie

    2016-07-01

    The primary purpose of this column is to focus on several common core concepts that are foundational to qualitative research. Discussion of these concepts is at an introductory level and is designed to raise awareness and understanding of several conceptual foundations that undergird qualitative research. Because of the variety of qualitative approaches, not all concepts are relevant to every design and tradition. However, foundational aspects were selected for highlighting.

  13. Residual residential space as commons

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Research on common pool resources (CPR), which began with a focus on rural communities and their defining agricultural practices, shifted recently also to the urban context, looking at community gardens, city parks and other recreational facilities. This article extends the use of CPR theory to residential complexes. Courtyards, lawns, lobbies, cellars, stairwells and other parts that fall outside individual apartments are aggregated as a new sub-set of CPR, defined herewith as Residual Resid...

  14. George Combe and common sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyde, Sean

    2015-06-01

    This article examines the history of two fields of enquiry in late eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century Scotland: the rise and fall of the common sense school of philosophy and phrenology as presented in the works of George Combe. Although many previous historians have construed these histories as separate, indeed sometimes incommensurate, I propose that their paths were intertwined to a greater extent than has previously been given credit. The philosophy of common sense was a response to problems raised by Enlightenment thinkers, particularly David Hume, and spurred a theory of the mind and its mode of study. In order to succeed, or even to be considered a rival of these established understandings, phrenologists adapted their arguments for the sake of engaging in philosophical dispute. I argue that this debate contributed to the relative success of these groups: phrenology as a well-known historical subject, common sense now largely forgotten. Moreover, this history seeks to question the place of phrenology within the sciences of mind in nineteenth-century Britain.

  15. Common Ground Between Three Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehuda Peled

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Triwizard program with Israel brought together students from three different communities: an Israeli Arab school, an Israeli Jewish school, and an American public school with few Jews and even fewer Muslims. The two Israeli groups met in Israel to find common ground and overcome their differences through dialogue and understanding. They communicated with the American school via technology such as video-conferencing, Skype, and emails. The program culminated with a visit to the U.S. The goal of the program was to embark upon a process that would bring about intercultural awareness and acceptance at the subjective level, guiding all involved to develop empathy and an insider's view of the other's culture. It was an attempt to have a group of Israeli high school students and a group of Arab Israeli students who had a fearful, distrustful perception of each other find common ground and become friends. TriWizard was designed to have participants begin a dialogue about issues, beliefs, and emotions based on the premise that cross-cultural training strategies that are effective in changing knowledge are those that engage the emotions, and actively develop empathy and an insider's views of another culture focused on what they have in common. Participants learned that they could become friends despite their cultural differences.

  16. Sustainability of common pool resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timilsina, Raja Rajendra; Kamijo, Yoshio

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability has become a key issue in managing natural resources together with growing concerns for capitalism, environmental and resource problems. We hypothesize that the ongoing modernization of competitive societies, which we refer to as “capitalism,” affects human nature for utilizing common pool resources, thus compromising sustainability. To test this hypothesis, we design and implement a set of dynamic common pool resource games and experiments in the following two types of Nepalese areas: (i) rural (non-capitalistic) and (ii) urban (capitalistic) areas. We find that a proportion of prosocial individuals in urban areas is lower than that in rural areas, and urban residents deplete resources more quickly than rural residents. The composition of proself and prosocial individuals in a group and the degree of capitalism are crucial in that an increase in prosocial members in a group and the rural dummy positively affect resource sustainability by 65% and 63%, respectively. Overall, this paper shows that when societies move toward more capitalistic environments, the sustainability of common pool resources tends to decrease with the changes in individual preferences, social norms, customs and views to others through human interactions. This result implies that individuals may be losing their coordination abilities for social dilemmas of resource sustainability in capitalistic societies. PMID:28212426

  17. The Common Geometry Module (CGM).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tautges, Timothy James

    2004-12-01

    The Common Geometry Module (CGM) is a code library which provides geometry functionality used for mesh generation and other applications. This functionality includes that commonly found in solid modeling engines, like geometry creation, query and modification; CGM also includes capabilities not commonly found in solid modeling engines, like geometry decomposition tools and support for shared material interfaces. CGM is built upon the ACIS solid modeling engine, but also includes geometry capability developed beside and on top of ACIS. CGM can be used as-is to provide geometry functionality for codes needing this capability. However, CGM can also be extended using derived classes in C++, allowing the geometric model to serve as the basis for other applications, for example mesh generation. CGM is supported on Sun Solaris, SGI, HP, IBM, DEC, Linux and Windows NT platforms. CGM also includes support for loading ACIS models on parallel computers, using MPI-based communication. Future plans for CGM are to port it to different solid modeling engines, including Pro/Engineer or SolidWorks. CGM is being released into the public domain under an LGPL license; the ACIS-based engine is available to ACIS licensees on request.

  18. Sustainability of common pool resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timilsina, Raja Rajendra; Kotani, Koji; Kamijo, Yoshio

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability has become a key issue in managing natural resources together with growing concerns for capitalism, environmental and resource problems. We hypothesize that the ongoing modernization of competitive societies, which we refer to as "capitalism," affects human nature for utilizing common pool resources, thus compromising sustainability. To test this hypothesis, we design and implement a set of dynamic common pool resource games and experiments in the following two types of Nepalese areas: (i) rural (non-capitalistic) and (ii) urban (capitalistic) areas. We find that a proportion of prosocial individuals in urban areas is lower than that in rural areas, and urban residents deplete resources more quickly than rural residents. The composition of proself and prosocial individuals in a group and the degree of capitalism are crucial in that an increase in prosocial members in a group and the rural dummy positively affect resource sustainability by 65% and 63%, respectively. Overall, this paper shows that when societies move toward more capitalistic environments, the sustainability of common pool resources tends to decrease with the changes in individual preferences, social norms, customs and views to others through human interactions. This result implies that individuals may be losing their coordination abilities for social dilemmas of resource sustainability in capitalistic societies.

  19. Scientific Research: Commodities or Commons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeir, Koen

    2013-10-01

    Truth is for sale today, some critics claim. The increased commodification of science corrupts it, scientific fraud is rampant and the age-old trust in science is shattered. This cynical view, although gaining in prominence, does not explain very well the surprising motivation and integrity that is still central to the scientific life. Although scientific knowledge becomes more and more treated as a commodity or as a product that is for sale, a central part of academic scientific practice is still organized according to different principles. In this paper, I critically analyze alternative models for understanding the organization of knowledge, such as the idea of the scientific commons and the gift economy of science. After weighing the diverse positive and negative aspects of free market economies of science and gift economies of science, a commons structured as a gift economy seems best suited to preserve and take advantage of the specific character of scientific knowledge. Furthermore, commons and gift economies promote the rich social texture that is important for supporting central norms of science. Some of these basic norms might break down if the gift character of science is lost. To conclude, I consider the possibility and desirability of hybrid economies of academic science, which combine aspects of gift economies and free market economies. The aim of this paper is to gain a better understanding of these deeper structural challenges faced by science policy. Such theoretical reflections should eventually assist us in formulating new policy guidelines.

  20. Neurodegenerative diseases: a common etiology and a common therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierpaoli, Walter

    2005-12-01

    The variety of names of neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs) does not indicate that there is a wide variety of causes and a multiple number of cures. In fact NDDs derive from a common and repetitive, almost monotonous multicausal origin. NDDs are initiated invariably by a sudden or silent insidious decrease in immunologic resistance of the T cell-dependent or delayed type, produced by a large variety of psychological-emotional and/or environmental "stressors" (e.g., social, family-domestic, economic, alimentary, traumatic, and professional). These stressors increase the vulnerability of tissues (in this case, a section of the central or peripheral nervous system) to attack by a common virus (e.g., adenoviruses and herpesviruses). This attack creates a vicious circle leading to emergence of virus-generated tissue autoantigens and then to formation of autoantibodies. Use of corticosteroids and immunosuppressive drugs dramatically worsen and "eternalize" the diseases with further immunosuppression. Invariably, onset of NDDs is anticipated by a clear-cut alteration of the hormonal cyclicity, which closely controls immunity. My experience with patients in the last five years indicates a new approach to prevent and cure NDDs, based on a system totally divergent from present therapies. In fact "resetting the hormonal cyclicity clock" results in restoration of hormone-dependent antiviral immunity, arrest of disease progression, and at least partial recovery of neural functions, whatever the origin, anatomic location, and course of pathology.

  1. Hypokalaemia: common things occur commonly – a retrospective survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Alasdair; Jones, Gareth; Isles, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To define the causes of hypokalaemia in an unselected adult population. Design Retrospective survey of biochemistry database. Setting District general hospital in southwest Scotland. Participants and main outcome measures There were 187,704 measurements of urea and electrolytes in 2010. Sixty-one patients had serum potassium feeding syndrome and inadequate potassium supplementation when patients were nil by mouth (37%). In 25% of patients a transient and profound fall in serum potassium appeared to coincide with their acute illness. Acute alcohol intoxication and/or alcohol withdrawal were prominent features in 11% of patients. More than one cause was commonly present. There were no cases of Bartter's, Gitelman's or Liddle's syndromes or of hypokalaemic periodic paralysis in this study. Conclusions Severe hypokalaemia <2.5 mmol/L occurs at least once a week in a district general hospital with a catchment population of around 150,000, suggesting there may be around 300 cases a week in the UK (population around 50,000,000). Diuretics, vomiting and diarrhoea are commonly implicated as are nutritional causes, acute illness and alcohol. Bartter's, Gitelman's, Liddle's syndrome and hypokalaemic period paralysis are all extremely uncommon. PMID:23323198

  2. 1种新型乌贼墨糖胺聚糖的分离纯化、理化性质及其抗氧化活性研究%Separation, purification and analyses on physicochemical properties,antioxidative activity of a novel glycosaminoglycans from Sepia esculenta ink

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛庆凤; 王斌; 李涛; 张申微; 陈荫

    2015-01-01

    目的 从金乌贼墨(Sepia esculenta ink)中提取其活性多糖成分,对其理化性质及体外抗氧化活性进行研究.方法 依次采用两步酶解法提取乌贼墨粗多糖,并使用Q Sepharose 4 Fast Flow阴离子交换层析柱对其进行分离纯化,获得主要组分.通过高效液相(HPLC)、紫外光谱(UV)、红外光谱(IR)、离子色谱法对乌贼墨多糖进行理化性质分析以及初步的结构研究,采用ABTS法对乌贼墨进行总体抗氧化活性研究.结果 两步酶解后乌贼墨粗多糖的得率为3%,分离纯化后得到0.05、0.25、0.5 mol/L NaCl 3个洗脱组分,分别命名为SE-1、SE-2、SE-3,其中以SE-2为最主要组分,得率为50%.SE-2为均一性多糖,分子量8.5 kD,主要含有半乳糖胺(GalN)、岩藻糖(Fuc)、葡萄糖胺(GlcN)、乙酰氨基半乳糖(GalNAc)、葡萄糖醛酸(GlcUA)以及甘露糖(Man)等单糖;该多糖SE-2的总糖含量、蛋白手含、硫酸根含量、氨基己糖含量和糖醛酸含量分别为54.20%、3.92%、7.74%、20.50%和9.86%;IR光谱逆一步证明该糖为SE-2糖胺聚糖,构象为D-吡啶环结构,并有硫酸根的存在;SE-2对ABTS自由基的清除能力较强,其半数清除质量浓度为0.210 mg/mL.结论 金乌贼墨多糖SE-2是1种硫酸酯化的新型糖胺聚糖,具有较强的体外ABTS自由基的清除活性.

  3. Commonly Asked Questions in Thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Assael, Marc J

    2011-01-01

    Have you ever had a question that keeps persisting and for which you cannot find a clear answer? Is the question seemingly so "simple" that the problem is glossed over in most resources, or skipped entirely? CRC Press/Taylor and Francis is pleased to introduce Commonly Asked Questions in Thermodynamics, the first in a new series of books that address the questions that frequently arise in today's major scientific and technical disciplines. Designed for a wide audience, from students and researchers to practicing professionals in related areas, the books are organized in a user friend

  4. Common Tuina Techniques in Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Editor

    2004-01-01

    @@ Tuina techniques in children are similar to those in adults. Some are same in name, but different in methods,such as pushing technique. Some techniques are just applied to children rather than to adults, such as pushing method. In clinical practice, such intense Tuina techniques as nailing, grasping, and pinching are practiced as the ending manipulations, so as not to hurt children and affect treatment. Such media as ginger juice,Talcum powder and egg white are commonly used to prevent from skin abrasion and improve therapeutic effects.

  5. Common blocks for ASQS(12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Milazzo

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available An ASQS(v is a particular Steiner system featuring a set of v vertices and two separate families of blocks, B and G, whose elements have a respective cardinality of 4 and 6. It has the property that any three vertices of X belong either to a B-block or to a G-block. The parameter cb is the number of common blocks in two separate ASQSs, both defined on the same set of vertices X . In this paper it is shown that cb ≤ 29 for any pair of ASQSs(12.

  6. Common Knowledge in Email Exchanges

    CERN Document Server

    Sietsma, Floor

    2011-01-01

    We consider a framework in which a group of agents communicates by means of emails, with the possibility of replies, forwards and blind carbon copies (BCC). We study the epistemic consequences of such email exchanges by introducing an appropriate epistemic language and semantics. This allows us to determine when a group of agents acquires common knowledge of the formula expressing that an email was sent. We also show that in our framework from the epistemic point of view the BCC feature of emails cannot be simulated using messages without BCC recipients. Finally, we clarify the notion of a causal relationship between emails using the concept of properly terminating email exchanges.

  7. Common ecology quantifies human insurgency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohorquez, Juan Camilo; Gourley, Sean; Dixon, Alexander R; Spagat, Michael; Johnson, Neil F

    2009-12-17

    Many collective human activities, including violence, have been shown to exhibit universal patterns. The size distributions of casualties both in whole wars from 1816 to 1980 and terrorist attacks have separately been shown to follow approximate power-law distributions. However, the possibility of universal patterns ranging across wars in the size distribution or timing of within-conflict events has barely been explored. Here we show that the sizes and timing of violent events within different insurgent conflicts exhibit remarkable similarities. We propose a unified model of human insurgency that reproduces these commonalities, and explains conflict-specific variations quantitatively in terms of underlying rules of engagement. Our model treats each insurgent population as an ecology of dynamically evolving, self-organized groups following common decision-making processes. Our model is consistent with several recent hypotheses about modern insurgency, is robust to many generalizations, and establishes a quantitative connection between human insurgency, global terrorism and ecology. Its similarity to financial market models provides a surprising link between violent and non-violent forms of human behaviour.

  8. Urban ambiances as common ground?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Paul Thibaud

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to point out various arguments which question ambiance as a common ground of everyday urban experience. Such a project involves four major points. First, we have to move beyond the exclusive practical aspects of everyday life and bring the sensory to the forefront. Under such conditions, sensory cultures emerge where feeling and acting come together. Second, we must put common experience into perspectiveby initiating a dual dynamics of socialising the sensory and sensitising social life. Ambiances involve a complex web comprised of an ‘existential’ dimension (empathy with the ambient world, a ‘contextual’ dimension (degree of presence in the situation, and an ‘interactional’ dimension (forms of sociability expressed in the tonality. Third, we have to initiate a political ecology of ambiances in order to better understand how ambiances deal with fundamental design and planning issues. Far from being neutral, the notion of ambiance appears to be bound up with the socio-aesthetic strategies underpinning changes to the sensory urban environment of the future. Fourth, we have to question what in situ experience is all about. Three major research pointers enable to address this issue: the embodiment of situated experiences, the porous nature of sensory spaces, and the sensory efficiency of the build environment. Ambiances sensitize urban design as well as social lifeforms.

  9. Network Governance of the Commons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Gunnar Carlsson

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The survival of the commons is closely associated with the potential to find ways to strengthen contemporary management systems, making them more responsive to a number of complexities, like the dynamics of ecosystems and related, but often fragmented, institutions. A discussion on the desirability of finding ways to establish so-called cross-scale linkages has recently been vitalised in the literature. In the same vein, concepts like adaptive management, co-management and adaptive co-management have been discussed. In essence, these ways of organizing management incorporate an implicit assumption about the establishment of social networks and is more closely related to network governance and social network theory, than to political administrative hierarchy. However, so far, attempts to incorporate social network analysis (SNA in this literature have been rather few, and not particularly elaborate. In this paper, a framework for such an approach will be presented. The framework provides an analytical skeleton for the understanding of joint management and the establishment of cross-scale linkages. The relationships between structural network properties - like density, centrality and heterogeneity - and innovation in adaptive co-management systems are highlighted as important to consider when crafting institutions for natural resource management. The paper makes a theoretical and methodological contribution to the understanding of co-management, and thereby to the survival of the commons.

  10. Common Β- Thalassaemia Mutations in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Azarfam

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: β –Thalassaemia was first explained by Thomas Cooly as Cooly’s anaemia in 1925. The β- thalassaemias are hereditary autosomal disorders with decreased or absent β-globin chain synthesis. The most common genetic defects in β-thalassaemias are caused by point mutations, micro deletions or insertions within the β-globin gene. Material and Methods: In this research , 142 blood samples (64 from childrens hospital of Tabriz , 15 samples from Shahid Gazi hospital of Tabriz , 18 from Urumia and 45 samples from Aliasghar hospital of Ardebil were taken from thalassaemic patients (who were previously diagnosed .Then 117 non-familial samples were selected . The DNA of the lymphocytes of blood samples was extracted by boiling and Proteinase K- SDS procedure, and mutations were detected by ARMS-PCR methods. Results: From the results obtained, eleven most common mutations,most of which were Mediterranean mutations were detected as follows; IVS-I-110(G-A, IVS-I-1(G-A ،IVS-I-5(G-C ,Frameshift Codon 44 (-C,( codon5(-CT,IVS-1-6(T-C, IVS-I-25(-25bp del ,Frameshift 8.9 (+G ,IVS-II-1(G-A ,Codon 39(C-T, Codon 30(G-C the mutations of the samples were defined. The results showed that Frameshift 8.9 (+G, IVS-I-110 (G-A ,IVS-II-I(G-A, IVS-I-5(G-C, IVS-I-1(G-A , Frameshift Codon 44(-C , codon5(-CT , IVS-1-6(T-C , IVS-I-25(-25bp del with a frequency of 29.9%, 25.47%,17.83%, 7.00%, 6.36% , 6.63% , 3.8% , 2.5% , 0.63% represented the most common mutations in North - west Iran. No mutations in Codon 39(C-T and Codon 30(G-C were detected. Cunclusion: The frequency of the same mutations in patients from North - West of Iran seems to be different as compared to other regions like Turkey, Pakistan, Lebanon and Fars province of Iran. The pattern of mutations in this region is more or less the same as in the Mediterranean region, but different from South west Asia and East Asia.

  11. Residual residential space as commons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Rabinowitz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Research on common pool resources (CPR, which began with a focus on rural communities and their defining agricultural practices, shifted recently also to the urban context, looking at community gardens, city parks and other recreational facilities. This article extends the use of CPR theory to residential complexes. Courtyards, lawns, lobbies, cellars, stairwells and other parts that fall outside individual apartments are aggregated as a new sub-set of CPR, defined herewith as Residual Residential Space (RRS. Based on findings from three main types of RRS in Israel, the article evaluates some of the mechanisms designed to regulate such space. In line with earlier work on CPR, the article suggests that legal instruments, important as they are for general guidance, do not suffice. To be effective they need to echo popular framings of Residual Residential Space, to be congruent with local sensibilities regarding micro-history, and to concur with expectations stake-holders might have from their own community.

  12. Common Data Elements in Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Daniel L; Kahn, Charles E

    2017-06-01

    Diagnostic radiologists generally produce unstructured information in the form of images and narrative text reports. Although designed for human consumption, radiologic reports contain a wealth of information that could be valuable for clinical care, research, and quality improvement if that information could be extracted by automated systems. Unfortunately, the lack of structure in radiologic reports limits the ability of information systems to share information easily with other systems. A common data element (CDE)-a unit of information used in a shared, predefined fashion-can improve the ability to exchange information seamlessly among information systems. In this article, a model and a repository of radiologic CDEs is described, and three important applications are highlighted. CDEs can help advance radiologic practice, research, and performance improvement, and thus, it is crucial that CDEs be adopted widely in radiologic information systems. (©) RSNA, 2016.

  13. Science, values, and common ground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuomo, Chris

    2003-11-01

    In this paper, I argue that there may be common ground shared by animal science and its critics insofar as animal scientists seek improvement in their field in four areas: the quality of their products, the quality of life for those who make their livelihood in food production, the fair treatment of human workers, and the humane treatment of animals. I also propose that there are fundamental differences between improvement motivated by profit and improvement motivated by ethical values. Positive moral change is sometimes revolutionary, although it is often a matter of promoting positive incremental changes and keeping one's attention on the effects of actions and attitudes. In conclusion, I suggest that in animal agriculture, positive change can be brought about by "getting closer" to the objects of scientific research, including nonhuman animals, by paying more attention to their welfare.

  14. Morphological and chemical composition characterization of commercial sepia melanin

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mbonyiryivuze, A

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available of functions in the biosystem, including photosensitization, metal ion chelation, photoprotection to absorb a broad range of electromagnetic radiation, antibiotic, thermoregulation [6]. Melanins are found all over the body from the skin and blood...

  15. Common cutaneous disorders in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, R J

    1990-02-01

    Athletic activity may cause or aggravate skin disorders, which in turn may diminish athletic performance. Since many sporting activities necessitate prolonged exposure to the sun, athletes must avoid painful sunburn which will adversely affect their performance. Drugs and chemicals also may cause photoallergic and/or phototoxic reactions, including polymorphous light eruption and athletes should thus avoid photosensitising drugs and chemicals. The effects of chronic ultraviolet exposure include ageing, pigmentation and skin cancers. The most effective protection against excessive exposure to sunlight is the use of sunscreens, although inadequate application and poor protection in the UVA spectrum may diminish their effectiveness and contact allergies may create other problems. Viral, bacterial and fungal infections are common in athletes due to heat, friction and contact with others. Herpes simplex may be treated with any drying agents (e.g. alcohol) as they are as effective as more expensive topical agents such as acyclovir. Molluscum contagiosum may be spread by close contact or water contact and is treated by superficial incision, cryotherapy or standard wart varnishes. Plantar wart infection is transmitted by swimming pool decks, changing rooms and hand-to-hand from weights in gymnasiums. Plantar warts presenting with pain may be aggressively treated, by blunt dissection, but painless ones are best treated conservatively. Impetigo and folliculitis often develop after trauma. Antibiotics are effective against mild infections while abrasions and lacerations should be cleansed and dressed with occlusive dressings. Diphtheroid bacteria in moist footwear may produce pitted keratolysis and erythrasma. Tinea pedis is common in athletes and probably originates in swimming pools, gymnasium floors and locker rooms. Interdigital, dry-moccasin and pustular-midsole forms can be distinguished. The latter two forms respond to topical antifungal agents, while the interdigital

  16. Organochlorine compounds (PCBs, PCDDs and PCDFs) in seafish and seafood from the Spanish Atlantic Southwest Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordajandi, L R; Martín, I; Abad, E; Rivera, J; González, M J

    2006-08-01

    Concentrations and congener specific profiles of PCDD/Fs and PCBs were determined in edible fish and seafood species from the Coast of Huelva, in the Spanish southwest Atlantic coast. Five fish species, namely wegde sole (Dicologoglossa cuneata), common sole (Solea vulgaris), white seabream (Diplodus sargus), sardine (Sardina pilchardus), angler fish (Lophius piscatorius), two shellfish species (Donax trunculus and Chamelea gallina), common cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) and prawns (Parapenaeus longirostris), frequently found and consumed in the area were analysed. Concentrations ranged from 861 to 23787pg/g wet weight for total PCBs, while 2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs showed concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 1.18pg/g wet weight. WHO-TEQ concentrations ranged from 0.038 to 0.186pg WHO-TEQ(PCDD/Fs)/g wet weight, values well below the maximum concentrations established by the EU. When non- and mono-ortho PCBs were included the values increased to a maximum of 0.99pg WHO-TEQ(PCDD/Fs+PCBs)/g wet weight. The PCB and PCDD/F accumulation pattern found in the samples analysed showed a distribution typically reported for marine samples, and no remarkable differences were found between species. The PCBs were the ones contributing with the highest percentage to the total TEQ content in most species studied. Concerning the seafood, specially prawns and shellfish, the opposite was observed and PCDD/Fs were found to contribute with a higher percentage than PCBs. The congener specific contribution to the TEQ showed PCB 126 followed by 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD and 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF as the most abundant ones.

  17. Common hyperspectral image database design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lixun; Liao, Ningfang; Chai, Ali

    2009-11-01

    This paper is to introduce Common hyperspectral image database with a demand-oriented Database design method (CHIDB), which comprehensively set ground-based spectra, standardized hyperspectral cube, spectral analysis together to meet some applications. The paper presents an integrated approach to retrieving spectral and spatial patterns from remotely sensed imagery using state-of-the-art data mining and advanced database technologies, some data mining ideas and functions were associated into CHIDB to make it more suitable to serve in agriculture, geological and environmental areas. A broad range of data from multiple regions of the electromagnetic spectrum is supported, including ultraviolet, visible, near-infrared, thermal infrared, and fluorescence. CHIDB is based on dotnet framework and designed by MVC architecture including five main functional modules: Data importer/exporter, Image/spectrum Viewer, Data Processor, Parameter Extractor, and On-line Analyzer. The original data were all stored in SQL server2008 for efficient search, query and update, and some advance Spectral image data Processing technology are used such as Parallel processing in C#; Finally an application case is presented in agricultural disease detecting area.

  18. Common questions about wound care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worster, Brooke; Zawora, Michelle Q; Hsieh, Christine

    2015-01-15

    Lacerations, abrasions, burns, and puncture wounds are common in the outpatient setting. Because wounds can quickly become infected, the most important aspect of treating a minor wound is irrigation and cleaning. There is no evidence that antiseptic irrigation is superior to sterile saline or tap water. Occlusion of the wound is key to preventing contamination. Suturing, if required, can be completed up to 24 hours after the trauma occurs, depending on the wound site. Tissue adhesives are equally effective for low-tension wounds with linear edges that can be evenly approximated. Although patients are often instructed to keep their wounds covered and dry after suturing, they can get wet within the first 24 to 48 hours without increasing the risk of infection. There is no evidence that prophylactic antibiotics improve outcomes for most simple wounds. Tetanus toxoid should be administered as soon as possible to patients who have not received a booster in the past 10 years. Superficial mild wound infections can be treated with topical agents, whereas deeper mild and moderate infections should be treated with oral antibiotics. Most severe infections, and moderate infections in high-risk patients, require initial parenteral antibiotics. Severe burns and wounds that cover large areas of the body or involve the face, joints, bone, tendons, or nerves should generally be referred to wound care specialists.

  19. Common problems in endurance athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosca, David D; Navazio, Franco

    2007-07-15

    Endurance athletes alternate periods of intensive physical training with periods of rest and recovery to improve performance. An imbalance caused by overly intensive training and inadequate recovery leads to a breakdown in tissue reparative mechanisms and eventually to overuse injuries. Tendon overuse injury is degenerative rather than inflammatory. Tendinopathy is often slow to resolve and responds inconsistently to anti-inflammatory agents. Common overuse injuries in runners and other endurance athletes include patellofemoral pain syndrome, iliotibial band friction syndrome, medial tibial stress syndrome, Achilles tendinopathy, plantar fasciitis, and lower extremity stress fractures. These injuries are treated with relative rest, usually accompanied by a rehabilitative exercise program. Cyclists may benefit from evaluation on their bicycles and subsequent adjustment of seat height, cycling position, or pedal system. Endurance athletes also are susceptible to exercise-associated medical conditions, including exercise-induced asthma, exercise-associated collapse, and overtraining syndrome. These conditions are treatable or preventable with appropriate medical intervention. Dilutional hyponatremia is increasingly encountered in athletes participating in marathons and triathlons. This condition is related to overhydration with hypotonic fluids and may be preventable with guidance on appropriate fluid intake during competition.

  20. Common errors in disease mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ocaña-Riola

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Many morbid-mortality atlases and small-area studies have been carried out over the last decade. However, the methods used to draw up such research, the interpretation of results and the conclusions published are often inaccurate. Often, the proliferation of this practice has led to inefficient decision-making, implementation of inappropriate health policies and negative impact on the advancement of scientific knowledge. This paper reviews the most frequent errors in the design, analysis and interpretation of small-area epidemiological studies and proposes a diagnostic evaluation test that should enable the scientific quality of published papers to be ascertained. Nine common mistakes in disease mapping methods are discussed. From this framework, and following the theory of diagnostic evaluation, a standardised test to evaluate the scientific quality of a small-area epidemiology study has been developed. Optimal quality is achieved with the maximum score (16 points, average with a score between 8 and 15 points, and low with a score of 7 or below. A systematic evaluation of scientific papers, together with an enhanced quality in future research, will contribute towards increased efficacy in epidemiological surveillance and in health planning based on the spatio-temporal analysis of ecological information.

  1. Common abdominal emergencies in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, James

    2002-02-01

    Because young children often present to EDs with abdominal complaints, emergency physicians must have a high index of suspicion for the common abdominal emergencies that have serious sequelae. At the same time, they must realize that less serious causes of abdominal symptoms (e.g., constipation or gastroenteritis) are also seen. A gentle yet thorough and complete history and physical examination are the most important diagnostic tools for the emergency physician. Repeated examinations and observation are useful tools. Physicians should listen carefully to parents and their children, respect their concerns, and honor their complaints. Ancillary tests are inconsistent in their value in assessing these complaints. Abdominal radiographs can be normal in children with intussusception and even malrotation and early volvulus. Unlike the classic symptoms seen in adults, young children can display only lethargy or poor feeding in cases of appendicitis or can appear happy and playful between paroxysmal bouts of intussusception. The emergency physician therefore, must maintain a high index of suspicion for serious pathology in pediatric patients with abdominal complaints. Eventually, all significant abdominal emergencies reveal their true nature, and if one can be patient with the child and repeat the examinations when the child is quiet, one will be rewarded with the correct diagnosis.

  2. Longest common extensions in trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gawrychowski, Pawel; Gørtz, Inge Li;

    2016-01-01

    to trees and suggest a few applications of LCE in trees to tries and XML databases. Given a labeled and rooted tree T of size n, the goal is to preprocess T into a compact data structure that support the following LCE queries between subpaths and subtrees in T. Let v1, v2, w1, and w2 be nodes of T...... such that w1 and w2 are descendants of v1 and v2 respectively. - LCEPP(v1, w1, v2, w2): (path-path LCE) return the longest common prefix of the paths v1 ~→ w1 and v2 ~→ w2. - LCEPT(v1, w1, v2): (path-tree LCE) return maximal path-path LCE of the path v1 ~→ w1 and any path from v2 to a descendant leaf. - LCETT......(v1, v2): (tree-tree LCE) return a maximal path-path LCE of any pair of paths from v1 and v2 to descendant leaves. We present the first non-trivial bounds for supporting these queries. For LCEPP queries, we present a linear-space solution with O(log* n) query time. For LCEPT queries, we present...

  3. Longest Common Extensions in Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gawrychowski, Pawel; Gørtz, Inge Li;

    2015-01-01

    to trees and suggest a few applications of LCE in trees to tries and XML databases. Given a labeled and rooted tree T of size n, the goal is to preprocess T into a compact data structure that support the following LCE queries between subpaths and subtrees in T. Let v1, v2, w1, and w2 be nodes of T...... such that w1 and w2 are descendants of v1 and v2 respectively. - LCEPP(v1, w1, v2, w2): (path-path LCE) return the longest common prefix of the paths v1 ~→ w1 and v2 ~→ w2. - LCEPT(v1, w1, v2): (path-tree LCE) return maximal path-path LCE of the path v1 ~→ w1 and any path from v2 to a descendant leaf. - LCETT......(v1, v2): (tree-tree LCE) return a maximal path-path LCE of any pair of paths from v1 and v2 to descendant leaves. We present the first non-trivial bounds for supporting these queries. For LCEPP queries, we present a linear-space solution with O(log* n) query time. For LCEPT queries, we present...

  4. The Common Sense of Copying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M. Stamm

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This essay provides a survey of two very significant phases in the history of Japanese education: 1 the founding of the modern system (1872-1890 with a focus on the pedagogical practices acquired from the United States during that period and 2 Japan’s performance on international tests of mathematics achievement. The first relies primarily on Benjamin Duke’s recently published book The History of Modern Japanese Education: Constructing the National School System, 1872-1890, and the second on a detailed comparison of ERA mathematics test scores of Japan and Singapore over a thirty year period. These two aspects provide clear evidence that, contrary to the assertions of some scholars, it is quite possible to transfer the practices in use in one culture to another, with great success. Noting the irony of the abandonment by the U.S. of the principles that have served Japan so well for almost 140 years, I suggest that we exercise the "Common Sense of Copying” ourselves.

  5. Managing the wildlife tourism commons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirotta, Enrico; Lusseau, David

    2015-04-01

    The nonlethal effects of wildlife tourism can threaten the conservation status of targeted animal populations. In turn, such resource depletion can compromise the economic viability of the industry. Therefore, wildlife tourism exploits resources that can become common pool and that should be managed accordingly. We used a simulation approach to test whether different management regimes (tax, tax and subsidy, cap, cap and trade) could provide socioecologically sustainable solutions. Such schemes are sensitive to errors in estimated management targets. We determined the sensitivity of each scenario to various realistic uncertainties in management implementation and in our knowledge of the population. Scenarios where time quotas were enforced using a tax and subsidy approach, or they were traded between operators were more likely to be sustainable. Importantly, sustainability could be achieved even when operators were assumed to make simple rational economic decisions. We suggest that a combination of the two regimes might offer a robust solution, especially on a small spatial scale and under the control of a self-organized, operator-level institution. Our simulation platform could be parameterized to mimic local conditions and provide a test bed for experimenting different governance solutions in specific case studies.

  6. Comparison of Common Tonsillectomy Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattar, M A; Sultana, T

    2016-01-01

    This prospective randomized study was done to compare operative time, intra-operative blood loss, post operative pain, secondary haemorrhage in common tonsillectomy methods. Thirty two (32) paediatric population of age 7-12 years from each group randomly selected, operative techniques adopted consecutively and this study was conducted in Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka, Islami Bank Hospital, Dhaka, and Desh Medical Services, Chittagong, from January 2011 to December 2013. Surgery was performed by single midlevel surgeon. Postoperatively one month was followed the entire patient. Total 96 pediatrics population (32 for each group) was studied. Mean operating time and mean intra-operative blood loss was in cold dissection method 22 min and 15 ml, in bipolar dissection tonsillectomy 18 min and 10 ml & in laser tonsillectomy 17 min and 9 ml. Differences of operating time and variation of blood loss in various methods are not statistically significant. Laser and bipolar electro dissection tonsillectomy are popularized due to its relative less bleeding and quicker methods than that of cold dissection tonsillectomy; there is no significant difference among them.

  7. Ozonation of Common Textile Auxiliaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskender, Gulen; Arslan-Alaton, Idil; Koyunluoglu, Sebnem; Yilmaz, Zeynep; Germirli Babuna, Fatos

    2016-10-01

    The treatability of four different commonly applied textile auxiliary chemicals, namely two tannin formulations (Tannin 1: a condensation product of aryl sulphonate; Tannin 2: natural tannic acid) and two biocidal finishing agents (Biocide 1: 2,4,4’-trichloro-2’- hydroxydiphenyl ether; Biocide 2: a nonionic diphenyl alkane derivative) with ozone was investigated. Increasing the ozone dose yielded higher COD removals for the natural tannin. Optimum ozone doses of 485 and 662 mg/h were obtained at a pH of 3.5 for natural and synthetic tannin carrying textile bath discharges, respectively. When the reaction pH was increased from 3.5 to 7.0, a slight decrease in COD removal was observed for the natural tannin due to ozone selectivity towards its polyaromatic structure. The same increase in ozonation pH enhanced COD removals for the synthetic tannin as a result of enhanced ozone decomposition rendering free radical chain reactions dominant. Optimum ozone doses of 499 and 563 mg/h were established for Biocide 1 and 2, respectively. With the increase of ozonation, pH exhibited a positive influence on COD removals for both textile tannins. A substantial improvement in terms of TOC removals was observed as the reaction pH was increased from 3.5 to 7.0 for the synthetic tannin, and from 7 to 12 for both textile biocides. Higher AOX removals were evident at pH 7 than at pH 12 for Biocide 1 as a result of the higher selectivity of the dehalogenation reaction at neutral pH.

  8. Common Questions About Chronic Prostatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, James D; Garrett, W Allan; McCurry, Tyler K; Teichman, Joel M H

    2016-02-15

    Chronic prostatitis is relatively common, with a lifetime prevalence of 1.8% to 8.2%. Risk factors include conditions that facilitate introduction of bacteria into the urethra and prostate (which also predispose the patient to urinary tract infections) and conditions that can lead to chronic neuropathic pain. Chronic prostatitis must be differentiated from other causes of chronic pelvic pain, such as interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and pelvic floor dysfunction; prostate and bladder cancers; benign prostatic hyperplasia; urolithiasis; and other causes of dysuria, urinary frequency, and nocturia. The National Institutes of Health divides prostatitis into four syndromes: acute bacterial prostatitis, chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP), chronic nonbacterial prostatitis (CNP)/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS), and asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis. CBP and CNP/CPPS both lead to pelvic pain and lower urinary tract symptoms. CBP presents as recurrent urinary tract infections with the same organism identified on repeated cultures; it responds to a prolonged course of an antibiotic that adequately penetrates the prostate, if the urine culture suggests sensitivity. If four to six weeks of antibiotic therapy is effective but symptoms recur, another course may be prescribed, perhaps in combination with alpha blockers or nonopioid analgesics. CNP/CPPS, accounting for more than 90% of chronic prostatitis cases, presents as prostatic pain lasting at least three months without consistent culture results. Weak evidence supports the use of alpha blockers, pain medications, and a four- to six-week course of antibiotics for the treatment of CNP/CPPS. Patients may also be referred to a psychologist experienced in managing chronic pain. Experts on this condition recommend a combination of treatments tailored to the patient's phenotypic presentation. Urology referral should be considered when appropriate treatment is ineffective. Additional treatments include pelvic

  9. Designing the Microbial Research Commons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhlir, Paul F. [Board on Research Data and Information Policy and Global Affairs, Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Recent decades have witnessed an ever-increasing range and volume of digital data. All elements of the pillars of science--whether observation, experiment, or theory and modeling--are being transformed by the continuous cycle of generation, dissemination, and use of factual information. This is even more so in terms of the re-using and re-purposing of digital scientific data beyond the original intent of the data collectors, often with dramatic results. We all know about the potential benefits and impacts of digital data, but we are also aware of the barriers, the challenges in maximizing the access, and use of such data. There is thus a need to think about how a data infrastructure can enhance capabilities for finding, using, and integrating information to accelerate discovery and innovation. How can we best implement an accessible, interoperable digital environment so that the data can be repeatedly used by a wide variety of users in different settings and with different applications? With this objective: to use the microbial communities and microbial data, literature, and the research materials themselves as a test case, the Board on Research Data and Information held an International Symposium on Designing the Microbial Research Commons at the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, DC on 8-9 October 2009. The symposium addressed topics such as models to lower the transaction costs and support access to and use of microbiological materials and digital resources from the perspective of publicly funded research, public-private interactions, and developing country concerns. The overall goal of the symposium was to stimulate more research and implementation of improved legal and institutional models for publicly funded research in microbiology.

  10. Common Cause Abduction : Its Scope and Limits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dziurosz-Serafinowicz, Patryk

    2012-01-01

    Patryk Dziurosz-Serafmowicz, Common Cause Abduction: Its Scope and Limits This article aims to analyze the scope and limits of common cause abduction which is a version of explanatory abduction based on Hans Reichenbach's Principle of the Common Cause. First, it is argued that common cause abduction

  11. Returning common sense to regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, M.R.

    1995-10-01

    While these sessions of the November 1995 meeting of the American Nuclear Society are being devoted to the Linear Theory of harm from radiation, it must be realized that the low-level radiation issue, as important as it may be, is but a subset of an entire body of environmental issues running afoul of common sense. Cellular phones, electromagnetic fields, asbestos, dioxin, acid rain, and others especially in their public portrayals, some in their regulatory treatment, are based upon exaggerated or misunderstood risks. One must recognize that what lies ahead is an immense effort to revisit the underlying science of the existing regulations of radiation exposures. New evidence has been published, and most importantly, it is now recognized that many of these regulations--promulgated with the best of intentions--have been extraordinarily harmful to the public. In many cases, the harm has been exaggerated, and has created in the public policy arena the notion that the public is at great risk from the smallest sources of radiation. The national cost of compliance with these regulations has been enormous. To the extent that existing environmental regulations are not being moderated, they pose major economic threats to present and future industries involving nuclear materials and technology. These would include the pharmaceutical industries as well as those seeking U.S. isotope markets in separations, purification, labeling, and manufacturing of new radiopharmaceuticals for cancer therapy, diagnosis, pain mitigation, treatment of arthritis, and other new applications. For those who are not aware of the results of recent advances in radiopharmaceuticals, clinical trials have demonstrated an 80% remission rate in the treatment of b-cell lymphoma and leukemia. New isotopes and new isotope technology promise greater effectiveness in the treatment of cancer and other diseases. The regulatory problems and their enormous costs exist at all stages in nuclear medicine, from the

  12. Common Cause Failures and Ultra Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2012-01-01

    A common cause failure occurs when several failures have the same origin. Common cause failures are either common event failures, where the cause is a single external event, or common mode failures, where two systems fail in the same way for the same reason. Common mode failures can occur at different times because of a design defect or a repeated external event. Common event failures reduce the reliability of on-line redundant systems but not of systems using off-line spare parts. Common mode failures reduce the dependability of systems using off-line spare parts and on-line redundancy.

  13. Whither the common law derivative action

    OpenAIRE

    Yap, JL

    2009-01-01

    The common law derivative action was developed as a result of decades of case law in common law jurisdictions. Hong Kong and Singapore continue to retain the common law derivative action within their respective legal frameworks, despite both having enacted statutory derivative actions. This paper considers the situations in which the common law derivative action continues to have practical application in each of these jurisdictions. It then considers whether the common law derivative acti...

  14. Science for common entrance physics : answers

    CERN Document Server

    Pickering, W R

    2015-01-01

    This book contains answers to all exercises featured in the accompanying textbook Science for Common Entrance: Physics , which covers every Level 1 and 2 topic in the ISEB 13+ Physics Common Entrance exam syllabus. - Clean, clear layout for easy marking. - Includes examples of high-scoring answers with diagrams and workings. - Suitable for ISEB 13+ Mathematics Common Entrance exams taken from Autumn 2017 onwards. Also available to purchase from the Galore Park website www.galorepark.co.uk :. - Science for Common Entrance: Physics. - Science for Common Entrance: Biology. - Science for Common En

  15. Low Back Pain Common Among Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163320.html Low Back Pain Common Among Kids Sports injuries are ... 30, 2017 MONDAY, Jan. 30, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Low back pain is common in school-age American ...

  16. Common Problems That Can Affect Your Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... near you Common Problems That Can Affect Your Voice Common Problems That Can Affect Your Voice Patient ... that traditionally accompany gastro esophageal reflux disease (GERD). Voice Misuse and Overuse Speaking is a physical task ...

  17. Decoding Dyslexia, a Common Learning Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Dyslexia Decoding Dyslexia, a Common Learning Disability Past Issues / Winter 2016 ... Dyslexic" Articles In Their Own Words: Dealing with Dyslexia / Decoding Dyslexia, a Common Learning Disability / What is ...

  18. Southern Watersheds Common Reedgrass Monitoring Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Southern Watersheds Common Reedgrass Project is an interagency effort to increase public awareness of the common reedgrass problem, demonstrate effective control...

  19. How Are Pelvic Floor Disorders Commonly Treated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications How are pelvic floor disorders commonly treated? Skip sharing on social media ... Treatment Nonsurgical treatments commonly used for PFDs include: Pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT). Also called Kegel (pronounced KEY- ...

  20. Common Parent Reactions to the NICU

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Common Parent Reactions to the NICU Page Content Article ... their NICU stay. Anger Anger is also a common reaction to the initial NICU experience. Many parents ...

  1. Common cold - how to treat at home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000466.htm Common cold - how to treat at home To use ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Colds are very common. A visit to your health care provider's office ...

  2. Does Commonality in Illiquidity Matter to Investors?

    OpenAIRE

    Richard G. Anderson; Binner, Jane M.; Björn Hagströmer; Birger Nilsson

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates whether investors are compensated for taking on commonality risk in equity portfolios. A large literature documents the existence and the causes of commonality in illiquidity, but the implications for investors are less understood. We find a return premium for commonality risk in NYSE stocks that is both economically and statistically significant. The commonality risk premium is independent of illiquidity level effects, and robust to variations in illiquidity measureme...

  3. WS co-designing and commoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Botero, Andrea; Van Amste, Frederik; Seravalli, Anna

    2015-01-01

    This workshop explores the relevance of commons as an objective and commoning as a way of doing and being for design. How can these concepts help us critically support sustainable futures for communities of humans and non-humans?......This workshop explores the relevance of commons as an objective and commoning as a way of doing and being for design. How can these concepts help us critically support sustainable futures for communities of humans and non-humans?...

  4. 49 CFR 1185.5 - Common control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Common control. 1185.5 Section 1185.5... OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE INTERLOCKING OFFICERS § 1185.5 Common control. It shall not be... carriers if such carriers are operated under common control or management either: (a) Pursuant to...

  5. A School for the Common Good

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baines, Lawrence; Foster, Hal

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the history and the concept of the common school from the Common School Movement reformers of the 1850s to the present. These reformers envisioned schools that were to be tuition free and open to everyone, places where rich and poor met and learned together on equal terms. Central to the concept of the common school is its…

  6. Simplifying the ELA Common Core; Demystifying Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmoker, Mike; Jago, Carol

    2013-01-01

    The English Language Arts (ELA) Common Core State Standards ([CCSS], 2010) could have a transformational effect on American education. Though the process seems daunting, one can begin immediately integrating the essence of the ELA Common Core in every subject area. This article shows how one could implement the Common Core and create coherent,…

  7. Common Frame of Reference and social justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.; Satyanarayana, R.

    2009-01-01

    The article "Common Frame of Reference and Social Justice" by Martijn W. Hesselink evaluates the Draft Common Frame of Reference (DCFR) of social justice. It discusses the important areas, namely a common frame of Reference in a broad sense, social justice and contract law, private law and democracy

  8. Common Core: Teaching Optimum Topic Exploration (TOTE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karge, Belinda Dunnick; Moore, Roxane Kushner

    2015-01-01

    The Common Core has become a household term and yet many educators do not understand what it means. This article explains the historical perspectives of the Common Core and gives guidance to teachers in application of Teaching Optimum Topic Exploration (TOTE) necessary for full implementation of the Common Core State Standards. An effective…

  9. El sistema de las Creative Commons

    OpenAIRE

    Marandola, Marco

    2005-01-01

    Creative Commons scheme. Creative Commons is the first attempt to provide a valid legal framework for open access. This text analyses the beginnings of the movement and the different types of licences that have been prepared, as well as offering considerations regarding Creative Commons applications.

  10. Academic Engagement in the Library Commons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charlie; Bodnar, Jon

    2010-01-01

    Much has been written about library commons in recent years. For the most part, that literature has dealt with designing information and learning commons that support student learning by giving them the tools and resources they need for their academic work. However, few authors have discussed how a library commons might facilitate collaboration…

  11. Common Cold in Babies: Symptoms and Causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common cold in babies Symptoms and causes By Mayo Clinic Staff The first indication of the common cold in a baby is often: A congested ... or green Other signs and symptoms of a common cold in a baby may include: Fever Sneezing ...

  12. 47 CFR 1.9080 - Private commons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Private commons. 1.9080 Section 1.9080... and Procedures § 1.9080 Private commons. (a) Overview. A “private commons” arrangement is an... infrastructure (e.g., base stations, mobile stations, or other related elements). In a private commons...

  13. Characterization and In Vitro Evaluation of Cytotoxicity, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Chitosans Extracted from Three Different Marine Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajji, Sawssen; Younes, Islem; Rinaudo, Marguerite; Jellouli, Kemel; Nasri, Moncef

    2015-09-01

    Chitins in the α and β isomorphs were extracted from three Tunisian marine sources shrimp (Penaeus kerathurus) waste, crab (Carcinus mediterraneus) shells and cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) bones. The obtained chitins were transformed into chitosans, the acid-soluble form of chitin. Chitosans were characterized and their biological activities were compared. Chitosan samples were then characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results showed that all chitosans presented identical spectra. Antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antitumor activities of the extracted chitosans were investigated. In fact, cuttlefish chitosan showed the highest DPPH radical-scavenging activity (83 %, 5 mg/ml), whereas it was 79 % and 76 % for shrimp and crab chitosans, respectively. However, in linoleate-β-carotene system, cuttlefish and crab chitosans exerted higher antioxidant activity (82 % and 70 %, respectively), than shrimp chitosan (49 %). Chitosans were tested for their antimicrobial activities against three Gram-negative and four Gram-positive bacteria and five fungi. Chitosans markedly inhibited growth of most bacteria and fungi tested, although the antimicrobial activity depends on the type of microorganism and on the source of chitin. In addition, chitosans showed high antitumor activity which seemed to be dependent on the chitosan characteristics such as acetylation degree and especially the molecular weight.

  14. [Common bile duct stones and their complications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millat, B; Borie, F

    2000-12-01

    At the time of cholecystectomy for symptomatic cholelithiasis, 7-20% of patients have common bile duct stones. Nearly one third of them are asymptomatic. Routine cholangiography during cholecystectomy allows the diagnosis and treatment of common bile duct stones during the same operation. Selective indication for the diagnosis of common bile duct stones based on the positive predictive value of indicators limits treatment to symptomatic cases. No single indicator is however completely accurate in predicting common bile duct stones and the natural history of asymptomatic cases is uncertain. Endoscopic stone extraction preceding cholecystectomy is not superior to one-stage surgical treatment. Diagnosis and treatment of common bile duct stones are feasible laparoscopically. Complications of common bile duct stones are cholangitis and acute pancreatitis; if severe, they require specific therapeutic approaches.

  15. A Simulation Model for Component Commonality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Xiao-chi; ZHANG Zi-gang

    2002-01-01

    Component commonality has been cited as a powerful approach for manufacturers to cope with increased component proliferation and to control inventory costs. To fully realize its potential benefits, one needs a clear understanding of its impacts on the system. In this paper, the feasibility of using a simulation model to provide a systematic perspective for manufacturing firms to implement a commonality strategy is demonstrated. Alternative commonality strategies including the stage of employing commonality and the allocation policies are simulated. Several interesting results on effects of commonality, allocation policies,and optimal solutions are obtained. We then summarize qualitative insights and managerial implications into the component commonality design and implementation, and inventory management in a general multi-stage assembly system.

  16. The Atmosphere as a Global Common

    OpenAIRE

    Edenhofer, Ottmar

    2013-01-01

    Der Klimawandel ist ein Problem globaler Gemeingüter (Commons). Die atmosphärische Senke wird zu stark genutzt. Zentrale Frage ist daher ob es möglich ist die "Tragedy of the Commons" zu einem "Drama der Commons" zu machen. Obwohl dies schwierig erscheint, gibt es vielversprechende technologische und institutionelle Optionen. Da in den kommenden Jahrzehnten jedoch keine globale Weltregierung abzusehen ist, müssen polyzentrische Regierungsansätze erforscht werden. Climate Change is a Global...

  17. Boolean approach to common event analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, R.B.; Stack, D.W.

    1980-01-01

    Although different phenomena may be involved, the problem that must be solved for each kind of common event analysis is essentially the same: to determine the effect of common events on the behavior of a system. A Boolean approach to the problem is set forth. Because of the large equations that arise, processing must be done by computers. Vital location analysis is a particular kind of common event analysis that is used to study ways to prevent the sabotage of nuclear reactors. (RWR)

  18. Accounting and marketing: searching a common denominator

    OpenAIRE

    David S. Murphy

    2012-01-01

    Accounting and marketing are very different disciplines. The analysis of customer profitability is one concept that can unite accounting and marketing as a common denominator. In this article I search for common ground between accounting and marketing in the analysis of customer profitability to determine if a common denominator really exists between the two. This analysis focuses on accounting profitability, customer lifetime value, and customer equity. The article ends with a summary of wha...

  19. Editorial Thoughts: Rise of the Innovation Commons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Tod Colegrove

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available That the practice of libraries and librarianship is changing is an understatement. Throughout their history, libraries have adapted and evolved to better meet the needs of the communities served. Framed against the historical development of the library commons and technological support, this piece introduces the concept of an innovation commons as a natural evolution for libraries, from information through learning commons, to the organic development and incorporation of library makerspaces.

  20. Software Defined Common Processing System (SDCPS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Coherent Logix, Incorporated (CLX) proposes the development of a Software Defined Common Processing System (SDCPS) that leverages the inherent advantages of an...

  1. Mathematics for common entrance three (extension) answers

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Serena

    2015-01-01

    This book contains answers to all exercises featured in the accompanying textbook Mathematics for Common Entrance Three (Extension) , which provides essential preparation for Level 3 of the ISEB 13+ Mathematics exam, as well as for CASE and other scholarship exams. - Clean, clear layout for easy marking. - Includes examples of high-scoring answers with diagrams and workings. Also available to purchase from the Galore Park website www.galorepark.co.uk :. - Mathematics for Common Entrance Three (Extension). - Mathematics for Common Entrance One. - Mathematics for Common Entrance One Answers. - M

  2. Software Defined Common Processing System (SDCPS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Coherent Logix, Incorporated proposes the Software Defined Common Processing System (SDCPS) program to facilitate the development of a Software Defined Radio...

  3. Looking Forward from "A Common Faith"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noddings, Nel

    2009-01-01

    "A Common Faith," according to this author, is arguably one of John Dewey's least effective books. In it, he tries to persuade readers that the best of two epistemologically different worlds can be reconciled in a common faith--one that employs the methods of science with a generously religious attitude. Possibly most people today believe this…

  4. Jetu Edosa Chewaka INTRODUCTION Perspectives on common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perspectives on common property regime have been popularized when. Hardin wrote on .... among indigenous peoples is gaining wide support from ecologists, political ...... and are least likely, among all Oromo populations to trade their identity for ...... which is given by the government to local residents for common grazing,.

  5. Confronting Common Folklore: Catching a Cold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Page

    2012-01-01

    Almost every child has experienced the sniffly, stuffy, and achy congestion of the common cold. In addition, many have encountered the "old wives tales" that forge a link between personal actions and coming down with this common respiratory infection. Much of this health folklore has been passed down from generation to generation (e.g., getting a…

  6. Young Children's Understanding of Cultural Common Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebal, Kristin; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Human social interaction depends on individuals identifying the common ground they have with others, based both on personally shared experiences and on cultural common ground that all members of the group share. We introduced 3- and 5-year-old children to a culturally well-known object and a novel object. An experimenter then entered and asked,…

  7. The common polymorphism of apolipoprotein E

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdes, Ulrik

    2003-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E (apoE) has important functions in systemic and local lipid transport, but also has other functions. The gene (APOE) shows a common polymorphism with three alleles--APOE*2, APOE*3, and APOE*4. Their frequencies vary substantially around the world, but APOE*3 is the most common...

  8. Clinical chemistry of common apolipoprotein E isoforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, DAJ; vanDoormaal, JJ; Muskiet, FAJ

    1996-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E plays a central role in clearance of lipoprotein remnants by serving as a ligand for low-density lipoprotein and apolipoprotein E receptors. Three common alleles (apolipoprotein E(2), E(3) and E(4)) give rise to six phenotypes. Apolipoprotein E(3) is the ancestral form. Common apoli

  9. Private Schools Opt for Common Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2012-01-01

    The common standards are not just for public schools. With all but four states having adopted them since 2010, districts have little choice but to implement the Common Core State Standards. But many private schools are also making the transition. Many Roman Catholic, Lutheran, and other private schools have adopted at least portions of the…

  10. Longest Common Extensions in Sublinear Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Knudsen, Mathias Bæk Tejs;

    2015-01-01

    The longest common extension problem (LCE problem) is to construct a data structure for an input string T of length n that supports LCE(i,j) queries. Such a query returns the length of the longest common prefix of the suffixes starting at positions i and j in T. This classic problem has a well-kn...

  11. After Common Core, States Set Rigorous Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Paul E.; Barrows, Samuel; Gift, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In spite of Tea Party criticism, union skepticism, and anti-testing outcries, the campaign to implement Common Core State Standards (otherwise known as Common Core) has achieved phenomenal success in statehouses across the country. Since 2011, 45 states have raised their standards for student proficiency in reading and math, with the greatest…

  12. Clinical chemistry of common apolipoprotein E isoforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, DAJ; vanDoormaal, JJ; Muskiet, FAJ

    1996-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E plays a central role in clearance of lipoprotein remnants by serving as a ligand for low-density lipoprotein and apolipoprotein E receptors. Three common alleles (apolipoprotein E(2), E(3) and E(4)) give rise to six phenotypes. Apolipoprotein E(3) is the ancestral form. Common

  13. Generalized Common Fixed Point Results with Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan Amin Kutbi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We obtained some generalized common fixed point results in the context of complex valued metric spaces. Moreover, we proved an existence theorem for the common solution for two Urysohn integral equations. Examples are presented to support our results.

  14. Characteristics of common infections in Nicaragua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matute Moreno, A.J.

    2006-01-01

    The main purpose of the studies outlined in this thesis was to gain empirical epidemiological and therapeutic knowledge of some common infectious diseases in Nicaragua. So far, relatively little was known about the incidence, etiology, management and antibiotic resistance patterns of common infectio

  15. Signaling Without Common Prior : An Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drouvelis, M.; Müller, W.; Possajennikov, A.

    2009-01-01

    The common prior assumption is pervasive in game-theoretic models with incomplete information. This paper investigates experimentally the importance of inducing a common prior in a two-person signaling game. For a specific probability distribution of the sender’s type, the long-run behavior without

  16. Graphic method for analyzing common path interferometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, J.

    1998-01-01

    Common path interferometers are widely used for visualizing phase disturbances and fluid flows. They are attractive because of the inherent simplicity and robustness in the setup. A graphic method will be presented for analyzing and optimizing filter parameters in common path interferometers....

  17. Signaling Without Common Prior : An Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drouvelis, M.; Müller, W.; Possajennikov, A.

    2009-01-01

    The common prior assumption is pervasive in game-theoretic models with incomplete information. This paper investigates experimentally the importance of inducing a common prior in a two-person signaling game. For a specific probability distribution of the sender’s type, the long-run behavior without

  18. Common Stochastic Trends in the Current Account

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumah, F.Y.

    1996-01-01

    Solow residuals are used as proxies for productivity shocks in many empirical studies.Considering the shortcomings of this approach this paper proposes the common trends approach as an alternative.The common trends econometric technique is utilized here in an attempt to identify and analyze the long

  19. "Bud, Not Buddy": Common Reading, Uncommon Listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Marjorie M., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    Gives an idea of how to structure a common reading experience around a book on tape with accompanying response approaches for student engagement with and reaction to good common reading. Presents exercises and ideas that can be used in the classroom to supplement the audio books, including writing exercises and listening and responding exercises.…

  20. Confronting Common Folklore: Catching a Cold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Page

    2012-01-01

    Almost every child has experienced the sniffly, stuffy, and achy congestion of the common cold. In addition, many have encountered the "old wives tales" that forge a link between personal actions and coming down with this common respiratory infection. Much of this health folklore has been passed down from generation to generation (e.g., getting a…

  1. Common Core in the Real World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Frederick M.; McShane, Michael Q.

    2013-01-01

    There are at least four key places where the Common Core intersects with current efforts to improve education in the United States--testing, professional development, expectations, and accountability. Understanding them can help educators, parents, and policymakers maximize the chance that the Common Core is helpful to these efforts and, perhaps…

  2. Common Core in the Real World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Frederick M.; McShane, Michael Q.

    2013-01-01

    There are at least four key places where the Common Core intersects with current efforts to improve education in the United States--testing, professional development, expectations, and accountability. Understanding them can help educators, parents, and policymakers maximize the chance that the Common Core is helpful to these efforts and, perhaps…

  3. Establishing a Knowledge Commons at the CSIR

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Heerden, Johanna M

    2008-06-05

    Full Text Available Commons aims to serve as the science showcase for the CSIR. (There are huge differences between the typical academic library perception of a knowledge commons and what the CSIR is busy creating. These differences will, very briefly, be mentioned...

  4. Common Standards for Career Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Office of College and Career Readiness has developed the "Common Standards for Career Education Programs." The six common standards are: (1) Program Management and Planning; (2) Curriculum; (3) Instruction; (4) Professional Development; (5) Career and Technical Student Organizations; and (6) Instructional Facilities and Equipment.…

  5. Chemical and Common Burns in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shan

    2017-05-01

    Burns are a common cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in children. Thermal and chemical burns are the most common types of burns. Their clinical appearance can be similar and the treatment is largely similar. Thermal burns in children occur primarily after exposure to a hot surface or liquid, or contact with fire. Burns are typically classified based on the depth and total body surface area, and the severity and onset of the burn can also depend on the temperature and duration of contact. Chemical burns are caused by chemicals-most commonly acids and alkalis-that can damage the skin on contact. In children, the most common cause of chemical burns is from household products such as toilet bowl cleaners, drain cleaners, detergents, and bleaches. Mild chemical burns generally cause redness and pain and can look similar to other common rashes or skin infections, whereas severe chemical burns are more extreme and may cause redness, blistering, skin peeling, and swelling.

  6. Common Injuries of Collegiate Tennis Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Wisdom Magtajas Valleser

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the common injuries of Filipino collegiate tennis players; 110 varsity tennis players with a mean of 20 years old (SD ± 1.7 with an average playing experience of 12 years participated in the study. There was a 100% occurrence of at least one injury with an average rate of 5.98 injuries per person. The authors observed that the most commonly injured anatomical region is the lower extremity; ankles were recorded as the most commonly injured part. Other commonly injured areas included the shoulders and lower back. Furthermore, the most common injury type is tendinitis, sprains, and strains. The recorded injuries were mostly associated with overuse injuries, and the findings were similar to those of most other studies on tennis injuries. A larger sample size may provide more conclusive findings on tennis injuries, particularly in different levels of competition, such as recreational or professional athletes.

  7. The Common and its potential creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Oscar Garcia

    2015-01-01

    creativity of the common allows for the production of other forms of life. This article explores an alternative model of creative capitalism, whereby the common is expropriated through its marketization and individualization. This model is based on three pillars: the city as the place of creation of new......The capitalist modes of production and accumulation require and make possible the expansion of the common. The dependency of capitalism on the common opens up possibilities of different paths seen from post-crisis perspectives: the potential of the common can be monopolized by the interest...... of capital in exploiting it but it can also contribute to shaping other scenarios. In the first case, creative capitalism moves towards a mode of production based on clustering, mostly in the cities, to produce untraded externalities or interdependencies. In the second case, the interconnected and potential...

  8. Governing the global commons with local institutions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Bodnar

    Full Text Available Most problems faced by modern human society have two characteristics in common--they are tragedy-of-the-commons type of problems, and they are global problems. Tragedy-of-the-commons type of problems are those where a commonly shared resource is overexploited by free riders at the expense of everyone sharing the resource. The exploitation of global resources such as clean air and water, political stability and peace, etc. underlies many of the most pressing human problems. Punishment of free riding behavior is one of the most frequently used strategies to combat the problem, but the spatial reach of sanctioning institutions is often more limited than the spatial effects of overexploitation. Here, we analyze a general game theoretical model to assess under what circumstances sanctioning institutions with limited reach can maintain the larger commons. We find that the effect of the spatial reach has a strong effect on whether and how the commons can be maintained, and that the transitions between those outcomes are characterized by phase transitions. The latter indicates that a small change in the reach of sanctioning systems can profoundly change the way the global commons can be managed.

  9. Governing the global commons with local institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnar, Todd; Salathé, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    Most problems faced by modern human society have two characteristics in common--they are tragedy-of-the-commons type of problems, and they are global problems. Tragedy-of-the-commons type of problems are those where a commonly shared resource is overexploited by free riders at the expense of everyone sharing the resource. The exploitation of global resources such as clean air and water, political stability and peace, etc. underlies many of the most pressing human problems. Punishment of free riding behavior is one of the most frequently used strategies to combat the problem, but the spatial reach of sanctioning institutions is often more limited than the spatial effects of overexploitation. Here, we analyze a general game theoretical model to assess under what circumstances sanctioning institutions with limited reach can maintain the larger commons. We find that the effect of the spatial reach has a strong effect on whether and how the commons can be maintained, and that the transitions between those outcomes are characterized by phase transitions. The latter indicates that a small change in the reach of sanctioning systems can profoundly change the way the global commons can be managed.

  10. Accounting and marketing: searching a common denominator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S. Murphy

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Accounting and marketing are very different disciplines. The analysis of customer profitability is one concept that can unite accounting and marketing as a common denominator. In this article I search for common ground between accounting and marketing in the analysis of customer profitability to determine if a common denominator really exists between the two. This analysis focuses on accounting profitability, customer lifetime value, and customer equity. The article ends with a summary of what accountants can do to move the analysis of customer value forward, as an analytical tool, within companies.

  11. Ecology and the Tragedy of the Commons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Roopnarine

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops mathematical models of the tragedy of the commons analogous to ecological models of resource consumption. Tragedies differ fundamentally from predator–prey relationships in nature because human consumers of a resource are rarely controlled solely by that resource. Tragedies do occur, however, at the level of the ecosystem, where multiple species interactions are involved. Human resource systems are converging rapidly toward ecosystem-type systems as the number of exploited resources increase, raising the probability of system-wide tragedies in the human world. Nevertheless, common interests exclusive of exploited commons provide feasible options for avoiding tragedy in a converged world.

  12. General Common Fixed Point Theorems and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Lal Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main result is a common fixed point theorem for a pair of multivalued maps on a complete metric space extending a recent result of Đorić and Lazović (2011 for a multivalued map on a metric space satisfying Ćirić-Suzuki-type-generalized contraction. Further, as a special case, we obtain a generalization of an important common fixed point theorem of Ćirić (1974. Existence of a common solution for a class of functional equations arising in dynamic programming is also discussed.

  13. Attachments to the common-place

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blok, Anders

    2015-01-01

    change. To understand the dynamic interplay of architecture and community-building in this case, the article stages a theoretical debate on the politics of shared attachments between three proponents of French pragmatic sociology: Bruno Latour, Antoine Hennion, and Laurent Thévenot. Drawing in particular...... on Thévenot's notion of ‘commonality in the plural’, the article shows how a range of personal affinities to the architectural form of the kyō-machiya, positioned as an urban ‘common-place’, serves to coordinate across otherwise divergent interests. By taking seriously the role of attachments to common...

  14. The Common and its potential creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Oscar Garcia

    2015-01-01

    The capitalist modes of production and accumulation require and make possible the expansion of the common. The dependency of capitalism on the common opens up possibilities of different paths seen from post-crisis perspectives: the potential of the common can be monopolized by the interest...... of capital in exploiting it but it can also contribute to shaping other scenarios. In the first case, creative capitalism moves towards a mode of production based on clustering, mostly in the cities, to produce untraded externalities or interdependencies. In the second case, the interconnected and potential...... social bonds, the production of general intellect and the transformation of public spaces; the precarious multitude as a new class composition opposed to the entrepreneurial conception of creative class; and the cultural commons as an exit strategy from the dichotomy between private and public leading...

  15. Common acquired kidney diseases in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    5. Common acquired kidney diseases in children. Examination of the urine is probably the most ... rheumatic fever and APSGN should not ... remains unknown. ... Volume overload may also cause ..... systematic review of observational studies.

  16. SSA FITARA Common Baseline Implementation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This document describes the agency's plan to implement the Federal Information Technology Acquisition Reform Act (FITARA) Common Baseline per OMB memorandum M-15-14.

  17. Anti-Secession Law Reflects Common Will

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏远

    2005-01-01

    @@ Chinese top legislator Wu Bangguo on Dec.29, 2004 promised that the 10th National People's Congress (NPC) would do its best to fully reflect the common will of all Chinese people in making the anti-secession law.

  18. Depression Common After Time Spent in ICU

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160482.html Depression Common After Time Spent in ICU About one- ... of former intensive care unit (ICU) patients have depression, a new review finds. Each year, more than ...

  19. Mycorrhiza: A Common Form of Mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medve, Richard J.

    1978-01-01

    Mycorrhizae are among the most common examples of mutualism. This article discusses their structure, symbolic relationship, factors affecting formation and applying research. Questions are posed and answers suggested. (MA)

  20. Frameworks of competence: common or specific?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grant, Simon

    2006-01-01

    Please, cite this publication as: Grant, S. (2006). Frameworks of competence: common or specific?. Proceedings of International Workshop in Learning Networks for Lifelong Competence Development, TENCompetence Conference. September 12th, Sofia, Bulgaria: TENCompetence. Retrieved June 30th, 2006, from

  1. Southern Watersheds Common Reedgrass Project Progress Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Southern Watersheds includes the drainages of the Northwest River, the North Landing River, and Back Bay in the southeastern corner of Virginia. Common reedgrass...

  2. Common Cause Failure Modeling: Aerospace Versus Nuclear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott, James E.; Britton, Paul; Ring, Robert W.; Hark, Frank; Hatfield, G. Spencer

    2010-01-01

    Aggregate nuclear plant failure data is used to produce generic common-cause factors that are specifically for use in the common-cause failure models of NUREG/CR-5485. Furthermore, the models presented in NUREG/CR-5485 are specifically designed to incorporate two significantly distinct assumptions about the methods of surveillance testing from whence this aggregate failure data came. What are the implications of using these NUREG generic factors to model the common-cause failures of aerospace systems? Herein, the implications of using the NUREG generic factors in the modeling of aerospace systems are investigated in detail and strong recommendations for modeling the common-cause failures of aerospace systems are given.

  3. common laboratory investigations in obstetrics and gynaecology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    tice have much in common with those in other medical disci- ... Vitamin B12 and folate ... hypertensive disorders of ... antenatal full blood count screening ... and Low Platelets). ... be of value in detecting obstetrically .... The cut-off at 2 hours.

  4. What Are Common Treatments for Down Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources and Publications What are common treatments for Down syndrome? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... computers with large-letter keyboards. DS-Connect®: The Down Syndrome Registry Parents and families of children with Down ...

  5. Vulvovaginitis and other common childhood gynaecological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garden, Anne S

    2011-04-01

    Paediatric gynaecological problems, especially those involving the vulvar area, are common in childhood. The conditions frequently seen include recurrent bacterial vulvovaginitis, vulvar irritation, labial adhesions and dermatological conditions. The presentation and management of these conditions will be reviewed.

  6. Lateral meniscal cyst causing common peroneal palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jowett, Andrew J.L.; Johnston, Jaquie F.A. [Royal Melbourne Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Level 7, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Gaillard, Francesco; Anderson, Suzanne E. [Royal Melbourne Hospital, Department of Radiology, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia)

    2008-04-15

    Lateral meniscal cysts are relatively common, but only in rare instances do they cause common peroneal nerve irritation. There are, we believe, no cases reported in which both the sensory and motor functions of the nerve have been compromised. We present a case of a lateral meniscal cyst that became palpable and led to symptoms of numbness and weakness in the distribution of the common peroneal nerve. The MRI findings were of an oblique tear of the lateral meniscus with an associated multiloculated meniscal cyst that coursed behind the biceps tendon before encroaching on the common peroneal nerve. Surgical resection confirmed the tract as located on the MRI and histology confirmed the mass to be a synovial cyst. Resection of the cyst and arthroscopic excision of the meniscal tear led to resolution of the symptoms in 3 months. (orig.)

  7. Spring Creek Common Allotment habitat management plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Management plan for the Spring Creek Common Allotment on Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge, in McCone and Garfield Counties, Montana. This plan discusses...

  8. Mycorrhiza: A Common Form of Mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medve, Richard J.

    1978-01-01

    Mycorrhizae are among the most common examples of mutualism. This article discusses their structure, symbolic relationship, factors affecting formation and applying research. Questions are posed and answers suggested. (MA)

  9. Inquiry, New Literacies, and the Common Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegman, Bridget

    2014-01-01

    For 21st century learning, students need to be well versed in techniques for inquiry using new literacies. Developing these skills also will meet the rigorous expectations of the Common Core State Standards.

  10. Inquiry, New Literacies, and the Common Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegman, Bridget

    2014-01-01

    For 21st century learning, students need to be well versed in techniques for inquiry using new literacies. Developing these skills also will meet the rigorous expectations of the Common Core State Standards.

  11. common bacterial isolates from infected eyes abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LIVINGSTON

    The common bacterial isolates and their antibiotics susceptibility were studied in 298 bacterial ... Bacteria were isolated most on the eye infections of the conjunctiva ... practitioners to avoid development of resistance from indiscriminate use.

  12. Urban gardens: catalysts for restorative commons infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Seitz

    2009-01-01

    One of 18 articles inspired by the Meristem 2007 Forum, "Restorative Commons for Community Health." The articles include interviews, case studies, thought pieces, and interdisciplinary theoretical works that explore the relationship between human health and the urban...

  13. Data Commons to Support Pediatric Cancer Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volchenboum, Samuel L; Cox, Suzanne M; Heath, Allison; Resnick, Adam; Cohn, Susan L; Grossman, Robert

    2017-01-01

    The falling costs and increasing fidelity of high-throughput biomedical research data have led to a renaissance in cancer surveillance and treatment. Yet, the amount, velocity, and complexity of these data have overcome the capacity of the increasing number of researchers collecting and analyzing this information. By centralizing the data, processing power, and tools, there is a valuable opportunity to share resources and thus increase the efficiency, power, and impact of research. Herein, we describe current data commons and how they operate in the oncology landscape, including an overview of the International Neuroblastoma Risk Group data commons as a paradigm case. We outline the practical steps and considerations in building data commons. Finally, we discuss the unique opportunities and benefits of creating a data commons within the context of pediatric cancer research, highlighting the particular advantages for clinical oncology and suggested next steps.

  14. Social Justice and the Environmental Commons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Constance A; Byington, Rachel; Gallay, Erin; Sambo, Allison

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we build on the scholarship on youth civic engagement by turning attention to the environmental commons as a space for political action. We begin with a definition of the term and arguments about ways that social justice is implied in it. Following that, we raise several psychological challenges to motivating action on behalf of the environmental commons and discuss the critical experiences and actions that can defy those challenges. Finally, drawing from Ostrom's empirical evidence opposing a tragedy of the commons, we discuss practices consistent with a social justice approach that nurture in younger generations an identification with and commitment to the environmental commons and discuss how this orientation would benefit human beings, democracies, and the earth. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Learning commons evolution and collaborative essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Schader, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    This book examines successfully planned and implemented learning commons at several different academic institutions around the world. These case studies provide a methodology for effective planning, implementation and assessment. Practical information is provided on how to collaborate with campus stakeholders, estimate budgeting and staffing and determine the equipment, hardware and software needs. Also provided are memoranda of understandings (MOUs), planning checklists and assessment tools. This book reflects a unifying focus on both the evolution of learning commons to learning spaces and t

  16. Complications in common general pediatric surgery procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnaus, Maria E; Ostlie, Daniel J

    2016-12-01

    Complications related to general pediatric surgery procedures are a major concern for pediatric surgeons and their patients. Although infrequent, when they occur the consequences can lead to significant morbidity and psychosocial stress. The purpose of this article is to discuss the common complications encountered during several common pediatric general surgery procedures including inguinal hernia repair (open and laparoscopic), umbilical hernia repair, laparoscopic pyloromyotomy, and laparoscopic appendectomy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Common Metrics for Human-Robot Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfeld, Aaron; Lewis, Michael; Fong, Terrence; Scholtz, Jean; Schultz, Alan; Kaber, David; Goodrich, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes an effort to identify common metrics for task-oriented human-robot interaction (HRI). We begin by discussing the need for a toolkit of HRI metrics. We then describe the framework of our work and identify important biasing factors that must be taken into consideration. Finally, we present suggested common metrics for standardization and a case study. Preparation of a larger, more detailed toolkit is in progress.

  18. Stochastic Models for Common Failures of Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    common cause model, NUREG /CR-1401, 1980. [3] Church, J. D. and Harris, B., The estimation of reliability from stress- strength relationship...Fachband 2/1, 1980. [11] Lewis, H. W., Chairman, Risk Assessment Review Group Report to the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, NUREG /CR-0400, 1978. [12...Regulatory Commission, P.R.A. Procedures Guide, NUREG / CR-2300, 1983. [18] Vesely, W. E., Estimating Common Cause Failure Probabilities in Reliability and

  19. Common predictor effects for multivariate longitudinal data

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Juan; Weiss, Robert E.

    2009-01-01

    Multivariate outcomes measured longitudinally over time are common in medicine, public health, psychology and sociology. The typical (saturated) longitudinal multivariate regression model has a separate set of regression coefficients for each outcome. However, multivariate outcomes are often quite similar and many outcomes can be expected to respond similarly to changes in covariate values. Given a set of outcomes likely to share common covariate effects, we propose the Clustered Outcome COmm...

  20. A common language for computer security incidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John D. Howard; Thomas A Longstaff

    1998-10-01

    Much of the computer security information regularly gathered and disseminated by individuals and organizations cannot currently be combined or compared because a common language has yet to emerge in the field of computer security. A common language consists of terms and taxonomies (principles of classification) which enable the gathering, exchange and comparison of information. This paper presents the results of a project to develop such a common language for computer security incidents. This project results from cooperation between the Security and Networking Research Group at the Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA, and the CERT{reg_sign} Coordination Center at Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA. This Common Language Project was not an effort to develop a comprehensive dictionary of terms used in the field of computer security. Instead, the authors developed a minimum set of high-level terms, along with a structure indicating their relationship (a taxonomy), which can be used to classify and understand computer security incident information. They hope these high-level terms and their structure will gain wide acceptance, be useful, and most importantly, enable the exchange and comparison of computer security incident information. They anticipate, however, that individuals and organizations will continue to use their own terms, which may be more specific both in meaning and use. They designed the common language to enable these lower-level terms to be classified within the common language structure.

  1. The most common friend first immunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nian, Fu-Zhong; Hu, Cha-Sheng

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, a standard susceptible-infected-recovered-susceptible(SIRS) epidemic model based on the Watts-Strogatz (WS) small-world network model and the Barabsi-Albert (BA) scale-free network model is established, and a new immunization scheme — “the most common friend first immunization” is proposed, in which the most common friend’s node is described as being the first immune on the second layer protection of complex networks. The propagation situations of three different immunization schemes — random immunization, high-risk immunization, and the most common friend first immunization are studied. At the same time, the dynamic behaviors are also studied on the WS small-world and the BA scale-free network. Moreover, the analytic and simulated results indicate that the immune effect of the most common friend first immunization is better than random immunization, but slightly worse than high-risk immunization. However, high-risk immunization still has some limitations. For example, it is difficult to accurately define who a direct neighbor in the life is. Compared with the traditional immunization strategies having some shortcomings, the most common friend first immunization is effective, and it is nicely consistent with the actual situation. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61263019), the Program for International Science and Technology Cooperation Projects of Gansu Province, China (Grant No. 144WCGA166), and the Program for Longyuan Young Innovation Talents and the Doctoral Foundation of Lanzhou University of Technology, China.

  2. Self-calibrating common-path interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porras-Aguilar, Rosario; Falaggis, Konstantinos; Ramirez-San-Juan, Julio C; Ramos-Garcia, Ruben

    2015-02-09

    A quantitative phase measuring technique is presented that estimates the object phase from a series of phase shifted interferograms that are obtained in a common-path configuration with unknown phase shifts. The derived random phase shifting algorithm for common-path interferometers is based on the Generalized Phase Contrast theory [pl. Opt.40(2), 268 (2001)10.1063/1.1404846], which accounts for the particular image formation and includes effects that are not present in two-beam interferometry. It is shown experimentally that this technique can be used within common-path configurations employing nonlinear liquid crystal materials as self-induced phase filters for quantitative phase imaging without the need of phase shift calibrations. The advantages of such liquid crystal elements compared to spatial light modulator based solutions are given by the cost-effectiveness, self-alignment, and the generation of diminutive dimensions of the phase filter size, giving unique performance advantages.

  3. COMMON PHASES OF COMPUTER FORENSICS INVESTIGATION MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus Yusoff

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing criminal activities using digital information as the means or targets warrant for a structured manner in dealing with them. Since 1984 when a formalized process been introduced, a great number of new and improved computer forensic investigation processes have been developed. In this paper, we reviewed a few selected investigation processes that have been produced throughout the yearsand then identified the commonly shared processes. Hopefully, with the identification of the commonly shard process, it would make it easier for the new users to understand the processes and also to serve as the basic underlying concept for the development of a new set of processes. Based on the commonly shared processes, we proposed a generic computer forensics investigation model, known as GCFIM.

  4. Organising pneumonia in common variable immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boujaoude, Ziad; Arya, Rohan; Rafferty, William; Dammert, Pedro

    2013-06-07

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most common of the primary immunodeficiency disorders. Pulmonary manifestations are characterised by recurrent rhinosinusitis, respiratory tract infections and bronchiectasis. Less commonly the lung may be affected by lymphoid disorders and sarcoid-like granulomas. Organising pneumonia (OP) is a rare pulmonary manifestation. We report the case of a 32-year-old woman with CVID who presented with fever, dyspnoea and persistent lung infiltrates despite antibiotic therapy. CT of the chest showed bilateral patchy alveolar infiltrates. Pulmonary function tests revealed moderate restriction and reduction in diffusion capacity. Initial bronchoscopy with transbronchial biopsies did not yield a diagnosis but surgical lung biopsies identified OP. Significant clinical, radiographic and physiological improvement was achieved after institution of corticosteroid therapy.

  5. REVIEW ON TUBERCULOSIS AND MENTAL DISORDERS COMMON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleide Santos de Araújo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite having vaccine and treatment , TB remains a public health problem . Publications have described high proportion of TB among people with anxiety , depression and mental disorders . This study aimed to identify publications on the association between common mental disorders and tuberculosis and describe the state of the art . This is a literature review with keywords tuberculosis,common mental disorders , anxiety and depression , we excluded studies of extra- pulmonary tuberculosis and animals. 09 articles, only on a specific common mental disorders , comparing the proportion of these in tuberculosis cases ( 46.7 % and tuberculosis infected by the human immunodeficiency virus ( 63.7 % , there are few studies concerning the topic were elected , the most specific problems of anxiety and depression , are from countries where the incidence of tuberculosis is high, ethodological strategies have low analytical power and do not investigate the causal mechanisms underlying the relationship between mental health and tuberculosis.

  6. Our Common Landscapes For The Future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    , but also changed in different time-perspectives. They present different approaches to landscape assessment for practical purposes as well as for aesthetic, mental use and as a source of inspiration. And they end up in the discussion of the establishment of the common endeavor of taking practical care......Foreword for Marc Antrop and Veerle van Eetvelde: Landscape Perspectives – The Holistic Nature of Landscapes Our common landscapes for the future by Jesper Brandt The solution of the ecological crisis through a transformation towards sustainable development is the most urgent challenge in our time....... It is not just a question of CO2 and conversion toward renewable energy. The reestablishment and conscious development of our common landscapes at all spatial scales for the combined benefits of biodiversity, our cultural heritage and the preservation and development of ecosystem services will probably...

  7. Common Software for the ALMA project

    CERN Document Server

    Chiozzi, G; Jeram, B; Sivera, P; Plesko, M; Sekoranja, M; Tkacik, G; Dovc, J; Kadunc, M; Milcinski, G; Verstovsek, I; Zagar, K

    2001-01-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is a joint project between astronomical organizations in Europe, USA and Japan. ALMA will consist of at least 64 12-meter antennas operating in the millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelength range, with baselines up to 10 km. It will be located at an altitude above 5000m in the Chilean Atacama desert[1]. The ALMA Common Software (ACS) provides a software infrastructure common to all partners and consists of a documented collection of common patterns in control systems and of components, which implement those patterns. The heart of ACS is an object model of controlled devices, called Distributed Objects (DOs), implemented as CORBA network objects. Components such as antenna mount, power supply, etc. are defined by means of DOs. A code generator creates Java Bean components for each DO. Programmers can write Java client applications by connecting those Beans with data-manipulation and visualization Beans using commercial visual development tools or programmatically. ACS i...

  8. The Common Framework for Earth Observation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, J.; Stryker, T. S.; Sherman, R.

    2016-12-01

    Each year, the Federal government records petabytes of data about our home planet. That massive amount of data in turn provides enormous benefits to society through weather reports, agricultural forecasts, air and water quality warnings, and countless other applications. To maximize the ease of transforming the data into useful information for research and for public services, the U.S. Group on Earth Observations released the first Common Framework for Earth Observation Data in March 2016. The Common Framework recommends practices for Federal agencies to adopt in order to improve the ability of all users to discover, access, and use Federal Earth observations data. The U.S. Government is committed to making data from civil Earth observation assets freely available to all users. Building on the Administration's commitment to promoting open data, open science, and open government, the Common Framework goes beyond removing financial barriers to data access, and attempts to minimize the technical impediments that limit data utility. While Earth observation systems typically collect data for a specific purpose, these data are often also useful in applications unforeseen during development of the systems. Managing and preserving these data with a common approach makes it easier for a wide range of users to find, evaluate, understand, and utilize the data, which in turn leads to the development of a wide range of innovative applications. The Common Framework provides Federal agencies with a recommended set of standards and practices to follow in order to achieve this goal. Federal agencies can follow these best practices as they develop new observing systems or modernize their existing collections of data. This presentation will give a brief on the context and content of the Common Framework, along with future directions for implementation and keeping its recommendations up-to-date with developing technology.

  9. Less common neoplasms of the pancreas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abby L Mulkeen; Peter S Yoo; Charles Cha

    2006-01-01

    Recently, there has been an increased recognition of neoplasms of the pancreas other than ductal adenocarcinoma. Although not as well studied or characterized as pancreatic adenocarcinoma there are many distinct lesions which exhibit diverse biological behaviors and varying degrees of malignancy. These lesions include: endocrine neoplasms, cystic tumors, solid pseudopapillary tumors, acinar cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, primary lymphoma of the pancreas, and metastatic lesions to the pancreas. These less common neoplasms are being diagnosed more frequently as the number and sensitivity of diagnostic imaging studies increase. This review article discusses the clinical course,diagnosis, and treatment of these less common, but quite relevant, neoplasms of the pancreas.

  10. Common cardiac arrhythmias: recognition and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talmers, F N; Kinhal, V; Sabharwal, S; Weissler, A M

    1981-04-01

    Cardiac arrhythmias are commonly seen in the everyday practice of medicine by the physician. Although certain arrhythmias may be suspected clinically, precise diagnosis is made by electrocardiographic recording of the abnormal rhythm. Once the arrhythmia has been recorded, the next steps are proper electrocardiographic diagnosis and selection of proper treatment. The specific mode of therapy and the speed with which it is delivered will depend not only on the type of arrhythmia, but also on the hemodynamic consequences of the rhythm abnormality on the patient's cardiovascular system. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the electrocardiographic criteria of common cardiac arrhythmias as well as current concepts regarding therapy.

  11. Humanism as a common factor in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wampold, Bruce E

    2012-12-01

    There are many forms of psychotherapies, each distinctive in its own way. From the origins of psychotherapy, it has been suggested that psychotherapy is effective through factors that are common to all therapies. In this article, I suggest that the commonalities that are at the core of psychotherapy are related to evolved human characteristics, which include (a) making sense of the world, (b) influencing through social means, and (c) connectedness, expectation, and mastery. In this way, all psychotherapies are humanistic. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Radiographic evaluation of common pediatric elbow injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven F. DeFroda

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal variations in anatomy in the skeletally immature patient may be mistaken for fracture or injury due to the presence of secondary centers of ossification. Variations in imaging exist from patient to patient based on sex, age, and may even vary from one extremity to the other on the same patient. Despite differences in the appearance of the bony anatomy of the elbow there are certain landmarks and relationships, which can help, distinguish normal from abnormal. We review common radiographic parameters and pitfalls associated in the evaluation of pediatric elbow imaging. We also review common clinical diagnoses in this population.

  13. Common overuse injuries in the young athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengel, K Brooke

    2014-12-01

    Pediatric overuse injury is a common complaint presenting to pediatricians. Overuse injury can affect the soft tissues or bone, and results from an imbalance between training and load to the tissues and recovery time. In the skeletally immature athlete, physeal and apophyseal tissue is particularly vulnerable to overuse resulting in different patterns of injury compared to adults. Awareness of age-dependent patterns of overuse is necessary for proper recognition, treatment, and prevention of injury. This article reviews the most common pediatric overuse injuries with emphasis on risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment. Guidelines for prevention are included, as this is the key component for successful management of overuse injury in pediatric athletes.

  14. Preventive strategies for common mental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmin Garg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Common Mental Disoders (CMDs include depressive and anxiety disorders; one in five individuals, worldwide, gets afflicted with CMDs over lifetime. A wide range of preventive strategies have shown promise when implemented across different stages of lifespan. There is a common thread of emerging preventive strategies for CMDs on the lines for those already established for non-communicable diseases. In India, although there is emerging research in this area, the much required prevention is still in its incipient stage. Some critical issues in planning research and implementing preventive strategies are also outlined to provide a more appropriate perspective.

  15. Socioeconomic transitions as common dynamic processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundlach, Erich; Paldam, Martin

    Long-run socioeconomic transitions can be observed as stylized facts across countries and over time. For instance, poor countries have more agriculture and less democracy than rich countries, and this pattern also holds within countries for transitions from a traditional to a modern society....... It is shown that the agricultural and the democratic transitions can be partly explained as the outcome of dynamic processes that are shared among countries. We identify the effects of common dynamic processes with panel estimators that allow for heterogeneous country effects and possible cross......-country spillovers. Common dynamic processes appear to be in line with alternative hypotheses on the causes of socioeconomic transitions....

  16. CASL- The Common Algebraic Specification Language- Summary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne

    1997-01-01

    This Summary is the basis for the Design Proposal [LD97b] for CASL, the Common Algebraic Specification Language, prepared by the Language Design Task Group of CoFI, the Common Framework Initiative. It gives the abstract syntax, and informally describes its intended semantics. It is accompanied...... for approval to the sponsoring IFIP Working Group on Foundations of System Specification, WG 1.3. It received tentative approval, together with a referees' report recommending the reconsideration of some elements of the design [IFI97]; a response has already been made [LD97a]. The present version...

  17. Simulating futures in extended common LISP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachtsheim, Philip R.

    1988-01-01

    Stack-groups comprise the mechanism underlying implementation of multiprocessing in Extended Common LISP, i.e., running multiple quasi-simultaneous processes within a single LISP address space. On the other hand, the future construct of MULTILISP, an extension of the LISP dialect scheme, deals with parallel execution. The source of concurrency that future exploits is the overlap between computation of a value and use of the value. Described is a simulation of the future construct by an interpreter utilizing stack-group extensions to common LISP.

  18. Inferences on the common coefficient of variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lili

    2005-07-30

    The coefficient of variation is often used as a measure of precision and reproducibility of data in medical and biological science. This paper considers the problem of making inference about the common population coefficient of variation when it is a priori suspected that several independent samples are from populations with a common coefficient of variation. The procedures for confidence interval estimation and hypothesis testing are developed based on the concepts of generalized variables. The coverage properties of the proposed confidence intervals and type-I errors of the proposed tests are evaluated by simulation. The proposed methods are illustrated by a real life example.

  19. Development of a Common Nordic Balance Settlement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-02-15

    NordREG finds it essential for the customers that a common integrated end-user electricity market is developed and that all end-users are able to take part in the Nordic market. A common Nordic balance settlement is one important part of such a change. However, attention has to be paid to the comments that a badly designed common system is worse than well-designed national systems. It is thus important that the change to a common balance settlement is so thoroughly investigated that the common system gives a basis for a well-functioning market. An important basis for such a change is an agreed vision for the process: The present different systems for balance settlement shall by the year 2010 be replaced by a common Nordic balance settlement. This means that: It will be possible for a supplier to sell to the whole Nordic market from one legal entity and using only one system for customer management and reporting. The common Nordic balance settlement will be designed in such a way that it contributes to a well functioning market. This means for example that it will be attractive even for small suppliers and some end-users to be balance responsible parties. It is feasible that the first phase is focused on those present differences that are most decisive for fulfilment of the vision. NordREG recommends that the following issues shall be discussed and agreed in co-operation between NordREG, Nordel and relevant stakeholders in the first phase: The definition shall include how the common Nordic balance settlement shall interact with the balance control and the balance regulation of the interconnected power system and the balance settlement between countries performed by the TSOs. The definition should include the cost-base for common Nordic balance settlement in relation to other system responsibility costs. The core activities of system responsibility have also been analyzed by NordREG. It is important to find a balance between inter alia the need for simplicity and the

  20. Common Space as Threshold Space: Urban Commoning in Struggles to Re-appropriate Public Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavros Stavrides

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper will explore contemporary practices of urban commoning while attempting to construct a theoretical argument on the inherently emancipating potentialities of common space. Urban commoning will be considered as a set of spatial practices through which space is created both as a good to be shared and as a medium that can give form to institutions of sharing. In order for commoning to remain an open process that continuously expands without being contained in any form of enclosure, it has to invite newcomers. Shared spaces, open to newcomers, are spaces defined neither by a prevailing authority that supervises their use, nor by a closed community that controls them by excluding all ‘outsiders’. Common spaces are thus dependent upon their power to communicate and connect rather than separate. Common spaces are threshold spaces, connecting and comparing adjacent areas at the same time. In practices of common space creation, commoners create areas of encounter and collective self-management. Rules of use are also of a threshold character, constantly in the making. Likewise, subjects of use are threshold subjects: for commoning to remain open and ever expanding, commoners have to consider themselves open to transformative negotiations with newcomers.This paper will thus attempt to understand urban commoning as a multifaceted process which produces spaces, subjects of use (inhabitants and rules of use (institutions that share the same qualitative characteristics. In such a prospect, urban commoning can prefigure forms of social relations based on sharing, cooperation and solidarity. In this way, space becomes not simply a common product but also the means through which egalitarian social relations can potentially be shaped. 

  1. Complementing the Common Core with Holistic Biliteracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopewell, Susan; Butvilofsky, Sandra; Escamilla, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    In this article the authors propose that biliteracy is a more challenging and rigorous form of literacy than the English-only orientation of the Common Core State Standards. Because learning to read and write in two languages differs from learning to read and write in one, they argue that biliteracy requires its own pedagogies, methodologies, and…

  2. Action of commonly used disinfectants against enteroviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, H K; Codd, A A

    1983-06-01

    The virucidal effect of some of the most commonly used hospital disinfectants against Coxsackie B4, Echovirus 11, Poliovirus type 1 and Rotavirus have been evaluated. It was found that 'Chloros', 'Totacide 28' and methylated spirits were completely virucidal to all the viruses under study. 'Stericol' and 'Lysol' had a limited effect while 'Hibiscrub' and 'Savlon' had no effect at all.

  3. English Learners, Writing, and the Common Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Carol Booth; Scarcella, Robin; Matuchniak, Tina

    2015-01-01

    Adopted by 46 states, the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) present a vision of what it means to be literate in the twenty-first century and call for all students, including English learners, to develop critical reading skills necessary for a deep understanding of complex texts, and critical writing skills to write about those texts. This article…

  4. Lesson Planning with the Common Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Linda A.; McDuffie, Amy Roth; Tate, Cathie

    2014-01-01

    Planning a lesson can be similar to planning a road trip--a metaphor the authors use to describe how they applied research and theory to their lesson planning process. A map and mode of transportation, the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) and textbooks as resources, can lead to desired destinations, such as students engaging in…

  5. Are male reproductive disorders a common entity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boisen, K A; Main, K M; Rajpert-De Meyts, E

    2001-01-01

    of one common entity, a testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS). Experimental and epidemiological studies suggest that TDS is a result of disruption of embryonal programming and gonadal development during fetal life. The recent rise in the prevalence of TDS may be causally linked to endocrine disrupters...

  6. Phenotyping common beans for adaptation to drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen eBeebe

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. originated in the New World and are the grain legume of greatest production for direct human consumption. Common bean production is subject to frequent droughts in highland Mexico, in the Pacific coast of Central America, in northeast Brazil, and in eastern and southern Africa from Ethiopia to South Africa. This article reviews efforts to improve common bean for drought tolerance, referring to genetic diversity for drought response, the physiology of of drought tolerance mechanisms, and breeding strategies. Different races of common bean respond differently to drought, with race Durango of highland Mexico being a major source of genes. Sister species of P. vulgaris likewise have unique traits, especially P. acutifolius which is well adapted to dryland conditions. Diverse sources of tolerance may have different mechanisms of plant response, implying the need for different methods of phenotyping to recognize the relevant traits. Practical considerations of field management are discussed including: trial planning; water management; and field preparation.

  7. Revisiting the Common Myths about Homeschooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanowski, Michael H.

    2006-01-01

    The author examines four common myths that still influence individuals regarding their perspective and understanding of the role homeschooling plays in the education of American children. Myth 1 is that homeschooling produces social misfits, stemming from the belief that homeschooled students lack the socialization skills necessary for normal…

  8. Where have all the commons gone?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Narain, Vishal; Vij, Sumit

    2016-01-01

    Common property resources (CPRs) have provided a basis for sustenance to countless households, especially those that lack access to private assets. Several factors have eroded the access of CPR dependent communities, such as, conscious policy decisions of the state, elite domination, the process

  9. Genetics Home Reference: common variable immune deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or Free article on PubMed Central Park JH, Resnick ES, Cunningham-Rundles C. Perspectives on common variable ... on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central Resnick ES, Cunningham-Rundles C. The many faces of ...

  10. Cold shocks: a stressor for common carp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanck, M.W.T.; Booms, G.H.R.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.; Komen, J.

    2000-01-01

    The stress response of common carp Cyprinus carpio was studied by evaluating plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate after single or multiple rapid temperature drops (ΔT: 7, 9 or 11°C). All three amplitudes used induced a significant rise in plasma cortisol levels. Peaks occurred within 20 min after

  11. Common Questions about Sexual Health Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Alexander

    2000-01-01

    Provides research-based answers to questions commonly posed by educators, parents, and others about the philosophy, methods, and impact of school sexual health education, discussing such issues as: whether these school programs are needed, what values they teach, whether the programs should teach about sexual orientation and abstinence, and…

  12. The Common Good in Classical Political Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, V. Bradley

    2006-01-01

    The term "common good" names the end (or final cause) of political and social life in the tradition of moral thought that owes its main substance to Aristotle and St. Thomas Aquinas. It names a genuine good ("bonum honestum") and not merely an instrumental or secondary good defeasible in the face of particular goods. However, at the same time, it…

  13. Commonalities in Symbiotic Plant-Microbe Signalling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holmer, R.; Rutten, L.J.J.; Kohlen, W.; Velzen, van R.; Geurts, R.

    2017-01-01

    Plants face the problem that they have to discriminate symbionts from a diverse pool of soil microbes, including pathogens. Studies on different symbiotic systems revealed commonalities in plant-microbe signalling. In this chapter we focus on four intimate symbiotic interactions: two mycorrhizal

  14. Network Disruption and the Common Enemy Effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoyer, B.

    2012-01-01

    "The enemy of my enemy is my friend." This common adage, which seems to be adhered to in social interactions (e.g. high school cliques or work relationships) as well as in political alliances within countries and between countries, describes the ability of groups or people to work together when they

  15. Common Fixed Points for Weakly Compatible Maps

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Renu Chugh; Sanjay Kumar

    2001-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to prove a common fixed point theorem, from the class of compatible continuous maps to a larger class of maps having weakly compatible maps without appeal to continuity, which generalized the results of Jungck [3], Fisher [1], Kang and Kim [8], Jachymski [2], and Rhoades [9].

  16. Imposex in the common whelk, Buccinum undatum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink, B.P.

    1999-01-01

    The research described in this thesis concerned the perhaps best known and studied common gastropod from the open North Sea of which only limited information was available. With the present research more insight has been obtained concerning this long-lived, off-shore snail species, which

  17. [Hormonal factors in etiology of common acne].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergler-Czop, Beata; Brzezińska-Wcisło, Ligia

    2004-05-01

    Common acne is steatorrhoeic chronic disease, to which specific is, among others, the presence of blackheads, papulopustular eruptions, purulent cysts and cicatrices. Such hormonal factors belong to elements inherent in etiology of the affection. Sebaceous glands have cell receptors on their surface for androgens. In etiopathogenesis of common/simple acne, a decisive role is played by a derivative of testosterone, i.e. 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT). However, some experts are of opinion that there is no correlation between the increased intensity of common acne and other symptoms of hyperandrogenism. Numerous authors assume, however, that common acne-affected patients may be sometimes subjected to intense reactions caused by sebaceous glands against physiological androgens concentrations. Naturally, estrogens can inhibit release of such androgens. Under physiological conditions, natural progesterone does not conduct to intensification of the seborrhea, but the activity of sebum secretion may be triggered off by its synthetic counterparts. Hormonal etiology can be very distinctly visible in the steroid, androgenic, premenstrual, menopausal acne, as well as in juvenile acne and acne neonatorum. In case of females affected by acne, hormonal therapy should be persistently supported and consulted with dermatologists, endocrinologists and gynecologists. Antiandrogenic preparations are applied, such as: cyproterone acetate concurrently administered with estrogens and, as well as not so frequently with chlormadinone acetate (independently or during estrogenic therapy).

  18. Hardware compression using common portions of data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jichuan; Viswanathan, Krishnamurthy

    2015-03-24

    Methods and devices are provided for data compression. Data compression can include receiving a plurality of data chunks, sampling at least some of the plurality of data chunks extracting a common portion from a number of the plurality of data chunks based on the sampling, and storing a remainder of the plurality of data chunks in memory.

  19. The Parameters of Common Information Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Claus

    2002-01-01

    The paper proposes a refinement of the concept of 'Common Information Spaces' (CIS), which has been proposed as a conceptual framework for the CWCW field in order to provide analyses of cooperative work. The refinement is developed through an introductory discussion of previous analyses of CIS...

  20. Common Educational Proficiency Assessment (CEPA) in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombe, Christine; Davidson, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The Common Educational Proficiency Assessment (CEPA) is a large-scale, high-stakes, English language proficiency/placement test administered in the United Arab Emirates to Emirati nationals in their final year of secondary education or Grade 12. The purpose of the CEPA is to place students into English classes at the appropriate government…

  1. Variation and Commonality in Phenomenographic Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerlind, Gerlese S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the data analysis stage of phenomenographic research, elucidating what is involved in terms of both commonality and variation in accepted practice. The analysis stage of phenomenographic research is often not well understood. This paper helps to clarify the process, initially by collecting together in one location the more…

  2. Lesson Planning with the Common Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Linda A.; McDuffie, Amy Roth; Tate, Cathie

    2014-01-01

    Planning a lesson can be similar to planning a road trip--a metaphor the authors use to describe how they applied research and theory to their lesson planning process. A map and mode of transportation, the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) and textbooks as resources, can lead to desired destinations, such as students engaging in…

  3. common problems affecting supranational attempts in africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    some of the common challenges, as evident in the foregoing analysis, facing ... direct binding effect of laws emanating from regional organisations on ... remains the apical decision-making body on matters relating to foreign policy, justice ... exercises supranational powers especially in relation to voting rules in the General.

  4. Common consequence effects in pricing and choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, U.; Trautmann, S.T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of common consequence effects in binary choice, willingness-to-pay (WTP) elicitation, and willingness-to-accept (WTA) elicitation. We find strong evidence in favor of the fanning out hypothesis (Machina, Econometrica 50:277–323, 1982) for both WTP and WTA. I

  5. Creative Commons : Erfgoedinstelling als digitaal curator.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, Esther

    2008-01-01

    Zijn Creative Commons-licenties een ver-van-mijn-bed-show voor erfgoedinstellingen? Integendeel, betoogt Esther Hoorn. De instellingen kunnen ze gebruiken als ze rechthebbende zijn. Maar belangrijker nog: door het gebruik van deze licenties te stimuleren kunnen ze een spin in het web van netwerken r

  6. English Learners, Writing, and the Common Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Carol Booth; Scarcella, Robin; Matuchniak, Tina

    2015-01-01

    Adopted by 46 states, the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) present a vision of what it means to be literate in the twenty-first century and call for all students, including English learners, to develop critical reading skills necessary for a deep understanding of complex texts, and critical writing skills to write about those texts. This article…

  7. Badges: A Common Currency for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Kyle; Thomas, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Digital Badges--icons that can represent skills and achievements at a more fine-grained level than a degree--give colleges and universities a new way to document learning outcomes and to map the pathways students follow to earn a degree. They also provide a common currency to denote learning outcomes and give employers a visual representation and…

  8. "Lookism", Common Schools, Respect and Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    The Common School should promote a sense of the distinctive worth of all human beings. How is the respect thus owed to every individual to be properly understood? This familiar question is explored by discussing "lookism", a form of discrimination on the grounds of appearance. The treatment is located within a wider analysis of stereotyping.…

  9. A Cognitive Core for Common State Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Anderson; Boyce, Steven

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to illustrate cognitive challenges introduced by Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (2010) with regard to conceptualizing fractions. We focus on a strand of standards that appear across grades three through five, which is best represented in grade four, by standard 4.NF.4a: "[Students should] understand a…

  10. Introduction: Regionalising the Common Fisheries Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raakjær, Jesper; Hegland, Troels Jacob

    2012-01-01

    The idea of putting together a special issue of MAST on the issue of regionalisation of the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP), was born in late 2010. Having participated in an EU funded research project looking into how an eco-system based approach to fisheries management could be operationalised...

  11. Imposex in the common whelk, Buccinum undatum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink, B.

    1999-01-01

    The research described in this thesis concerned the perhaps best known and studied common gastropod from the open North Sea of which only limited information was available. With the present research more insight has been obtained concerning this long-lived, off-shore snail species, which existence i

  12. Chromosome Connections: Compelling Clues to Common Ancestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flammer, Larry

    2013-01-01

    Students compare banding patterns on hominid chromosomes and see striking evidence of their common ancestry. To test this, human chromosome no. 2 is matched with two shorter chimpanzee chromosomes, leading to the hypothesis that human chromosome 2 resulted from the fusion of the two shorter chromosomes. Students test that hypothesis by looking for…

  13. Administrative Malpractice: The Limits of Common Sense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogue, E. Grady

    1978-01-01

    An administrator with a hybrid disposition, part scholar and part riverboat gambler, may serve more effectively than either model alone, suggests this executive of the Tennessee Higher Education Commission. Many academic administrators try to live by common sense, which is often yesterday's heresy. (Author/LBH)

  14. Information Technology Trends, Creative Commons Licenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felician ALECU

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Creative Commons licenses, also known as CC, allow the authors to retain the copyright over the works while granting some right to the others, like the permission to modify or to use the work for commercial purposes.

  15. The Common History of European Legal Scholarship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Wallinga (Tammo)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis paper traces the common history of European legal scholarship from its beginning in the late 12th century to the development of national codifications which started some six centuries later. During this period, Roman law was of great importance in the universities, and Justinian’s C

  16. Common antigens between hydatid cyst and cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Daneshpour

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Different research groups reported a negative correlation between cancers and parasitical infections. As an example, the prevalence of a hydatid cyst among patients with cancer was significantly lower than its prevalence among normal population. Tn antigens exist both in cancer and hydatid cyst. This common antigen may be involved in the effect of parasite on cancer growth. So in this work, common antigens between hydatid cyst and cancers have been investigated. Materials and Methods: Different hydatid cyst antigens including hydatid fluid, laminated and germinal layer antigens, and excretory secretory antigens of protoscolices were run in SDS PAGE and transferred to NCP paper. In western immunoblotting, those antigens were probed with sera of patients with different cancer and also sera of non-cancer patients. Also, cross reaction among excretory secretory products of cancer cells and antisera raised against different hydatid cyst antigen was investigated. Results: In western immunoblotting, antisera raised against laminated and germinal layers of hydatid cyst reacted with excretory secretory products of cancer cells. Also, a reaction was detected between hydatid cyst antigens and sera of patients with some cancers. Conclusion: Results of this work emphasize existence of common antigens between hydatid cyst and cancers. More investigation about these common antigens is recommended.

  17. Variation and Commonality in Phenomenographic Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerlind, Gerlese S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the data analysis stage of phenomenographic research, elucidating what is involved in terms of both commonality and variation in accepted practice. The analysis stage of phenomenographic research is often not well understood. This paper helps to clarify the process, initially by collecting together in one location the more…

  18. Common and Distinct Components in Data Fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smilde, Age K.; Mage, Ingrid; Naes, Tormod;

    2016-01-01

    and understanding their relative merits. This paper provides a unifying framework for this subfield of data fusion by using rigorous arguments from linear algebra. The most frequently used methods for distinguishing common and distinct components are explained in this framework and some practical examples are given...

  19. Common Core State Standards and Adaptive Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamil, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the issues of how Common Core State Standards (CCSS) will impact adaptive teaching. It focuses on 2 of the major differences between conventional standards and CCSS: the increased complexity of text and the addition of disciplinary literacy standards to reading instruction. The article argues that adaptive teaching under CCSS…

  20. Common Dental Injury Management in Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Eliot J.; Macias, C. Roger; Stephens, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    Context: Orofacial and dental trauma continues to be a commonly encountered issue for the sports medicine team. All sports have some risk for dental injury, but “contact sports” presumably incur more risk. Immediate evaluation and proper management of the most common injuries to dentition can result in saving or restoration of tooth structure. Despite the growing body of evidence, mouth guard use and dental protection have not paralleled the increase in sports participation. Evidence Acquisition: A PubMed search from 1960 through April 2012 was conducted, as well as a review of peer-reviewed online publications. Results: Common dental injuries in sports include tooth (crown) fractures; tooth intrusion, extrusion, and avulsion; and temporomandibular joint dislocation. Mouth guards help prevent most injuries and do not significantly affect ventilation or speech if fitted properly. Conclusion: A working knowledge of the presentation as well as management of commonly encountered dental trauma in sports is essential to the immediate care of an athlete and returning to play. Mouth guard use should be encouraged for athletes of all ages in those sports that incur significant risk. PMID:26131303

  1. Mathematics for common entrance one answers

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Serena

    2015-01-01

    Enables efficient assessment of pupils' performance at Levels 1 and 2 of the ISEB 13+ Common Entrance syllabus. Clear layout saves time marking work and identifies areas requiring further attention. Includes diagrams and working where necessary, to demonstrate how to present high-scoring answers in Level 1 and 2 exams

  2. Mathematics for common entrance two answers

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Serena

    2015-01-01

    Enables efficient assessment of pupils' performance at Levels 1 and 2 of the ISEB 13+ Common Entrance syllabus. Clear layout saves time marking work and identifies areas requiring further attention. Includes diagrams and working where necessary, to demonstrate how to present high-scoring answers in Level 1 and 2 exams.

  3. Double common bile duct: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Srdjan P Djuranovic; Milenko B Ugljesic; Nenad S Mijalkovic; Viktorija A Korneti; Nada V Kovacevic; Tamara M Alempijevic; Slaven V Radulovic; Dragan V Tomic; Milan M Spuran

    2007-01-01

    Double common bile duct (DCBD) is a rare congenital anomaly in which two common bile ducts exist. One usually has normal drainage into the papilla duodeni major and the other usually named accessory common bile duct (ACBD) opens in different parts of upper gastrointestinal tract (stomach, duodenum, ductus pancreaticus or septum). This anomaly is of great importance since it is often associated with biliary lithiasis, choledochal cyst, anomalous pancreaticobiliary junction (APBJ) and upper gastrointestinal tract malignancies. We recently recognized a rare case of DCBD associated with APBJ with lithiasis in better developed common bile duct. The opening site of ACBD was in the pancreatic duct. The anomaly was suspected by transabdominal ultrasonography and finally confirmed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) followed by endoscopic sphincterotomy and stone extraction. According to the literature, the existence of DCBD with the opening of ACBD in the pancreatic duct is most frequently associated with APBJ and gallbladder carcinoma. In case of DCBD, the opening site of ACBD is of greatest clinical importance because of its close implications with concomitant pathology. The adequate diagnosis of this rare anomaly is significant since the operative complications may occur in cases with DCBD which is not recognized prior to surgical treatment.

  4. Common bean and cowpea improvement in Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    During 2014 and 2015, the Instituto de Investigação Agronómica (IIA) evaluated the performance of common bean (Phaselolus vulgaris L.) breeding lines and improved cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) varieties. The field experiments were planted in the lowlands at Mazozo and in the highlands at Chian...

  5. Imposex in the common whelk, Buccinum undatum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink, B.P.

    1999-01-01

    The research described in this thesis concerned the perhaps best known and studied common gastropod from the open North Sea of which only limited information was available. With the present research more insight has been obtained concerning this long-lived, off-shore snail species, which ex

  6. Common antigens between hydatid cyst and cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshpour, Shima; Bahadoran, Mehran; Hejazi, Seyed Hossein; Eskandarian, Abas Ali; Mahmoudzadeh, Mehdi; Darani, Hossein Yousofi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Different research groups reported a negative correlation between cancers and parasitical infections. As an example, the prevalence of a hydatid cyst among patients with cancer was significantly lower than its prevalence among normal population. Tn antigens exist both in cancer and hydatid cyst. This common antigen may be involved in the effect of parasite on cancer growth. So in this work, common antigens between hydatid cyst and cancers have been investigated. Materials and Methods: Different hydatid cyst antigens including hydatid fluid, laminated and germinal layer antigens, and excretory secretory antigens of protoscolices were run in SDS PAGE and transferred to NCP paper. In western immunoblotting, those antigens were probed with sera of patients with different cancer and also sera of non-cancer patients. Also, cross reaction among excretory secretory products of cancer cells and antisera raised against different hydatid cyst antigen was investigated. Results: In western immunoblotting, antisera raised against laminated and germinal layers of hydatid cyst reacted with excretory secretory products of cancer cells. Also, a reaction was detected between hydatid cyst antigens and sera of patients with some cancers. Conclusion: Results of this work emphasize existence of common antigens between hydatid cyst and cancers. More investigation about these common antigens is recommended. PMID:26962511

  7. Common Educational Proficiency Assessment (CEPA) in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombe, Christine; Davidson, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The Common Educational Proficiency Assessment (CEPA) is a large-scale, high-stakes, English language proficiency/placement test administered in the United Arab Emirates to Emirati nationals in their final year of secondary education or Grade 12. The purpose of the CEPA is to place students into English classes at the appropriate government…

  8. Student Voice and the Common Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonezawa, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Common Core proponents and detractors debate its merits, but students have voiced their opinion for years. Using a decade's worth of data gathered through design-research on youth voice, this article discusses what high school students have long described as more ideal learning environments for themselves--and how remarkably similar the Common…

  9. Student Voice and the Common Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonezawa, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Common Core proponents and detractors debate its merits, but students have voiced their opinion for years. Using a decade's worth of data gathered through design-research on youth voice, this article discusses what high school students have long described as more ideal learning environments for themselves--and how remarkably similar the Common…

  10. The psychology of coordination and common knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kyle A; DeScioli, Peter; Haque, Omar Sultan; Pinker, Steven

    2014-10-01

    Research on human cooperation has concentrated on the puzzle of altruism, in which 1 actor incurs a cost to benefit another, and the psychology of reciprocity, which evolved to solve this problem. We examine the complementary puzzle of mutualism, in which actors can benefit each other simultaneously, and the psychology of coordination, which ensures such benefits. Coordination is facilitated by common knowledge: the recursive belief state in which A knows X, B knows X, A knows that B knows X, B knows that A knows X, ad infinitum. We test whether people are sensitive to common knowledge when deciding whether to engage in risky coordination. Participants decided between working alone for a certain profit and working together for a potentially higher profit that they would receive only if their partner made the same choice. Results showed that more participants attempted risky coordination when they and their prospective partner had common knowledge of the payoffs (broadcast over a loudspeaker) than when they had only shared knowledge (conveyed to both by a messenger) or private knowledge (revealed to each partner separately). These results support the hypothesis that people represent common knowledge as a distinct cognitive category that licenses them to coordinate with others for mutual gain. We discuss how this hypothesis can provide a unified explanation for diverse phenomena in human social life, including recursive mentalizing, performative speech acts, public protests, hypocrisy, and self-conscious emotional expressions.

  11. US Academic Libraries: Today's Learning Commons Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Susan

    2008-01-01

    In 2007, the author examined existing academic libraries in the United States to determine best practices for the design, implementation and service of learning commons facilities. A primary objective of this study was to discover how to create a higher education learning environment that sustains scholarship, encourages collaboration and empowers…

  12. Economic Soft Landing:A Common Desir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUOYUANJUN

    2005-01-01

    An economic soft landing refers to steady deceleration of an overheated economy to a mole moderate rate of growth. As such, it may appear to relate to government macro,adjustmentrrather than the desire of the common people. But its effect is one of cooling down fleree economic growth that exerts high pressure on daily life and is, therefore, of social benefif.

  13. The Parameters of Common Information Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Claus

    2002-01-01

    The paper proposes a refinement of the concept of 'Common Information Spaces' (CIS), which has been proposed as a conceptual framework for the CWCW field in order to provide analyses of cooperative work. The refinement is developed through an introductory discussion of previous analyses of CIS...

  14. Global Warming, A Tragedy of the Commons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philander, S. G.

    2016-12-01

    What is the appropriate balance between our responsibilities towards future generations, and our obligations to those who live in abject poverty today? Global warming, a tragedy of the commons, brings such ethical questions to the fore but, whether "matured" or not, is itself mute on ethical issues.

  15. Transition Framingham: The Cultural Commons in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Emily Kearns

    2017-01-01

    This chapter examines the revitalization of the cultural commons in one Massachusetts community. The adult learning theory of situated cognition, specifically communities of practice and cognitive apprenticeship, provides a lens through which to better understand how knowledge sharing can effectively promote localization in an effort to mitigate…

  16. Genomic Data Commons | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI’s Center for Cancer Genomics launches the Genomic Data Commons (GDC), a unified data sharing platform for the cancer research community. The mission of the GDC is to enable data sharing across the entire cancer research community, to ultimately support precision medicine in oncology.

  17. Developing a Science Commons for Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhardt, W. C.; Lander, H.

    2016-12-01

    Many scientific communities, recognizing the research possibilities inherent in data sets, have created domain specific archives such as the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (iris.edu) and ClinicalTrials.gov. Though this is an important step forward, most scientists, including geoscientists, also use a variety of software tools and at least some amount of computation to conduct their research. While the archives make it simpler for scientists to locate the required data, provisioning disk space, compute resources, and network bandwidth can still require significant efforts. This challenge exists despite the wealth of resources available to researchers, namely lab IT resources, institutional IT resources, national compute resources (XSEDE, OSG), private clouds, public clouds, and the development of cyberinfrastructure technologies meant to facilitate use of those resources. Further tasks include obtaining and installing required tools for analysis and visualization. If the research effort is a collaboration or involves certain types of data, then the partners may well have additional non-scientific tasks such as securing the data and developing secure sharing methods for the data. These requirements motivate our investigations into the "Science Commons". This paper will present a working definition of a science commons, compare and contrast examples of existing science commons, and describe a project based at RENCI to implement a science commons for risk analytics. We will then explore what a similar tool might look like for the geosciences.

  18. Common large innovations across nonlinear time series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); R. Paap (Richard)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractWe propose a multivariate nonlinear econometric time series model, which can be used to examine if there is common nonlinearity across economic variables. The model is a multivariate censored latent effects autoregression. The key feature of this model is that nonlinearity appears as sep

  19. Is there a common factor for vision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappe, Céline; Clarke, Aaron; Mohr, Christine; Herzog, Michael H

    2014-07-03

    In cognition, common factors play a crucial role. For example, different types of intelligence are highly correlated, pointing to a common factor, which is often called g. One might expect that a similar common factor would also exist for vision. Surprisingly, no one in the field has addressed this issue. Here, we provide the first evidence that there is no common factor for vision. We tested 40 healthy students’ performance in six basic visual paradigms: visual acuity, vernier discrimination,two visual backward masking paradigms, Gabor detection, and bisection discrimination. One might expect that performance levels on these tasks would be highly correlated because some individuals generally have better vision than others due to superior optics,better retinal or cortical processing, or enriched visual experience. However, only four out of 15 correlations were significant, two of which were nontrivial. These results cannot be explained by high intraobserver variability or ceiling effects because test–retest reliability was high and the variance in our student population is commensurate with that from other studies with well sighted populations. Using a variety of tests (e.g., principal components analysis, Bayes theorem, test–retest reliability), we show the robustness of our null results. We suggest that neuroplasticity operates during everyday experience to generate marked individual differences. Our results apply only to the normally sighted population (i.e., restricted range sampling). For the entire population, including those with degenerate vision, we expect different results.

  20. Common oral lesions associated with HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navazesh, M; Lucatorto, F

    1993-09-01

    More than 40 different lesions involving head and neck areas have been associated with HIV infection. The oral cavity may manifest the first sign of HIV infection. Early detection of these conditions can lead to early diagnosis of HIV infection and subsequent appropriate management. Signs, symptoms and management of the most common HIV-associated oral lesions are discussed.

  1. Joint Local Quasinilpotence and Common Invariant Subspaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Fernández Valles

    2006-08-01

    In this article we obtain some positive results about the existence of a common nontrivial invariant subspace for -tuples of not necessarily commuting operators on Banach spaces with a Schauder basis. The concept of joint quasinilpotence plays a basic role. Our results complement recent work by Kosiek [6] and Ptak [8].

  2. Common skin disorders of the penis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buechner, S A

    2002-09-01

    Diseases of the male genitalia range from infectious lesions to inflammatory and neoplastic conditions, including many genital manifestations of more general skin diseases. This review highlights the clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of the most common dermatoses of the male genitalia. Herpes genitalis and infections caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) are increasing, particularly in young sexually active people. Herpes simplex virus infection is the commonest infectious cause of genital ulceration, with evidence that many infections are asymptomatic. HPV infection may be latent, subclinical and clinical. The most common causal agents for condyloma acuminatum are low-risk HPV 6 and 11; high-risk HPV types 16 and 18 are associated with premalignant and malignant lesions. Treatment for genital warts remains unsatisfactory; recurrences are common. Imiquimod, a new topical immunotherapeutic agent, which induces interferon and other cytokines, has the potential to be a first-line therapy for genital warts. Scabies and pediculosis are transmitted by skin-to-skin contact and sexual transmission is common, with the penis and scrotum favourite locations for scabious lesions. Oral ivermectin, a highly active antiparasitic drug, is likely to be the treatment of choice, but until approval is granted it should be reserved for special forms of scabies. Common skin diseases, e.g. psoriasis and lichen planus, may have an atypical appearance in the genital area. The typical psoriatic scale is usually not apparent because of moisture and maceration. Allergic contact dermatitis of the genital area may result from condoms, lubricants, feminine hygiene deodorant spray and spermicides. More often, contact dermatitis is irritant, resulting from persistent moisture and maceration. Lichen sclerosus is a chronic inflammatory disease that occurs as atrophic white patches on the glans penis and foreskin. The penile form is a common cause of phimosis in uncircumcised men; involvement

  3. Inflammation laryngeal changes in common cold children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. P. Selkova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to the connection between laryngealinflammatory pathology and influenza/common cold.The purpose is to study the frequency of different form of laryngitis in children with common cold/ influenza, influenced of carried laryngitis within common cold on laryngeal structures and also the effectiveness of preventive measures against acute respiratory infections.Material and methods are the results of the examination (including laryngeal endoscopy and analysis of medical files of 3169 patients and also the data of the annual report of one Moscow semi-clinic.Results. Inflammation laryngeal pathology was revealed in 152 (4,79% cases, in 129 (84,9% – non-obstructive. 91 patient (59,8% belonged to category “frequently and often sick”. The recurrent episodes were seen in patients with both forms of laryngitis. Different laryngeal pathology (laryngitis, vocal nodules was seen after common cold treatment with 43,5% obstructive and 18,63% non-obstructive laryngitis patient as well as dysphonia in 3-14% getting worse with the following common cold episodes. The preventative measures carried among patients with laryngitis allowed to decrease spreading of this pathology notwithstanding the fact of annual growth of common cold in children.Conclusion. Thus taking to account the high circulation of respiratory viruses the absence of specific preventative measures and the especial role of viruses in development all forms of laryngitis it is recommended to include special drugs in preventative techniques of laryngitis prophylactics. Different methods of non-specific prophylactic are effective in decreasing the amount of common cold episodes, decrease the frequency and severity all forms of laryngitis in children and also tend to stabilize/normalize the voice quality in different laryngeal pathology children.

  4. Logical Normativity and Common Sense Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Agazzi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Logic, considered as a technical discipline inaugurated by Aristotle and typically represented by the variety of the modern logical calculi, constitutes a clarification and refinement of a conviction and practice present in common sense, that is, the fact that humans believe that truth can be acquired not only by immediate evidence, but also by means of arguments. As a first step logic can be seen as a “descriptive” record of the main forms of the arguments present in common sense, but the fact that some of these patterns can actually allow for the derivation of false consequences from true premises imposes the task of making explicit what patterns correspond to a “correct reasoning” and what not. At this point logic (that contains the presentation of such patterns appears endowed with a “normative” characteristic. This amounts to saying that logical calculi are intended to adequately mirror the intuitive notion of “logical consequence” and in this sense they cannot be totally arbitrary or conventional, but must satisfy certain basic requirements such as the conditions of soundness and (as far as possible of semantic completeness. In such a way they are “judged” according to the fundamental requirements present at the level of common sense and appear as “idealizations” of the kinds of reasoning practiced in common sense. For this reason also several kinds of logical calculi are fully justified since they make explicit in an idealized form the concrete ways of reasoning that are imposed by the particular domain of reference of the discipline in which they are used and which are basically recognized in common sense.

  5. Ruling the Commons. Introducing a new methodology for the analysis of historical commons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine de Moor

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite significant progress in recent years, the evolution of commons over the long run remains an under-explored area within commons studies. During the last years an international team of historians have worked under the umbrella of the Common Rules Project in order to design and test a new methodology aimed at advancing our knowledge on the dynamics of institutions for collective action – in particular commons. This project aims to contribute to the current debate on commons on three different fronts. Theoretically, it explicitly draws our attention to issues of change and adaptation in the commons – contrasting with more static analyses. Empirically, it highlights the value of historical records as a rich source of information for longitudinal analysis of the functioning of commons. Methodologically, it develops a systematic way of analyzing and comparing commons’ regulations across regions and time, setting a number of variables that have been defined on the basis of the “most common denominators” in commons regulation across countries and time periods. In this paper we introduce the project, describe our sources and methodology, and present the preliminary results of our analysis.

  6. Commoning in the periphery – The role of the commons for understanding rural continuities and change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Sandström

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how commons reproduce over time and introduces the concept of commoning to discuss rural continuities and change. The point of departure is that commons are essential for local community development in that they have an important role for mediating social change and for local identity production. Through an ethnographic and historical study of a number of commons systems from the village of Ängersjö in the Midwest of Sweden, the paper argues for a more historically and socially grounded understanding of how commons evolve. The paper examines Ängersjö’s commons within two broad historical time frames – the pre-industrial (4th to 20th century and the post-industrial time periods (20th century to the present – in order to understand commons, not just as arenas for resource extraction and resource struggles, but also as important contexts for identity formation, local mobilisation and for shaping rural change. The paper reveals how the commons have co-evolved with changes in society at large and how the meanings and functions of the commons have changed throughout history – from being important economic resources – to cultural and symbolic resources that have created new avenues for collective action.

  7. Common cycling injuries. Management and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellion, M B

    1991-01-01

    The increasing participation in the athletic forms of bicycling warrants expanded physician attention to the traumatic and overuse injuries experienced by cyclists. The modern bicycle consists of a frame with various components, including handlebars, brakes, wheels, pedals, and gears, in various configurations for the various modes of cycling. For high performance cycling the proper fit of the bicycle is critical. The most efficient method to provide an accurate fit is the Fitkit, but proper frame selection and adjustment can be made by following simple guidelines for frame size, seat height, fore and aft saddle position, saddle angle, reach and handlebar height. The human body functions most effectively in a narrow range of pedal resistance to effort. Riding at too much pedal resistance is a major cause of overuse problems in cyclists. Overuse injuries are lower using lower gear ratios at a higher cadence. Cycling injuries account for 500,000 visits per year to emergency rooms in the US. Over half the accidents involve motor vehicles, and road surface and mechanical problems with the bicycle are also common causes of accidents. Head injuries are common in cyclists and account for most of the fatal accidents. Despite good evidence of their effectiveness, victims with head injuries have rarely worn helmets. Contusions, sprains and fractures may occur throughout the body, most commonly to the hand, wrist, lower arm, shoulder, ankle and lower leg. The handlebar and seat have been implicated in a wide variety of abdominal and genital injuries. Abrasions, lacerations and bruises of the skin are the most common traumatic injuries. Trauma may be prevented or reduced by proper protective safety equipment and keeping the bike in top mechanical condition. Anticipation of the errors of others and practising and adopting specific riding strategies also help to prevent traumatic injuries. Management of overuse injuries in cycling generally involves mechanical adjustment as well

  8. Common culture practices for cyprinids in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, T

    1997-01-01

    Cyprinids are the largest group of cultured freshwater fish and thus the most important from the aspect of fish-borne parasitic zoonoses. The common practices employed in the culture of this group are described to provide background information which may be used in the formulation of strategies for the control of these zoonoses. Only the common carp is cultured in monoculture: all the rest of the carp species are usually cultured in polyculture systems incorporating several species. Polyculture of cyprinids may be carried out in ponds, cages or in free range culture in natural or man-made water bodies, Polyculture of cyprinids is often integrated with agriculture, such as livestock, poultry or crop farming, utilizing byproducts of the agriculture activity, especially manure, as a source of nutrient for the fish pond. If precautions are not taken, this practice may provide an avenue for the transmission of fish borne parasites to man.

  9. Common themes in centriole and centrosome movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Sue; Dawe, Helen R

    2011-01-01

    Centrioles are found in nearly all eukaryotic cells and are required for growth and maintenance of the radial array of microtubules, the mitotic spindle, and cilia and flagella. Different types of microtubule structures are often required at different places in a given cell; centrioles must move around to nucleate these varied structures. Here, we draw together recent data on diverse centriole movements to decipher common themes in how centrioles move. Par proteins establish and maintain the required cellular asymmetry. The actin cytoskeleton facilitates movement of multiple basal bodies. Microtubule forces acting on the cell cortex, and nuclear-cytoskeletal links, are important for positioning individual centrosomes, and during cell division. Knowledge of these common mechanisms can inform the study of centriole movements across biology.

  10. Common Shoulder Injuries in American Football Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Daniel B; Lynch, T Sean; Nuber, Erika D; Nuber, Gordon W

    2015-01-01

    American football is a collision sport played by athletes at high speeds. Despite the padding and conditioning in these athletes, the shoulder is a vulnerable joint, and injuries to the shoulder girdle are common at all levels of competitive football. Some of the most common injuries in these athletes include anterior and posterior glenohumeral instability, acromioclavicular pathology (including separation, osteolysis, and osteoarthritis), rotator cuff pathology (including contusions, partial thickness, and full thickness tears), and pectoralis major and minor tears. In this article, we will review the epidemiology and clinical and radiographic workup of these injuries. We also will evaluate the effectiveness of surgical and nonsurgical management specifically related to high school, collegiate, and professional football athletes.

  11. Michel Lepeletier and the common education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narciso DE GABRIEL FERNÁNDEZ

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This work contains the analyses of the National Education Plan drawn up by Michel Lepeletier and presented to the Convention by Robespierre on Julay 13th, 1793, seeking to place it within the educational coordinates of the French Revolution. Its most characteristic feature was the proposal of the creation of institutions where all children would receive a common education on a full-board basis, paid for by the Republic. Lepeletier's proposals gave rise to an intense discussion amongst deputies such as Grégoire, Bourdon, Lequino, Fourcroy and Thibaudeau, as well as Robespierre and Danton. The ideas producing the greatest polemic were: the obligatory nature of common education, its financing, the confinement of children in «houses of equality » and the Spartan inspiration behind the projet.

  12. Shoulder Ultrasonography: Performance and Common Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Gaitini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound (US of the shoulder is the most commonly requested examination in musculoskeletal US diagnosis. Sports injuries and degenerative and inflammatory processes are the main sources of shoulder pain and functional limitations. Because of its availability, low cost, dynamic examination process, absence of radiation exposure, and ease of patient compliance, US is the preferred mode for shoulder imaging over other, more sophisticated, and expensive methods. Operator dependence is the main disadvantage of US examinations. Use of high range equipment with high resolution transducers, adhering to a strict examination protocol, good knowledge of normal anatomy and pathological processes and an awareness of common pitfalls are essential for the optimal performance and interpretation of shoulder US. This article addresses examination techniques, the normal sonographic appearance of tendons, bursae and joints, and the main pathological conditions found in shoulder ultrasonography.

  13. Open Data as a New Commons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morelli, Nicola; Götzen, Amalia De; Mulder, Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    and environmental opportunities around them and government choices. Developing spacesmeans for enabling citizens to harness the opportunities coming from the use of this new resource, offers thus a substantial promise of social innovation. This means that open data is vi (still) virtually a new resource that could...... become a new commons with the engagement of interested and active communities. The condition for open data becoming a new common is that citizens become aware of the potential of this resource, that they use it for creating new services and that new practices and infrastructures are defined, that would......An increasing computing capability is raising the opportunities to use a large amount of publicly available data for creating new applications and a new generation of public services. But while it is easy to find some early examples of services concerning control systems (e.g. traffic, meteo...

  14. ANATOMIC INVESTIGATION OF HUNGARY'S COMMON SHRUB SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eszter ANTALFI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In Hungary a huge part of wooden plants are shrubs. Flora of hungarian forests is among the richest in Europe. Many plants can be classified as shrubs or trees as well, circumstances during their development define what they will become. The diverse world of shrubs and weeds delights the eye under 20-30 meter high trees. From these there are some well known which basically everybody recognises is lilac (Syringa vulgaris, elderberry (Sambucus nigra, dog-rose (Rosa canina, single-seeded hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna and common buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica. To get these species better known – and occasionally foreshadowing their wood industry usage in some way – it is expendient to familiarize ourselves with their microscopic structure and characteristics. Nowadays there are several imaging methods known, however for examining floral tissue the optical microscope is still the most common one to be used.

  15. Genetics in psychiatry: common variant association studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buxbaum Joseph D

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many psychiatric conditions and traits are associated with significant heritability. Genetic risk for psychiatric conditions encompass rare variants, identified due to major effect, as well as common variants, the latter analyzed by association analyses. We review guidelines for common variant association analyses, undertaking after assessing evidence of heritability. We highlight the importance of: suitably large sample sizes; an experimental design that controls for ancestry; careful data cleaning; correction for multiple testing; small P values for positive findings; assessment of effect size for positive findings; and, inclusion of an independent replication sample. We also note the importance of a critical discussion of any prior findings, biological follow-up where possible, and a means of accessing the raw data.

  16. Personal and common meanings of sexualised coercion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    as of access to help. Fundamentally these are questions concerning the nature of health promotion, ethnicity, gender and empowerment. The above mentioned research project facilitated our understanding of such questions. It did so because it took its point of departure in the women’s own perspectives......In 2003 a research project on the personal and common meanings of sexualised coercion was initiated at the Centre for Victims of Sexual Assault at the University Hospital of Copenhagen. Right from its start in the year 2000 first and second generation migrant women were among those seeking help...... at the Centre. This raised questions as to whether sexualised coercion has special meanings for migrant women in their trajectories across different communities, or whether the meanings of sexualised coercion are common/universal. It also raises questions of risks of being exposed to sexualised coercion as well...

  17. Common Preposition Errors Committed by Iranian Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Yousefi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined some common problems involving prepositions in learning a second language. Many students learning English as a foreign language commonly commit mistakes in prepositions. The aim of this paper is to survey the causes of errors in the use of prepositions that are frequently made by Iranian students. A diagnostic test (35 Multiple choice item was constructed to test the students proficiency in using these prepositions. The prepositions selected for this purpose were; to, in, at, on, with, of, from, for, about, during, into under, over and by. This test was given to a group of 35 intermediate students. The results indicated that the errors committed by the students were due to both Inter-lingual and Intra-lingual interferences. It is hoped that this research will help teachers of English Language to be aware of these problems and re-evaluate their teaching approach.

  18. Human resources: a common-sense discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Lisa R

    2004-02-01

    Being able to hire the right team members, keeping them engaged ina professional and productive environment, and avoiding litigation help keep the team functioning and meeting the everyday goals of providing quality patient care. Although these topics may seem complex, medical providers and professionals have resources available to them, such as the Human Resources department, the Medical Director, senior management,and legal counsel. Hiring the right people, creating a positive work environment, and avoiding litigation are all common sense principals that are relevant regardless of profession, industry, or company. Understanding how to apply the principles and concepts of Human Resources and personnel management can seem overwhelming: however, asking for help from the resources mentioned previously and applying the common sense information found in this article will help one to be a successful leader and practitioner.

  19. Personal and common meanings of sexualised coercion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    In 2003 a research project on the personal and common meanings of sexualised coercion was initiated at the Centre for Victims of Sexual Assault at the University Hospital of Copenhagen. Right from its start in the year 2000 first and second generation migrant women were among those seeking help...... at the Centre. This raised questions as to whether sexualised coercion has special meanings for migrant women in their trajectories across different communities, or whether the meanings of sexualised coercion are common/universal. It also raises questions of risks of being exposed to sexualised coercion as well...... on their difficulties in the aftermath of their experience of sexualised coercion. Reversely, a point of departure in psychiatric diagnosis such as PTSD and depression may contribute to the symbolic violence implicit in many dominant discourses concerning gender, violence as well as ethnicity. My presentation...

  20. Common Toxic Syndromes in Psychiatric Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesile Altınyazar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Poisonings and toxic substance exposures are prominent causes of morbidity and mortality in psychiatry. Entoxications which are confronted frequently include clinical scenarios ranging from known drug overdose or drug interactions, as well as, illicit drug use, suicide attempt, or accidental exposure. The clinical evaluation and management of such patients remain challenging. Recognition of major toxic syndromes is important for accurate diagnosis and treatment as well as rapid stabilization of patients and resuscitation. The main focus of this article is to discuss common toxic syndromes (symptom patterns of specific poisoning. These common toxic syndromes include serotonin syndrome, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, anticholinergic, sympathomimetic, opiate, sedative/hypnotic, cholinergic toxic syndromes. All of these syndromes are closely associated with psychiatric signs and symptoms. If recognized early and appropriate treatment is initiated rapidly, majority of patients display favourable outcome.

  1. A Common Solution of Two Cosmic Puzzles

    CERN Document Server

    Dado, Shlomo

    2014-01-01

    The origin of the diffuse extragalactic gamma-ray background, which was measured with the large area telescope (LAT) aboard the Fermi satellite at energy below 820 GeV, and of the diffuse cosmic background of neutrinos, which was observed at much higher energies with the IceCube detector deep under the south pole ice, are among the current unsolved major cosmic puzzles. Here we show that their properties indicate a common origin: the decay of mesons produced in collisions of cosmic rays accelerated in relativistic jets with matter in/near source. Moreover, their properties are those expected if their common source is the highly relativistic jets that produce the long duration gamma ray bursts in core collapse supernovae of type Ic, which take place mostly in the densest regions of giant molecular clouds in star forming galaxies.

  2. Explicit Evidence Systems with Common Knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    Bucheli, Samuel; Studer, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Justification logics are epistemic logics that explicitly include justifications for the agents' knowledge. We develop a multi-agent justification logic with evidence terms for individual agents as well as for common knowledge. We define a Kripke-style semantics that is similar to Fitting's semantics for the Logic of Proofs LP. We show the soundness, completeness, and finite model property of our multi-agent justification logic with respect to this Kripke-style semantics. We demonstrate that our logic is a conservative extension of Yavorskaya's minimal bimodal explicit evidence logic, which is a two-agent version of LP. We discuss the relationship of our logic to the multi-agent modal logic S4 with common knowledge. Finally, we give a brief analysis of the coordinated attack problem in the newly developed language of our logic.

  3. Optimum operating regimes of common paramagnetic refrigerants

    CERN Document Server

    Wikus, P; Figueroa-Feliciano, E

    2011-01-01

    Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators (ADRs) are commonly used in cryogenic laboratories to achieve subkelvin temperatures. ADRs are also the technology of choice for several space borne instruments which make use of cryogenic microcalorimeters or bolometers {[}1-4]. For these applications, refrigerants with high ratios of cooling capacity to volume, or cooling capacity to mass are usually required. In this manuscript, two charts for the simple selection of the most suitable of several common refrigerants (CAA, CMN, CPA, DGG, FAA, GGG, GLF and MAS) are presented. These graphs are valid for single stage cycles. The selection of the refrigerants is uniquely dependent on the starting conditions of the refrigeration cycle (temperature and magnetic field density) and the desired final temperature. Only thermodynamic properties of the refrigerants have been taken into account, and other important factors such as availability and manufacturability have not been considered. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserve...

  4. MUS81 promotes common fragile site expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ying, Songmin; Minocherhomji, Sheroy; Chan, Kok Lung

    2013-01-01

    Fragile sites are chromosomal loci with a propensity to form gaps or breaks during early mitosis, and their instability is implicated as being causative in certain neurological disorders and cancers. Recent work has demonstrated that the so-called common fragile sites (CFSs) often impair the fait......Fragile sites are chromosomal loci with a propensity to form gaps or breaks during early mitosis, and their instability is implicated as being causative in certain neurological disorders and cancers. Recent work has demonstrated that the so-called common fragile sites (CFSs) often impair...... the faithful disjunction of sister chromatids in mitosis. However, the mechanisms by which CFSs express their fragility, and the cellular factors required to suppress CFS instability, remain largely undefined. Here, we report that the DNA structure-specific nuclease MUS81-EME1 localizes to CFS loci in early...

  5. Common cause failure prediction using data mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvam, Paul H.; Miller, J. Glenn

    2002-06-01

    To estimate power plant reliability, a probabilistic safety assessment might combine failure data from various sites. Because dependent failures are a critical concern in the nuclear industry, combining failure data from component groups of different sizes is a challenging problem. One procedure, called data mapping, translates failure data across component group sizes. This includes common cause failures, which are simultaneous failure events of two or more components in a group. In this paper, we present a framework for predicting future plant reliability using mapped common cause failure data. The prediction technique is motivated by discrete failure data from emergency diesel generators at US plants. The underlying failure distributions are based on homogeneous Poisson processes. Both Bayesian and frequentist prediction methods are presented, and if non-informative prior distributions are applied, the upper prediction bounds for the generators are the same.

  6. SPECIFIC INSTITUTIONS FOR "COMMON – LAW"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel TATU

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The English common law has its roots in the times of William the Conqueror who invaded England in 1066. He is known to be the one who has laid the foundations of the English legal system. At that time, the system comprised of a series of oral rules and it was of high importance to have a unitary, national legal system. This article examines the specific legal institutions: personal property, real property, settlement and trust in order to provide the reader an overview of some of the key aspects to understand its mechanism. The research methods used facilitate the reader’s perception of the common law and its role in the society.

  7. Plasticity facilitates sustainable growth in the commons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaliere, Matteo; Poyatos, Juan F

    2013-04-06

    In the commons, communities whose growth depends on public good, individuals often rely on surprisingly simple strategies, or heuristics, to decide whether to contribute to the shared resource (at risk of exploitation by free-riders). Although this appears a limitation, we show here how four heuristics lead to sustainable growth when coupled to specific ecological constraints. The two simplest ones-contribute permanently or switch stochastically between contributing or not-are first shown to bring sustainability when the public good efficiently promotes growth. If efficiency declines and the commons is structured in small groups, the most effective strategy resides in contributing only when a majority of individuals are also contributors. In contrast, when group size becomes large, the most effective behaviour follows a minimal-effort rule: contribute only when it is strictly necessary. Both plastic strategies are observed in natural scenarios across scales that present them as relevant social motifs for the sustainable management of public goods.

  8. Fibrositis: Misnomer for a Common Rheumatic Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, Robert M

    1981-01-01

    Fibrositis is a misnomer for a very common form of nonarticular rheumatism. The name implies an inflammatory process in fibroconnective tissue which has never been verified. The symptoms of fibrositis are ill-defined musculoskeletal pain made worse by stress, cold, noise and unaccustomed exercise; there is usually a significant element of depression, nonrestorative sleep, chronic fatigue and early morning stiffness. Results of physical examination are strikingly normal, apart from painful ten...

  9. Commonness and rarity in the marine biosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Sean R; MacNeil, M Aaron; Caley, M Julian; Knowlton, Nancy; Cripps, Ed; Hisano, Mizue; Thibaut, Loïc M; Bhattacharya, Bhaskar D; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro; Brainard, Russell E; Brandt, Angelika; Bulleri, Fabio; Ellingsen, Kari E; Kaiser, Stefanie; Kröncke, Ingrid; Linse, Katrin; Maggi, Elena; O'Hara, Timothy D; Plaisance, Laetitia; Poore, Gary C B; Sarkar, Santosh K; Satpathy, Kamala K; Schückel, Ulrike; Williams, Alan; Wilson, Robin S

    2014-06-10

    Explaining patterns of commonness and rarity is fundamental for understanding and managing biodiversity. Consequently, a key test of biodiversity theory has been how well ecological models reproduce empirical distributions of species abundances. However, ecological models with very different assumptions can predict similar species abundance distributions, whereas models with similar assumptions may generate very different predictions. This complicates inferring processes driving community structure from model fits to data. Here, we use an approximation that captures common features of "neutral" biodiversity models--which assume ecological equivalence of species--to test whether neutrality is consistent with patterns of commonness and rarity in the marine biosphere. We do this by analyzing 1,185 species abundance distributions from 14 marine ecosystems ranging from intertidal habitats to abyssal depths, and from the tropics to polar regions. Neutrality performs substantially worse than a classical nonneutral alternative: empirical data consistently show greater heterogeneity of species abundances than expected under neutrality. Poor performance of neutral theory is driven by its consistent inability to capture the dominance of the communities' most-abundant species. Previous tests showing poor performance of a neutral model for a particular system often have been followed by controversy about whether an alternative formulation of neutral theory could explain the data after all. However, our approach focuses on common features of neutral models, revealing discrepancies with a broad range of empirical abundance distributions. These findings highlight the need for biodiversity theory in which ecological differences among species, such as niche differences and demographic trade-offs, play a central role.

  10. Hand Dominance and Common Hand Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutsky, Kevin; Kim, Nayoung; Medina, Juana; Maltenfort, Mitchell; Beredjiklian, Pedro K

    2016-05-01

    The goals of this study were to (1) assess how frequently patients present for evaluation of common hand disorders in relation to hand dominance and (2) evaluate the effect of hand dominance on function in patients with these conditions. The authors hypothesized that (1) the majority of patients who seek evaluation would have a condition that affects the dominant hand, and (2) disability scores would be worse if the dominant hand is involved. They retrospectively reviewed the records of consecutive patients who presented for treatment to their institution with unilateral symptoms of 5 common disorders of the hand: carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), de Quervain's tenosynovitis (DEQ), lateral epicondylitis (LE), hand osteoarthritis (OA), and trigger finger (TF). The authors assessed the effect of diagnosis and hand dominance on Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) scores. The study group comprised 1029 patients (379 men and 650 women) with a mean age of 59.5 years. Ninety percent were right-hand dominant. The dominant and nondominant hands were affected with relatively equal frequency for CTS, DEQ, OA, and TF (range, 45%-53%). Patients with LE had a significantly higher incidence of dominant hand involvement. Men had lower DASH scores than women by an average of 7.9 points, and DASH scores were significantly but slightly higher for the overall group (3.2 points) when the dominant side was affected. Men with LE and women with TF and OA had significantly higher DASH scores when their dominant extremity was affected. Common hand disorders such as CTS, DEQ, OA, and TF affect the dominant and nondominant hands in roughly equivalent proportions, whereas LE is more common on the dominant side. Dominant hand involvement results in significantly worse DASH scores, although the magnitude of this is relatively small. Women have significantly higher DASH scores than men for the conditions evaluated. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(3):e444-e448.].

  11. Freedom and poverty in the fishery commons

    OpenAIRE

    Svein Jentoft; Paul Onyango; Mohammad Mahmudul Islam

    2010-01-01

    Abstract In fisheries, alleviating poverty sometimes requires strategies that are inherently in conflict. When aiming to develop a fishery as a means to reduce poverty, its common pool resource basis might be undermined, resulting in greater poverty. But poverty in fisheries is also linked to, or a part of deeper social issues and processes, for instance, the marginalization and exclusion of certain communities. Poverty also has many factors— income, health, literacy, gender, power, sec...

  12. Common communication format for bibliographic data exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gove, N. B.; Hughes, T. E.; Matiushin, G. D.; Turtanov, N. V.

    Development of a format for use in the exchange of machine-readable bibliographic information between the USA and the USSR is discussed. ISO standards will be used, where relevant, for carrier format and character codes. Extensions to UNIMARC are proposed for content designators to accommodate the needs of abstracting and indexing services. A common listing format, including a transliteration scheme, was developed for test and check purposes. 7 figures, 3 tables.

  13. DIAGNOSTICS AND REGENERATION OF COMMON RAIL INJECTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz KONIECZNY

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the methodology of Common Rail injector diagnostic, regeneration and regulation with use of professional test stands. The EPS 815 machine can be used to test and repair all BOSCH injectors fully satisfying the producer requirements and standards. The article describes an example injector diagnosis with use of such test stand and additionally presents appropriate injector regeneration and encoding techniques

  14. Establishing the common ground in European psychotraumatology

    OpenAIRE

    Şar, Vedat

    2015-01-01

    INVITED EDITORIAL Establishing the common ground in European psychotraumatology The chief ethical rule is the following: thou shalt not have antifragility at the expense of the fragility of others. (Taleb, 2012) Europe is nicely complex; that is, rich and full of diversity. Lessons learned from the painful past are immense (Betancourt, 2015) together with a healthy anxiety about the future. One may perceive Europe as the most pros-perous, peaceful, and safest par...

  15. Polymylagia rheumatica: common disease, elusive diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mager, Diana R

    2015-03-01

    Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) is a common inflammatory rheumatic disease with little known about its etiology or incidence. Frequently found in older adult women, this disease can be debilitating, painful, and dangerous. Diagnosing PMR can be elusive due to lack of specific laboratory tests, and treatment with use of long-term glucocorticoids can be difficult due to side effects. The following article describes the pathophysiology, diagnosis, signs and symptoms, and treatment of PMR, as well as implications for home healthcare.

  16. Common mistakes in managing pulmonary coccidioidomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galgiani JN

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Coccidioidomycosis (Valley Fever is a common disease in Arizona and certain other parts of the Southwestern United States. Despite this, there is a surprising lack of awareness, neglect in diagnosis, and inadequacy of management by many clinicians in these endemic regions. This review discusses why early diagnosis of coccidioidal infection is valuable to patient care and offers a variety of management options that are particularly useful and others which often are of little value.

  17. Parametric Portfolio Policies with Common Volatility Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Ergemen, Yunus Emre; Taamouti, Abderrahim

    2015-01-01

    A parametric portfolio policy function is considered that incorporates common stock volatility dynamics to optimally determine portfolio weights. Reducing dimension of the traditional portfolio selection problem significantly, only a number of policy parameters corresponding to first- and second-order characteristics are estimated based on a standard method-of-moments technique. The method, allowing for the calculation of portfolio weight and return statistics, is illustrated with an empirica...

  18. Toxic anterior segment syndrome: common causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler Peck, Carolee M; Brubaker, Jacob; Clouser, Sue; Danford, Chris; Edelhauser, Henry E; Mamalis, Nick

    2010-07-01

    To identify the most common risk factors associated with toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS). Ophthalmic surgical centers in the United States, Argentina, Brazil, Italy, Mexico, Spain, and Romania. A TASS questionnaire on instrument cleaning and reprocessing and extraocular and intraocular products used during cataract surgery was placed on the American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery web site. A retrospective analysis of questionnaires submitted by surgical centers reporting cases of TASS was performed between June 1, 2007, and May 31, 2009, to identify commonly held practices that could cause TASS. Members of the TASS Task Force made site visits between October 1, 2005, and May 31, 2009, and the findings were evaluated. Data from 77 questionnaires and 54 site visits were analyzed. The reporting centers performed 50 114 cataract surgeries and reported 909 cases of TASS. From January 1, 2006, to date, the 54 centers reported 367 cases in 143 919 procedures; 61% occurred in early 2006. Common practices associated with TASS included inadequate flushing of phaco and irrigation/aspiration handpieces, use of enzymatic cleansers, detergents at the wrong concentration, ultrasonic bath, antibiotic agents in balanced salt solution, preserved epinephrine, inappropriate agents for skin prep, and powdered gloves. Reuse of single-use products and poor instrument maintenance and processing were other risk factors. The survey identified commonly held practices associated with TASS. Understanding these findings and the safe alternatives will allow surgical center personnel to change their practices as needed to prevent TASS. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright 2010 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Common Diagnostic Test Results Over the Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruvee Eve

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, common test results over the years 2000 – 2016 are analysed. The test questions for new entrants were based on secondary school mathematics. The students took the test in the first lesson of the higher mathematics course. The test results were analysed by years, by tasks and by specialities, and their differences were found. The test results’ dependence on state-exams score was studied and other types of dependence were looked at.

  20. Common communication format for bibliographic data exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gove, N.B.; Hughes, T.E.; Matiushin, G.D.; Turtanov, N.V.

    1981-01-01

    Development of a format for use in the exchange of machine-readable bibliographic information between the USA and the USSR is discussed. ISO standards will be used, where relevant, for carrier format and character codes. Extensions to UNIMARC have been proposed for content designators to accommodate the needs of abstracting and indexing services. A common listing format, including a transliteration scheme, has been developed for test and check purposes.