WorldWideScience

Sample records for commercial fast-growing genotype

  1. The Comparison of Growth, Slaughter and Carcass Traits of Meat Chicken Genotype Produced by Back-Crossing with A Commercial Broiler Genotype

    OpenAIRE

    Musa Sarıca; Umut Sami Yamak; Mehmet Akif Boz; Ahmet Uçar

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the growth and some slaughter traits between commercial fast growing chickens and three-way cross M2 genotypes. 260 male female mixed chickens from each genotype was reared 10 replicate per genotype in the same house. Two different slaughtering ages were applied to commercial chickens and slaughtered at 6 and 7 weeks of age for comparing with cross genotypes. F chickens reached to slaughtering age at 42 days, whereas cross groups reached at 49 days. Genot...

  2. The Comparison of Growth, Slaughter and Carcass Traits of Meat Chicken Genotype Produced by Back-Crossing with A Commercial Broiler Genotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Sarıca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the growth and some slaughter traits between commercial fast growing chickens and three-way cross M2 genotypes. 260 male female mixed chickens from each genotype was reared 10 replicate per genotype in the same house. Two different slaughtering ages were applied to commercial chickens and slaughtered at 6 and 7 weeks of age for comparing with cross genotypes. F chickens reached to slaughtering age at 42 days, whereas cross groups reached at 49 days. Genotypes consumed same amount of feed until slaughtering ages, but F genotype had better feed conversion ratio. The differences between dressing percentage and carcass parts ratios of genotypes were found significant, and F genotype had higher dressing percentage. Carcass parts of all genotypes were found in acceptable limits.

  3. Variation of meat quality traits among five genotypes of chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, H; Gong, Y Z; Wu, C X; Jiang, J; Wang, Y; Li, K

    2009-10-01

    The main objective of this study was to examine the diversity of meat quality traits among 5 chicken genotypes. The genotypes included 2 Chinese native breeds (Wenchang,WCH, and Xianju), 1 commercial broiler line (Avian, AV), 1 commercial layer line (Hy-Line Brown, HLB), and 1 Chinese commercial broiler line (Lingnanhuang, LNH) synthesized by exotic and native breeds, which were slaughtered at their market ages: 16, 7, 16, and 8 wk, respectively. The effects of genotype, muscle type, and sex on meat quality traits were examined. Birds from slow-growing genotypes (WCH, Xianju, and HLB) exhibited higher shear value, inosine-5'-monophosphate concentration, lower cook loss, and more fat than those from fast-growing genotypes (AV and LNH). Chickens from WCH possessed the lowest expressible moisture, cook loss, and the highest lipid (%) among the 3 slow-growing genotypes. The HLB birds were intermediate in expressible moisture and cook loss and lowest in lipid among all genotypes. The LNH cross birds were similar to AV broilers in most meat quality parameters, although they had a lower shear force value and higher fat content than AV broilers. Breast muscle had higher expressible moisture, shear force, protein (%), inosine-5'-monophosphate content, lower cook loss, and lipid (%) than leg muscle. Muscles from male chickens had higher expressible moisture than those from the females. Variability of meat quality characteristics is mainly related to genotype and muscle type differences.

  4. Carcass traits and meat quality of different slow growing and fast growing broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Oblakova

    2017-12-01

    dry matter higher percentage was associated with better lavor of meat. The analysis of the effect of genotype on meat protein content showed that protein content was the highest in the breast of slow-growing chickens from group III- 24.89% and lowest in the breast meat of conventional broilers from group V – 23.86% (p<0.05. In the other 3 groups, it ranged from 24.55 to 24.59%. The protein content of thighs was the lowest in slow-growing birds from group I- 19.49%, and the difference was the highest when compared to groups II and III, also slow-growing (p<0.05. With respect to the thigh fat content, it was the highest in slow-growing chickens from group IV (5.84%, followed by fast-growing from group V (5.33% and the lowest- in slow-growing birds from group І – 4.12% (p<0.05. The analysis of data showed a statistically significant effect of the sex on water content (p<0.001, fat (p<0.001 and ash (p<0.01. In males, thigh meat contained water and ash and in females more fat. The interaction of genotype and sex effects were important for thigh meat fat content, with highest values in fast-growing females from group V – 5.98% and lowest in slowly growing males from group I – 3.88% (p<0.001. Weak but statistically significant interaction between both factors was found with respect to thigh protein and ash (p<0.05. The highest protein content was established in slow-growing females from group IV (19.81%, whereas thigh ash was with highest percentage in slow-growing males from group II (1.11%

  5. Physicochemical and sensorial quality of banana genotypes

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    Ronielli Cardoso Reis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the diversity of banana varieties in Brazil, only a few cultivars have the proper agronomic traits and fruit quality for commercial exploitation. This study aimed at evaluating the physicochemical traits and sensorial acceptance of banana genotypes, in order to identify those with potential for commercial growing. Six improved banana genotypes were assessed (BRS Maravilha, PC 0101, FHIA 18, TM 2803, YB 4203 and BRS Caipira, as well as three commercial cultivars (Grand Naine, Pacovan and Prata Anã. Analyses of peel and pulp color, peel thickness, pulp yield, moisture, pH, soluble solids, titratable acidity, total carotenoids and sensorial acceptance were performed. The BRS Maravilha, FHIA 18, YB 4203 and BRS Caipira genotypes presented physicochemical traits similar to the Grand Naine, Pacovan and Prata Anã commercial cultivars. The BRS Maravilha and TM 2803 genotypes had sensorial acceptance similar to the Prata Anã and Grand Naine cultivars, and are therefore promising for commercial growing, with the advantage of being resistant to the black Sigatoka and Panama disease.

  6. The UK commercial demonstration fast reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, J.A.G.

    1987-01-01

    The paper on the UK Commercial Demonstration Fast Reactor design was presented to the seminar on 'European Commercial Fast Reactor Programme, London 1987. The design is discussed under the topic headings:- primary circuit, intermediate heat exchangers and pumps, fuel and core, refuelling, steam generators, and nuclear island layout. (U.K.)

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC ASPECT OF GROWING MISCANTHUS GENOTYPES

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    Marián KOTRLA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Deliberate cultivation of plants for energy biomass is becoming increasingly important. Biomass should significantly contribute to increase the share of renewable energy in the European Union. On the research locality of Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra localized in the village Kolíňany (Slovak Republic is implemented basic research focused on the growth and production of the two genotypes energy grass Miscanthus. Research is carried out since 2010. In the third year after planting (the year 2012 were confirmed biomass production depending on the genotype of 35.45 and 36.67 t ha-1. Based on the analysis of growth and production performance of Miscanthus genotypes can be evaluated the high environmental and socio-economic aspects of growing energy crops, depending on the specific agro-ecological conditions.

  8. Fasting Blood Glucose Levels in Different Haemoglobin Genotypes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For the different Hb genotypes (HBAA, HBAS, HBSC and HBSS) the following mean fasting blood glucose levels were obtained respectively: 71.9±8.Omg/dl 73.4±7.4mgldl, 94.7±6.Imgldl and 94.6±5.9mgldl. There was a significant difference between the mean fasting blood glucose concentrations of blood groups O,A,B and ...

  9. Temporal stability of growth and yield among Hevea genotypes introduced to a non-traditional rubber growing region of peninsular India

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    K.K. Vinod

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Extensive cultivation of Hevea brasiliensis in India now focus on non-traditional regions for rubber cultivation. As a prelude for selection of genotypes for commercial cultivation, many introduced genotypes are being tested in genotype adaptation experiments in these regions. Present study, reports for the first time, growth and yield adaptation of 28 genotypes in a non-traditional rubber growing region of peninsular India viz., the coastal Karnataka region. Agroclimate of this region was found favoring growth and establishment of all the genotypes evaluated. However, not all the genotypes grew and yielded well. Only four genotypes, RRII 203, KRS 25, PB 260 and PB 235 showed good growth and yield. On grouping, the genotypes fell into categories of moderate high yielders, moderate low yielders and low yielders. The most popular variety of the traditional region, RRII 105 did not perform well in this region. Biological stability in growth and yield of RRII 203 and PB 260 was identified as stable and these genotypes were the best adapted. KRS 25 and PB 235 had unstable yielding pattern. The best identified genotypes can be considered for extensive culture as single clone plantations or as major constituent of clone blends as well as parents in future breeding programmes. Other moderate stable yielders may be used for clone blending in smaller proportions and may be subjected to yield improvement.

  10. Temporal stability of growth and yield among Hevea genotypes introduced to a non-traditional rubber growing region of peninsular India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.K. Vinod

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Extensive cultivation of Hevea brasiliensis in India now focus onnon-traditional regions for rubber cultivation. As a prelude for selection of genotypes for commercial cultivation, many introduced genotypes are being tested in genotype adaptation experiments in these regions. Present study,reports for the first time, growth and yield adaptation of 28 genotypes in a non-traditional rubber growing region of peninsular India viz., the coastal Karnataka region. Agroclimate of this region was found favoring growth andestablishment of all the genotypes evaluated. However, not all the genotypes grew and yielded well. Only four genotypes, RRII 203, KRS 25, PB 260 and PB 235 showed good growth and yield. On grouping, the genotypes fell into categories of moderate high yielders, moderate low yielders and low yielders. The most popular variety of the traditional region, RRII 105 did not perform well in this region. Biological stability in growth and yield of RRII 203 and PB 260 was identified as stable and these genotypes were the best adapted. KRS 25 and PB 235 had unstable yielding pattern. The best identifiedgenotypes can be considered for extensive culture as single clone plantations or as major constituent of clone blends as well as parents in future breeding programmes. Other moderate stable yielders may be used for clone blending in smaller proportions and may be subjected to yield improvement.

  11. VISION AND STRATEGIC THINKING IN THE ROMANIAN FAST GROWING FIRMS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae BIBU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present preliminary specific issues concerning the vision and the strategic thinking of the managers of Romanian fast growing firms in the years of rapid growth. This paper clarifies two research questions. (1 The first research question is what is the message of the manager's vision of the Romanian fast growing firms? Therefore, we must first verify if the managers of the Romanian fast growing firms have a concrete vision about the business they run and if so, what is the vision of the managers about the companies that they lead? (2 The second research question is what findings can be drawn about the role of strategic thinking of the managers in the management of the Romanian fast growing firms? The research that we have conducted is a qualitative research. The research method that we used is the interview. The interview is specific to qualitative research. Regarding the method of analysis that we used it is the content analysis. The research was conducted on a total of 17 Romanian fast growing firms that are located in Timiș County. The firms were identified based on a specific selection criteria set after a thorough review of the literature in the field. The 17 companies that we have analysed represent the foundation of 17 in-depth case studies, which we believe helped us to better understand what it means in the Romanian context to grow fast, through the entrepreneurs managers vision and strategic thinking. The results presented in this paper come to strengthen the results reached by other researchers in this field. The results present an image of the current Romanian context – about the role of strategic thinking of the entrepreneur manager in the management of Romanian fast growing firms. The paper presents a detailed analysis of managers' vision of the Romanian fast growing firms. The paper also presents findings about the role of strategic thinking in helping managers achieve rapid growth in the

  12. Fast growing aspens in the development of a plant micropropagation system based on plant-produced ethylene action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Žiauka, Jonas; Kuusienė, Sigutė; Šilininkas, Mindaugas

    2013-01-01

    Representatives of the genus Populus (poplars), such as Populus tremula L. (European aspen) and its fast-growing hybrids, are recognized as being among the most suitable tree species for short rotation coppicing in Northern Europe. Several technologies have been developed for fast propagation of selected aspen genotypes, including laboratory (in vitro) micropropagation, which is usually based on the action of exogenous plant hormones. Seeking to minimize the use of the latter, the present study was designed to test if the conditions suitable for increased accumulation of plant-produced gas, including the gaseous plant hormone ethylene, inside a culture vessel could contribute to commercially desirable changes in aspen development. Shoot cultures of several European and hybrid (Populus tremuloides Michx. × P. tremula) aspen genotypes were studied using two different types of culture vessels: tightly sealed Petri dishes (15 × 54 mm) designed to provide restricted gas exchange (RGE) conditions, and capped (but not sealed) test tubes (150 × 18 mm) providing control conditions. Under RGE conditions, not only the positive impact of the ethylene precursors 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic-acid (ACC) and ethephon on shoot proliferation was demonstrated but also a several-fold increase, compared to the control conditions, in the mean shoot number per explant was recorded even on the hormone-free nutrient medium. Moreover, the shoots developed under RGE conditions were distinguished by superior rooting ability in the subsequent culture. These results suggest that a plant micropropagation system based on the action of plant-produced ethylene rather than of exogenous hormones is possible. -- Highlights: ► Aspen in vitro cultures were grown in different vessels. ► Small-volume vessels were used for restriction of gas exchange. ► Aspen explants produced most shoots in small-volume vessels. ► Shoot proliferation was increased due to explant response to ethylene.

  13. Comparison between TRU burning reactors and commercial fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimura, Koji; Sanda, Toshio; Ogawa, Takashi

    2001-03-01

    Research and development for stabilizing or shortening the radioactive wastes including in spent nuclear fuel are widely conducted in view point of reducing the environmental impact. Especially it is effective way to irradiate and transmute long-lived TRU by fast reactors. Two types of loading way were previously proposed. The former is loading relatively small amount of TRU in all commercial fast reactors and the latter is loading large amount of TRU in a few TRU burning reactors. This study has been intended to contribute to the feasibility studies on commercialized fast reactor cycle system. The transmutation and nuclear characteristics of TRU burning reactors were evaluated and compared with those of conventional transmutation system using commercial type fast reactor based upon the investigation of technical information about TRU burning reactors. Major results are summarized as follows. (1) Investigation of technical information about TRU burning reactors. Based on published reports and papers, technical information about TRU burning reactor concepts transmutation system using convectional commercial type fast reactors were investigated. Transmutation and nuclear characteristics or R and D issue were investigated based on these results. Homogeneously loading of about 5 wt% MAs on core fuels in the conventional commercial type fast reactor may not cause significant impact on the nuclear core characteristics. Transmutation of MAs being produced in about five fast reactors generating the same output is feasible. The helium cooled MA burning fast reactor core concept propose by JAERI attains criticality using particle type nitride fuels which contain more than 60 wt% MA. This reactor could transmute MAs being produced in more than ten 1000 MWe-LWRs. Ultra-long life core concepts attaining more than 30 years operation without refueling by utilizing MA's nuclear characteristics as burnable absorber and fertile nuclides were proposed. Those were pointed out that

  14. FAST-GROWING COMPANIES FROM TIMIS COUNTRY: DOES THE AGE MATTER?

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    ALB MARIA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relation between the company’s age and its growth and analyses the influence of age on growth by studying a specific group of companies, namely fast-growing companies from the Timis County, Romania. We have studied the performance of the fast-growing companies in the period of 2010-2013 using the STATA IC 12 software application. A linear regression analysis model with two variables was used. The dependent variable used was the rapid growth of the company, measured by the growth rate of the turnover and the independent variable used was the age of the company, measured by the number of years. The model was tested using the number of employees as a control variable. This paper’s conclusion is in agreement with many other findings from the literature in this subject. The presented results show that the turnover growth rates in the Romanian fast-growing companies tend to drop from one year to another, as the companies grow older.

  15. Differential Macrophage Response to Slow- and Fast-Growing Pathogenic Mycobacteria

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    A. Cecilia Helguera-Repetto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM have recently been recognized as important species that cause disease even in immunocompetent individuals. The mechanisms that these species use to infect and persist inside macrophages are not well characterised. To gain insight concerning this process we used THP-1 macrophages infected with M. abscessus, M. fortuitum, M. celatum, and M. tuberculosis. Our results showed that slow-growing mycobacteria gained entrance into these cells with more efficiency than fast-growing mycobacteria. We have also demonstrated that viable slow-growing M. celatum persisted inside macrophages without causing cell damage and without inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS, as M. tuberculosis caused. In contrast, fast-growing mycobacteria destroyed the cells and induced high levels of ROS. Additionally, the macrophage cytokine pattern induced by M. celatum was different from the one induced by either M. tuberculosis or fast-growing mycobacteria. Our results also suggest that, in some cases, the intracellular survival of mycobacteria and the immune response that they induce in macrophages could be related to their growth rate. In addition, the modulation of macrophage cytokine production, caused by M. celatum, might be a novel immune-evasion strategy used to survive inside macrophages that is different from the one reported for M. tuberculosis.

  16. Complex interaction between genotypes and growing seasons of carioca common bean in Goiás/Distrito Federal

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    Helton Santos Pereira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to assess the importance of the complex interaction between common beangenotypes and growing seasons in the state of Goiás and the Distrito Federal and verify the need for evaluation and indication ofcultivars for each season. Yield data of 16 genotypes in 16 trials conducted in two growing seasons (winter and rainy were used. Thecoefficient of determination was estimated in the analyses of variance with decomposition of the genotype x environment interaction.The complex percentage of the interaction was estimated and the Spearman correlation between seasons. Differences were detectedbetween seasons and presence of genotype - season (GS interaction, with greater significance than the other double interactionswith genotypes. The correlations indicated a predominantly complex GS interaction. This predominantly complex nature of the GSinteraction calls for an assessment of the genotypes in both seasons, which may however identify cultivars with general adaptation.

  17. Engineering a wild fast-growing Mycoplasma bacterium to generate ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-01-12

    Jan 12, 2018 ... The CCPP bacterium causes sick animals to experience severe symptoms ... because antibiotic treatment does not eliminate the responsible bacterium. ... To develop a fast growing CCPP vaccine for cheaper production and ...

  18. Fostering and sustaining innovation in a Fast Growing Agile Company

    OpenAIRE

    Moe, NilsBrede; Barney, Sebastian; Aurum, Aybüe; Khurum, Mahvish; Wohlin, Claes; Barney, Hamish; Gorschek, Tony; Winata, Martha

    2012-01-01

    Sustaining innovation in a fast growing software development company is difficult. As organisations grow, peoples' focus often changes from the big picture of the product being developed to the specific role they fill. This paper presents two complementary approaches that were successfully used to support continued developer-driven innovation in a rapidly growing Australian agile software development company. The method "FedEx TM Day" gives developers one day to showcase a proof of concept th...

  19. Material choices for the commercial fast reactor steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willby, C.; Walters, J.

    1978-01-01

    Experience with fast reactor steam generators has shown them to be critical components in achieving a high availability. This paper presents the designers views on the use of ferritic materials for steam generators and describes the proposed design of the steam generators for the Commercial Fast Reactor (CFR), prototype of which are to be inserted in the Prototype Fast Reactor at Dounreay. (author)

  20. Performance of commercial platforms for rapid genotyping of polymorphisms affecting warfarin dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Cristi R; Porche-Sorbet, Rhonda M; Gage, Brian F; Ridker, Paul M; Renaud, Yannick; Phillips, Michael S; Eby, Charles

    2008-06-01

    Initiation of warfarin therapy is associated with bleeding owing to its narrow therapeutic window and unpredictable therapeutic dose. Pharmacogenetic-based dosing algorithms can improve accuracy of initial warfarin dosing but require rapid genotyping for cytochrome P-450 2C9 (CYP2C9) *2 and *3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and a vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKORC1) SNP. We evaluated 4 commercial systems: INFINITI analyzer (AutoGenomics, Carlsbad, CA), Invader assay (Third Wave Technologies, Madison, WI), Tag-It Mutation Detection assay (Luminex Molecular Diagnostics, formerly Tm Bioscience, Toronto, Canada), and Pyrosequencing (Biotage, Uppsala, Sweden). We genotyped 112 DNA samples and resolved any discrepancies with bidirectional sequencing. The INFINITI analyzer was 100% accurate for all SNPs and required 8 hours. Invader and Tag-It were 100% accurate for CYP2C9 SNPs, 99% accurate for VKORC1 -1639/3673 SNP, and required 3 hours and 8 hours, respectively. Pyrosequencing was 99% accurate for CYP2C9 *2, 100% accurate for CYP2C9 *3, and 100% accurate for VKORC1 and required 4 hours. Current commercial platforms provide accurate and rapid genotypes for pharmacogenetic dosing during initiation of warfarin therapy.

  1. Gene expression profiling of fast- and slow- growing gonadotroph non-functioning pituitary adenomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Camilla Maria; Sundaram, Arvind Y M; Øystese, Kristin Astrid

    2018-01-01

    Objective Reliable biomarkers associated with aggressiveness of non-functioning gonadotroph adenomas (GAs) are lacking. As the growth of tumor remnants is highly variable, molecular markers for growth potential prediction are necessary. We hypothesized that fast- and slow - growing GAs present......, GPM6A and six EMT-related genes (SPAG9, SKIL, MTDH, HOOK1, CNOT6L and PRKACB). MTDH, but not EMCN, demonstrated involvement in cell migration and association with EMT-markers. Conclusions Fast- and slow- growing GAs present different gene expression profiles and genes related to EMT have higher...... expression in fast-growing tumors. In addition to MTDH, identified as an important contributor to aggressiveness, the other genes might represent markers for tumor growth potential and possible targets for drug therapy. ....

  2. Comparison of Carcass Characteristics, Meat Quality, and Blood Parameters of Slow and Fast Grown Female Broiler Chickens Raised in Organic or Conventional Production System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cömert, Muazzez; Şayan, Yılmaz; Kırkpınar, Figen; Bayraktar, Ö. Hakan; Mert, Selim

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the carcass characteristics, meat quality, and blood parameters of slow and fast grown female broiler chickens fed in organic or conventional production system. The two genotypes tested were medium slow-growing chickens (SG, Hubbard Red JA) and commercial fast-growing chickens (FG, Ross 308). Both genotypes (each represented by 400 chickens) were divided into two sub-groups fed either organic (O) or conventional (C) systems. Chickens of each genotype and system were raised in a semi environmentally controlled poultry house until 21 d of age and were assigned to 5 pens of 40 chickens each. Then, O system chickens were transferred into an open-side poultry house with an outdoor run. At 81 d of age, 10 female chickens from each genotype and from each production system (n = 40) were randomly chosen to provide material for analysis, and were weighed and brought to the slaughterhouse to assess carcass characteristics and meat quality. The blood parameters were determined by using 5 female chickens from each genotype and from each production system (n = 20). FG had the higher live weight, along with carcass, breast, and thigh-drumstick weights compared to SG (pcarcass characteristics of female chickens was genotype, whereas the organic system contributed to enhanced meat quality. These findings provide a better understanding of the relative roles of genotype and production systems in female broiler characteristics, and might aid producers in designing their facilities to optimize yield and quality while maintaining acceptable animal welfare standards. PMID:26954206

  3. Wood anatomy and physical and chemical properties of fast growing Athel tamarisk (Tamarix aphylla L.

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    Reza oladi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Athel tamarisk (Tamarix aphylla is a fast growing, evergreen tree succeeding in the most soils and can tolerate the saline conditions. Despite its ecological importance and wide distribution in central and southern parts of Iran, wood properties of this species has little been concerned. However, the potential of this species in cellulosic industries of Middle East dry countries has recently been focused. Hence, to study wood anatomy and physical and chemical properties of Athel tamarisk, 3 stands were selected and felled from the Zabol region (Sistan and Baluchestan province. Wood anatomical features of this species were studied and listed according to the list of microscopic features for hardwood identification by IAWA Committee. In addition, lignin distribution in xylem was studied using fluorescence microscopy. Calculating fiber biometry features assessed that although fiber quality is not perfect but meets the standards of paper production, comparing other commercially used hardwoods in this industry. According to chemical composition analysis, cellulose content of this wood is rather low (39% which could be a result of large amount of thin-walled paranchyma cells in xylem. Lignin content is a bit higher than average hardwoods and this component is concentrated in vessels and fibers. Physical properties of studied wood samples (specific gravity and shrinkage values were in the range of other light-weight and fast growing hardwoods and thus this wood is expected to have similar end-use quality.

  4. Phosphorus dynamics and limitation of fast- and slow-growing temperate seaweeds in Oslofjord, Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Foldager; Borum, Jens; Fotel, Frank Leck

    2010-01-01

    During coastal eutrophication, fast-growing, ephemeral macroalgae bloom at the expense of slow-growing, perennial macroalgae. This change in community composition has been explained by a differential ability to exploit and utilize inorganic nitrogen among macroalgae with different growth strategies......-growing algae (Ulva and Ceramium) took up dissolved inorganic P (DIP) much faster than thicker, slower growing species (belonging to Fucus, Ascophyllum and Laminaria) but also had much higher P-demands per unit biomass and time. DIP concentrations in the Oslofjord were low from April through August, and fast......-growing species were unable to meet their P-demand from uptake for several months during summer. Hence, Ceramium and Ulva were potentially P-limited during summer, whereas Ascophyllum and Laminaria were able to acquire sufficient external DIP to remain P-replete throughout the year. Storage of P prevented Fucus...

  5. Fast Technology Analysis (FTA) Enables Identification of Species and Genotypes of Latent Microsporidia Infections in Healthy Native Cameroonians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndzi, Edward S.; Asonganyi, Tazoacha; Nkinin, Mary Bello; Xiao, Lihua; Didier, Elizabeth S.; Bowers, Lisa C.; Nkinin, Stephenson W.; Kaneshiro, Edna S.

    2015-01-01

    Several enteric microsporidia species have been detected in humans and other vertebrates and their identifications at the genotype level are currently being elucidated. As advanced methods, reagents, and disposal kits for detecting and identifying pathogens become commercially available, it is important to test them in settings other than in laboratories with “state-of-the-art” equipment and well-trained staff members. In the present study, we sought to detect microsporidia DNA preserved and extracted from FTA (fast technology analysis) cards spotted with human fecal suspensions obtained from Cameroonian volunteers living in the capital city of Yaoundé to preclude the need for employing spore-concentrating protocols. Further, we tested whether amplicon nucleotide sequencing approaches could be used on small aliquots taken from the cards to elucidate the diversity of microsporidia species and strains infecting native residents. Of 196 samples analyzed, 12 (6.1%) were positive for microsporidia DNA; Enterocytozoon bieneusi (Type IV and KIN-1), Encephalitozoon cuniculi, and Encephalitozoon intestinalis were identified. These data demonstrate the utility of the FTA cards in identifying genotypes of microsporidia DNA in human fecal samples that may be applied to field testing for prevalence studies. PMID:26303263

  6. How fast do eels grow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, H.J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Not so very much about the growth pattern of the eel is known yet. Eels move about nearly all the time. They are thus very difficult to follow and we do not, for examble, yet know how long it actually takes for them to grow to maturity in the wild. So far, a macroscopic analysis of the number of bright and dark areas (growth rings) in the 'earstones' has been used to determine eel age, but this method was recently challenged. Use of radioisotopes has been suggested previously for this purpose. For this present study the rare earth elements, europium-152 and europium-155 are used. When incubated in artificial sea water, a satisfactory final radioactive label was achieved. Two experiments were planned in collaboration with the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. 2000 Elvers were set out in 1982, in the cooling water outlet of the Oskarshamn nuclear power plant, each marked with europium-155. In 1984 another 10 000 elvers labelled with europium-152 were set out under similar conditions. The idea was mainly to see how fast the eels would grow, and to compare their known age with that determined by examining the earstones. Results showed that there was no clear-cut correlation between actual eel age and the biological age determination used so far. During four years, only 10 of the original 1300 eels were recaptured. It is thus hard to say anything definite from our results on the viability of setting out elvers in the environment

  7. The feasibility study on commercialized fast reactor cycle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noda, Hiroshi

    2002-01-01

    The feasibility study on commercialized Fast Reactor cycle system (FS) has been carried out by a joint team with the participation of all parties concerned in Japan since July, 1999. It aims to clarify various perspectives for commercialized fast reactor cycle system and also suggest development strategies to diverse social needs in the 21 st century. The FS consists of several phases. The phase 1 has progressed as planned and the highly feasible candidate concepts with innovative technologies have been screened out among a wide variety of concepts. During the phase 2, approximately five years after the phase 1, the in-depth design studies and engineering scale tests of key technologies are being conducted to verify and validate the feasibility of screened candidate concepts. At the end of the phase 2, a few promising concepts will be selected with their R and D tasks. The paper describes the results of the phase 1, the activities of the phase 2 and the new concept related to the fast reactor fuel cycle focusing on the reduction in environmental burden, which is one of key factors to sustain the nuclear power generation in the 21 st century

  8. Current status of feasibility studies on commercialized fuel cycle system for Fast Breeder Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojima, Hisao; Nagaoki, Yoshihiro

    2000-01-01

    A 'Feasibility Studies on Commercialized Fast Breeder Reactor Cycle System' is underway at the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC). The study will select the promising concepts with their R and D tasks in order to commercialize the fast breeder reactor (FBR) cycle system. The feasibility studies (F/S) have to present surveyed and screened various relevant technologies, and defined the design requirement of the commercialized fuel cycle system for FBR. The promising technical options are being evaluated and conceptual designs are being examined. At the end of JFY2000, several candidate concepts of the commercialized FBR cycle system will be proposed. (author)

  9. Genetic analyses, phenotypic adaptability and stability in sugarcane genotypes for commercial cultivation in Pernambuco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra Filho, J A; Junior, T C; Simões Neto, D E

    2015-10-05

    In the present study, we assessed the agro-industrial performance of 22 sugarcane genotypes adaptable to edaphoclimatic conditions in production microregions in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil, and we recommended the commercial cultivation of select genotypes. The variables analyzed were as follows: sucrose percentage in cane juice, tonnage of saccharose per hectare (TPH), sugarcane tonnage per hectare (TCH), fiber, solid soluble contents, total recoverable sugar tonnage (ATR), and total recoverable sugar tonnage per hectare (ATR t/ha). A randomized block design with 4 repeats was used. Combined variance of the experiments, genetic parameter estimates, and environment stratification were analyzed. Phenotypic adaptability and stability were analyzed using the Annicchiarico and Wricke methods and analysis of variance. Genetic gain was estimated using the classic index and sum of ranks. Genotype selection was efficient for TPH, TCH, and ATR t/ha. Genotypes presented a great potential for improvement and a similar response pattern in Litoral Norte and Mata Sul microregions for TPH and TCH and Litoral Norte and Litoral Sul microregions for ATR t/ha. Genotypes SP78-4764, RB813804, and SP79-101 showed better productivity and phenotypic adaptability and stability, according to the Wricke and Annicchiarico methods. These genotypes can be recommended for cultivation in the sugarcane belt in the State of Pernambuco.

  10. Edible Giblets and Bone Mineral Characteristics of Two Slow-Growing Chicken Genotypes Reared in an Organic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Eleroğlu

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was conducted to compare edible giblets weight, tibial bone mineral density (BMD, and bone mineral content (BMC of two slow-growing broiler genotypes (Hubbard S757; S757 and Hubbard Grey Barred JA; GB-JA reared with outdoor access, and to determine the relationship between these variables. Day-old chicks (straight-run of the genotypes S757 (n=120 and GB-JA (n=120 were housed for 98 days. Each genotype was assigned to six pens of 20 birds each. Birds were reared in indoor floor pens and moving shelters with outdoor access (during daylight hours. Absolute body (BW, heart (HW, spleen (SW, liver (LW, gizzard (GW, and abdominal fat pad (AFW weights of the genotype S757 and male birds were statistically higher than that of the genotype GB-JA and female birds. Genotype statistically affected relative HW, whereas sex affected relative GW. Although BMD values were not influenced by genotype or sex, S757 birds and males presented statistically higher tibial BMC, lean, lean+BMC, total mass values (g and area (cm2 compared with GB-JA birds and females. BW, HW, SW, LW, GW and AFW were positively correlated with BMC obtained by DXA. In conclusion, the measured traits influenced by genetic strain and sex. The use of the Hubbard S757 genotype in organic production systems with outdoor access is recommend.

  11. New Insights on Wood Dimensional Stability Influenced by Secondary Metabolites: The Case of a Fast-Growing Tropical Species Bagassa guianensis Aubl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Bossu

    Full Text Available Challenging evaluation of tropical forest biodiversity requires the reporting of taxonomic diversity but also the systematic characterization of wood properties in order to discover new promising species for timber industry. Among wood properties, the dimensional stability is regarded as a major technological characteristic to validate whether a wood species is adapted to commercial uses. Cell structure and organization are known to influence the drying shrinkage making wood density and microfibrils angle markers of choice to predict wood dimensional stability. On the contrary the role of wood extractive content remains unclear. This work focuses on the fast-growing tropical species Bagassa guianensis and we report herein a correlation between heartwood drying shrinkage and extractive content. Chemical extractions and shrinkage experiments were performed on separate wood twin samples to better evaluate correctly how secondary metabolites influence the wood shrinkage behaviour. Extractive content were qualitatively and quantitatively analysed using HPLC and NMR spectroscopy. We found that B guianensis heartwood has a homogeneous low shrinkage along its radius that could not be explained only by its basic density. In fact the low drying shrinkage is correlated to the high extractive content and a corrected model to improve the prediction of wood dimensional stability is presented. Additionally NMR experiments conducted on sapwood and heartwood extracts demonstrate that secondary metabolites biosynthesis occurs in sapwood thus revealing B. guianensis as a Juglans-Type heartwood formation. This work demonstrates that B. guianensis, a fast-growing species associated with high durability and high dimensional stability, is a good candidate for lumber production and commercial purposes.

  12. Technological quality of common bean grains obtained in different growing seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Francischinelli Perina

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The traits that provide technological quality to common bean grains exhibit genetic and environmental variation and variation in the genotype x environment interaction. In this context, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of different periods of the growing season on the technological quality of common bean grains. The experiment was conducted with 25 bean genotypes (carioca [beige with brown stripes] and black commercial group that are part of the Value for Cultivation and Use (Valor de Cultivo e Uso - VCU trials in three growing seasons, namely, the 2009/2010 rainy season, the 2010/2011 dry season and the 2010/2011 winter season, in a randomized block experimental design with three replications in which the following items were assessed: cooking time (CT, water absorption capacity before cooking (Peanc and after cooking (Peapc, percentage of whole grains (PWG, total soluble solids in the broth (TSSb, volume expansion before cooking (EXPVbc and after cooking (EXPVac, and dry grain density (DD, grain density after maceration (SD and grain density after cooking (CD. Assessments showed that the different growing seasons for obtaining grains for the purpose of analysis of technological quality have an effect on the results and on differentiation among genotypes, indicating genotype x environment interaction. They also showed that the genotypes C2-1-6-1, C4-8-1-1, LP04-03, IAC-Imperador, P5-4-4-1 and Pr11-6-4-1-2 had the best results in relation to cooking time in the mean values of the three growing seasons. The use of early selection based on phenotypic correlations that exist among the technological features is not expressive, due to the variation of magnitude among the different growing seasons.

  13. Optimal reactor strategy for commercializing fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaji, Kenji; Nagano, Koji

    1988-01-01

    In this paper, a fuel cycle optimization model developed for analyzing the condition of selecting fast breeder reactors in the optimal reactor strategy is described. By dividing the period of planning, 1966-2055, into nine ten-year periods, the model was formulated as a compact linear programming model. With the model, the best mix of reactor types as well as the optimal timing of reprocessing spent fuel from LWRs to minimize the total cost were found. The results of the analysis are summarized as follows. Fast breeder reactors could be introduced in the optimal strategy when they can economically compete with LWRs with 30 year storage of spent fuel. In order that fast breeder reactors monopolize the new reactor market after the achievement of their technical availability, their capital cost should be less than 0.9 times as much as that of LWRs. When a certain amount of reprocessing commitment is assumed, the condition of employing fast breeder reactors in the optimal strategy is mitigated. In the optimal strategy, reprocessing is done just to meet plutonium demand, and the storage of spent fuel is selected to adjust the mismatch of plutonium production and utilization. The price hike of uranium ore facilitates the commercial adoption of fast breeder reactors. (Kako, I.)

  14. Scenario for commercialization of fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumaoka, Yoshio; Sato, Morihiko

    1989-01-01

    To realize the commercialization of fast breeder reactors (FBRs), it is essential to reduce construction costs to the same level as those for the current light water reactors. For this target to be attained, a highly important factor is to reduce to the lowest-levels possible the quantities of materials and volume of the buildings required for the primary and secondary sodium loops of the FBR. In this direction, an innovative compact FBR plant concept which holds promise for commercialization has been developed by introducing the pooltype reactor concept with the shortest possible secondary sodium loops, realized by coupling electromagnetic pumps with the steam generators. In comparison with the French Super Phenix reactor, for example, the construction of this 1,300-MWe FBR plant could be achieved with half the material quantities and plant volume required by the former type. (author)

  15. The Risk of Growing Fast: Does fast growth have a negative impact on the survival rates of firms?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Haibo; van der Zwan, Peter; de Kok, Jan; Hartog, Chantal

    2012-01-01

    Fast-growing firms are considered as the central drivers of job creation in the economy. There is an abundance of literature on the separate subjects of firm growth and firm survival. However, the relationship between survival and growth is neglected. Using the Dutch Longitudinal Enterprise Database

  16. Interaction in Short rotation coppice willow, Salix viminalis genotype mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begley, D. [Department of Biological Sciences, Queen' s University Belfast, Newforge Lane, Belfast BT9 5PX, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); McCracken, A.R. [Applied Plant Science and Biometrics Division, Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, 18A Newforge Lane, Belfast BT9 5PX, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)]|[Northern Ireland Horticulture and Plant Breeding Station, Applied Plant Science and Biometrics Division, Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Loughgall, Co., Armagh BT61 8JB, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Dawson, W.M. [Northern Ireland Horticulture and Plant Breeding Station, Applied Plant Science and Biometrics Division, Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Loughgall, Co., Armagh BT61 8JB, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Watson, S. [Applied Plant Science and Biometrics Division, Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, 18A Newforge Lane, Belfast BT9 5PX, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-15

    Seven straight Salix viminalis genotypes with different levels of rust (Melampsora epitea) susceptibility were grown as mono-plots as well as being incorporated into a range of mixtures. Two 3-year harvests (2003 and 2006) were taken. Disease progress was followed on each of the individual genotypes throughout each growing season 2001-2006. In 2003 there were small but significant yield increases from the mixtures compared to the yield of individual components grown as mono-plots. These differences were not evident at the second harvest in 2006. No consistent effect of mixtures on reducing rust on the most susceptible genotype, Salix viminalis '77082' were observed. In some years, e.g. 2003, at certain times during the growing season, significant reductions were observed on Salix viminalis '77082' in certain 3-way mixtures compared to mono-plots. These, however, were not repeated consistently in subsequent years. It was concluded that the current commercial practice in many parts of Europe of planting mixtures as a disease control strategy will only be effective if there is sufficient genetic diversity between the Salix genotypes incorporated into the mixture. (author)

  17. Steam generator tubing development for commercial fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sessions, C.E.; Uber, C.F.

    1981-01-01

    The development work to design, manufacture, and evaluate pre-stressed double-wall 2/one quarter/ Cr-1 Mo steel tubing for commercial fast breeder reactor steam generator application is discussed. The Westinghouse plan for qualifying tubing vendors to produce this tubing is described. The results achieved to date show that a long length pre-stressed double-wall tube is both feasible and commercially available. The evaluation included structural analysis and experimental measurement of the pre-stress within tubes, as well as dimensional, metallurgical, and interface wear tests of tube samples produced. This work is summarized and found to meet the steam generator design requirements. 10 refs

  18. A fast track approach to commercializing the sodium cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boardman, C.E.; Hui, Marvin; Carroll, Douglas

    1999-01-01

    As a result of more than 50 years of Liquid Metal Reactor design and development work the basic technology is well understood. However, commercialization of the Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) has been delayed while various approaches to achieving competitive plant and fuel cycle costs are explored, developed, and demonstrated in prototype systems. Most designers have elected to take advantage of the economy of scale but are burdened by the cost and risk associated with the need for incremental scale up through the design, construction, and operation of multiple demonstration plants. An alternative commercialization path developed by GE would utilize a modular plant design to reduce the plant construction, R and D, and economic risk associated with the need to build multiple demonstration plants to reach a competitive size'. The key question is can a modular FBR compete with alternative electrical generation systems? Recently completed studies indicate that the answer to this question is yes if the modular plant designers keep the design simple by incorporating passive safety features and optimizing the manner in which supporting service systems are shared. (author)

  19. Growth dynamics of the threatened Caribbean staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis: influence of host genotype, symbiont identity, colony size, and environmental setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lirman, Diego; Schopmeyer, Stephanie; Galvan, Victor; Drury, Crawford; Baker, Andrew C; Baums, Iliana B

    2014-01-01

    The drastic decline in the abundance of Caribbean acroporid corals (Acropora cervicornis, A. palmata) has prompted the listing of this genus as threatened as well as the development of a regional propagation and restoration program. Using in situ underwater nurseries, we documented the influence of coral genotype and symbiont identity, colony size, and propagation method on the growth and branching patterns of staghorn corals in Florida and the Dominican Republic. Individual tracking of> 1700 nursery-grown staghorn fragments and colonies from 37 distinct genotypes (identified using microsatellites) in Florida and the Dominican Republic revealed a significant positive relationship between size and growth, but a decreasing rate of productivity with increasing size. Pruning vigor (enhanced growth after fragmentation) was documented even in colonies that lost 95% of their coral tissue/skeleton, indicating that high productivity can be maintained within nurseries by sequentially fragmenting corals. A significant effect of coral genotype was documented for corals grown in a common-garden setting, with fast-growing genotypes growing up to an order of magnitude faster than slow-growing genotypes. Algal-symbiont identity established using qPCR techniques showed that clade A (likely Symbiodinium A3) was the dominant symbiont type for all coral genotypes, except for one coral genotype in the DR and two in Florida that were dominated by clade C, with A- and C-dominated genotypes having similar growth rates. The threatened Caribbean staghorn coral is capable of extremely fast growth, with annual productivity rates exceeding 5 cm of new coral produced for every cm of existing coral. This species benefits from high fragment survivorship coupled by the pruning vigor experienced by the parent colonies after fragmentation. These life-history characteristics make A. cervicornis a successful candidate nursery species and provide optimism for the potential role that active propagation

  20. Sucrose and raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) in soybean seeds as influenced by genotype and growing location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vineet; Rani, Anita; Goyal, Lokesh; Dixit, Amit Kumar; Manjaya, J G; Dev, Jai; Swamy, M

    2010-04-28

    Sucrose content in soybean seeds is desired to be high because as a sweetness-imparting component, it helps in wider acceptance of soy-derived food products. Conversely, galactosyl derivatives of sucrose, that is, raffinose and stachyose, which are flatulence-inducing components, need to be in low concentration in soybean seeds not only for augmenting utilization of the crop in food uses but also for delivering soy meal with improved metabolizable energy for monogastric animals. In the present study, analysis of 148 soybean genotypes for sucrose and total raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) contents revealed a higher variation (4.80-fold) for sucrose than for RFOs content (2.63-fold). High-performance liquid chromatography analyses revealed ranges of 0.64-2.53 and 2.09-7.1 mmol/100 g for raffinose and stachyose contents, respectively. As information concerning the environmental effects on the sucrose and RFOs content in soybean seeds is not available, we also investigated a set of seven genotypes raised at widely different geographical locations for these quality traits. Sucrose content was found to be significantly higher at cooler location (Palampur); however, differences observed for raffinose and stachyose contents across the growing locations were genotype-dependent. The results suggest that soybean genotypes grown at cooler locations may be better suited for processing soy food products with improved taste and flavor.

  1. Video Segmentation Using Fast Marching and Region Growing Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eftychis Sifakis

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The algorithm presented in this paper is comprised of three main stages: (1 classification of the image sequence and, in the case of a moving camera, parametric motion estimation, (2 change detection having as reference a fixed frame, an appropriately selected frame or a displaced frame, and (3 object localization using local colour features. The image sequence classification is based on statistical tests on the frame difference. The change detection module uses a two-label fast marching algorithm. Finally, the object localization uses a region growing algorithm based on the colour similarity. Video object segmentation results are shown using the COST 211 data set.

  2. Effect of Genotype and Environment on Salvia miltiorrhiza Roots Using LC/MS-Based Metabolomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zhao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Salvia miltiorrhiza (S. miltiorrhiza Bunge is broadly used as herbal medicine for the clinical treatments of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Despite its commercial and medicinal values, few systematic studies on the metabolome of S. miltiorrhiza roots have been carried out so far. We systematically described the metabolic profiles of S. miltiorrhiza using high pressure liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS in conjunction with multivariate statistical analyses, aimed at monitoring their biological variations of secondary metabolites related to three locations and four S. miltiorrhiza genotypes. A total of 40 bioactive constituents were putatively annotated in S. miltiorrhiza root samples. This study found that both the same S. miltiorrhiza genotype growing at three different locations and four S. miltiorrhiza genotypes growing at the same location had significant metabonomic differences identified by the principal component analysis (PCA approach. By using orthogonal projection to latent structure with discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA, 16 and 14 secondary metabolites can be used as potential location-specific and genotype-specific markers in S. miltiorrhiza, respectively. The specificity of LC/MS profiles offered a powerful tool to discriminate S. miltiorrhiza samples according to genotypes or locations.

  3. High-throughput analysis by SP-LDI-MS for fast identification of adulterations in commercial balsamic vinegars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerreiro, Tatiane Melina; Oliveira, Diogo Noin de; Ferreira, Mônica Siqueira; Catharino, Rodrigo Ramos, E-mail: rrc@fcm.unicamp.br

    2014-08-01

    Highlights: • Rapid identification of adulteration in balsamic vinegars. • Minimal sample preparation. • No matrix required for assisting laser desorption/ionization. • Fast sample discrimination by multivariate data analysis. - Abstract: Balsamic vinegar (BV) is a typical and valuable Italian product, worldwide appreciated thanks to its characteristic flavors and potential health benefits. Several studies have been conducted to assess physicochemical and microbial compositions of BV, as well as its beneficial properties. Due to highly-disseminated claims of antioxidant, antihypertensive and antiglycemic properties, BV is a known target for frauds and adulterations. For that matter, product authentication, certifying its origin (region or country) and thus the processing conditions, is becoming a growing concern. Striving for fraud reduction as well as quality and safety assurance, reliable analytical strategies to rapidly evaluate BV quality are very interesting, also from an economical point of view. This work employs silica plate laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SP-LDI-MS) for fast chemical profiling of commercial BV samples with protected geographical indication (PGI) and identification of its adulterated samples with low-priced vinegars, namely apple, alcohol and red/white wines.

  4. High-throughput analysis by SP-LDI-MS for fast identification of adulterations in commercial balsamic vinegars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerreiro, Tatiane Melina; Oliveira, Diogo Noin de; Ferreira, Mônica Siqueira; Catharino, Rodrigo Ramos

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Rapid identification of adulteration in balsamic vinegars. • Minimal sample preparation. • No matrix required for assisting laser desorption/ionization. • Fast sample discrimination by multivariate data analysis. - Abstract: Balsamic vinegar (BV) is a typical and valuable Italian product, worldwide appreciated thanks to its characteristic flavors and potential health benefits. Several studies have been conducted to assess physicochemical and microbial compositions of BV, as well as its beneficial properties. Due to highly-disseminated claims of antioxidant, antihypertensive and antiglycemic properties, BV is a known target for frauds and adulterations. For that matter, product authentication, certifying its origin (region or country) and thus the processing conditions, is becoming a growing concern. Striving for fraud reduction as well as quality and safety assurance, reliable analytical strategies to rapidly evaluate BV quality are very interesting, also from an economical point of view. This work employs silica plate laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SP-LDI-MS) for fast chemical profiling of commercial BV samples with protected geographical indication (PGI) and identification of its adulterated samples with low-priced vinegars, namely apple, alcohol and red/white wines

  5. Unusual fast-growing ovarian cystic teratoma during pregnancy presenting with intracystic fat "floating balls" appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnadieu, Anne Claire; Deffieux, Xavier; Le Ray, Camille; Mordefroid, Marie; Frydman, René; Fernandez, Hervé

    2006-12-01

    A large ovarian cyst was diagnosed at 22 weeks' of gestation in a 32-year-old woman. The ultrasonographic appearance of the ovarian cyst was unusual with multiple mobile, spherical echogenic structures floating in the cystic mass, called intracystic "fat balls." Right adnexectomy was performed by laparotomy at 28 weeks' of gestation, because of rapid growth and overall size exceeding 20 cm. Pathological examination confirmed ovarian cystic teratoma. Usually, dermoid cysts are slow-growing, even in premenopausal women. The exact mechanism related to the fast growth during pregnancy is unknown. It could be related to an unusual pattern of estrogen (E)/P receptors expression in the cystic teratoma. This case shows that a fast-growing, mature ovarian cystic teratoma may occur during pregnancy.

  6. Commercial Television Exposure, Fast Food Toy Collecting, and Family Visits to Fast Food Restaurants among Families Living in Rural Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emond, Jennifer A; Bernhardt, Amy M; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane; Li, Zhigang; Sargent, James D

    2016-01-01

    To assess the associations between children's exposure to television (TV) networks that aired child-directed advertisements for children's fast food meals with the collection of fast food meal toy premiums and frequency of family visits to those restaurants. One hundred parents of children 3-7 years old were recruited from a rural pediatrics clinic during 2011; families receiving Medicaid were oversampled. Parents reported the child's TV viewing habits and family visit frequency to the fast food restaurants participating in child-directed TV marketing at the time, and their child's requests for visits to and the collecting of toy premiums from those restaurants. Logistic regression models assessed adjusted associations between a child's TV viewing with more frequent restaurant visits (≥monthly in this population). Structural equation modeling assessed if child requests or toy collecting mediated that association. Thirty-seven percent of parents reported ≥monthly visits to the select fast food restaurants. Among children, 54% requested visits to and 29% collected toys from those restaurants. Greater child commercial TV viewing was significantly associated with more frequent family visits to those fast food restaurants (aOR 2.84 for each 1-unit increase in the child's commercial TV viewing scale, P restaurants. Child desire for toy premiums may be a mediating factor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Commercial TV exposure, fast-food toy collecting and family visits to fast food restaurants among families living in rural communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emond, Jennifer A.; Bernhardt, Amy M.; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane; Li, Zhigang; Sargent, James D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the associations between children's exposure to TV networks that aired child-directed advertisements for children's fast food meals with the collection of fast food meal toy premiums and frequency of family visits to those restaurants. Study design One hundred parents of children 3–7 years old were recruited from a rural pediatrics clinic during 2011; families receiving Medicaid were oversampled. Parents reported the child's television viewing habits and family visit frequency to the fast food restaurants participating in child-directed TV marketing at the time, and their child's requests for visits to and the collecting of toy premiums from those restaurants. Logistic regression models assessed adjusted associations between a child's TV viewing with more frequent restaurant visits (≥monthly in this population). Structural equation modeling assessed if child requests or toy collecting mediated that association. Results Thirty-seven percent of parents reported ≥monthly visits to the select fast food restaurants. Among children, 54% requested visits to and 29% collected toys from those restaurants. Greater child commercial TV viewing was significantly associated with more frequent family visits to those fast food restaurants (adjusted odds ratio 2.84 for each one-unit increase in the child's commercial TV viewing scale, prestaurants. Child desire for toy premiums may be a mediating factor. PMID:26526362

  8. Effects of different floor housing systems on the welfare of fast-growing broilers with an extended fattening period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Çavuşoğlu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was made to investigate the long-term effects of different floor housing systems on the welfare of fast-growing broilers. The experiment was performed on 210-day-old fast-growing hybrid male chickens with identical conditions until 47 days of age. Animal-based welfare parameters were measured to investigate the welfare level in the group housed on deep litter, a litter and slat system, and a slatted floor, with five replicates for each group. Results showed that the main welfare indicators in live birds, such breast dirtiness, plumage score, footpad lesion, and hock burn lesion, were negatively affected in broilers kept on conventional deep-litter floor housing. But hemorrhage or lesion scores of the breast and shoulder of broilers in slat floor housing were found to be significantly greater than in conventional deep litter as a result of a heavy body weight at a greater slaughter age (p < 0.05. Pathologically, the prevalence of footpad and hock joint dermatitis was very high in the deep-litter housing system. Femoral head necrosis was not observed in any floor housing group. The results indicated that keeping broilers on a slat flooring system is preferable for younger slaughter ages and for a lighter slaughter weight. When considering the relationship between animal welfare and production economy, moving from one floor house system to another floor housing system should be carefully weighted in future decisions. Moreover, further investigations are needed in order to examine the incidence of joint and bone problems with muscle inflammation in heavier broilers in commercial conditions.

  9. Carbonization of some fast-growing species in Sudan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khristova, P.; Khalifa, A.W. (Khartoum Univ. (Sudan). Forestry Dept.)

    1993-01-01

    Four wood species, indigenous Acacia seyal (talh) and exotic fast-growing Conocarpus lancifolius (damas), Eucalyptus microtheca (kafur) and Prosopis chilensis (mesquite) grown in Sudan, were assessed and compared as raw materials for charcoal making. The effects of production method (traditional earth mound and improved metal kiln) and the physical and chemical properties of the wood and bark on the yield and quality of charcoal produced were assessed. Regression analyses of wood properties and heat value data indicated high negative correlations of the wood heat value with halocellulose and ash, and high positive correlations with wood density, lignin, and alcohol-benzene and hot-water solubles. Carbonization with the Tropical Products Institute metal kiln produced higher yields (33%) than the traditional earth mound (27%), although the difference in energy transformation yields was found to be insignificant both between appliances and species. (author)

  10. Growth dynamics of the threatened Caribbean staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis: influence of host genotype, symbiont identity, colony size, and environmental setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Lirman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The drastic decline in the abundance of Caribbean acroporid corals (Acropora cervicornis, A. palmata has prompted the listing of this genus as threatened as well as the development of a regional propagation and restoration program. Using in situ underwater nurseries, we documented the influence of coral genotype and symbiont identity, colony size, and propagation method on the growth and branching patterns of staghorn corals in Florida and the Dominican Republic. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Individual tracking of> 1700 nursery-grown staghorn fragments and colonies from 37 distinct genotypes (identified using microsatellites in Florida and the Dominican Republic revealed a significant positive relationship between size and growth, but a decreasing rate of productivity with increasing size. Pruning vigor (enhanced growth after fragmentation was documented even in colonies that lost 95% of their coral tissue/skeleton, indicating that high productivity can be maintained within nurseries by sequentially fragmenting corals. A significant effect of coral genotype was documented for corals grown in a common-garden setting, with fast-growing genotypes growing up to an order of magnitude faster than slow-growing genotypes. Algal-symbiont identity established using qPCR techniques showed that clade A (likely Symbiodinium A3 was the dominant symbiont type for all coral genotypes, except for one coral genotype in the DR and two in Florida that were dominated by clade C, with A- and C-dominated genotypes having similar growth rates. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The threatened Caribbean staghorn coral is capable of extremely fast growth, with annual productivity rates exceeding 5 cm of new coral produced for every cm of existing coral. This species benefits from high fragment survivorship coupled by the pruning vigor experienced by the parent colonies after fragmentation. These life-history characteristics make A. cervicornis a successful candidate

  11. A Robust Productivity Model for Grapple Yarding in Fast-Growing Tree Plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riaan Engelbrecht

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available New techniques have recently appeared that can extend the advantages of grapple yarding to fast-growing plantations. The most promising technique consists of an excavator-base un-guyed yarder equipped with new radio-controlled grapple carriages, fed by another excavator stationed on the cut-over. This system is very productive, avoids in-stand traffic, and removes operators from positions of high risk. This paper presents the results of a long-term study conducted on 12 different teams equipped with the new technology, operating in the fast-growing black wattle (Acacia mangium Willd plantations of Sarawak, Malaysia. Data were collected continuously for almost 8 months and represented 555 shifts, or over 55,000 cycles—each recorded individually. Production, utilization, and machine availability were estimated, respectively at: 63 m3 per productive machine hour (excluding all delays, 63% and 93%. Regression analysis of experimental data yielded a strong productivity forecast model that was highly significant, accounted for 50% of the total variability in the dataset and was validated with a non-significant error estimated at less than 1%. The figures reported in this study are especially robust, because they were obtained from a long-term study that covered multiple teams and accumulated an exceptionally large number of observations.

  12. Understory vegetation in fast-growing tree plantations on savanna soils in Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Loumeto, J.J.; Huttel, Charles

    1997-01-01

    The hypothesis that tree plantations may catalyze the regeneration of natural forest biodiversity was tested through studies of floristic diversity and structure in fast-growing tree plantations in the Congo. Study sites included experimental and industrial plantations on poor sandy coastal soils near Pointe-Noire, and experimental plantations on clay soils near Loudima. The effects of plantations species, plantation age (in 6- to 20-year-old eucalypt stands), disturbance due to herbicide use...

  13. Gas exchange, heat production and oxidation of fat in chicken embryos from a fast or slow growing line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chwalibog, André; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Ali, Abdalla

    2007-01-01

    The experiment comprised 48 chicken (Gallus gallus) embryos from a modern, fast growing line, Ross 308 (RO) and 48 from a slow growing line, Labresse (LA). The O(2) consumption and CO(2) production were measured in an open-air-circuit respiration unit, and heat production (HE) from embryos was ca...

  14. Wood-plastic composites utilizing wood flours derived from fast- growing trees common to the midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are several non- or under-utilized hardwood trees common to the Midwestern states. Wood flour (WF) derived from fast-growing Midwest trees (Osage orange, Black Locust and Red Mulberry) were evaluated as a source of bio-based fiber reinforcements. Wood plastic composites (WPC) of high density p...

  15. Saponin profile of green asparagus genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Castilla, Sara; Jaramillo-Carmona, Sara; Fuentes-Alventosa, Jose María; Jiménez-Araujo, Ana; Rodríguez-Arcos, Rocío; Cermeño-Sacristán, Pedro; Espejo-Calvo, Juan Antonio; Guillén-Bejarano, Rafael

    2013-11-20

    The main goal of this study was to determine the saponin profiles of different "triguero" asparagus genotypes and to compare them to green asparagus commercial hybrids. The samples consisted of 31 commercial hybrids and 58 genotypes from the Huétor-Tájar (HT) population variety ("triguero"). The saponin analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry allowed for the determination of 12 saponins derived from a furostan-type steroidal genin, 4 of which had never been described in the edible part of asparagus. The saponin profile of "triguero" asparagus was a combination of these new saponins and protodioscin. Although protodioscin was the major saponin found in commercial hybrids, some of these 12 saponins were detected as major components in some of the commercial hybrids. The total contents of saponins described in some of these HT genotypes reach values as high as 10-100 times higher than those found in commercial hybrids.

  16. Reduced trace element concentrations in fast-growing juvenile Atlantic salmon in natural streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Darren M; Nislow, Keith H; Chen, Celia Y; Folt, Carol L

    2010-05-01

    To assess the effect of rapid individual growth on trace element concentrations in fish, we measured concentrations of seven trace elements (As, Cd, Cs, Hg, Pb, Se, Zn) in stream-dwelling Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) from 15 sites encompassing a 10-fold range in salmon growth. All salmon were hatched under uniform conditions, released into streams, and sampled approximately 120 days later for trace element analysis. For most elements, element concentrations in salmon tracked those in their prey. Fast-growing salmon had lower concentrations of all elements than slow growers, after accounting for prey concentrations. This pattern held for essential and nonessential elements, as well as elements that accumulate from food and those that can accumulate from water. At the sites with the fastest salmon growth, trace element concentrations in salmon were 37% (Cs) to 86% (Pb) lower than at sites where growth was suppressed. Given that concentrations were generally below levels harmful to salmon and that the pattern was consistent across all elements, we suggest that dilution of elements in larger biomass led to lower concentrations in fast-growing fish. Streams that foster rapid, efficient fish growth may produce fish with lower concentrations of elements potentially toxic for human and wildlife consumers.

  17. Fertilizer drawn forward osmosis process for sustainable water reuse to grow hydroponic lettuce using commercial nutrient solution

    KAUST Repository

    Chekli, Laura; Eun Kim, Jung; El Saliby, Ibrahim; Kim, Youngjin; Phuntsho, Sherub; Li, Sheng; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Leiknes, TorOve; Kyong Shon, Ho

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the sustainable reuse of wastewater using fertilizer drawn forward osmosis (FDFO) process through osmotic dilution of commercial nutrient solution for hydroponics, a widely used technique for growing plants without soil

  18. Feasibility study on commercialized fast reactor cycle systems. Phase II final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ieda, Yoshiaki; Uchikawa, Sadao; Okubo, Tsutomu; Ono, Kiyoshi; Kato, Atsushi; Kurisaka, Kenichi; Sakamoto, Yoshihiko; Sato, Kazujiro; Sato, Koji; Chikazawa, Yoshitaka; Nakai, Ryodai; Nakabayashi, Hiroki; Nakamura, Hirofumi; Namekawa, Takashi; Niwa, Hajime; Nomura, Kazunori; Hayashi, Hideyuki; Hayafune, Hiroki; Hirao, Kazunori; Mizuno, Tomoyasu; Muramatsu, Toshiharu; Ando, Masato; Ono, Katsumi; Ogata, Takanari; Kubo, Shigenobu; Kotake, Shoji; Sagayama, Yutaka; Takakuma, Katsuyuki; Tanaka, Toshihiko; Namba, Takashi; Fujii, Sumio; Muramatsu, Kazuyoshi

    2006-06-01

    A joint project team of Japan Atomic Energy Agency and the Japan Atomic Power Company (as the representative of the electric utilities) started the feasibility study on commercialized fast reactor cycle systems (F/S) in July 1999 in cooperation with Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry and vendors. On the major premise of safety assurance, F/S aims to present an appropriate picture of commercialization of fast reactor (FR) cycle system which has economic competitiveness with light water reactor cycle systems and other electricity base load systems, and to establish FR cycle technologies for the future major energy supply. In the period from Japanese fiscal year (JFY) 1999 to 2000, the phase-I of F/S was carried out to screen our representative FR, reprocessing and fuel fabrication technologies. In the phase-II (JFY 2001-2005), the design study of FR cycle concepts, the development of significant technologies necessary for the feasibility evaluation, and the confirmation of key technical issues were performed to clarify the promising candidate concepts toward the commercialization. In this final phase-II report clarified the most promising concept, the R and D plan until around 2015, and the key issues for the commercialization. Based on the comprehensive evaluation in F/S, the combination of the sodium-cooled FR with MOX fuel core, the advanced-aqueous reprocessing process and the simplified-pelletizing fuel fabrication process was recommended as the mainline choice for the most promising concept. The concept exceeds in technical advancement, and the conformity to the development targets was higher compared with that of the others. Alternative technologies are prepared to be decrease the development risk of innovative technologies in the mainline choice. (author)

  19. Plant diversity and energy potency of community forest in East Kalimantan, Indonesia: Searching for fast growing wood species for energy production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUDIANTO AMIRTA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Amirta R, Yuliansyah, Angi EM, Ananto BR, Setiyono B, Haqiqi MT, Septiana HA, Lodong M, Oktavianto RN. 2016. Plant diversity and energy potency of community forest in East Kalimantan, Indonesia: Searching for fast growing wood species for energy production. Nusantara Bioscience 8: 22-30. Nowadays, there is an increasing interest in intensifying the production and use of biomass to replace fossil fuels for the production of heat and electricity, especially for a remote area that generally abundance with the wood biomass resources including in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. In this work, diversity of plant species that commonly growth in community forest area of East Kutai District, East Kalimantan, Indonesia had been studied to point out their energy potency to be used as biomass feedstock for the electricity generated. Diversity of plant species in the community forest was evaluated by making 13 sampling plots with 20mx20m size approximately. Concurently, the energy properties of plant biomass such as proximate and ultimate compositions were also analyzed using ASTM methods. Results showed that more than 30 species of tropical trees and wood shrubs were grown in the community forest. The presence of them was classified into two different growth of origins: natural and artificial plantation, and also three different categories of plant resources: tree species from logged over forest, commercial fast growing plant tree species for the fiber production and woody shrubs. The highest dominancy and productivity was found in Paraserianthes falcataria (L. Nielsen since the wood biomass was artificially planted for the commercial purposes. Among the 31 plant species analyzed we found the highest energy potency was obtained from Cratoxylum cochinchinense (Lour. Blume that produced 3.17 MWh/ton, and the lowest was from Trema orientalis (L. Blume 0.97 MWh/ton. The woody shrubs species such as Vernonia amigdalina Delile., Piper aduncum L., Gliricidia

  20. Fast-growing Acer rubrum differs from slow-growing Quercus alba in leaf, xylem and hydraulic trait coordination responses to simulated acid rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Juliana S; Tomeo, Nicholas J; Hewins, Charlotte R; Rosenthal, David M

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the effects of historic soil chemistry changes associated with acid rain, i.e., reduced soil pH and a shift from nitrogen (N)- to phosphorus (P)-limitation, on the coordination of leaf water demand and xylem hydraulic supply traits in two co-occurring temperate tree species differing in growth rate. Using a full-factorial design (N × P × pH), we measured leaf nutrient content, water relations, leaf-level and canopy-level gas exchange, total biomass and allocation, as well as stem xylem anatomy and hydraulic function for greenhouse-grown saplings of fast-growing Acer rubrum (L.) and slow-growing Quercus alba (L.). We used principle component analysis to characterize trait coordination. We found that N-limitation, but not P-limitation, had a significant impact on plant water relations and hydraulic coordination of both species. Fast-growing A. rubrum made hydraulic adjustments in response to N-limitation, but trait coordination was variable within treatments and did not fully compensate for changing allocation across N-availability. For slow-growing Q. alba, N-limitation engendered more strict coordination of leaf and xylem traits, resulting in similar leaf water content and hydraulic function across all treatments. Finally, low pH reduced the propensity of both species to adjust leaf water relations and xylem anatomical traits in response to nutrient manipulations. Our data suggest that a shift from N- to P-limitation has had a negative impact on the water relations and hydraulic function of A. rubrum to a greater extent than for Q. alba We suggest that current expansion of A. rubrum populations could be tempered by acidic N-deposition, which may restrict it to more mesic microsites. The disruption of hydraulic acclimation and coordination at low pH is emphasized as an interesting area of future study. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Biotechnology and genetic optimization of fast-growing hardwoods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garton, S.; Syrkin-Wurtele, E.; Griffiths, H.; Schell, J.; Van Camp, L.; Bulka, K. (NPI, Salt Lake City, UT (United States))

    1991-02-01

    A biotechnology research program was initiated to develop new clones of fast-growing Populus clones resistant to the herbicide glyphosate and resistant to the leaf-spot and canker disease caused by the fungus Septoria musiva. Glyphosate-resistant callus was selected from stem segments cultured in vitro on media supplemented with the herbicide. Plants were regenerated from the glyphosate-resistant callus tissue. A portion of plants reverted to a glyphosate susceptible phenotype during organogenesis. A biologically active filtrate was prepared from S. musiva and influenced fresh weight of Populus callus tissue. Disease-resistant plants were produced through somaclonal variation when shoots developed on stem internodes cultured in vitro. Plantlets were screened for disease symptoms after spraying with a suspension of fungal spores. A frequency of 0.83 percent variant production was observed. Genetically engineered plants were produced after treatment of plant tissue with Agrobacterium tumefasciens strains carrying plasmid genes for antibiotic resistance. Transformers were selected on media enriched with the antibiotic, kanamycin. Presence of foreign DNA was confirmed by Southern blot analysis. Protoplasts of popular were produced but did not regenerate into plant organs. 145 refs., 12 figs., 36 tabs.

  2. Gut Microbiota Contributes to the Growth of Fast-Growing Transgenic Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shouqi; Hu, Wei; Yu, Yuhe; Hu, Zihua

    2013-01-01

    Gut microbiota has shown tight and coordinated connection with various functions of its host such as metabolism, immunity, energy utilization, and health maintenance. To gain insight into whether gut microbes affect the metabolism of fish, we employed fast-growing transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) to study the connections between its large body feature and gut microbes. Metagenome-based fingerprinting and high-throughput sequencing on bacterial 16S rRNA genes indicated that fish gut was dominated by Proteobacteria, Fusobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, which displayed significant differences between transgenic fish and wild-type controls. Analyses to study the association of gut microbes with the fish metabolism discovered three major phyla having significant relationships with the host metabolic factors. Biochemical and histological analyses indicated transgenic fish had increased carbohydrate but decreased lipid metabolisms. Additionally, transgenic fish has a significantly lower Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio than that of wild-type controls, which is similar to mammals between obese and lean individuals. These findings suggest that gut microbiotas are associated with the growth of fast growing transgenic fish, and the relative abundance of Firmicutes over Bacteroidetes could be one of the factors contributing to its fast growth. Since the large body size of transgenic fish displays a proportional body growth, which is unlike obesity in human, the results together with the findings from others also suggest that the link between obesity and gut microbiota is likely more complex than a simple Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio change. PMID:23741344

  3. Gut microbiota contributes to the growth of fast-growing transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Li

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota has shown tight and coordinated connection with various functions of its host such as metabolism, immunity, energy utilization, and health maintenance. To gain insight into whether gut microbes affect the metabolism of fish, we employed fast-growing transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. to study the connections between its large body feature and gut microbes. Metagenome-based fingerprinting and high-throughput sequencing on bacterial 16S rRNA genes indicated that fish gut was dominated by Proteobacteria, Fusobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, which displayed significant differences between transgenic fish and wild-type controls. Analyses to study the association of gut microbes with the fish metabolism discovered three major phyla having significant relationships with the host metabolic factors. Biochemical and histological analyses indicated transgenic fish had increased carbohydrate but decreased lipid metabolisms. Additionally, transgenic fish has a significantly lower Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio than that of wild-type controls, which is similar to mammals between obese and lean individuals. These findings suggest that gut microbiotas are associated with the growth of fast growing transgenic fish, and the relative abundance of Firmicutes over Bacteroidetes could be one of the factors contributing to its fast growth. Since the large body size of transgenic fish displays a proportional body growth, which is unlike obesity in human, the results together with the findings from others also suggest that the link between obesity and gut microbiota is likely more complex than a simple Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio change.

  4. Understanding the Effects of Genotype, Growing Year, and Breeding on Tunisian Durum Wheat Allergenicity. 2. The Celiac Disease Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukid, Fatma; Prandi, Barbara; Sforza, Stefano; Sayar, Rhouma; Seo, Yong Weon; Mejri, Mondher; Yacoubi, Ines

    2017-07-19

    The aim of this study was to compare immunogenic and toxic gluten peptides related to celiac disease (CD). 100 accessions of genotypes selected during the 20th century in Tunisia were in vitro digested and then analyzed by UPLC/ESI-MS technique using an isotopically labeled internal standard. The first MANOVA confirmed a high variability in the content of immunogenic and toxic peptides reflecting high genetic diversity in the germplasm released during the past century in Tunisia, consistently with PCA and clustering analysis results. Our finding showed also important variability in CD epitopes due to growing season's climate scenarios. Moreover, the second MANOVA revealed significant differences between abandoned and modern cultivars' CD-related peptide amounts. Although we could not conclude that there was an augment of allergens in newly selected durum wheat lines compared to abandoned ones, we demonstrated that modern genotype peptides were less sensitive to climate variation, which is a useful indicator for wheat breeders.

  5. Forecasting municipal solid waste generation in a fast-growing urban region with system dynamics modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyson, Brian; Chang, N.-B.

    2005-01-01

    Both planning and design of municipal solid waste management systems require accurate prediction of solid waste generation. Yet achieving the anticipated prediction accuracy with regard to the generation trends facing many fast-growing regions is quite challenging. The lack of complete historical records of solid waste quantity and quality due to insufficient budget and unavailable management capacity has resulted in a situation that makes the long-term system planning and/or short-term expansion programs intangible. To effectively handle these problems based on limited data samples, a new analytical approach capable of addressing socioeconomic and environmental situations must be developed and applied for fulfilling the prediction analysis of solid waste generation with reasonable accuracy. This study presents a new approach - system dynamics modeling - for the prediction of solid waste generation in a fast-growing urban area based on a set of limited samples. To address the impact on sustainable development city wide, the practical implementation was assessed by a case study in the city of San Antonio, Texas (USA). This area is becoming one of the fastest-growing regions in North America due to the economic impact of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The analysis presents various trends of solid waste generation associated with five different solid waste generation models using a system dynamics simulation tool - Stella[reg]. Research findings clearly indicate that such a new forecasting approach may cover a variety of possible causative models and track inevitable uncertainties down when traditional statistical least-squares regression methods are unable to handle such issues

  6. Hydroponic Screening of Fast-growing Tree Species for Lead Phytoremediation Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongpisanphop, Jiraporn; Babel, Sandhya; Kruatrachue, Maleeya; Pokethitiyook, Prayad

    2017-10-01

    Using trees as phytoremediators has become a powerful tool to remediate lead from contaminated environments. This study aims to identify potential candidates among fast-growing trees by comparing their ability to tolerate and accumulate Pb. Cuttings from Acacia mangium, Azadirachta indica, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, and Senna siamea were cultured in 25% modified Hoagland's solutions supplemented with 10, 30, and 50 mg/L Pb for 15 days. Lead concentrations were determined by a flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. All species showed high Pb tolerance (over 78%) and low translocation factor (40000 mg/kg) was recorded in A. mangium and E. camaldulensis grown in 50 mg/L Pb solution. Based on high biomass, tolerance index, and Pb content in plants, A. mangium and E. camaldulensis are good candidates for phytoremediation.

  7. An efficient genotyping method for genome-modified animals and human cells generated with CRISPR/Cas9 system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoxiao; Xu, Yajie; Yu, Shanshan; Lu, Lu; Ding, Mingqin; Cheng, Jing; Song, Guoxu; Gao, Xing; Yao, Liangming; Fan, Dongdong; Meng, Shu; Zhang, Xuewen; Hu, Shengdi; Tian, Yong

    2014-09-19

    The rapid generation of various species and strains of laboratory animals using CRISPR/Cas9 technology has dramatically accelerated the interrogation of gene function in vivo. So far, the dominant approach for genotyping of genome-modified animals has been the T7E1 endonuclease cleavage assay. Here, we present a polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis-based (PAGE) method to genotype mice harboring different types of indel mutations. We developed 6 strains of genome-modified mice using CRISPR/Cas9 system, and utilized this approach to genotype mice from F0 to F2 generation, which included single and multiplexed genome-modified mice. We also determined the maximal detection sensitivity for detecting mosaic DNA using PAGE-based assay as 0.5%. We further applied PAGE-based genotyping approach to detect CRISPR/Cas9-mediated on- and off-target effect in human 293T and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Thus, PAGE-based genotyping approach meets the rapidly increasing demand for genotyping of the fast-growing number of genome-modified animals and human cell lines created using CRISPR/Cas9 system or other nuclease systems such as TALEN or ZFN.

  8. Eaton launches EV certification for fast-growing electric vehicle market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2011-11-15

    This paper presents Electrical Line magazine's industry news, where it covers the launch by Eaton Corporation of electric vehicle (EV) certification for the fast-growing electric vehicle market. The aim of the certification is to help homeowners locate electricians specializing in electric vehicle support. Eaton certified EV contractors will visit the residence of people interested in an EV and determine if it can support a charging station. These contractors are trained, qualified and members of Eaton's certified contractor network. The residential power stations come in a wall-mount or pedestal model that can fully charge an electric car in 6 to 24 hours, depending on the model. The article also covers a new venture by Powercheck, a Vancouver-based company, which ensures that electrical wiring in older homes is safe and complies with their insurance company's safety requirements. Powercheck examines the entire house for electrical fire hazards and produces a detailed report listing the corrective actions needed.

  9. Commercial U.S. Vendors Focus on Reducing the Cost of Fast Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, Dan; Kouhestani, Amir; Parmentola, John; Prince, Robert; Reynolds, Roger

    2013-01-01

    A US commercial perspective: • Focus on economic benefits of fast reactors (Market Determined): • Compact design, high energy density (modularity); • High temperature output; • Improved energy conversion efficiency; • Process heat application market; • Inherent safety capabilities. • Focus on burn or “breed and burn”; • Helps avoid some non-proliferation challenges. • Focus on reactor alone, not on a re-processing plant; • Reactor is the first place for economic payback; • Happy to burn reprocessed fuel if available

  10. The Commercial Profitability of Growing Hybrid Eucalyptus Clones in The Coast Province, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balozi Bekuta Kirongo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the current high demand for timber, fuelwood, and building poles and the realization that tree growing may pay dividends in the short and long term, many farmers are planting trees on their farms. Farmers are increasingly planting eucalyptus partly due to the fast growth rates of the hybrid clones as well as the opportunity to earn money within a short time. In this paper we report on the profitability of growing eucalyptus hybrid clones in the coastal region, Kenya. Tree growth and cost data was sourced from farmers in Malindi, Kilifi, and Msambweni. Market information was sourced from hardwares in North and South Coast while tree growth models were used to provide average tree sizes at various ages. Results showed that a farmer could make a net income of upto Kshs.500,000.00 (USD6,250 in 5 years. Farmers in the South Coast (Kwale and Msambweni spent more on transport than their counterparts in the North Coast (near Gede-KEFRI. This, added to the fact that trees in the South Coast (Msambweni grew less compared to those in North Coast meant that farmers in the south made less profits.

  11. fastPACE Train-the-Trainer: A scalable new educational program to accelerate training in biomedical innovation, entrepreneurship, and commercialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servoss, Jonathan; Chang, Connie; Fay, Jonathan; Lota, Kanchan Sehgal; Mashour, George A; Ward, Kevin R

    2017-10-01

    The Institute of Medicine recommended the advance of innovation and entrepreneurship training programs within the Clinical & Translational Science Award (CTSA) program; however, there remains a gap in adoption by CTSA institutes. The University of Michigan's Michigan Institute for Clinical & Health Research and Fast Forward Medical Innovation (FFMI) partnered to develop a pilot program designed to teach CTSA hubs how to implement innovation and entrepreneurship programs at their home institutions. The program provided a 2-day onsite training experience combined with observation of an ongoing course focused on providing biomedical innovation, commercialization and entrepreneurial training to a medical academician audience (FFMI fast PACE). All 9 participating CTSA institutes reported a greater connection to biomedical research commercialization resources. Six launched their own version of the FFMI fast PACE course or modified existing programs. Two reported greater collaboration with their technology transfer offices. The FFMI fast PACE course and training program may be suitable for CTSA hubs looking to enhance innovation and entrepreneurship within their institutions and across their innovation ecosystems.

  12. N-fertilization has different effects on the growth, carbon and nitrogen physiology, and wood properties of slow- and fast-growing Populus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Li, Mengchun; Luo, Jie; Cao, Xu; Qu, Long; Gai, Ying; Jiang, Xiangning; Liu, Tongxian; Bai, Hua; Janz, Dennis; Polle, Andrea; Peng, Changhui; Luo, Zhi-Bin

    2012-10-01

    To investigate how N-fertilization affects the growth, carbon and nitrogen (N) physiology, and wood properties of poplars with contrasting growth characteristics, slow-growing (Populus popularis, Pp) and fast-growing (P. alba×P. glandulosa, Pg) poplar saplings were exposed to different N levels. Above-ground biomass, leaf area, photosynthetic rates (A), instantaneous photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE (i)), chlorophyll and foliar sugar concentrations were higher in Pg than in Pp. Foliar nitrate reductase (NR) activities and root glutamate synthase (GOGAT) activities were higher in Pg than in Pp as were the N amount and NUE of new shoots. Lignin contents and calorific values of Pg wood were less than that of Pp wood. N-fertilization reduced root biomass of Pg more than of Pp, but increased leaf biomass, leaf area, A, and PNUE(i) of Pg more than of Pp. Among 13 genes involved in the transport of ammonium or nitrate or in N assimilation, transcripts showed more pronounced changes to N-fertilization in Pg than in Pp. Increases in NR activities and N contents due to N-fertilization were larger in Pg than in Pp. In both species, N-fertilization resulted in lower calorific values as well as shorter and wider vessel elements/fibres. These results suggest that growth, carbon and N physiology, and wood properties are more sensitive to increasing N availability in fast-growing poplars than in slow-growing ones, which is probably due to prioritized resource allocation to the leaves and accelerated N physiological processes in fast-growing poplars under higher N levels.

  13. Mass Mortality Events in the NW Adriatic Sea: Phase Shift from Slow- to Fast-Growing Organisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Gioia Di Camillo

    Full Text Available Massive outbreaks are increasing all over the world, which are likely related to climate change. The North Adriatic Sea, a sub-basin of the Mediterranean Sea, is a shallow semi-closed sea receiving high nutrients inputs from important rivers. These inputs sustain the highest productive basin of the Mediterranean Sea. Moreover, this area shows a high number of endemisms probably due to the high diversity of environmental conditions and the conspicuous food availability. Here, we documented two massive mortalities (2009 and 2011 and the pattern of recovery of the affected biocoenoses in the next two years. Results show an impressive and fast shift of the benthic assemblage from a biocoenosis mainly composed of slow-growing and long-lived species to a biocoenosis dominated by fast-growing and short-lived species. The sponge Chondrosia reniformis, one of the key species of this assemblage, which had never been involved in previous massive mortality events in the Mediterranean Sea, reduced its coverage by 70%, and only few small specimens survived. All the damaged sponges, together with many associated organisms, were detached by rough-sea conditions, leaving large bare areas on the rocky wall. Almost three years after the disease, the survived specimens of C. reniformis did not increase significantly in size, while the bare areas were colonized by fast-growing species such as stoloniferans, hydrozoans, mussels, algae, serpulids and bryozoans. Cnidarians were more resilient than massive sponges since they quickly recovered in less than one month. In the study area, the last two outbreaks caused a reduction in the filtration efficiency of the local benthic assemblage by over 60%. The analysis of the times series of wave heights and temperature revealed that the conditions in summer 2011 were not so extreme as to justify severe mass mortality, suggesting the occurrence of other factors which triggered the disease. The long-term observations of a

  14. Genotypic versus phenotypic identification of staphylococcal species of canine origin with special reference to Staphylococcus schleiferi subsp. coagulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jousson, Olivier; Di Bello, Domenica; Vanni, Michele; Cardini, Giovanni; Soldani, Giulio; Pretti, Carlo; Intorre, Luigi

    2007-07-20

    A comparative study was performed to examine the respective accuracy of 16S rDNA sequencing and of the commercial biochemical assay ID32 STAPH (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France) in the identification of 232 staphylococcal samples representing 20 species and subspecies isolated from 367 dogs. Notable differences in species distribution were observed by comparing genotypic and phenotypic data. Partial sequencing of 16S rDNA resulted in an unambiguous identification of 226 (97.4%) of the isolates, whereas the phenotypic approach resulted in a correct diagnosis of 162 (69.8%) of the isolates. Statistical agreement between genotypic and phenotypic identification of staphylococci was substantial (Kappa coefficient of 0.6-0.8) for Staphylococcus aureus, S. hominis, S. warneri, S. cohnii subsp. urealyticus, and S. simulans, and "almost perfect" (Kappa coefficient of 0.8-1) for S. intermedius, S. epidermidis, S. equorum, S. haemolyticus, S. sciuri, and S. kloosi. No agreement above that expected by chance (Kappa coefficient=0) was observed for S. schleiferi subsp. coagulans, which was either confounded with S. intermedius and S. capitis, or categorized as unacceptable by the biochemical assay. Given the growing importance of this pathogen in veterinary medicine and its frequent misidentification with related staphylococci, a PCR-RFLP approach producing a S. schleiferi-specific restriction profile was developed. This fast and reliable assay represents a valuable tool in assisting in the monitoring of this pathogen.

  15. Ecosystem-management-based Management Models of Fast-growing and High-yield Plantation and Its Eco-economic Benefits Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The paper expounded the basic concept and principles of ecosystem management,and analyzed the state and trend of industrial plantation ecosystem management in other countries.Based on the analysis of typical case studies,the eco-economic benefits were evaluated for the management models of fast-growing and high-yield plantations.

  16. Chemical composition and fuel wood characteristics of fast growing tree species in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, S. K.; Soni, R.

    2012-04-01

    India is one of the growing economy in the world and energy is a critical input to sustain the growth of development. Country aims at security and efficiency of energy. Though fossil fuel will continue to play a dominant role in energy scenario but country is committed to global environmental well being thus stressing on environment friendly technologies. Concerns of energy security in this changing climatic situation have led to increasing support for the development of new renewable source of energy. Government though is determined to facilitate bio-energy and many projects have been established but initial after-affects more specifically on the domestic fuelwood are evident. Even the biomass power generating units are facing biomass crisis and accordingly the prices are going up. The CDM projects are supporting the viability of these units resultantly the Indian basket has a large number of biomass projects (144 out of total 506 with 28 per cent CERs). The use for fuelwood as a primary source of energy for domestic purpose by the poor people (approx. 80 per cent) and establishment of bio-energy plants may lead to deforestation to a great extent and only solution to this dilemma is to shift the wood harvest from the natural forests to energy plantations. However, there is conspicuous lack of knowledge with regards to the fuelwood characteristics of fast growing tree species for their selection for energy plantations. The calorific value of the species is important criteria for selection for fuel but it is affected by the proportions of biochemical constituents present in them. The aim of the present work was to study the biomass production, calorific value and chemical composition of different short rotation tree species. The study was done from the perspective of using the fast growing tree species for energy production at short rotation and the study concluded that short rotation tree species like Gmelina arborea, Eucalyptus tereticornis, Pongamia pinnata

  17. Effect of slaughtering age in different commercial chicken genotypes reared according to the organic system: 1. Welfare, carcass and meat traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Dal Bosco

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The carcass and meat quality of three different commercial chicken genotypes reared according to the organic system and slaughtered at two different ages (70 and 81 days were compared. The used genotypes were Naked Neck (CN1, Kabir (KR4 and Ross 308 (R. All animals were raised in the facilities of a big Italian company, in production units of 3000 birds. Before slaughtering, plumage conditions, foot pad dermatitis as well as qualitative traits of carcasses, such as skin damage and the presence of breast blisters, were registered (n=50. Naked Neck birds showed the best plumage conditions at both ages; the other genotypes had similar body conditions showing a dramatically worsening at the end of rearing cycle (81 days, mainly at breast level. The carcass conformation showed differences mainly for the CN1 genotype, which was more slender with higher proportions of head, neck and legs; thus, ready-to-cook-carcass yield was lower. The meat of CN1 chickens showed lower levels of lipids, pH and brightness values, but higher index of redness. Ross 308 genotype showed a bad welfare status even at 70 days, confirming that the rearing of this strain should not be permitted in organic systems. In conclusion, this study indicates that genotype deeply affects performance, welfare and qualitative characteristics of meat. Regarding the slaughtering age, although the inconsistency of European Commission rules which authorise the reduction of slaughtering age in less mature strains, at 70 days chickens show higher feed efficiency and thinness of carcass and meat.

  18. Prececal amino acid digestibility of soybean cake in fast- and slow-growing broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzer, C; Siegert, W; Kluth, H; Bennewitz, J; Rodehutscord, M

    2017-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine whether there are differences in prececal amino acid digestibility between commonly used slow- and fast-growing broiler strains when the regression approach is applied. ISA J-275 and Ross 308 were selected as common representatives of slow- and fast-growing broiler strains, respectively. The experimental diets with soybean cake at levels of 0, 100, and 200 g/kg were offered for ad libitum consumption between 22 and 29 d post-hatch. Titanium dioxide was used as an indigestible marker. Each treatment was tested with six pens comprising 10 birds each. Digesta samples were collected on a pen basis from the distal two-thirds of the intestine section between Meckel's diverticulum and 2 cm anterior to the ileocecal-colonic junction. The prececal amino acid digestibility of soybean cake was calculated by linear regression simultaneously for both strains. There was no significant interaction between broiler strain and inclusion level of soybean cake with respect to the prececal CP and amino acid digestibility of complete diets; there was a significant strain effect for 5 out of the 16 measured amino acids. The prececal CP and amino acid digestibility of soybean cake did not differ significantly between strains and was numerically almost identical. The results of the present study provide evidence of the transferability between broiler strains of prececal amino acid digestibility data, determined using the regression approach, thus improving the accuracy of diet formulation without drawbacks. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  19. Water regime of mechanical-biological pretreated waste materials under fast-growing trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüth, Björn; Lennartz, Bernd; Kahle, Petra

    2007-10-01

    In this study mechanical-biological pre-treated waste material (MBP) was tested for suitability to serve as an alternative surface layer in combination with fast-growing and water-consumptive trees for final covers at landfill sites. The aim was to quantify evapotranspiration and seepage losses by numerical model simulations for two sites in Germany. In addition, the leaf area index (LAI) of six tree species over the growing season as the driving parameter for transpiration calculations was determined experimentally. The maximum LAI varied between 3.8 and 6.1 m2 m(-2) for poplar and willow clones, respectively. The evapotranspiration calculations revealed that the use of MBP waste material for re-cultivation enhanced evapotranspiration by 40 mm year(-1) (10%) over an 11 year calculation period compared to a standard mineral soil. Between 82% (for LAI(max) = 3.8) and 87% (for LAI(max) = 6.1) of the average annual precipitation (506 mm) could be retained from the surface layer assuming eastern German climate conditions, compared with a retention efficiency between 79 and 82% for a mineral soil. Although a MBP layer in conjunction with water-consumptive trees can reduce vertical water losses as compared to mineral substrates, the effect is not sufficient to meet legal regulations.

  20. Comparison of Three Different Commercial Kits for the Human Papilloma Virus Genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yong Kwan; Choi, Jee-Hye; Park, Serah; Kweon, Oh Joo; Park, Ae Ja

    2016-11-01

    High-risk type human papilloma virus (HPV) is the most important cause of cervical cancer. Recently, real-time polymerase chain reaction and reverse blot hybridization assay-based HPV DNA genotyping kits are developed. So, we compared the performances of different three HPV genotyping kits using different analytical principles and methods. Two hundred positive and 100 negative cervical swab specimens were used. DNA was extracted and all samples were tested by the MolecuTech REBA HPV-ID, Anyplex II HPV28 Detection, and HPVDNAChip. Direct sequencing was performed as a reference method for confirming high-risk HPV genotypes 16, 18, 45, 52, and 58. Although high-level agreement results were observed in negative samples, three kits showed decreased interassay agreement as screening setting in positive samples. Comparing the genotyping results, three assays showed acceptable sensitivity and specificity for the detection of HPV 16 and 18. Otherwise, various sensitivities showed in the detection of HPV 45, 52, and 58. The three assays had dissimilar performance of HPV screening capacity and exhibited moderate level of concordance in HPV genotyping. These discrepant results were unavoidable due to difference in type-specific analytical sensitivity and lack of standardization; therefore, we suggested that the efforts to standardization of HPV genotyping kits and adjusting analytical sensitivity would be important for the best clinical performance. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Feeding non-preference by Spodoptera frugiperda and Spodoptera eridania on tomato genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Henrique Sardinha de Souza

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Larvae of the genus Spodoptera spp. are highly polyphagous and can cause economical losses in several agricultural crops. Given their growing importance in the tomato crop, especially for industry, this work aimed to evaluate the feeding non-preference by larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 and Spodoptera eridania (Cramer, 1782 on tomato genotypes and classify them by the levels of resistance. The commercial cultivar Santa Clara was set as the susceptible standard and line PI 134417 as the resistant standard to evaluate the lines PI 134418, PI 126931, LA 462 and LA 716. Feeding non-preference tests were performed under non-choice and free-choice conditions to evaluate the genotype attractiveness to larvae at predetermined times after their release, as well as the leaf area consumed. Overall, the genotypes LA 716 and PI 126931 were the least attractive to S. frugiperda, whereas Santa Clara was the most attractive and consumed. For S. eridania, the genotypes PI 126931, LA 462, LA 716 and PI 134418 were the least preferred for feeding, and Santa Clara and PI 134417 were the most attractive and consumed. The genotypes LA 716 and PI 126931 are moderately resistant to S. frugiperda and S. eridania; PI 134418 and LA 462 are moderately resistant to S. eridania; PI 134417 is susceptible to S. frugiperda and S. eridania; and Santa Clara is highly susceptible to both S. frugiperda and S. eridania.

  2. Effects of ambient temperature and early open-field response on the behaviour, feed intake and growth of fast- and slow-growing broiler strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, B L

    2012-09-01

    Increased activity improves broiler leg health, but also increases the heat production of the bird. This experiment investigated the effects of early open-field activity and ambient temperature on the growth and feed intake of two strains of broiler chickens. On the basis of the level of activity in an open-field test on day 3 after hatching, fast-growing Ross 208 and slow-growing i657 chickens were allocated on day 13 to one of the 48 groups. Each group included either six active or six passive birds from each strain and the groups were housed in floor-pens littered with wood chips and fitted with two heat lamps. Each group was fed ad libitum and subjected to one of the three temperature treatments: two (HH; 26°C), one (HC; 16°C to 26°C) or no (CC; 16°C) heat lamps turned on. Production and behavioural data were collected every 2 weeks until day 57. For both strains, early open-field activity had no significant effects on their subsequent behaviour or on any of the production parameters measured, and overall, the slow-growing strain was more active than the fast-growing strain. Ambient temperature had significant effects on production measures for i657 broilers, with CC chickens eating and weighing more, and with a less efficient feed conversion than HH chickens, with HC birds intermediate. A similar effect was found for Ross 208 only for feed intake from 27 to 41 days of age. Ross 208 chickens distributed themselves in the pen with a preference for cooler areas in the hottest ambient temperature treatments. In contrast, the behaviour of the slow-growing strain appeared to be relatively unaffected by the ambient temperature. In conclusion, fast-growing broilers use behavioural changes when trying to adapt to warm environments, whereas slow-growing broilers use metabolic changes to adapt to cooler ambient temperatures.

  3. The R and D issues necessary to achieve the safety design of commercialized liquid-metal cooled fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, Kotake; Koji, Dozaki; Shigenobu, Kubo; Yoshio, Shimakawa; Hajime, Niwa; Masakazu, Ichimiya

    2002-01-01

    Within the framework of the feasibility study on commercialized fast reactor cycle systems (hereafter described as F/S), the safety design principle is investigated and several kinds of design studies are now in progress. Among the designs for liquid-metal cooled fast reactor (LMR), the advanced loop type sodium cooled fast reactor (FR) is one of the promising candidate as future commercialized LMR. In this paper, the safety related research and development (R and D) issues necessary to achieve the safety design are described along the defence-in-depth principle, taking account of not only the system characteristics of the advanced loop concepts but also design studies and R and D experiences so far. Safety issues related to the hypothetical core disruptive accidents (CDA) are emphasized both from the prevention and mitigation. A re-criticality free core concept with a special fuel assembly is pursued by performing both analytical and experimental efforts, in order to realize the rational design and to establish easy-to-understand safety logic. Sodium related issues are also given to ensure plant availability and to enhance the acceptability to the public. (authors)

  4. Patho-epidemiological study on Genotype-XIII Newcastle disease virus infection in commercial vaccinated layer farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Khorajiya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present research work was carried out to study the patho-epidemiological aspects of Genotype-XIII Newcastle disease virus (NDV infection in commercial layer in and around Anand, Gujarat. As the outbreaks have reported in vaccinated flocks, it was felt necessary to study the disease with respect to its changing pathogenicity and relevant aspects. Materials and Methods: The study comprised of patho-epidemiology of Newcastle disease (ND by information collected from different layer farms suffering from the disease in relation to incidence pattern and mortality, duration of mortality, susceptible age, and loss due to production performance. Clinical signs were recorded based on observations. During postmortem, gross lesions were also recorded. For histopathological examination visceral organs according to lesions were collected in 10% formalin and processed slide stained by hematoxylin and eosin for microscopic examination. Cultivation of virus was done in embryonated specific pathogen-free (SPF eggs of 9-11 days and isolation of virus was done for haemagglutination (HA and haemagglutination inhibition (HI test and to identify pathotype of virus by intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI test to determine the virulence of virus. The Genotype-XIII NDV was confirmed by F gene sequence and whole genome sequence. Results: During the study mortality due to ND was recorded in 13 layer flocks in spite of routine vaccination, which usually contain Genotype-II strain of virus. The mortality was observed as high as above 50% with an average of 21.21%. The susceptible age for disease was found to be 6-14 weeks. The duration of mortality observed was 23 days. The disease resulted in a significant reduction in body weight, feed intake and drop in egg production. Majority of the outbreaks appeared during extremely hot months of April to June. Greenish diarrhoea was frequently seen in birds that survived early in infection. Mortality continued for 2

  5. Thermochemical and physical evaluation of poplar genotypes as short rotation forestry crops for energy use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monedero, Esperanza; Hernández, Juan José; Cañellas, Isabel; Otero, Jose María; Sixto, Hortensia

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The combustion properties of poplar genotypes harvested from three different sites were analyzed. • Both the genotype and the locations affect the expected combustion behavior. • Among the poplar genotypes, ‘Monviso’ and ‘Viriato’ are expected to have better combustion behavior. • No operating problems derived from fouling/corrosion are expected for any of the genotypes. - Abstract: Short rotation plantations of fast-growing species provide a promising way to produce heat and electricity from renewable sources. The thermo-chemical and physical properties of different genotypes of poplar in short rotation forestry crops grown at three locations with different climatic and edaphic characteristics as well as planting density, have been determined in order to characterize the most appropriate biomass in terms of energy potential. The planting density was 6666 or 13,333 trees/ha (depending on the location) in a rotation of three-four years and the analysis was carried out at the end of the first rotation. For all the genotypes, experimental tests to quantify the moisture content, particle size distribution, bulk density, heating value, ash content and composition as well as the volatile matter were performed. In addition, natural air drying of biomass (stem and branches) was studied in two locations with the aim of determining the humidity loss during raw storage. A significant effect of the genotype and the planting density on the biomass properties was observed. The results obtained indicate that ‘Monviso’ and ‘Viriato’ are the most suitable genotypes. No operational problems related to ash fouling and deposition in combustion devices are expected for any of the genotypes studied.

  6. Feasibility study on commercialized fast reactor cycle systems. (1) Current status of the phase-II study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagayama, Yutaka

    2005-01-01

    A feasibility study on commercialized fast reactors including related nuclear fuel cycle systems has been started from Japanese fiscal year 1999 by a Japanese joint project team of Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute and the Japan Atomic Power Company. This project aims at elucidating prominent fast reactor cycle systems that will respond to various needs of society in the future, together with economic competitiveness as future electricity supply systems. Challenging technology goals for the fast reactor cycle systems were defined in five targets: safety, economic competitiveness, reduction of environmental burden, efficient utilization of nuclear fuel resources and enhancement of nuclear non-proliferation. As the results of the feasibility study up to now, it is confirmed as the interim results that the combination of sodium-cooled fast reactors with oxide fuels, advanced aqueous reprocessing and simplified pellet fuel fabrication is highly suited to the development targets. The cost would be highly reduced by the adoption of innovative technologies, which feasibility is relatively clear and some R and D issues are now under progress. (author)

  7. Identification by genotyping of a commercial antigen preparation as the source of a laboratory contamination with Coxiella burnetii and as an unexpected rich source of control DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tilburg, Jeroen J. H. C.; Horrevorts, Alphons M.; Peeters, Marcel F.; Klaassen, Corne H. W.; Rossen, John W. A.

    By performing genotyping, a laboratory contamination involving Q fever was traced back to the antigen preparation used in a commercially available complement fixation test. It was established that such antigen preparations contain relatively high loads of DNA/RNA, making them potential sources of

  8. Motivation and ability to walk for a food reward in fast- and slow-growing broilers to 12 weeks of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokkers, E.A.M.; Koene, P.

    2004-01-01

    Poor physical abilities of broilers may prevent them from performing behaviours for which they are motivated. The aim of this study was to measure the influence of physical ability and motivation on the performance of broilers in short physical tasks. We tested birds from a fast- and a slow-growing

  9. Genotyping by PCR and High-Throughput Sequencing of Commercial Probiotic Products Reveals Composition Biases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Morovic

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in microbiome research have brought renewed focus on beneficial bacteria, many of which are available in food and dietary supplements. Although probiotics have historically been defined as microorganisms that convey health benefits when ingested in sufficient viable amounts, this description now includes the stipulation well defined strains, encompassing definitive taxonomy for consumer consideration and regulatory oversight. Here, we evaluated 52 commercial dietary supplements covering a range of labeled species, and determined their content using plate counting, targeted genotyping. Additionally, strain identities were assessed using methods recently published by the United States Pharmacopeial Convention. We also determined the relative abundance of individual bacteria by high-throughput sequencing (HTS of the 16S rRNA sequence using paired-end 2x250bp Illumina MiSeq technology. Using multiple methods, we tested the hypothesis that products do contain the quantitative amount of labeled bacteria, and qualitative list of labeled microbial species. We found that 17 samples (33% were below label claim for CFU prior to their expiration dates. A multiplexed-PCR scheme showed that only 30/52 (58% of the products contained a correctly labeled classification, with issues encompassing incorrect taxonomy, missing species and un-labeled species. The HTS revealed that many blended products consisted predominantly of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis. These results highlight the need for reliable methods to qualitatively determine the correct taxonomy and quantitatively ascertain the relative amounts of mixed microbial populations in commercial probiotic products.

  10. Development of a gene cloning system in a fast-growing and moderately thermophilic Streptomyces species and heterologous expression of Streptomyces antibiotic biosynthetic gene clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Streptomyces species are a major source of antibiotics. They usually grow slowly at their optimal temperature and fermentation of industrial strains in a large scale often takes a long time, consuming more energy and materials than some other bacterial industrial strains (e.g., E. coli and Bacillus). Most thermophilic Streptomyces species grow fast, but no gene cloning systems have been developed in such strains. Results We report here the isolation of 41 fast-growing (about twice the rate of S. coelicolor), moderately thermophilic (growing at both 30°C and 50°C) Streptomyces strains, detection of one linear and three circular plasmids in them, and sequencing of a 6996-bp plasmid, pTSC1, from one of them. pTSC1-derived pCWH1 could replicate in both thermophilic and mesophilic Streptomyces strains. On the other hand, several Streptomyces replicons function in thermophilic Streptomyces species. By examining ten well-sporulating strains, we found two promising cloning hosts, 2C and 4F. A gene cloning system was established by using the two strains. The actinorhodin and anthramycin biosynthetic gene clusters from mesophilic S. coelicolor A3(2) and thermophilic S. refuineus were heterologously expressed in one of the hosts. Conclusions We have developed a gene cloning and expression system in a fast-growing and moderately thermophilic Streptomyces species. Although just a few plasmids and one antibiotic biosynthetic gene cluster from mesophilic Streptomyces were successfully expressed in thermophilic Streptomyces species, we expect that by utilizing thermophilic Streptomyces-specific promoters, more genes and especially antibiotic genes clusters of mesophilic Streptomyces should be heterologously expressed. PMID:22032628

  11. Glulam Properties of Fast-growing Species Using Mahogany Tannin Adhesive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Sri Rahayu Diza Lestari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing glued laminated timber (glulam can help overcome the limited availability of large-sized timber, and the use of bio-adhesives may resolve environmental problems associated with synthetic adhesives containing high formaldehyde contents. Tannin adhesive is a bio-adhesive that can be used as alternative glue in the manufacture of glulam. The purpose of this study was to determine the physical and mechanical properties of glulam made with mahogany (Swietenia sp. tannin adhesive and wood from three fast-growing species, namely pine (Pinus merkusii, jabon (Anthocephalus cadamba, and sengon (Falcataria moluccana. Glulam (3 cm × 6 cm × 120 cm in thickness, width, and length, respectively was manufactured with three layers of lamina. The physical and mechanical properties of the glulams were tested based on relevant standards. The results showed that pine glulam fulfilled the standard for the modulus of rupture and modulus of elasticity, while sengon glulam met the standard for shear strength. In the delamination test, sengon glulam was resistant to immersion in cold water and hot water. All glulams had low formaldehyde emission levels and therefore fulfilled the standard requirements. The results showed that the tannin adhesive from mahogany bark was equal in quality to methylene diphenyl di-isocyanate for glulam manufacturing.

  12. Comparison of performance of three commercial platforms for warfarin sensitivity genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babic, Nikolina; Haverfield, Eden V; Burrus, Julie A; Lozada, Anthony; Das, Soma; Yeo, Kiang-Teck J

    2009-08-01

    We performed a 3-way comparison on the Osmetech eSensor, AutoGenomics INFINITI, and a real-time PCR method (Paragonx reagents/Stratagene RT-PCR platform) for their FDA-cleared warfarin panels, and additional polymorphisms (CYP2C9*5, *6, and 11 and extended VKORC1 panels) where available. One hundred de-identified DNA samples were used in this IRB-approved study. Accuracy was determined by comparison of genotyping results across three platforms. Any discrepancy was resolved by bi-directional sequencing. The CYP4F2 on Osmetech was validated by bi-directional sequencing. Accuracies for CYP2C9*2 and *3 were 100% for all 3 platforms. VKORC1 3673 genotyping accuracies were 100% on eSensor and 97% on Infiniti. CYP2C9*5, *6 and *11 showed 100% concordance between eSensor and Infiniti. VKORC1 6484 and 9041 variants compared between ParagonDx and Infiniti analyzer were 100% (6484) and 99% (9041) concordant. CYP4F2 was 100% concordant with sequencing results. The time required to generate the results from automated DNA extraction-to-result was approximately 8h on Infiniti, and 4h on eSensor and ParagonDx, respectively. Overall, we observed excellent CYP2C9*2 and *3 genotyping accuracy for all three platforms. For VKORC1 3673 genotyping, eSensor demonstrated a slightly higher accuracy than the Infiniti, and CYP4F2 on Osmetech was 100% accurate.

  13. Evaluation of Salt Tolerance in Commercial Cultivars Seedlings and Native Genotypes of Pistachio (Pistacia vera L. under Controlled Conditions in Rafssanjan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Alipour

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In Iran, main pistachio cultivation areas are located in the edge of desert. The major problem of these areas is the salinity of soil and irrigation water, which affects the growth and performance of plants and reduce yield. Material and methods: In the present study, the effects of salinity on growth characteristics and mineral contents of seedlings of seven pistachio cultivars and three genotypes (Akbari, Ahmad-Aghaei, Kaleh-Ghoochi, Fandoghi, Badami, Ebrahimi, Seyfadini and G1, G2 and G3 genotypes were evaluated. The study was conducted in split plot based on randomized complete block design in three replications. The main plots were salinity levels of the irrigation water (0.6, 15 and 30 dS/m by adding sodium chloride to tap water, and the sub plots were the pistachio cultivars. After germination of seeds in the lab, the seedlings were transplanted into new vases in the greenhouse. At 3rd leaf stage, the salinity treatments were imposed for a period of four months. At the end of the experiment, all samples were collected for growth and cation contents of shoots and roots and data were analyzed by analysis of variance and correlation method, using SAS statistical software and Duncan’s Multiple Range Test was employed at probability level of 5%. Results and discussions: The results showed that increasing salinity levels reduced stem, root and leaf dry weight as well as stem height and diameter. Salinity also caused a reduction in leaf number and leaf area. At the salinity level of 30 dS/m, dry weights of root and leaf decreased by more than 70%. The length and diameter of seedlings were decreased by 17.2 % and 37.9 % under the mentioned condition. According to the measured growth characteristics, Akbari and Kaleh-Ghoochi, considered as fast growing cultivars, while G3 genotype and Seyfoddini cultivar were considered as slow growing cultivars. By increasing salinity, sodium and calcium concentrations in root, stem and leaf

  14. Fabrication of compact and stable perovskite films with optimized precursor composition in the fast-growing procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Tanghao; Zhou, Yuanyuan; Hu, Qin; Chen, Ke; Zhang, Yifei; Yang, Wenqiang; Wu, Jiang; Ye, Fengjun; Luo, Deying; Zhu, Kai; Padture, Nitin P.; Liu, Feng; Russell, Thomas; Zhu, Rui; Gong, Qihuang

    2017-06-02

    The fast-growing procedure (FGP) provides a simple, high-yield and lead (Pb)-release free method to prepare perovskite films. In the FGP, the ultra-dilute perovskite precursor solution is drop-cast onto a hot (~240 degrees C) substrate, where a perovskite film grows immediately accompanied by the rapid evaporation of the host solvent. In this process, all the raw materials in the precursor solution are deposited into the final perovskite film. The potential pollution caused by Pb can be significantly reduced. Properties of the FGP-processed perovskite films can be modulated by the precursor composition. While CH3NH3Cl (MACl) affects the crystallization process and leads to full surface coverage, CH(NH2)2I (FAI) enhances the thermal stability of the film. Based on the optimized precursor composition of PbI2(1-x)FAI xMACl, x=0.75, FGP-processed planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells exhibit power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) exceeding 15% with suppressed hysteresis and excellent reproducibility.

  15. Chemical surveillance of commercial fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamm, H.H.; Stade, K.Ch.

    1988-01-01

    After BN-600 (USSR) and SUPERPHENIX (France) were started succesfully, the international development of LMFBRs is standing at the doorstep of commercial use. For commercial use of LMFBRs cost reductions for construction and operation are highly desirable and necessary. Several nations developing breeder reactors have joined in a common effort in order to reach this aim by standardization and harmonization. On the base of more than 20 years of operation experience of experimental reactors (EBR-II, FFTF, RAPSODIE, DFR, BR-5/BR-10, BOR-60, JOYO, KNK-II) and demonstration plants (PHENIX, PFR, BN-350), possibilities for standardization in chemical surveillance of commercial breeder reactors without any loss of availability, reliability and reactor safety will be discussed in the following chapters. Loop-type reactors will be considered as well as pool-type reactors, although all commercial plants under consideration so far (SUPERPHENIX II, BN-800, BN-1600, CFBR, SNR-2, EFR) include pool-type reactors only. Table 1 gives a comparison of the Na inventories of test reactors, prototype plants and commercial LMFBRs

  16. CENTRAL KALIMANTAN’S FAST GROWING SPECIES: SUITABILITY FOR PULP AND PAPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danang Sudarwoko Adi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies of fast growing species grown in PT. Sari Bumi Kusuma, Central Kalimantan, show that based on their fiber dimensions there are five species, namely Endospermum diadenum, Dillenia spp., Adinandra dumosa, Adiandra sp., and Nauclea junghuhnii with good potential for pulp and paper production. The fiber length of those five wood species are was more than 2,200 µm on average. This paper studies the physical properties, fiber dimensions and their chemical contents to predict the paper and pulp quality. The result shows that all of the species were classified in the medium to high density category. All species were classified into the first class quality for pulp and paper. Based on chemical contents, Dillenia sp. is the most suitable species due to its high value of holocellulose and a-cellulose, low lignin content, and its fiber length is about 3,119 µm on average. A. dumosa also has good opportunities because it had the longest fiber lengths (3,137 µm on average and high value of holocellulose, even though it has the highest lignin content. While Nuclea junghuhnii is less suitable due to low values of holocellulose and a-cellulose.

  17. Fast reactor development strategy targets study in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Mi

    2008-01-01

    China is a big developing Country who needs a huge energy resources and a rapid growing rate. Considering energy resources limited and environment issues it is sure that the nuclear energy will be becoming one of the main energy resources. The Government has decided to develop the nuclear power capacity to 40 GW in 2020. It is envisaged that it will reach to 240 GW in 2050. It is stimulate us to consider conscientiously the development of the fast breeder reactor's and related closed nuclear fuel cycle by the limitation of Uranium resources and uncertainties of international Uranium market. Followings are the proposed strategic targets of fast reactor development in China. (1) To realize the operation of commercial fast breeder reactors with an unit size of 800-900 MWe and one site-multi reactors in 2030. (2) To develop the nuclear power capacity to 240 GW in 2050. (3) To replace step by step the fossil fuel utilization in large scale by nuclear energy beyond 2050. (authors)

  18. Transforming microbial genotyping: a robotic pipeline for genotyping bacterial strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian O'Farrell

    Full Text Available Microbial genotyping increasingly deals with large numbers of samples, and data are commonly evaluated by unstructured approaches, such as spread-sheets. The efficiency, reliability and throughput of genotyping would benefit from the automation of manual manipulations within the context of sophisticated data storage. We developed a medium- throughput genotyping pipeline for MultiLocus Sequence Typing (MLST of bacterial pathogens. This pipeline was implemented through a combination of four automated liquid handling systems, a Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS consisting of a variety of dedicated commercial operating systems and programs, including a Sample Management System, plus numerous Python scripts. All tubes and microwell racks were bar-coded and their locations and status were recorded in the LIMS. We also created a hierarchical set of items that could be used to represent bacterial species, their products and experiments. The LIMS allowed reliable, semi-automated, traceable bacterial genotyping from initial single colony isolation and sub-cultivation through DNA extraction and normalization to PCRs, sequencing and MLST sequence trace evaluation. We also describe robotic sequencing to facilitate cherrypicking of sequence dropouts. This pipeline is user-friendly, with a throughput of 96 strains within 10 working days at a total cost of 200,000 items were processed by two to three people. Our sophisticated automated pipeline can be implemented by a small microbiology group without extensive external support, and provides a general framework for semi-automated bacterial genotyping of large numbers of samples at low cost.

  19. Establishment of a novel two-probe real-time PCR for simultaneously quantification of hepatitis B virus DNA and distinguishing genotype B from non-B genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Liang, Hongpin; Zeng, Yongbin; Lin, Jinpiao; Liu, Can; Jiang, Ling; Yang, Bin; Ou, Qishui

    2014-11-01

    Establishment of a simple, rapid and economical method for quantification and genotyping of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is of great importance for clinical diagnosis and treatment of chronic hepatitis B patients. We hereby aim to develop a novel two-probe real-time PCR for simultaneous quantification of HBV viral concentration and distinguishing genotype B from non-B genotypes. Conserved primers and TaqMan probes for genotype B and non-B genotypes were designed. The linear range, detection sensitivity, specificity and repeatability of the method were assessed. 539 serum samples from HBV-infected patients were assayed, and the results were compared with commercial HBV quantification and HBV genotyping kits. The detection sensitivity of the two-probe real-time PCR was 500IU/ml; the linear range was 10(3)-10(9)IU/ml, and the intra-assay CVs and inter-assay CVs were between 0.84% and 2.80%. No cross-reaction was observed between genotypes B and non-B. Of the 539 detected samples, 509 samples were HBV DNA positive. The results showed that 54.0% (275/509) of the samples were genotype B, 39.5% (201/509) were genotype non-B and 6.5% (33/509) were mixed genotype. The coincidence rate between the method and a commercial HBV DNA genotyping kit was 95.9% (488/509, kappa=0.923, PDNA qPCR kit were achieved. A novel two-probe real-time PCR method for simultaneous quantification of HBV viral concentration and distinguishing genotype B from non-B genotypes was established. The assay was sensitive, specific and reproducible which can be applied to areas prevalent with HBV genotypes B and C, especially in China. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in eight genotypes of soft winter wheat fed to growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenfelder, P; Mosenthin, R; Spindler, H K

    2015-01-01

    such as fiber fractions are not suitable due to low variation among the 8 genotypes. The present study provides a comprehensive database on nutritional composition and SID of CP and AA of 8 wheat genotypes grown under identical conditions. Because the SID values in these genotypes are lower when compared...

  1. Flexural properties of four fast-growing eucalypts woods deteriorated by three different field tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Avila Delucis

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Durability is a wood characteristic determined by several factors, making it difficult to investigate the service life of pieces designated for outdoor use. In this study, the decaying of juvenile and adult woods of four fast-growing eucalypts from southern Brazil subjected to three different exposure environments was monitored through mechanical properties (flexural test. The study material was obtained from adult trees of Eucalyptus botryoides, Corymbia citriodora, Eucalyptus paniculata and Eucalyptus tereticornis. Field tests were conducted in the city of Piratini, southern Brazil, and samplings were carried out during 540 days of experiment. Comparing the four eucalypts, the decreasing order of biological resistance was: Eucalyptus tereticornis, Corymbia citriodora, Eucalyptus paniculata and Eucalyptus botryoides. The mature wood showed greater and more stable physical-mechanical properties than juvenile wood.

  2. Preliminary Evaluation of Some Elicited Apple Genotypes Candidate as Cultivars Using Morphological and Molecular Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayan Muzher

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary evaluation of 5 apple genotypes produced by seed selection in the germplasm of seed rootstocks in Sweida- Syria was carried out between 2005 and 2012, to study date of full flowering, maturity time, morphological characters of tree, shoots, leaves, flowers, and fruits, including chemical analysis. On the other hand, yield efficiency, fruit storability and the susceptibility to pests and physiological disorders were evaluated. Molecular characterization was achieved by using 8 pairs of SSR primers for the 5th genotypes in comparison with the two main commercial cultivars "Golden Delicious" and "Starking Delicious" to determine the genetic relationship between the studied genotypes and cultivars. The results divided the studied genotypes depending on the time of ripening into three groups: early, intermediate and late genotypes. All studied genotypes gave efficient and regular yield, and showed fixable fruit shape and size with variable storability due to maturity time. Molecular characterization reveled the ability of SSR technique to determine the genetic variation between the studied genotypes, the 8 primer pairs produced 22 alleles, 21 of them were polymorphic (95.45%. Cluster analysis divided the studied genotypes into 2 clusters, the first cluster included the two commercial cultivars Starking delicious and Golden delicious with one genotypes, while the second cluster contained the four remaining genotypes. Finally, the studied genotypes revealed high desired quantitative and qualitative traits, which assess to distribute these genotypes as new cultivars, and SSR technique was able to identify and revealed the genetic distance between the studied genotypes and commercial cultivars.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTVolume-5, Issue-2, March-May 2016, page: 98-109

  3. Body weight and reproductive parameters in fast and weak growing Awassi ram lambs during different age stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarkawi, Moutaz; Al-Daker, Al-Moutassem Billah

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out on 30 Syrian Awassi ram lambs around 3 months of age. Lambs were divided equally in 2 groups as fast growing (FG) and weak growing (WG) lambs to identify body weight and reproductive parameters in each group during different age stages. Blood samples were collected to determine testosterone and leptin concentrations using radioimmunoassay. At puberty, average body weight and age of FG and WG lambs was 52.4 and 43.1 kg, and 225.9 and 248.0 days, respectively, with a significant (P age (below 1.0 nmol L(-1)) and increased with advancing age with a sharp increase occurring at 7 months of age and at puberty, averages were 12.58 and 11.86 nmol L(-1) for FG and WG groups, respectively, with no significant (P > 0.05) differences. At puberty, average leptin concentration was 3.16 and 2.98 ng mL(-1) for FG and WG groups, respectively, with no significant (P > 0.05) difference.

  4. Evaluation of Drought Tolerance in 16 Genotypes of Safflower(Carthamus tinctoriusL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    s.M Azimzadeh

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to study drought tolerance of 16 genotypes of safflower an experiment was conducted in Research Farm of Shirvan Islamic Azad University during 2005 –2006 growing season. The experiment was performed as randomized complete block design with 4 replications in two separate irrigated and rainfed conditions. The seed rate was 20 seed per square meter, hand planted in each plot. During growing season some agronomic traits including number of grains per heads, grain yield of total head per plant, TKW and grain yield per hectare were recorded. To select drought tolerant genotypes 4 methods including stress tolerance index, stress susceptibility index, cell membrane stability and relative water content were applied. The results showed that two genotypes of LRV-51-51 and CW74 had the highest drought tolerance index and the lowest drought susceptibility index compared with the other genotypes. Grain yield of these two genotypes was 1520 and 1452 kg/ha, respectively which were more than other genotypes. According to these traits the genotypes LRV-51-51 and CW74 are recommended to plant in dry regions with low annual rainfall. Keywords: Safflower, Drought tolerance index, Drought susceptibility index, Yield

  5. Capsaicin and Dihydrocapsaicin Determination in Chili Pepper Genotypes Using Ultra-Fast Liquid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magaji G. Usman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Research was carried out to estimate the levels of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin that may be found in some heat tolerant chili pepper genotypes and to determine the degree of pungency as well as percentage capsaicin content of each of the analyzed peppers. A sensitive, precise, and specific ultra fast liquid chromatographic (UFLC system was used for the separation, identification and quantitation of the capsaicinoids and the extraction solvent was acetonitrile. The method validation parameters, including linearity, precision, accuracy and recovery, yielded good results. Thus, the limit of detection was 0.045 µg/kg and 0.151 µg/kg for capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin, respectively, whereas the limit of quantitation was 0.11 µg/kg and 0.368 µg/kg for capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin. The calibration graph was linear from 0.05 to 0.50 µg/g for UFLC analysis. The inter- and intra-day precisions (relative standard deviation were <5.0% for capsaicin and <9.9% for dihydrocapsaicin while the average recoveries obtained were quantitative (89.4%–90.1% for capsaicin, 92.4%–95.2% for dihydrocapsaicin, indicating good accuracy of the UFLC method. AVPP0705, AVPP0506, AVPP0104, AVPP0002, C05573 and AVPP0805 showed the highest concentration of capsaicin (12,776, 5,828, 4,393, 4,760, 3,764 and 4,120 µg/kg and the highest pungency level, whereas AVPP9703, AVPP0512, AVPP0307, AVPP0803 and AVPP0102 recorded no detection of capsaicin and hence were non-pungent. All chili peppers studied except AVPP9703, AVPP0512, AVPP0307, AVPP0803 and AVPP0102 could serve as potential sources of capsaicin. On the other hand, only genotypes AVPP0506, AVPP0104, AVPP0002, C05573 and AVPP0805 gave a % capsaicin content that falls within the pungency limit that could make them recommendable as potential sources of capsaicin for the pharmaceutical industry.

  6. The present status of nuclear power and prospects for fast reactors - the IAEA outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dastidar, P.; Kupitz, J.; Arkhipov, V.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear power continues to provide a significant amount of the world's electricity supply. Based on the experience gained from about 6000 reactor years of operation, improvements are continuing to be made in the design of nuclear power plants of all types including liquid metal cooled fast reactors. Five demonstration, prototypical or semi-commercial nuclear plants with liquid metal-cooled reactors (LMR) are in operation in the world. Although the commercial deployment of fast reactors has not been seen as urgent due to the availability of adequate low-cost uranium resources there is an awareness in many countries that breeder reactors will be needed in the early decades of the next century. Adequate energy supply for all countries of the world is vital. The exploitation of all non-polluting forms of energy, of which nuclear energy is the most abundant, must be planned now to meet the growing worldwide energy demand. (author)

  7. Evaluation of fasting metabolism of growing water buffalo (Bubalus, Bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Guangsheng; Zou, Caixia; Pang, Chunying; Yang, Bingzhuan; Liang, Xianwei; Liu, Jianxin; Xia, Zhongsheng; Wen, Qiuyan; Yan, Tianhai

    2011-12-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate fasting metabolism (FM) of water buffalo (Bubalus, Bubalis) at three stages of growth (12, 18 and 24 months) in Guangxi, China. Five female water buffalo were used for each age group and their live weight was on average 254, 326 and 338 kg, respectively. All animals were of average body condition, healthy and de-wormed before start of the study. Prior to a 6-day fasting period, buffalo were offered a mixed diet of forage and concentrates (70% and 30%, dry matter basis) on a restricted nutritional level (419 kJ/kg(0.75) of metabolizable energy, ME) for 15 days. Gas exchanges for each animal were determined for 3 days from day 4 of starvation, using open-circuit respiratory head hoods. Fasting body weight was 0.918 of live weight (P fasting heat production (FHP) and FM (MJ/day) increased significantly with increased age of animals (P fasting body weight (kg(0.75)) and FHP (MJ/day, P fasting body weight, the differences in FHP or FM between three groups of animals were not significant. The present average FHP and FM (322 and 347 kJ/kg(0.75) of fasting body weight) were compatible to those published in the literature for water buffalo, beef and dairy cattle. The present FM data were also used to estimate net energy (NE(m)) and ME (ME(m)) requirements for maintenance for water buffalo. The results for these two parameters were similar to those for FHP and FM. There was no significant difference between three groups of buffalo in NE(m) or ME(m) when expressed as kJ/kg(0.75) of live weight. The present average NE(m) and ME(m) values (347 and 506 kJ/kg(0.75) of live weight) are close to those proposed by the Agricultural and Food Research Council adopted in UK for beef and dairy cattle. The results indicate that the present FM data can be used as a basis for rationing water buffalo in China. © 2011 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  8. Imaging of fast chlorophyll fluorescence induction curve (OJIP) parameters, applied in a screening study with wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum) genotypes under heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedmowski, Christoph; Brüggemann, Wolfgang

    2015-10-01

    We quantified the influence of heat stress (HS) on PSII by imaging of parameters of the fast chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) induction (OJIP) kinetic of 20 genotypes of wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum) covering a broad geographical spectrum. We developed a standardised screening procedure, allowing a repetitive fluorescence measurement of leaf segments. The impact of HS was quantified by calculating a Heat Resistance Index (HRI), derived from the decrease of the Performance Index (PI) caused by HS treatment and following recovery. For the genotype showing the lowest HRI, reduced maximum quantum yield (φP0) and increased relative variable fluorescence of the O-J phase (K-Peak) were detected after HS, whereas the basal fluorescence (F0) remained stable. An additional feature was a lowered fraction of active (QA-reducing) reaction centres (RCs). The disturbances disappeared after one day of recovery. Spatial heterogeneities of fluorescence parameters were detected, as the negative effect of HS was stronger in the leaf areas close to the leaf tip. The results of this study prove that chlorophyll fluorescence imaging (CFI) is suitable for the detection of HS symptoms and that imaging of JIP-Test parameters should be considered in future screening and phenotyping studies aiming for the characterisation of plant genotypes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of sulphur dioxide (SO2) on growth and flowering of SO2-tolerant and non-tolerant genotypes of Phleum pratense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapperton, M J; Reid, D M

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the growth and interaction of clipping and sulphur dioxide (SO(2)) exposure on SO(2)-tolerant and non-tolerant genotypes of Phleum pratense at two field sites along an SO(2)-concentration gradient. Sulphur-dioxide-tolerant and non-tolerant genotypes of Phleum pratense were identified from indigenous populations that had been collected along the same SO(2)-concentration gradient in southern Alberta, Canada. Physiological differences between the two genotypes were confirmed by supplying leaves with (14)CO(2) and examining the assimilate partitioning between the genotypes. For the field experiment, clones of each genotype and seedlings grown from commercial seed were planted at two different field sites along an SO(2)-emission gradient. There were no differences in growth between the genotypes at the two field sites after the first year except that the SO(2)-tolerant clones had a greater percentage of root length colonised by vesicular-arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizal fungi. After the second growing season, there was a significant decrease in the number of inflorescences produced by plants exposed to SO(2), particularly by the non-tolerant genotype. The added stress of defoliation appeared to increase the sensitivity of flowering to SO(2), again particularly in the non-tolerant genotype. The results of the field study showed that flowering as opposed to vegetative plant growth was more sensitive to long-term low-concentration SO(2) exposure and that this sensitivity was compounded by the stress interaction of defoliation.

  10. Realizing Mitigation Efficiency of European Commercial Forests by Climate Smart Forestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefpour, Rasoul; Augustynczik, Andrey Lessa Derci; Reyer, Christopher P O; Lasch-Born, Petra; Suckow, Felicitas; Hanewinkel, Marc

    2018-01-10

    European temperate and boreal forests sequester up to 12% of Europe's annual carbon emissions. Forest carbon density can be manipulated through management to maximize its climate mitigation potential, and fast-growing tree species may contribute the most to Climate Smart Forestry (CSF) compared to slow-growing hardwoods. This type of CSF takes into account not only forest resource potentials in sequestering carbon, but also the economic impact of regional forest products and discounts both variables over time. We used the process-based forest model 4 C to simulate European commercial forests' growth conditions and coupled it with an optimization algorithm to simulate the implementation of CSF for 18 European countries encompassing 68.3 million ha of forest (42.4% of total EU-28 forest area). We found a European CSF policy that could sequester 7.3-11.1 billion tons of carbon, projected to be worth 103 to 141 billion euros in the 21st century. An efficient CSF policy would allocate carbon sequestration to European countries with a lower wood price, lower labor costs, high harvest costs, or a mixture thereof to increase its economic efficiency. This policy prioritized the allocation of mitigation efforts to northern, eastern and central European countries and favored fast growing conifers Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris to broadleaves Fagus sylvatica and Quercus species.

  11. Motivation and ability to walk for a food reward in fast- and slow-growing broilers to 12 weeks of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokkers, Eddie A M; Koene, Paul

    2004-09-30

    Poor physical abilities of broilers may prevent them from performing behaviours for which they are motivated. The aim of this study was to measure the influence of physical ability and motivation on the performance of broilers in short physical tasks. We tested birds from a fast- and a slow-growing broiler strain in a runway to 12 weeks of age. To manipulate motivation, half of the birds of each strain was feed deprived for 3h and the other half for 24h before testing. Each bird was tested in a control and a slalom runway test once a week. With a similar motivation, slow growers had a shorter latency to start walking and walked faster through the runway than fast growers in both tests. In fast growers walking speed decreased faster with age than in slow growers. Slow growers vocalised more in both tests. In the slalom test, 24h deprived birds vocalised more than 3h deprived birds. Although the fast and slow growers have a different genetic background, the results indicated that motivation is the dominant determinative factor for walking in birds with a low body weight, while physical ability is the dominant determinative factor for walking in birds with a high body weight.

  12. Promising fast reactor systems in the feasibility study on commercialized FR cycle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Y.; Kotake, S.; Enuma, Y.; Sagayama, Y.; Nishikawa, A.; Ando, M.

    2005-01-01

    The Feasibility Study on Commercialized Fast Reactor (FR) Cycle Systems is under way in order to propose prominent FR cycle systems that will respond to the diverse needs of society in the future. The design studies on various FR system concepts have been achieved and then the evaluations of potential to achieve the development targets have been carried out. Crucial issues have been found out for each FR system concept and their development plans for the key technologies are summarized as the roadmap. The characteristics and the differences in performances have been investigated. The crucial issues and the development periods have been clarified. Further investigation is now in progress. The promising concept will be proposed based on result of comparative evaluation at the end of the Phase II study. (authors)

  13. Cheap heat grows in fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haluza, I.

    2006-01-01

    Slovak farmers resemble the peasants from the film T he Magnificent Seven . They keep complaining about their fate but consider any innovation as an interference. And that is why they still have not started growing fast-growing wood although the number of heating plants processing bio-mass from forests and fields is growing. Natural gas is expensive and coal creates pollution. Energy from biomass is becoming a good business and also creates new business opportunities - growing the raw material it needs. Such heating plants usually use waste from wood processing companies and Slovak Forests (Lesy SR) has also started deliveries of chip wood from old forests. There are plantations of fast growing wood suitable for heat production of over 500-thousand hectares throughout the EU. This is about 10% of Slovakian's area where the first plantations are also already being set up. The first promising plantation project was launched this spring. And this is not a project launched and backed by a big company but a starting up businessman, Miroslav Forgac from Kosice. He founded his company, Forgim, last winter. Without big money involved and thank to a new business idea he managed to persuade farmers to set up the first plantations. He supplied the seedlings and the business has started with 75 ha of plantations around Trnava, Sala, Komarno, Lucenec, Poprad and Kosice. He is gradually signing contracts with other landowners and next year the area of plantations is set to grow by 1500 ha. Plantations of fast growing trees such as willow, poplar and acacia regenerate by new trees growing out of the roots of the old and from cut trees so from one seedling and one investment there can be several harvests. Swedish willows from Forgim regenerate 20 to 25 years after the first planting. And only then new seedlings have to be purchased. Using special machines that even cut the wood to wood chips the plantations can be 'harvested' every three years. Unlike crops, the fields do not

  14. Determining the effects of early gestation in utero heat stress on postnatal fasting heat production and circulating biomarkers associated with metabolism in growing pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study objective was to determine the effects of in utero heat stress (IUHS) on postnatal fasting heat production (FHP) in growing pigs. Based on our previous observation of increased postnatal core body temperature ‘set-point’ in IUHS pigs, we hypothesized that FHP would be greater during postna...

  15. Fast BPM data distribution for global orbit feedback using commercial gigabit ethernet technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulsart, R.; Cerniglia, P.; Michnoff, R.; Minty, M.

    2011-01-01

    In order to correct beam perturbations in RHIC around 10Hz, a new fast data distribution network was required to deliver BPM position data at rates several orders of magnitude above the capability of the existing system. The urgency of the project limited the amount of custom hardware that could be developed, which dictated the use of as much commercially available equipment as possible. The selected architecture uses a custom hardware interface to the existing RHIC BPM electronics together with commercially available Gigabit Ethernet switches to distribute position data to devices located around the collider ring. Using the minimum Ethernet packet size and a field programmable gate array (FPGA) based state machine logic instead of a software based driver, real-time and deterministic data delivery is possible using Ethernet. The method of adapting this protocol for low latency data delivery, bench testing of Ethernet hardware, and the logic to construct Ethernet packets using FPGA hardware will be discussed. A robust communications system using almost all commercial off-the-shelf equipment was developed in under a year which enabled retrofitting of the existing RHIC BPM system to provide 10 KHz data delivery for a global orbit feedback scheme using 72 BPMs. Total latencies from data acquisition at the BPMs to delivery at the controller modules, including very long transmission distances, were kept under 100 (micro)s, which provide very little phase error in correcting the 10 Hz oscillations. Leveraging off of the speed of Gigabit Ethernet and wide availability of Ethernet products enabled this solution to be fully implemented in a much shorter time and at lower cost than if a similar network was developed using a proprietary method.

  16. Effect of pasture availability and genotype on welfare, immune function, performance and meat characteristics of growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Mugnai

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available To analyse the effect of pasture availability and genotype on innate immunological status,morphological organisation of lymphoid follicles, behaviour, performance and carcass and meat characteristics, 80 growing rabbits (40 Leprino of Viterbo and 40 New Zealand White, NZW were reared in bicellular standard cages (control or in a wired pen, provided with an external grass pasture (pasture. Blood samples and behaviour observations (10 rabbits per group were performed at different ages (weaning, 49 and 89 d. At the end of the trial, 10 rabbits per group were slaughtered to study meat quality/composition and vermiform appendix structure. Leprino rabbits showed higher serum lysozyme values than NZW for all ages and rearing systems. Leprino rabbits showed the highest values in caged animals (29.6 and 32.4 mg/mL, respectively at 49 and 89 d of age, while NZW animals did so in the pen (2.2 and 0.00 g/mL, respectively at 49 and 89 d of age. Haemolytic Complement Assay increased with age in Leprino (43.7 vs. 48.6 and 51.2 μg/mL, respectively for cage and pen, but decreased in NZW (68.6 vs. 25.8 and 41.1 μg/mL, respectively for cage and pen. Plasma TBARs was always higher in Leprino rabbits (16.0 vs. 7.0 μmol malondialdehyde/L at 29 d of age; 17.9 vs. 8.0 μmol malondialdehyde/L at 49 d of age; 20.0 vs. 11.4 μmol malondialdehyde/L at 89 d of age, whereas plasma tocopherol showed an inverse trend (32.9 vs. 46.6 mg/L at 29 d of age; 32.5 vs. 44.4 mg/L at 49 d of age; 31.2 vs. 42.4 mg/L at 89 d of age. Mortality rate of Leprino rabbits was highest in the cage system, while mortality was highest in NZW housed in the pen. Productive performance, carcass traits and fatty acid composition of meat were strongly affected by genotype and rearing system. Regarding genotype effect, Leprino showed lower daily gains (31.9 and 29.6 vs. 44.2 and 40.0 g, respectively for cage and pen system, live (2563 and 2418 vs. 2902 and 2650, respectively for cage and pen system

  17. Do persistently fast-growing juveniles contribute disproportionately to population growth? A new analysis tool for matrix models and its application to rainforest trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuidema, Pieter A; Brienen, Roel J W; During, Heinjo J; Güneralp, Burak

    2009-11-01

    Plants and animals often exhibit strong and persistent growth variation among individuals within a species. Persistently fast-growing individuals have a higher chance of reaching reproductive size, do so at a younger age, and therefore contribute disproportionately to population growth (lambda). Here we introduce a new approach to quantify this "fast-growth effect." We propose using age-size-structured matrix models in which persistently fast and slow growers are distinguished as they occur in relatively young and old age classes for a given size category. Life-cycle pathways involving fast growth can then be identified, and their contribution to lambda is quantified through loop analysis. We applied this approach to an example species, the tropical rainforest tree Cedrela odorata, that shows persistent growth variation among individuals. Loop analysis showed that juvenile trees reaching the 10-cm diameter class at below-median age contributed twice as much to lambda as slow juvenile growers. Fast growth to larger-diameter categories also contributed disproportionately to lambda. The results were robust to changes in parameter values and life-history trade-offs. These results show that the fast-growth effect can be strong in long-lived species. Persistent growth differences among individuals should therefore be accommodated for in demographic models and life-history studies.

  18. Study of Genetic Diversity of Some Persian walnut Genotypes in Mashhad Commercial Orchards by using ISSR Marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadi Attar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Persian walnut (Juglans regia L., belonging to the Juglandaceae family, has its natural origin in the mountainous regions of central Asia and especially northern forests of Iran. Most walnut genotypes are seedling and sexually reproduced. Conducting studies on the genetic structure of these genotypes to identify, select and maintain their genetic resources is important. Identifying and collecting local varieties of fruit trees is considered as the first step on the path of breeding programs and lack of information regarding plants genetic characteristics causes the breeding work to be done slowly. Various methods have been used for studying genetic diversity and determining the genetic relationship between European and Asian varieties of walnut and identifying commercial walnut varieties, among which we can mention: Morphologic indices, Alozyme, Isozym, RFLP, RAPD, AFLP and ISSR markers. ISSR molecular marker was used in order to investigate genetic diversity of some genotypes of Persian walnut (Juglans regia L. in Mashhad orchards. . Materials and methods: To begin with, about 56 walnut trees from 4 orchards in Mashhad (Esteghlal (1, Golestan (2, Alandasht (3 and Emam Reza (4 were selected and tagged from 2014 to 2016. In the spring of 2014 with the beginning of trees growth and opening of leaves, a number of leaves from each genotype were collected. After DNA extraction, the quality of samples by agarose gel (1 percentage and electrophoresis method and quantity of them via spectrophotometer device at 260 and 280 nm wavelengths were determined. First, 24 primers of ISSR marker were prepared and after initial evaluation on 5 random genotypes, 9 primers with high polymorphism and repeatability were selected for further investigation. For PCR reaction, Amplicon kit (code 180 301, made in Denmark was used. Gel electrophoresis images of primers that produced polymorphic bands with suitable resolution were analyzed manually. After

  19. SEALER: a very small lead cooled fast reactor for commercial energy production in off-grid communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallenius, J., E-mail: janne@leadcold.com [LeadCold Reactors, Dalgatan 3C, Marsta (Sweden); Bortot, S., E-mail: sara.bortot@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen (Switzerland)

    2014-07-01

    SEALER (Swedish Advanced Lead Reactor) is a small lead cooled fast reactor operating on 20% enriched UO{sub 2} fuel. It is designed for commercial production of electricity and heat in the Canadian arctic. In this paper, we present an updated set of reactivity coefficients for the SEALER core, used in simulations of un-protected transients such as control-rod withdrawal, and loss of flow. The analysis is carried out using the SAS4A/SASSYS-1 (SAS) system code developed by ANL and the BELLA multi-point dynamics code developed by KTH and PSI. (author)

  20. Conceptual design of a commercial supercritical CO2 gas turbine for the fast reactor power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muto, Y.; Ishizuka, T.; Aritomi, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the design results of turbine and compressors of a supercritical CO 2 gas turbine connected to the commercial sodium cooled fast reactor. Power output of the gas turbine-generator system is 750 MWe. The system consists of turbine, main compressor and bypass compressor. Turbine is axial flow type. Both axial flow and centrifugal compressors were designed. Aerodynamic, blade strength and rotor dynamics calculations were conducted. Achievable adiabatic efficiencies and cross-sectional structures are given. For this design conditions, the axial flow compressor is superior to the centrifugal compressor due to the large mass flow rate. (authors)

  1. Plant genotypic diversity reduces the rate of consumer resource utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArt, Scott H; Thaler, Jennifer S

    2013-07-07

    While plant species diversity can reduce herbivore densities and herbivory, little is known regarding how plant genotypic diversity alters resource utilization by herbivores. Here, we show that an invasive folivore--the Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica)--increases 28 per cent in abundance, but consumes 24 per cent less foliage in genotypic polycultures compared with monocultures of the common evening primrose (Oenothera biennis). We found strong complementarity for reduced herbivore damage among plant genotypes growing in polycultures and a weak dominance effect of particularly resistant genotypes. Sequential feeding by P. japonica on different genotypes from polycultures resulted in reduced consumption compared with feeding on different plants of the same genotype from monocultures. Thus, diet mixing among plant genotypes reduced herbivore consumption efficiency. Despite positive complementarity driving an increase in fruit production in polycultures, we observed a trade-off between complementarity for increased plant productivity and resistance to herbivory, suggesting costs in the complementary use of resources by plant genotypes may manifest across trophic levels. These results elucidate mechanisms for how plant genotypic diversity simultaneously alters resource utilization by both producers and consumers, and show that population genotypic diversity can increase the resistance of a native plant to an invasive herbivore.

  2. Influence of genotype and crop year in the chemometrics of almond and pistachio oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabadán, Adrián; Álvarez-Ortí, Manuel; Gómez, Ricardo; de Miguel, Concepción; Pardo, José E

    2018-04-01

    Almond and pistachio oils can be considered as interesting products to produce and commercialize owing to their health-promoting properties. However, these properties are not consistent because of the differences that appear in oils as a result of the genotype and the crop year. The analysis of these variations and their origin is decisive in ensuring the commercial future prospects of these nut oils. Although significant variability has been reported in almond and pistachio oils as a result of the crop year and the interaction between crop year and genotype, the genotype itself remains the main factor determining oil chemometrics. Oil fatty acid profile has been mainly determined by the genotype, with the exception of palmitic fatty acid in pistachio oil. However, the crop year affects the concentration of some minor components of crucial nutritional interest as total polyphenols and phytosterols. Regarding reported differences in oil, some almond and pistachio genotypes should be prioritized for oil extraction. Breeding programmes focused on the improvement of specific characteristics of almond and pistachio oils should focus on chemical parameters mainly determined by the genotype. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Lactase Non-Persistence Genotyping: Comparison of Two Real-Time PCR Assays and Assessment of Concomitant Fructose/Sorbitol Malabsorption Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enko, Dietmar; Pollheimer, Verena; Németh, Stefan; Pühringer, Helene; Stolba, Robert; Halwachs-Baumann, Gabriele; Kriegshäuser, Gernot

    2016-01-01

    Genetic testing is a standard technique for the diagnosis of primary adult-type hypolactasia, also referred to as lactase non-persistence. The aim of this study was to compare the lactase gene (LCT) C/T-13910 polymorphism genotyping results of two commercially available real-time (RT)-PCR assays in patients referred to our outpatient clinic for primary lactose malabsorption testing. Furthermore, concomitant conditions of fructose/sorbitol malabsorption were assessed. Samples obtained from 100 patients were tested in parallel using the LCT T-13910C ToolSet for Light Cycler (Roche, Rotkreuz, Switzerland) and the LCT-13910C>T RealFast Assay (ViennaLab Diagnostics GmbH, Vienna, Austria). Additionally, patients were also screened for the presence of fructose/sorbitol malabsorption by functional hydrogen (H2)/methane (CH4) breath testing (HMBT). Cohen's Kappa (κ) was used to calculate the agreement between the two genotyping methods. The exact Chi-Square test was performed to compare fructose/sorbitol HMBT with LCT genotyping results. Twenty-one (21.0%) patients had a LCT C/C-13910 genotype suggestive of lactase non-persistence, and 79 (79.0%) patients were identified with either a LCT T/C-13910 or T/T-13910 genotype (i.e., lactase persistence). In all genotype groups, concordance between the two RT-PCR assays was 100%. Cohen's κ demonstrated perfect observed agreement (p sorbitol malabsorption was observed in 13/100 (13.0%) and 25/100 (25.0%) individuals, respectively. Both RT-PCR assays are robust and reliable LCT genotyping tools in a routine clinical setting. Concomitant fructose and/or sorbitol malabsorption should be considered in individuals with suspected lactase-non-persistence. However, standardization of clinical interpretation of laboratory HMBT results is required.

  4. Fast Nonconvex Model Predictive Control for Commercial Refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgaard, Tobias Gybel; Larsen, Lars F. S.; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2012-01-01

    in fewer than 5 or so iterations. We employ a fast convex quadratic programming solver to carry out the iterations, which is more than fast enough to run in real-time. We demonstrate our method on a realistic model, with a full year simulation, using real historical data. These simulations show substantial...... cost savings, and reveal how the method exhibits sophisticated response to real-time variations in electricity prices. This demand response is critical to help balance real-time uncertainties associated with large penetration of intermittent renewable energy sources in a future smart grid....

  5. Poa secunda local collections and commercial releases: A genotypic evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alanna N Shaw

    Full Text Available The genetics of native plants influence the success of ecological restoration, yet genetic variability of local seed collections and commercial seed releases remains unclear for most taxa. Poa secunda, a common native grass species in Intermountain West grasslands and a frequent component of restoration seed mixes, is one such species. Here, we evaluate the genetic variation of local Poa secunda collections in the context of wild populations and commercial seed releases. We evaluated AFLP markers for seven Poa secunda collections made over a 4000-hectare area and four commercial releases (High Plains, MT-1, Opportunity, and Sherman. We compare the genetic distance and distribution of genetic variation within and between local collections and commercial releases. The extent and patterns of genetic variation in our local collections indicate subtle site differences with most variation occurring within rather than between collections. Identical genetic matches were usually, but not always, found within 5 m2 collection sites. Our results suggest that the genetic variation in two Poa secunda releases (High Plains and MT-1 is similar to our local collections. Our results affirm that guidelines for Poa secunda seed collection should follow recommendations for selfing species, by collecting from many sites over large individual sites.

  6. The prototype fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broomfield, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    The paper concerns the Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR), which is a liquid metal cooled fast reactor power station, situated at Dounreay, Scotland. The principal design features of a Fast Reactor and the PFR are given, along with key points of operating history, and health and safety features. The role of the PFR in the development programme for commercial reactors is discussed. (U.K.)

  7. Response of Bemisia tabaci Genn. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) biotype B to genotypes of pepper Capsicum annuum (Solanales: Solanaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballina-Gomez, H; Ruiz-Sanchez, E; Chan-Cupul, W; Latournerie-Moreno, L; Hernández-Alvarado, L; Islas-Flores, I; Zuñiga-Aguilar, J J

    2013-04-01

    Bemisia tabaci Genn. biotype B is a widely distributed plant pest that represents one of the major constraints for horticultural crop production. The purpose of the present work was to evaluate the oviposition preference, survivorship, and development of B. tabaci biotype B on semi-cultivated genotypes of Capsicum annuum from southeast Mexico. In free-choice experiments to evaluate the oviposition preference, lower number of eggs laid by B. tabaci biotype B was observed in the genotypes Maax and Xcat´ik relative to that in the commercial genotype Parado. Egg hatchability was significantly lower in Pico Paloma, Bolita, Blanco, Chawa, Payaso, and Xcat´ik than in the rest of the genotypes, including the commercial genotype Jalapeño. Likewise, survivorship of nymphs was significantly lower in Pico Paloma, Bolita, and Blanco than in the remaining genotypes. Nymph developmental time and the period of development from egg to adult were the shortest in Amaxito. Therefore, sources of resistance to B. tabaci biotype B by antibiosis (accumulation of plant defense compounds) might be found in the semi-cultivated genotypes Pico Paloma, Bolita, and Blanco.

  8. Mendel Meets CSI: Forensic Genotyping as a Method to Teach Genetics & DNA Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurowski, Scotia; Reiss, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a forensic DNA science laboratory exercise for advanced high school and introductory college level biology courses. Students use a commercial genotyping kit and genetic analyzer or gene sequencer to analyze DNA recovered from a fictitious crime scene. DNA profiling and STR genotyping are outlined. DNA extraction, PCR, and…

  9. Chemical Composition and Yield of Six Genotypes of Common Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.): An Alternative Source of Omega-3 Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulos, Spyridon Α; Karkanis, Anestis; Fernandes, Ângela; Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Ntatsi, Georgia; Petrotos, Konstantinos; Lykas, Christos; Khah, Ebrahim

    2015-12-01

    Common purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) is an annual weed rich in omega-3 fatty acids which is consumed for its edible leaves and stems. In the present study six different genotypes of common purslane (A-F) were evaluated for their nutritional value and chemical composition. Nutritional value and chemical composition depended on genotype. Oxalic acid content was the lowest for genotype D, whereas genotypes E and F are more promising for commercial cultivation, since they have low oxalic acid content. Genotype E had a very good antioxidant profile and a balanced composition of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. Regarding yield, genotype A had the highest yield comparing to the other genotypes, whereas commercial varieties (E and F) did not differ from genotypes B and C. This study provides new information regarding common purslane bioactive compounds as affected by genotype and could be further implemented in food industry for products of high quality and increased added value.

  10. IntelliGrow 2.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvart, Jakob; Aaslyng, Jesper Peter Mazanti; Kalita, Sebastian

    2008-01-01

    the system in full scale in five Danish commercial nurseries. The four steps to reach the goal are: 1) development of a demonstrator giving the grower advice on optimal climate control based on the IntelliGrow concept 2) testing the demonstrator at research facilities followed by tests at growers 3...

  11. Anal infections with concomitant Chlamydia trachomatis genotypes among men who have sex with men in Amsterdam, the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Loeff Maarten

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV proctitis is caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct genotype L and is endemic among men who have sex with men (MSM in western society. Genotype L infections need to be distinguished from non-LGV (genotypes A-K Ct infections since they require prolonged antibiotic treatment. For this purpose, an in-house developed pmpH based LGV polymerase chain reaction (PCR test is used at the Amsterdam STI outpatient clinic. We investigated retrospectively the anal Ct genotype distribution, and the frequency of concomitant genotype infections in MSM infected with LGV and non-LGV Ct infections. To detect concomitant Ct genotype infections, the pmpH LGV PCR and genoTyping Reverse Hybridization Assay (Ct-DT RHA were used. Methods A total of 201 Ct positive rectal swabs from MSM were selected, which were previously diagnosed as either LGV (n = 99 or non-LGV Ct infection (n = 102 according to the algorithm of Ct detection by the commercially available Aptima Combo 2 assay followed by an in-house pmpH LGV PCR. The samples were retested with the commercially available Ct-DT RHA, which differentiates between 14 major genotypes and is able to detect concomitant Ct genotypes. Results Excellent genotyping agreement was observed between the Ct-DT RHA and the pmpH LGV PCR (Kappa = 0.900, 95%CI = 0.845-0.955, McNemar's p = 1.000. A concomitant non-LGV genotype was detected in 6/99 (6.1% LGV samples. No additional LGV infections were observed with the Ct-DT RHA among the non-LGV Ct group. In the non-LGV group genotype G/Ga (34.3% was seen most frequent, followed by genotype D/Da (22.5% and genotype J (13.7%. All LGV infections were caused by genotype L2. Conclusions Concomitant non-LGV genotypes do not lead to missed LGV proctitis diagnosis. The pmpH LGV PCR displayed excellent agreement with the commercially available Ct-DT genotyping RHA test. The genotypes G/Ga, D/Da and J were the most frequent non-LGV Ct strains in MSM.

  12. Breast meat quality of chickens with divergent growth rates and its relation to growth curve parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Muth

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the increase of body weight of contemporary broilers during growth on functional meat quality and color characteristics of the chicken breast muscle are controversially debated. Therefore, male chickens (n = 264 of a fast-growing commercial broiler (Ross 308 and two slow-growing experimental meat-type chicken lines were compared at equal age and at similar body weight in order to investigate the effect of growth rate on selected functional breast meat traits and meat color. Additionally, the breast meat characteristics of birds with different growth profiles were compared within lines. When the body weight of commercial broilers reached about 40 to 60 % of their growth potential, they exhibited particularly high ultimate pH values compared with slow-growing lines. The ability of the meat of fast-growing broilers to retain water during cooking was impaired (5 to 16 percentage points increased cooking loss compared to slow-growing lines, which, in contrast to pH, was only marginally affected by body weight and/or age at slaughter. No unfavorable correlations of breast meat quality traits with the growth profile, represented by growth curve parameters derived from the Gompertz–Laird equation, were detected within any of the investigated chicken lines. It is noteworthy that the associations of ultimate pH and cooking loss with maximum growth speed indicate a non-linear relationship. Thus, some of the functional characteristics of breast meat of the fast-growing broiler resembled the white-striping defect described for poultry meat, but the hypothesis that selection on increased growth rates is detrimental for meat quality per se could not be confirmed. In fact, an elevated growth potential in particular, i.e., body weight at maturity, could have some beneficial effects for the water-holding capacity of breast meat, regardless of the genotypic growth rate.

  13. Strategy and model building in the fourth dimension: a null model for genotype x age interaction as a Gaussian stationary stochastic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diego, Vincent P; Almasy, Laura; Dyer, Thomas D; Soler, Júlia M P; Blangero, John

    2003-12-31

    Using univariate and multivariate variance components linkage analysis methods, we studied possible genotype x age interaction in cardiovascular phenotypes related to the aging process from the Framingham Heart Study. We found evidence for genotype x age interaction for fasting glucose and systolic blood pressure. There is polygenic genotype x age interaction for fasting glucose and systolic blood pressure and quantitative trait locus x age interaction for a linkage signal for systolic blood pressure phenotypes located on chromosome 17 at 67 cM.

  14. Hepatitis C virus genotypes in Bahawalpur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qazi, M.A.; Fayyaz, M.; Chaudhry, G.M.D.; Jamil, A.

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted at Medical Unit-II Bahawal Victoria Hospital / Quaid-e-Azam Medical College Bahawalpur from May 1st , 2005 to December 31st 2005. The objective of this study was to determine hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes in Bahawalpur, Pakistan. In consecutive 105 anti-HCV (ELISA-3) positive patients, complete history and physical examination was performed. Liver function tests, complete blood counts and platelet count, blood sugar fasting and 2 hours after breakfast, prothrombin time, serum albumin, serum globulin and abdominal ultrasound were carried out in all the patients. Tru cut biopsy was performed on 17 patients. We studied HCV RNA in all these patients by Nested PCR method. HCV RNA was detected in 98 patients and geno typing assay was done by genotype specific PCR. Among total of 105 anti-HCV positive patients, HCV-RNA was detected in 98 patients. Out of these 98 patients there were 57 (58.2%) males and 41 (42.8%) females. Their age range was 18-75 years. The age 18-29 years 26 (26.5%), 30-39 years 35 (35.7%) and 40-75 37 (37.8%), while 10 (10.2%) patients were diabetics and 34 (34.7%) patients were obese. Liver cirrhosis was present in 10 (10.2%) patients. Forty two (43.9%) patients were symptomatic while 56 (57.1%) were asymptomatic. Out of 98 patients 11 (11.2%) were un type-able and 87 (88.8%) were type able. 70/98 (71.4%) were genotype 3; 10/98 (10.2%) were genotype 1; 03/98 (3.1%) were genotype 2; 03/98 (3.1%) were mixed genotype 2 and 3; 01/98 (1%) were mixed genotype 3a and 3b. Genotype 3 is the most common HCV virus in our area which shows that both virological and biochemical response will be better. Because HCV genotype 3 is more frequent among the drug users which points towards unsafe injection practices in our area. (author)

  15. Physics design of experimental metal fuelled fast reactor cores for full scale demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devan, K.; Bachchan, Abhitab; Riyas, A.; Sathiyasheela, T.; Mohanakrishnan, P.; Chetal, S.C.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → In this study we made physics designs of experimental metal fast reactor cores. → Aim is for full-scale demonstration of fuel assemblies in a commercial power reactor. → Minimum power with adequate safety is considered. → In addition, fuel sustainability is also considered in the design. → Sodium bonded U-Pu-6%Zr and mechanically bonded U-Pu alloys are used. - Abstract: Fast breeder reactors based on metal fuel are planned to be in operation for the year beyond 2025 to meet the growing energy demand in India. A road map is laid towards the development of technologies required for launching 1000 MWe commercial metal breeder reactors with closed fuel cycle. Construction of a test reactor with metallic fuel is also envisaged to provide full-scale testing of fuel sub-assemblies planned for a commercial power reactor. Physics design studies have been carried out to arrive at a core configuration for this experimental facility. The aim of this study is to find out minimum power of the core to meet the requirements of safety as well as full-scale demonstration. In addition, fuel sustainability is also a consideration in the design. Two types of metallic fuel pins, viz. a sodium bonded ternary (U-Pu-6% Zr) alloy and a mechanically bonded binary (U-Pu) alloy with 125 μm thickness zirconium liner, are considered for this study. Using the European fast reactor neutronics code system, ERANOS 2.1, four metallic fast reactor cores are optimized and estimated their important steady state parameters. The ABBN-93 system is also used for estimating the important safety parameters. Minimum achievable power from the converter metallic core is 220 MWt. A 320 MWt self-sustaining breeder metal core is recommended for the test facility.

  16. Carcass traits and meat quality of two different rabbit genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria D'Agata

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of genotype on carcass traits and meat quality, thirty-two rabbits for two genotypes (local population – LP; commercial hybrids – HY were used. Rabbits were weaned at 35 days old and slaughtered at 103 days of age for LP and 87 days of age for HY. Comparing the slaughtering traits of two genotypes, LP provided higher dressing out (59.4% vs 56.2%, Pvs 14.2%, Pvs 22.3, Pvs 8,9%, Pvs 0.86%, Pvs 1.12%; Pvs 19.2%; Pvs 31.6%; Pvs 3.8%; P*, higher redness (a*, yellowness (b* and C* value than HY (P

  17. Causes And Effects Of Fast Food

    OpenAIRE

    Eman Al-Saad

    2015-01-01

    Fast food affects our life in many aspects. In fact There are many reasons that have been shown why people continuing eating fast food while they knew about its negative effects on their health and family because of eating fast food. The commercial advertisements play a major role in consuming fast food. In this research I will focus on causes and effects of eating fast food.

  18. Biological and phylogenetic characterization of a genotype VII Newcastle disease virus from Venezuela: Efficacy of vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here we describe the characterization a virulent genotype VII Newcastle disease virus (NDV) from Venezuela and evaluate the efficacy of heterologous genotype commercial vaccination under field and controlled rearing conditions. Biological pathotyping and molecular analysis were applied. Results sh...

  19. Study on advanced structural design for commercialized fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishita, Masaki; Aoto, Kazumi; Kasahara, Naoto; Asayama, Tai

    2002-01-01

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) and Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPC) launched joint research programs on structural design and three-dimensional seismic isolation technologies, as part of the supporting R and D activities for the feasibility studies on commercialized fast breeder reactor cycle systems. A research project by JAPC under the auspices of the Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry (METI) with technical support by JNC is included in this joint study. This report contains the results of the research on the structural design technology. The research scope was identified as (1) System Based Code for Integrity, (2) FDS (FBR Design Standard), and (3) Standardization of new material, and the results of this year's studies are summarized as follows. (1) System Based Code for Integrity. Requirements that a structural design standard must fulfill for enhanced reliability and economy were clarified. Based on this, the authors began to develop the system-based code for integrity. A structural reliability based design approach was proposed as a basic concept for an integrated evaluation of structural integrity. A system consisting of a supreme code and partial codes was proposed. Technologies and engineering tools that are necessary to materialize this code were clarified and research and development was begun. (2) FDS(FBR Design Standard). A rational design approach against thermal loads was proposed. Applicable area of inelastic analysis methods was investigated to develop inelastic analysis guide. A new design system which realizes feedback from structural to thermal hydraulic designs was proposed with a total analysis method of thermal hydraulic and mechanical behaviors. (3) Standardization of new material. Current status of development of high-chromium ferritic steels was investigated. Those steels have excellent high temperature strength and thermal properties. The authors proposed material specifications to apply those steels to structures

  20. Study on advanced structural design for commercialized fast breeder reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morishita, Masaki; Aoto, Kazumi; Kasahara, Naoto; Asayama, Tai [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center; Sagayama, Yutaka; Dozaki, Koji; Tanaka, Yoshihiko [Japan Atomic Power Co., Research and Development Department, Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-01-01

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) and Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPC) launched joint research programs on structural design and three-dimensional seismic isolation technologies, as part of the supporting R and D activities for the feasibility studies on commercialized fast breeder reactor cycle systems. A research project by JAPC under the auspices of the Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry (METI) with technical support by JNC is included in this joint study. This report contains the results of the research on the structural design technology. The research scope was identified as (1) System Based Code for Integrity, (2) FDS (FBR Design Standard), and (3) Standardization of new material, and the results of this year's studies are summarized as follows. (1) System Based Code for Integrity. Requirements that a structural design standard must fulfill for enhanced reliability and economy were clarified. Based on this, the authors began to develop the system-based code for integrity. A structural reliability based design approach was proposed as a basic concept for an integrated evaluation of structural integrity. A system consisting of a supreme code and partial codes was proposed. Technologies and engineering tools that are necessary to materialize this code were clarified and research and development was begun. (2) FDS(FBR Design Standard). A rational design approach against thermal loads was proposed. Applicable area of inelastic analysis methods was investigated to develop inelastic analysis guide. A new design system which realizes feedback from structural to thermal hydraulic designs was proposed with a total analysis method of thermal hydraulic and mechanical behaviors. (3) Standardization of new material. Current status of development of high-chromium ferritic steels was investigated. Those steels have excellent high temperature strength and thermal properties. The authors proposed material specifications to apply those steels to

  1. Infestation of the banana root borer among different banana plant genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Teixeira de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In this study, we aimed to investigate Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae infestation among different banana genotypes in a commercial banana orchard over the course of 30 months. Banana root borer infestation was compared in 20 banana genotypes, including five varieties and 15 hybrids. Overall, we observed that 94.17% of pest infestation cases occurred in the cortex region, and only 5.83% occurred in the central cylinder. Genotypes least sensitive to infestation were the Prata Anã (AAB and Pacovan (AAB varieties, where no damage was recorded. Among the hybrid genotypes, PV 9401 and BRS Fhia 18 showed intermediate levels of sensitivity, while BRS Tropical hybrids (AAAB, PA 9401 (AAAB, BRS Vitoria (AAAB, YB 4203 (AAAB, and Bucaneiro (AAAA were the most sensitive to attack by banana root borer. This study demonstrated that the infestation of the banana root borer varies according banana plant genotype, and the utilization of less susceptible genotypes could reduce infestation rates of C. sordidus.

  2. Antixenosis of bean genotypes to Chrysodeixis includens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Morando

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate bean genotypes for resistance to soybean looper (Chrysodeixis includens. Initially, free-choice tests were carried out with 59 genotypes, divided into three groups according to leaf color intensity (dark green, light green, and medium green, in order to evaluate oviposition preference. Subsequently, 12 genotypes with high potential for resistance were selected, as well as two susceptible commercial standards. With these genotypes, new tests were performed for oviposition in a greenhouse, besides tests for attractiveness and consumption under laboratory conditions (26±2ºC, 65±10% RH, and 14 h light: 10 h dark photophase. In the no-choice test with adults, in the greenhouse, the 'IAC Jabola', Arcelina 1, 'IAC Boreal', 'Flor de Mayo', and 'IAC Formoso' genotypes were the least oviposited, showing antixenosis-type resistance for oviposition. In the free-choice test with larvae, Arcelina 4, 'BRS Horizonte', 'Pérola', H96A102-1-1-1-52, 'IAC Boreal', 'IAC Harmonia', and 'IAC Formoso' were the less consumed genotypes, which indicates antixenosis to feeding. In the no-choice test, all genotypes (except for 'IAPAR 57' expressed moderate levels of antixenosis to feeding against C. includens larvae.

  3. Causes And Effects Of Fast Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Al-Saad

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Fast food affects our life in many aspects. In fact There are many reasons that have been shown why people continuing eating fast food while they knew about its negative effects on their health and family because of eating fast food. The commercial advertisements play a major role in consuming fast food. In this research I will focus on causes and effects of eating fast food.

  4. Genomic evaluations with many more genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiggans George R

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic evaluations in Holstein dairy cattle have quickly become more reliable over the last two years in many countries as more animals have been genotyped for 50,000 markers. Evaluations can also include animals genotyped with more or fewer markers using new tools such as the 777,000 or 2,900 marker chips recently introduced for cattle. Gains from more markers can be predicted using simulation, whereas strategies to use fewer markers have been compared using subsets of actual genotypes. The overall cost of selection is reduced by genotyping most animals at less than the highest density and imputing their missing genotypes using haplotypes. Algorithms to combine different densities need to be efficient because numbers of genotyped animals and markers may continue to grow quickly. Methods Genotypes for 500,000 markers were simulated for the 33,414 Holsteins that had 50,000 marker genotypes in the North American database. Another 86,465 non-genotyped ancestors were included in the pedigree file, and linkage disequilibrium was generated directly in the base population. Mixed density datasets were created by keeping 50,000 (every tenth of the markers for most animals. Missing genotypes were imputed using a combination of population haplotyping and pedigree haplotyping. Reliabilities of genomic evaluations using linear and nonlinear methods were compared. Results Differing marker sets for a large population were combined with just a few hours of computation. About 95% of paternal alleles were determined correctly, and > 95% of missing genotypes were called correctly. Reliability of breeding values was already high (84.4% with 50,000 simulated markers. The gain in reliability from increasing the number of markers to 500,000 was only 1.6%, but more than half of that gain resulted from genotyping just 1,406 young bulls at higher density. Linear genomic evaluations had reliabilities 1.5% lower than the nonlinear evaluations with 50

  5. Why Do Fast-Growing Bacteria Enter Overflow Metabolism? Testing the Membrane Real Estate Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szenk, Mariola; Dill, Ken A; de Graff, Adam M R

    2017-08-23

    Bacteria and other cells show a puzzling behavior. At high growth rates, E. coli switch from respiration (which is ATP-efficient) to using fermentation for additional ATP (which is inefficient). This overflow metabolism results in a several-fold decrease in ATP produced per glucose molecule provided as food. By integrating diverse types of experimental data into a simple biophysical model, we give evidence that this onset is the result of the membrane real estate hypothesis: Fast growth drives cells to be bigger, reducing their surface-to-volume ratios. This decreases the membrane area available for respiratory proteins despite growing demand, causing increased crowding. Only when respiratory proteins reach their crowding limit does the cell activate fermentation, since fermentation allows faster ATP production per unit membrane area. Surface limitation thus creates a Pareto trade-off between membrane efficiency and ATP yield that links metabolic choice to the size and shape of a bacterial cell. By exploring the predictions that emerge from this trade-off, we show how consideration of molecular structures, energetics, rates, and equilibria can provide important insight into cellular behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Power from plutonium: fast reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, J.F.W.

    1981-01-01

    Points of similarity and of difference between fast reactor fuel and fuels for AGR and PWR plants are established. The flow of uranium and plutonium in fast and thermal systems is also mentioned, establishing the role of the fast reactor as a plutonium burner. A historical perspective of fast reactors is given in which the substantial experience accumulated in test and prototype is indicated and it is noted that fast reactors have now entered the commercial phase. The relevance of the data obtained in the test and prototype reactors to the behaviour of commercial fast reactor fuel is considered. The design concepts employed in fuel are reviewed, including sections on core support styles, pin support and pin detail. This is followed by a discussion of current issues under the headings of manufacture, performance and reprocessing. This section includes a consideration of gel fuel, achievable burn-up, irradiation induced distortions and material choices, fuel form, and fuel failure mechanisms. Future development possibilities are also discussed and the Paper concludes with a view on the logic of a UK fast reactor strategy. (U.K.)

  7. A new sieving matrix for DNA sequencing, genotyping and mutation detection and high-throughput genotyping with a 96-capillary array system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, David [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1999-11-08

    Capillary electrophoresis has been widely accepted as a fast separation technique in DNA analysis. In this dissertation, a new sieving matrix is described for DNA analysis, especially DNA sequencing, genetic typing and mutation detection. A high-throughput 96 capillary array electrophoresis system was also demonstrated for simultaneous multiple genotyping. The authors first evaluated the influence of different capillary coatings on the performance of DNA sequencing. A bare capillary was compared with a DB-wax, an FC-coated and a polyvinylpyrrolidone dynamically coated capillary with PEO as sieving matrix. It was found that covalently-coated capillaries had no better performance than bare capillaries while PVP coating provided excellent and reproducible results. The authors also developed a new sieving Matrix for DNA separation based on commercially available poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP). This sieving matrix has a very low viscosity and an excellent self-coating effect. Successful separations were achieved in uncoated capillaries. Sequencing of M13mp18 showed good resolution up to 500 bases in treated PVP solution. Temperature gradient capillary electrophoresis and PVP solution was applied to mutation detection. A heteroduplex sample and a homoduplex reference were injected during a pair of continuous runs. A temperature gradient of 10 C with a ramp of 0.7 C/min was swept throughout the capillary. Detection was accomplished by laser induced fluorescence detection. Mutation detection was performed by comparing the pattern changes between the homoduplex and the heteroduplex samples. High throughput, high detection rate and easy operation were achieved in this system. They further demonstrated fast and reliable genotyping based on CTTv STR system by multiple-capillary array electrophoresis. The PCR products from individuals were mixed with pooled allelic ladder as an absolute standard and coinjected with a 96-vial tray. Simultaneous one-color laser-induced fluorescence

  8. Potential of biofertilisers to improve performance of local genotype tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Puia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Complex microbial communities in the plant rhizosphere are responsible for their success in ecosystems. Supplementary inoculation of soil with mycorrhizal fungi and rhizospheric bacteria may act as a plant growth-promoting factor. The present study aims to assess the potential use of biofertilisers on tomato as a way of increasing yield and stability of root exploration area. The experiment was set up in greenhouse, regarding the evaluation of growing dynamics of plants, mycorrhization level and obtained yield. The identification of effective inoculation variants can lead to a standardisation of technologies of growing for local plant genotypes. Data analysis was performed based on the ANOVA test, followed by Tukey HSD, principal component analysis and cluster analysis in order to identify the potential of bioproducts to stimulate the development of tomato plants. Application of bacterial biofertilisers does not stimulate enough the aboveground development of plants. An antagonistic reaction is visible between exogenous mycorrhizas and those specific in soil, acting slightly different for each genotype. Mycorrhizal level in root systems is more dependent on applied biofertilisers than on analyzed genotypes. For the variants without additional fertilisers, a high level of mycorrhization is visible only after 75 days from the transplantation. Based on results we can conclude that microbial active fertilisers may represent viable solutions to increase yield capacity and root exploration area for local tomato genotypes.

  9. Do future commercial broadband communication satellites really need laser-communication intersatellite links (ISLs)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidell, James E.

    1997-04-01

    Large commercial satellite programs requiring ISLs are growing in number and maturing. An important segment of the commercial satellite market, and its ISL needs, is discussed in the paper. ISL value will increase as long-haul terrestrial backbones become increasingly congested. Providing interregional and intercontinental connectivity via ISL presents far lower cost and fewer problems than relying on terrestrial fiber-optic networks. To demonstrate this, a new metric is proposed which allows 'apples-to- apples' cost/performance comparisons between laser communications in GEO, LEO, and terrestrial fiber-optics. ISL requirements in to the next decade are predicted >= 50-100 Gb/s full duplex. Many attitudinal changes must be embraced among those who choose to focus on this new commercial business. Foremost among these is a preponderance to delivering fully acceptable hardware fast and at low cost, as opposed to merely designing such. Considerable attention must be given business considerations foreign to professionals who have spent time in the government or government contracting sectors. Successful ISL customers will come to recognize that ISLs are not commodity products. Failure to embrace these attitudes will nonetheless constitute decision to which the commercial market, and particularly the financial market, will appropriately respond.

  10. Productivity of Upland Rice Genotypes under Different Nitrogen Doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traore, K.; Traore, O. [INERA /Station de Farakoba, Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso); Bado, V. B. [Africa Rice Center (AfricaRice), Saint Louis (Senegal)

    2013-11-15

    Nitrogen (N) deficiency is one of the most yield-limiting nutrients in upland rice growing area in Burkina Faso. A field experiment was carried out from 2008 to 2010 in Farakoba research center with the objective to evaluate 200 upland rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes from WAB, NERICA, CNA, CNAX, IRAT and IR lines for N use efficiency. The treatments consisted of three levels of N: low, medium and high at 20, 60 and 100 kg-N h{sup a-1}, respectively. Both grain and straw yield increased with N application. The yields were highest for NERICA and WAB lines compared to the other lines, and this was consistent over the N doses. A large variability was found among the genotypes. Three groups of genotypes were identified according to N use efficiency. The high N use efficiency genotypes were found in WAB and NERICA lines. The N concentration in the shoot at flowering significantly increased with N doses and this was similar for N taken up by genotypes. (author)

  11. Fast growing penis ulcer: an unusual coincidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunasso, Alexandra Maria Giovanna; Bandelloni, Roberto; Massone, Cesare

    2012-07-01

    A 57-year-old man was seen with a 2-week history of progressive enlargement of an asymptomatic genital ulcer associated with bilateral inguinal lymphadenomegaly. Multiple unprotected heterosexual contacts were reported. The family doctor misdiagnosed primary syphilis with the following laboratory results: negative findings on the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test, positive findings on the Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay (titer 1:1280), and IgM negative on the Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay. The patient was treated with penicillin G for the diagnosis of indeterminate latent syphilis and initially denied authorization for a skin biopsy. After 2 weeks, fast enlargement of the lesion was documented. He underwent skin biopsy, and the histopathologic examination revealed squamous cell carcinoma, and polymerase chain reaction for human papillomavirus 16 was positive. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Metabolic and hormonal responses of growing modern meat type chickens to fasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study compared the effects of fasting on circulating concentrations of glucose, insulin and glucagon in male and female modern meat-type chickens (Ross 708) at three ages (19 d, 33 d and 47 d). Plasma concentrations of glucose were reduced by fasting with reductions of 24.9% (19-d-old),...

  13. Expression of Hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg from genotypes A, D and F and influence of amino acid variations related or not to genotypes on HBsAg detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia M. Araujo

    Full Text Available The impact of hepatitis B virus (HBV genotypes on the sensitivity of surface antigen (HBsAg detection assays has been poorly investigated. Here, plasmids carrying consensus or variant coding sequences for HBV surface proteins from genotypes A, D and F, were constructed. HBsAg levels were evaluated in medium and extracts of transfected CHO cells by a commercial polyclonal-based assay. We show that HBsAg detection values of consensus forms from genotypes D and F were, respectively, 37% and 30% lower than those obtained by genotype A. However, the presence of two single variations, T143M in genotype A, and T125M in genotype D, produced a decrease of 44% and an increase of 34%, respectively, on HBsAg mean values in comparison with their consensus forms. In conclusion, HBsAg detection levels varied among HBV genotypes. However, unique amino acid substitutions not linked to genotypes, such as T125M and T143M described here, should have more implications in HBV immunological diagnostics than the set of variations characteristic of each HBV genotype.

  14. Fast neutron radiography scanner for the detection of contraband in air cargo containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhardt, J.E.; Rainey, S.; Stevens, R.J.; Sowerby, B.D.; Tickner, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    There is a growing need to rapidly scan bulk air cargo for contraband such as illicit drugs and explosives. The Commonwealth Science and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) have been working with Australian Customs Service to develop a scanner capable of directly scanning airfreight containers in 1-2 minutes without unpacking. The scanner combines fast neutron and gamma-ray radiography to provide high-resolution images that include information on material composition. A full-scale prototype scanner has been successfully tested in the laboratory and a commercial-scale scanner is due to be installed at Brisbane airport in 2005

  15. Fast neutron radiography scanner for the detection of contraband in air cargo containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberhardt, J.E. [CSIRO Minerals, Private Mail Bag 5, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia); Rainey, S. [CSIRO Minerals, Private Mail Bag 5, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia); Stevens, R.J. [CSIRO Minerals, Private Mail Bag 5, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia); Sowerby, B.D. [CSIRO Minerals, Private Mail Bag 5, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)]. E-mail: brian.sowerby@csiro.au; Tickner, J.R. [CSIRO Minerals, Private Mail Bag 5, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)

    2005-08-01

    There is a growing need to rapidly scan bulk air cargo for contraband such as illicit drugs and explosives. The Commonwealth Science and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) have been working with Australian Customs Service to develop a scanner capable of directly scanning airfreight containers in 1-2 minutes without unpacking. The scanner combines fast neutron and gamma-ray radiography to provide high-resolution images that include information on material composition. A full-scale prototype scanner has been successfully tested in the laboratory and a commercial-scale scanner is due to be installed at Brisbane airport in 2005.

  16. Genotyping of Listeria monocytogenes isolates from poultry carcasses using high resolution melting (HRM) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaridis, Ioannis; Ganopoulos, Ioannis; Madesis, Panagiotis; Tsaftaris, Athanasios; Argiriou, Anagnostis

    2014-01-02

    An outbreak situation of human listeriosis requires a fast and accurate protocol for typing Listeria monocytogenes . Existing techniques are either characterized by low discriminatory power or are laborious and require several days to give a final result. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) coupled with high resolution melting (HRM) analysis was investigated in this study as an alternative tool for a rapid and precise genotyping of L. monocytogenes isolates. Fifty-five isolates of L. monocytogenes isolated from poultry carcasses and the environment of four slaughterhouses were typed by HRM analysis using two specific markers, internalin B and ssrA genes. The analysis of genotype confidence percentage of L. monocytogenes isolates produced by HRM analysis generated dendrograms with two major groups and several subgroups. Furthermore, the analysis of the HRM curves revealed that all L. monocytogenes isolates could easily be distinguished. In conclusion, HRM was proven to be a fast and powerful tool for genotyping isolates of L. monocytogenes .

  17. Innovation activity as a condition for growing companied to improve their competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Barinova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article was conducted to identify the impact of innovative and scientific activities on competitiveness of fast growing Russian companies. The authors demonstrated that the competitiveness of domestic companies depends on their expenditures on R&D and technological innovation, the costs of staff training and other factors. Dataset for the study is based on the national ranking of fast-growing high-tech companies «TechUp 2013».

  18. Influence of developmental stage and genotype on liver mRNA levels among wild, domesticated, and hybrid rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Samantha L; Sakhrani, Dionne; Danzmann, Roy G; Devlin, Robert H

    2013-10-02

    Release of domesticated strains of fish into nature may pose a threat to wild populations with respect to their evolved genetic structure and fitness. Understanding alterations that have occurred in both physiology and genetics as a consequence of domestication can assist in evaluating the risks posed by introgression of domesticated genomes into wild genetic backgrounds, however the molecular causes of these consequences are currently poorly defined. The present study has examined levels of mRNA in fast-growing pure domesticated (D), slow-growing age-matched pure wild (Wa), slow-growing size-matched pure wild (Ws), and first generation hybrid cross (W/D) rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to investigate the influence of genotype (domesticated vs. wild, and their interactions in hybrids) and developmental stage (age- or size-matched animals) on genetic responses (i.e. dominant vs. recessive) and specific physiological pathways. Highly significant differences in mRNA levels were found between domesticated and wild-type rainbow trout genotypes (321 mRNAs), with many mRNAs in the wild-domesticated hybrid progeny showing intermediate levels. Differences were also found between age-matched and size-matched wild-type trout groups (64 mRNAs), with unique mRNA differences for each of the wild-type groups when compared to domesticated trout (Wa: 114 mRNAs, Ws: 88 mRNAs), illustrating an influence of fish developmental stage affecting findings when used as comparator groups to other genotypes. Analysis of differentially expressed mRNAs (found for both wild-type trout to domesticated comparisons) among the genotypes indicates that 34.8% are regulated consistent with an additive genetic model, whereas 39.1% and 26.1% show a recessive or dominant mode of regulation, respectively. These molecular data are largely consistent with phenotypic data (growth and behavioural assessments) assessed in domesticated and wild trout strains. The present molecular data are concordant with

  19. Theoretical models for the regulation of DNA replication in fast-growing bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creutziger, Martin; Schmidt, Mischa; Lenz, Peter

    2012-09-01

    Growing in always changing environments, Escherichia coli cells are challenged by the task to coordinate growth and division. In particular, adaption of their growth program to the surrounding medium has to guarantee that the daughter cells obtain fully replicated chromosomes. Replication is therefore to be initiated at the right time, which is particularly challenging in media that support fast growth. Here, the mother cell initiates replication not only for the daughter but also for the granddaughter cells. This is possible only if replication occurs from several replication forks that all need to be correctly initiated. Despite considerable efforts during the last 40 years, regulation of this process is still unknown. Part of the difficulty arises from the fact that many details of the relevant molecular processes are not known. Here, we develop a novel theoretical strategy for dealing with this general problem: instead of analyzing a single model, we introduce a wide variety of 128 different models that make different assumptions about the unknown processes. By comparing the predictions of these models we are able to identify the key quantities that allow the experimental discrimination of the different models. Analysis of these quantities yields that out of the 128 models 94 are not consistent with available experimental data. From the remaining 34 models we are able to conclude that mass growth and DNA replication need either to be truly coupled, by coupling DNA replication initiation to the event of cell division, or to the amount of accumulated mass. Finally, we make suggestions for experiments to further reduce the number of possible regulation scenarios.

  20. Phenotypic and genotypic Characterization of facultative and obligate Alkalophilic Bacillus sp. isolated from Saudi Arabia alkaline soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assaeedi Abdulrahman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Isolation and identification of new alkalophilic Bacillus strains have been increasing interest due to their possessing valuable and commercially interesting enzymes. In the present study, a total six obligate and facultative alkalophilic isolates were isolated from desert soil around the Al-qunfotha city, Saudi Arabia. All isolates were phenotypically and genotypically characterized. Among these isolates; AS3, AS4, AS5 and AS6 could grow at pH 9, 10, 11 and 12, but could not grow at pH 7, indicates that these isolates are obligate alkalophiles. While, isolates AS1 and AS2 grew at pH ranged from 7 to 10, but could not grow at pH 11 and 12, suggesting that they could be facultative alkalophiles. All isolates could hydrolyze casein and starch, indicating that they possess interesting amylase and protease enzymes. Based on 16S rDNA data, the phylogenetic analysis of these strains showed that all six alkalophilic Bacillus belonged to Bacillus cohnii with 99% similarity. The nucleotide sequences of 16S rRNA gene for the six isolates were deposited in a Gene-bank under accession numbers; KP053301, KP053302, KP053303, KP053304, KP053305 and KP053306, respectively.

  1. COMT genotype, gambling activity, and cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grant, Jon E; Leppink, Eric W; Redden, Sarah A

    2015-01-01

    adjustment and delay aversion) and the Spatial Working Memory task (total errors). This study adds to the growing literature on the role of COMT in impulsive behaviors by showing that the Val/Val genotype was associated with specific clinical and cognitive elements among young adults who gamble......Neuropsychological studies of adults with problem gambling indicate impairments across multiple cognitive domains. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) plays a unique role in the regulation of dopamine in the prefrontal cortex, and has been implicated in the cognitive dysfunction evident in problem...... gambling. This study examined adults with varying levels of gambling behavior to determine whether COMT genotype was associated with differences in gambling symptoms and cognitive functioning. 260 non-treatment-seeking adults aged 18-29 years with varying degrees of gambling behavior provided saliva...

  2. Productive performance and industrial quality of wheat genotypes grown in two environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Possatto Junior

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Wheat flour can be allocated for manufacturing various products, but each purpose requires specificities defined by the industrial quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of experimental lines and commercial cultivars of wheat, in South and Southeast of Brazil and to identify genotypes with favorable characteristics of industrial quality. Twenty lines in the stage of cultivation and use and three commercial cultivars were evaluated for grain yield components (hectoliter weight and thousand-grain weight and features related to the industrial quality of the flour (protein, flour stability, sedimentation with sodium dodecyl sulfate and color. The genotypes CRX/CD104//ALC, LAJ96010/JSP//ALC and CRX/ALC//ALC showed favorable characteristics for biscuit production, while the genotypes ORL97061/ORL00241//CD104, SUZ6/WEAVER//TUI/3/SUP/4/CD104, ORL99396/ORL97061//SUP, CRX/CD104//ALC, ORL98231/IOR00131//ÔNIX, ORL94346/ALC//AVT/3/ÔNIX, CEP0033/ÔNIX/3/ÔNIX*2//TC14/2*SPEAR, Campo Real/VAN//ÔNIX, ORL97061/CD 104 and PMP/ORL98231//CRX have aptitude for baking. The evaluations were efficient for the classification and selection of genotypes in the wheat breeding program.

  3. Investigation/evaluation of water cooled fast reactor in the feasibility study on commercialized fast reactor cycle systems. Intermediate evaluation of phase-II study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotake, Syoji; Nishikawa, Akira

    2005-01-01

    Feasibility study on commercialized fast reactor cycle systems aims at investigation and evaluation of FBR design requirement's attainability, operation and maintenance, and technical feasibility of the candidate system. Development targets are 1) ensuring safety, 2) economic competitiveness, 3) efficient utilization of resources, 4) reduction of environmental load and 5) enhancement of nuclear non-proliferation. Based on the selection of the promising concepts in the first phase, conceptual design for the plant system has proceeded with the following plant system: a) sodium cooled reactors at large size and medium size module reactors, b) a lead-bismuth cooled medium size reactor, c) a helium gas cooled large size reactor and d) a BWR type large size FBR. Technical development and feasibility has been assessed and the study considers the need of respective key technology development for the confirmation of the feasibility study. (T. Tanaka)

  4. Callus induction and plant regeneration by Brazilian new elite wheat genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Cristina Gruszka Vendruscolo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The distinction of genotypes responsive to tissue culture and the development of an efficient regenerationsystem are the first steps towards transgenic plant production. Nine Brazilian wheat (Triticum aestivum L. genotypes werecultivated in vitro to evaluate the embryogenetic capacity. The explants (immature zygotic embryos were tested in twodifferent culture media, MS (Murashige and Skoog 1962 and modified MS - MMS (Zhou et al. 1995 with decreasing dosagesof hormone regulators. Three distinct phases were observed in each medium: induction, maintenance and regeneration. Afterinduction, the somatic embryogenesis of calli was evaluated every 21 days. Genotypes responded differently to the differentculture media. The embryogenic response of genotype CD104 was best in both culture media tested. On MMS, the values ofcallus induction, plant regeneration and ratio of regenerated plantlets per rescued embryo of this genotype were 100%, 99.5%and 1.1%, respectively. Genotypes CD104, CD200126 and CDFAPA 2001129 were most responsive on MS (regenerationcapacity of 37.5%, 33.5% and 33% respectively, and therefore interesting for genetic transformation in plant breedingprograms that develop new elite cultivars with a commercial purpose.

  5. Use of belowground growing degree days to predict rooting of dormant hardwood cuttings of Populus

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.S., Jr. Zalesny; E.O. Bauer; D.E. Riemenschneider

    2004-01-01

    Planting Populus cuttings based on calendar days neglects soil temperature extremes and does not promote rooting based on specific genotypes. Our objectives were to: 1) test the biological efficacy of a thermal index based on belowground growing degree days (GDD) across the growing period, 2) test for interactions between belowground GDD and clones,...

  6. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of virulent Newcastle disease virus isolates from Pakistan during 2009–2013 reveals circulation of new sub genotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddique, Naila; Naeem, Khalid; Abbas, Muhammad Athar; Ali Malik, Akbar; Rashid, Farooq; Rafique, Saba; Ghafar, Abdul; Rehman, Abdul

    2013-01-01

    Despite observing the standard bio-security measures at commercial poultry farms and extensive use of Newcastle disease vaccines, a new genotype VII-f of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) got introduced in Pakistan during 2011. In this regard 300 ND outbreaks recorded so far have resulted into huge losses of approximately USD 200 million during 2011–2013. A total of 33 NDV isolates recovered during 2009–2013 throughout Pakistan were characterized biologically and phylogenetically. The phylogenetic analysis revealed a new velogenic sub genotype VII-f circulating in commercial and domestic poultry along with the earlier reported sub genotype VII-b. Partial sequencing of Fusion gene revealed two types of cleavage site motifs; lentogenic 112 GRQGRL 117 and velogenic 112 RRQKRF 117 along with some point mutations indicative of genetic diversity. We report here a new sub genotype of virulent NDV circulating in commercial and backyard poultry in Pakistan and provide evidence for the possible genetic diversity which may be causing new NDV out breaks. - Highlights: • The first report of isolation of new genotype VII-f of virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in Pakistan. • We report the partial Fusion gene sequences of new genotype VII-f of virulent NDV from Pakistan. • We report the phylogenetic relationship of new NDV strains with reported NDV strains. • Provide outbreak history of new virulent NDV strain in commercial and backyard poultry in Pakistan. • We provide possible evidence for the role of backyard poultry in NDV outbreaks

  7. Study on advanced structural design for commercialized fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishita, Masaki; Aoto, Kazumi; Kasahara, Naoto; Asayama, Tai

    2003-05-01

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) and Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPC) launched joint research programs on structural design and three-dimensional seismic isolation technologies, as part of the supporting R and D activities for the feasibility studies on commercialized fast breeder reactor cycle systems. A research project by JAPC under the auspices of the Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry (METI) with technical support by JNC is included in this joint study. This report contains the results of the research on the structural design technology. The research scope was identified as (1) FDS (FBR Design Standard), (2) Standardization of new material, and (3) System Based Code for Integrity, and the results of this year's studies are summarized as follows. (1) FDS (FBR Design Standard). R and D policy of Phase II study considering to the newest needs demanded for structural design were clarified, and R and D items were settled concretely. As for failure criteria, preliminary ratcheting-fatigue tests were conducted with rational methods, and Negligible Creep curves that settle creep designing region rationally were expanded their applying condition. R and D policy and items of guideline for inelastic analysis were clarified, and analyzing methodologies were studied. Summering up exemplification of thermal load prediction methodologies were progressed. To predict thermal striping loads, advanced frequency response function of thermal stress, and fatigue evaluation methodology were studied. (2) Standardization of new material. As for candidate 12-chromium stainless steel (added tungsten, non-added tungsten), that is expected to improve strength of components of commercialized FR, short and medium-term material tests, and creep-fatigue tests at small strain range were conducted. As for above candidate steel, TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas) welding method was recommended. Requirements to standardize new materials and index to select new materials were studied

  8. Standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in eight genotypes of barley fed to growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spindler, H K; Mosenthin, R; Rosenfelder, Pia

    2016-01-01

    . In conclusion, a comprehensive database on chemical composition and SID of CP and AA in eight current barley genotypes has been made available. However, as present SID values are lower compared to feed tables, adjustments are required to minimize the risk of overestimating the actual protein value of barley...

  9. Practical Algorisms for PCR-RFLP-Based Genotyping of Echinococcus granulosus Sensu Lato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Jin; Yong, Tae-Soon; Shin, Myeong Heon; Lee, Kyu-Jae; Park, Gab-Man; Suvonkulov, Uktamjon; Kovalenko, Dmitriy; Yu, Hak Sun

    2017-12-01

    Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) is a causative agent of cystic echinococcosis or cystic hydatid disease in humans and domestic and wild animals. The disease is a serious health problem in countries associated with poverty and poor hygiene practices, particularly in livestock raising. We introduced a practical algorism for genotyping the parasite, which may be useful to many developing countries. To evaluate the efficiency of the algorism, we genotyped 3 unknown strains isolated from human patients. We found that unknowns 1 and 3 were included in G1, G2, and G3 genotypes group and unknown 2 was included in G4 genotype (Echinococcus equinus) according to the algorisms. We confirmed these results by sequencing the 3 unknown isolates cox1 and nad1 PCR products. In conclusion, these new algorisms are very fast genotype identification tools that are suitable for evaluating E. granulosus s.l. isolated from livestock or livestock holders, particularly in developing countries.

  10. BREST-OD-300 Reactor as a prototype of the future commercial lead cooled fast reactor of natural safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlov, V.V.; Smirnov, V.S.; Filin, A.I.; Glazov, A.G. [N.A. Dollezhal Institute ' NIKIET' , PO Box 788, Moscow, 101000 (Russian Federation)

    2006-07-01

    This paper briefly describes the physical and design features of a demonstration 300 MWe fast reactor with uranium-plutonium nitride fuel and lead coolant, BREST-OD-300, under development in Russia. This reactor is regarded as a prototype of future commercial reactors, which may form a foundation for large-scale growth of nuclear power in this new century. It is demonstrated that the natural properties of the lead coolant and nitride fuel combined with the physical and design features specific to fast reactors ensure natural safety of BREST and, with any credible initiating events, allow deterministic exclusion of accidents with large radioactive releases requiring evacuation of local residents. The paper identifies the ways and means of attaining natural safety, which rule out prompt criticality excursion, loss of cooling and fuel failure through use of a small reactivity margin, commensurable with {beta}{sub eff}, low pressure in the circuit, large margins to temperature limits, high natural circulation, passive decay heat removal by air unlimited in time, high heat accumulating capability of lead-filled circuit, stabilizing temperature and coolant flow rate feedbacks, etc. (authors)

  11. BREST-OD-300 Reactor as a prototype of the future commercial lead cooled fast reactor of natural safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlov, V.V.; Smirnov, V.S.; Filin, A.I.; Glazov, A.G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the physical and design features of a demonstration 300 MWe fast reactor with uranium-plutonium nitride fuel and lead coolant, BREST-OD-300, under development in Russia. This reactor is regarded as a prototype of future commercial reactors, which may form a foundation for large-scale growth of nuclear power in this new century. It is demonstrated that the natural properties of the lead coolant and nitride fuel combined with the physical and design features specific to fast reactors ensure natural safety of BREST and, with any credible initiating events, allow deterministic exclusion of accidents with large radioactive releases requiring evacuation of local residents. The paper identifies the ways and means of attaining natural safety, which rule out prompt criticality excursion, loss of cooling and fuel failure through use of a small reactivity margin, commensurable with β eff , low pressure in the circuit, large margins to temperature limits, high natural circulation, passive decay heat removal by air unlimited in time, high heat accumulating capability of lead-filled circuit, stabilizing temperature and coolant flow rate feedbacks, etc. (authors)

  12. A review of the UK fast reactor programme. March 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.D.

    1977-01-01

    This paper reports on the Fast Reactor Programme of United Kingdom. These are the main lines: Dounreay Fast Reactor; Prototype Fast Reactor; Commercial Fast Reactor; engineering development; materials development; chemical engineering/sodium technology; fast reactor fuel; fuel cycle; safety; reactor performance study

  13. Genotype-by-environment interaction and grain yield stability of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this paper is to identify stable and high yielding varieties among 20 Ethiopian Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes on the basis of experiments conducted during the 2007 and 2008 growing seasons. The additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (ammi) model has been used to estimate ...

  14. Performance Of Growing Pigs And Finisher Broilers Housed Together

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth performance and cost of feeding young growing pigs and finisher broilers under integrated broiler/pig production system were investigated. Four young growing pigs (the control) were housed in pen A and fed 4% of their body weight as commercial growers feed. Another 4 were housed in pen B with broilers in ...

  15. Research on Memetic Phenomena in Commercial Advertisements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽

    2015-01-01

    Meme plays an important role in the development of advertisement as a unit of culture.Its replication and transmission provide an effective means for creating advertisements and a new way for us to analyze advertising language.Two ways including memetic genotype and memetic phenotype for memes to be replicated and transmitted in the advertising language are analyzed.Then,how to successfully create commercial advertisements is explored.Finally,it is concluded that the concise,familiar,popular and original memes can contribute to successful commercial advertisements.

  16. Thermal Environment Evaluation in Commercial Kitchens of United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    The indoor climate in commercial kitchens is often unsatisfactory and the working conditions can have a significant effect on employees’ comfort and productivity. The differences between type (fast food, dining, etc.) and climatic zone can have an influence on the environment conditions and on th......The indoor climate in commercial kitchens is often unsatisfactory and the working conditions can have a significant effect on employees’ comfort and productivity. The differences between type (fast food, dining, etc.) and climatic zone can have an influence on the environment conditions...... of defining the values of thermal comfort parameters in kitchens. It can also help to evaluate if the standardized methods are applicable for such non-uniform environment, like commercial kitchens. By using an established method and procedure for evaluating the indoor thermal comfort in commercial kitchens...... more than 100 kitchens environments in the United States were investigated in summer and winter. Results show the influence due to type of kitchen (fast food, casual, etc.) and climatic region. Physical measurement confirmed that communally the workers are exposed to a warm or hot environment...

  17. Genetic Diversity of Some Capparis L. Species Growing in Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassam Al- Safadi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work investigated the genetic diversity and relationships among Capparis species growing in Syria using IRAP and ISSR techniques. Forty-seven samples of three Capparis species genotypes were collected from 21 different locations in Syria. The genotypes were morphologically identified based on the descriptions available in the literature. When IRAP technique was used, an average of 71.5% of the amplified fragments were polymorphic compared to 82.04% in ISSR. Morphological characterization along with the cluster and PCoA analyses of the data divided the studied genotypes into three groups. The groups included genotypes identified as Capparis spinosa L, C. sicula Duh., and C. aegyptia Lam. Based on the morphological description, molecular studies and statistical analyses of this study, C. aegyptia could be suggested as a separate species and not a varietal rank of C. spinosa(C. spinosa var. aegyptia (Lam.. Two samples (Alep1 and Idl were not placed in any of the three distinctive groups, despite their closeness morphologically to C. spinosa. In PCoA analysis, sample Alep1 came between C. sicula and C. spinosa and Idl was placed between C. sicula and C. aegyptia. Although hybridization between Capparis species could occur, it was not clear from the present study if these two genotypes were hybrids.

  18. Reasons for the Fast Growing Seawater Desalination Capacity in Algeria

    KAUST Repository

    Drouiche, Nadjib; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Naceur, Mohamed Wahib; Mahmoudi, Hacè ne; Ouslimane, Tarik

    2011-01-01

    growing markets. Five desalination plants, including the Africa's largest seawater reverse osmosis project with a total capacity of 200,000 m3 per day, are already in operation and the remaining projects are either under construction or in commissioning

  19. Study on In-Service Inspection Program and Inspection Technologies for Commercialized Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masato Ando; Shigenobu Kubo; Yoshio Kamishima; Toru Iitsuka

    2006-01-01

    The objective of in-service inspection of a nuclear power plant is to confirm integrity of function of components necessary to safety, and satisfy the needs to protect plant investment and to achieve high plant ability. The sodium-cooled fast reactor, which is designed in the feasibility study on commercialized fast reactor cycle systems in Japan, has two characteristics related to in-service inspection. The first is that all sodium coolant boundary structures have double-wall system. Continuous monitoring of the sodium coolant boundary structures are adopted for inspection. The second characteristic is the steam generator with double-wall-tubes. Volumetric testing is adopted to make sure that one of the tubes can maintain the boundary function in case of the other tube failure. A rational in-service inspection concept was developed taking these features into account. The inspection technologies were developed to implement in-service inspection plan. The under-sodium viewing system consisted of multi ultrasonic scanning transducers, which was used for imaging under-sodium structures. The under-sodium viewing system was mounted on the under-sodium vehicle and delivered to core internals. The prototype of under-sodium viewing system and vehicle were fabricated and performance tests were carried out under water. The laboratory experiments of volumetric testing for double-wall-tubes of steam generator, such as ultrasonic testing and remote-field eddy current testing, were performed and technical feasibility was assessed. (authors)

  20. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of virulent Newcastle disease virus isolates from Pakistan during 2009–2013 reveals circulation of new sub genotype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddique, Naila, E-mail: naila.nrlpd@gmail.com [National Reference Laboratory for Poultry Diseases, Animal Sciences Institute, National Agricultural Research Center, Islamabad (Pakistan); Naeem, Khalid; Abbas, Muhammad Athar; Ali Malik, Akbar; Rashid, Farooq; Rafique, Saba; Ghafar, Abdul; Rehman, Abdul [National Reference Laboratory for Poultry Diseases, Animal Sciences Institute, National Agricultural Research Center, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2013-09-15

    Despite observing the standard bio-security measures at commercial poultry farms and extensive use of Newcastle disease vaccines, a new genotype VII-f of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) got introduced in Pakistan during 2011. In this regard 300 ND outbreaks recorded so far have resulted into huge losses of approximately USD 200 million during 2011–2013. A total of 33 NDV isolates recovered during 2009–2013 throughout Pakistan were characterized biologically and phylogenetically. The phylogenetic analysis revealed a new velogenic sub genotype VII-f circulating in commercial and domestic poultry along with the earlier reported sub genotype VII-b. Partial sequencing of Fusion gene revealed two types of cleavage site motifs; lentogenic {sup 112}GRQGRL{sup 117} and velogenic {sup 112}RRQKRF{sup 117} along with some point mutations indicative of genetic diversity. We report here a new sub genotype of virulent NDV circulating in commercial and backyard poultry in Pakistan and provide evidence for the possible genetic diversity which may be causing new NDV out breaks. - Highlights: • The first report of isolation of new genotype VII-f of virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in Pakistan. • We report the partial Fusion gene sequences of new genotype VII-f of virulent NDV from Pakistan. • We report the phylogenetic relationship of new NDV strains with reported NDV strains. • Provide outbreak history of new virulent NDV strain in commercial and backyard poultry in Pakistan. • We provide possible evidence for the role of backyard poultry in NDV outbreaks.

  1. Comparative salinity responses among tomato genotypes and rootstocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oztekin, G.B.; Tuzel, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Salinity is a major constraint limiting agricultural crop productivity in the world. However, plant species and cultivars differ greatly in their response to salinity. This study was conducted in a greenhouse to determine the response of 4 commercial tomato rootstocks, 21 cultivars and 8 candidate varieties to salinity stress. Seeds were germinated in peat and when the plants were at the fifth-true leaf stage, salt treatment was initiated except control treatment. NaCl was added to nutrient solution daily with 25 mM concentration and had been reached to 200 mM final concentration. On harvest day, genotypes were classified based on the severity of leaf symptoms caused by NaCl treatment. After symptom scoring, the plants were harvested and leaf number, root length, stem length and diameter per plant were measured. The plants were separated into shoots and roots for dry matter production. Our results showed that, on average, NaCl stress decreased all parameters and the rootstocks gave the highest performance than genotypes. Among all rootstocks, three varieties (2211 and 2275) and ten genotypes (Astona, Astona RN, Caracas, Deniz, Durinta, Export, Gokce, Target, Yeni Talya and 144 HY) were selected as tolerant with slight chlorosis whereas the genotype Malike was selected as sensitive with severe chlorosis. Candidate varieties 2316 and 1482 were the most sensitive ones. Plant growth and dry matter production differed among the tested genotypes. However no correlation was found between plant growth and dry matter production. Rootstock Beaufort gave the highest shoot dry matter although Heman had highest root dry matter. Newton showed more shoot and root dry matter than other genotypes. It is concluded that screening of genotypes based on severity of symptoms at early stage of development and their dry matter production could be used as a tool to indicate genotypic variation to salt stress. (author)

  2. A longitudinal comparison of the growth factors of Slovenian fast growing enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viljem Pšeničny

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the main features of Slovenia’s fastest growing companies and compares them with “gazelles” in the EU. The longitudinal survey presented connects with three other studies applying the same research method, namely studies employing the same questionnaire on growth factors that affect growing companies through to the criteria by which they were selected as growing businesses for the survey. The author notes that the growth factors which have an impact on Slovenian businesses and gazelles in the EU mostly do not show any significant differences, and that these differences also did not change significantly over a 15-year period. This hypothesis is verified by both statistical methods and the data mining method called machine learning from examples.

  3. Fast reactor fuel design and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, J.F.W.; Chamberlain, A.; Holmes, J.A.G.

    1977-01-01

    Fuel design parameters for oxide and carbide fast reactor fuels are reviewed in the context of minimising the total uranium demands for a combined thermal and fast reactor system. The major physical phenomena conditioning fast reactor fuel design, with a target of high burn-up, good breeding and reliable operation, are characterised. These include neutron induced void swelling, irradiation creep, pin failure modes, sub-assembly structural behaviour, behaviour of defect fuel, behaviour of alternative fuel forms. The salient considerations in the commercial scale fabrication and reprocessing of the fuels are reviewed, leading to the delineation of possible routes for the manufacture and reprocessing of Commercial Reactor fuel. From the desiderata and restraints arising from Surveys, Performance and Manufacture, the problems posed to the Designer are considered, and a narrow range of design alternatives is proposed. The paper concludes with a consideration of the development areas and the conceptual problems for fast reactors associated with those areas

  4. Understanding the Effects of Genotype, Growing Year, and Breeding on Tunisian Durum Wheat Allergenicity. 1. The Baker's Asthma Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukid, Fatma; Prandi, Barbara; Sforza, Stefano; Sayar, Rhouma; Seo, Yong Weon; Mejri, Mondher; Yacoubi, Ines

    2017-07-19

    Baker's asthma is a serious airway disease triggered by wheat protein CM3 α-amylase/trypsin inhibitor. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of genotype and crop year on allergen CM3 α-amylase/trypsin inhibitor associated with baker's asthma. A historical series of Tunisian durum wheat (100 accessions), derived from three crop years, was used to compare the amount of CM3 from landraces to advanced cultivars. CM3 protein quantification was assessed after an enzymatic cleavage of the soluble protein extracts on a UPLC/ESI-MS system, using a marker peptide for its quantification. Combined data analysis of variance revealed an important effect of genotype, crop year, and their interaction. The CM3 allergenic proteins were found to significantly vary among studied genotypes, as confirmed by genetic variability, coefficient of variance, heritability, and genetic advance.

  5. Interactions of genotype, housing and dietary calcium in layer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to evaluate the interactions in performance, eggshell quality and tibia traits of two laying hen genotypes, namely a commercial hybrid, Lohmann (LSL), and a traditional breed, the Czech Hen (CH), housed in conventional cages and on litter, and fed two levels of dietary calcium (Ca) (3.5% vs. 3.0%).

  6. Genotyping of Coxiella burnetii from domestic ruminants in northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astobiza Ianire

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on the genotypic diversity of Coxiella burnetii isolates from infected domestic ruminants in Spain is limited. The aim of this study was to identify the C. burnetii genotypes infecting livestock in Northern Spain and compare them to other European genotypes. A commercial real-time PCR targeting the IS1111a insertion element was used to detect the presence of C. burnetii DNA in domestic ruminants from Spain. Genotypes were determined by a 6-loci Multiple Locus Variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA panel and Multispacer Sequence Typing (MST. Results A total of 45 samples from 4 goat herds (placentas, N = 4, 12 dairy cattle herds (vaginal mucus, individual milk, bulk tank milk, aerosols, N = 20 and 5 sheep flocks (placenta, vaginal swabs, faeces, air samples, dust, N = 21 were included in the study. Samples from goats and sheep were obtained from herds which had suffered abortions suspected to be caused by C. burnetii, whereas cattle samples were obtained from animals with reproductive problems compatible with C. burnetii infection, or consisted of bulk tank milk (BTM samples from a Q fever surveillance programme. C. burnetii genotypes identified in ruminants from Spain were compared to those detected in other countries. Three MLVA genotypes were found in 4 goat farms, 7 MLVA genotypes were identified in 12 cattle herds and 4 MLVA genotypes were identified in 5 sheep flocks. Clustering of the MLVA genotypes using the minimum spanning tree method showed a high degree of genetic similarity between most MLVA genotypes. Overall 11 different MLVA genotypes were obtained corresponding to 4 different MST genotypes: MST genotype 13, identified in goat, sheep and cattle from Spain; MST genotype 18, only identified in goats; and, MST genotypes 8 and 20, identified in small ruminants and cattle, respectively. All these genotypes had been previously identified in animal and human clinical samples from several

  7. Performance of commercial laying hen genotypes on free range and organic farms in Switzerland, France and The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenstra, F.R.; Maurer, V.; Bestman, M.W.P.; Sambeek van, F.; Zeltner, E.; Reuvekamp, B.F.J.; Galea, F.; Niekerk, van T.G.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    1. A total of 257 farmers with free ranging laying hens (organic and conventional) in Switzerland, France and The Netherlands with 273 flocks were interviewed to determine the relationships between the genotype of the hens, management conditions and performance. 2. Almost 20 different genotypes

  8. Lignin-enriched Fermentation Residues from Bioethanol Production of Fast-growing Poplar and Forage Sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José I Santos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The current challenges in developing a cost-effective bioethanol industry include the production of not only high-volume, low cost biofuels but also high-value products with minimal downstream waste. The up-grading of side-stream lignins from bioethanol production plants to novel high-value products will improve the profitability of the bioethanol industry; to do that, a precise understanding of lignin is required. In the present study, lignin-enriched fermentation residues from bioethanol production (steam explosion pretreatment, saccharification, and fermentation of fast-growing poplar and forage sorghum were characterized. In addition to the purity and composition, lignin structure (syringyl/guaiacyl (S/G ratio, inter-unit linkages was also analyzed with spectroscopy techniques such as Fourier transform infrared and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance. Bioethanol processing and feedstock origins seemed to be the main factors determining the purity, composition, and structure of lignins. Residual lignins from poplar and forage sorghum contained significant amounts of sugar and protein impurities. Poplar lignin showed a very high S/G ratio associated with p-hydroxybenzoate. A lower S/G ratio together with H lignin units and p-hydroxycinnamates (p-coumarate and ferulate was observed for forage sorghum lignin. The main inter-unit linkages present in both lignins were β-O-4´ aryl ether followed by resinols and phenylcoumarans.

  9. Mineral Composition of Organically Grown Wheat Genotypes: Contribution to Daily Minerals Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Abrar; Larsson, Hans; Kuktaite, Ramune; Johansson, Eva

    2010-01-01

    In this study, 321 winter and spring wheat genotypes were analysed for twelve nutritionally important minerals (B, Cu, Fe, Se, Mg, Zn, Ca, Mn, Mo, P, S and K). Some of the genotypes used were from multiple locations and years, resulting in a total number of 493 samples. Investigated genotypes were divided into six genotype groups i.e., selections, old landraces, primitive wheat, spelt, old cultivars and cultivars. For some of the investigated minerals higher concentrations were observed in selections, primitive wheat, and old cultivars as compared to more modern wheat material, e.g., cultivars and spelt wheat. Location was found to have a significant effect on mineral concentration for all genotype groups, although for primitive wheat, genotype had a higher impact than location. Spring wheat was observed to have significantly higher values for B, Cu, Fe, Zn, Ca, S and K as compared to winter wheat. Higher levels of several minerals were observed in the present study, as compared to previous studies carried out in inorganic systems, indicating that organic conditions with suitable genotypes may enhance mineral concentration in wheat grain. This study also showed that a very high mineral concentration, close to daily requirements, can be produced by growing specific primitive wheat genotypes in an organic farming system. Thus, by selecting genotypes for further breeding, nutritional value of the wheat flour for human consumption can be improved. PMID:20948934

  10. Genetic susceptibility to Gilbert's syndrome in a valencian population; efficacy of the fasting test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, A K; Escartín, N; Monzó, C; Guzmán, C; Ferrer, I; González-Muñoz, C; Peña, P; Monzó, V; Marcaida, G; Rodríguez-López, R

    To describe the populational distribution of the UGT1A1*28 variant (genetic variant code rs8175347) located in the promotor of the UGT gene and correlate its genotypes with the results of the fasting test, as well as its relationship with the biochemical disorder of Gilbert's syndrome (GS) in a Valencian population. We studied the prevalence of the genotypes (TA) 6/6 (TA) 6/7 and (TA) 7/7 of the deleterious variant rs8175347 in 144 patients with hyperbilirubinemia, 38 of whom had previously undergone the fasting test to diagnose GS, and in 150 control patients. By analysing the genomic region of the TATA box of the UGT1A1 gene promotor using Sanger sequencing, we established the correlation between the rs8175347 genotypes and the fasting test results and with the patients' biochemical disorders. The rate of heterozygosity of allele (TA) 7 in the control population was 32% and increased to 87.59% among the patients with suspected GS. The rate of genotype TA 7/7 was 81.94% among the patients with hyperbilirubinemia, compared with 11.33% in the control patients. The fasting test showed a 15.79% rate of false negatives and a 5.26% rate of false positives. The high frequency of allele (TA) 7 among the Valencian control population, almost double the 5% reported for European control patients, confirms the high rate of GS reported in the Spanish population, without observing significant differences between the geographical ends of the country. The efficacy and reliability of the fasting test for the diagnosis of GS is questionable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  11. Survival of Bemisia tabaci and activity of plant defense-related enzymes in genotypes of Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Latournerie-Moreno

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, 1889 is a major plant pest of horticultural crops from the families Solanaceae, Fabaceae and Cucurbitaceae in Neotropical areas. The exploration of host plant resistance and their biochemical mechanisms offers an excellent alternative to better understand factors affecting the interaction between phytophagous insect and host plant. We evaluated the survival of B. tabaci in landrace genotypes of Capsicum annuum L., and the activity of plant defense-related enzymes (chitinase, polyphenoloxidase, and peroxidase. The landrace genotypes Amaxito, Tabaquero, and Simojovel showed resistance to B. tabaci, as we observed more than 50% nymphal mortality, while in the commercial susceptible genotype Jalapeño mortality of B. tabaci nymphs was not higher than 20%. The activities of plant defense-related enzymes were significantly different among pepper genotypes (P < 0.05. Basal activities of chitinase, polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase were significantly lower or equal in landrace genotypes than that of the commercial genotype Jalapeño. The activity of plant enzymes was differential among pepper genotypes (P < 0.05. For example, the activity of chitinase enzyme generally was higher in non-infested plants with B. tabaci than those infested. Instead polyphenoloxidase ('Amaxito' and 'Simojovel' and peroxidase enzymes activities ('Tabaquero' increased in infested plants (P < 0.05. We conclude that basal activities of plant defense-related enzymes could be act through other mechanism plant induction, since plant defense-related enzymes showed a different induction response to B. tabaci. We underlined the role of polyphenoloxidase as plant defense in the pepper genotype Simojovel related to B. tabaci.

  12. stability analysis of food barley genotypes in northern ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    interaction and stability for barley grain yield and yield related traits in the growing ... that the environments were diverse; causing most of the variation in grain yield. ... component axes IPCA1, IPCA2 and IPCA3, which explained 58.06, 27.11 and ..... AMMI analysis of variance for grain yield (t ha-1) of food barley genotypes ...

  13. NeuroX, a fast and efficient genotyping platform for investigation of neurodegenerative diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nalls, M.A.; Bras, J.; Hernandez, D.G.; Keller, M.F.; Majounie, E.; Renton, A.E.; Saad, M.; Jansen, I.E.; Guerreiro, R.; Lubbe, S.; Plagnol, V.; Gibbs, J.R.; Schulte, C.; Pankratz, N.; Sutherland, M.; Bertram, L.; Lill, C.M.; DeStefano, A.L.; Faroud, T.; Eriksson, N.; Tung, J.Y.; Edsall, C.; Nichols, N.; Brooks, J.; Arepalli, S.; Pliner, H.; Letson, C.; Heutink, P.; Martinez, M.; Gasser, T.; Traynor, B.J.; Wood, N.; Hardy, J.; Singleton, A.B.

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to design a genotyping platform that would allow rapid genetic characterization of samples in the context of genetic mutations and risk factors associated with common neurodegenerative diseases. The platform needed to be relatively affordable, rapid to deploy, and use a common and

  14. Effects of ambient temperature and early open-field response on the behaviour, feed intake and growth of fast- and slow-growing broiler strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm

    2012-01-01

    Increased activity improves broiler leg health, but also increases the heat production of the bird. This experiment investigated the effects of early open-field activity and ambient temperature on the growth and feed intake of two strains of broiler chickens. On the basis of the level of activity...... in an open-field test on day 3 after hatching, fast-growing Ross 208 and slow-growing i657 chickens were allocated on day 13 to one of the 48 groups. Each group included either six active or six passive birds from each strain and the groups were housed in floor-pens littered with wood chips and fitted...... with two heat lamps. Each group was fed ad libitum and subjected to one of the three temperature treatments: two (HH; 268C), one (HC; 168C to 268C) or no (CC; 168C) heat lamps turned on. Production and behavioural data were collected every 2 weeks until day 57. For both strains, early open-field activity...

  15. Fertilizer drawn forward osmosis process for sustainable water reuse to grow hydroponic lettuce using commercial nutrient solution

    KAUST Repository

    Chekli, Laura

    2017-03-10

    This study investigated the sustainable reuse of wastewater using fertilizer drawn forward osmosis (FDFO) process through osmotic dilution of commercial nutrient solution for hydroponics, a widely used technique for growing plants without soil. Results from the bench-scale experiments showed that the commercial hydroponic nutrient solution (i.e. solution containing water and essential nutrients) exhibited similar performance (i.e., water flux and reverse salt flux) to other inorganic draw solutions when treating synthetic wastewater. The use of hydroponic solution is highly advantageous since it provides all the required macro- (i.e., N, P and K) and micronutrients (i.e., Ca, Mg, S, Mn, B, Zn and Mo) in a single balanced solution and can therefore be used directly after dilution without the need to add any elements. After long-term operation (i.e. up to 75% water recovery), different physical cleaning methods were tested and results showed that hydraulic flushing can effectively restore up to 75% of the initial water flux while osmotic backwashing was able to restore the initial water flux by more than 95%; illustrating the low-fouling potential of the FDFO process. Pilot-scale studies demonstrated that the FDFO process is able to produce the required nutrient concentration and final water quality (i.e., pH and conductivity) suitable for hydroponic applications. Coupling FDFO with pressure assisted osmosis (PAO) in the later stages could help in saving operational costs (i.e., energy and membrane replacement costs). Finally, the test application of nutrient solution produced by the pilot FDFO process to hydroponic lettuce showed similar growth pattern as the control without any signs of nutrient deficiency.

  16. "Nutritional Wastelands": Vending Machines, Fast Food Outlets, and the Fight over Junk Food in Canadian Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidney, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    In light of a growing obesity crisis among children and concern about junk food in schools, this article investigates the attempt by food and beverage companies to gain entry into Canadian schools. Focusing in particular on the introduction of fast-food franchises in cafeterias and on school boards' secret exclusivity deals with soft drink manufacturers in the 1990s, it examines how and why this process occurred, public reactions to it, and government responses. Placing this phenomenon within a larger pattern of commercialization in North American schools, it argues that long-lasting reforms require government intervention and enforcement.

  17. Contact zoonosis related to aquaculture: a growing concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquaculture develops fast worldwide, with new cultured species and increased global transport of live aquaculture products. There is a growing recognition of zoonotic disease agents causing epidemics and carrier states in cultured fish and shellfish, especially from warm water systems, transmitted t...

  18. Synthetic microbial ecology and the dynamic interplay between microbial genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinšek, Jan; Goldschmidt, Felix; Johnson, David R

    2016-11-01

    Assemblages of microbial genotypes growing together can display surprisingly complex and unexpected dynamics and result in community-level functions and behaviors that are not readily expected from analyzing each genotype in isolation. This complexity has, at least in part, inspired a discipline of synthetic microbial ecology. Synthetic microbial ecology focuses on designing, building and analyzing the dynamic behavior of ‘ecological circuits’ (i.e. a set of interacting microbial genotypes) and understanding how community-level properties emerge as a consequence of those interactions. In this review, we discuss typical objectives of synthetic microbial ecology and the main advantages and rationales of using synthetic microbial assemblages. We then summarize recent findings of current synthetic microbial ecology investigations. In particular, we focus on the causes and consequences of the interplay between different microbial genotypes and illustrate how simple interactions can create complex dynamics and promote unexpected community-level properties. We finally propose that distinguishing between active and passive interactions and accounting for the pervasiveness of competition can improve existing frameworks for designing and predicting the dynamics of microbial assemblages.

  19. Growing different Lactuca genotypes aeroponically within a tropical greenhouse – Cool rootzone temperatures decreased rootzone ethylene concentrations and increased shoot growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsui Wei CHOONG

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Temperate crops cannot grow well in the tropics without rootzone cooling. As cooling increased production costs, this experiment aimed to study the growth of various Lactuca genotypes and propose possible ways of reducing these costs, without compromising productivity. A recombinant inbred line (RIL of lettuce and its parental lines (L. serriola and L. sativa ‘Salinas’ were grown aeroponically in a tropical greenhouse under 24 C cool (C or warm fluctuating 30-36 C ambient (A rootzone temperature (RZT. Their roots were misted with Netherlands standard nutrient solution for 1 min, at intervals of either 5 min (A5, C5 or 10 min (A10, C10 in attempting to reduce electricity consumption and production costs. Lower mortality and higher productivity were observed in all genotypes when grown in C-RZT. Higher shoot fresh weight was observed under C5 than C10, for the RIL and L. serriola. Since ‘Salinas’ had similar shoot fresh weight at both C-RZ treatments, this may indicate it is more sensitive to RZT than water availability. Under A-RZ treatments, higher carotenoid content, with correspondingly higher nonphotochemical quenching, was observed in A10 for the RIL and ‘Salinas’. Further, total chlorophyll content was also highest at this RZ treatment for the RIL though photochemical quenching was contrastingly the lowest. Cumulatively, productivity was compromised at A10 as the RIL seemed to prioritize photoprotection over efficiency in photosynthesis, under conditions of higher RZT and lower water availability. Generally, higher RZ ethylene concentrations accumulated in A10 and C10 than A5 and C5, respectively – probably due to spray frequency exerting a greater effect on RZ ethylene accumulation than RZT. In the C5 RZ treatment, lowest RZ ethylene concentration corresponded with highest shoot fresh weight. As such, further research on ethylene (insensitivity and water use efficiency could be conducted to identify Lactuca cultivars

  20. Nutritional And Health Information Released To Consumers By Commercial Fast Food And Full Service Restaurants [informações Nutricionais E De Saúde Disponibilizadas Aos Consumidores Por Restaurantes Comerciais, Tipo Fast Food E Full Service

    OpenAIRE

    Maestro V.; Salay E.

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to identify and characterize nutritional and health information made available in commercial restaurants in the city of Campinas, SP, Brazil. Pre-tested questionnaires were used to interview twenty managers of fast food and ninety-four of full service restaurants, between October and December of 2005, located in the five administrative regions of Campinas. After collecting the information, a databank was created using Microsoft Excel software. The chi-squa...

  1. Does selection in a challenging environment produce Nile tilapia genotypes that can thrive in a range of production systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoa, Ngo Phu; Ninh, Nguyen Huu; Knibb, Wayne; Nguyen, Nguyen Hong

    2016-02-19

    This study assessed whether selection for high growth in a challenging environment of medium salinity produces tilapia genotypes that perform well across different production environments. We estimated the genetic correlations between trait expressions in saline and freshwater using a strain of Nile tilapia selected for fast growth under salinity water of 15-20 ppt. We also estimated the heritability and genetic correlations for new traits of commercial importance (sexual maturity, feed conversion ratio, deformity and gill condition) in a full pedigree comprising 36,145 fish. The genetic correlations for the novel characters between the two environments were 0.78-0.99, suggesting that the effect of genotype by environment interaction was not biologically important. Across the environments, the heritability for body weight was moderate to high (0.32-0.62), indicating that this population will continue responding to future selection. The estimates of heritability for sexual maturity and survival were low but significant. The additive genetic components also exist for FCR, gill condition and deformity. Genetic correlations of harvest body weight with sexual maturity were positive and those between harvest body weight with FCR were negative. Our results indicate that the genetic line selected under a moderate saline water environment can be cultured successfully in freshwater systems.

  2. Genetic parameters and simultaneous selection for root yield, adaptability and stability of cassava genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Tomé de Farias Neto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to estimate genetic parameters and to evaluate simultaneous selection for root yield and for adaptability and stability of cassava genotypes. The effects of genotypes were assumed as fixed and random, and the mixed model methodology (REML/Blup was used to estimate genetic parameters and the harmonic mean of the relative performance of genotypic values (HMRPGV, for simultaneous selection purposes. Ten genotypes were analyzed in a complete randomized block design, with four replicates. The experiment was carried out in the municipalities of Altamira, Santarém, and Santa Luzia do Pará in the state of Pará, Brazil, in the growing seasons of 2009/2010, 2010/2011, and 2011/2012. Roots were harvested 12 months after planting, in all tested locations. Root yield had low coefficients of genotypic variation (4.25% and broad-sense heritability of individual plots (0.0424, which resulted in low genetic gain. Due to the low genotypic correlation (0.15, genotype classification as to root yield varied according to the environment. Genotypes CPATU 060, CPATU 229, and CPATU 404 stood out as to their yield, adaptability, and stability.

  3. Genetic mapping of variation in dauer larvae development in growing populations of Caenorhabditis elegans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Green, J.W.M.; Snoek, L.B.; Kammenga, J.E.; Harvey, S.C.

    2013-01-01

    In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the appropriate induction of dauer larvae development within growing populations is likely to be a primary determinant of genotypic fitness. The underlying genetic architecture of natural genetic variation in dauer formation has, however, not been thoroughly

  4. A review of the UK fast reactor programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.D.

    1982-01-01

    A review of the United Kingdom Fast Reactor Programme is introduced. Operational experience with the Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) is briefly summarized. The design concept of the Commercial Demonstration Fast Reactor (CDFR) is given in some detail. The emphasis is on materials development, chemical engineering/sodium technology, fuel reprocessing and fuel cycle, engineering component development and reactor safety

  5. HRM and SNaPshot as alternative forensic SNP genotyping methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Bhavik; Daniel, Runa; McNevin, Dennis

    2017-09-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been widely used in forensics for prediction of identity, biogeographical ancestry (BGA) and externally visible characteristics (EVCs). Single base extension (SBE) assays, most notably SNaPshot® (Thermo Fisher Scientific), are commonly used for forensic SNP genotyping as they can be employed on standard instrumentation in forensic laboratories (e.g. capillary electrophoresis). High resolution melt (HRM) analysis is an alternative method and is a simple, fast, single tube assay for low throughput SNP typing. This study compares HRM and SNaPshot®. HRM produced reproducible and concordant genotypes at 500 pg, however, difficulties were encountered when genotyping SNPs with high GC content in flanking regions and differentiating variants of symmetrical SNPs. SNaPshot® was reproducible at 100 pg and is less dependent on SNP choice. HRM has a shorter processing time in comparison to SNaPshot®, avoids post PCR contamination risk and has potential as a screening tool for many forensic applications.

  6. SAG2 locus genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii in meat products of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-12

    Oct 12, 2011 ... restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of SAG2 locus revealed that all of the samples belonged to genotype I. The detection of the parasite in uncooked meat and commercial meat products, and the high ratio of seropositive slaughtered animals, emphasis that the risk still exists for.

  7. Molecular characterization of papaya genotypes using AFLP markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eder Jorge de Oliveira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the low genetic variability reported in the commercial plantations of papaya (Carica papaya L., the objective of this study was analyze the genetic diversity of 32 genotypes including cultivars, landraces, inbred lines, and improved germplasm using the AFLP technique (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism. The genetic distance matrix was obtained using the Nei and Li genetic distance and clustering was performed using the unweighted pair-method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA. Using 11 combinations of EcoRI/MseI primers, 383 polymorphic bands were obtained. On average, 34.8 polymorphic bands were obtained per primer combination. Five clusters were formed. The traditional cultivar 'Sunrise' and the inbred line CMF-L30-08 were the closest genotypes, and the improved germplasm (CMF041 and landrace (CMF233 the most distant. The main papaya cultivars commercially grown in Brazil, as well as four inbred lines and three improved germplasm, were clustered together, however, were not grouped in the same branch. The genetic distance between the Sunrise and Golden cultivars was 0.329, and even arising from mutation and selection within the Sunrise variety, the Golden stores considerable genetic variability. Additional variability was observed in the inbred lines derived from papaya breeding program at Embrapa Cassava and Fruits.

  8. Military Dependence on Commercial Satellite Communications Systems - Strength or Vulnerability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hook, Jack

    1999-01-01

    The military's growing dependence on commercial satellite communications systems will become a strength or vulnerability based on how well the right balance is achieved between commercial and military systems...

  9. Photoperiod and growing degree days effect on dry matter partitioning in Jerusalem artichoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of photoperiod and growing degree days (GDD) on dry matter and dry partitioning in Jerusalem artichoke was investigated during 2008-09 and 2009-10. Three Jerusalem artichoke genotypes (CN-52867, JA-89 and HEL-65) were planted in 15 day-intervals between with thirteen different dates (Sep...

  10. Ultra-low-density genotype panels for breed assignment of Angus and Hereford cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, M M; Kelleher, M M; Kearney, J F; Sleator, R D; Berry, D P

    2017-06-01

    Angus and Hereford beef is marketed internationally for apparent superior meat quality attributes; DNA-based breed authenticity could be a useful instrument to ensure consumer confidence on premium meat products. The objective of this study was to develop an ultra-low-density genotype panel to accurately quantify the Angus and Hereford breed proportion in biological samples. Medium-density genotypes (13 306 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)) were available on 54 703 commercial and 4042 purebred animals. The breed proportion of the commercial animals was generated from the medium-density genotypes and this estimate was regarded as the gold-standard breed composition. Ten genotype panels (100 to 1000 SNPs) were developed from the medium-density genotypes; five methods were used to identify the most informative SNPs and these included the Delta statistic, the fixation (F st) statistic and an index of both. Breed assignment analyses were undertaken for each breed, panel density and SNP selection method separately with a programme to infer population structure using the entire 13 306 SNP panel (representing the gold-standard measure). Breed assignment was undertaken for all commercial animals (n=54 703), animals deemed to contain some proportion of Angus based on pedigree (n=5740) and animals deemed to contain some proportion of Hereford based on pedigree (n=5187). The predicted breed proportion of all animals from the lower density panels was then compared with the gold-standard breed prediction. Panel density, SNP selection method and breed all had a significant effect on the correlation of predicted and actual breed proportion. Regardless of breed, the Index method of SNP selection numerically (but not significantly) outperformed all other selection methods in accuracy (i.e. correlation and root mean square of prediction) when panel density was ⩾300 SNPs. The correlation between actual and predicted breed proportion increased as panel density increased. Using

  11. Towards commercialization of fast gaseous nitrocarburising stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hummelshøj, Thomas Strabo; Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2010-01-01

    A novel method for fast and versatile low temperature nitrocarburising of stainless steel has recently been invented by the present authors. Selected results obtained with this new surface hardening process are presented. It is shown that it is possible to obtain a case thickness of 20 μm...... on austenitic AISI 316 within a process cycle time of 90 minutes, and a case thickness of 35 μm on martensitic AISI 420 within a process cycle time of 75 minutes....

  12. Dounreay fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maclennan, R.; Eggar, T.; Skeet, T.

    1992-01-01

    The short debate which followed a private notice question asking for a statement on Government policy on the future of the European fast breeder nuclear research programme is reported verbatim. In response to the question, the Minister for Energy said that the Government had decided in 1988 that the Dounreay prototype fast reactor would close in 1994. That decision had been confirmed. Funding of fast breeder research and development beyond 1993 is not a priority as commercialization is not expected until well into the next century. Dounreay will be supported financially until 1994 and then for its subsequent decommissioning and reprocessing of spent fuel. The debate raised issues such as Britain losing its lead in fast breeder research, loss of jobs and the Government's nuclear policy in general. However, the Government's position was that the research had reached a stage where it could be left and returned to in the future. (UK)

  13. Optimization of a method for the profiling and quantification of saponins in different green asparagus genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Castilla, Sara; Jaramillo-Carmona, Sara; Fuentes-Alventosa, Jose María; Jiménez-Araujo, Ana; Rodriguez-Arcos, Rocío; Cermeño-Sacristán, Pedro; Espejo-Calvo, Juan Antonio; Guillén-Bejarano, Rafael

    2013-07-03

    The main goal of this study was the optimization of a HPLC-MS method for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of asparagus saponins. The method includes extraction with aqueous ethanol, cleanup by solid phase extraction, separation by reverse phase chromatography, electrospray ionization, and detection in a single quadrupole mass analyzer. The method was used for the comparison of selected genotypes of Huétor-Tájar asparagus landrace and selected varieties of commercial diploid hybrids of green asparagus. The results showed that while protodioscin was almost the only saponin detected in the commercial hybrids, eight different saponins were detected in the Huétor-Tájar asparagus genotypes. The mass spectra indicated that HT saponins are derived from a furostan type steroidal genin having a single bond between carbons 5 and 6 of the B ring. The total concentration of saponins was found to be higher in triguero asparagus than in commercial hybrids.

  14. Millennium bim managing growing demand

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Francisca Barbosa Malpique de Paiva

    2014-01-01

    Millennium bim, the Mozambican operation of Millennium bcp group, was the Company selected to serve as background for the development of a teaching case in Marketing. This case is followed by a teaching note, and is intended to be used as a pedagogical tool in undergraduate and/or graduate programs. Even though Mozambique is still characterized by high financial exclusion, the number of people entering within the banking industry has been growing at a fast pace. Actually, the demand for fi...

  15. Spikelet sterility in rice genotypes affected by temperature at microsporogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia M. de Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study evaluated the effect of temperatures during the phase of microsporogenesis on spikelet sterility of paddy rice and identified genotypes tolerant to low temperatures at this growth stage. The inbreds SC681, SC491, and SC676 and the cultivars Epagri 109 and SCS116 Satoru were assessed. The genotypes were submitted for three days in a growth chamber to five temperatures at microsporogenesis: 9, 12, 15, 18, and 21 oC. For each tested temperature, a control was kept in the greenhouse under environmental conditions. After harvest, full and empty spikelets were counted and weighed and the percentage of spikelet sterility was determined. Data were evaluated by variance analysis using the F test. Averages were compared by Tukey’s test and regression analysis. The highest spikelet sterilities were observed when the genotypes were exposed to the temperatures of 9 and 12 oC. Genotype spikelet sterility was similar to that of the control at 21 ºC. The inbred SC 676 presented higher tolerance to lower temperatures is therefore potentially suited to generate a cultivar with adequate agronomic performance in rice growing areas prone to cold conditions at microsporogenesis.

  16. The Effect Of Agricultural Commercialization On The Nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of agricultural commercialization on nutritional status of children in cocoa growing households in Ikwuano Local Government Area of Abia State. A total of 120 cocoa growing households were randomly selected for the study. Anthropometric measures of 169 children were ...

  17. Temporal dynamic responses of roots in contrasting tomato genotypes to cadmium tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Karina Lima Reis; Salvato, Fernanda; Alcântara, Berenice Kussumoto; Nalin, Rafael Storto; Piotto, Fernando Ângelo; Azevedo, Ricardo Antunes

    2018-04-01

    Despite numerous studies on cadmium (Cd) uptake and accumulation in crops, relatively little is available considering the temporal dynamic of Cd uptake and responses to stress focused on the root system. Here we highlighted the responses to Cd-induced stress in roots of two tomato genotypes contrasting in Cd-tolerance: the tolerant Pusa Ruby and the sensitive Calabash Rouge. Tomato genotypes growing in the presence of 35 μM CdCl 2 exhibited a similar trend of Cd accumulation in tissues, mainly in the root system and overall plants exhibited reduction in the dry matter weight. Both genotypes showed similar trends for malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide accumulation with increases when exposed to Cd, being this response more pronounced in the sensitive genotype. When the antioxidant machinery is concerned, in the presence of Cd the reduced glutathione content was decreased in roots while ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities were increased in the presence of Cd in the tolerant genotype. Altogether these results suggest APX, GR and GST as the main players of the antioxidant machinery against Cd-induced oxidative stress.

  18. Effect of Genotypic and Environmental Differences on Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer, I.M; Moustafa, H.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Genotype X environment (GE) interactions for some flax characters nd their effects on yield of three divergent mutant lines two local cultivars were studied over five environmental conditions (three years and different soils) at Inshas, Egypt. the obtained results reveled that the variance due to environmental conditions were greater than the variance due to genotypes, or GE interaction for all studied traits. the variances due to GE interactions were greater than the variances for genotypes in seed yield and its related traits and vice versa in straw yield and its related traits. the environmental conditions exhibited greater effect on the local cultivars than on mutant lines. the mutant line 25 gave the highest seeds and straw yield / plant over all environments. adaptability and performance stability of a line over years and sites are interested for flax producer for growing a cultivar with high yield and performance stability at his location

  19. [The HVR genotypes and their relationship with the resistance of methicillin-resistant staphylococci].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, F; Fan, X; Lü, X; Feng, P

    2001-06-01

    To investigate the HVR-PCR genotype of methicillin-resistant Staphylococci in local hospitals and compare it with the antibiograms, with aview to selecting effective antibacterial agents, moreover, to discuss preliminarily its role in molecular epidemiology. The minimal inhibitory concentrations(MICs) of 86 MRSA, 10 MRSE(Mc'S. epidemidis), 5 MSSE(Mc'S. epidemidis), 8 MRSH(Mc'S. haemolyticus) and 5 MSSH(Mc'S. haemolyticus) clinical isolates collected from 4 local hospitals were tested by serial two-fold agar dilution method; their DNA were extracted by moved basic lytic method, whose polymerase chain reaction(PCR) products amplified, based on the size of mec-associated hypervariable region(HVR) were analyzed by PAG vertical and agarose gel electrophoresis. MRSA, MRSE and MRSH were grouped into 4, 3 and 2 HVR genotypes respectively according to the size of the PCR products. The PCR products amplified from 9 of 10 MRSE isolates were the same as the products amplified from MRSA isolates. MRSA strains in this study were mainly HVR genotypes A and D, which accounted for 52.32% and 39.53%; Genotypes B and C were the most multi-drug resistant, but genotype D was multi-sensitive. The I genotype of MRSE was multi-drug resistant, but its genotype III was multi-drug sensitive. The genotype a of MRSH was more resistant than genotype b. These results suggest that HVR-PCR genotype method is an easy and fast method for epidemiological investigation of nosocomial infections caused by MRSA, and it is helpful for clinical selection of antibacterial agents. This method can compare the mec determinants of MRSA and Mc'CNSt isolates and hence to search for the origin of the mec determinant.

  20. Problems of intangible assets commercialization accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.F. Legenchyk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The growing role of intangible assets in conditions of global economy postindustrialization is grounded. The problems of intangible assets accounting are singled out. The basic tasks of the intangible assets accounting commercialization process are determined. The difference between the commercialization of intellectual property and intangible assets is considered. The basic approaches to understanding the essence of the intangible assets commercialization are singled out and grounded. The basic forms and methods of intangible assets commercialization researched by the author are analyzed. The order of accounting reflection of licensee royalties is considered. The factors of influence on the accounting process of intangible assets commercialization are determined. The necessity of solving the problem of accounting of lease payments for computer program by providing access to SaaS environment is grounded. The prospects of further studies of intangible assets accounting commercialization are determined.

  1. In vitro application of integrated selection index for screening drought tolerant genotypes in common wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezatollah FARSHADFAR

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted on 20 wheat genotypes during 2010-2011 growing season at the Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran. A completely randomized design with six replications was used for callus induction and a 20 × 2 factorial experiment with three replications was used for response of genotypes to in vitro drought stress. ANOVA exhibited highly significant differences among the genotypes for callus growth rate, relative fresh mass growth, relative growth rate, callus water content, percent of callus chlorosis and proline content under stress condition (15 % PEG. PCA showed that the integrated selection index was correlated with callus growth index, relative fresh mass growth, relative growth rate and proline content indicating that these screening techniques can be useful for selecting drought tolerant genotypes. Screening drought tolerant genotypes and in vitro indicators of drought tolerance using mean rank, standard deviation of ranks and biplot analysis, discriminated genotypes 2, 18 and 10 as the most drought tolerant. Therefore they are recommended to be used as parents for genetic analysis, gene mapping and improvement of drought tolerance.

  2. The fast reactor and electricity supply, a utility view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, J.K.; Hall, R.S.; Kemmish, W.B.; Thorne, R.T.

    1982-01-01

    The significance of the fast reactor is discussed from the viewpoint of the Central Electricity Generating Board. The need for the fast reactor and a possible timescale for its introduction are examined. It is emphasised that demonstration of the commercial and environmental acceptability of the fuel cycle will be needed before any commitment can be made to fast reactors. (U.K.)

  3. Captive-bred neotropical birds diagnosed with Cryptosporidium Avian genotype III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Novaes, Ricardo; Pires, Marcus Sandes; Sudré, Adriana Pittella; Bergamo do Bomfim, Teresa Cristina

    2018-02-01

    Currently, there are only three valid species of Cryptosporidium infecting avian hosts, namely, Cryptosporidium meleagridis, Cryptosporidium baileyi, Cryptosporidium galli and Cryptosporidium avium in addition to 12 genotypes of unknown species status. The objectives of this study were to microscopically diagnose the presence of Cryptosporidium in birds from a commercial aviary located in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; genotypically characterize species and/or genotypes of genus Cryptosporidum; and conduct sequencing and phylogenetic analyses to compare the obtained DNA sequences with those deposited in GenBank. A total of 85 fecal samples were collected from wild captive-bred birds: 48 of family Psittacidae and 37 of family Ramphastidae. Initially, a search for the presence of Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts was conducted using the centrifugal-flotation in saturated sugar solution technique, after that, the collected samples were analyzed microscopically. Cryptosporidium infections were only detected in 24.32% of samples belonging to the family Ramphastidae. DNA was extracted from positive samples and molecular diagnostics was applied targeting the 18S rRNA gene, followed by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The Cryptosporidium Avian genotype III was diagnosed in this study more closely related to the gastric species. This is the first record of Cryptosporidium Avian genotype III in order Piciformes and family Ramphastidae, where three host species (Ramphastus toco, Ramphastus tucanus, and Pteroglossus bailloni) were positive for the etiologic agent. Based on the molecular data obtained, these wild birds raised in captivity do not represent a source of human cryptosporidiosis, considering that Cryptosporidium Avian genotype III does not constitute a zoonosis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Modelling of genotype by environment interaction and prediction of complex traits across multiple environments as a synthesis of crop growth modelling, genetics and statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Bustos-Korts, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of plant breeders is to create and identify genotypes that are well-adapted to the target population of environments (TPE). The TPE corresponds to the future growing conditions in which the varieties produced by a breeding program will be grown. All possible genotypes that could be considered as selection candidates for a specific TPE are said to belong to the target population of genotypes, TPG. Genotypes commonly show different sensitivities to environmental gradients and...

  5. Prospects of castor (Ricinus communis L.) genotypes for biodiesel production in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavanya, C.; Murthy, I.Y.L.N.; Nagaraj, G.; Mukta, N.

    2012-01-01

    The search for suitable non-edible oilseed crops for production of biodiesel has led to exploration of the potential of castor, hitherto an export oriented commercial oilseed crop in India. In this context, a study was conducted to identify high yielding castor genotypes ideal for biodiesel production. The material evaluated included seed of 15 castor genotypes grown in rainfed conditions of Alfisols at Hyderabad, India. Variability for palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic fatty acids was recorded. Ricinoleic acid, the predominant mono unsaturated fatty acid varied among castor genotypes from 86.7 to 92.1%. Correlation coeffecients between fatty acid profile and biodiesel traits were computed. Genotypes 48-1 and DCH-200 exhibited high O/L ratio, low Iodine value (IV) and high cetane number (CN) which indicates higher stability, longer shelf life, quick ignition and greater combustion quality. Genotype DPC-9 exhibited potential as a female parent for development of biodiesel suitable hybrid. -- Highlights: ► Evaluated 15 castor genotypes for fatty acid profile. ► Computed biodiesel related traits like saponification number, iodine value and cetane number. ► Ricinoleic acid, the predominant mono unsaturated fatty acid ranged from 86.7 to 92.1%. ► Variety 48-1 and hybrid DCH-200 exhibited high O/L ratio, low iodine value (IV) and high cetane number (CN).

  6. Correlation between genotype and the tetrahydrobiopterin-responsive phenotype in Chinese patients with phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jing; Li, Nana; Jia, Haitao; Liu, Zhen; Li, Xiaohong; Song, Jiaping; Deng, Ying; Jin, Xi; Zhu, Jun

    2015-12-01

    A growing body of research has suggested that tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) responsive phenotype can be predicted by the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) genotype in patients with phenylketonuria (PKU), but data concerning the association between genotype and BH4 responsiveness are scarce in China. A total of 165 PKU patients from China who had undergone a 24-h loading test with BH4 administration were recruited. Genotyping was performed by the next-generation sequencing (NGS) technique. Using the predicted residual PAH activity, we analyzed the association between genotype and BH4-responsiveness. Among the 165 patients, 40 patients (24.24%) responded to BH4. A total of 74 distinct mutations were observed, including 13 novel mutations. The mutation p.R241C was most frequently associated with response. Two known mutations (p.A322T and p.Q419R) and two novel mutations (p.L98V and IVS3-2A>T) were first reported as responsive to BH4. Residual PAH activity of at least 12.5% was needed for responsive genotypes. Genotype-based predictions of BH4-responsiveness are only for selecting potential responders. Accordingly, it is necessary to test potential responders with a long-term BH4 challenge.

  7. High-throughput single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping using nanofluidic Dynamic Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crenshaw Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs have emerged as the genetic marker of choice for mapping disease loci and candidate gene association studies, because of their high density and relatively even distribution in the human genomes. There is a need for systems allowing medium multiplexing (ten to hundreds of SNPs with high throughput, which can efficiently and cost-effectively generate genotypes for a very large sample set (thousands of individuals. Methods that are flexible, fast, accurate and cost-effective are urgently needed. This is also important for those who work on high throughput genotyping in non-model systems where off-the-shelf assays are not available and a flexible platform is needed. Results We demonstrate the use of a nanofluidic Integrated Fluidic Circuit (IFC - based genotyping system for medium-throughput multiplexing known as the Dynamic Array, by genotyping 994 individual human DNA samples on 47 different SNP assays, using nanoliter volumes of reagents. Call rates of greater than 99.5% and call accuracies of greater than 99.8% were achieved from our study, which demonstrates that this is a formidable genotyping platform. The experimental set up is very simple, with a time-to-result for each sample of about 3 hours. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that the Dynamic Array is an excellent genotyping system for medium-throughput multiplexing (30-300 SNPs, which is simple to use and combines rapid throughput with excellent call rates, high concordance and low cost. The exceptional call rates and call accuracy obtained may be of particular interest to those working on validation and replication of genome- wide- association (GWA studies.

  8. Content of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity in Fruits of Apricot Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Skutkova

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Research on natural compounds is increasingly focused on their effects on human health. In this study, we were interested in the evaluation of nutritional value expressed as content of total phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of new apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. genotypes resistant against Plum pox virus (PPV cultivated on Department of Fruit Growing of Mendel University in Brno. Fruits of twenty one apricot genotypes were collected at the onset of consumption ripeness. Antioxidant capacities of the genotypes were determined spectrometrically using DPPH• (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radicals scavenging test, TEAC (Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity, and FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Powermethods. The highest antioxidant capacities were determined in the genotypes LE-3228 and LE-2527, the lowest ones in the LE-985 and LE-994 genotypes. Moreover, close correlation (r = 0.964 was determined between the TEAC and DPPH assays. Based on the antioxidant capacity and total polyphenols content, a clump analysis dendrogram of the monitored apricot genotypes was constructed. In addition, we optimized high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem electrochemical and spectrometric detection and determined phenolic profile consisting of the following fifteen phenolic compounds: gallic acid, 4-aminobenzoic acid, chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid, caffeic acid, procatechin, salicylic acid, p-coumaric acid, the flavonols quercetin and quercitrin, the flavonol glycoside rutin, resveratrol, vanillin, and the isomers epicatechin, (–- and (+- catechin.

  9. Fast reactor database. 2006 update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-12-01

    Liquid metal cooled fast reactors (LMFRs) have been under development for about 50 years. Ten experimental fast reactors and six prototype and commercial size fast reactor plants have been constructed and operated. In many cases, the overall experience with LMFRs has been rather good, with the reactors themselves and also the various components showing remarkable performances, well in accordance with the design expectations. The fast reactor system has also been shown to have very attractive safety characteristics, resulting to a large extent from the fact that the fast reactor is a low pressure system with large thermal inertia and negative power and temperature coefficients. In addition to the LMFRs that have been constructed and operated, more than ten advanced LMFR projects have been developed, and the latest designs are now close to achieving economic competitivity with other reactor types. In the current world economic climate, the introduction of a new nuclear energy system based on the LMFR may not be considered by utilities as a near future option when compared to other potential power plants. However, there is a strong agreement between experts in the nuclear energy field that, for sustainability reasons, long term development of nuclear power as a part of the world's future energy mix will require the fast reactor technology, and that, given the decline in fast reactor development projects, data retrieval and knowledge preservation efforts in this area are of particular importance. This publication contains detailed design data and main operational data on experimental, prototype, demonstration, and commercial size LMFRs. Each LMFR plant is characterized by about 500 parameters: physics, thermohydraulics, thermomechanics, by design and technical data, and by relevant sketches. The focus is on practical issues that are useful to engineers, scientists, managers, university students and professors with complete technical information of a total of 37 LMFR

  10. Antioxidant properties, phenolic composition and potentiometric sensor array evaluation of commercial and new blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) and bog blueberry (Vaccinium uliginosum) genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraujalytė, Vilma; Venskutonis, Petras Rimantas; Pukalskas, Audrius; Česonienė, Laima; Daubaras, Remigijus

    2015-12-01

    Antioxidant properties of juices of newly bred and known blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) genotypes and wild bog blueberry (Vaccinium uliginosum) were evaluated by ABTS(+) scavenging capacity (RSC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), total phenolic content (TPC) and total anthocyanin content (TAC) assays. TPC varied in the range of 0.85-2.81 mg gallic acid equiv./mL, RSC, FRAP and ORAC values were 6.38-20.9, 3.07-17.8 and 4.21-45.68 μmol Trolox equiv./g, respectively. New blueberry genotypes and bog blueberry demonstrated stronger antioxidant properties and TAC than other studied genotypes. The content of quinic (203-3614 μg/mL), chlorogenic (20.0-346.8 μg/mL) acids and rutin (0.00-26.88 μg/mL) measured by UPLC/ESI-QTOF-MS varied depending on the genotype. Juices were evaluated by electronic tongue; PCA score plot showed that the method discriminates different genotypes although some juice samples were located very closely and overlapping. Significant differences were observed between L(∗), a(∗), b(∗) colour parameters of some genotypes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Thermal comfort in commercial kitchens (RP-1469)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Stoops, John L.

    2013-01-01

    The indoor climate in commercial kitchens is often unsatisfactory, and working conditions can have a significant effect on employees’ comfort and productivity. The type of establishment (fast food, casual, etc.) and climatic zone can influence thermal conditions in the kitchens. Moreover, the size...... and arrangement of the kitchen zones, appliances, etc., further complicate an evaluation of the indoor thermal environment in commercial kitchens. In general, comfort criteria are stipulated in international standards (e.g., ASHRAE 55 or ISO EN 7730), but are these standardized methods applicable...... dissatisfied (PMV/PPD) index is not directly appropriate for all thermal conditions in commercial kitchens....

  12. Is incidence of multiple HPV genotypes rising in genital infections?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Sohrabi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Frequency of cervical cancer related to Human Papilloma Virus (HPV has increased remarkably in less-developed countries. Hence, applying capable diagnostic methods is urgently needed, as is having a therapeutic strategy as an effective step for cervical cancer prevention. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of various multi-type HPV infection patterns and their possible rising incidence in women with genital infections.This descriptive study was conducted on women who attended referral clinical laboratories in Tehran for genital infections from January 2012 until December 2013. A total of 1387 archival cervical scraping and lesion specimens were collected from referred women. HPV genotyping was performed using approved HPV commercial diagnostic technologies with either INNO-LiPA HPV or Geno Array Test kits.HPV was positive in 563 cases (40.59% with mean age of 32.35 ± 9.96. Single, multiple HPV genotypes and untypable cases were detected in 398 (70.69%, 160 (28.42% and 5 (0.89% cases, respectively. Multiple HPV infections were detected in 92 (57.5%, 42 (26.2%, 17 (10.6% and 9 (5.7% cases as two, three, four and five or more genotypes, respectively. The prevalence of 32 HPV genotypes was determined one by one. Seventeen HPV genotypes were identified in 95.78% of all positive infections. Five dominant genotypes, HPV6, 16, 53, 11 and 31, were identified in a total of 52.35%of the HPV positive cases.In the present study, we were able to evaluate the rate of multiple HPV types in genital infections. Nevertheless, it is necessary to evaluate the role of the dominant HPV low-risk types and the new probably high-risk genotypes, such as HPV53, in the increasing incidences of genital infections. Keywords: Multiple HPV Types, Incidence, Genital infection, Cervical cancer, Iran

  13. Responses of inulin content and inulin yield of Jerusalem artichoke genotypes to seasonal environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seasonal variation (e.g. temperature and photoperiod) between growing seasons might affect inulin content and inulin yield of Jerusalem artichoke. However, there is limited information on genotypic response to seasons for inulin content and inulin yield. The objective of this study was to investig...

  14. Chemical composition, nutritional value and antioxidant properties of Mediterranean okra genotypes in relation to harvest stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulos, Spyridon; Fernandes, Ângela; Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of fruit size on nutritional value, chemical composition and antioxidant properties of Mediterranean okra genotypes. For this purpose, pods from four okra cultivars and local landraces commonly cultivated in Greece, as well as pods from four commercial cultivars from North America were collected at two sizes (3-5 and>7cm). Significant differences were observed between the studied genotypes for both nutritional value and chemical composition parameters. Small fruit had a higher nutritional value, whereas chemical composition differed in a genotype dependent manner with most of the studied cultivars showing better results when harvested in small size. In conclusion, fruit size has a genotype dependent impact on chemical composition and nutritional value of okra pods and the common practice of harvesting okra fruit while they still have a small size helps to increase nutritional value for most of the studied genotypes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. ATLAS fast physics monitoring

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The ATLAS Collaboration has set up a framework to automatically process the rapidly growing dataset and produce performance and physics plots for the most interesting analyses. The system is designed to give fast feedback. The histograms are produced within hours of data reconstruction (2–3 days after data taking).

  16. Performance evaluation of commercial maize hybrids across diverse Terai environments during the winter season in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendra Prasad Tripathi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid maize cultivars of multinational seed companies are gradually being popular among the farmers in Nepal. This paper reports on research finding of 117 maize hybrids of 20 seed companies assessed for grain yield and other traits at three sites in winter season of 2011 and 2012. The objective of the study was to identify superior maize hybrids suitable for winter time planting in eastern, central and inner Terai of Nepal. Across site analysis of variance revealed that highly significant effect of genotype and genotype × environment interaction (GEI on grain yield of commercial hybrids. Overall, 47 genotypes of 16 seed companies identified as high yielding and stable based on superiority measures. The statistical analysis ranked topmost three genotypes among tested hybrids as P3856 (10515 kg ha-1, Bisco prince (8763 kg ha-1 as well as Shaktiman (8654 kg ha-1 in the first year; and 3022 (8378 kg ha-1, Kirtiman manik (8323 kg ha-1 as well as Top class (7996 kg ha-1 in the second year. It can be concluded that stable and good performing hybrids identified as potential commercial hybrids for general cultivation on similar environments in Nepal.

  17. Commercialization of the global nuclear energy partnership (GNEP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loewen Eric P.; Boaz, Jeffery; Saito, Earl; Boardman, Chuck

    2007-01-01

    In February 2006 President Bush announced the Advanced Energy Initiative, which included the Department of Energy's (DOE) Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). GNEP has seven broad goals, one of the major elements being to develop and deploy advanced nuclear fuel recycling technology. DOE is contemplating accelerating the deployment of these technologies to achieve the construction of a commercial scale application of these technologies. DOE now defines this approach as 'two simultaneous tracks: (1) deployment of commercial scale facilities for which advanced technologies are available now or in the near future, and (2) further research and development of transmutation fuels technologies'. GE believes an integrated technical solution, using existing reactor and fuel reprocessing technologies, is achievable in the near term to accelerate the commercial demonstration of GNEP infrastructure. The concept involves a single, integrated, commercial scale, recycling facility consisting of the Consolidated Fuel Treatment Center (CFTC), capable of processing LWR and fast reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) and fabricating Advanced Recycling Reactor (ARR) actinide fuel. The integrated facility would include a fast reactor that uses actinide-bearing fuel to produce electricity. For optimal performance, GE believes this integrated facility should be co-located to eliminate transportation between the CFTC and ARR, and enhance proliferation resistance. This Advanced Recycling Center takes advantage of previous investments by government and industry in fast reactor technology research and development. To allow for commercial acceptance, a prototypical demonstration reactor and associated fuel cycle facility will be constructed, tested, and licensed. Taking advantage of GE's NRC-reviewed modular sodium-cooled PRISM reactor, only a single reactor will be needed and the cost and risk minimized in the initial phase of the program. This paper outlines a process and a schedule to

  18. Commercial and industrial applications of color ink jet: a technological perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunand, Alain

    1996-03-01

    In just 5 years, color ink-jet has become the dominant technology for printing color images and graphics in the office and home markets. In commercial printing, the traditional printing processes are being influenced by new digital techniques. Color ink-jet proofing, and concepts such as computer to film/plate or digital processes are contributing to the evolution of the industry. In industrial color printing, the penetration of digital techniques is just beginning. All widely used conventional contact printing technologies involve mechanical printing forms including plates, screens or engraved cylinders. Such forms, which need to be newly created and set up for each job, increase costs. In our era of fast changing customer demands, growing needs for customization, and increasing use of digital exchange of information, the commercial and industrial printing markets represent an enormous potential for digital printing technologies. The adoption characteristics for the use of color ink-jet in these industries are discussed. Examples of color ink-jet applications in the fields of billboard printing, floor/wall covering decoration, and textile printing are described. The requirements on print quality, productivity, reliability, substrate compatibility, and color lead to the consideration of various types of ink-jet technologies. Key technical enabling factors and directions for future improvements are presented.

  19. effect of some agricultural practices on some sunflower genotype characters induced by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abaza, G.M.S.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, two field experiments were carried out in the Experimental Farm belonging at Inshas, Plant Research Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt, during the two growing seasons 2007 and 2008 to study the effect of plant spacing and nitrogen fertilization on some sunflower genotype characters. The first experiment included four genotypes i.e., mutant line 4, mutant line 11, Sakha 53 and Giza 102 and three planting spaces i.e., 20, 30 and 40 cm between hills. The second experiment included the same genotypes and three levels of nitrogen fertilization i.e., 25, 50 and 75 Kg N/fed. N fertilizer was in the form of ammonium nitrate (NH 4 NO 3 ) 33.5%. Each separated experiment included twelve treatments were arranged in split plot design with three replicates. The results summarized as follows: A)Effect of genotypes B) Effect of plant spacing C) Effect of nitrogen fertilization.

  20. Review of fast reactor activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balz, W [Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium)

    1978-07-01

    The Commission of the European Communities continued its activities on the following lines: activities aimed at preparing for commercialization of fast breeder reactors which are essentially performed in the frame of Fast Reactor Coordinating Committee (FRCC); the execution of its own research program in the Joint Research Center. The report covers activities of the FRCC, of the Safety Working Group (SWG), the Whole Core Accident Code (WAC) subgroup, Containment (CONT) subgroup, Codes and Standards Working Group (CSWG). Research and development activities are concerned with LMFBR safety, subassembly thermal hydraulics, fuel-coolant interactions, post-accident heat removal, dynamic load response, safety related material properties, utilization limits of fast breeder fuels, plutonium and actinide aspects of nuclear fuel cycle.

  1. Review of fast reactor activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balz, W.

    1978-01-01

    The Commission of the European Communities continued its activities on the following lines: activities aimed at preparing for commercialization of fast breeder reactors which are essentially performed in the frame of Fast Reactor Coordinating Committee (FRCC); the execution of its own research program in the Joint Research Center. The report covers activities of the FRCC, of the Safety Working Group (SWG), the Whole Core Accident Code (WAC) subgroup, Containment (CONT) subgroup, Codes and Standards Working Group (CSWG). Research and development activities are concerned with LMFBR safety, subassembly thermal hydraulics, fuel-coolant interactions, post-accident heat removal, dynamic load response, safety related material properties, utilization limits of fast breeder fuels, plutonium and actinide aspects of nuclear fuel cycle

  2. Screening for Terminal Drought Tolerance in Iranian and Exotic Safflower Genotypes Using Drought Tolerance and Susceptibility Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Maleki Nejad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to evaluate drought tolerance of safflower genotypes (Carthamus tinctorius L. at the research farm of Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran during growing season of 2012. One hundred genotypes including 81 foreign genotypes along with 19 Iranian genotypes were evaluated under normal and moisture stress conditions according to a simple lattice design with two replications. Drought tolerance and sensitivity indices including mean productivity (MP, geometric mean productivity (GMP, stress tolerance index (STI, tolerance (TOL and stress susceptibility index (SSI were studied. Results of this study indicated that genotypes were significantly different for grain yield in both moisture conditions. Among all indices, MP, GMP and STI were identified as the best indices that can be used to determine tolerant genotypes. Based on MP, GMP and STI and also principal component analysis PI 369847 (Tajikistan, CART 56 (USA, PI 657820 (Jordan, PI 305527 (Soudan were determined as the most tolerant genotypes and PI 537652 (Mexico, CART 131 (Prague, PI 470942 (Bangladesh, PI 209286 (Romania and CART 32 (German as the most sensitive ones. Results also indicated that the biplot of principal component analysis is a powerful technique to discriminate genotypes based on the measured indices. The superior safflower genotypes can be used in future breeding programs.

  3. ISSR-based analysis of genetic diversity among sorghum landraces growing in some parts of Saudi Arabia and Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basahi, Mohammed

    2015-11-01

    Inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) analysis was used to determine the genetic diversity among 15 genotypes of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] growing in some parts of Saudi Arabia and Yemen. A total of 92 alleles were amplified, with an average of 13 ISSR alleles per primer. Cluster analysis divided the 15 genotypes into two main groups. Group A consisted of five genotypes with white grains from Jazan and Abha with a similarity coefficient range of 0.527 to 0.818. Group B was comprised of 10 genotypes; two genotypes from Al-Qassim were clearly delimited from the remaining eight samples with a coefficient range from 0.709 to 0.490. The eight genotypes were divided into two clusters; one was comprised of landraces with dark grains from Abha in Saudi Arabia and Ab in Yemen, with a similarity coefficient range between 0.563 and 0.781, and the other cluster was differentiated into three white-colored-grain genotypes and one colored-grain genotype; all samples from North Yemen had a similarity coefficient range from 0.454 to 0.800. The current results encourage further collection and authentication of sorghum landraces in the gene banks of Saudi Arabia. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of chickpea genotypes for resistance to Ascochyta blight (Ascochyta rabiei disease in the dry highlands of Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul K. KIMURTO

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Chickpea (Cicer arietinum is an edible legume grown widely for its nutritious seed, which is rich in protein, minerals, vitamins and dietary fibre. It’s a new crop in Kenya whose potential has not been utilized fully due to abiotic and biotic stresses that limit its productivity. The crop is affected mainly by Ascochyta blight (AB which is widespread in cool dry highlands causing up to 100% yield loss. The objective of this study was to evalu- ate the resistance of selected chickpea genotypes to AB in dry highlands of Kenya. The study was done in 2 sites (Egerton University-Njoro and Agricultural Training centre-ATC-Koibatek for one season during long rains of 2010/2011 growing season. Thirty six genotypes from reference sets and mini-core samples introduced from ICR- SAT were evaluated. There were significant (P<0.001 differences in AB responses and grain yield performance in test genotypes in both sites. AB was more severe at Egerton-Njoro (mean score 5.7 than ATC-Koibatek (mean score 4.25, with subsequent low grain yield. Genotypes ICC7052, ICC4463, ICC4363, ICC2884, ICC7150, ICC15294 and ICC11627 had both highest grain yield in decreasing order (mean range 1790-1053 Kg ha-1 and best resist- ance to AB. Further evaluation is needed in other multi-locations and their use in breeding program determined especially because of their undesirable black seed color. Commercial varieties (LDT068, LDT065, Chania desi 1, and Saina K1 were all susceptible to AB, but with grain yield >1200 Kg ha-1. The findings of the study showed that chickpea should be sown during the short rains (summer in the dry highlands of Kenya when conditions are drier and warmer and less favorable for AB infection. However yield could be increased by shifting the sowing date from dry season to long rain (winter thus avoiding terminal drought if AB resistant cultivars with acceptable agronomic traits could be identified.

  5. Commercial Diplomats as corporate entrepreneurs: explaining role behavior from an institutional perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruel, Hubertus Johannes Maria; Visser, R.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the results of an empirical study on the roles of commercial diplomats at foreign posts. As commercial diplomacy is just starting to grow in importance in a globalising world, the actual work and activities of commercial diplomats at foreign posts have hardly been researched.

  6. Nephele: genotyping via complete composition vectors and MapReduce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardis Scott

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current sequencing technology makes it practical to sequence many samples of a given organism, raising new challenges for the processing and interpretation of large genomics data sets with associated metadata. Traditional computational phylogenetic methods are ideal for studying the evolution of gene/protein families and using those to infer the evolution of an organism, but are less than ideal for the study of the whole organism mainly due to the presence of insertions/deletions/rearrangements. These methods provide the researcher with the ability to group a set of samples into distinct genotypic groups based on sequence similarity, which can then be associated with metadata, such as host information, pathogenicity, and time or location of occurrence. Genotyping is critical to understanding, at a genomic level, the origin and spread of infectious diseases. Increasingly, genotyping is coming into use for disease surveillance activities, as well as for microbial forensics. The classic genotyping approach has been based on phylogenetic analysis, starting with a multiple sequence alignment. Genotypes are then established by expert examination of phylogenetic trees. However, these traditional single-processor methods are suboptimal for rapidly growing sequence datasets being generated by next-generation DNA sequencing machines, because they increase in computational complexity quickly with the number of sequences. Results Nephele is a suite of tools that uses the complete composition vector algorithm to represent each sequence in the dataset as a vector derived from its constituent k-mers by passing the need for multiple sequence alignment, and affinity propagation clustering to group the sequences into genotypes based on a distance measure over the vectors. Our methods produce results that correlate well with expert-defined clades or genotypes, at a fraction of the computational cost of traditional phylogenetic methods run on

  7. A review of the U.K. fast reactor programme: March 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R D [United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Risley (United Kingdom)

    1978-07-01

    The review of the UK fast reactor programme covers the description of Dounreay Fast Reactor shut down after seventeen years of successful operation; description of prototype fast reactor (PFR); core design parameters safety features and plant design for commercial demonstration fast reactor (CDFR). Engineering development is related to large sodium rigs, coolant circuit hydraulics and vibration, instrumentation and components. The subjects of interest are material development, sodium technology, fast reactor fuel, fuel cycle, reactor safety, reactor performance studies.

  8. A review of the U.K. fast reactor programme: March 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.D.

    1978-01-01

    The review of the UK fast reactor programme covers the description of Dounreay Fast Reactor shut down after seventeen years of successful operation; description of prototype fast reactor (PFR); core design parameters safety features and plant design for commercial demonstration fast reactor (CDFR). Engineering development is related to large sodium rigs, coolant circuit hydraulics and vibration, instrumentation and components. The subjects of interest are material development, sodium technology, fast reactor fuel, fuel cycle, reactor safety, reactor performance studies

  9. Effect of participatory selection of varieties on the identification of outstanding common bean genotypes (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Lamz Piedra

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Among the main factors affecting bean production is poor distribution of varieties for different environmental conditions in which its are grown. The aim of this work was to evaluate the impact of participatory selection of foreign genetic materials and national commercial and pre-commercial common bean in identifying genotypes for their outstanding performance and resistance to common bacteriosis (Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli (Smith Dye (Xcp. In the "El Mulato" farm belonging to the Empowered Cooperative of Credit and Services (CCSF "Orlando Cuellar" in the municipality San José de las Lajas, Mayabeque, two experiments were conducted. In the first one, 15 genotypes were planted in 13 September 2014 (early season in experimental plots to develop a diversity Fair and evaluate the natural incidence of common bean bacteriosis. In the second experiment, they were sown on 25 December (late season the materials selected by farmers with superior agronomic performance (7 genotypes to validate the stability of its performance. Among the results, an effective range of 93,33 % between the selected materials and selective criteria that this diversity was identified were high performance, resistance to common bacteriosis and color of beans. It was found that the selection of the diversity of beans by farmers is not influenced by the origin of materials and participatory selection identified common bean genotypes with high yield potential and stability between planting seasons.

  10. A rare CYP21A2 mutation in a congenital adrenal hyperplasia kindred displaying genotype-phenotype nonconcordance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, Ahmed; Yuen, Tony; Al-Malki, Sultan; Yau, Mabel; Kazmi, Diya; Sun, Li; Harbison, Madeleine; Haider, Shozeb; Zaidi, Mone; New, Maria I

    2016-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) owing to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is caused by the autosomal recessive inheritance of mutations in the gene CYP21A2. CYP21A2 mutations lead to variable impairment of the 21-hydroxylase enzyme, which, in turn, is associated with three clinical phenotypes, namely, salt wasting, simple virilizing, and nonclassical CAH. However, it is known that a given mutation can associate with different clinical phenotypes, resulting in a high rate of genotype-phenotype nonconcordance. We aimed to study the genotype-phenotype nonconcordance in a family with three siblings affected with nonclassical CAH. All had hormonal evidence of nonclassical CAH, but this phenotype could not be explained by the genotype obtained from commercial CYP21A2 genetic testing, which revealed heterozygosity for the maternal 30 kb deletion mutation. We performed Sanger sequencing of the entire CYP21A2 gene in this family to search for a rare mutation that was not covered by commercial testing and found in the three siblings a second, rare c.1097G>A (p.R366H) mutation in exon 8. Computational modeling confirmed that this was a mild mutation consistent with nonclassical CAH. We recommend that sequencing of entire genes for rare mutations should be carried out when genotype-phenotype nonconcordance is observed in patients with autosomal recessive monogenic disorders, including CAH. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  11. Modelling of genotype by environment interaction and prediction of complex traits across multiple environments as a synthesis of crop growth modelling, genetics and statistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bustos-Korts, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of plant breeders is to create and identify genotypes that are well-adapted to the target population of environments (TPE). The TPE corresponds to the future growing conditions in which the varieties produced by a breeding program will be grown. All possible genotypes that

  12. Iron exclusion in rice genotypes as affected by different vapor pressure deficit conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Kumar Shrestha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Root iron (Fe exclusion capacity of four lowland rice genotypes were evaluated in increasing rate of Fe2+ stresses (0, 500, 1000 and 1500 mg/L in growing medium under the conditions of low and high vapor pressure deficit. Rice root excluded significantly higher amount of iron under dry atmospheric condition (655 mg Fe/g root dry matter than moist atmospheric condition (118 mg Fe/g root dry matter. But their iron exclusion capacity reduced when they were gradually exposed to the higher levels of Fe stress. Tolerant genotype such as TOX3107 excluded more iron when they were exposed to dry atmospheric condition.

  13. Population genomic analyses based on 1 million SNPs in commercial egg layers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Gholami

    Full Text Available Identifying signatures of selection can provide valuable insight about the genes or genomic regions that are or have been under selective pressure, which can lead to a better understanding of genotype-phenotype relationships. A common strategy for selection signature detection is to compare samples from several populations and search for genomic regions with outstanding genetic differentiation. Wright's fixation index, FST, is a useful index for evaluation of genetic differentiation between populations. The aim of this study was to detect selective signatures between different chicken groups based on SNP-wise FST calculation. A total of 96 individuals of three commercial layer breeds and 14 non-commercial fancy breeds were genotyped with three different 600K SNP-chips. After filtering a total of 1 million SNPs were available for FST calculation. Averages of FST values were calculated for overlapping windows. Comparisons of these were then conducted between commercial egg layers and non-commercial fancy breeds, as well as between white egg layers and brown egg layers. Comparing non-commercial and commercial breeds resulted in the detection of 630 selective signatures, while 656 selective signatures were detected in the comparison between the commercial egg-layer breeds. Annotation of selection signature regions revealed various genes corresponding to productions traits, for which layer breeds were selected. Among them were NCOA1, SREBF2 and RALGAPA1 associated with reproductive traits, broodiness and egg production. Furthermore, several of the detected genes were associated with growth and carcass traits, including POMC, PRKAB2, SPP1, IGF2, CAPN1, TGFb2 and IGFBP2. Our approach demonstrates that including different populations with a specific breeding history can provide a unique opportunity for a better understanding of farm animal selection.

  14. Human papillomavirus testing and genotyping in cervical screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Lynge, Elsebeth; Bonde, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    the incidence of cervical cancer, but has a low sensitivity for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and requires frequent testing. Several HPV tests have become available commercially. They appear to be more sensitive for high-grade CIN, and may further reduce the incidence of cervical cancer......Mass vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes 16 and 18 will, in the long term, reduce the incidence of cervical cancer, but screening will remain an important cancer control measure in both vaccinated and unvaccinated women. Since the 1960s, cytology screening has helped to reduce...

  15. Targeted genotyping-by-sequencing permits cost-effective identification and discrimination of pasture grass species and cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pembleton, Luke W; Drayton, Michelle C; Bain, Melissa; Baillie, Rebecca C; Inch, Courtney; Spangenberg, German C; Wang, Junping; Forster, John W; Cogan, Noel O I

    2016-05-01

    A targeted amplicon-based genotyping-by-sequencing approach has permitted cost-effective and accurate discrimination between ryegrass species (perennial, Italian and inter-species hybrid), and identification of cultivars based on bulked samples. Perennial ryegrass and Italian ryegrass are the most important temperate forage species for global agriculture, and are represented in the commercial pasture seed market by numerous cultivars each composed of multiple highly heterozygous individuals. Previous studies have identified difficulties in the use of morphophysiological criteria to discriminate between these two closely related taxa. Recently, a highly multiplexed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based genotyping assay has been developed that permits accurate differentiation between both species and cultivars of ryegrasses at the genetic level. This assay has since been further developed into an amplicon-based genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approach implemented on a second-generation sequencing platform, allowing accelerated throughput and ca. sixfold reduction in cost. Using the GBS approach, 63 cultivars of perennial, Italian and interspecific hybrid ryegrasses, as well as intergeneric Festulolium hybrids, were genotyped. The genetic relationships between cultivars were interpreted in terms of known breeding histories and indistinct species boundaries within the Lolium genus, as well as suitability of current cultivar registration methodologies. An example of applicability to quality assurance and control (QA/QC) of seed purity is also described. Rapid, low-cost genotypic assays provide new opportunities for breeders to more fully explore genetic diversity within breeding programs, allowing the combination of novel unique genetic backgrounds. Such tools also offer the potential to more accurately define cultivar identities, allowing protection of varieties in the commercial market and supporting processes of cultivar accreditation and quality assurance.

  16. Fast Food Combos Make Type A Lunches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stashower, Gloria

    1974-01-01

    Clark County school district in Las Vegas, Nevada, has combination lunches available for high school students that meet Type A nutrition requirements but which resemble the commercial fast food menus teenagers prefer. (MLF)

  17. Genotype variation in bark texture drives lichen community assembly across multiple environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamit, L J; Lau, M K; Naesborg, R Reese; Wojtowicz, T; Whitham, T G; Gehring, C A

    2015-04-01

    A major goal of community genetics is to understand the influence of genetic variation within a species on ecological communities. Although well-documented for some organisms, additional research is necessary to understand the relative and interactive effects of genotype and environment on biodiversity, identify mechanisms through which tree genotype influences communities, and connect this emerging field with existing themes in ecology. We employ an underutilized but ecologically significant group of organisms, epiphytic bark lichens, to understand the relative importance of Populus angustifolia (narrowleaf cottonwood) genotype and environment on associated organisms within the context of community assembly and host ontogeny. Several key findings emerged. (1) In a single common garden, tree genotype explained 18-33% and 51% of the variation in lichen community variables and rough bark cover, respectively. (2) Across replicated common gardens, tree genotype affected lichen species richness, total lichen cover, lichen species composition, and rough bark cover, whereas environment only influenced composition and there were no genotype by environment interactions. (3) Rough bark cover was positively correlated with total lichen cover and richness, and was associated with a shift in species composition; these patterns occurred with variation in rough bark cover among tree genotypes of the same age in common gardens and with increasing rough bark cover along a -40 year tree age gradient in a natural riparian stand. (4) In a common garden, 20-year-old parent trees with smooth bark had poorly developed lichen communities, similar to their 10-year-old ramets (root suckers) growing in close proximity, while parent trees with high rough bark cover had more developed communities than their ramets. These findings indicate that epiphytic lichens are influenced by host genotype, an effect that is robust across divergent environments. Furthermore, the response to tree genotype is

  18. Commercial implementation of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welt, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    Recent positive developments in regulatory matters involving food irradiation appear to be opening the door to commercial implementation of the technology. Experience gained over five years in operating multi-purpose food irradiation facilities in the United States have demonstrated the technical and economic feasibility of the radiation preservation of food for a wide variety of purposes. Public education regarding food irradiation has been intensified especially with the growing favorable involvement of food trade associations, the USDA, and the American Medical Association. After 41 years of development effort, food irradiation will become a commercial reality in 1985. (author)

  19. Helicobacter pylori in Vegetables and Salads: Genotyping and Antimicrobial Resistance Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad Yahaghi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available From a clinical and epidemiological perspective, it is important to know which genotypes and antibiotic resistance patterns are present in H. pylori strains isolated from salads and vegetables. Therefore, the present investigation was carried out to find this purpose. Three hundred eighty washed and unwashed vegetable samples and fifty commercial and traditional salad samples were collected from Isfahan, Iran. Samples were cultured and those found positive for H. pylori were analyzed using PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using disk diffusion method. Seven out of 50 (14% salad and 52 out of 380 (13.68% vegetable samples harbored H. pylori. In addition, leek, lettuce, and cabbage were the most commonly contaminated samples (30%. The most prevalent virulence genes were oipA (86.44% and cagA (57.625. VacA s1a (37.28% and iceA1 (47.45% were the most prevalent genotypes. Forty different genotypic combinations were recognized. S1a/cagA+/iceA1/oipA+ (33.89%, s1a/cagA+/iceA2/oipA (30.50%, and m1a/cagA+/iceA1/oipA+ (28.81% were the most prevalent combined genotypes. Bacterial strains had the highest levels of resistance against metronidazole (77.96%, amoxicillin (67.79%, and ampicillin (61.01%. High similarity in the genotyping pattern of H. pylori among vegetable and salad samples and human specimens suggests that vegetable and salads may be the sources of the bacteria.

  20. The GCKR rs780094 polymorphism is associated with elevated fasting serum triacylglycerol, reduced fasting and OGTT-related insulinaemia, and reduced risk of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparsø, T; Andersen, G; Nielsen, T

    2007-01-01

    to metabolic traits (mainly fasting hypertriacylglycerolaemia) and traits related to pancreatic beta cell function. METHODS: The polymorphism was genotyped in 16,853 Danes using Taqman allelic discrimination. Association was analysed in case-control studies and quantitative trait analyses. We also analysed...... the possible interactive effect between the GCK -30G>A polymorphism and the GCKR rs780094 variant on metabolic traits. RESULTS: The minor GCKR A-allele of rs780094 is associated with an increased level of fasting serum triacylglycerol (p = 6 x 10(-14)), impaired fasting (p = 0.001) and OGTT-related insulin...... release (p = 3 x 10(-6)), reduced homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (p = 0.0004), WHO-defined dyslipidaemia (p = 6 x 10(-9)) and a modestly decreased risk of type 2 diabetes (p = 0.01). Significantly increased fasting serum insulin concentrations were demonstrated when analysing the GCK...

  1. Genomic analyses of tropical beef cattle fertility based on genotyping pools of Brahman cows with unknown pedigree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverter, A; Porto-Neto, L R; Fortes, M R S; McCulloch, R; Lyons, R E; Moore, S; Nicol, D; Henshall, J; Lehnert, S A

    2016-10-01

    We introduce an innovative approach to lowering the overall cost of obtaining genomic EBV (GEBV) and encourage their use in commercial extensive herds of Brahman beef cattle. In our approach, the DNA genotyping of cow herds from 2 independent properties was performed using a high-density bovine SNP chip on DNA from pooled blood samples, grouped according to the result of a pregnancy test following their first and second joining opportunities. For the DNA pooling strategy, 15 to 28 blood samples from the same phenotype and contemporary group were allocated to pools. Across the 2 properties, a total of 183 pools were created representing 4,164 cows. In addition, blood samples from 309 bulls from the same properties were also taken. After genotyping and quality control, 74,584 remaining SNP were used for analyses. Pools and individual DNA samples were related by means of a "hybrid" genomic relationship matrix. The pooled genotyping analysis of 2 large and independent commercial populations of tropical beef cattle was able to recover significant and plausible associations between SNP and pregnancy test outcome. We discuss 24 SNP with significant association ( < 1.0 × 10) and mapped within 40 kb of an annotated gene. We have established a method to estimate the GEBV in young herd bulls for a trait that is currently unable to be predicted at all. In summary, our novel approach allowed us to conduct genomic analyses of fertility in 2 large commercial Brahman herds managed under extensive pastoral conditions.

  2. Fast reactor database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    This publication contains detailed data on liquid metal cooled fast reactors (LMFRs), specifically plant parameters and design details. Each LMFR power plant is characterized by about 400 parameters, by design data and by relevant materials. The report provides general and detailed design characteristics including structural materials, data on experimental, demonstration, prototype and commercial size LMFRs. The focus is on practical issues that are useful to engineers, scientists, managers and university students and professors. The report includes updated information contained in IAEA previous publications on LMFR plant parameters: IWGRF/51 (1985) and IWGFR/80 (1991) and reflects experience gained from two consultants meetings held in Vienna (1993,1994). This compilation of data was produced by members of the IAEA International Working Group on Fast Reactors (IWGFR)

  3. Personal Factors and Fast Food Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Saraniya Devendra

    2016-01-01

    Asian peoples including Sri Lankans are generally fond of cooking food items in their homes. It is understandable that on the other hand, growing knowledge and adoption of western culture bring a modification in food consumption pattern among Sri Lankan families who lives in a particular city area. As such, it is useful to identify the Personal Factors (PF) that influence on Fast Food Consumption (FFC), since the Sri Lankans change their behavior to have fast foods of developed countries from...

  4. UK fast reactor components - sodium removal decontamination and requalification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donaldson, D M [FRDD, UKAEA, Risley (United Kingdom); Bray, J A; Newson, I H [UKAEA, Dounreay Nuclear Power Establishment, Thurso (United Kingdom)

    1978-08-01

    Over the past two decades extensive experience on sodium removal techniques has been gained at the UKAEA's Dounreay Nuclear Establishment from both the Dounreay Fact Reactor (DFR) and the Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR). This experience has created confidence that complex components can be cleaned of sodium, maintenance or repair operations carried out, and the components successfully re-used. Part 2 of the paper, which describes recent operations associated with the PFR, demonstrates the background to these views. This past and continuing experience is being used in forming the basis of the plant to be provided for sodium removal, decontamination and requalification of components in the UK's future commercial fast reactors. Further improvements in techniques and in component designs can be expected in the course of the next few years. Consequently UK philosophy and approach with respect to maintenance and repair operations is sufficiently flexible to enable relevant improvements to be incorporated into the next scheduled fast reactor - the Commercial Demonstration Fast Reactor (CUR). This paper summarises the factors which are being taken into consideration in this continuously advancing field.

  5. UK fast reactor components - sodium removal decontamination and requalification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, D.M.; Bray, J.A.; Newson, I.H.

    1978-01-01

    Over the past two decades extensive experience on sodium removal techniques has been gained at the UKAEA's Dounreay Nuclear Establishment from both the Dounreay Fact Reactor (DFR) and the Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR). This experience has created confidence that complex components can be cleaned of sodium, maintenance or repair operations carried out, and the components successfully re-used. Part 2 of the paper, which describes recent operations associated with the PFR, demonstrates the background to these views. This past and continuing experience is being used in forming the basis of the plant to be provided for sodium removal, decontamination and requalification of components in the UK's future commercial fast reactors. Further improvements in techniques and in component designs can be expected in the course of the next few years. Consequently UK philosophy and approach with respect to maintenance and repair operations is sufficiently flexible to enable relevant improvements to be incorporated into the next scheduled fast reactor - the Commercial Demonstration Fast Reactor (CUR). This paper summarises the factors which are being taken into consideration in this continuously advancing field

  6. Genotype X/C recombinant (putative genotype I) of hepatitis B virus is rare in Hanoi, Vietnam--genotypes B4 and C1 predominate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phung, Thi Bich Thuy; Alestig, Erik; Nguyen, Thanh Liem; Hannoun, Charles; Lindh, Magnus

    2010-08-01

    There are eight known genotypes of hepatitis B virus, A-H, and several subgenotypes, with rather well-defined geographic distributions. HBV genotypes were evaluated in 153 serum samples from Hanoi, Vietnam. Of the 87 samples that could be genotyped, genotype B was found in 67 (77%) and genotype C in 19 (22%). All genotype C strains were of subgenotype C1, and the majority of genotype B strains were B4, while a few were B2. The genotype X/C recombinant strain, identified previously in Swedish patients of indigenous Vietnamese origin, was found in one sample. This variant, proposed to be classified as genotype I, has been found recently also by others in Vietnam and Laos. The current study indicates that the genotype X/C recombinant may represent approximately 1% of the HBV strains circulating in Vietnam. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Existence of various human parvovirus B19 genotypes in Chinese plasma pools: genotype 1, genotype 3, putative intergenotypic recombinant variants and new genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Junting; Ma, Yuyuan; Zhao, Xiong; Huangfu, Chaoji; Zhong, Yadi; Fang, Chi; Fan, Rui; Lv, Maomin; Zhang, Jingang

    2016-09-17

    Human parvovirus B19 (B19V) is a frequent contaminant of blood and plasma-derived medicinal products. Three distinct genotypes of B19V have been identified. The distribution of the three B19V genotypes has been investigated in various regions or countries. However, in China, data on the existence of different B19V genotypes are limited. One hundred and eighteen B19V-DNA positive source plasma pool samples collected from three Chinese blood products manufacturers were analyzed. The subgenomic NS1/VP1u region junction of B19V was amplified by nested PCR. These amplified products were then cloned and subsequently sequenced. For genotyping, their phylogenetic inferences were constructed based on the NS1/VP1-unique region. Then putative recombination events were analyzed and identified. Phylogenetic analysis of 118 B19V sequences attributed 61.86 % to genotype 1a, 10.17 % to genotype 1b, and 17.80 % to genotype 3b. All the genotype 3b sequences obtained in this study grouped as a specific, closely related cluster with B19V strain D91.1. Four 1a/3b recombinants and 5 new atypical B19V variants with no recombination events were identified. There were at least 3 subtypes (1a, 1b and 3b) of B19V circulating in China. Furthermore, putative B19V 1a/3b recombinants and unclassified strains were identified as well. Such recombinant and unclassified strains may contribute to the genetic diversity of B19V and consequently complicate the B19V infection diagnosis and NAT screening. Further studies will be required to elucidate the biological significance of the recombinant and unclassified strains.

  8. Detection and genotyping of human papilloma virus in cervical cancer specimens from Saudi patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Badawi, Ismail A; Al-Suwaine, Abdulrahman; Al-Aker, Murad; Asaad, Lina; Alaidan, Alwaleed; Tulbah, Asma; Fe Bohol, Marie; Munkarah, Adnan R

    2011-07-01

    To determine the rates and types of human papilloma virus (HPV) infection in cervical cancer specimens from Saudi patients. One hundred specimens were randomly selected and retrieved from the achieved samples stored in the pathology department accessioned under the diagnosis of cervical cancer and carcinoma in situ between the years 1997 and 2007. Human papilloma virus in the clinical samples was detected using polymerase chain reaction amplification methods. Two primer systems are commonly used: the MY09-MY11 primers and the GP5+-GP6+ that amplify a wide range of HPV genotypes. Human papilloma virus isolates were genotyped using DNA sequencing and reverse line blot hybridization assay to identify the high-risk HPV genotypes. Ninety cases fulfilled the diagnostic criteria and were analyzed. The rate of HPV genotype detection among cervical cancer samples was 95.5%. The most common HPV genotype detected by both methods was HPV-16 (63.4%), followed by HPV-18 (11.1%), HPV-45 (4.5%), HPV-33 (3.3%), and HPV-31, HPV-52, HPV-53, HPV-58, HPV-59, and HPV-66 with 2.2% prevalence rate each. Prevalence of HPV genotypes among patients with cervical cancer in Saudi Arabia is comparable to the international rates. The use of the reverse line blot hybridization assay genotyping method could be useful for classifying oncogenic HPV-positive women. It is relatively inexpensive and reliable and can be performed in routine practice or epidemiological study compared with the available standard commercial kits.

  9. Gender difference of serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity in DD genotype of ACE insertion/deletion polymorphism in elderly Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya-Feng; Cheng, Qiong; Tang, Nelson L S; Chu, Tanya T W; Tomlinson, Brian; Liu, Fan; Kwok, Timothy C Y

    2014-12-01

    In this study we investigated the gender difference of serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity in a population of Hong Kong-dwelling elderly Chinese. A total of 1767 (843 male, 924 female) Hong Kong-dwelling elderly Chinese were recruited. ACE I/D genotypes were identified by polymerase chain reaction amplification and serum ACE activity was determined using a commercially available kinetic kit. ACE I/D genotype distribution was compared by chi-square test, the correlation between ACE I/D polymorphism and serum ACE activity was analysed by ANOVA test and gender difference of serum ACE activity of different genotypes was compared by independent sample t-test. No statistically significant difference of genotype distribution between male and female subjects was found. Serum ACE activity was significantly correlated with ACE genotype. Overall, there was no gender difference of serum ACE activity; however, when sub-grouping the subjects by ACE I/D genotype, male subjects with DD genotype had higher serum ACE activity than female subjects with DD genotype. No significant gender difference of genotype distribution was found in elderly Chinese. Serum ACE activity was significantly correlated with ACE I/D polymorphism in elderly Chinese. Male subjects with DD genotype had higher serum ACE activity than female subjects with DD genotype. © The Author(s) 2013.

  10. Towards commercial fast breeder reactors the first 1200 MWe unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banal, M.; Carle, R.

    The public probably thinks of these fast breeder reactors in terms of their rising unit capacity: RAPSODIE 20 MW (thermal), raised to 40 MW, PHENIX 25 MWe, and now 1200 MWe. However, the purposes of the project and the framework of construction have been fundamentally different in each case. Design parameters and the development program of the LMFBR are presented. (auth)

  11. INITIAL SCREENING OF FAST-GROWING TREE SPECIES BEING TOLERANT OF DRY TROPICAL PEATLANDS IN CENTRAL KALIMANTAN, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideyuki Saito

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of the recruit, survivorship and growth of naturally regenerating tree species on canal bank was conducted to  select tree species which are suitable for preceding planting in drained and burnt peat swamp lands in  Central Kalimantan, Indonesia.  Top of  the canal bank were open, with greater soil moisture  deficit and higher soil temperatures than on the next intact forest floor. The abundant  trees were asam-asam (Ploiarium alternifolium,garunggang (Cratoxylon arborescens and tumih (Combretocarpus rotundatus. New regeneration of these trees on the canal bank was confirmed during this investigation and mortality was very low. These results indicated that P. alternifolium,C. arborescens and C. rotundatuswere tolerant of intensive radiation, soil drought and high soil temperatures during germination. The annual height increments  were 189-232  cm y-1 (P. alternifolium,118-289  cm y-1  (C. arborescensand 27-255 cm y-1   (C. rotundatus; thus, these three species could be classified as fast-growing with tolerance to open and dry conditions.  Such characteristics were important to avoid competition with herbs, ferns,and/ or climbers. The results·suggest that P.alternifolium,C. arborescens and C. rotundatusare suitable for preceding planting for the rehabilitation of the disturbed peat swamp forests of Central Kalimantan.

  12. Hepatitis B virus genotypes circulating in Brazil: molecular characterization of genotype F isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgolino Helaine A

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV isolates have been classified in eight genotypes, A to H, which exhibit distinct geographical distributions. Genotypes A, D and F are predominant in Brazil, a country formed by a miscegenated population, where the proportion of individuals from Caucasian, Amerindian and African origins varies by region. Genotype F, which is the most divergent, is considered indigenous to the Americas. A systematic molecular characterization of HBV isolates from different parts of the world would be invaluable in establishing HBV evolutionary origins and dispersion patterns. A large-scale study is needed to map the region-by-region distribution of the HBV genotypes in Brazil. Results Genotyping by PCR-RFLP of 303 HBV isolates from HBsAg-positive blood donors showed that at least two of the three genotypes, A, D, and F, co-circulate in each of the five geographic regions of Brazil. No other genotypes were identified. Overall, genotype A was most prevalent (48.5%, and most of these isolates were classified as subgenotype A1 (138/153; 90.2%. Genotype D was the most common genotype in the South (84.2% and Central (47.6% regions. The prevalence of genotype F was low (13% countrywide. Nucleotide sequencing of the S gene and a phylogenetic analysis of 32 HBV genotype F isolates showed that a great majority (28/32; 87.5% belonged to subgenotype F2, cluster II. The deduced serotype of 31 of 32 F isolates was adw4. The remaining isolate showed a leucine-to-isoleucine substitution at position 127. Conclusion The presence of genotypes A, D and F, and the absence of other genotypes in a large cohort of HBV infected individuals may reflect the ethnic origins of the Brazilian population. The high prevalence of isolates from subgenotype A1 (of African origin indicates that the African influx during the colonial slavery period had a major impact on the circulation of HBV genotype A currently found in Brazil. Although most genotype F

  13. Development of a real-time RT-PCR and Reverse Line probe Hybridisation assay for the routine detection and genotyping of Noroviruses in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Menton, John F

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Noroviruses are the most common cause of non-bacterial gastroenteritis. Improved detection methods have seen a large increase in the number of human NoV genotypes in the last ten years. The objective of this study was to develop a fast method to detect, quantify and genotype positive NoV samples from Irish hospitals. RESULTS: A real-time RT-PCR assay and a Reverse Line Blot Hybridisation assay were developed based on the ORF1-ORF2 region. The sensitivity and reactivity of the two assays used was validated using a reference stool panel containing 14 NoV genotypes. The assays were then used to investigate two outbreaks of gastroenteritis in two Irish hospitals. 56 samples were screened for NoV using a real-time RT-PCR assay and 26 samples were found to be positive. Genotyping of these positive samples found that all positives belonged to the GII\\/4 variant of NoV. CONCLUSION: The combination of the Real-time assay and the reverse line blot hybridisation assay provided a fast and accurate method to investigate a NoV associated outbreak. It was concluded that the predominant genotype circulating in these Irish hospitals was GII\\/4 which has been associated with the majority of NoV outbreaks worldwide. The assays developed in this study are useful tools for investigating NoV infection.

  14. A commercial space technology testbed on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, David R.

    2000-01-01

    There is a significant and growing commercial market for new, more capable communications and remote sensing satellites. Competition in this market strongly motivates satellite manufacturers and spacecraft component developers to test and demonstrate new space hardware in a realistic environment. External attach points on the International Space Station allow it to function uniquely as a space technology testbed to satisfy this market need. However, space industry officials have identified three critical barriers to their commercial use of the ISS: unpredictable access, cost risk, and schedule uncertainty. Appropriate NASA policy initiatives and business/technical assistance for industry from the Commercial Space Center for Engineering can overcome these barriers. .

  15. Thermal Environment evaluation in Commercial kitchens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2012-01-01

    as commercial kitchens? There is therefore a need to study the indoor environment in commercial kitchens and to establish standardized methods and procedures for setting criteria that have to be met for the design and operation of kitchens. The present paper introduces a data collection protocol based......The indoor climate in commercial kitchens is often unsatisfactory and the working conditions can have a significant effect on employees’ comfort and productivity. The type (fast food, casual, etc.) and climatic zone can influence the thermal conditions in the kitchens. Moreover, size...... and arrangement of the kitchen zones, appliances, etc., complicate further an evaluation of the indoor thermal environment in kitchens. In general, comfort criteria are expressed in international standards such as ASHRAE 55 or ISO EN7730. But are these standardised methods applicable for such environments...

  16. Assessing the Significance of Above- and Belowground Carbon Allocation of Fast- and Slow-Growing Families of Loblolly Pine - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topa, M. A.; Weinstein, D. A.; Retzlaff, W. A.

    2001-03-01

    During this project we experimentally evaluated the below-ground biomass and carbon allocation and partitioning of four different fast- and slow-growing families of loblolly pine located in Scotland County, NC, in an effort to increase the long-term performance of the crop. The trees were subjected to optimal nutrition and control since planting in 1993. Destructive harvests in 1998 and 2000 were used for whole?plant biomass estimates and to identify possible family differences in carbon acquisition (photosynthesis) and water use efficiency. At regular intervals throughout each year we sampled tissues for carbohydrate analyses to assess differences in whole-tree carbon storage. Mini rhizotron observation tubes were installed to monitor root system production and turnover. Stable isotope analysis was used to examine possible functional differences in water and nutrient acquisition of root systems between the various families. A genetic dissection of root ontogenic and architectural traits, including biomass partitioning, was conducted using molecular markers to better understand the functional implications of these traits on resource acquisition and whole-plant carbon allocation.

  17. Genetic Diversity in Commercial Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) Varieties from Turkey as Revealed by RAPD

    OpenAIRE

    Özlem ÖZBEK; Betül Uçar GIDIK

    2013-01-01

    In cultivated commercial crop species, genetic diversity tends to decrease because of the extensive breeding processes. Therefore, germplasm of commercial crop species, such as Brassica napus L. should be evaluated and the genotypes, which have higher genetic diversity index, should be addressed as potential parental cross materials in breeding programs. In this study, the genetic diversity was analysed by using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis (RAPD) technique in nine Turkish com...

  18. High Symbiont Relatedness Stabilizes Mutualistic Cooperation in Fungus-Growing Termites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanen, Duur K; de Fine Licht, Henrik H; Debets, Alfons J M

    2009-01-01

    It is unclear how mutualistic relationships can be stable when partners disperse freely and have the possibility of forming associations with many alternative genotypes. Theory predicts that high symbiont relatedness should resolve this problem, but the mechanisms to enforce this have rarely been...... of spore production in proportion to strain frequency. This positive reinforcement results in an exclusive lifetime association of each host colony with a single fungal symbiont and hinders the evolution of cheating. Our findings explain why vertical symbiont transmission in fungus-growing termites is rare...

  19. Accuracy of Genomic Prediction in a Commercial Perennial Ryegrass Breeding Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Fè

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of genomic selection (GS in plant breeding, so far, has been mainly evaluated in crops farmed as homogeneous varieties, and the results have been generally positive. Fewer results are available for species, such as forage grasses, that are grown as heterogenous families (developed from multiparent crosses in which the control of the genetic variation is far more complex. Here we test the potential for implementing GS in the breeding of perennial ryegrass ( L. using empirical data from a commercial forage breeding program. Biparental F and multiparental synthetic (SYN families of diploid perennial ryegrass were genotyped using genotyping-by-sequencing, and phenotypes for five different traits were analyzed. Genotypes were expressed as family allele frequencies, and phenotypes were recorded as family means. Different models for genomic prediction were compared by using practically relevant cross-validation strategies. All traits showed a highly significant level of genetic variance, which could be traced using the genotyping assay. While there was significant genotype × environment (G × E interaction for some traits, accuracies were high among F families and between biparental F and multiparental SYN families. We have demonstrated that the implementation of GS in grass breeding is now possible and presents an opportunity to make significant gains for various traits.

  20. Phishing - A Growing Threat to E-Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Banday, M. Tariq; Qadri, Jameel A.

    2011-01-01

    In today's business environment, it is difficult to imagine a workplace without access to the web, yet a variety of email born viruses, spyware, adware, Trojan horses, phishing attacks, directory harvest attacks, DoS attacks, and other threats combine to attack businesses and customers. This paper is an attempt to review phishing - a constantly growing and evolving threat to Internet based commercial transactions. Various phishing approaches that include vishing, spear phishng, pharming, keyl...

  1. Personal genome testing in medical education: student experiences with genotyping in the classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernez, Simone Lucia; Salari, Keyan; Ormond, Kelly E; Lee, Sandra Soo-Jin

    2013-01-01

    is different from traditional genetic counseling will be necessary to support students. Before incorporating personal genotyping into coursework, institutions should lead multi-disciplinary discussion to anticipate issues and incorporate teaching mechanisms that engage the ethical, legal, and social implications of personal genotyping, including addressing those found in this study, to go beyond what is offered by commercial providers.

  2. A review of the United Kingdom fast reactor program - March 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    A review of the United Kingdom Fast Reactor Programme was given in March 1983. Operational experience with the Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) is briefly summarized. The design concept of the Commercial Demonstration Fast Reactor (CDFR), including design codes, engineering components, materials and fuels development, chemical engineering/sodium technology, safety and reactor performance, is reviewed. The problems of PFR and CDFR fuel reprocessing are also discussed

  3. Ecological Impact on Nitrogen and Phosphorus Cycling of a Widespread Fast-growing Leguminous Tropical Forest Plantation Tree Species, Acacia mangium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigehiro Ishizuka

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Symbiotic nitrogen fixation is one of the major pathways of N input to forest ecosystems, enriching N availability, particularly in lowland tropics. Recently there is growing concern regarding the wide areas of fast-growing leguminous plantations that could alter global N2O emissions. Here, we highlight substantially different N and phosphorus utilization and cycling at a plantation of Acacia mangium, which is N2-fixing and one of the major plantation species in tropical/subtropical Asia. The litterfall, fresh leaf quality and fine-root ingrowth of A. mangium were compared to those of non-N2-fixing Swietenia macrophylla and coniferous Araucaria cunninghamii in wet tropical climates in Borneo, Malaysia. The N and P concentrations of the A. mangium fresh leaves were higher than those of the other two species, whereas the P concentration in the leaf-litterfall of A. mangium was less than half that of the others; in contrast the N concentration was higher. The N:P ratio in the A. mangium leaf was markedly increased from fresh-leaf (29 to leaf-litterfall (81. Although the N flux in the total litterfall at the A. mangium plantation was large, the fine-root ingrowth of A. mangium significantly increased by applying both N and P. In conclusion, large quantities of N were accumulated and returned to the forest floor in A. mangium plantation, while its P resorption capacity was efficient. Such large N cycling and restricted P cycling in wide areas of monoculture A. mangium plantations may alter N and P cycling and their balance in the organic layer and soil on a stand level.

  4. Antibiosis in Soybean Genotypes and the Resistance Levels to Spodoptera eridania (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, B H S; Silva, A G; Janini, J C; Boica Júnior, A L

    2014-12-01

    The southern armyworm (SAW) Spodoptera eridania (Cramer) is one of the most common armyworm species defoliating soybeans. Preliminary screening trials have indicated that some soybean genotypes exhibit resistance to SAW. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the development of SAW larvae fed on ten soybean genotypes in order to identify genotypes with antibiosis-type resistance. Neonate SAW larvae were daily fed with young leaves collected from plants at the vegetative growth stages V4-V5. Larval development and survival were recorded. Genotypes PI 227687 and PI 227682 delayed larval, pupal, and larva-adult development and yielded larvae with the lowest weight and survival and pupae with the lowest weight. Genotypes IAC 100 and DM 339 also negatively affected larval and pupal development and larval survival but at a lower level. Based on our results, the soybean lines PI 227687 and PI 227682 could be used as sources of genes for soybean breeding programs aiming to develop high yield, SAW-resistant cultivars. Moreover, further trials must be carried out under field conditions to validate if the commercial cultivars IAC 100 and DM 339, which expressed moderate levels of antibiosis-type resistance in the laboratory, are effective in suppressing SAW larvae populations.

  5. A comparison of bioactive compounds of strawberry fruit from Europe affected by genotype and latitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josuttis, M.; Carlen, C.; Nestby, R.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of four different growing locations from Stjørdal, Norway (63°36'N) to Conthey, Switzerland (46°12'N) on the composition of bioactives in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) of three genotypes (cvs Clery, Elsanta and Korona) was evaluated. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used...

  6. CMV genotyping using different samples in post renal transplant recipients with CMV disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramya Barani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available CMV is the most common viral infection which occurs in post renal transplant recipients (PTR. There are four different gB genotypes (gB1 to gB4 which exist in CMV. Studies have reported that mixed infection with different genotypes will cause severe clinical manifestations as well as co-infection with other herpesvirus including Epstein-Barr virus (EBV [1]. CMV can cause compartmentalized disease involving different organs with different genotypes. There are reports in immuno compromised individuals with different genotypes [2, 3]. Institutional ethics committee approval was obtained prior to conduct of the study (IEC-NI/08/DEC/07/46. Whole blood, saliva and urine were collected from PTR. DNA were extracted (Qiagen DNA mini kit and CMV quantitative PCR targeting ppUL83 gene was performed with CMV R-gene™ using an ABI 7900 Fast real time PCR (SDS Version: 2.4. PTR who had high viral load (>1000 copies/ml in any three or two samples were included for CMV genotyping PCR targeting gB region (410-bp [2]. DNA sequencing was performed in ABI 3730 GA platform by Sanger method and sequences were analyzed by reference strains. A total of 24 samples were collected from 9 PTR. Among these four PTR had high viral load in all three samples (whole blood, urine & saliva and those with high viral load (n=5 in 2 samples (Whole blood & urine/saliva were screened for CMV genotyping. Majority of the strains belonged to genotype B1 and only one PTR was infected with genotype B2 in three samples. In PTR with genotype B1, gastro intestinal infection (GI was predominantly found in 78% (n=7 followed by graft dysfunction (GDF in 56% (n=5 of the PTR. PTR who detected with genotype B2 was associated with fever, leukopenia (CMV syndrome, GDF and also found with EBV infection. Co-infection with EBV was observed in 44% (n=4; VZV and HSV type 1 was also observed. Genotypes are associated with the severity of the disease and co-infection with other herpes virus infections. In

  7. Evaluation of a high resolution genotyping method for Chlamydia trachomatis using routine clinical samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibing Wang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Genital chlamydia infection is the most commonly diagnosed sexually transmitted infection in the UK. C. trachomatis genital infections are usually caused by strains which fall into two pathovars: lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV and the genitourinary genotypes D-K. Although these genotypes can be discriminated by outer membrane protein gene (ompA sequencing or multi-locus sequence typing (MLST, neither protocol affords the high-resolution genotyping required for local epidemiology and accurate contact-tracing.We evaluated variable number tandem repeat (VNTR and ompA sequencing (now called multi-locus VNTR analysis and ompA or "MLVA-ompA" to study local epidemiology in Southampton over a period of six months. One hundred and fifty seven endocervical swabs that tested positive for C. trachomatis from both the Southampton genitourinary medicine (GUM clinic and local GP surgeries were tested by COBAS Taqman 48 (Roche PCR for the presence of C. trachomatis. Samples tested as positive by the commercial NAATs test were genotyped, where possible, by a MLVA-ompA sequencing technique. Attempts were made to isolate C. trachomatis from all 157 samples in cell culture, and 68 (43% were successfully recovered by repeatable passage in culture. Of the 157 samples, 93 (i.e. 59% were fully genotyped by MLVA-ompA. Only one mixed infection (E & D in a single sample was confirmed. There were two distinct D genotypes for the ompA gene. Most frequent ompA genotypes were D, E and F, comprising 20%, 41% and 16% of the type-able samples respectively. Within all genotypes we detected numerous MLVA sub-types.Amongst the common genotypes, there are a significant number of defined MLVA sub-types, which may reflect particular background demographics including age group, geography, high-risk sexual behavior, and sexual networks.

  8. Leaf N resorption efficiency and litter N mineralization rate have a genotypic tradeoff in a silver birch population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikola, Juha; Silfver, Tarja; Paaso, Ulla; Possen, Boy J M H; Rousi, Matti

    2018-02-07

    Plants enhance N use efficiency by resorbing N from senescing leaves. This can affect litter N mineralization rate due to the C:N-ratio requirements of microbial growth. We examined genotypic links between leaf N resorption and litter mineralization by collecting leaves and litter from 19 Betula pendula genotypes and following the N release of litter patches on forest ground. We found significant genotypic variation for N resorption efficiency, litter N concentration, cumulative three-year patch N-input and litter N release with high broad-sense heritabilities (H 2  = 0.28-0.65). The genotype means of N resorption efficiency varied from 46% to 65% and correlated negatively with the genotype means of litter N concentration, cumulative patch N-input and litter N release. NH 4 + yield under patches had a positive genotypic correlation with the cumulative patch N-input. During the first year of litter decomposition, genotypes varied from N immobilization (max 2.71 mg/g dry litter) to N release (max 1.41 mg/g dry litter), creating a genotypic tradeoff between the N conserved by resorption and the N available for root uptake during the growing season. We speculate that this tradeoff is one likely reason for the remarkably wide genotypic range of N resorption efficiencies in our birch population. © 2018 by the Ecological Society of America.

  9. Entry into Midgut Epithelial Cells is a Key Step in the Selection of Genotypes in a Nucleopolyhedrovirus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gabriel Clavijo; Trevor Williams; Delia Mu(n)oz; Miguel L(o)pez-Ferber; Primitivo Caballero

    2009-01-01

    An isolate of the Spodoptera frugiperda multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus comprises a stable proportion of deletion genotypes (e.g., SfNIC-C), that lack pif1 and pif2 rendering them noninfectious per os, and that survive by complementation with a complete genotype (SfNIC-B) in coinfected cells. To determine whether selection for particular ratios of complete and deletion genotypes occurs mainly during the establishment of the primary infection in insect midgut cells or during subsequent systemic infection, we examined genotype frequencies in insects that fed on OBs comprising different co-occluded mixtures of genotypes. Dramatic changes in genotype frequencies were observed between the OB inoculum and budded virus (BV) samples taken from larvae inoculated with OBs comprising 10% SfNIC-B + 90% SfNIC-C indicating that a marked reduction of SfNIC-C genotype had occurred in the insect midgut due to the immediate elimination of all OBs that originated from cells that had been infected only by SfNIC-C. In contrast, immediate changes were not observed in OBs comprising mixtures of 50% SfNIC-B + 50% SfNIC-C or those comprising 10% SfNIC-B + 90% SfNIC-C as most of the OBs in these mixtures originated from cells that had been infected by both genotypes. Subsequent changes in genotypic frequencies during five days of systemic infection were fairly small in magnitude for all genotypic mixtures. We conclude that the prevalence of defective genotypes in the SfNIC population is likely determined by a balance between host selection against OBs produced in cells infected by SfNIC-C alone and within-host selection for fast-replicating deletion genotypes. The strength of intra-host selection is likely modulated by changes in MOI during the infection period.

  10. Dry matter content and fruit size affect flavour and texture of novel Actinidia deliciosa genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardozza, Simona; Gamble, Joanna; Axten, Lauren G; Wohlers, Mark W; Clearwater, Michael J; Feng, Jinquan; Harker, F Roger

    2011-03-15

    Previous studies with commercial kiwifruit cultivars have demonstrated that the taste of fruit with higher dry matter content (DM) is more liked by consumers. A unique replicated trial of kiwifruit genotypes (10 high/low DM × small/large-fruited genotypes) has provided an opportunity to consider how the genetic propensity for a kiwifruit to accumulate DM affects fruit flavour and texture. In the present study, eating-ripe fruit from each of the genotypes were assessed using a trained sensory panel and the relationships between these sensory attributes and fresh weight, DM, flesh firmness and soluble solids content (SSC) were explored. The genotypes provided a diversity of flavour and texture attributes, each of which varied in perceived intensity of the sensory experience. High-DM genotypes had higher SSC and were perceived as sweeter than low-DM genotypes. Sweet taste was closely associated with the perception of the tropical flavour and high-DM genotypes were found to have more tropical notes. Fruit size was associated with fruit texture, and small fruit were characterised by a firmer and more fibrous core. Large high-DM fruit were perceived as juicier than those of all other genotypes. Genotypes were perceived differently from one another, and differences in fruit size and DM content were reflected in fruit sensorial properties. This study is unique in demonstrating interactions between fruit size, DM and sensory properties. These findings could be relevant not only to kiwifruit but to fruiting crop breeders in general, because of the demonstrated potential for effects of fruit size and DM content on sweetness, flavour and fruit texture. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Using callus culture to study the drought tolerance of wheat genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondić Ankica

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we studied the drought tolerance under in vitro conditions of two winter wheat (T. aestivum L. cultivars, Košuta and Renesansa. The tolerance was tested on a modified MS (Murashige and Skoog, 1962 nutrient medium to which polyethylene glycol (PEG was added at three different concentrations: 10%, 20% and 30%. Calluses from the control group were grown on a medium without PEG. After four months of growing on these mediums, fresh weight and dry matter content in the callus tissue were determined. We found significant differences in genotype response to different PEG concentrations The highest concentration (30% was lethal to the isolated embryos, so at this concentration no calluses formed in any of the genotypes. At 10 and 20% PEG, there was a significant decrease in the fresh callus weight in both genotypes. Thus, at the lowest concentration ( 10% PEG, the fresh weight decreased by 90% in Košuta and by 93% in Renesansa relative to the control. Due to callus dehydration in the presence of PEG, the dry matter content in the calluses of both genotypes increased with increasing PEG concentrations in the medium. In Košuta, the dry matter content increased from 8.7% (control to 24.9% (20% PEG, while in Renesansa it increased from 8.6% (control to 39.7% (20% PEG.

  12. Propagation of Vaccinium arboreum for use as a rootstock for commercial blueberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, there has been an increase in consumer demand for fresh blueberries throughout the year, which also increases the demand for sites suitable for growing blueberries. Commercial blueberries, particularly Vaccinium corymbosum, have very specific needs for optimum growth; hence, growing...

  13. Common genotypes of hepatitis B virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idrees, M.; Khan, S.; Riazuddin, S.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To find out the frequency of common genotypes of hepatitis-B virus (HBV). Subjects and Methods: HBV genotypes were determined in 112 HBV DNA positive sera by a simple and precise molecular genotyping system base on PCR using type-specific primers for the determination of genotypes of HBV A through H. Results: Four genotypes (A,B,C and D) out of total eight reported genotypes so far were identified. Genotypes A, B and C were predominant. HBV genotype C was the most predominant in this collection, appearing in 46 samples (41.7%). However, the genotypes of a total of 5 (4.46%) samples could not be determined with the present genotyping system. Mixed genotypes were seen in 8(7.14% HBV) isolates. Five of these were infected with genotypes A/D whereas two were with genotypes C/D. One patient was infected with 4 genotypes (A/B/C/D). Genotype A (68%) was predominant in Sindh genotype C was most predominant in North West Frontier Province (NWFP) (68.96) whereas genotype C and B were dominant in Punjab (39.65% and 25.86% respectively). Conclusion: All the four common genotypes of HBV found worldwide (A,B,C and D) were isolated. Genotype C is the predominant Genotypes B and C are predominant in Punjab and N.W.F.P. whereas genotype A is predominant in Sindh. (author)

  14. Comparison of Domestic and Foreign Commercial Brown Layer Hens in Terms of Yield Characteristics in Free-Range Raising System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Türker

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out under producer conditions to determine the appropriate hen material to be used in the free range laying system. For this purpose, the foreign brown commercial layer genotype which coded YB and native brown egg layer Atak-S genotype was compared in terms of yield and egg quality characteristics. This study included 150 hens from each genotype and a total of 300 chickens were used. Each genotype divided into three groups among themselves and 50 hens were raised each group. In the poultry house with deep-litter ground system, 5 chickens were raised in the unit area (m2 and, 4 m2 grazing area was allocated per each hen in the grazing area. The pullets that hatched on the same day were obtained from a commercial firm at 16 weeks of age. The study was carried out until 80 weeks of age. Egg yield and egg quality characteristics were determined during this period. There was no difference between the genotypes in terms of 50% egg yield age, egg weight, hen-day egg yield, hen-house egg yield, viability, albumen index, yolk index, haugh unit and yolk color. In contrast, the difference between the genotypes was found to be important in terms of body weight at weeks of 18th and 80th age, feed consumption, feed conversation ratio, shape index, shell thickness, density, meat-blood spot ratio and egg shell color. In this study, genotypes were not superior to each other in terms of all traits. However, as a result of the economic analyzes made in consideration of market conditions and observations made in terms of animal sensitivities, it was concluded that the Atak-S genotype was more suitable for free-range egg production system.

  15. An Accurate Method for Inferring Relatedness in Large Datasets of Unphased Genotypes via an Embedded Likelihood-Ratio Test

    KAUST Repository

    Rodriguez, Jesse M.

    2013-01-01

    Studies that map disease genes rely on accurate annotations that indicate whether individuals in the studied cohorts are related to each other or not. For example, in genome-wide association studies, the cohort members are assumed to be unrelated to one another. Investigators can correct for individuals in a cohort with previously-unknown shared familial descent by detecting genomic segments that are shared between them, which are considered to be identical by descent (IBD). Alternatively, elevated frequencies of IBD segments near a particular locus among affected individuals can be indicative of a disease-associated gene. As genotyping studies grow to use increasingly large sample sizes and meta-analyses begin to include many data sets, accurate and efficient detection of hidden relatedness becomes a challenge. To enable disease-mapping studies of increasingly large cohorts, a fast and accurate method to detect IBD segments is required. We present PARENTE, a novel method for detecting related pairs of individuals and shared haplotypic segments within these pairs. PARENTE is a computationally-efficient method based on an embedded likelihood ratio test. As demonstrated by the results of our simulations, our method exhibits better accuracy than the current state of the art, and can be used for the analysis of large genotyped cohorts. PARENTE\\'s higher accuracy becomes even more significant in more challenging scenarios, such as detecting shorter IBD segments or when an extremely low false-positive rate is required. PARENTE is publicly and freely available at http://parente.stanford.edu/. © 2013 Springer-Verlag.

  16. Rhizobia symbiosis of seven leguminous species growing along Xindian riverbank of Northern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Tai Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Legume-rhizobia symbioses of seven leguminous species growing along Xindian riverbank of Northern Taiwan were investigated in this study. These legumes form either determinate or indeterminate types of root nodules. The determinate nodules of Alysicarpus vaginalis, Desmodium. triflorum, D. heterophyllum, Sesbania cannabina and the indeterminate nodules of Mimosa pudica harbored bacteroids of morphological uniformity (length of 1-3 μm, while the indeterminate nodules of Crotalaria zanzibarica and Trifolium repens contained bacteroids of highly pleomorphism (size varying from 1 to 5 μm. The enclosed bacteria were isolated from respective nodules, and twenty slow-growing and nine fast-growing rhizobial isolates were recovered. The slow-growing isolates were classified to the genus Bradyrhizobium based on the 16S rRNA sequences, whereas the fast-growing rhizobia comprise four genera, Neorhizobium, Rhizobium, Cupriavidus and Paraburkholderia. Results of stable isotope analyses revealed that the seven leguminous species had similar and consistently negative δ15N values in leaves (mean of -1.2 ‰, whereas the values were positive (varying from 3.7 to 7.3 ‰ in the nodules. These values were significantly higher in the indeterminate nodules than those in the determinate ones. In addition, variations in the values of leaf δ13C (varying from -29 to -34‰ among the seven legumes were measured, indicating their photosynthetic water use efficiencies were different. This is the first field survey to report the rhizobial diversity and the nutrient relationships of sympatric legume in Taiwan.

  17. Fast growing plantations for wood production – integration of ecological effects and economic perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eBredemeier

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Biomass crops are perceived as a feasible means to substitute sizeable amounts of fossil fuel in the future. A prospect of CO2 reduction (resp. CO2 neutrality is credited to biomass fuels, and thus a potential contribution to mitigate climate change. Short rotation coppices (SRC with fast growing poplar and willow trees are an option for producing high yields of woody biomass, which is suitable for both energetic and material use. One negative effect that comes along with the establishment of SRC may be a decrease in groundwater recharge, because high rates of transpiration and interception are anticipated. Therefore, it is important to measure, analyse, and model the effects of SRC-planting on landscape water budgets. To analyse the effects on the water budget a poplar SRC plot was studied by measuring hydrological parameters to be used in the hydrological model WaSim. Results reveal very low or even missing ground water recharge for SRC compared to agricultural land use or grassland, especially succeeding dry years. However, this strong effect on plot level is moderated on the larger spatial scale of catchment level, for which the modelling was also performed. In addition to water, nutrient fluxes and budgets were studied. Nitrogen is still a crucial issue in today's agriculture. Intensive fertilization or increased applications of manure from concentrated livestock breeding are often leading to high loads of nitrate leaching, or enhanced N2O emissions to the atmosphere on arable crop fields. SRC or agroforestry systems (AF on former crop land may offer an option to decrease such N losses, while simultaneously producing woody biomass. This is mainly due to the generally smaller N requirements of woody vegetation, which usually entail no need for any fertilization. The trees supply deep and permanent rooting systems, which can be regarded as a safety net to prevent nutrient leaching. Thus, SRC altogether can help to diminish N eutrophication.

  18. Above- and Belowground Development of a Fast-Growing Willow Planted in Acid-Generating Mine Technosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guittonny-Larchevêque, M; Lortie, S

    2017-11-01

    Surface metal mining produces large volumes of waste rocks. If they contain sulfide minerals, these rocks can generate a flow of acidic water from the mining site, known as acid mine drainage (AMD), which increases trace metals availability for plant roots. Adequate root development is crucial to decreasing planting stress and improving phytoremediation with woody species. However, techniques to improve revegetation success rarely take into account root development. An experiment was conducted at a gold mine in Quebec, Canada, to evaluate the establishment ability over 3 yr of a fast-growing willow ( Sx64) planted in acid-generating waste rocks. The main objective was to study root development in the soil profile and trace element accumulation in leaves among substrates varying in thickness (0, 20, and 40 cm of soil) and composition (organic carbon [OC] and alkaline AMD treatment sludge). Trees directly planted in waste rocks survived well (69%) but had the lowest productivity (lowest growth in height and diameter, aerial biomass, total leaf area, and root-system size). By contrast, the treatment richer in OC showed the greatest aerial biomass and total leaf area the first year; the thicker treatment resulted in the greatest growth in height and diameter, aboveground biomass, and root-system size in both the first and third years. Willow root development was restricted to soil layers during the first year, but this restriction was overcome in the third year after planting. Willow accumulation factors in leaves were below one for all investigated trace metals except for zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), and strontium. For Cd and Zn, concentrations increased with time in willow foliage, decreasing the potential of this willow species use for phytostabilization, despite its ability to rapidly develop extensive root systems in the mine Technosol. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  19. Spatial and temporal patterns of chickpea genotypes (Cicer arietinum L. root growth under waterlogging stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ali ganjali

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic of root growth of chickpea genotypes; including Rupali (Desi and Flip 97-530 (Kabuli were evaluated under waterlogging stress in a Glasshouse experiment at CSIRO, Perth, WA. during 2005. Root growth boxes (0.1×0.24×1.0 m with one wall of glass were used as experimental units. Data were analyzed based on Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Waterlogging was induced when the first root reached 50cm. The water level was maintained on the soil surface for 12 days. After that, waterlogging was finished by draining the root growth boxes. In soil profile, root growth rate were calculated based on recorded information on transparent films during growing season. There was positive and strong linear correlation between the root traits that were measured in soil (direct measurment and transparent films (indirect measurment. Decay and death of roots caused a severe decrease on root growth rate during waterlogging, but root growth rate was sharply increased at the end of recovery period on 0-40 cm layer of soil surface. In both genotypes, spatial and temporal patterns of the root growth were different. Root growth rate was highest on distinc time for each layer of soil profile. In both genotypes, RLD decreased with increasing soil depth. Results showed that more distribution of root system on upper soil layers (0-40 cm is a strategy for chickpea plants, and so, soil management is very important on this layer. In stress and non stress environments, Flip 97-530 showed better root characteristics than the Rupali during growing season, so this genotype is probably more tolerate to water logging stress.

  20. Multicommuted flow injection method for fast photometric determination of phenolic compounds in commercial virgin olive oil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Ortega, Felipe J; Sainz-Gonzalo, Francisco J; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; García-Reyes, Juan F; Molina-Díaz, Antonio

    2016-01-15

    A multicommuted flow injection method has been developed for the determination of phenolic species in virgin olive oil samples. The method is based on the inhibitory effect of antioxidants on a stable and colored radical cation formation from the colorless compound N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DMPD(•+)) in acidic medium in the presence of Fe(III) as oxidant. The signal inhibition by phenolic species and other antioxidants is proportional to their concentration in the olive oil sample. Absorbance was recorded at 515nm by means of a modular fiber optic spectrometer. Oleuropein was used as the standard for phenols determination and 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid (trolox) was the reference standard used for total antioxidant content calculation. Linear response was observed within the range of 250-1000mg/kg oleuropein, which was in accordance with phenolic contents observed in commercial extra virgin olive oil in the present study. Fast and low-volume liquid-liquid extraction of the samples using 60% MeOH was made previous to their insertion in the flow multicommuted system. The five three-way solenoid valves used for multicommuted liquid handling were controlled by a homemade electronic interface and Java-written software. The proposed approach was applied to different commercial extra virgin olive oil samples and the results were consistent with those obtained by the Folin Ciocalteu (FC) method. Total time for the sample preparation and the analysis required in the present approach can be drastically reduced: the throughput of the present analysis is 8 samples/h in contrast to 1sample/h of the conventional FC method. The present method is easy to implement in routine analysis and can be regarded as a feasible alternative to FC method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Upgrading program of the experimental fast reactor Joyo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, A.; Yogo, S.

    2001-01-01

    The experimental fast reactor Joyo finished its operation as an irradiation core in June, 2000. Throughout the operation of MK-I (breeder core) and MK-II (irradiation core), the net operation time has exceeded 60,000 hours. During these operations there were no fuel failures or serious plant problems. The MK-III modification program will improve irradiation capability to demonstrate advanced technologies for commercial Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR). When the MK-III core is started, it will support irradiation tests in feasibility studies for fast reactor and related fuel cycle research and development in Japan. (authors)

  2. Evaluation of Yield and Yield Components of Some Pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Genotypes under Late Season Water Deficit Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    somayyeh soheili movahhed

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Drought or water deficit stress is the most important environmental factor which has severe negative impacts on crop yields, especially when the water stress occurs in the flowering stage. Iran is located in arid and semi-arid areas, therefore, attention to the effects of water deficit stress in different stages of plants growth seems necessary. Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is one of the most important legumes that has a major contribution to human diet and provides an important part of the human protein. According to studies, cultivation areas of legumes in Iran are about 97300 hectares and its total production is about 208350 tons of grain. Bean is a fast-growing plant (Tran and Singh, 2002, thus soil water must be sufficiently available to ensure its desirable growth and yield. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of drought stress on yield and yield components of some pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivated in Zanjan province. Materials and methods An experiment was conducted as spilt plot based on randomized complete block design with four replications in Zanjan university research farm. Irrigation levels (control and drought stress and genotypes (Local khomein, Sadri, Ks21193 and Ks21189 were set in the main and subplot, respectively. Water deficit stress was applied during flowering stage (50% of the plants were at anthesis. Sampling was performed to measure yield and yield components at the end of the growth period and final maturity. In this experiment number of pod per Plant, numberof grain per pod, 100 grain weight, grain yield, biological yield and harvest index were measured. Results and Discussion In this experiment it was observed that drought stress, genotype and interact irrigation×genotyps were significantly for all traits except biological yield. Drought stress reduced number of pod perplant, number of grain per pod, 100 grain weight, grain yield, biological yield and Harvest Index. Results

  3. Superphenix: Is the fast breeder dream over -- or over yonder?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    A detailed history of France's Superphenix commercial fast breeder reactor project is presented. Important project milestones are discussed from the project's conception in 1971 to its current status. Recommendations of the Castaing Commission on the project and future plans for use of the reactor are outlined. In addition, world wide fast breeder projects are listed and discussed

  4. Automation and integration of polymerase chain reaction with capillary electrophoresis for high throughput genotyping and disease diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, N.

    1999-02-12

    Genotyping is to detect specific loci in the human genome. These loci provide important information for forensic testing, construction of genetic linkage maps, gene related disease diagnosis and pharmacogenetic research. Genotyping is becoming more and more popular after these loci can be easily amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Capillary electrophoresis has its unique advantages for DNA analysis due to its fast heat dissipation and ease of automation. Four projects are described in which genotyping is performed by capillary electrophoresis emphasizing different aspects. First, the author demonstrates a principle to determine the genotype based on capillary electrophoresis system. VNTR polymorphism in the human D1S80 locus was studied. Second, the separation of four short tandem repeat (STR) loci vWF, THO1, TPOX and CSF1PO (CTTv) by using poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) was studied in achieving high resolution and preventing rehybridization of the DNA fragments. Separation under denaturing, non-denaturing conditions and at elevated temperature was discussed. Third, a 250 {micro}m i.d., 365 {micro}m o.d. fused silica capillary was used as the microreactor for PCR. Fourth, direct PCR from blood was studied to simplify the sample preparation for genotyping to minimum.

  5. Effect of genotype of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) on attractiveness to the mirid Sahlbergella singularis (Hemiptera: Miridae) in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibog, Luc; Babin, Régis; Mbang, Joseph Amang A; Decazy, Bernard; Nyassé, Salomon; Cilas, Christian; Eskes, Albertus B

    2008-09-01

    Mirids are a major constraint to cocoa growing in Africa. Cocoa breeding for tolerance/resistance could be effective in an integrated pest management system. Attractiveness is one aspect of tolerance/resistance, and decreasing the attractiveness of cocoa trees should be a good way of reducing damage. Small-scale laboratory tests were carried out in Cameroon to assess differences in the attractiveness to mirids of eleven cocoa genotypes. The genotypes were ranked according to their attractiveness score and a distance from a mean value. An analysis of variance was performed and revealed significant differences between cocoa genotypes (F=3.15, Pcocoa genotype groupings revealed three major categories, with BE10 and SNK413 proving to be the most attractive. In contrast, five genotypes, IMC60, the Catongo Trinitario genotypes, Playa Alta2 (from Venezuela), SIC5 and SNK614, proved to be less attractive than the mean. Four genotypes (PA107, SNK619, UPA134 and T60/887) displayed similar attractiveness to the mean. The circular microtest offered the advantage of not needing a reference cocoa genotype. The least attractive clones, such as IMC60, were also the most tolerant in the field. Comparisons with the results of other studies are proposed.

  6. Current status and perspective of advanced loop type fast reactor in fast reactor cycle technology development project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niwa, Hajime; Aoto, Kazumi; Morishita, Masaki

    2007-01-01

    After selecting the combination of the sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) with oxide fuel, the advanced aqueous reprocessing and the simplified pelletizing fuel fabrication as the most promising concept of FR cycle system, 'Feasibility Study on Commercialized Fast Reactor Cycle Systems' was finalized in 2006. Instead, a new project, Fast Reactor Cycle Technology Development Project (FaCT Project) was launched in Japan focusing on development of the selected concepts. This paper describes the current status and perspective of the advanced loop type SFR system in the FaCT Project, especially on the design requirements, current design as well as the related innovative technologies together with the development road-map. Some considerations on advantages of the advanced loop type design are also described. (authors)

  7. RAPD markers for screening shoot gall maker (Betousa stylophora Swinhoe tolerant genotypes of amla (Phyllanthus emblica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sethuraman Thilaga

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Phyllanthus emblica Linn. is the most important medicinally useful tree crop in Asian Subcontinent and is severely infested by Betousa stylophora Swinhoe, known as shoot gall maker (SGM. This pest tunnels the shoots of seedlings and actively growing branches of trees and develops gall, leading to stunted growth, unusual branching and death of actively growing shoots. Our study revealed that trees possessing smooth bark were free from the attack of this pest than those with rough bark surface. Unfortunately, this character is not detectable either at seedling stage or during early growth of trees in the orchard. RAPD genetic fingerprinting of trees possessing smooth and rough bark revealed distinguishable and highly reproducible DNA banding pattern between the two genotypes. Of the 20 RAPD primers tested, five of them produced distinguishable RAPD bands between rough and smooth barked genotypes of P. emblica. Trees with smooth bark produced five unique RAPD bands with molecular weight ranging from 350 bp to 1500 bp and those with rough bark produced six RAPD bands (350 bp–650 bp to utilize these DNA bands as potential DNA marker for screening tolerant genotypes of this crop against SGM. The utility of this finding in genetic improvement of this tree crop against SGM is discussed.

  8. Selection and Clonal Propagation of High Artemisinin Genotypes of Artemisia annua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzstein, Hazel Y.; Porter, Justin A.; Janick, Jules; Ferreira, Jorge F. S.; Mutui, Theophilus M.

    2018-01-01

    Artemisinin, produced in the glandular trichomes of Artemisia annua L. is a vital antimalarial drug effective against Plasmodium falciparum resistant to quinine-derived medicines. Although work has progressed on the semi-synthetic production of artemisinin, field production of A. annua remains the principal commercial source of the compound. Crop production of artemisia must be increased to meet the growing worldwide demand for artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) to treat malaria. Grower artemisinin yields rely on plants generated from seeds from open-pollinated parents. Although selection has considerably increased plant artemisinin concentration in the past 15 years, seed-generated plants have highly variable artemisinin content that lowers artemisinin yield per hectare. Breeding efforts to produce improved F1 hybrids have been hampered by the inability to produce inbred lines due to self-incompatibility. An approach combining conventional hybridization and selection with clonal propagation of superior genotypes is proposed as a means to enhance crop yield and artemisinin production. Typical seed-propagated artemisia plants produce less than 1% (dry weight) artemisinin with yields below 25 kg/ha. Genotypes were identified producing high artemisinin levels of over 2% and possessing improved agronomic characteristics such as high leaf area and shoot biomass production. Field studies of clonally-propagated high-artemisinin plants verified enhanced plant uniformity and an estimated gross primary productivity of up to 70 kg/ha artemisinin, with a crop density of one plant m-2. Tissue culture and cutting protocols for the mass clonal propagation of A. annua were developed for shoot regeneration, rooting, acclimatization, and field cultivation. Proof of concept studies showed that both tissue culture-regenerated plants and rooted cutting performed better than plants derived from seed in terms of uniformity, yield, and consistently high artemisinin content. Use of

  9. Impact of inter-genotypic recombination and probe cross-reactivity on the performance of the Abbott RealTime HCV Genotype II assay for hepatitis C genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Siddharth; Yip, Cyril C Y; Chan, Jasper F W; To, Kelvin K W; Cheng, Vincent C C; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2018-05-01

    The Abbott RealTime HCV Genotype II assay (Abbott-RT-HCV assay) is a real-time PCR based genotyping method for hepatitis C virus (HCV). This study measured the impact of inter-genotypic recombination and probe cross-reactivity on the performance of the Abbott-RT-HCV assay. 517 samples were genotyped using the Abbott-RT-HCV assay over a one-year period, 34 (6.6%) were identified as HCV genotype 1 without further subtype designation raising the possibility of inaccurate genotyping. These samples were subjected to confirmatory sequencing. 27 of these 34 (79%) samples were genotype 1b while five (15%) were genotype 6. One HCV isolate was an inter-genotypic 1a/4o recombinant. This is a novel natural HCV recombinant that has never been reported. Inter-genotypic recombination and probe cross-reactivity can affect the accuracy of the Abbott-RT-HCV assay, both of which have significant implications on antiviral regimen choice. Confirmatory sequencing of ambiguous results is crucial for accurate genotyping. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Growth data - Development and optimization of grow out diets for sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Our experience with juvenile sablefish and long term rearing of broodstock indicate that salmon grower feeds currently used by commercial sablefish farmers for grow...

  11. Evaluation of the Abbott Real Time HCV genotype II assay for Hepatitis C virus genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariguzel, Fatma Mutlu; Berk, Elife; Gokahmetoglu, Selma; Ercal, Baris Derya; Celik, Ilhami

    2015-01-01

    The determination of HCV genotypes and subtypes is very important for the selection of antiviral therapy and epidemiological studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of Abbott Real Time HCV Genotype II assay in HCV genotyping of HCV infected patients in Kayseri, Turkey. One hundred patients with chronic hepatitis C admitted to our hospital were evaluated between June 2012 and December 2012, HCV RNA levels were determined by the COBAS® AmpliPrep/COBAS® TaqMan® 48 HCV test. HCV genotyping was investigated by the Abbott Real Time HCV Genotype II assay. With the exception of genotype 1, subtypes of HCV genotypes could not be determined by Abbott assay. Sequencing analysis was used as the reference method. Genotypes 1, 2, 3 and 4 were observed in 70, 4, 2 and 24 of the 100 patients, respectively, by two methods. The concordance between the two systems to determine HCV major genotypes was 100%. Of 70 patients with genotype 1, 66 showed infection with subtype 1b and 4 with subtype 1a by Abbott Real Time HCV Genotype II assay. Using sequence analysis, 61 showed infection with subtype 1b and 9 with subtype 1a. In determining of HCV genotype 1 subtypes, the difference between the two methods was not statistically significant (P>0.05). HCV genotype 4 and 3 samples were found to be subtype 4d and 3a, respectively, by sequence analysis. There were four patients with genotype 2. Sequence analysis revealed that two of these patients had type 2a and the other two had type 2b. The Abbott Real Time HCV Genotype II assay yielded results consistent with sequence analysis. However, further optimization of the Abbott Real Time HCV Genotype II assay for subtype identification of HCV is required.

  12. Evaluation of a Chlamydia trachomatis-specific, commercial, real-time PCR for use with ocular swabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Harry; Holland, Martin J; Last, Anna R; Burton, Matthew J; Burr, Sarah E

    2018-02-20

    Trachoma, the leading infectious cause of blindness worldwide, is caused by conjunctival Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Trachoma is diagnosed clinically by observation of conjunctival inflammation and/or scarring; however, there is evidence that monitoring C. trachomatis infection may be required for elimination programmes. There are many commercial and 'in-house' nucleic acid amplification tests for the detection of C. trachomatis DNA, but the majority have not been validated for use with ocular swabs. This study evaluated a commercial assay, the Fast-Track Vaginal swab kit, using conjunctival samples from trachoma-endemic areas. An objective, biostatistical-based method for binary classification of continuous PCR data was developed, to limit potential user-bias in diagnostic settings. The Fast-Track Vaginal swab assay was run on 210 ocular swab samples from Guinea-Bissau and Tanzania. Fit of individual amplification curves to exponential or sigmoid models, derivative and second derivative of the curves and final fluorescence value were examined for utility in thresholding for determining positivity. The results from the Fast-Track Vaginal swab assay were evaluated against a commercial test (Amplicor CT/NG) and a non-commercial test (in-house droplet digital PCR), both of whose performance has previously been evaluated. Significant evidence of exponential amplification (R 2  > 0.99) and final fluorescence > 0.15 were combined for thresholding. This objective approach identified a population of positive samples, however there were a subset of samples that amplified towards the end of the cycling protocol (at or later than 35 cycles), which were less clearly defined. The Fast-Track Vaginal swab assay showed good sensitivity against the commercial (95.71) and non-commercial (97.18) tests. Specificity was lower against both (90.00 and 96.55, respectively). This study defined a simple, automated protocol for binary classification of continuous, real-time q

  13. Fruit-Growing in Latvia – Industry and Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaufmane Edīte

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In all times, fruit trees for family use have been grown at Latvian farms. Yet these fruits obtained market value only after the land ownership reform in 19th century. This facilitated rapid area increase of different fruit crops, allowing supply with fruits not only the local market, but also for export to the largest cities of Russia. Especially fast development of fruit-growing was observed during the first independent republic (1919–1940. The demand for planting material increased, and plants were imported from Western Europe. Choice of unsuitable cultivars and rootstocks was the main reason of the massive orchard area loss during the following severe winters. After the Second World War, the Soviet powers supported only the establishment of large orchards for processing needs, 200-300 ha, which were unsuitable for the Latvian climate and terrain. At the same time, numbers of allotment gardens rapidly increased and part of their produce was sold also on the market. After regaining of independence and private property, interest in fresh fruit and berry production for market, as well as processing, renewed. It was hindered by lack of continuity in experience and knowledge. Diversity of terrain, soils and climate all demand considerate choice of suitable orchard location and cultivars. Direct use of foreign experience often led to failure. At present, development of the fruit industry is most of all hindered by lack of qualified specialists of different levels, which does not allow to establish an appropriate consulting system. Cooperation of growers for easier marketing also is developing too slowly. Insufficient economic and market research does not allow to balance the demand with increase of plantation area, especially for large-scale processing and export, so strategic guidance of the fruit industry is not possible. Development of fruit-growing is hindered also by a lack of continuous long-term support to horticultural science. As a

  14. A review of the UK fast reactor programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, R.C.; Bramman, J.I.

    1988-04-01

    The fast reactor programme in the United Kindom is reviewed under the following headings: Progress with PFR; Reprocessing: Commercial Design Studies; Structural Integrity; Engineering and Components; Materials; Sodium Chemistry; Core and Fuel; Safety; Plant Performance. (author)

  15. Genotype Reconstruction of Paternity in European Lobsters (Homarus gammarus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Charlie D; Hodgson, David J; André, Carl; Sørdalen, Tonje K; Knutsen, Halvor; Griffiths, Amber G F

    2015-01-01

    Decapod crustaceans exhibit considerable variation in fertilisation strategies, ranging from pervasive single paternity to the near-ubiquitous presence of multiple paternity, and such knowledge of mating systems and behaviour are required for the informed management of commercially-exploited marine fisheries. We used genetic markers to assess the paternity of individual broods in the European lobster, Homarus gammarus, a species for which paternity structure is unknown. Using 13 multiplexed microsatellite loci, three of which are newly described in this study, we genotyped 10 eggs from each of 34 females collected from an Atlantic peninsula in the south-western United Kingdom. Single reconstructed paternal genotypes explained all observed progeny genotypes in each of the 34 egg clutches, and each clutch was fertilised by a different male. Simulations indicated that the probability of detecting multiple paternity was in excess of 95% if secondary sires account for at least a quarter of the brood, and in excess of 99% where additional sire success was approximately equal. Our results show that multiple paternal fertilisations are either absent, unusual, or highly skewed in favour of a single male among H. gammarus in this area. Potential mechanisms upholding single paternal fertilisation are discussed, along with the prospective utility of parentage assignments in evaluations of hatchery stocking and other fishery conservation approaches in light of this finding.

  16. Genotype Reconstruction of Paternity in European Lobsters (Homarus gammarus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlie D Ellis

    Full Text Available Decapod crustaceans exhibit considerable variation in fertilisation strategies, ranging from pervasive single paternity to the near-ubiquitous presence of multiple paternity, and such knowledge of mating systems and behaviour are required for the informed management of commercially-exploited marine fisheries. We used genetic markers to assess the paternity of individual broods in the European lobster, Homarus gammarus, a species for which paternity structure is unknown. Using 13 multiplexed microsatellite loci, three of which are newly described in this study, we genotyped 10 eggs from each of 34 females collected from an Atlantic peninsula in the south-western United Kingdom. Single reconstructed paternal genotypes explained all observed progeny genotypes in each of the 34 egg clutches, and each clutch was fertilised by a different male. Simulations indicated that the probability of detecting multiple paternity was in excess of 95% if secondary sires account for at least a quarter of the brood, and in excess of 99% where additional sire success was approximately equal. Our results show that multiple paternal fertilisations are either absent, unusual, or highly skewed in favour of a single male among H. gammarus in this area. Potential mechanisms upholding single paternal fertilisation are discussed, along with the prospective utility of parentage assignments in evaluations of hatchery stocking and other fishery conservation approaches in light of this finding.

  17. A comparison of radioactive waste from first generation fusion reactors and fast fission reactors with actinide recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, M.; Kazimi, M.S.

    1991-04-01

    Limitations of the fission fuel resources will presumably mandate the replacement of thermal fission reactors by fast fission reactors that operate on a self-sufficient closed fuel cycle. This replacement might take place within the next one hundred years, so the direct competitors of fusion reactors will be fission reactors of the latter rather than the former type. Also, fast fission reactors, in contrast to thermal fission reactors, have the potential for transmuting long-lived actinides into short-lived fission products. The associated reduction of the long-term activation of radioactive waste due to actinides makes the comparison of radioactive waste from fast fission reactors to that from fusion reactors more rewarding than the comparison of radioactive waste from thermal fission reactors to that from fusion reactors. Radioactive waste from an experimental and a commercial fast fission reactor and an experimental and a commercial fusion reactor has been characterized. The fast fission reactors chosen for this study were the Experimental Breeder Reactor 2 and the Integral Fast Reactor. The fusion reactors chosen for this study were the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor and a Reduced Activation Ferrite Helium Tokamak. The comparison of radioactive waste parameters shows that radioactive waste from the experimental fast fission reactor may be less hazardous than that from the experimental fusion reactor. Inclusion of the actinides would reverse this conclusion only in the long-term. Radioactive waste from the commercial fusion reactor may always be less hazardous than that from the commercial fast fission reactor, irrespective of the inclusion or exclusion of the actinides. The fusion waste would even be far less hazardous, if advanced structural materials, like silicon carbide or vanadium alloy, were employed

  18. A comparison of radioactive waste from first generation fusion reactors and fast fission reactors with actinide recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, M.; Kazimi, M.S.

    1991-04-01

    Limitations of the fission fuel resources will presumably mandate the replacement of thermal fission reactors by fast fission reactors that operate on a self-sufficient closed fuel cycle. This replacement might take place within the next one hundred years, so the direct competitors of fusion reactors will be fission reactors of the latter rather than the former type. Also, fast fission reactors, in contrast to thermal fission reactors, have the potential for transmuting long-lived actinides into short-lived fission products. The associated reduction of the long-term activation of radioactive waste due to actinides makes the comparison of radioactive waste from fast fission reactors to that from fusion reactors more rewarding than the comparison of radioactive waste from thermal fission reactors to that from fusion reactors. Radioactive waste from an experimental and a commercial fast fission reactor and an experimental and a commercial fusion reactor has been characterized. The fast fission reactors chosen for this study were the Experimental Breeder Reactor 2 and the Integral Fast Reactor. The fusion reactors chosen for this study were the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor and a Reduced Activation Ferrite Helium Tokamak. The comparison of radioactive waste parameters shows that radioactive waste from the experimental fast fission reactor may be less hazardous than that from the experimental fusion reactor. Inclusion of the actinides would reverse this conclusion only in the long-term. Radioactive waste from the commercial fusion reactor may always be less hazardous than that from the commercial fast fission reactor, irrespective of the inclusion or exclusion of the actinides. The fusion waste would even be far less hazardous, if advanced structural materials, like silicon carbide or vanadium alloy, were employed.

  19. Direct Fast-Neutron Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DC Stromswold; AJ Peurrung; RR Hansen; PL Reeder

    2000-01-01

    Direct fast-neutron detection is the detection of fast neutrons before they are moderated to thermal energy. We have investigated two approaches for using proton-recoil in plastic scintillators to detect fast neutrons and distinguish them from gamma-ray interactions. Both approaches use the difference in travel speed between neutrons and gamma rays as the basis for separating the types of events. In the first method, we examined the pulses generated during scattering in a plastic scintillator to see if they provide a means for distinguishing fast-neutron events from gamma-ray events. The slower speed of neutrons compared to gamma rays results in the production of broader pulses when neutrons scatter several times within a plastic scintillator. In contrast, gamma-ray interactions should produce narrow pulses, even if multiple scattering takes place, because the time between successive scattering is small. Experiments using a fast scintillator confirmed the presence of broader pulses from neutrons than from gamma rays. However, the difference in pulse widths between neutrons and gamma rays using the best commercially available scintillators was not sufficiently large to provide a practical means for distinguishing fast neutrons and gamma rays on a pulse-by-pulse basis. A faster scintillator is needed, and that scintillator might become available in the literature. Results of the pulse-width studies were presented in a previous report (peurrung et al. 1998), and they are only summarized here

  20. The angiotensin converting enzyme insertion/deletion polymorphism and differences in fasting plasma glucose in Hindustani Surinamese, African Surinamese and ethnic Dutch: the population-based SUNSET-study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Valkengoed, Irene G. M.; Stronks, Karien; Hahntow, Ines N.; Hoekstra, Joost B. L.; Holleman, Frits

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the association between the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion polymorphism and glycemic state. Diabetes mellitus, impaired fasting glucose and mean fasting glucose were not associated with genotype among Hindustani Surinamese, African Surinamese and Dutch

  1. Study of earliness in commercial cotton (G. hirsutum L) genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, R.; Arshad, M.; Khan, M.I.; Afzal, M.

    2003-01-01

    The research work was conducted at Central Cotton Research Institute (CCRI), Multan during the normal crop growing season 2002-03, including fourteen varieties, (thirteen from Punjab and one from Sindh province) with the aim to find out the earliness in the said varieties. From the experimental results it is concluded that CIM-443 produced significantly lowest main stem node number of first sympodial branch (4.6) followed by CIM-240 and Krishma (5.7). while the highest main stem node bearing first sympodial branch number was recorded in variety CIM-1100. The less number of days to first flower was taken by variety CIM-443 followed by CIM-240, while the more number of days were recorded in variety CIM-1100. Therefore, it is concluded that CIM-443 is the earliest maturing variety among all the fourteen varieties.(author)

  2. Sodium fast reactors with closed fuel cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Raj, Baldev; Vasudeva Rao, PR 0

    2015-01-01

    Sodium Fast Reactors with Closed Fuel Cycle delivers a detailed discussion of an important technology that is being harnessed for commercial energy production in many parts of the world. Presenting the state of the art of sodium-cooled fast reactors with closed fuel cycles, this book:Offers in-depth coverage of reactor physics, materials, design, safety analysis, validations, engineering, construction, and commissioning aspectsFeatures a special chapter on allied sciences to highlight advanced reactor core materials, specialized manufacturing technologies, chemical sensors, in-service inspecti

  3. Mobile dune fixation by a fast-growing clonal plant : a full life-cycle analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Shou-Li; Yu, Fei-Hai; Werger, Marinus J A; Dong, Ming; During, Heinjo J; Zuidema, Pieter A

    2015-01-01

    Desertification is a global environmental problem, and arid dunes with sparse vegetation are especially vulnerable to desertification. One way to combat desertification is to increase vegetation cover by planting plant species that can realize fast population expansion, even in harsh environments.

  4. Mobile dune fixation by a fast-growing clonal plant: a full life-cycle analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werger, M.J.A.; During, H.J.; Zuidema, P.A.

    2015-01-01

    Desertification is a global environmental problem, and arid dunes with sparse vegetation are especially vulnerable to desertification. One way to combat desertification is to increase vegetation cover by planting plant species that can realize fast population expansion, even in harsh environments.

  5. Fast-food marketing strategies and their impact on childhood obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Herédia, Afonso; Hipólito, João; Nunes, Odete; Ribeiro, Luisa; Moura, Tatiana; Laneiro, Tito

    2017-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are growing health problems in children. The increase in fast-food consumption has greatly contributed to this phenomenon. Children are a frequent target for fast-food advertising, and the television is one of the most used marketing channels. We assessed the frequency of fast-food ingestion, television viewing time and body mass index (BMI) in children from 8 to 12 years of age. A quantitative approach was followed, using a self-report questionnaire. The sample was com...

  6. Varietals resistance and susceptibility in mustard (brassica campestris l.) genotypes against aphid myzus persicae (sulzer) (homoptera: aphididae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwar, M.; Ahmad, N.; Khan, G.Z.; Tofique, M.

    2009-01-01

    The exploitation of resistant cultivars is an imperative, simple, practical and flexible way to cope with insect pests incidence. Thirty genotypes of mustard (Brassica campestris L.) were tested for their resistance and susceptibility to aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) exposed under natural field conditions. Data on pest tolerance of genotypes were judged by quantitative traits such as number of aphids on each infested plant and mean dry weight of seeds per genotype. Studies observed the discrepancy in overall rates of pest invasion and seed yield contained by trailed mustard genotypes. Agati sarson (P), S-9-S-97-100/45 and S-9-S-97-100/45 were the least damaged genotypes showing their moderate resistance. Amongst other genotypes, MM-I/01-5, MM-I285 and MM-I/01-6 were the most damaged showing oversensitive response. Although the majority of genotypes were found vulnerable to pest, Agati sarson (P) and S-9-S-97-100/45 due to their lowest hypersensitive response toward aphid contamination and increased pods yield could be used for the development of essential resistance in mustard plant. A marked mode of damage inflicted by aphid on the crop was noticed and the abiotic factors contributing variations in aphid infestation levels during both growing seasons were determined. Knowledge about the host plant resistance investigated can facilitate growers to choose the most appropriate cultivars as pest control strategy. (author)

  7. Evaluations of sugarcane genotypes for yields and yield contributing traits under Thatta conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panhwar, R.N.; Keerio, H.K.

    2004-01-01

    Performance of twelve sugarcane genotypes viz. Th-7, Th-9, Th-10, Th-12, Th-14, Th-18, Th-23, Th-27, Th-31, Th-32, Th-33 and Th-34 developed from local fuzz along with two check varieties BL-4 and BF-129 was studied in advance varietal selection trial at National Sugar Crops Research Institute, Thatta during 2000-2001. Data were recorded for cane girth, number of internodes/stalk, stalk height, mill able cane/m/sup 2/, cane yield t/ha and brix percentage. On the basis of over all performance three genotypes namely Th-34, Th-10 and Th-33 were found promising and produced highest average cane yield 116, 115 and 112 t/ha, respectively against the check varieties BL-4 (110 t/ha) and BF-129 (98.5 t/ha). The average Brix values recorded for Th-10, Th-34 and Th-33 were 23.7, 23.2 and 22.9%, respectively against the check verities BL-4 (21.8%) and BF-129 (22.8%). Thus it was conclude, that genotypes Th-34, Th-10 and Tb-33 might prove best commercial varieties in future. However, potential of these genotypes need to be tested in different environmental conditions to elicit substantial conclusions. (author)

  8. Radiation therapy with fast neutrons: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.T.L.; Wambersie, A.

    2007-01-01

    Because of their biological effects fast neutrons are most effective in treating large, slow-growing tumours which are resistant to conventional X-radiation. Patients are treated typically 3-4 times per week for 4-5 weeks (sometimes in combination with X-radiation) for a variety of conditions such as carcinomas of the head and neck, salivary gland, paranasal sinus and breast; soft tissue, bone and uterine sarcomas and malignant melanomas. It is estimated that about 27,000 patients have undergone fast neutron therapy to date

  9. Application of the GIF PR and PP methodology to a commercial fast reactor system for a preliminary analysis of PR scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, Fabiana

    2015-01-01

    The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection (PR and PP) Working Group has developed a methodology for the PR and PP evaluation of the next generation Nuclear Energy Systems (NESs). Following the methodology proposed by the working group, applicable to assessing the proliferation resistance of an NES and its individual elements, the main objective of this work is to apply the methodology to show an example of how its results could be used by designers to improve the PR of the system. In this study, the reactor site of a hypothetical and commercial sodium‑cooled fast neutron nuclear reactor system (SFR) was used as the target NES for the application of the methodology. The design of this SFR is based on the layout of the Japanese Sodium Fast Reactor (JSFR) with a safeguards design based on the safeguards approach of the Japanese prototype fast breeder reactor Monju. The methodology is applied to all the PR scenarios described in the methodology: diversion, misuse and breakout. The methodology was first applied to the SFR to check if this system meets the target of PR as described in the GIF goal; secondly, a comparison between the SFR and a light water reactor (LWR) with an open fuel cycle was performed to evaluate if and how it would be possible to improve the PR and PP of the SFR. The LWR layout is based on the European Pressurized Water Reactor. The comparison was implemented according to the following example development target: achieving proliferation resistance to material diversion similar or superior to domestic and international advanced LWR. Three main actions were performed: implement the evaluation methodology based on its assumptions; characterize the PR and PP for the nuclear energy system applying the methodology to the SFR; and identify recommendations for system designers through comparing the SFR with the LWR.

  10. Using artificial neural networks to select upright cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) genotypes with high productivity and phenotypic stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, L M A; Teodoro, P E; Nascimento, M; Torres, F E; Nascimento, A C C; Azevedo, C F; Teixeira, F R F

    2016-11-03

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is grown in three Brazilian regions: the Midwest, North, and Northeast, and is consumed by people on low incomes. It is important to investigate the genotype x environment (GE) interaction to provide accurate recommendations for farmers. The aim of this study was to identify cowpea genotypes with high adaptability and phenotypic stability for growing in the Brazilian Cerrado, and to compare the use of artificial neural networks with the Eberhart and Russell (1966) method. Six trials with upright cowpea genotypes were conducted in 2005 and 2006 in the States of Mato Grosso do Sul and Mato Grosso. The data were subjected to adaptability and stability analysis by the Eberhart and Russell (1966) method and artificial neural networks. The genotypes MNC99-537F-4 and EVX91-2E-2 provided grain yields above the overall environment means, and exhibited high stability according to both methods. Genotype IT93K-93-10 was the most suitable for unfavorable environments. There was a high correlation between the results of both methods in terms of classifying the genotypes by their adaptability and stability. Therefore, this new approach would be effective in quantifying the GE interaction in upright cowpea breeding programs.

  11. Fast reactor physics at CEA: present studies and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, P.

    1980-09-01

    This paper aims at giving a general survey of the fast reactor core physics and shielding studies wich are in progress at CEA (1979-1983) in order to solve the neutronic problems related to: - core design optimization, - reactor operation and fuel management, - safety, for the development of fast commercial breeders in France after the SUPER-PHENIX 1 construction is achieved

  12. Understanding properties of commercial OSB products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqun Wang; Hongmei Gu; Trairat Neimsuwan

    2004-01-01

    Oriented strandboard (OSB) has gained increased market acceptance as a construction material in almost all geographical areas of Canada and United States. With its growing market, more and more research has been focused on the product’s manufacturing and performance. Commercial OSB products in U.S. and Canada are produced from different manufacturers with different...

  13. Study on genotypic variation for ethanol production from sweet sorghum juice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratnavathi, C.V.; Suresh, K.; Kumar, B.S. Vijay; Pallavi, M.; Komala, V.V.; Seetharama, N. [Directorate of Sorghum Research, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad 500030, Andhra Pradesh (India)

    2010-07-15

    Sugarcane molasses is the main source for ethanol production in India. Sweet sorghum with its juicy stem containing sugars equivalent to that of sugarcane is a very good alternative for bio-ethanol production to meet the energy needs of the country. Sweet sorghum is drought resistant, water logging resistant and saline-alkaline tolerant. Growing sweet sorghum for ethanol production is relatively easy and economical and ethanol produced from sweet sorghum is eco-friendly. In view of this, it is important to identify superior genotypes for ethanol production in terms of percent juice brix, juice extractability, total fermentable sugars, ethanol yield and fermentation efficiency. This paper presents the study on the variability observed for the production of ethanol by various sweet sorghum genotypes in a laboratory fermentor. Five Sweet Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) genotypes were evaluated for ethanol production from stalk juice (Keller, SSV 84, Wray, NSSH 104 and BJ 248). Sweet sorghum juice differs from cane juice mainly in its higher content of starch and aconitic acid. Data were collected for biomass yield; stalk sugar yield and ethanol production in five genotypes. Maximum ethanol production of 9.0%w/v ethanol was obtained with Keller variety (20% sugar concentration was used), and decreased for other genotypes. A distiller's strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (gifted by Seagram Distilleries Ltd.) was employed for fermentation. The fermentation efficiency (FE) was 94.7% for this strain. High biomass of yeast was obtained with BJ 248 variety. When the similar experiments were conducted with unsterile sweet sorghum juice (15% sugar concentration) 6.47%w/v ethanol was produced. (author)

  14. Effects of food on a gastrically degraded drug: azithromycin fast-dissolving gelatin capsules and HPMC capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curatolo, William; Liu, Ping; Johnson, Barbara A; Hausberger, Angela; Quan, Ernest; Vendola, Thomas; Vatsaraj, Neha; Foulds, George; Vincent, John; Chandra, Richa

    2011-07-01

    Commercial azithromycin gelatin capsules (Zithromax®) are known to be bioequivalent to commercial azithromycin tablets (Zithromax®) when dosed in the fasted state. These capsules exhibit a reduced bioavailability when dosed in the fed state, while tablets do not. This gelatin capsule negative food effect was previously proposed to be due to slow and/or delayed capsule disintegration in the fed stomach, resulting in extended exposure of the drug to gastric acid, leading to degradation to des-cladinose-azithromycin (DCA). Azithromycin gelatin capsules were formulated with "superdisintegrants" to provide fast-dissolving capsules, and HPMC capsule shells were substituted for gelatin capsule shells, in an effort to eliminate the food effect. Healthy volunteers were dosed with these dosage forms under fasted and fed conditions; pharmacokinetics were evaluated. DCA pharmacokinetics were also evaluated for the HPMC capsule subjects. In vitro disintegration of azithromycin HPMC capsules in media containing food was evaluated and compared with commercial tablets and commercial gelatin capsules. When the two fast-dissolving capsule formulations were dosed to fed subjects, the azithromycin AUC was 38.9% and 52.1% lower than after fasted-state dosing. When HPMC capsules were dosed to fed subjects, the azithromycin AUC was 65.5% lower than after fasted-state dosing. For HPMC capsules, the absolute fasting-state to fed-state decrease in azithromycin AUC (on a molar basis) was similar to the increase in DCA AUC. In vitro capsule disintegration studies revealed extended disintegration times for commercial azithromycin gelatin capsules and HPMC capsules in media containing the liquid foods milk and Ensure®. Interaction of azithromycin gelatin and HPMC capsules with food results in slowed disintegration in vitro and decreased bioavailability in vivo. Concurrent measurement of serum azithromycin and the acid-degradation product DCA demonstrates that the loss of azithromycin

  15. Genotype 3 is the predominant hepatitis C genotype in a multi-ethnic Asian population in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Shiaw-Hooi; Ng, Kee-Peng; Kaur, Harvinder; Goh, Khean-Lee

    2015-06-01

    Genotypes of hepatitis C virus (HCV) are distributed differently across the world. There is a paucity of such data in a multi-ethnic Asian population like Malaysia. The objectives of this study were to determine the distribution of HCV genotypes between major ethnic groups and to ascertain their association with basic demographic variables like age and gender. This was a cross-sectional prospective study conducted from September 2007 to September 2013. Consecutive patients who were detected to have anti-HCV antibodies in the University of Malaya Medical Centre were included and tested for the presence of HCV RNA using Roche Cobas Amplicor Analyzer and HCV genotype using Roche single Linear Array HCV Genotyping strip. Five hundred and ninety-six subjects were found to have positive anti-HCV antibodies during this period of time. However, only 396 (66.4%) were HCV RNA positive and included in the final analysis. Our results showed that HCV genotype 3 was the predominant genotype with overall frequency of 61.9% followed by genotypes 1 (35.9%), 2 (1.8%) and 6 (0.5%). There was a slightly higher prevalence of HCV genotype 3 among the Malays when compared to the Chinese (P=0.043). No other statistical significant differences were observed in the distribution of HCV genotypes among the major ethnic groups. There was also no association between the predominant genotypes and basic demographic variables. In a multi-ethnic Asian society in Malaysia, genotype 3 is the predominant genotype among all the major ethnic groups with genotype 1 as the second commonest genotype. Both genotypes 2 and 6 are uncommon. Neither genotype 4 nor 5 was detected. There is no identification of HCV genotype according to ethnic origin, age and gender.

  16. A Review of the UK Fast Reactor Programme: March 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.D.

    1980-01-01

    Towards the end of 1979 the Government announced a new programme of thermal reactor stations to be built over ten years (totalling 15GW), in addition to the two AGR stations at Torness and Heysham 'B' which had been approved by the previous Government. The first station of the new programme will be based on a Westinghouse PWR, subject to safety clearance and the outcome of a public inquiry, and it is envisaged that the remaining stations of the programme would be split between PWRs and AGRs. The AEA Chairman wrote formally to the Secretary of State for Energy in December 1979, putting forward on behalf of the Electricity Supply Authorities, NNC, BNFL and the AEA a recommended strategy for building the Commercial Demonstration Fast Reactor (CDFR), subject to normal licensing procedure and to public inquiry, so as to ensure that the key options for introducing commercial fast reactors, when required, should remain open. A Government statement is expected during the next few months. Meanwhile the level of effort on fast reactor research and development in the UK has been maintained, the fast reactor remaining the largest of the UKAEA's reactor development projects with expenditure totalling somewhat over £80M per annum. The main feature of the UK fast reactor programme has continued to be the operation of PFR (Sections 2 and 7) which is yielding a wealth of experience and of information relevant to the design of commercial fast reactors. Bum-up of standard driver fuel has reached 6-7% by heavy atoms, while specially enriched lead fuel pins have reached 11 % without failure. An extensive programme of work in the reactor and its associated steam plant was completed in March 1980 and the reactor then started its fifth power run. The fuel reprocessing plant at DNE is being commissioned and has reprocessed some of the spent fuel remaining from the DFR. It will start soon on reprocessing fuel discharged from the PFR. During the year improvements to the design of the future

  17. Maturity stages affect the postharvest quality and shelf-life of fruits of strawberry genotypes growing in subtropical regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Moshiur Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The postharvest changes of five promising strawberry genotypes viz. Sweet Charlie, Festival, Camarosa, FA 008 and BARI Strawberry-1 at ambient temperature were studied under sub tropical region during the winter season (December–April of 2010–2011 and 2011–2012 in Bangladesh. Irrespective of maturity stages percent fruit decay and weight of fruits were noted minimum in Camarosa and maximum in FA 008 up to day 4 of storage. The shelf life of fruits was maximum in Camarosa and minimum in FA 008 and BARI Strawberry-1 regardless of maturity stage throughout the storage period. The TSS, total sugar and ascorbic acid content of fruits were increased with the increase in maturity stage during the storage period. In 1/3rd and 2/3rd maturity stages, the TSS and total sugar content were found the highest in Festival but at full maturity stage those were recorded higher in Camarosa. The titratable acidity was noticed the highest in 1/3rd matured fruits and gradually decreased with the increase in maturity stage as well as storage duration in all the genotypes. Ascorbic acid content of strawberry gradually decreases during the storage period. Fully matured fresh fruits of Festival contained maximum ascorbic acid content while BARI Strawberry-1 contained minimum ascorbic acid that was reduced after 3 days of storage.

  18. RBEC lead-bismuth cooled fast reactor: review of conceptual decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, P.; Fomichenko, P.; Mikityuk, K.; Nevinitsa, V.; Shchepetina, T.; Subbotin, S.; Vasiliev, A.

    2001-01-01

    A concept of the RBEC lead-bismuth fast reactor-breeder is a synthesis, on one hand, of more than 40-year experience in development and operation of fast sodium power reactors and reactors with Pb-Bi coolant for nuclear submarines, and, on the other hand, of large R and D activities on development of the core concept for modified fast sodium reactor. The report briefly presents main parameters of the RBEC reactor, as a candidate for commercial exploitation in structure of the future nuclear power. (author)

  19. Design, construction and operating experience of demonstration LMFBRs. The application of core and fuel performance experience in British reactors to commercial fast reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagley, K.Q.

    1978-01-01

    The Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) sub-assembly design is described with particular emphasis on the choice of factors that are important in determining satisfactory performance. Reasons for the adoption of specific clad and fuel design details are given in their historical context, and irradiation experience - mostly from the Dounreay Fast Reactor (DFR) - in support of the choices is described. The implications of factors that are now better understood than when the PFR fuel was designed, notably neutron-induced void swelling and irradiation creep, are then considered. It is shown that the 'free-standing' core design used in PFR, in which the sub-assembly is unsupported above the level of the lower axial breeder, relies on the availability of low-swelling, preferably irradiation-creep-resistant alloys as sub-assembly structural materials in order to achieve the prescribed burn-up target. The advantages of a 'restrained core', which makes use of irradiation creep to redress the effects of material swelling, are noted briefly, and the application of this concept to the Commercial Demonstration Fast Reactor (CDFR) core design is described. Probable future trends in pin and sub-assembly design are reviewed and the scope of associated irradiation testing programmes defined. Arrangements for monitoring and evaluating fuel performance, both in reactor and post-irradiation, are outlined and the provisions for endorsement of CDFR pin, sub-assembly and core design details in PFR are indicated. (author)

  20. New Phenomenon of Commercial Corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Nowakowski

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is about increase corruption in private sector as commercial corruption. This establishes a wide understanding of that phenomenon in social science and law. Corruption and bribery are types of fraud and are linked with the private sector too. Although certain types of corruption will decline as the private sector grows and consolidates, other new types involving private sector firms may increase. The commercial corruption can be described as relation inside of an organization and as relation between firms. Corruption in private sector in Poland is connected with social distrust and specific organizational culture, too. Commercial corruption is a familiar feature of their societies and has been the focus of law enforcement and institutional reform. Many others problems do not change the fact that such corruption is a new important problem and causes lost of competitiveness and creates a substitute for fair market and competition in Polish economy and abroad.

  1. Mistaken identity: Legionella micdadei appearing as acid-fast bacilli on lung biopsy of a hematopoietic stem cell transplant patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, P R; Martin, B A; Ho, D Y

    2015-02-01

    Legionella micdadei is a potential cause of invasive lung infections in immunocompromised hosts. On biopsy specimens, it can appear as an acid-fast bacillus (AFB) and can be mistaken for a member of genus Mycobacterium. As Legionella requires selective media to grow in culture, and the commonly used, commercially available urine antigen test for Legionella only detects Legionella pneumophila serogroup-1, but not L. micdadei, it is important to consider this organism in the differential diagnosis for AFB in immunocompromised hosts. We report a case of L. micdadei infection, which was initially treated empirically for non-tuberculous mycobacteria based on AFB staining of biopsy tissue before the final diagnosis was made. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Fast Growing Plantations for Wood Production - Integration of Ecological Effects and Economic Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredemeier, Michael; Busch, Gerald; Hartmann, Linda; Jansen, Martin; Richter, Falk; Lamersdorf, Norbert P

    2015-01-01

    Biomass crops are perceived as a feasible means to substitute sizeable amounts of fossil fuel in the future. A prospect of CO2 reduction (resp. CO2 neutrality) is credited to biomass fuels, and thus a potential contribution to mitigate climate change. Short rotation coppices (SRCs) with fast growing poplar and willow trees are an option for producing high yields of woody biomass, which is suitable for both energetic and material use. One negative effect that comes along with the establishment of SRC may be a decrease in groundwater recharge, because high rates of transpiration and interception are anticipated. Therefore, it is important to measure, analyze, and model the effects of SRC-planting on landscape water budgets. To analyze the effects on the water budget, a poplar SRC plot was studied by measuring hydrological parameters to be used in the hydrological model WaSim. Results reveal very low or even missing ground water recharge for SRC compared to agricultural land use or grassland, especially succeeding dry years. However, this strong effect on plot level is moderated on the larger spatial scale of catchment level, for which the modeling was also performed. In addition to water, nutrient fluxes and budgets were studied. Nitrogen is still a crucial issue in today's agriculture. Intensive fertilization or increased applications of manure from concentrated livestock breeding are often leading to high loads of nitrate leaching, or enhanced N2O emissions to the atmosphere on arable crop fields. SRC or agroforestry systems on former crop land may offer an option to decrease such N losses, while simultaneously producing woody biomass. This is mainly due to the generally smaller N requirements of woody vegetation, which usually entail no need for any fertilization. The trees supply deep and permanent rooting systems, which can be regarded as a "safety net" to prevent nutrient leaching. Thus, SRC altogether can help to diminish N eutrophication. It is important to

  3. Analysis of stability and adaptability of QPM hybrids of maize growing in different Colombian agroecological zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ever Andrés vargas Escobar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy is maize´s biggest contribution for humans and animals. Scientist have been trying to increase its protein level since 1896, it wasn´t until the 60´s when the opaque gene O2 was discovered. In its recessive state, the gene causes the quality of the maize protein to increase, due to the growth of the Globulin protein and the reduction of Zein protein. Known as Quality Protein Maize (QPM, they can double the essential amino acids Lysine and Tryptophan´s percentages when compared with normal maize endosperm. In a commercial scenario, there is a need for high yielding genotypes adapted to different environments; it is also desirable to have a better protein quality. In the present study, 9 yellow endosperm QPM hybrids, developed by FENALCE from CIMMYT´s germoplasm and a normal commercial endosperm check were tested in 6 agro ecological zones: Wet Caribbean, Dry Caribbean, Orinoco, Valley of the Cauca River, Valley of the Magdalena River and the Coffee Growing Zone. A randomized complete block design was used in 17 environments and four repetitions. Variables concerning the plant and yield components were measured, but for this study the grain yield was the only taken. Additionally samples were taken to assess the content of Tryptophan. The stability and adaptability analysis was made using the Eberhart and Russell, Lin and Binns and AMMI models. The QPM hybrid that stood out for all the environments was QPM 303 and QPM 305 for unfavorable environments. Both retain their biochemical characteristics of protein quality and are stable in the evaluated environments according to the statistical models that were used.

  4. ABO Blood Group Genotyping by Real-time PCR in Kazakh Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Tarlykov

    2014-12-01

    low occurrence rate and therefore have not been found in the population sample.Conclusion. Real-time PCR based method for fast and reliable ABO genotyping was developed. This assay may be used as a complement to classic serological blood typing.

  5. Feasibility study on commercialization of fast breeder reactor cycle system. Interim report of phase 2. Technical study report on synthetic evaluation for FBR cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiotani, Hiroki; Ohtaki, Akira; Ono, Kiyoshi; Yasumatsu, Naoto; Kubota, Sadae; Heta, Masanori

    2004-09-01

    This report presents the outline of the development and the results of Synthetic evaluation on the candidate Fast Reactor (FR) cycle system concepts, scenario study on FR cycle deployment and cost-benefit analysis on the candidate FR cycle system concepts in the interim evaluation (FY2001 through FY2003) of the phase 2 of the Japanese 'Feasibility Study on Commercialization of Fast Reactor Cycle System (FS)'. The characteristic evaluation extended to evaluate a new view point of social acceptance besides the viewpoints of safety, economics, reduction of environmental burden, efficient utilization of uranium resource, proliferation resistance, and technical feasibility, which has been considered since the phase 1 of FS. As for the six view points, hierarchy structures and utility functions for quantitative evaluation have been developed and/or improved. Furthermore, the methodology for weighing the viewpoints, which was also developed, made it possible to examine the characteristics of the candidate concepts from all the seven viewpoints. Generally, the FR cycles with sodium-cooled FR were highly evaluated. The characteristic evaluation for alternative power supply systems was also tried in this report for the first time. FR cycle deployment scenarios clarified the necessity of FR cycle deployment and the desirable core features, etc. through the long-term mass flow analysis, which includes comparison among other nuclear fuel cycle schemes and analysis for evaluating the degree to meet future needs, on the typical FR cycle systems. Regarding cost-benefit analysis, both the amount of the cost estimated by the past R and D and the cost in the Road map of FS are used as the investment for FR cycle research and development (R and D), the results showed that the benefit derived from the commercialization of FR cycle will be more than the investment. (author)

  6. A prospect of fast reactor and related fuel cycle in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagata, Takashi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2009-04-15

    JAEA has launched a new project 'Fast Reactor Cycle Technology Development'(FaCT) in cooperation with electric utilities. In this FaCT project, a combination of 'the Japanese sodium cooled loop type fast reactor with oxide fuel, the advanced aqueous reprocessing, and the simplified palletizing fuel fabrication systems' is adopted, where many innovative technologies with technical challenging issues are actively used in order to provide significant improvements in economic competitiveness, and enhancement of safety and reliability, sustainability, and nonproliferation. Fast reactor cycle technology will provide harmonic solutions for global issues of energy resources and environments, and is expected to contribute to sustainable development of the future society. Therefore, it was selected as one of key technologies of national importance in the third term (JPY2006-2010) 'Science and Technology Basic Plan' in March 2006 in Japan. The 'Nuclear Energy National Plan' in August 2006 states start up of a demonstration FR by around 2025 and deployment of a commercial FR before 2050, and start operating fuel cycle facilities when these reactors achieve consistency. Accordingly, we will decide about the adoption of innovative technologies by judging their applicability by 2010, and present the conceptual designs of commercial and demonstration FR cycle facilities by 2015 with the R and D plans to realize. In developing the FR cycle, 5 Party council, which consists of MEXt, MITI, electricity utilities, manufacturers, and JAEA, was established in July 2006 for moving forward on the commercialization smoothly. In this framework, users' requirements for the future R and D, a scenario of transition from light water reactor cycle to sodium cooled FR cycle, international collaboration, development schedule, demonstration steps, and so on are discussed. In this presentation, a prospect concerning the system design features of JSFR and a

  7. A prospect of fast reactor and related fuel cycle in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    JAEA has launched a new project 'Fast Reactor Cycle Technology Development'(FaCT) in cooperation with electric utilities. In this FaCT project, a combination of 'the Japanese sodium cooled loop type fast reactor with oxide fuel, the advanced aqueous reprocessing, and the simplified palletizing fuel fabrication systems' is adopted, where many innovative technologies with technical challenging issues are actively used in order to provide significant improvements in economic competitiveness, and enhancement of safety and reliability, sustainability, and nonproliferation. Fast reactor cycle technology will provide harmonic solutions for global issues of energy resources and environments, and is expected to contribute to sustainable development of the future society. Therefore, it was selected as one of key technologies of national importance in the third term (JPY2006-2010) 'Science and Technology Basic Plan' in March 2006 in Japan. The 'Nuclear Energy National Plan' in August 2006 states start up of a demonstration FR by around 2025 and deployment of a commercial FR before 2050, and start operating fuel cycle facilities when these reactors achieve consistency. Accordingly, we will decide about the adoption of innovative technologies by judging their applicability by 2010, and present the conceptual designs of commercial and demonstration FR cycle facilities by 2015 with the R and D plans to realize. In developing the FR cycle, 5 Party council, which consists of MEXt, MITI, electricity utilities, manufacturers, and JAEA, was established in July 2006 for moving forward on the commercialization smoothly. In this framework, users' requirements for the future R and D, a scenario of transition from light water reactor cycle to sodium cooled FR cycle, international collaboration, development schedule, demonstration steps, and so on are discussed. In this presentation, a prospect concerning the system design features of JSFR and a summary of the above R and D progresses for

  8. RNA-Seq reveals genotype-specific molecular responses to water deficit in eucalyptus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background In a context of climate change, phenotypic plasticity provides long-lived species, such as trees, with the means to adapt to environmental variations occurring within a single generation. In eucalyptus plantations, water availability is a key factor limiting productivity. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the adaptation of eucalyptus to water shortage remain unclear. In this study, we compared the molecular responses of two commercial eucalyptus hybrids during the dry season. Both hybrids differ in productivity when grown under water deficit. Results Pyrosequencing of RNA extracted from shoot apices provided extensive transcriptome coverage - a catalog of 129,993 unigenes (49,748 contigs and 80,245 singletons) was generated from 398 million base pairs, or 1.14 million reads. The pyrosequencing data enriched considerably existing Eucalyptus EST collections, adding 36,985 unigenes not previously represented. Digital analysis of read abundance in 14,460 contigs identified 1,280 that were differentially expressed between the two genotypes, 155 contigs showing differential expression between treatments (irrigated vs. non irrigated conditions during the dry season), and 274 contigs with significant genotype-by-treatment interaction. The more productive genotype displayed a larger set of genes responding to water stress. Moreover, stress signal transduction seemed to involve different pathways in the two genotypes, suggesting that water shortage induces distinct cellular stress cascades. Similarly, the response of functional proteins also varied widely between genotypes: the most productive genotype decreased expression of genes related to photosystem, transport and secondary metabolism, whereas genes related to primary metabolism and cell organisation were over-expressed. Conclusions For the most productive genotype, the ability to express a broader set of genes in response to water availability appears to be a key characteristic in the maintenance

  9. Formation of merchandizing characteristics and extension of the commercial range of products from wild-growing berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Дмитро Миколайович Одарченко

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The methods and main parameters for the receipt of reversible phases of wild-growing berries are substantiated and its merchandizing characteristics are studied. Cryoscopic and optical properties of solid phase are studied. Based on the determination of the consumer properties of liquid and solid phases from berries the possible ways for their application in food technologies are suggested. It is also determined that electrophysical method can work as the method of express-analysis during the expertise of fresh wild-growing berries and products after their processing

  10. The Effect of Fasting Pattern on Biological Performance of Quail at Early Production Period

    OpenAIRE

    Tugiyanti, Efka

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this research was to find out the effect of fasting pattern on biological performance of quail at early production period. 50 kg commercial feed, vitamins and medicine were applied on 140 heads of seven old day quail.  Four different fasting pattern were employed as treatment, i.e. ad libitum diet (Po); every two days fasting (P1); every three days fasting (P2); every four days fasting (P3); and every five days fasting (P4).   Ad libitum amount of  corn and water were offered...

  11. Fish culture data - Development and optimization of grow out diets for sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Our experience with juvenile sablefish and long term rearing of broodstock indicate that salmon grower feeds currently used by commercial sablefish farmers for grow...

  12. Evaluation of High Resolution Melting for MTHFR C677T Genotyping in Congenital Heart Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wang

    Full Text Available High resolution melting (HRM is a simple, flexible and low-cost mutation screening technique. The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR gene encoding a critical enzyme, potentially affects susceptibility to some congenital defects like congenital heart disease (CHD. We evaluate the performance of HRM for genotyping of the MTHFR gene C677T locus in CHD cases and healthy controls of Chinese Han population.A total of 315 blood samples from 147 CHD patients (male72, female 75 and 168 healthy controls (male 92, female 76 were enrolled in the study. HRM was utilized to genotype MTHFR C677T locus of all the samples. The results were compared to that of PCR-RFLP and Sanger sequencing. The association of the MTHFR C677T genotypes and the risk of CHD was analyzed using odds ratio with their 95% confidence interval (CIs from unconditional logistic regression.All the samples were successfully genotyped by HRM within 1 hour and 30 minutes while at least 6 hours were needed for PCR-RFLP and sequencing. The genotypes of MTHFR C677T CC, CT, and TT were 9.52%, 49.66%, and 40.82% in CHD group but 29.17%, 50% and 20.83% in control group, which were identical using both methods of HRM and PCR-RFLP, demonstrating the sensitivity and specificity of HRM were all 100%.MTHFR C677T is a potential risk factor for CHD in our local residents of Shandong province in China. HRM is a fast, sensitive, specific and reliable method for clinical application of genotyping.

  13. A review of the UK fast reactor programme, March 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R D

    1979-07-01

    The Status report of the UK activities related to fast-breeder reactor activities includes the following: summary of the operating experience of the prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) during 1978; design studies of the commercial demonstration fast reactor (CDFR); design studies of later advanced LMFBR; engineering developments of high temperature sodium loop, steam generators and instrumentation; materials development; corrosion problems; sodium technology; fuel elements development; PFR fuel reprocessing; safety issues molten fuel-coolant interaction; core structure test; accident analysis; reactor performance studies; experimental reactor physics; fuel management and general neutronics calculation for CDFR; reactor instruments.

  14. A review of the UK fast reactor programme, March 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    The Status report of the UK activities related to fast-breeder reactor activities includes the following: summary of the operating experience of the prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) during 1978; design studies of the commercial demonstration fast reactor (CDFR); design studies of later advanced LMFBR; engineering developments of high temperature sodium loop, steam generators and instrumentation; materials development; corrosion problems; sodium technology; fuel elements development; PFR fuel reprocessing; safety issues molten fuel-coolant interaction; core structure test; accident analysis; reactor performance studies; experimental reactor physics; fuel management and general neutronics calculation for CDFR; reactor instruments

  15. Major Components of Metabolic Parameters and Nutritional Intakes in Different Genotypes of Adiponectin +276 G>T Gene Polymorphism in Non-Diabetes and Non-Alcoholic Iranian Fatty Liver Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohseni, Fatemeh; Moghbelinejad, Sahar; Najafipour, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Genetic and environmental factors are both involved in the etiology of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD). Among the genetic factors, certain polymorphisms of adiponectin gene are associated with NAFLD. In the current study, we investigated the association between metabolic parameters with different genotypes of adiponectin +276 G>T polymorphism among the Iranian NAFLD patients, and the effect of nutritional intake with development of NAFLD. In this study, 75 patients with NAFLD and 76 healthy individuals were enrolled. Dietary intakes were assessed using a semi-quantitative Food-Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist to Hip Ratio (WHR) were calculated. Biochemical assays including FSG (Fasting Serum Glucose), liver enzymes, lipid profiles, Malondialdehyde, insulin resistance and Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) were measured after 12 hr fasting. Gene polymorphism study was done by using of sequencing method. Although, T allele frequency was more prevalent in patients with NAFLD than control, adiponectin +276 G>T polymorphism was not associated with risk of NAFLD. Among the metabolic parameters, TAC in TT genotype was significantly lower 1.44(0.69 to 2.81) p>0.05, AST in GT, GG genotypes, and ALT in all three genotypes were higher in NAFLD patients in compared to healthy subjects (pconsumption and vitamin E intake as compared to control group with the same genotype (pstudy, we showed the association of different genotypes of +276 G>T polymorphism in adiponectin gene with some metabolic parameters.

  16. Breeding characteristics analysis of a commercial fast reactor cooled with sodium liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosaka, N.; Shigehiro, A.

    1982-01-01

    The fast reactor breeding characteristics and its safety is analysed. As reference, for a preliminar analysis, the specifications of Super-Phenix, reactor french of 1200 MWe, are used, varying some parameters after aiming to verify its effects on duplication time. (E.G.) [pt

  17. Personalized skincare: from molecular basis to clinical and commercial applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markiewicz E

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Ewa Markiewicz, Olusola Clement Idowu Research & Development, Hexis Lab, Science Central, The Core, Bath Lane, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK Abstract: Individual responses of human skin to the environmental stress are determined by differences in the anatomy and physiology that are closely linked to the genetic characteristics such as pigmentation. Ethnic skin phenotypes can be distinguished based on defined genotypic traits, structural organization and compartmentalized sensitivity to distinct extrinsic aging factors. These differences are not only responsible for the variation in skin performance after exposure to damaging conditions, but can also affect the mechanisms of drug absorption, sensitization and other longer term effects. The unique characteristics of the individual skin function and, particularly, of the ethnic skin type are currently considered to shape the future of clinical and pharmacologic interventions as a basis for personalized skincare. Individual approaches to skincare render a novel and actively growing area with a range of biomedical and commercial applications within cosmetics industry. In this review, we summarize the aspects of the molecular and clinical manifestations of the environmental stress on human skin and proposed protective mechanisms that are linked to ethnic differences and pathophysiology of extrinsic skin aging. We subsequently discuss the possible applications and translation of this knowledge into personalized skincare. Keywords: pigmentation, gene polymorphism, photodamage, environmental stress, cosmetics

  18. Selection of Common Bean Lines, Recombinant Inbred Lines and Commercial Genotypes Tolerant to Low Phosphorus Availability in an Acrisol Soil on the Basis of Root Traits and Grain Yield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, A.; Gomez, L. A.; Morales, A. [Instituto de Suelos, MINAG (Cuba); others, and

    2013-11-15

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the most important food legume for human consumption worldwide and especially in Latin America and Africa, but low soil phosphorus (P) availability limits grain production in these areas. For these reason eighty five recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of BAT 477 x DOR 364 and twenty commercial bean genotypes were sown in plots in an Acrisol soil with low P availability to evaluate nine root traits and grain yield. The study was carried out in Pinar del Rio province in Cuba between November 2006 and February 2009. The plots received basal fertilization (N and K) and P fertilization between 15 and 90 kg P{sub 2}O{sub 5} ha{sup -1}. Ten plants were sampled from each plot at R{sub 6} pod fill to evaluate root traits and shoot biomass, and at R{sub 9} physiological maturity to estimate grain yield. The 85 RILs showed great variability for root traits, grain yield and P stress tolerance calculated as relative grain yield. The commercial bean lines also showed large diversity in yield parameters. Principal Component Analysis showed that there were high and significant correlations between root traits (basal root number, primary root depth, adventitious root length and adventitious root number) and grain yield parameters (grain yield at 15 P level and relative grain yields). Adventitious root traits showed the greatest correlation with yield under low P. Promising RILs included 75.1.1, 60.1.1, 38.1.1, 14.1.1 and 38.1.1 and promising commercial bean lines included ICA Pijao, BAT 482, ICA 23, BAT 24 and BAT 832. (author)

  19. Culture as Advertisement: A Synoptic Survey of Fast Food and Family Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burd, Gene

    Exploring the idea that urban culture has changed food sharing practices and, in effect, produced a cultural "advertisement" in the marketing and selling of the fast food franchise, this paper discusses the commercial replication of community and the communion of food sharing in this new fast food culture. Following an introduction that…

  20. Water Quality Assessment of Streams and Wetlands in a Fast Growing East African City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels De Troyer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The combination of rapid urbanization, industrialization, population growth, and low environmental awareness poses a major threat to worldwide valuable freshwater resources, which provide important ecosystem services to humans. There is an urgent need to monitor and assess these resources, as this information is indispensable for sustainable decision-making and management. In this context, we analyzed the chemical and ecological water quality of the riverine environment of a fast growing city in Southwest Ethiopia for which we proposed possible remediation options that were evaluated with an empirical model. The chemical and ecological water quality was assessed at 53 sampling locations using the oxygen Prati index and the ETHbios, which is a biotic index based on macroinvertebrates. In addition, a microbiological analysis was performed to estimate the degree of fecal contamination. Finally, we analyzed the relationship between the oxygen content and the organic pollution to simulate the effect of organics removal from waste streams on the chemical water quality. Our results showed that the average values for dissolved oxygen (4.2 mg DO·L−1 and nutrients (0.9 mg oPO43−·L−1 and 12.8 mg TAN·L−1 exceeded international standards. Moreover, high turbidity levels revealed that land erosion is a severe problem in the region. Along the rivers, a significant increase in oxygen consumption and in nutrient concentrations was observed, indicating organic pollution originating from different diffuse and point sources of pollution. The lack of proper sanitation also led to exceedingly high abundances of fecal coliforms in the surface water (>320 MPN·mL−1. However, fecal contamination was strongly reduced (>92% after the polluted river water passed Boye wetland, indicating the purification potential of natural wetlands and the importance of conserving and protecting those ecosystems. The simulation results of the model showed that water quality

  1. Waves from Propulsion Systems of Fast Ferries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taatø, Søren Haugsted; Aage, Christian; Arnskov, Michael M.

    1998-01-01

    Waves from fast ferries have become an environmental problem of growing concern to the public. Fast ferries produce not only higher waves than conventional ships but also fundamentally different wave systems when they sail at supercritical speeds. Hitherto, ship waves have been considered as being...... generated by the ship hulls alone. Whereas this assumption may be reasonable for conventional ships with large hulls and limited propulsive power, the situation is different for fast ferries with their smaller hulls and very large installed power. A simple theoretical model and a series of model tests...... on a monohull fast ferry seem to indicate that a substantial part of the wave-making can be directly attributed to the propulsion system itself. Thus, two wave systems are created with different phases, but with similar frequency contents, which means that they merge into one system behind the ship, very...

  2. Factors Influencing Fast-Food Consumption Among Adolescents in Tehran: A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Askari Majabadi, Hesamedin; Solhi, Mahnaz; Montazeri, Ali; Shojaeizadeh, Davoud; Nejat, Saharnaz; Khalajabadi Farahani, Farideh; Djazayeri, Abolghasem

    2016-01-01

    Background: The consumption of different types of fast food is increasingly growing in all parts of the world, both in developed and developing countries. Because of the changes and transitions in the lifestyle and dietary habits of people, an increasing number of people from different age groups, particularly adolescents and young adults, are inclined toward consuming fast food. Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate the factors influencing fast-food consumption among ado...

  3. Simplified PCR protocols for INNO-LiPA HBV Genotyping and INNO-LiPA HBV PreCore assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qutub, Mohammed O.; Germer, Jeffrey J.; Rebers, Sjoerd P. H.; Mandrekar, Jayawant N.; Beld, Marcel G. H. M.; Yao, Joseph D. C.

    2006-01-01

    INNO-LiPA HBV Genotyping (LiPA HBV GT) and INNO-LiPA HBV PreCore (LiPA HBV PC) are commercially available assays for hepatitis B virus (HBV) characterization. These assays are labor-intensive and may be prone to exogenous DNA contamination due to their use of nested PCR amplification procedures and

  4. Phenotypic and genotypic variability of disc flower corolla length and nectar content in sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joksimović Jovan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The nectar content and disc flower corolla length are the two most important parameters of attractiveness to pollinators in sunflower. The phenotypic and genotypic variability of these two traits was studied in four commercially important hybrids and their parental components in a trial with three fertilizer doses over two years. The results showed that, looking at individual genotypes, the variability of disc flower corolla length was affected the most by year (85.38-97.46%. As the study years were extremely different, the phenotypic variance of the hybrids and parental components was calculated for each year separately. In such conditions, looking at all of the crossing combinations, the largest contribution to phenotypic variance of the corolla length was that of genotype: 57.27-61.11% (NS-H-45 64.51-84.84% (Velja; 96.74-97.20% (NS-H-702 and 13.92-73.17% (NS-H-111. A similar situation was observed for the phenotypic variability of nectar content, where genotype also had the largest influence, namely 39.77-48.25% in NS-H-45; 39.06-42.51% in Velja; 31.97-72.36% in NS-H-702; and 62.13-94.96% in NS-H-111.

  5. Super Life: how and why 'cell selection' leads to the fastest growing eukaryote.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, P.; Stouthamer, A.H.; Westerhoff, H.V.

    2009-01-01

    What is the highest possible replication rate for living organisms? The cellular growth rate is controlled by a variety of processes. Therefore, it is unclear which metabolic process or group of processes should be activated to increase growth rate. An organism that is already growing fast may

  6. Serum Proteome Changes in Healthy Subjects with Different Genotypes of NOS1AP in the Chinese Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes and its chronic complications have become a worldwide epidemic nowadays. However, its molecular mechanism is still unknown. We have previously identified a novel variant rs12742393 of NOS1AP for type 2 diabetes susceptibility in the Chinese population. In this study, we analyzed the total serum profiling among three genotypes of rs12742393 to discover potential crosstalk under the variant and the disease through proteomic analyses for the first time. We used OFFGEL peptide fractionation, LC-MS/MS analysis, and label-free quantification to profile the fasting human serum samples of the genotypes in rs12742393 (n=4, for CC, AC, and AA, resp.. Four proteins were identified, including apoA4, alpha1-ACT, HABP2, and keratin 10, with blood levels changed significantly between CC and AA homozygotes of rs12742393. Compared with AA group, the levels of apoA4 increased (P=0.000265, whereas the concentration of alpha1-ACT, HABP2, and keratin 10 decreased in CC group (P=0.011116, 0.021175, and 0.015661, resp.. Then we selected additional fasting serum samples for ELISA and western blot validation. However, no significant differences were identified by neither ELISA nor western blot (P>0.05. The protein profiling changes between the genotypes of rs12742393 indicated that this SNP might play a role in the development of type 2 diabetes.

  7. ATLAS Fast Physics Monitoring: TADA

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00375930; The ATLAS collaboration; Elsing, Markus

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the LHC is recording data from proton-proton collisions with 13 TeV center-of-mass energy since spring 2015. The collaboration is using a fast physics monitoring framework (TADA) to automatically perform a broad range of fast searches for early signs of new physics and to monitor the data quality across the year with the full analysis level calibrations applied to the rapidly growing data.TADA is designed to provide fast feedback directly after the collected data has been fully calibrated and processed at the Tier-0, the CERN Data Center. The system can monitor a large range of physics channels, offline data quality and physics performance quantities nearly final analysis level object calibrations. TADA output is available on a website accessible by the whole collaboration that gets updated twice a day with the data from newly processed runs. Hints of potentially interesting physics signals or performance issues identified in this way are reported to be followed up by physics or combin...

  8. ATLAS Fast Physics Monitoring: TADA

    CERN Document Server

    Elsing, Markus; The ATLAS collaboration; Sabato, Gabriele; Kamioka, Shusei; Nairz, Armin Michael; Moyse, Edward; Gumpert, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Experiment at the LHC is recording data from proton-proton collisions with 13 TeV center-of-mass energy since spring 2015. The collaboration is using a fast physics monitoring framework (TADA) to automatically perform a broad range of fast searches for early signs of new physics and to monitor the data quality across the year with the full analysis level calibrations applied to the rapidly growing data. TADA is designed to provide fast feedback directly after the collected data has been fully calibrated and processed at the Tier-0. The system can monitor a large range of physics channels, offline data quality and physics performance quantities nearly final analysis level object calibrations. TADA output is available on a website accessible by the whole collaboration that gets updated twice a day with the data from newly processed runs. Hints of potentially interesting physics signals or performance issues identified in this way are reported to be followed up by physics or combined performance groups...

  9. Responses of nitrogen metabolism and seed nutrition to drought stress in soybean genotypes differing in slow-wilting phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nacer eBellaloui

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in soybean breeding have resulted in genotypes that express the slow-wilting phenotype (trait under drought stress conditions. The physiological mechanisms of this trait remain unknown due to the complexity of trait × environment interactions. The objective of this research was to investigate nitrogen metabolism and leaf and seed nutrients composition of the slow-wilting soybean genotypes under drought stress conditions. A repeated greenhouse experiment was conducted using check genotypes: NC-Roy (fast wilting, Boggs (intermediate in wilting; and NTCPR94-5157 and N04-9646 (slow-wilting, SLW genotypes. Plants were either well-watered or drought stressed. Results showed that under well-watered conditions, nitrogen fixation (NF, nitrogen assimilation (NA, and leaf and seed composition differed between genotypes. Under drought stress, NF and NA were higher in NTCPR94-5157 and N04-9646 than in NC-Roy and Boggs. Under severe water stress, however, NA was low in all genotypes. Leaf water potential was significantly lower in checks (-2.00 MPa than in the SLW genotypes (-1.68 MPa. Leaf and seed concentrations of K, P, Ca, Cu, Na, B were higher in SLW genotypes than in the checks under drought stress conditions. Seed protein, oleic acid, and sugars were higher in SLW genotypes, and oil, linoleic and linolenic acids were lower in SLW genotypes. This research demonstrated that K, P, Ca, Cu, Na, and B may be involved in SLW trait by maintaining homeostasis and osmotic regulation. Maintaining higher leaf water potential in NTCPR94-5157 and N04-9646 under drought stress could be a possible water conservation mechanism to maintain leaf turgor pressure. The increase in osmoregulators such as minerals, raffinose and stachyose, and oleic acid could be beneficial for soybean breeders in selecting for drought stress tolerance.

  10. Alcohol Dehydrogenase-1B (rs1229984) and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase-2 (rs671) Genotypes Are Strong Determinants of the Serum Triglyceride and Cholesterol Levels of Japanese Alcoholic Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Akira; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Matsui, Toshifumi; Mizukami, Takeshi; Kimura, Mitsuru; Matsushita, Sachio; Higuchi, Susumu; Maruyama, Katsuya

    2015-01-01

    Elevated serum triglyceride (TG) and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are common in drinkers. The fast-metabolizing alcohol dehydrogenase-1B encoded by the ADH1B*2 allele (vs. ADH1B*1/*1 genotype) and inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 encoded by the ALDH2*2 allele (vs. ALDH2*1/*1 genotype) modify ethanol metabolism and are prevalent (≈90% and ≈40%, respectively) in East Asians. We attempted to evaluate the associations between the ADH1B and ALDH2 genotypes and lipid levels in alcoholics. The population consisted of 1806 Japanese alcoholic men (≥40 years) who had undergone ADH1B and ALDH2 genotyping and whose serum TG, total cholesterol, and HDL-C levels in the fasting state had been measured within 3 days after admission. High serum levels of TG (≥150 mg/dl), HDL-C (>80 mg/dl), and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C calculated by the Friedewald formula ≥140 mg/dl) were observed in 24.3%, 16.8%, and 15.6%, respectively, of the subjects. Diabetes, cirrhosis, smoking, and body mass index (BMI) affected the serum lipid levels. Multivariate analysis revealed that the presence of the ADH1B*2 allele and the active ALDH2*1/*1 genotype increased the odds ratio (OR; 95% confidence interval) for a high TG level (2.22 [1.67-2.94] and 1.39 [0.99-1.96], respectively), and decreased the OR for a high HDL-C level (0.37 [0.28-0.49] and 0.51 [0.37-0.69], respectively). The presence of the ADH1B*2 allele decreased the OR for a high LDL-C level (0.60 [0.45-0.80]). The ADH1B*2 plus ALDH2*1/*1 combination yielded the highest ORs for high TG levels and lowest OR for a high HDL-C level. The genotype effects were more prominent in relation to the higher levels of TG (≥220 mg/dl) and HDL-C (≥100 mg/dl). The fast-metabolizing ADH1B and active ALDH2, and especially a combination of the two were strongly associated with higher serum TG levels and lower serum HDL-C levels of alcoholics. The fast-metabolizing ADH1B was associated with lower serum LDL

  11. Alcohol Dehydrogenase-1B (rs1229984 and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase-2 (rs671 Genotypes Are Strong Determinants of the Serum Triglyceride and Cholesterol Levels of Japanese Alcoholic Men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Yokoyama

    Full Text Available Elevated serum triglyceride (TG and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C levels are common in drinkers. The fast-metabolizing alcohol dehydrogenase-1B encoded by the ADH1B*2 allele (vs. ADH1B*1/*1 genotype and inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 encoded by the ALDH2*2 allele (vs. ALDH2*1/*1 genotype modify ethanol metabolism and are prevalent (≈90% and ≈40%, respectively in East Asians. We attempted to evaluate the associations between the ADH1B and ALDH2 genotypes and lipid levels in alcoholics.The population consisted of 1806 Japanese alcoholic men (≥40 years who had undergone ADH1B and ALDH2 genotyping and whose serum TG, total cholesterol, and HDL-C levels in the fasting state had been measured within 3 days after admission.High serum levels of TG (≥150 mg/dl, HDL-C (>80 mg/dl, and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C calculated by the Friedewald formula ≥140 mg/dl were observed in 24.3%, 16.8%, and 15.6%, respectively, of the subjects. Diabetes, cirrhosis, smoking, and body mass index (BMI affected the serum lipid levels. Multivariate analysis revealed that the presence of the ADH1B*2 allele and the active ALDH2*1/*1 genotype increased the odds ratio (OR; 95% confidence interval for a high TG level (2.22 [1.67-2.94] and 1.39 [0.99-1.96], respectively, and decreased the OR for a high HDL-C level (0.37 [0.28-0.49] and 0.51 [0.37-0.69], respectively. The presence of the ADH1B*2 allele decreased the OR for a high LDL-C level (0.60 [0.45-0.80]. The ADH1B*2 plus ALDH2*1/*1 combination yielded the highest ORs for high TG levels and lowest OR for a high HDL-C level. The genotype effects were more prominent in relation to the higher levels of TG (≥220 mg/dl and HDL-C (≥100 mg/dl.The fast-metabolizing ADH1B and active ALDH2, and especially a combination of the two were strongly associated with higher serum TG levels and lower serum HDL-C levels of alcoholics. The fast-metabolizing ADH1B was associated with lower serum LDL

  12. Commercial Antibodies: The Good, Bad, and Really Ugly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, John R

    2008-01-01

    The range of antibodies available commercially grows ever larger. Perhaps as a consequence, quality control is not always what it could and should be. Investigators must be aware of potential pitfalls and take steps to assure themselves that the specificity of each antibody is as advertised...

  13. Future trends in commercial and military systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, F. E.

    Commercial and military satellite communication systems are addressed, with a review of current applications and typical communication characteristics of the space and earth segments. Drivers for the development of future commercial systems include: the pervasion of digital techniques and services, growing orbit and frequency congestion, demand for more entertainment, and the large potential market for commercial 'roof-top' service. For military systems, survivability, improved flexibility, and the need for service to small mobile terminals are the principal factors involved. Technical trends include the use of higher frequency bands, multibeam antennas and a significant increase in the application of onboard processing. Military systems will employ a variety of techniques to counter both physical and electronic threats. The use of redundant transmission paths is a particularly effective approach. Successful implementation requires transmission standards to achieve the required interoperability among the pertinent networks. For both the military and commercial sectors, the trend toward larger numbers of terminals and more complex spacecraft is still persisting.

  14. Decoding noises in HIV computational genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, MingRui; Shaw, Timothy; Zhang, Xing; Liu, Dong; Shen, Ye; Ezeamama, Amara E; Yang, Chunfu; Zhang, Ming

    2017-11-01

    Lack of a consistent and reliable genotyping system can critically impede HIV genomic research on pathogenesis, fitness, virulence, drug resistance, and genomic-based healthcare and treatment. At present, mis-genotyping, i.e., background noises in molecular genotyping, and its impact on epidemic surveillance is unknown. For the first time, we present a comprehensive assessment of HIV genotyping quality. HIV sequence data were retrieved from worldwide published records, and subjected to a systematic genotyping assessment pipeline. Results showed that mis-genotyped cases occurred at 4.6% globally, with some regional and high-risk population heterogeneities. Results also revealed a consistent mis-genotyping pattern in gp120 in all studied populations except the group of men who have sex with men. Our study also suggests novel virus diversities in the mis-genotyped cases. Finally, this study reemphasizes the importance of implementing a standardized genotyping pipeline to avoid genotyping disparity and to advance our understanding of virus evolution in various epidemiological settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. IDENTIFICATION OF TECHNOLOGICALLY IMPORTANT GENES AND THEIR PRODUCTS IN THE COLLECTION OF BREAD WHEAT GENOTYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Chňapek

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Wheat is the second most cultivated crop on the world and is very important plant for feed not only mankind but also animals. Because of this is necessary to develop new varieties with better properties. Bread making quality of wheat grain is one of the most important paramaters for quality evaluation. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE of wheat storage proteins and allelic specific polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR are analysis suitable for identification, differentiation and characterization of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. There were analysed 16 genotypes of new varieties of bread wheat in our work by SDS-PAGE and obtained results were verified by AS-PCR. Analysed genotypes of bread wheat genotypes were homogenous and single line with very good bread making quality. Our results confirmed hypothesis, that cultivated bread wheat genotypes are uniformed with high production and quality but there is a risk of sensitivity to environmental conditions. SDS-PAGE analyses of wheat grain proteins are fast and not very expensive technique, which provide us information of bread making quality of grains. However, there is possibility of environmental influence on protein synthesis and because of this is necessary to couple these analysis with analysis of DNA.

  16. Enzymatic Saccharification of Shrub Willow Genotypes with Differing Biomass Composition for Biofuel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle J. Serapiglia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the conversion of woody biomass feedstocks into liquid fuel ethanol, the pretreatment process is the most critical and costly step. Variations in biomass composition based on genetic differences or environmental effects have a significant impact on the degree of accessibility accomplished by pretreatment and subsequent sugar release by enzymatic hydrolysis. To evaluate this, biomass from 10 genetically diverse, genotypes of shrub willow (Salix spp. was pretreated with a hot-water process at two levels of severity, hydrolyzed using a combination of two commercial enzyme cocktails, and the release of hexose and pentose monomers was quantified by HPLC. Among the genotypes selected for analysis, cellulose content ranged from 39 to 45% (w/w and lignin content ranged from 20 to 23% (w/w at harvest. Differences in the effectiveness of the pretreatment process were observed among the various willow genotypes. Correlations were identified between total sugar release and % cellulose and % lignin content. There was a significant effect of pretreatment severity on polysaccharide accessibility, but the response to pretreatments was different among the genotypes. At the high severity pretreatment ‘SV1’ was the least recalcitrant with sugar release representing as much as 60% of total biomass. These results suggest that structural, as well as chemical characteristics of the biomass may influence pretreatment and hydrolytic efficiency.

  17. CASH 2021: Commercial access and space habitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrin, Andrew; Amara, Adam; Aris, Lodewijk; Baierl, Nida; Beatty, Patrick; Beaulieu, Catherine; Behnke, Torsten; Castegini, Roberta; Chauhan, Amitabh; Cojanis, Philip; Dayawansa, Pelawa; Diop, Marie; Eito, Kinya; Engle, Steve; Ferretti, Stefano; Gassama, Hamet; Genova, Bojana; Goulding, Colin; Janjua, Jameel; Jansaeng, Thidarat; Jousset, Frédéric; Kopik, Anatoly; Laurin, Catherine; Leggatt, Jason; Li, Hengnian; Mezzadri, Monica; Miura, Amane; Nolet, Simon; Ogami, Satoshi; Patry, Johanne; Patten, Laryssa; Payerne, Cyril; Peer, Guy; Prampolini, Marco; Rheaume, Caroline; Saary, Joan; Spehar, Daniela; Sufi, Atiya; Sun, Baosheng; Thompson, J. Barry; Thomson, Ward; Trautner, Roland; Tursunmuratov, Murat; Venet, Vrata; Wilems, Elizabeth; Wilson, Helen; Wittwer, Karl; Wokke, Frank; Wu, Yansheng; Zhou, Shaobin; Zilioli, Ilaria

    2002-07-01

    Issues about commercialization of space have been a growing concern in the past decade for the space community. This paper focuses on the work from a team of 51 students attending the Summer Session Program of the International Space University in Bremen, Germany. CASH 2021 (Commercial Access and Space Habitation) documents a plan that identifies commercial opportunities for space utilization that will extend human presence in space, and will chart the way forward for the next 20 years. The group selected four commercial sectors that show the most promise for the future: tourism, entertainment, space system service, assembly and debris removal, and research and development/production. The content of this document presents the results of their research. Historical activities in each of the commercial sectors are reviewed along with the current market situation. To provide a coherent background for future commercialization possibilities a scenario has been developed. This scenario includes a postulated upon ideal future and includes social, political and economic factors that may affect the space industry over the timeline of the study. The study also presents a roadmap, within the limited optimistic scenario developed, for the successful commercialization of space leading to future human presence in space. A broad range of commercially viable opportunities, not only within the current limits of the International Space Station, but also among the many new developments that are expected by 2021 are discussed.

  18. [Nutrition value of wild-growing fruits from mountain Dagestan and its safety after fast freezing and cold storage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guseynova, B M

    2016-01-01

    Results of research of mineral composition, content of vitamin C and P, titrable acids, pectinaceous and phenol substances in fresh, fast-frozen (t=-30 °C), and also stored within 3 and 9 months (t=-18 °C) fruits of wild-growing blackberry, cornel, medlar and sea-buckthorn are presented in article. Determination of mineral composition was carried out by flame atomic absorption photometry, vitamin C and pectinaceous substances -by titirimetric methods, phenolic substances and vitamin P - by colorimetric methods. Vitamin C content was minimal in fresh fruits of cornel (6.9±0.3 mg%), amounted to 21.7-32.0 mg% in the fruits of blackberries and medlar and reached 180.1±7.2 mg% in the fruit of sea-buckthorn. Vitamin P concentration ranged from 34.9 (sea-buckthorn) to 180.0 mg% (cornel). Berries of a cornel contained also the greatest number of titrable acids (33.2±1.3 g/dm3), phenolic compounds (243.0±4.8 mg%) and pectinaceous substances (2.91±0.08%). The most significant content of potassium (521±15.6 mg%), calcium (133.2±5.2 mg%), magnesium (62.4±2.5 mg%) and iron (2.81±0.05 mg%) was revealed in medlar fruits. Consumption of 100 g of the studied fruits provides daily requirements of a human body, depending on a species of wild plants: in calcium -for 2-13.3%, potassium - for 7.0-20.8%, magnesium - for 8.1-15.6%, iron - for 5.9-19.2% and in vitamin C - from 5.8-24.6 to 145.7% in the case of sea buckthorn. The applied processing method of conservation - fast freezing (t=-30 °С) of fruits and their long storage (t=-18 °С) is the effective way ensuring high safety of nutrients in them. In the studied berries after 9-months cold storage the safety of vitamin C varied ranging from 55.7 (blackberry) to 76.1% (cornel), and vitamin P - from 81.9 (sea-buckthorn) to 92.8% (cornel). Stability of titrable acids, except for medlar fruits, varied from 84.2% (blackberry) to 94.0% (sea-buckthorn). The safety of phenolic and pectinaceous compounds by the end of 9 months

  19. Statement to International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles: Challenges and Opportunities, 7 December 2009, Kyoto, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Yukiya

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Distinguished Guests, Ladies and Gentlemen, It is my honour to address participants at this opening session of the International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles: Challenges and Opportunities, organized by the IAEA and hosted by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency. Fast reactor technology has the potential to ensure that energy resources which would last hundreds of years with the technology we are using today will actually last several thousand years. In other words it can withstand enormous increases in demand. This innovative technology also reduces the risk to the environment and helps to limit the burden that will be placed on future generations in the form of waste products. The coming year will be an exciting one for the development of fast-spectrum nuclear reactors. We expect to reach many important milestones: - the first criticality of the China Experimental Fast Reactor; - the restart of the Monju prototype fast reactor in Japan; and - the new insights we will gain through the end-of-life studies at the Phenix reactor in France. In the near future, new fast reactors will be commissioned: the 500MW(e) Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor in India, the first in a series of five of the same type, and the BN-800 reactor in the Russian Federation. Moreover, France, Japan, India, China and the Republic of Korea are preparing advanced prototypes, demonstration or commercial reactors for the 2020-2030 period. Nuclear power is set to be an increasingly important part of the global energy mix in the coming decades as demand for energy grows. Scores of countries in both the developed and developing world have told the IAEA that they are interested in introducing nuclear power. The 30 countries which already have nuclear power reactors are set to build more. This trend is likely to be accompanied by accelerated deployment of fast reactors. Continued advances in research and technology development are necessary to ensure improved economics and

  20. Genotype x environment interaction for grain yield of wheat genotypes tested under water stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sail, M.A.; Dahot, M.U.; Mangrio, S.M.; Memon, S.

    2007-01-01

    Effect of water stress on grain yield in different wheat genotypes was studied under field conditions at various locations. Grain yield is a complex polygenic trait influenced by genotype, environment and genotype x environment (GxE) interaction. To understand the stability among genotypes for grain yield, twenty-one wheat genotypes developed Through hybridization and radiation-induced mutations at Nuclear Institute of Agriculture (NIA) TandoJam were evaluated with four local check varieties (Sarsabz, Thori, Margalla-99 and Chakwal-86) in multi-environmental trails (MET/sub s/). The experiments were conducted over 5 different water stress environments in Sindh. Data on grain yield were recorded from each site and statistically analyzed. Combined analysis of variance for all the environments indicated that the genotype, environment and genotype x environment (GxE) interaction were highly significant (P greater then 0.01) for grain yield. Genotypes differed in their response to various locations. The overall highest site mean yield (4031 kg/ha) recorded at Moro and the lowest (2326 kg/ha) at Thatta. Six genotypes produced significantly (P=0.01) the highest grain yield overall the environments. Stability analysis was applied to estimate stability parameters viz., regression coefficient (b), standard error of regression coefficient and variance due to deviation from regression (S/sub 2/d) genotypes 10/8, BWS-78 produced the highest mean yield over all the environments with low regression coefficient (b=0.68, 0.67 and 0.63 respectively and higher S/sup 2/ d value, showing specific adaptation to poor (un favorable) environments. Genotype 8/7 produced overall higher grain yield (3647 kg/ha) and ranked as third high yielding genotype had regression value close to unity (b=0.9) and low S/sup d/ value, indicating more stability and wide adaptation over the all environments. The knowledge of the presence and magnitude of genotype x environment (GE) interaction is important to

  1. Supermarket and fast-food outlet exposure in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svastisalee, Chalida Mae; Jensen, Helene Nordahl; Glumer, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    and neighbourhood-level socio-economic indicators. Food business addresses were obtained from commercial and public business locators and geocoded using a geographic information system for all neighbourhoods in the city of Copenhagen (n 400). The regression of counts of fast-food outlets and supermarkets v...

  2. Combined effect of pulse density and grid cell size on predicting and mapping aboveground carbon in fast-growing Eucalyptus forest plantation using airborne LiDAR data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carlos Alberto; Hudak, Andrew Thomas; Klauberg, Carine; Vierling, Lee Alexandre; Gonzalez-Benecke, Carlos; de Padua Chaves Carvalho, Samuel; Rodriguez, Luiz Carlos Estraviz; Cardil, Adrián

    2017-12-01

    LiDAR remote sensing is a rapidly evolving technology for quantifying a variety of forest attributes, including aboveground carbon (AGC). Pulse density influences the acquisition cost of LiDAR, and grid cell size influences AGC prediction using plot-based methods; however, little work has evaluated the effects of LiDAR pulse density and cell size for predicting and mapping AGC in fast-growing Eucalyptus forest plantations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of LiDAR pulse density and grid cell size on AGC prediction accuracy at plot and stand-levels using airborne LiDAR and field data. We used the Random Forest (RF) machine learning algorithm to model AGC using LiDAR-derived metrics from LiDAR collections of 5 and 10 pulses m -2 (RF5 and RF10) and grid cell sizes of 5, 10, 15 and 20 m. The results show that LiDAR pulse density of 5 pulses m -2 provides metrics with similar prediction accuracy for AGC as when using a dataset with 10 pulses m -2 in these fast-growing plantations. Relative root mean square errors (RMSEs) for the RF5 and RF10 were 6.14 and 6.01%, respectively. Equivalence tests showed that the predicted AGC from the training and validation models were equivalent to the observed AGC measurements. The grid cell sizes for mapping ranging from 5 to 20 also did not significantly affect the prediction accuracy of AGC at stand level in this system. LiDAR measurements can be used to predict and map AGC across variable-age Eucalyptus plantations with adequate levels of precision and accuracy using 5 pulses m -2 and a grid cell size of 5 m. The promising results for AGC modeling in this study will allow for greater confidence in comparing AGC estimates with varying LiDAR sampling densities for Eucalyptus plantations and assist in decision making towards more cost effective and efficient forest inventory.

  3. Bound volatile precursors in genotypes in the pedigree of 'Marion' blackberry (Rubus sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiaofen; Finn, Chad E; Qian, Michael C

    2010-03-24

    Glycosidically bound volatiles and precursors in genotypes representing the pedigree for 'Marion' blackberry were investigated over two growing seasons. The volatile precursors were isolated using a C18 solid-phase extraction column. After enzymatic hydrolysis, the released volatiles were analyzed using stir bar sorptive extraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and direct microvial insert thermal desorption GC-MS. The most abundant volatile precursors in the genotypes were alcohols, followed by shikimic acid derivatives. High amounts of furanone glycosides were also detected, while norisoprenoids only existed in a small amount in blackberries. The volatile precursor composition in the genotypes in the 'Marion' pedigree was very similar to their free volatile distribution. 'Logan' and 'Olallie' predominantly had bound norisoprenoids. Wild 'Himalaya' predominated with terpene alcohol and furaneol glycosides, whereas 'Santiam' and 'Chehalem' contained a high level of terpene alcohol glycosides. A similar inheritance pattern was also observed for some volatile precursors in the genotypes in the 'Marion' pedigree. A high content of linalool, hydroxylinalool, and alpha-ionol glycosides in 'Olallie' and a low content in 'Chehalem' resulted in a moderate level in their offspring 'Marion', while a low content of (E)-linalool oxide precursor in 'Olallie' and a high content in 'Chehalem' also resulted in a moderate level in 'Marion'. However, the concentration of furaneol glycosides in 'Marion' exceeded that of its two parents.

  4. HIV drug resistance testing among patients failing second line antiretroviral therapy. Comparison of in-house and commercial sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimukangara, Benjamin; Varyani, Bhavini; Shamu, Tinei; Mutsvangwa, Junior; Manasa, Justen; White, Elizabeth; Chimbetete, Cleophas; Luethy, Ruedi; Katzenstein, David

    2017-05-01

    HIV genotyping is often unavailable in low and middle-income countries due to infrastructure requirements and cost. We compared genotype resistance testing in patients with virologic failure, by amplification of HIV pol gene, followed by "in-house" sequencing and commercial sequencing. Remnant plasma samples from adults and children failing second-line ART were amplified and sequenced using in-house and commercial di-deoxysequencing, and analyzed in Harare, Zimbabwe and at Stanford, U.S.A, respectively. HIV drug resistance mutations were determined using the Stanford HIV drug resistance database. Twenty-six of 28 samples were amplified and 25 were successfully genotyped. Comparison of average percent nucleotide and amino acid identities between 23 pairs sequenced in both laboratories were 99.51 (±0.56) and 99.11 (±0.95), respectively. All pairs clustered together in phylogenetic analysis. Sequencing analysis identified 6/23 pairs with mutation discordances resulting in differences in phenotype, but these did not impact future regimens. The results demonstrate our ability to produce good quality drug resistance data in-house. Despite discordant mutations in some sequence pairs, the phenotypic predictions were not clinically significant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of GenoType NTM-DR Assay for Identification of Mycobacterium chimaera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Simone; Rogers, Thomas R; Fitzgibbon, Margaret

    2017-06-01

    Identification of species within the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is difficult, and most current diagnostic laboratory tests cannot distinguish between species included in the complex. Differentiation of species within the MAC is important, as Mycobacterium chimaera has recently emerged as a major cause of invasive cardiovascular infections following open heart surgery. A new commercial diagnostic assay, GenoType NTM-DR ver. 1.0, is intended to differentiate between three species within the MAC, namely, Mycobacterium avium , Mycobacterium intracellulare , and Mycobacterium chimaera In this study, we investigated an archival collection of 173 MAC isolates using 16S rRNA and 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene sequencing, and GenoType NTM-DR was evaluated for identifying M. chimaera and other species belonging to the MAC. Species identification of 157/173 (91%) isolates with the GenoType NTM-DR assay was in agreement with 16S rRNA and 16S-23S ITS gene sequencing results. Misidentification occurred with 16 isolates which belonged to four species included in the MAC that are rarely encountered in clinical specimens. Despite some limitations of this assay, GenoType NTM-DR had 100% specificity for identifying M. chimaera This novel assay will enable diagnostic laboratories to differentiate species belonging to the Mycobacterium avium complex and to accurately identify M. chimaera It can produce rapid results and is also more cost efficient than gene sequencing methods. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  6. Results of FY 2002 of feasibility study on commercialized fast reactor cycle systems. Phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-06-01

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) and Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPC, that is the representative of the electric utilities in Japan) established a new organization to develop a commercialized fast reactor (FR) cycle system on July 1, 1999 and feasibility study (F/S) was undertaken in order to determine the promising concepts and to define the necessary R and D tasks. During Phase 1 (JFY 1999 and 2000), a number of candidate concepts were screened from various options, featuring innovative technologies. In the F/S, the options were evaluated and conceptual designs were examined considering the attainable perspectives for following: 1) ensuring safety, 2) economic competitiveness to future LWRs, 3) efficient utilization of resources, 4) reduction of environmental burden and 5) enhancement of nuclear non-proliferation. The F/S should also guide the necessary R and D to commercialize FR cycle system. To begin with the study of feasible candidate concepts screened in Phase I, Phase 2 started in the plan for five years in 2001. This aims at clarifying several feasible candidate concepts and deciding the research plan after Phase 3 as taking into consideration the innovative technology. As for this plan, an interim report will be carried out in 2003 as one pause and the prospect to clarify the feasible candidates will be expected. Furthermore, after the completion of this research and investigation program, research and development activities will be carried out under a rolling plan in which reviews will be carried out approximately every five years. The objective of these R and D activities is to make a proposal regarding highly attractive and competitive FR cycle system technology that assures safety by 2015. This report summarizes the results of F/S of Phase 2 in 2002. In 2002, the second year of Phase 2, the study was advanced along with the plan which was evaluated by the committee for the Evaluation. Then, in the study of FR system and fuel cycle

  7. HBV genotypic variability in Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen L Loureiro

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity of HBV in human population is often a reflection of its genetic admixture. The aim of this study was to explore the genotypic diversity of HBV in Cuba. The S genomic region of Cuban HBV isolates was sequenced and for selected isolates the complete genome or precore-core sequence was analyzed. The most frequent genotype was A (167/250, 67%, mainly A2 (149, 60% but also A1 and one A4. A total of 77 isolates were classified as genotype D (31%, with co-circulation of several subgenotypes (56 D4, 2 D1, 5 D2, 7 D3/6 and 7 D7. Three isolates belonged to genotype E, two to H and one to B3. Complete genome sequence analysis of selected isolates confirmed the phylogenetic analysis performed with the S region. Mutations or polymorphisms in precore region were more common among genotype D compared to genotype A isolates. The HBV genotypic distribution in this Caribbean island correlates with the Y lineage genetic background of the population, where a European and African origin prevails. HBV genotypes E, B3 and H isolates might represent more recent introductions.

  8. HBV Genotypic Variability in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, Carmen L.; Aguilar, Julio C.; Aguiar, Jorge; Muzio, Verena; Pentón, Eduardo; Garcia, Daymir; Guillen, Gerardo; Pujol, Flor H.

    2015-01-01

    The genetic diversity of HBV in human population is often a reflection of its genetic admixture. The aim of this study was to explore the genotypic diversity of HBV in Cuba. The S genomic region of Cuban HBV isolates was sequenced and for selected isolates the complete genome or precore-core sequence was analyzed. The most frequent genotype was A (167/250, 67%), mainly A2 (149, 60%) but also A1 and one A4. A total of 77 isolates were classified as genotype D (31%), with co-circulation of several subgenotypes (56 D4, 2 D1, 5 D2, 7 D3/6 and 7 D7). Three isolates belonged to genotype E, two to H and one to B3. Complete genome sequence analysis of selected isolates confirmed the phylogenetic analysis performed with the S region. Mutations or polymorphisms in precore region were more common among genotype D compared to genotype A isolates. The HBV genotypic distribution in this Caribbean island correlates with the Y lineage genetic background of the population, where a European and African origin prevails. HBV genotypes E, B3 and H isolates might represent more recent introductions. PMID:25742179

  9. Frosts during the growing season. Frequency of occurrence and effects on current energy forestry. Sommarfroster. Foerekomster och effekter paa befintliga energiskogsodlingar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christersson, L; Fircks, H von; Perttu, K

    1984-01-01

    Frost during the summer is very common in Sweden. Two kinds of summer frosts exists; one is called advection frost which is caused by cold air coming down over the country from the north and the other is an inversion frost caused by long-wave radiation from the ground taking place during calm clear nights. In this way the air closest to the ground is cooled. Eleven experimental areas are described as regards prehistory, vegetation, frequency of summer frosts, and energy forestry tests in progress. The amount of frost injuries is reported. Differences in frost hardiness of fast growing Salix clones in the growing state have been demonstrated. The results support the idea that the formation of ice crystals inside the growing tissues always take place around -2 degree C and that this ice crystal formation damages the growing part of the shoot of all tested clones. A fast growing shoot of Salix species has a longer elongation zone and this explains why a fast-growing shoot is more severly damaged than a slowly growing one at the same frost temperature. If the different clones are in a growing state there are only small differences in the amount of frost damage. On the other hand, there are great differences between the clones in the capacity of the surviving lateral buds to sprout. This capacity is foremost seen in clones of the species Salix dasyclados. Two year older shoots of different Salix species have never been damaged by summer frost because summer frosts do not reach the elongating zone of these shoots. In conclusions measures are listed on how to prevent or decrease the injuries caused by summer frosts. With 21 refs.

  10. Influence of the halothane gene (HAL) on pork quality in two commercial crossbreeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, A C P; Freitas, P F A; César, A S M; Cesar, A S M; Antunes, R C; Guimarães, E C; Batista, D F A; Torido, L C

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of the halothane (HAL) gene on the quality of pork in domestic pigs. Half-carcasses from two different commercial pig (Sus domestica) crossbreeds were analyzed, 46 of which were homozygous dominant (HAL(NN)) and 69 of which were heterozygous (HAL(Nn)) for the halothane gene. The measures included backfat thickness, lean meat percentage, carcass weight, pH 24 h after slaughtering, color, and drip loss; DNA was extracted from the haunch muscle. Swine with the HAL(Nn) genotype had less backfat thickness and higher lean meat percentages than swine with the HAL(NN) genotype. Yet, swine with the HAL(Nn) genotype had lower quality meat than those with the HAL(NN) swine. The pH at 24 h was lower in HAL(Nn) swine. The meat color was paler in HAL(Nn) animals, the drip loss was greater in those animals bearing the n allele, and the amount of intramuscular fat was not related to the halothane genotype. We conclude that bearers of the recessive allele of the halothane gene produce more meat, but with quality parameters that are inferior to those sought by consumers and industry.

  11. Fast Tree: Computing Large Minimum-Evolution Trees with Profiles instead of a Distance Matrix

    OpenAIRE

    N. Price, Morgan

    2009-01-01

    Gene families are growing rapidly, but standard methods for inferring phylogenies do not scale to alignments with over 10,000 sequences. We present FastTree, a method for constructing large phylogenies and for estimating their reliability. Instead of storing a distance matrix, FastTree stores sequence profiles of internal nodes in the tree. FastTree uses these profiles to implement neighbor-joining and uses heuristics to quickly identify candidate joins. FastTree then uses nearest-neighbor i...

  12. FastTree: Computing Large Minimum Evolution Trees with Profiles instead of a Distance Matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Price, Morgan N.; Dehal, Paramvir S.; Arkin, Adam P.

    2009-01-01

    Gene families are growing rapidly, but standard methods for inferring phylogenies do not scale to alignments with over 10,000 sequences. We present FastTree, a method for constructing large phylogenies and for estimating their reliability. Instead of storing a distance matrix, FastTree stores sequence profiles of internal nodes in the tree. FastTree uses these profiles to implement Neighbor-Joining and uses heuristics to quickly identify candidate joins. FastTree then uses nearest neighbor in...

  13. Advanced Safeguards Approaches for New Fast Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durst, Philip C.; Therios, Ike; Bean, Robert; Dougan, A.; Boyer, Brian; Wallace, Rick L.; Ehinger, Michael H.; Kovacic, Don N.; Tolk, K.

    2007-01-01

    This third report in the series reviews possible safeguards approaches for new fast reactors in general, and the ABR in particular. Fast-neutron spectrum reactors have been used since the early 1960s on an experimental and developmental level, generally with fertile blanket fuels to 'breed' nuclear fuel such as plutonium. Whether the reactor is designed to breed plutonium, or transmute and 'burn' actinides depends mainly on the design of the reactor neutron reflector and the whether the blanket fuel is 'fertile' or suitable for transmutation. However, the safeguards issues are very similar, since they pertain mainly to the receipt, shipment and storage of fresh and spent plutonium and actinide-bearing 'TRU'-fuel. For these reasons, the design of existing fast reactors and details concerning how they have been safeguarded were studied in developing advanced safeguards approaches for the new fast reactors. In this regard, the design of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II 'EBR-II' at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) was of interest, because it was designed as a collocated fast reactor with a pyrometallurgical reprocessing and fuel fabrication line--a design option being considered for the ABR. Similarly, the design of the Fast Flux Facility (FFTF) on the Hanford Site was studied, because it was a successful prototype fast reactor that ran for two decades to evaluate fuels and the design for commercial-scale fast reactors

  14. Nitrogen and energy balance in growing mink (Mustela vison) fed different levels of bacterial protein meal produced with natural gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Ahlstrøm, Øystein

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of increasing the dietary content of bacterial protein meal (BPM) on energy and protein metabolism in growing mink kits. Sixteen male mink kits of the standard brown genotype were randomly fed one of four diets: A control (Diet III) and 60% (...

  15. Desmanthus GENOTYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ HENRIQUE DE ALBUQUERQUE RANGEL

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Desmanthus is a genus of forage legumes with potential to improve pastures and livestock produc-tion on clay soils of dry tropical and subtropical regions such as the existing in Brazil and Australia. Despite this patterns of natural or enforced after-ripening of Desmanthus seeds have not been well established. Four year old seed banks of nine Desmanthus genotypes at James Cook University were accessed for their patterns of seed softe-ning in response to a range of temperatures. Persistent seed banks were found to exist under all of the studied ge-notypes. The largest seeds banks were found in the genotypes CPI 78373 and CPI 78382 and the smallest in the genotypes CPI’s 37143, 67643, and 83563. An increase in the percentage of softened seeds was correlated with higher temperatures, in two patterns of response: in some accessions seeds were not significantly affected by tempe-ratures below 80º C; and in others, seeds become soft when temperature rose to as little as 60 ºC. At 80 °C the heat started to depress germination. High seed production of Desmanthus associated with dependence of seeds on eleva-ted temperatures to softening can be a very important strategy for plants to survive in dry tropical regions.

  16. Evaluation of genotype x environment interactions in maize hybrids using GGE biplot analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Aykut Tonk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Seventeen hybrid maize genotypes were evaluated at four different locations in 2005 and 2006 cropping seasonsunder irrigated conditions in Turkey. The analysis of variance showed that mean squares of environments (E, genotypes (G andGE interactions (GEI were highly significant and accounted for 74, 7 and 19 % of treatment combination sum squares, respectively.To determine the effects of GEI on grain yield, the data were subjected to the GGE biplot analysis. Maize hybrid G16 can be proposedas reliably growing in test locations for high grain yield. Also, only the Yenisehir location could be best representative of overalllocations for deciding about which experimental hybrids can be recommended for grain yield in this study. Consequently, using ofgrain yield per plant instead of grain yield per plot in hybrid maize breeding programs could be preferred by private companies dueto some advantages.

  17. Molecular status of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus among transgender commercial sex workers in Surakarta, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, Afiono Agung; Sari, Yulia; Dharmawan, Ruben; Marwoto

    2017-02-01

    Sexual contact and other risk behavior among transgender working as commercial sex workers are important factors for sexual and blood-borne virus (BBV) infections. However, there no data concerning the molecular status of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) circulated among transgender working as commercial sex workers. Blood samples obtained from transgender working as commercial sex workers in Surakarta were examined for HIV antibodies, HBsAg and HCV antibodies, respectively, by immunological assays. All blood samples were also subjected for viral nucleic acid extraction and molecular detection of HIV, HBV and HCV by nested RT-PCR. The PCR products were purified from agarose gels, and the nucleotide sequences were retrieved and molecular analyzed. HIV, HBV and HCV was detected in 26.9% (7/26), 19.2% (5/26) and 46.2% (12/26), respectively. HIV CRF01_AE and B were found to be circulating in the community. HBV genotype B3 predominated, followed by C1. HCV genotype 1a predominated among HCV-infected transgender working as commercial sex workers, followed by 1c, 3a, and 4a. HIV, HBV, and HCV were found circulating in the transgender working as commercial sex workers in Surakarta, Indonesia.

  18. Improving accuracy of genomic prediction in Brangus cattle by adding animals with imputed low-density SNP genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, F B; Wu, X-L; Li, H; Xu, J; Perkins, T; Genho, J; Ferretti, R; Tait, R G; Bauck, S; Rosa, G J M

    2018-02-01

    Reliable genomic prediction of breeding values for quantitative traits requires the availability of sufficient number of animals with genotypes and phenotypes in the training set. As of 31 October 2016, there were 3,797 Brangus animals with genotypes and phenotypes. These Brangus animals were genotyped using different commercial SNP chips. Of them, the largest group consisted of 1,535 animals genotyped by the GGP-LDV4 SNP chip. The remaining 2,262 genotypes were imputed to the SNP content of the GGP-LDV4 chip, so that the number of animals available for training the genomic prediction models was more than doubled. The present study showed that the pooling of animals with both original or imputed 40K SNP genotypes substantially increased genomic prediction accuracies on the ten traits. By supplementing imputed genotypes, the relative gains in genomic prediction accuracies on estimated breeding values (EBV) were from 12.60% to 31.27%, and the relative gain in genomic prediction accuracies on de-regressed EBV was slightly small (i.e. 0.87%-18.75%). The present study also compared the performance of five genomic prediction models and two cross-validation methods. The five genomic models predicted EBV and de-regressed EBV of the ten traits similarly well. Of the two cross-validation methods, leave-one-out cross-validation maximized the number of animals at the stage of training for genomic prediction. Genomic prediction accuracy (GPA) on the ten quantitative traits was validated in 1,106 newly genotyped Brangus animals based on the SNP effects estimated in the previous set of 3,797 Brangus animals, and they were slightly lower than GPA in the original data. The present study was the first to leverage currently available genotype and phenotype resources in order to harness genomic prediction in Brangus beef cattle. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Conflict resolution in the zoning of eco-protected areas in fast-growing regions based on game theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jinyao; Li, Xia

    2016-04-01

    Zoning eco-protected areas is important for ecological conservation and environmental management. Rapid and continuous urban expansion, however, may exert negative effects on the performance of practical zoning designs. Various methods have been developed for protected area zoning, but most of them failed to consider the conflicts between urban development (for the benefit of land developers) and ecological protection (local government). Some real-world zoning schemes even have to be modified occasionally after the lengthy negotiations between the government and land developers. Therefore, our study has presented a game theory-based method to deal with this problem. Future urban expansion in the study area will be predicted by a logistic regression cellular automaton, while eco-protected areas will be delimitated using multi-objective optimization algorithm. Then, two types of conflicts between them can be resolved based on game theory, a theory of decision-making. We established a two-person dynamic game for each conflict zone. The ecological compensation mechanism was taken into account by simulating the negotiation processes between the government and land developers. A final zoning scheme can be obtained when the two sides reach agreements. The proposed method is applied to the eco-protected area zoning in Guangzhou, a fast-growing city in China. The experiments indicate that the conflicts between eco-protection and urban development will inevitably arise when using only traditional zoning methods. Based on game theory, our method can effectively resolve those conflicts, and can provide a relatively reasonable zoning scheme. This method is expected to support policy-making in environmental management and urban planning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Mining for genotype-phenotype relations in Saccharomyces using partial least squares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sæbø Solve

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multivariate approaches are important due to their versatility and applications in many fields as it provides decisive advantages over univariate analysis in many ways. Genome wide association studies are rapidly emerging, but approaches in hand pay less attention to multivariate relation between genotype and phenotype. We introduce a methodology based on a BLAST approach for extracting information from genomic sequences and Soft- Thresholding Partial Least Squares (ST-PLS for mapping genotype-phenotype relations. Results Applying this methodology to an extensive data set for the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we found that the relationship between genotype-phenotype involves surprisingly few genes in the sense that an overwhelmingly large fraction of the phenotypic variation can be explained by variation in less than 1% of the full gene reference set containing 5791 genes. These phenotype influencing genes were evolving 20% faster than non-influential genes and were unevenly distributed over cellular functions, with strong enrichments in functions such as cellular respiration and transposition. These genes were also enriched with known paralogs, stop codon variations and copy number variations, suggesting that such molecular adjustments have had a disproportionate influence on Saccharomyces yeasts recent adaptation to environmental changes in its ecological niche. Conclusions BLAST and PLS based multivariate approach derived results that adhere to the known yeast phylogeny and gene ontology and thus verify that the methodology extracts a set of fast evolving genes that capture the phylogeny of the yeast strains. The approach is worth pursuing, and future investigations should be made to improve the computations of genotype signals as well as variable selection procedure within the PLS framework.

  1. Fast breeder fuel element development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marth, W.; Muehling, G.

    1983-08-01

    This report is a compilation of the papers which have been presented during a seminar ''Fast Breeder Fuel Element Development'' held on November 15/16, 1982 at KfK. The papers give a survey of the status, of the obtained results and of the necessary work, which still has to be done in the frame of various development programmes for fast breeder fuel elements. In detail the following items were covered by the presentations: - the requirements and boundary conditions for the design of fuel pins and elements both for the reference concept of the SNR 300 core and for the large, commercial breeder type of the future (presentation 1,2 and 6); - the fabrication, properties and characterization of various mixed oxide fuel types (presentations 3,4 and 5); - the operational fuel pin behaviour, limits of different design concepts and possible mechanism for fuel pin failures (presentations (7 and 8); - the situation of cladding- and wrapper materials development especially with respect to the high burn-up values of commercial reactors (presentations 9 and 10); - the results of the irradiation experiments performed under steady-state and non-stationary operational conditions and with failed fuel pins (presentations 11, 12, 13 and 14). (orig./RW) [de

  2. Epidemiology and molecular characterization of chicken anaemia virus from commercial and native chickens in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, S-C; Lin, H-L; Liu, P-C; Huang, H-J; Lee, M-S; Lien, Y-Y; Tsai, Y-L

    2018-04-25

    Chicken infectious anaemia (CIA) is a disease with a highly economic impact in the poultry industry. The infected chickens are characterized by aplastic anaemia and extreme immunosuppression, followed by the increased susceptibility to secondary infectious pathogens and suboptimal immune responses for vaccination. Commercially available CIA vaccines are routinely used in the breeders in Taiwan to protect their progeny with maternal-derived antibodies. However, CIA cases still occur in the field and little is known about the genetic characteristics of Taiwanese chicken anaemia viruses (CAVs). In this study, CAV DNA was detected in 72 of 137 flocks collected during 2010-2015. Among the PCR-positive samples, the coding regions of 51 CAVs were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP1 gene revealed that, although most of Taiwanese CAVs belonged to genotypes II and III, some isolates were clustered into a novel genotype (genotype IV). Moreover, a Taiwanese isolate in this novel genotype IV appeared to be derived from a recombination event between genotypes II and III viruses. Five Taiwanese CAV isolates were highly similar to the vaccine strains, 26P4 or Del-Ros. Taken together, these results indicate that the sequences of CAVs in Taiwan are variable, and inter-genotypic recombination had occurred between viruses of different genotypes. Moreover, vaccine-like strains might induce clinical signs of CIA in chickens. Our findings could be useful for understanding the evolution of CAVs and development of a better control strategy for CIA. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Fast reactors: R and D targets and outlook for their introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poplavsky, V.; Barre, B.; Aizawa, K.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper the current status of fast reactors development is briefly outlined, including experimental, demonstration, and commercial installations. Data on the experience gained in development and operation of NPPs with reactors of this type are presented. The issues are discussed in connection with possibilities of fast reactor development in the nuclear power structure for the near (up to 2010-2020) and distant future. In the final part of the paper, an analysis is given of possible ways for R and D development in the field of NPPs with fast neutron reactors. (author)

  4. Distribution of genotype network sizes in sequence-to-structure genotype-phenotype maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrubia, Susanna; Cuesta, José A

    2017-04-01

    An essential quantity to ensure evolvability of populations is the navigability of the genotype space. Navigability, understood as the ease with which alternative phenotypes are reached, relies on the existence of sufficiently large and mutually attainable genotype networks. The size of genotype networks (e.g. the number of RNA sequences folding into a particular secondary structure or the number of DNA sequences coding for the same protein structure) is astronomically large in all functional molecules investigated: an exhaustive experimental or computational study of all RNA folds or all protein structures becomes impossible even for moderately long sequences. Here, we analytically derive the distribution of genotype network sizes for a hierarchy of models which successively incorporate features of increasingly realistic sequence-to-structure genotype-phenotype maps. The main feature of these models relies on the characterization of each phenotype through a prototypical sequence whose sites admit a variable fraction of letters of the alphabet. Our models interpolate between two limit distributions: a power-law distribution, when the ordering of sites in the prototypical sequence is strongly constrained, and a lognormal distribution, as suggested for RNA, when different orderings of the same set of sites yield different phenotypes. Our main result is the qualitative and quantitative identification of those features of sequence-to-structure maps that lead to different distributions of genotype network sizes. © 2017 The Author(s).

  5. Performance of coffee origin and genotype in organoleptic and physical quality of arabica coffee in North Sumatra Province of Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malau, Sabam; Siagian, Albiner; Sirait, Bilter; Pandiangan, Samse

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this research was to determine effect of coffee origin and genotype on organoleptic and physical quality of Arabica coffea L. growing in North Sumatra. Seven districts treated as origins and 28 genotypes were chosen. The research was conducted with nested design with 3 factors. Organoleptic parameters were fragrance/aroma, flavor, aftertaste, acidity, body, uniformity, balance, clean cup, sweetness, overall and total score. Physical quality was green bean weight. The results revealed that origins affected significantly organoleptic quality. Coffee from Dairi showed the highest total score (90,82). Genotypes were significantly different in organoleptic quality. Genotype Da17, Da18, Da19, Da20 and Hu4 had the best total score (89,85 -91,68). Total score did not correlate with green bean weight but had positive correlation with altitude. Among organoleptic parameters, acidity was more significant for total score (r2 = 0,836). Altitude had more effect on acidity (r2 = 0,486).

  6. Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains of the Beijing genotype are rarely observed in tuberculosis patients in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritacco, Viviana; López, Beatriz; Cafrune, Patricia I; Ferrazoli, Lucilaine; Suffys, Philip N; Candia, Norma; Vásquez, Lucy; Realpe, Teresa; Fernández, Jorge; Lima, Karla V; Zurita, Jeannete; Robledo, Jaime; Rossetti, Maria L; Kritski, Afranio L; Telles, Maria A; Palomino, Juan C; Heersma, Herre; van Soolingen, Dick; Kremer, Kristin; Barrera, Lucía

    2008-08-01

    The frequency of the Beijing genotype of Mycobacterium tuberculosis as a cause of tuberculosis (TB) in South America was determined by analyzing genotypes of strains isolated from patients that had been diagnosed with the disease between 1997 and 2003 in seven countries of the subcontinent. In total, 19 of the 1,202 (1.6%) TB cases carried Beijing isolates, including 11 of the 185 patients from Peru (5.9%), five of the 512 patients from Argentina (1.0%), two of the 252 Brazilian cases (0.8%), one of the 166 patients from Paraguay (0.6%) and none of the samples obtained from Chile (35), Colombia (36) and Ecuador (16). Except for two patients that were East Asian immigrants, all cases with Beijing strains were native South Americans. No association was found between carrying a strain with the Beijing genotype and having drug or multi-drug resistant disease. Our data show that presently transmission of M. tuberculosis strains of the Beijing genotype is not frequent in Latin America. In addition, the lack of association of drug resistant TB and infection with M. tuberculosis of the Beijing genotype observed presently demands efforts to define better the contribution of the virulence and lack of response to treatment to the growing spread of Beijing strains observed in other parts of the world.

  7. Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains of the Beijing genotype are rarely observed in tuberculosis patients in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Ritacco

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of the Beijing genotype of Mycobacterium tuberculosis as a cause of tuberculosis (TB in South America was determined by analyzing genotypes of strains isolated from patients that had been diagnosed with the disease between 1997 and 2003 in seven countries of the subcontinent. In total, 19 of the 1,202 (1.6% TB cases carried Beijing isolates, including 11 of the 185 patients from Peru (5.9%, five of the 512 patients from Argentina (1.0%, two of the 252 Brazilian cases (0.8%, one of the 166 patients from Paraguay (0.6% and none of the samples obtained from Chile (35, Colombia (36 and Ecuador (16. Except for two patients that were East Asian immigrants, all cases with Beijing strains were native South Americans. No association was found between carrying a strain with the Beijing genotype and having drug or multi-drug resistant disease. Our data show that presently transmission of M. tuberculosis strains of the Beijing genotype is not frequent in Latin America. In addition, the lack of association of drug resistant TB and infection with M. tuberculosis of the Beijing genotype observed presently demands efforts to define better the contribution of the virulence and lack of response to treatment to the growing spread of Beijing strains observed in other parts of the world.

  8. Fast reactors - Dounreay and the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, G.

    1988-01-01

    In 1960 at Dounreay, the Dounreay Fast Reactor (DFR) supplied the world's first fast reactor grid electricity, and went on to a highly successful career as a test facility, as fuel designs advanced. In the 1960s, the Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) was designed and built, beginning operation in 1974. The PFR was built to provide a sound technical and experienced base to support the UK's future Fast Reactor development and design. The in-vessel fuel handling facilities have demonstrated the flexibility of the pool design and a considerable body of in-core fuel handling experience is available. A key issue for further Fast Reactor application is the performance of fuel and, because PFR was designed to take full-scale fuel assemblies, the fuel performance experience is directly relevant to commercial designs. The original PFR design irradiation target of 60000 MWd/t U (equivalent to 7.5 % burn-up) has already been exceeded by a factor of more than two and a 15.9 % burn-up sub-assembly has been discharged and reprocessed without difficulty. Soon a 20 % sub-assembly will follow. Also the PFR reprocessing plant has demonstrated the safety and efficiency of this essential adjunct to Fast Reactor operation. The safety and the environmental protection features of both the PFR and its fuel reprocessing plant have been demonstrated over the last 14 years. 2 refs., 3 figs

  9. FAST: a combined NOC and transient fuel performance model using a commercial FEM environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prudil, A.; Bell, J.; Oussoren, A.; Chan, P. [Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, ON (Canada); Lewis, B. [Univ. of Ontario Inst. of Tech., Oshawa, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    The Fuel And Sheath modelling Tool (FAST) is a combined normal operating conditions (NOC) and transient fuel performance code developed on the COMSOL Multiphysics finite-element platform. The FAST code has demonstrated excellent performance in proof of concept validation tests against experimental data and comparison to the ELESIM, ELESTRES and ELOCA fuel performance codes. In this paper we discuss ongoing efforts to expand the capabilities of the code to include multiple pellet geometries, model stress-corrosion cracking phenomena and modelling of advanced fuels composed of mixed oxides of thorium, uranium, and plutonium for the Canadian Supercritical Water Reactor (SCWR). (author)

  10. Peripheral Blood Transcriptomic Signatures of Fasting Glucose and Insulin Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Brian H.; Hivert, Marie-France; Peters, Marjolein J.; Pilling, Luke C.; Hogan, John D.; Pham, Lisa M.; Harries, Lorna W.; Fox, Caroline S.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Dehghan, Abbas; Hernandez, Dena G.; Hofman, Albert; Hong, Jaeyoung; Joehanes, Roby; Johnson, Andrew D.; Munson, Peter J.; Rybin, Denis V.; Singleton, Andrew B.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Ying, Saixia; Melzer, David; Levy, Daniel; van Meurs, Joyce B.J.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Florez, Jose C.; Dupuis, Josée

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified genetic loci associated with glycemic traits. However, characterizing the functional significance of these loci has proven challenging. We sought to gain insights into the regulation of fasting insulin and fasting glucose through the use of gene expression microarray data from peripheral blood samples of participants without diabetes in the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) (n = 5,056), the Rotterdam Study (RS) (n = 723), and the InCHIANTI Study (Invecchiare in Chianti) (n = 595). Using a false discovery rate q fasting glucose and 433 transcripts associated with fasting insulin levels after adjusting for age, sex, technical covariates, and complete blood cell counts. Among the findings, circulating IGF2BP2 transcript levels were positively associated with fasting insulin in both the FHS and RS. Using 1000 Genomes–imputed genotype data, we identified 47,587 cis-expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) and 6,695 trans-eQTL associated with the 433 significant insulin-associated transcripts. Of note, we identified a trans-eQTL (rs592423), where the A allele was associated with higher IGF2BP2 levels and with fasting insulin in an independent genetic meta-analysis comprised of 50,823 individuals. We conclude that integration of genomic and transcriptomic data implicate circulating IGF2BP2 mRNA levels associated with glucose and insulin homeostasis. PMID:27625022

  11. Genetic potentiality of indigenous rice genotypes from Eastern India with reference to submergence tolerance and deepwater traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayani Goswami

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Submergence tolerance in rice varieties is crucial for maintaining stable yields in low land areas, where recurrence of flooding is a constant phenomenon during monsoon. We have conducted detailed physiological and genotyping studies of 27 rice genotypes and one wild rice relative, popularly grown in low land areas of the two major rice growing states of eastern India, West Bengal and Odisha with a focus on submergence tolerance traits and Sub1 loci. We found that these genotypes show varying degree (50–100% survival rate during post submergence recovery period, and high degree of polymorphism in the Sub1 linked rice microsatellite loci RM219 and RM7175. Detailed allelic diversity study of Sub1A loci suggests that rice varieties IR42, Panibhasha, Khoda and Kalaputia share a common allele that is different from FR13A, Keralasundari, Bhashakalmi, Kumrogore. Two other genotypes Meghi and Khoda shares both alleles of Sub1A loci (present in IR42 and FR13A groups in addition to a new variant. Detailed sequence analysis of the amplified product for the Sub1A loci from these genotypes showed several single nucleotide changes with respect to reference Oryza sativa Sub1A loci (DQ011598. Three rice genotypes (Meghi, Bhashakalmi and Keralasundari showed beneficial properties in relation to induced submergence stress and can be considered as valuable genetic source in context of utilization of natural rice genetic resources in breeding program for submergence tolerance.

  12. Genotype Imputation for Latinos Using the HapMap and 1000 Genomes Project Reference Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyi eGao

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Genotype imputation is a vital tool in genome-wide association studies (GWAS and meta-analyses of multiple GWAS results. Imputation enables researchers to increase genomic coverage and to pool data generated using different genotyping platforms. HapMap samples are often employed as the reference panel. More recently, the 1000 Genomes Project resource is becoming the primary source for reference panels. Multiple GWAS and meta-analyses are targeting Latinos, the most populous and fastest growing minority group in the US. However, genotype imputation resources for Latinos are rather limited compared to individuals of European ancestry at present, largely because of the lack of good reference data. One choice of reference panel for Latinos is one derived from the population of Mexican individuals in Los Angeles contained in the HapMap Phase 3 project and the 1000 Genomes Project. However, a detailed evaluation of the quality of the imputed genotypes derived from the public reference panels has not yet been reported. Using simulation studies, the Illumina OmniExpress GWAS data from the Los Angles Latino Eye Study and the MACH software package, we evaluated the accuracy of genotype imputation in Latinos. Our results show that the 1000 Genomes Project AMR+CEU+YRI reference panel provides the highest imputation accuracy for Latinos, and that also including Asian samples in the panel can reduce imputation accuracy. We also provide the imputation accuracy for each autosomal chromosome using the 1000 Genomes Project panel for Latinos. Our results serve as a guide to future imputation-based analysis in Latinos.

  13. Human papillomavirus genotyping using an automated film-based chip array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erali, Maria; Pattison, David C; Wittwer, Carl T; Petti, Cathy A

    2009-09-01

    The INFINITI HPV-QUAD assay is a commercially available genotyping platform for human papillomavirus (HPV) that uses multiplex PCR, followed by automated processing for primer extension, hybridization, and detection. The analytical performance of the HPV-QUAD assay was evaluated using liquid cervical cytology specimens, and the results were compared with those results obtained using the digene High-Risk HPV hc2 Test (HC2). The specimen types included Surepath and PreservCyt transport media, as well as residual SurePath and HC2 transport media from the HC2 assay. The overall concordance of positive and negative results following the resolution of indeterminate and intermediate results was 83% among the 197 specimens tested. HC2 positive (+) and HPV-QUAD negative (-) results were noted in 24 specimens that were shown by real-time PCR and sequence analysis to contain no HPV, HPV types that were cross-reactive in the HC2 assay, or low virus levels. Conversely, HC2 (-) and HPV-QUAD (+) results were noted in four specimens and were subsequently attributed to cross-contamination. The most common HPV types to be identified in this study were HPV16, HPV18, HPV52/58, and HPV39/56. We show that the HPV-QUAD assay is a user friendly, automated system for the identification of distinct HPV genotypes. Based on its analytical performance, future studies with this platform are warranted to assess its clinical utility for HPV detection and genotyping.

  14. Genetic diversity of "Pimenta Longa" genotypes (Piper spp., Piperaceae) of the Embrapa Acre germplasm collection

    OpenAIRE

    Wadt, Lúcia Helena de Oliveira; Ehringhaus, Christiane; Kageyama, Paulo Yoshio

    2004-01-01

    The commonly known Pimenta longa is a commercially valuable natural resource found wild in Acre, Brazil. Specifically, three Piperaceae species with contested taxonomic status were studied, Piper hispidinervum, Piper aduncum, and Piper hispidum, to assesses the inter- and intra-specific genetic relationship of 49 Piper genotypes kept in the Pimenta longa germplasm collection at Embrapa Acre, using sixty six Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. The DNA polymorphism level detected w...

  15. Effect of cryogenic grinding on volatile and fatty oil constituents of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, L K; Agarwal, D; Rathore, S S; Malhotra, S K; Saxena, S N

    2016-06-01

    Effect of cryogenic grinding on recovery of volatile oil, fatty oil percentage and their constituents in two cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) genotypes have been analyzed. Cryogenic grinding not only retains the volatiles but enhanced the recovery by 33.9 % in GC 4 and 43.5 % in RZ 209. A significant increase (29.9 %) over normal grinding in oil percentage was also observed in genotype RZ 209. This increase was, however, less (15.4 %) in genotype GC 4. Nineteen major compounds were identified in the essential oil of both genotypes. The two grinding techniques had significant effects on dependent variables, viz., volatile oil and monoterpenes. Cuminaldehyde was the main constituent in both genotypes, content of which increased from 48.2 to 56.1 % in GC 4 on cryo grinding. Content of terpines were found to decrease in cryo ground samples of GC 4 and either decrease or no change was found in RZ 209. Organoleptic test showed more pleasant aroma in cryo ground seeds of both the genotypes. Significant increase was also reported in fatty oil yield due to cryogenic grinding. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis showed oleic acid as major FAME content of which increased from 88.1 to 94.9 % in RZ 209 and from 88.2 to 90.1 % in GC 4 on cryogenic grinding. Other prominent FAME were palmitic, palmitoleic and stearic acid. Results indicated commercial potential of cryogenic grinding technology for cumin in general and spices in particular for better retention of flavour and quality in spices.

  16. Rotavirus genotype shifts among Swedish children and adults-Application of a real-time PCR genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Maria; Lindh, Magnus

    2017-11-01

    It is well known that human rotavirus group A is the most important cause of severe diarrhoea in infants and young children. Less is known about rotavirus infections in other age groups, and about how rotavirus genotypes change over time in different age groups. Develop a real-time PCR to easily genotype rotavirus strains in order to monitor the pattern of circulating genotypes. In this study, rotavirus strains in clinical samples from children and adults in Western Sweden during 2010-2014 were retrospectively genotyped by using specific amplification of VP 4 and VP 7 genes with a new developed real-rime PCR. A genotype was identified in 97% of 775 rotavirus strains. G1P[8] was the most common genotype representing 34.9%, followed by G2P[4] (28.3%), G9P[8] (11.5%), G3P[8] (8.1%), and G4P[8] (7.9%) The genotype distribution changed over time, from predominance of G1P[8] in 2010-2012 to predominance of G2P[4] in 2013-2014. There were also age-related differences, with G1P[8] being the most common genotype in children under 2 years (47.6%), and G2P[4] the most common in those over 70 years of age (46.1%.). The shift to G2P[4] in 2013-2014 was associated with a change in the age distribution, with a greater number of rotavirus positive cases in elderly than in children. By using a new real-time PCR method for genotyping we found that genotype distribution was age related and changed over time with a decreasing proportion of G1P[8]. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Advanced Safeguards Approaches for New Fast Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durst, Philip C.; Therios, Ike; Bean, Robert; Dougan, A.; Boyer, Brian; Wallace, Rick L.; Ehinger, Michael H.; Kovacic, Don N.; Tolk, K.

    2007-12-15

    This third report in the series reviews possible safeguards approaches for new fast reactors in general, and the ABR in particular. Fast-neutron spectrum reactors have been used since the early 1960s on an experimental and developmental level, generally with fertile blanket fuels to “breed” nuclear fuel such as plutonium. Whether the reactor is designed to breed plutonium, or transmute and “burn” actinides depends mainly on the design of the reactor neutron reflector and the whether the blanket fuel is “fertile” or suitable for transmutation. However, the safeguards issues are very similar, since they pertain mainly to the receipt, shipment and storage of fresh and spent plutonium and actinide-bearing “TRU”-fuel. For these reasons, the design of existing fast reactors and details concerning how they have been safeguarded were studied in developing advanced safeguards approaches for the new fast reactors. In this regard, the design of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II “EBR-II” at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) was of interest, because it was designed as a collocated fast reactor with a pyrometallurgical reprocessing and fuel fabrication line – a design option being considered for the ABR. Similarly, the design of the Fast Flux Facility (FFTF) on the Hanford Site was studied, because it was a successful prototype fast reactor that ran for two decades to evaluate fuels and the design for commercial-scale fast reactors.

  18. Fast temperature programming in gas chromatography using resistive heating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dallüge, J.; Ou-Aissa, R.; Vreuls, J.J.; Brinkman, U.A.T.; Veraart, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    The features of a resistive-heated capillary column for fast temperature-programmed gas chromatography (GC) have been evaluated. Experiments were carried out using a commercial available EZ Flash GC, an assembly which can be used to upgrade existing gas chromatographs. The capillary column is placed

  19. Genotypic variations in the dynamics of metal concentrations in poplar leaves: A field study with a perspective on phytoremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pottier, Mathieu; García de la Torre, Vanesa S.; Victor, Cindy; David, Laure C.; Chalot, Michel; Thomine, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    Poplar is commonly used for phytoremediation of metal polluted soils. However, the high concentrations of trace elements present in leaves may return to soil upon leaf abscission. To investigate the mechanisms controlling leaf metal content, metal concentrations and expression levels of genes involved in metal transport were monitored at different developmental stages on leaves from different poplar genotypes growing on a contaminated field. Large differences in leaf metal concentrations were observed among genotypes. Whereas Mg was remobilized during senescence, Zn and Cd accumulation continued until leaf abscission in all genotypes. A positive correlation between Natural Resistance Associated Macrophage Protein 1 (NRAMP1) expression levels and Zn bio-concentration factors was observed. Principal component analyses of metal concentrations and gene expression levels clearly discriminated poplar genotypes. This study highlights a general absence of trace element remobilization from poplar leaves despite genotype specificities in the control of leaf metal homeostasis. - Highlights: • Poplar genotypes display large variations in leaf metal concentrations. • Trace elements are not remobilized during poplar leaf senescence. • Distinct transporter genes control metal homeostasis at different leaf stages. • Poplar genotypes use distinct mechanisms to control leaf metal homeostasis. • NRAMP1 metal transporter could contribute to Zn and Cd accumulation in poplar leaves. - In order to improve metal phytoextraction using poplars, this work provides new insights on the control of leaf metal concentrations through principal component and correlative analyses

  20. Piracy in Southeast Asia: A Growing Threat to the United States' Vital Strategic and Commercial Interests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davis, Gregory

    2002-01-01

    ... maritime targets of opportunity, a growing drug trade, China's attempts to exert sovereignty over the South China Sea, and new ominous link between the Osama Bin Ladin's Al-Qa'ida terrorist organization...

  1. A Multidisciplinary Phenotyping and Genotyping Analysis of a Mapping Population Enables Quality to Be Combined with Yield in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariafe Calingacion

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study a mapping population (F8 of ca 200 progeny from a cross between the commercial rice varieties Apo and IR64 has been both genotyped and phenotyped. A genotyping-by-sequencing approach was first used to identify 2,681 polymorphic SNP markers which gave dense coverage of the genome with a good distribution across all 12 chromosomes. The coefficient of parentage was also low, at 0.13, confirming that the parents are genetically distant from each other. The progeny, together with both parents, were grown under irrigated and water restricted conditions in a randomised block design. All grain was harvested to determine variation in yield across the population. The grains were then polished following standard procedures prior to performing the phenotyping analyses. A Gas Chromatography—Mass Spectrometry approach was used to determine the volatile biochemical profiles of each line and after data curation and processing, discriminatory metabolites were putatively identified based on in-house and commercial spectral libraries. These data were used to predict the potential role of these metabolites in determining differences in aroma between genotypes. A number of QTLs for yield and for individual metabolites have been identified. Following these combined multi-disciplinary analyses, it proved possible to identify a number of lines which appeared to combine the favourable aroma attributes of IR64 with the favourable (higher yield potential of Apo. As such, these lines are excellent candidates to assess further as potential genotypes to work up into a new variety of rice which has both good yield and good quality, thus meeting the needs of both farmer and consumer alike.

  2. Avaliação de genótipos de bananeira no norte do Estado do Paraná Evaluation of banana genotypes in the north of Paraná State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério de Sá Borges

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho de 14 genótipos de bananeira na região norte do Estado do Paraná. O experimento foi conduzido sem irrigação em uma propriedade comercial localizada no município de Andirá-PR, no período de 2007 a 2009. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com oito repetições e uma planta por parcela. O genótipo FHIA 17 destacou-se dos demais, apresentando o melhor conjunto de caracteres agronômicos. Os genótipos PA42-44, PV94-01 e 'BRS Princesa' apresentaram características semelhantes às testemunhas de mesmo subgrupo 'Prata-Anã', 'Pacovan' e 'Maçã', respectivamente, sendo portanto, alternativas de cultivo por serem resistentes às sigatokas-negra e amarela e ao mal-do-Panamá.The aim of this work was to evaluate the performance of fourteen genotypes of banana tree, in the North Region of Paraná State, Brazil. The experiment was installed and carried out, without irrigation, in a commercial field located at Andirá, PR, Brazil, from 2007 to 2009. A completely randomized design with eight replications and one plant per parcel was used. The genotype FHIA 17 was outstanding of the rest presenting the best set of agronomic characters. The genotypes PA42-44, PV94-01 and 'BRS Princesa' presented similar characteristics to the controls of the same sub-group 'Prata Anã', 'Pacovan' and 'Maçã', respectively, being alternatives of grow by its resistance to the black and yellow sigatokas and fusarium wilt.

  3. The energy gap and the fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.

    1977-01-01

    The background to the development of fast reactors is summarized. In Britain, the results of the many experiments performed, the operation of the Dounreay Fast Reactor for the past 18 years and the first year's operation of the larger Prototype Fast Reactor have all been very encouraging, in that they demonstrated that the performance corresponded well with predictions, breeding is possible, and the system is exceptionally stable in operation. The next step in fast reactor engineering is to build a full-scale fast reactor power station. There would seem to be little reason to expect more trouble than could reasonably be expected in constructing any large project of this general nature. However, from an engineering point of view continuity of experience is required. If a decision to build a commercial fast reactor were taken today there would be a 14-year gap between strating this and the start of the Prototype Fast Reactor. This is already much too long. From an environmental standpoint we have to demonstrate that we can manufacture and reprocess fast reacctor fuel for a substantial programme in a way that does not lead to pollution of the environment, and that plutonium-containing fuel can be transported in the quantities required in safety and in a way that does not attract terrorists or require a private army to ensure its security. Finally, we have to find a way to allow many countries to obtain the energy they need from fast reactors, without leading to the proliferation of nuclear weapons or weapons capability. (author)

  4. Composition of fish and feeds - Development and optimization of grow out diets for sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Our experience with juvenile sablefish and long term rearing of broodstock indicate that salmon grower feeds currently used by commercial sablefish farmers for grow...

  5. Evaluation of two commercial, rapid, ELISA kits testing or scrapie in retro-pharyngeal lymph nodes in sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kittelberger, R.; McIntuyre, L.; Watts, S.; MacDiarmid, S.; Hannah, M.J.; Jenner, J.; Bueno, R.; Swainsbury, R.; Langeveld, J.P.M.; Keulen, van L.J.M.; Zijderveld, van F.G.; Wemheuer, W.M.; Richt, J.A.; Sorenson, S.J.; Pigott, C.J.; O'Keefe, J.S.

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: To estimate the number of cases of scrapie that would occur in sheep of different prion protein (PrP) genotypes if scrapie was to become established in New Zealand, and to compare the performance of two commercially available, rapid ELISA kits using ovine retro-pharyngeal lymph nodes (RLN)

  6. Development of a TaqMan assay for the six major genotypes of hepatitis C virus: Comparison with commercial assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engle, Ronald E; Russell, Rodney S; Purcell, Robert H

    2008-01-01

    A quantitative real-time PCR assay was developed that detects genomic RNA from reference strains representing the six major genotypes of hepatitis C virus (HCV) with equal sensitivity and accurately measured HCV RNA in JFH1 HCV-infected Huh7.5 cells. The method is indirectly calibrated to the first...

  7. Discovery of novel variants in genotyping arrays improves genotype retention and reduces ascertainment bias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didion John P

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-density genotyping arrays that measure hybridization of genomic DNA fragments to allele-specific oligonucleotide probes are widely used to genotype single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in genetic studies, including human genome-wide association studies. Hybridization intensities are converted to genotype calls by clustering algorithms that assign each sample to a genotype class at each SNP. Data for SNP probes that do not conform to the expected pattern of clustering are often discarded, contributing to ascertainment bias and resulting in lost information - as much as 50% in a recent genome-wide association study in dogs. Results We identified atypical patterns of hybridization intensities that were highly reproducible and demonstrated that these patterns represent genetic variants that were not accounted for in the design of the array platform. We characterized variable intensity oligonucleotide (VINO probes that display such patterns and are found in all hybridization-based genotyping platforms, including those developed for human, dog, cattle, and mouse. When recognized and properly interpreted, VINOs recovered a substantial fraction of discarded probes and counteracted SNP ascertainment bias. We developed software (MouseDivGeno that identifies VINOs and improves the accuracy of genotype calling. MouseDivGeno produced highly concordant genotype calls when compared with other methods but it uniquely identified more than 786000 VINOs in 351 mouse samples. We used whole-genome sequence from 14 mouse strains to confirm the presence of novel variants explaining 28000 VINOs in those strains. We also identified VINOs in human HapMap 3 samples, many of which were specific to an African population. Incorporating VINOs in phylogenetic analyses substantially improved the accuracy of a Mus species tree and local haplotype assignment in laboratory mouse strains. Conclusion The problems of ascertainment bias and missing

  8. Hepatitis C virus genotypes in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Win, Nan Nwe; Kanda, Tatsuo; Nakamoto, Shingo; Yokosuka, Osamu; Shirasawa, Hiroshi

    2016-07-21

    Myanmar is adjacent to India, Bangladesh, Thailand, Laos and China. In Myanmar, the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is 2%, and HCV infection accounts for 25% of hepatocellular carcinoma. In this study, we reviewed the prevalence of HCV genotypes in Myanmar. HCV genotypes 1, 3 and 6 were observed in volunteer blood donors in and around the Myanmar city of Yangon. Although there are several reports of HCV genotype 6 and its variants in Myanmar, the distribution of the HCV genotypes has not been well documented in areas other than Yangon. Previous studies showed that treatment with peginterferon and a weight-based dose of ribavirin for 24 or 48 wk could lead to an 80%-100% sustained virological response (SVR) rates in Myanmar. Current interferon-free treatments could lead to higher SVR rates (90%-95%) in patients infected with almost all HCV genotypes other than HCV genotype 3. In an era of heavy reliance on direct-acting antivirals against HCV, there is an increasing need to measure HCV genotypes, and this need will also increase specifically in Myanmar. Current available information of HCV genotypes were mostly from Yangon and other countries than Myanmar. The prevalence of HCV genotypes in Myanmar should be determined.

  9. The Aesthetics of Association: Business, Education, and the Growing Discourse of Corporate Social Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manteaw, Bob Offei

    2009-01-01

    The last few decades have seen an unprecedented transformation in business involvement in education, particularly in Western industrialized societies where privatization, commercialization and neo-liberal discourses continue to dominate educational thinking and practice. This paper foregrounds the growing perception of math and science as…

  10. Genotypic tropism testing by massively parallel sequencing: qualitative and quantitative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiele Bernhard

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inferring viral tropism from genotype is a fast and inexpensive alternative to phenotypic testing. While being highly predictive when performed on clonal samples, sensitivity of predicting CXCR4-using (X4 variants drops substantially in clinical isolates. This is mainly attributed to minor variants not detected by standard bulk-sequencing. Massively parallel sequencing (MPS detects single clones thereby being much more sensitive. Using this technology we wanted to improve genotypic prediction of coreceptor usage. Methods Plasma samples from 55 antiretroviral-treated patients tested for coreceptor usage with the Monogram Trofile Assay were sequenced with standard population-based approaches. Fourteen of these samples were selected for further analysis with MPS. Tropism was predicted from each sequence with geno2pheno[coreceptor]. Results Prediction based on bulk-sequencing yielded 59.1% sensitivity and 90.9% specificity compared to the trofile assay. With MPS, 7600 reads were generated on average per isolate. Minorities of sequences with high confidence in CXCR4-usage were found in all samples, irrespective of phenotype. When using the default false-positive-rate of geno2pheno[coreceptor] (10%, and defining a minority cutoff of 5%, the results were concordant in all but one isolate. Conclusions The combination of MPS and coreceptor usage prediction results in a fast and accurate alternative to phenotypic assays. The detection of X4-viruses in all isolates suggests that coreceptor usage as well as fitness of minorities is important for therapy outcome. The high sensitivity of this technology in combination with a quantitative description of the viral population may allow implementing meaningful cutoffs for predicting response to CCR5-antagonists in the presence of X4-minorities.

  11. Genotypic tropism testing by massively parallel sequencing: qualitative and quantitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Däumer, Martin; Kaiser, Rolf; Klein, Rolf; Lengauer, Thomas; Thiele, Bernhard; Thielen, Alexander

    2011-05-13

    Inferring viral tropism from genotype is a fast and inexpensive alternative to phenotypic testing. While being highly predictive when performed on clonal samples, sensitivity of predicting CXCR4-using (X4) variants drops substantially in clinical isolates. This is mainly attributed to minor variants not detected by standard bulk-sequencing. Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) detects single clones thereby being much more sensitive. Using this technology we wanted to improve genotypic prediction of coreceptor usage. Plasma samples from 55 antiretroviral-treated patients tested for coreceptor usage with the Monogram Trofile Assay were sequenced with standard population-based approaches. Fourteen of these samples were selected for further analysis with MPS. Tropism was predicted from each sequence with geno2pheno[coreceptor]. Prediction based on bulk-sequencing yielded 59.1% sensitivity and 90.9% specificity compared to the trofile assay. With MPS, 7600 reads were generated on average per isolate. Minorities of sequences with high confidence in CXCR4-usage were found in all samples, irrespective of phenotype. When using the default false-positive-rate of geno2pheno[coreceptor] (10%), and defining a minority cutoff of 5%, the results were concordant in all but one isolate. The combination of MPS and coreceptor usage prediction results in a fast and accurate alternative to phenotypic assays. The detection of X4-viruses in all isolates suggests that coreceptor usage as well as fitness of minorities is important for therapy outcome. The high sensitivity of this technology in combination with a quantitative description of the viral population may allow implementing meaningful cutoffs for predicting response to CCR5-antagonists in the presence of X4-minorities.

  12. Reflections on the political economy of large-scale technology using the example of German fast-breeder development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keck, O.

    1981-01-01

    Proceeding from Anglo-Saxon opinions which, from a liberal point of view, criticize the German practice of research policy - state centres of large-scale research and state subventions for research and development in industry - to be inefficient, the author empirically verified these statements taking the German fast breeder project as an example. If the case of the German fast breeder can be generalized, this had consequences for the research political practice and for other technologies. Supporters as well as opponents of large-scale technology today proceed from the assumption that almost every technology can be made commercially viable when using sufficient amounts of money and persons. This is a migth which owes its existence to the technical success of great projects in non-commercial fields. The German fast breeder project confirms the opinion that the recipes for success of these non-commercial projects cannot be applied to the field of commercial technology. The results of this study suggest that practice and theory of technology policy can be misdirected if they are uncritically oriented according to the form of state intervention so far used in large-scale technology. (orig./HSCH) [de

  13. A review of the United Kingdom fast reactor programme: March 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramman, J.I.; Wheeler, R.C.

    1987-03-01

    The UK fast reactor programme is reviewed under the following headings: Progress with PFR; Reprocessing; Commercial Design Studies: Structural Integrity; Engineering and Components; Materials; Sodium Chemistry; Core and Fuel; Safety; Plant Performance Studies. (U.K.)

  14. Fast reactor versions: elements of choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassart, J.; Zerbib, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    This paper has the objective of explaining in detail the economical, political, social and technical elements on which the CFDT (French Trade Union) bases its opposition to the commercial development of the version of fast reactors. An examination of the different choices which were investigated does not point to any legitimate grounds for this choice. What has to be done is to present the facts which enable the greatest possible number of workers or civilians to take up a position on the choices concerning them. A technical comparison of the fast neutron reactor with those operating at present is put forward (France and United Kingdom). It covers the different radioactive waste products and the results of the individual and collective monitoring of the workmen [fr

  15. Fast food prices, obesity, and the minimum wage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotti, Chad; Tefft, Nathan

    2013-03-01

    Recent proposals argue that a fast food tax may be an effective policy lever for reducing population weight. Although there is growing evidence for a negative association between fast food prices and weight among adolescents, less is known about adults. That any measured relationship to date is causal is unclear because there has been no attempt to separate variation in prices on the demand side from that on the supply side. We argue that the minimum wage is an exogenous source of variation in fast food prices, conditional on income and employment. In two-stage least-squares analyses, we find little evidence that fast food price changes affect adult BMI or obesity prevalence. Results are robust to including controls for area and time fixed effects, area time trends, demographic characteristics, substitute prices, numbers of establishments and employment in related industries, and other potentially related factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Laboratory Information Management Software for genotyping workflows: applications in high throughput crop genotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanth VP

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the advances in DNA sequencer-based technologies, it has become possible to automate several steps of the genotyping process leading to increased throughput. To efficiently handle the large amounts of genotypic data generated and help with quality control, there is a strong need for a software system that can help with the tracking of samples and capture and management of data at different steps of the process. Such systems, while serving to manage the workflow precisely, also encourage good laboratory practice by standardizing protocols, recording and annotating data from every step of the workflow. Results A laboratory information management system (LIMS has been designed and implemented at the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT that meets the requirements of a moderately high throughput molecular genotyping facility. The application is designed as modules and is simple to learn and use. The application leads the user through each step of the process from starting an experiment to the storing of output data from the genotype detection step with auto-binning of alleles; thus ensuring that every DNA sample is handled in an identical manner and all the necessary data are captured. The application keeps track of DNA samples and generated data. Data entry into the system is through the use of forms for file uploads. The LIMS provides functions to trace back to the electrophoresis gel files or sample source for any genotypic data and for repeating experiments. The LIMS is being presently used for the capture of high throughput SSR (simple-sequence repeat genotyping data from the legume (chickpea, groundnut and pigeonpea and cereal (sorghum and millets crops of importance in the semi-arid tropics. Conclusion A laboratory information management system is available that has been found useful in the management of microsatellite genotype data in a moderately high throughput genotyping

  17. Recent developments for fast reactor structural design standard (FDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasahara, N.; Nakamuria, K.; Morishita, M.; Shibamoto, H.; Nagashima, H.; Inoue, K.

    2005-01-01

    For realization of reliable and economical fast reactor (FR) plants, Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute(JNC) and Japan Atomic Power Company(JAPC) are cooperating on 'Feasibility Study on Commercialized FR Cycle Systems'. To certify the design concepts through evaluation of their structural integrity, the research and development of 'Elevated Temperature Structural Design Guide for Commercialized Fast Reactor (FDS)' is recognized as an essential theme. FDS focuses on particular failure modes of FRs such as ratchet deformation and creep fatigue damages due to cyclic thermal loads. To evaluate these modes, three main developments are in progress. One is 'Refinement of Failure Criteria' for particular modes of FRs. Next is development of 'Guidelines for Inelastic Design Analysis' in order to predict elastic plastic and creep behaviors. Furthermore, efforts are being made toward preparing 'Guidelines for Thermal Load Modeling' for FR component design where thermal loads are dominant. These studies were performed under the sponsorship of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry of Japanese government. (authors)

  18. Sodium cooled fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hokkyo, N; Inoue, K; Maeda, H

    1968-11-21

    In a sodium cooled fast neutron reactor, an ultrasonic generator is installed at a fuel assembly hold-down mechanism positioned above a blanket or fission gas reservoir located above the core. During operation of the reactor an ultrsonic wave of frequency 10/sup 3/ - 10/sup 4/ Hz is constantly transmitted to the core to resonantly inject the primary bubble with ultrasonic energy to thereby facilitate its growth. Hence, small bubbles grow gradually to prevent the sudden boiling of sodium if an accident occurs in the cooling system during operation of the reactor.

  19. Commercialization of nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, David W

    2009-01-01

    The emerging and potential commercial applications of nanotechnologies clearly have great potential to significantly advance and even potentially revolutionize various aspects of medical practice and medical product development. Nanotechnology is already touching upon many aspects of medicine, including drug delivery, diagnostic imaging, clinical diagnostics, nanomedicines, and the use of nanomaterials in medical devices. This technology is already having an impact; many products are on the market and a growing number is in the pipeline. Momentum is steadily building for the successful development of additional nanotech products to diagnose and treat disease; the most active areas of product development are drug delivery and in vivo imaging. Nanotechnology is also addressing many unmet needs in the pharmaceutical industry, including the reformulation of drugs to improve their bioavailability or toxicity profiles. The advancement of medical nanotechnology is expected to advance over at least three different generations or phases, beginning with the introduction of simple nanoparticulate and nanostructural improvements to current product and process types, then eventually moving on to nanoproducts and nanodevices that are limited only by the imagination and limits of the technology itself. This review looks at some recent developments in the commercialization of nanotechnology for various medical applications as well as general trends in the industry, and explores the nanotechnology industry that is involved in developing medical products and procedures with a view toward technology commercialization. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  20. Development of Somatic Embryo Maturation and Growing Techniques of Norway Spruce Emblings towards Large-Scale Field Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikko Tikkinen

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The possibility to utilize non-additive genetic gain in planting stock has increased the interest towards vegetative propagation. In Finland, the increased planting of Norway spruce combined with fluctuant seed yields has resulted in shortages of improved regeneration material. Somatic embryogenesis is an attractive method to rapidly facilitate breeding results, not in the least, because juvenile propagation material can be cryostored for decades. Further development of technology for the somatic embryogenesis of Norway spruce is essential, as the high cost of somatic embryo plants (emblings limits deployment. We examined the effects of maturation media varying in abscisic acid (20, 30 or 60 µM and polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG concentrations, as well as the effect of cryopreservation cycles on embryo production, and the effects of two growing techniques on embling survival and growth. Embryo production and nursery performance of 712 genotypes from 12 full-sib families were evaluated. Most embryos per gram of fresh embryogenic mass (296 ± 31 were obtained by using 30 µM abscisic acid without PEG in the maturation media. Transplanting the emblings into nursery after one-week in vitro germination resulted in 77% survival and the tallest emblings after the first growing season. Genotypes with good production properties were found in all families.

  1. The role of peat in assuring the quality of growing media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Schmilewski

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Producers and users of growing media are exposed to high risk if significant quantities of potentially unsuitable ingredients are included in the product. Combined with economic reasoning, this dictates that the constituents of growing media should possess as many suitable characteristics as possible. Sphagnum peat has been the most important growing medium constituent for many decades because its properties are the best available. The use of other organic and mineral-organic materials is being forced ahead by research and development against a background of public favour for peat replacement, recycling and re-use of biodegradable waste. Considerably more resources have been invested in the testing of peat alternatives than in peat itself during recent years, and the utility of a large number of alternatives has been assessed. Most candidate materials are only slightly or not at all suitable for use in growing media. The exceptions are composts, wood fibre products, bark and composted bark, and coir. These have become established, to a greater or lesser degree, as reliable substrate constituents. Their manufacture, characteristics, advantages and disadvantages are reviewed. A continuing need for peat as a constituent of growing media, at least for dilution purposes, is foreseen. Thus, increased imports of peat and growing media to countries with intensive or expanding commercial horticulture and inadequate domestic peat reserves are to be expected in the future.

  2. PRIMAL: Fast and accurate pedigree-based imputation from sequence data in a founder population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oren E Livne

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Founder populations and large pedigrees offer many well-known advantages for genetic mapping studies, including cost-efficient study designs. Here, we describe PRIMAL (PedigRee IMputation ALgorithm, a fast and accurate pedigree-based phasing and imputation algorithm for founder populations. PRIMAL incorporates both existing and original ideas, such as a novel indexing strategy of Identity-By-Descent (IBD segments based on clique graphs. We were able to impute the genomes of 1,317 South Dakota Hutterites, who had genome-wide genotypes for ~300,000 common single nucleotide variants (SNVs, from 98 whole genome sequences. Using a combination of pedigree-based and LD-based imputation, we were able to assign 87% of genotypes with >99% accuracy over the full range of allele frequencies. Using the IBD cliques we were also able to infer the parental origin of 83% of alleles, and genotypes of deceased recent ancestors for whom no genotype information was available. This imputed data set will enable us to better study the relative contribution of rare and common variants on human phenotypes, as well as parental origin effect of disease risk alleles in >1,000 individuals at minimal cost.

  3. Molecular status of Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Hepatitis B virus, and Hepatitis C virus among injecting drug male commercial sex workers in Surakarta, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agung Prasetyo, Afiono; Marwoto; Arifin Adnan, Zainal; Hartono

    2018-05-01

    Male commercial sex workers are one of the high-risk community for blood-borne viruses. However, there are no data concerning the molecular status of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) circulated among male commercial sex workers with injecting drug habits in Surakarta, Indonesia. Blood samples obtained from injecting drug male commercial sex workers in Surakarta were examined for HIV antibodies, HBsAg, and HCV antibodies, respectively, by immunological assays. Blood samples were also subjected to viral nucleic acid extraction and molecular detection of HIV, HBV, and HCV by nested (RT) PCRs. The PCR products were purified from agarose gels, and the nucleotide sequences were retrieved and molecular analyzed. HIV, HBV, and HCV were detected in 29.4% (10/34), 17.6% (6/34), and 52.9% (18/34), respectively. HIV CRF01_AE and B were found to be circulating in the community. HBV genotype B3 was predominated, followed by C1. HCV genotype 1a was predominated, followed by 1c, 3a, 1b, and 4a. HIV, HBV, and HCV were found circulating in the male commercial sex workers with injecting drug habits in Surakarta, Indonesia.

  4. Clinical characteristics, healthcare costs, and resource utilization in hepatitis C vary by genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goolsby Hunter, Alyssa; Rosenblatt, Lisa; Patel, Chad; Blauer-Peterson, Cori; Anduze-Faris, Beatrice

    2017-05-01

    In the United States, approximately 3 million people are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Genotypes of HCV variably affect disease progression and treatment response. However, the relationships between HCV genotypes and liver disease progression, healthcare resource utilization, and healthcare costs have not been fully explored. In this retrospective study of patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC), healthcare claims from a large US health plan were used to collect data on patient demographic and clinical characteristics. Main outcome measures include healthcare resource utilization (HCRU) and healthcare costs. Linked laboratory data provided genotype and select measures to determine liver disease severity. The sample (mean age 50.6 years, 63.5% male) included 10,331 patients, of whom 79.1% had genotype (GT)1, 12.8% had GT2, and 8.1% had GT3. Descriptive analyses demonstrated variation by HCV genotype in liver and non-liver related comorbidities, liver disease severity, and healthcare costs. The highest percentage of patients with liver-related comorbidities and advanced liver disease was found among those with GT3. Meanwhile, patients with GT2 had lower HCRU and the lowest costs, and patients with GT1 had the highest total all-cause costs. These differences may reflect differing rates of non-liver-related comorbidities and all-cause care. Multivariable analyses showed that genotype was a significant predictor of costs and liver disease severity: compared with patients having GT1, those with GT3 were significantly more likely to have advanced liver disease. Patients with GT2 were significantly less likely to have advanced disease and more likely to have lower all-cause costs. Results may not be generalizable to patients outside the represented commercial insurance plans, and analysis of a prevalent population may underestimate HCRU and costs relative to a sample of treated patients. These results suggest that liver disease progression varies by genotype and

  5. Commission of the European Communities - Activities in the field of fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balz, W.

    1977-01-01

    The Commission of the European Communities is performing activities in the field of fast reactor on two lines: a) activities aiming to prepare the commercialization of fast reactors by coordination and collaboration between national programmes. b) the execution of an own programme in the Joint Research Centre at Ispra (Italy) and Karlsruhe (Federal Republic of Germany) in the field of FBR safety and research on Pu-bearing fuel

  6. Long-term effects of foetal undernutrition on intermediary metabolism in growing lambs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiani, Ali; Nielsen, Mette Benedicte Olaf; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of foetal undernutrition on the metabolism in growing lambs. Seven-month-old lambs whose nothers had been fed either restrictively (RN; n = 14) or adequately (AN; n = 6) in late gestation were fasted for three days. One hour before fasting......, IGF-I and leptin were not different between the two groups of lambs. Unexpectedly, at the end of the 3 d fasting, in spite of lower NEFA concentration (1.6 ± 0.03 vs. 1.9 ± 0.05 mM in Groups RN and AN, respectively), the BOHB concentration in RN lambs (0.94 ± 0.02 mM) was significantly higher than...... that in AN lambs (0.78 ± 0.04 mM). This higher rate of BOHB production might be interpreted as perturbations in etone body metabolism potentially induced by under-nutrition during foetal life. However, more investigations are necessary to clarify this interrelationship....

  7. AMMI model in the analysis of genotype by environment interaction of conventionally and organically grown onion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brdar-Jokanović Milka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to assess the stability of direct yield components (bulb weight and number plot-1 and other yield contributing characteristics (bulb diameter, height and index, neck diameter and length, plant height, emergence and vegetation period in five commercial onion cultivars grown in conventional and organic environments, by employing additive main effect and multiplicative interaction (AMMI statistical model in data analysis. The two-year field trial organized in complete randomized blocks included the plots maintained in four regimes: mineral fertilization (conventional, without fertilization, fertilization with farmyard manure and with bacterial fertilizer (organic. Each treatment by year combination was considered as an environment. Analysis of variance of AMMI model calculated for the investigated traits showed that all sources of variation (genotypes, environments, genotype by environment interaction were highly significant. The largest proportions of the total sum of squares were encompassed by environments, except for emergence and bulb index with the pronounced effect of genotypes (67.26 and 52.54%, respectively and neck length with the genotype by environment interaction amounting 44.59%. Generally, the effects of the interactions were in the common range. The AMMI model with two axes was concluded as the best model for the investigated traits. Onions grown in conventional system outperformed the organic ones. However, good performance of the genotypes was accompanied with low stability across the environments and vice versa. Therefore breeding programs intended to develop cultivars adapted to alternative production systems should rely on the experiments set in the corresponding environments that include various combinations of genotypes and agro-technical procedures based on the principles of organic agriculture. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31059

  8. dbVOR: a database system for importing pedigree, phenotype and genotype data and exporting selected subsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Robert V; Conley, Yvette P; Gorin, Michael B; Weeks, Daniel E

    2015-03-18

    When studying the genetics of a human trait, we typically have to manage both genome-wide and targeted genotype data. There can be overlap of both people and markers from different genotyping experiments; the overlap can introduce several kinds of problems. Most times the overlapping genotypes are the same, but sometimes they are different. Occasionally, the lab will return genotypes using a different allele labeling scheme (for example 1/2 vs A/C). Sometimes, the genotype for a person/marker index is unreliable or missing. Further, over time some markers are merged and bad samples are re-run under a different sample name. We need a consistent picture of the subset of data we have chosen to work with even though there might possibly be conflicting measurements from multiple data sources. We have developed the dbVOR database, which is designed to hold data efficiently for both genome-wide and targeted experiments. The data are indexed for fast retrieval by person and marker. In addition, we store pedigree and phenotype data for our subjects. The dbVOR database allows us to select subsets of the data by several different criteria and to merge their results into a coherent and consistent whole. Data may be filtered by: family, person, trait value, markers, chromosomes, and chromosome ranges. The results can be presented in columnar, Mega2, or PLINK format. dbVOR serves our needs well. It is freely available from https://watson.hgen.pitt.edu/register . Documentation for dbVOR can be found at https://watson.hgen.pitt.edu/register/docs/dbvor.html .

  9. Fast-food exposure around schools in urban Adelaide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffee, Neil T; Kennedy, Hannah P; Niyonsenga, Theo

    2016-12-01

    To assess whether exposure to fast-food outlets around schools differed depending on socio-economic status (SES). Binary logistic regression was used to investigate the presence and zero-inflated Poisson regression was used for the count (due to the excess of zeroes) of fast food within 1000 m and 15000 m road network buffers around schools. The low and middle SES tertiles were combined due to a lack of significant variation as the 'disadvantaged' group and compared with the high SES tertile as the 'advantaged' group. School SES was expressed using the 2011 Australian Bureau of Statistics, socio-economic indices for areas, index of relative socio-economic disadvantage. Fast-food data included independent takeaway food outlets and major fast-food chains. Metropolitan Adelaide, South Australia. A total of 459 schools were geocoded to the street address and 1000 m and 1500 m road network distance buffers calculated. There was a 1·6 times greater risk of exposure to fast food within 1000 m (OR=1·634; 95 % 1·017, 2·625) and a 9·5 times greater risk of exposure to a fast food within 1500 m (OR=9·524; 95 % CI 3·497, 25·641) around disadvantaged schools compared with advantaged schools. Disadvantaged schools were exposed to more fast food, with more than twice the number of disadvantaged schools exposed to fast food. The higher exposure to fast food near more disadvantaged schools may reflect lower commercial land cost in low-SES areas, potentially creating more financially desirable investments for fast-food developers.

  10. Molecular characterization of Anthurium genotypes by using DNA fingerprinting and SPAR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza Neto, J D; Soares, T C B; Motta, L B; Cabral, P D S; Silva, J A

    2014-07-02

    We characterized single primer amplification reaction (SPAR) molecular markers from 20 genotypes of Anthurium andraeanum Lind., including 3 from commercial varieties and 17 from 2 communities in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Twenty-four SPAR, consisting of 7 random amplified polymorphic DNA and 17 inter-simple sequence repeat markers were used to estimate the genetic diversity of 20 Anthurium accessions. The set of SPAR markers generated 288 bands and showed an average polymorphism percentage of 93.39%, ranging from 71.43 to 100%. The polymorphism information content (PIC) of the random amplified polymorphic DNA primers averaged 0.364 and ranged from 0.258 to 0.490. Primer OPF 06 showed the lowest PIC, while OPAM 14 was the highest. The average PIC of the inter-simple sequence repeat primers was 0.299, with values ranging from 0.196 to 0.401. Primer UBC 845 had the lowest PIC (0.196), while primer UCB 810 had the highest (0.401). By using the complement of Jaccard's similarity index and unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean clustering, 5 clusters were formed with a cophenetic correlation coefficient of 0.8093, indicating an acceptable clustering consistency. However, no genotype clustering patterns agreed with the morphological data. The Anthurium genotypes investigated in this study are a germplasm source for conservational research and may be used in improvement programs for this species.

  11. Determination of Tolerance Levels of Cotton Genotypes Obtained from F6-F7 Generation against Verticillium Wilt Disease Caused by Verticillium dahliae Kleb.

    OpenAIRE

    Oktay EROĞAN; Emine KARADEMIR; Çetin KARADEMIR; Aydın UNAY

    2013-01-01

    The susceptibility of cotton genotypes obtained from F6 and F7 generations to Verticillium wilt (VW) disease (Verticillium dahliae Kleb.), was studied under artificial and natural infestation during 2009 and 2010 growing seasons at the Cotton Research Institute’s, Nazilli, Aydın, Turkey. In this study, fifteen cotton breeding lines and two control varieties were used as plant material. During the cotton growing season, foliar disease index (FDI), vascular disease index (VDI) and pot disease i...

  12. Association of estrogen receptor-alpha and vitamin D receptor genotypes with therapeutic response to calcium in postmenopausal Chinese women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-lin ZHANG; Yue-juan QIN; Qi-ren HUANG; Jin-wei HE; Miao LI; Qi ZHOU; Yun-qiu HU; Yu-juan LIU

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the correlation between calcium treatment in postmenopausal women and estrogen receptoralpha (ER-alpha) Xba Ⅰ and Pvu Ⅱ genotype and vitamin D receptor (VDR) Apa Ⅰ genotype. METHODS: One hundred fifteen postmenopausal Chinese women of Han population were enrolled and treated with calcichew-D3(1000 mg calcium and 400 U vitamin D3) daily for 1 year. At entry and after 1 year treatment, the bone mineral density (BMD), serum and urinary bone turnover biochemical markers were evaluated. ER-alpha and VDR genotype were analyzed using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. RESULTS: After 1 year of calcium supplementation, a significant increase of BMD and a marked reduction in serum ALP and PTH levels, and a significant increase of serum 25-(OH) vitamin D level were observed (P<0.01 or P<0.05). At entry and after 1 year of treatment, no significant association was found between Xba Ⅰ, Pvu Ⅱ, and Apa Ⅰ genotypes and BMD in L1-4,Neck, and Troch, and all bone turnover marker levels. However, the percentage of change (median, QR) in Neck BMD was significantly different in homozygous XX [-4.14 (from -6.54 to -1.34)] in comparison with Xx [1.72(from -1.12 to 3.20)] (P<0.001) or xx [1.22 (from -1.74 to 3.06)] Xba Ⅰ ER-alpha genotype (P=0.001).CONCLUSION: Women with ER-α Xba Ⅰ genotype XX may have a higher risk of relatively fast bone mass loss in femoral neck after menopause and that they may have a poor responsiveness to calcium supplementation. The changes in BMD are not associated with ER-alpha Pvu Ⅱ genotype and VDR Apa Ⅰ genotype after 1 year of calcium supplementation.

  13. Status of fast reactor activities in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, Artur

    1996-01-01

    This text describes the present status of fast reactor activities in Brazil, emphasizing the strategies being used to preserve this reactor concept as a viable alternative for future electricity generation in the country. The program is mostly research-oriented and has the objective of establishing a consistent knowledge basis which can serve as a support for the transition to the activities more directly related to design, construction and operation of an experimental fast reactor. Due to the present economic difficulties, the program is still modest but it is gradually growing. A report which has been finalized in December, 1995 and submitted to the authorities indicates the existence of the grounds for enlarging and consolidating the program. (author)

  14. Soft Robotics Commercialization: Jamming Grippers from Research to Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Nadia; Fakhouri, Sami; Culley, Bill

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recent work in the growing field of soft robotics has demonstrated a number of very promising technologies. However, to make a significant impact in real-world applications, these new technologies must first transition out of the laboratory through successful commercialization. Commercialization is perhaps the most critical future milestone facing the field of soft robotics today, and this process will reveal whether the apparent impact we now perceive has been appropriately estimated. Since 2012, Empire Robotics has been one of the first companies to attempt to reach this milestone through our efforts to commercialize jamming-based robotic gripper technology in a product called VERSABALL®. However, in spring 2016 we are closing our doors, having not been able to develop a sustainable business around this technology. This article presents some of the key takeaways from the technical side of the commercialization process and lessons learned that may be valuable to others. We hope that sharing this information will provide a frame of reference for technology commercialization that can help others motivate research directions and maximize research impact. PMID:28078197

  15. Genotypic differences in phosphorus use efficiency and yield of wetland rice of southern Viet Nam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bui Thi Hong Thanh; Le Dac Lieu; Luong Thu Tra; Mai Thanh Son; Nguyen Dang Nghia; Do Trung Binh

    1996-01-01

    This study was conducted during 1992 to 1994 with the objective of assessing genotypic differences in phosphorus use efficiency of wetland rice (Oriza sativa L.) and to select genotypes which grow well on soils low in available P or requiring only small amounts of added phosphorus fertilizer. In the first experiment, 24 genotypes of rice were screened under field conditions at low P (0 P added) and high P (90 kg P 2 O 5 /ha) on a gray soil of South Viet Nam. Significant genotypic differences were found in straw and grain yield, total P uptake, plant height and phosphorus use efficiency. Grain yield was highly correlated with phosphorus use efficiency. The effect of P supply was generally small. On average P supply decreased straw yield and increased grain yield. In the second experiment, four genotypes selected from the first experiment were grown under greenhouse conditions for four weeks supplied with 0, 30 and 90 ppm. Dry weight of shoots did not respond to P fertilization, but dry weight of roots increased with increasing P supply. The two efficient genotypes, G6 and G22, showed a higher root/shoot ratio than the two inefficient genotypes, G11 and G19. This indicates a higher potential for P acquisition of G6 and G22. In the third experiment, the same contrasting genotypes, and G18 with intermediate efficiency, were grown under field conditions at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 kg P 2 O 5 /ha. Of the two inefficient genotypes, G11 gave the highest grain yield at 60 and G19 at 90 kg P 2 O 5 /ha; G18 gave a clear response up to 60 kg P 2 O 5 /ha. Based on the information obtained in this study we conclude that G6 and G22 are efficiently and well adapted rice genotypes to gray soils of South Viet Nam, low in available P. At low P supply G6 may be slightly better than G22. Further, the 15 N tracer study showed that for G6, a small P supply (30 kg P 2 O 5 /ha) can increase the % N recover from urea applied at 120 kg N/ha. (author). 12 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs

  16. Genotypic differences in phosphorus use efficiency and yield of wetland rice of southern Viet Nam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong Thanh, Bui Thi; Lieu, Le Dac; Tra, Luong Thu; Son, Mai Thanh [Center of Nuclear Techniques, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Nghia, Nguyen Dang; Binh, Do Trung [Agricultural Science Inst., Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)

    1996-07-01

    This study was conducted during 1992 to 1994 with the objective of assessing genotypic differences in phosphorus use efficiency of wetland rice (Oriza sativa L.) and to select genotypes which grow well on soils low in available P or requiring only small amounts of added phosphorus fertilizer. In the first experiment, 24 genotypes of rice were screened under field conditions at low P (0 P added) and high P (90 kg P{sub 2}O{sub 5}/ha) on a gray soil of South Viet Nam. Significant genotypic differences were found in straw and grain yield, total P uptake, plant height and phosphorus use efficiency. Grain yield was highly correlated with phosphorus use efficiency. The effect of P supply was generally small. On average P supply decreased straw yield and increased grain yield. In the second experiment, four genotypes selected from the first experiment were grown under greenhouse conditions for four weeks supplied with 0, 30 and 90 ppm. Dry weight of shoots did not respond to P fertilization, but dry weight of roots increased with increasing P supply. The two efficient genotypes, G6 and G22, showed a higher root/shoot ratio than the two inefficient genotypes, G11 and G19. This indicates a higher potential for P acquisition of G6 and G22. In the third experiment, the same contrasting genotypes, and G18 with intermediate efficiency, were grown under field conditions at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 kg P{sub 2}O{sub 5}/ha. Of the two inefficient genotypes, G11 gave the highest grain yield at 60 and G19 at 90 kg P{sub 2}O{sub 5}/ha; G18 gave a clear response up to 60 kg P{sub 2}O{sub 5}/ha. Based on the information obtained in this study we conclude that G6 and G22 are efficiently and well adapted rice genotypes to gray soils of South Viet Nam, low in available P. At low P supply G6 may be slightly better than G22. Further, the {sup 15}N tracer study showed that for G6, a small P supply (30 kg P{sub 2}O{sub 5}/ha) can increase the % N recover from urea applied at 120 kg N/ha.

  17. Fast Initialization of Bubble-Memory Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, K. T.; Nichols, C. D.; Hayes, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    Improved scheme several orders of magnitude faster than normal initialization scheme. State-of-the-art commercial bubble-memory device used. Hardware interface designed connects controlling microprocessor to bubblememory circuitry. System software written to exercise various functions of bubble-memory system in comparison made between normal and fast techniques. Future implementations of approach utilize E2PROM (electrically-erasable programable read-only memory) to provide greater system flexibility. Fastinitialization technique applicable to all bubble-memory devices.

  18. Organizational Commitment In Fast Food Franchising Businesses: The Case of Denizli

    OpenAIRE

    Onur Görkem

    2015-01-01

    The sector of food and beverage growing in paralel with the rapid change of food habits on a global scale has witnessed the raising of the fast food businesses that franchising system has been implemented. As the development mentioned has increased the employment needs of fast food businesses, it has brought the necessity of giving importance to the activities related to improving the organizational commitment of personnel. Accordingly, the purpose of the study is to reveal compatatively the ...

  19. MEAT QUALITY OF LOCAL AND HYBRID RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Paci

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available pH, colour and oxidative status were evaluated to study the effect of rabbit genotype on meat quality. Commercial Hybrids, selected for high growth rate and a local population, characterized by slow growing, were used. Meat quality characteristics of L. lumborum and B. femoris muscles showed significant differences between genotypes. Local population had higher pHu values but lower pH fall values than Hybrids. Hybrids showed higher lightness values and TBARS contents than local population. Meat quality parameters were influenced by genotype. The differences between genotypes could be related to the different degree of maturity because the rabbits, in relation to the different growth rate, were slaughtered at the same weight but at different age.

  20. Superalloy applications in the fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, R.W.

    1976-01-01

    The economics of the LMFBR are dependent on the breeding of new fuel in the reactor core and this can be improved by the use of advanced alloys as core structural components. The environment of the core makes superalloys a natural choice for these components, but phenomena related directly to neutron irradiation necessitate extensive testing. Consequently, commercially-available superalloys, together with a number of developmental alloys are being tested in existing LMFBR's and by simulation techniques to determine the best alloy for use in the LMFBR core. It presently appears that such materials will indeed be capable of the performance required, and will greatly facilitate the commercial realization of the fast breeder reactor

  1. Risk of Incidence of Hock Burn and Pododermatitis in Broilers Reared under Commercial Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob, FG; Baracho, MS; Nääs, IA; Lima, NSD; Salgado, DD; Souza, R

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The most common lesions observed in commercial broiler farms are hock burns and pododermatitis, defined as necrotic lesions on the plantar surface of the footpads and in the hock of growing broilers, causing pain and compromising broiler welfare. The present study aimed at identifying the risks of hock burns and pododermatitis in broilers reared under commercial conditions on new or reused litter. Twenty-four 40-d-old broilers reared in two houses in a commercial broiler farm. The pl...

  2. Yield and nutritional quality of greenhouse lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. as affected by genotype and production methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govedarica-Lučić Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse experiments were conducted in winter growing seasons in order to evaluate the effects of genotype and production methods on yield and nutritional quality of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.. A three-year (2009-2011 study was conducted by randomized block system in a greenhouse without additional heating. The trial included three genotypes of lettuce (Archimedes RZ, Santoro RZ, Kibou RZ. Each row with these genotypes was exposed to the following variants of covering: control-planting on bare soil, mulching before sowing with PE-black foil, agro textile-covering plants after planting with agro textile (17 g, a combination of mulching + agro textile. Throughout of all the three years of the trial, it was continuously evidenced that the genotype “Santoro RZ” had the biggest heads and the highest yield (15.33 kg 10 m-2, which leads to conclusion that the yield of lettuce is a genotype characteristics. Moreover, the nutritional value (ascorbic acid concentration has shown that, depending on the method of production, in average, the combination of mulching + agro textile (26.77 mg 100 g-1 had the highest content while the control variant had significantly lower vitamin C content (21.10 mg 100 g-1. The three-year researches have shown that the production method and genotype significantly affect the nitrate content. An average nitrate content was 2196.33 mg kg-1 on the control variant, and 2526.24 mg kg-1 on agro textile. Leafy lettuce of genotyp „Kibou RZ“ had lower nitrate content (2176.85 mg kg-1 compared to „Archimedes RZ“ (2843.05 mg kg-1 and „Santoro RZ“ (2221.37 mg kg-1. However nitrate concentration in all treatments remained within the European Union’s permissible levels.

  3. The growing commercial value of the male body: a longitudinal survey of advertising in women's magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, H G; Olivardia, R; Borowiecki, J J; Cohane, G H

    2001-01-01

    With the advances of feminism, men have gradually relinquished their once-exclusive 'masculine' roles as fighters and breadwinners. In response to this change, the male body may have gained in relative importance as one of the few surviving marks of masculinity. We hypothesized that these trends might be quantified by using a commercial measure such as advertising. We examined the proportion of exposed male and female bodies portrayed in advertisements between 1958 and 1998 in two leading American women's magazines. In both magazines, the proportion of undressed women in the advertisements has changed little over the last 40 years, whereas the proportion of undressed men has increased dramatically, especially since the early 1980s. Trends in commercial advertising offer tentative support for the hypothesis that the male body is increasing in importance as a mark of masculinity--at least as judged from the actions of advertisers seeking to influence women's attitudes. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. A new and fast technique to generate offspring after germ cells transplantation in adult fish: the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samyra M S N Lacerda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Germ cell transplantation results in fertile recipients and is the only available approach to functionally investigate the spermatogonial stem cell biology in mammals and probably in other vertebrates. In the current study, we describe a novel non-surgical methodology for efficient spermatogonial transplantation into the testes of adult tilapia (O. niloticus, in which endogenous spermatogenesis had been depleted with the cytostatic drug busulfan. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using two different tilapia strains, the production of fertile spermatozoa with donor characteristics was demonstrated in adult recipient, which also sired progeny with the donor genotype. Also, after cryopreservation tilapia spermatogonial cells were able to differentiate to spermatozoa in the testes of recipient fishes. These findings indicate that injecting germ cells directly into adult testis facilitates and enable fast generation of donor spermatogenesis and offspring compared to previously described methods. CONCLUSION: Therefore, a new suitable methodology for biotechnological investigations in aquaculture was established, with a high potential to improve the production of commercially valuable fish, generate transgenic animals and preserve endangered fish species.

  5. Response of commercial photodiodes for application in alpha spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira Filho, Alfredo Lopes

    1998-06-01

    The use of semiconductor detector for ionizing radiations spectrometry and dosimetry has been growing in the last years due to its characteristics of fast response, good efficiency for unit of volume and excellent resolution. Since the working principle of a semiconductor detector is identical to that of the semiconductor junctions of commercial electronic devices, a study was carried out on the PIN-photodiodes response, aiming at set up an alpha spectrometry system of low cost and easy acquisition. The tested components have the following characteristics: active area varying between 13.2 and 25 mm 2 , window of thickness equal or lower than 57 mg/cm 2 , depletion area with depth ranging from 10 to 300 μm and junction capacitance of 16 to 20 pF.Am-241, Cm-244, U-233 and Np-237 alpha sources produced by electrodeposition were used to evaluate the response of the devices as a function of the radiation energy. The results have shown a linear response of the photodiodes with the incident alpha particle energy. The resolution varied from 1.6% to 0.45% and the better detection efficiency found was about 7.2. The low cost of the photodiodes and the excellent results obtained at room temperature make such components very attractive for teaching purposes for environmental monitoring. (author)

  6. ATLAS fast physics monitoring: TADA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabato, G.; Elsing, M.; Gumpert, C.; Kamioka, S.; Moyse, E.; Nairz, A.; Eifert, T.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the LHC has been recording data from proton-proton collisions with 13 TeV center-of-mass energy since spring 2015. The collaboration is using a fast physics monitoring framework (TADA) to automatically perform a broad range of fast searches for early signs of new physics and to monitor the data quality across the year with the full analysis level calibrations applied to the rapidly growing data. TADA is designed to provide fast feedback directly after the collected data has been fully calibrated and processed at the Tier-0. The system can monitor a large range of physics channels, offline data quality and physics performance quantities. TADA output is available on a website accessible by the whole collaboration. It gets updated twice a day with the data from newly processed runs. Hints of potentially interesting physics signals or performance issues identified in this way are reported to be followed up by physics or combined performance groups. The note reports as well about the technical aspects of TADA: the software structure to obtain the input TAG files, the framework workflow and structure, the webpage and its implementation.

  7. Publishing SNP genotypes of human embryonic stem cell lines: policy statement of the International Stem Cell Forum Ethics Working Party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoppers, Bartha M; Isasi, Rosario; Benvenisty, Nissim; Kim, Ock-Joo; Lomax, Geoffrey; Morris, Clive; Murray, Thomas H; Lee, Eng Hin; Perry, Margery; Richardson, Genevra; Sipp, Douglas; Tanner, Klaus; Wahlström, Jan; de Wert, Guido; Zeng, Fanyi

    2011-09-01

    Novel methods and associated tools permitting individual identification in publicly accessible SNP databases have become a debatable issue. There is growing concern that current technical and ethical safeguards to protect the identities of donors could be insufficient. In the context of human embryonic stem cell research, there are no studies focusing on the probability that an hESC line donor could be identified by analyzing published SNP profiles and associated genotypic and phenotypic information. We present the International Stem Cell Forum (ISCF) Ethics Working Party's Policy Statement on "Publishing SNP Genotypes of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Lines (hESC)". The Statement prospectively addresses issues surrounding the publication of genotypic data and associated annotations of hESC lines in open access databases. It proposes a balanced approach between the goals of open science and data sharing with the respect for fundamental bioethical principles (autonomy, privacy, beneficence, justice and research merit and integrity).

  8. Male Gametophytic Screening of Citrus Genotypes for Salt Stress Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Barandan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Citrus species are classified as a sensitive group of trees to salt stress, but the levels of their sensitivity or tolerance to salt are different among cultivars. In order to evaluate the effects of salinity stress on pollen germination of some citrus cultivars, an experiment was performed in factorial, based on completely randomized design in three replications with Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reshni and Poncirus trifoliata as tolerant and sensitive controls along with 13 genotypes. Pollen grains of these genotypes were cultured in media containing different levels of sodium chloride (0, 0.87, 1.6, 2.4, 3.1 dS/m along with 15% sucrose, 0.7% agar and 100 mg/L boric acid. In order to understand the biochemical responses of pollen grains to salt stress, they were cultured in liquid media with three levels of salinity (i.e. 0, 0.87 and 1.6 dS/m and then the amounts of total protein and enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD and ascorbate peroxidase (APX were evaluated. Significant differences of pollen germination (P ≤ 0.01 were observed in different salinity levels, but there were no significant differences in pollen tube growth. Pollen germination in Cleopatra was greater in comparison to Poncirus trifoliate, indicating that Cleopatra is a tolerant cultivar. The amounts of total protein and enzyme activities of SOD and APX were influenced by genotypes, salinity levels and their interactions (P ≤ 0.01. Considering the fastness and accuracy of this type of experiment, the evaluation of citrus pollen responses may, potentially, be hired as an initial screening criteria for detecting salt-sensitive varieties from the tolerant citrus ones.

  9. Reaction to diseases of six gamma-irradiated genotypes of wheat (Triticum spp.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parodi, P.C.; Nebreda, I.M.

    1977-01-01

    Seed from six genotypes of spring wheat: Huelquen, Collafen, Yafen, PLA771 and Bluebird No.3 (Triticum aestivum L.), and also Quilafen (Triticum durum Desf.) was exposed to gamma radiation in doses of 10 and 25 krad. The aim of the research is to produce cultivars resistant to the main diseases, with a high protein content and grain yield, for the north-central region of Chile (29-35 0 latitude south). The selection process up to the generation M 5 has made it possible to identify mutants with a higher level of resistance to Puccinia graminis, Puccinia recondita and Puccinia striiformis than the original genotypes. Progress made in improving resistance to a fungal complex attacking the spikelets of the mutant cultivars Huelquen and Yafen, to Erysiphe graminis, and to the yellow dwarf virus in barley (BYDV), has been slighter. The yield of grain and protein per unit surface of the mutants studied during repeated experiments has been greater than for the controls. If this trend continues, there should be a number of mutants that could be used for commercial cultivation. (author)

  10. Status of fast reactor activities in the USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troyanov, M.F.; Rinejskij, A.A.

    1990-01-01

    Four fast reactors are in operation in the USSR now: BR-10, BOR-60, BN-350 and BN-600. Load factor of BN-600 reactor was in 1989 about 76%. On the basis of operational experience of running reactors design of more powerful commercial size BN-800 power reactor has been completed recently and construction work has started at two sites. The BN-1600 reactor is considered to be the prototype of future commercial reactors. In 1990, it was decided to extend its design approach with the aim to find some additional solutions to provide higher safety and better economics. (author). Figs and tabs

  11. Heterogeneous recombination among Hepatitis B virus genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelhano, Nadine; Araujo, Natalia M; Arenas, Miguel

    2017-10-01

    The rapid evolution of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) through both evolutionary forces, mutation and recombination, allows this virus to generate a large variety of adapted variants at both intra and inter-host levels. It can, for instance, generate drug resistance or the diverse viral genotypes that currently exist in the HBV epidemics. Concerning the latter, it is known that recombination played a major role in the emergence and genetic diversification of novel genotypes. In this regard, the quantification of viral recombination in each genotype can provide relevant information to devise expectations about the evolutionary trends of the epidemic. Here we measured the amount of this evolutionary force by estimating global and local recombination rates in >4700 HBV complete genome sequences corresponding to nine (A to I) HBV genotypes. Counterintuitively, we found that genotype E presents extremely high levels of recombination, followed by genotypes B and C. On the other hand, genotype G presents the lowest level, where recombination is almost negligible. We discuss these findings in the light of known characteristics of these genotypes. Additionally, we present a phylogenetic network to depict the evolutionary history of the studied HBV genotypes. This network clearly classified all genotypes into specific groups and indicated that diverse pairs of genotypes are derived from a common ancestor (i.e., C-I, D-E and, F-H) although still the origin of this virus presented large uncertainty. Altogether we conclude that the amount of observed recombination is heterogeneous among HBV genotypes and that this heterogeneity can influence on the future expansion of the epidemic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Review of the United Kingdom fast reactor programme - March 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramman, J.I.; John, C.T.; Wheeler, R.C.

    1986-01-01

    The UK programme in the field of fast reactors has continued successfully towards the following main objectives, details of which are contained in subsequent sections of this report: (2) progress with the prototype fast reactor (PFR) which achieved its design power on 4 March 1985; (3) nuclear fuel reprocessing; (4) commercial design studies; (5) structural integrity of LMFBR during its lifetime; (6) R and D work on components of LMFBR; (7) materials study; (8) sodium chemistry; (9) reactor core and fuel design philosophy; (10) safety problems; (11) plant performance studies

  13. Evolutionary potential of root chemical defense: genetic correlations with shoot chemistry and plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, J D; Salminen, J-P; Agrawal, Anurag A

    2012-08-01

    Root herbivores can affect plant fitness, and roots often contain the same secondary metabolites that act as defenses in shoots, but the ecology and evolution of root chemical defense have been little investigated. Here, we investigated genetic variance, heritability, and correlations among defensive phenolic compounds in shoot vs. root tissues of common evening primrose, Oenothera biennis. Across 20 genotypes, there were roughly similar concentrations of total phenolics in shoots vs. roots, but the allocation of particular phenolics to shoots vs. roots varied along a continuum of genotype growth rate. Slow-growing genotypes allocated 2-fold more of the potential pro-oxidant oenothein B to shoots than roots, whereas fast-growing genotypes had roughly equivalent above and belowground concentrations. Phenolic concentrations in both roots and shoots were strongly heritable, with mostly positive patterns of genetic covariation. Nonetheless, there was genotype-specific variation in the presence/absence of two major ellagitannins (oenothein A and its precursor oenothein B), indicating two different chemotypes based on alterations in this chemical pathway. Overall, the presence of strong genetic variation in root defenses suggests ample scope for the evolution of these compounds as defenses against root herbivores.

  14. Application of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) for phenotypic mapping of white spruce genotypes along environmental gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Odorico, P.; Wong, C. Y.; Besik, A.; Earon, E.; Isabel, N.; Ensminger, I.

    2017-12-01

    Rapid climate change is expected to cause a mismatch between locally adapted tree populations and the optimal climatic conditions to which they have adapted. Plant breeding and reforestation programs will increasingly need to rely on high-throughput precision phenotyping tools for the selection of genotypes with increased drought and stress tolerance. In this work, we present the possibilities offered by Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) carrying optical sensors to monitor and assess differences in performance among white spruce genotypes. While high-throughput precision phenotyping using UAS has gained traction in agronomic crop research during the last few years, to our knowledge it is still at its infancy in forestry applications. UAS surveys were performed at different times during the growing season over large white spruce common garden experiments established by the Canadian Forest Service at four different sites, each characterized by 2000 clonally replicated genotypes. Sites are distributed over a latitudinal gradient, in Ontario and Quebec, Canada. The UAS payload consisted of a custom-bands multispectral sensor acquiring radiation at wavelength at which the reflectance spectrum of vegetation is known to capture physiological change under disturbance and stress. Ground based tree-top spectral reflectances and leaf level functional traits were also acquired for validation purposes parallel to UAS surveys. We will discuss the potential and the challenges of using optical sensors on UAS to infer genotypic variation in tree response to stress events and show how spectral data can function as the link between large-scale phenotype and genotype data.

  15. Accelerating Memory-Access-Limited HPC Applications via Novel Fast Data Compression, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A fast-paced continual increase on the ratio of CPU to memory speed feeds an exponentially growing limitation for extracting performance from HPC systems. Breaking...

  16. Accelerating Memory-Access-Limited HPC Applications via Novel Fast Data Compression, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A fast-paced continual increase on the ratio of CPU to memory speed feeds an exponentially growing limitation for extracting performance from HPC systems. Ongoing...

  17. Fast charging technique for high power LiFePO4 batteries: A mechanistic analysis of aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anseán, D.; Dubarry, M.; Devie, A.; Liaw, B. Y.; García, V. M.; Viera, J. C.; González, M.

    2016-07-01

    One of the major issues hampering the acceptance of electric vehicles (EVs) is the anxiety associated with long charging time. Hence, the ability to fast charging lithium-ion battery (LIB) systems is gaining notable interest. However, fast charging is not tolerated by all LIB chemistries because it affects battery functionality and accelerates its aging processes. Here, we investigate the long-term effects of multistage fast charging on a commercial high power LiFePO4-based cell and compare it to another cell tested under standard charging. Coupling incremental capacity (IC) and IC peak area analysis together with mechanistic model simulations ('Alawa' toolbox with harvested half-cell data), we quantify the degradation modes that cause aging of the tested cells. The results show that the proposed fast charging technique caused similar aging effects as standard charging. The degradation is caused by a linear loss of lithium inventory, coupled with a less degree of linear loss of active material on the negative electrode. This study validates fast charging as a feasible mean of operation for this particular LIB chemistry and cell architecture. It also illustrates the benefits of a mechanistic approach to understand cell degradation on commercial cells.

  18. Slow rusting response of different wheat genotypes against the leaf rust in relation to epidemiological factors in Faisalabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.A.; Haider, M.M.; Hussain, M.; Ahmad, S.

    2007-01-01

    Wheat genotypes were screened against leaf rust to evaluate slow rusting response. Among one hundred and sixty varieties/lines, 86 showed response to leaf rust while all other remained immune or showed no response. The slow rusting, wheat varieties/ lines displayed 20-40% severity level and these were Maxi-Pak65, Blue silver, Pothohar, Punjab81, Faisalabd-83, Shalimar-88, Kohnoor-83, Pasban-90, Inqilab-91, Uqab-99-94105, Punjab-76, Parwaz-94, HD2169, HD2179, HD2204, HD2285, Lr27+31, LrB, LR17, Lr14A, Lr15 and Yr1-E-1 while the fast rusting varieties/lines that showed severity level up to 90% were WL-711, Morocco, PAK-1, Punjab-85 and Chakwal-86 SA42, SA75, Lr1, Lr2A, Lr2B. Lr23, Lr3KA, Lr3g, Lr10, Lr18, Lr21, Lr24, Yr2-E35 and 95153 respectively. Slow rusting genotypes exhibited low AUDPC (200-400) values while fast rusters displayed high AUDPC (400-1500) values. Leaf rust severity displayed significant correlation with maximum and minimum temperatures, rainfall and sunshine radiation. It was observed that with an increase of these environmental conditions a significant increase in disease severity was recorded

  19. Assessment of salinity tolerance in bell pepper (capsicum annuum l.) genotypes on the basis of germination, emergence and growth attributes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tehseen, S.; Ayyub, C.M.; Amjad, M.

    2016-01-01

    Abiotic stresses are principal threat to crop growth and productivity all over the world. The most devastating one is soil salinity which adversely affects the plants, so a comprehensive study was conducted to categorize different available bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) genotypes into salt tolerant, moderately tolerant and sensitive ones on the basis of germination and emergence parameters. Genotypes were exposed to different saline treatments (2, 4, 6 and 8 dS m-1) along with control (0 dS m-1). Germination test, conducted in petri dishes in incubator, revealed that salinity stress significantly decreased final germination percentage, germination index and embryo axis length of tested genotypes. On the other hand, mean germination time and time to 50% seeds germination were increased with the increasing salinity level from 2 to 8 dS m-1. Emergence test of bell pepper genotypes conducted in pots under greenhouse conditions, shown that salinity decreased the seedlings fresh and dry biomass, number of leaves, leaf area and root and shoot length. On the basis of overall percent decrease ranking table, genotypes were grouped into comparatively salt tolerant (Zard, Tasty, Super shimla, Aristotle), moderately tolerant (Capistrano, CW-03, Kaka-01, Orable, Yolo wonder, Crusadar) and sensitive ones (PEP-311, Admiral, Lafayette, Colossol). From these results, it can be extracted that germination and emergence tests are reliable screening tools for evaluating pepper genotypes for salt stress at seedling stage. Moreover, results of this study can be useful for local farmers to utilize their marginal soils by growing relatively salt tolerant bell pepper genotypes. (author)

  20. Performance of commercial laying hen genotypes on free range and organic farms in Switzerland, France and The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenstra, F; Maurer, V; Bestman, M; van Sambeek, F; Zeltner, E; Reuvekamp, B; Galea, F; van Niekerk, T

    2012-01-01

    1. A total of 257 farmers with free ranging laying hens (organic and conventional) in Switzerland, France and The Netherlands with 273 flocks were interviewed to determine the relationships between the genotype of the hens, management conditions and performance. 2. Almost 20 different genotypes (brands) were present on the farms. In France, all birds were brown feathered hens laying brown eggs. In Switzerland and The Netherlands, there were brown, white (white feathered hens laying white eggs) and silver (white feathered hens laying brown eggs) hens. In Switzerland, mixed flocks were also present. 3. The overall effect of system (organic vs. conventional free range) on egg production and mortality was significant, with higher mortality and lower egg production among organic hens. In pair wise comparisons within country, the difference was highly significant in The Netherlands, and showed a non-significant tendency in the same direction in Switzerland and France. 4. White hens tended to perform better than brown hens. Silver hens appeared to have a higher mortality and lower production per hen housed at 60 weeks of age. 5. There were no significant relationships between production, mortality, feather condition and use of outside run or with flock size. 6. There was more variation in mortality and egg production among farms with a small flock size than among farms with a large flock size.

  1. Assessing and comparison of different machine learning methods in parent-offspring trios for genotype imputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhchi, Abbas; Honarvar, Mahmood; Kashan, Nasser Emam Jomeh; Aminafshar, Mehdi

    2016-06-21

    Genotype imputation is an important tool for prediction of unknown genotypes for both unrelated individuals and parent-offspring trios. Several imputation methods are available and can either employ universal machine learning methods, or deploy algorithms dedicated to infer missing genotypes. In this research the performance of eight machine learning methods: Support Vector Machine, K-Nearest Neighbors, Extreme Learning Machine, Radial Basis Function, Random Forest, AdaBoost, LogitBoost, and TotalBoost compared in terms of the imputation accuracy, computation time and the factors affecting imputation accuracy. The methods employed using real and simulated datasets to impute the un-typed SNPs in parent-offspring trios. The tested methods show that imputation of parent-offspring trios can be accurate. The Random Forest and Support Vector Machine were more accurate than the other machine learning methods. The TotalBoost performed slightly worse than the other methods.The running times were different between methods. The ELM was always most fast algorithm. In case of increasing the sample size, the RBF requires long imputation time.The tested methods in this research can be an alternative for imputation of un-typed SNPs in low missing rate of data. However, it is recommended that other machine learning methods to be used for imputation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Evaluation of hepatitis B virus genotyping EIA kit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yasuhito; Sugauchi, Fuminaka; Matsuuraa, Kentaro; Naganuma, Hatsue; Tatematsu, Kanako; Takagi, Kazumi; Hiramatsu, Kumiko; Kani, Satomi; Gotoh, Takaaki; Wakimoto, Yukio; Mizokami, Masashi

    2009-01-01

    Clinical significance of Hepatitis B virus(HBV) genotyping is increasingly recognized. The aim of this study was to evaluate reproducibility, accuracy, and sensitivity of an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) based HBV genotyping kit, which designed to discriminate between genotypes to A, B, C, or D by detecting genotype-specific epitopes in PreS2 region. Using the four genotypes panels, the EIA demonstrated complete inter and intra-assay genotyping reproducibility. Serum specimens had stable results after 8 days at 4 degrees C, or 10 cycles of freezing-thawing. In 91 samples that have been genotyped by DNA sequencing, 87(95.6%) were in complete accordance with EIA genotyping. Of examined 344 HBsAg-positive serum specimens, genotypes A, B, C and D were determined in 26 (7.6%), 62 (18.0%), 228 (66.3%), and 9 (2.6%) cases, respectively. Of 19 (5.5%) specimens unclassified by the EIA, 13 were found to have low titer of HBsAg concentration (< 3 IU/ml), and the other 5 had amino acid mutations or deletions within targeted PreS2 epitopes. The EIA allowed genotyping even in HBV DNA negative samples (96.2%). In conclusion, HBV genotype EIA is reliable, sensitive and easy assay for HBV genotyping. The assay would be useful for clinical use.

  3. Commercialism in US elementary and secondary school nutrition environments: trends from 2007 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M; Turner, Lindsey; Sandoval, Anna; Johnston, Lloyd D; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2014-03-01

    Schools present highly desirable marketing environments for food and beverage companies. However, most marketed items are nutritionally poor. To examine national trends in student exposure to selected school-based commercialism measures from 2007 through 2012. Annual nationally representative cross-sectional studies were evaluated in US public elementary, middle, and high schools with use of a survey of school administrators. School-based commercialism, including exclusive beverage contracts and associated incentives, profits, and advertising; corporate food vending and associated incentives and profits; posters/advertisements for soft drinks, fast food, or candy; use of food coupons as incentives; event sponsorships; and fast food available to students. Changes over time in school-based commercialism as well as differences by student body racial/ethnic distribution and socioeconomic status. Although some commercialism measures-especially those related to beverage vending-have shown significant decreases over time, most students at all academic levels continued to attend schools with one or more types of school-based commercialism in 2012. Overall, exposure to school-based commercialism increased significantly with grade level. For 63.7% of elementary school students, the most frequent type of commercialism was food coupons used as incentives. For secondary students, the type of commercialism most prevalent in schools was exclusive beverage contracts, which were in place in schools attended by 49.5% of middle school students and 69.8% of high school students. Exposure to elementary school coupons, as well as middle and high school exclusive beverage contracts, was significantly more likely for students attending schools with mid or low (vs high) student body socioeconomic status. Most US elementary, middle, and high school students attend schools where they are exposed to commercial efforts aimed at obtaining food or beverage sales or developing brand recognition

  4. Fasting plasma total ghrelin concentrations in monozygotic twins discordant for obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leskelä, Piia; Ukkola, Olavi; Vartiainen, Johanna; Rönnemaa, Tapani; Kaprio, Jaakko; Bouchard, Claude; Kesäniemi, Y Antero

    2009-02-01

    Ghrelin is a hormone that is involved in the regulation of food intake. Neuronal, endocrine, and genetic factors have been shown to regulate plasma ghrelin levels; but the determinants of fasting ghrelin concentrations are not yet fully understood. The main aim was to explore the roles of adiposity and genetic differences in determining fasting plasma total ghrelin levels. We measured total ghrelin levels in a population of 23 monozygotic twin pairs discordant for obesity. In addition, 2 variants of ghrelin gene, namely, Arg51Gln and Leu72Met, were genotyped in 3 populations of monozygotic twin pairs: 23 obesity-discordant, 43 lean-concordant, and 46 obesity-concordant twin pairs. In discordant twins, lean co-twins had higher fasting plasma total ghrelin levels (950 pg/mL, SD = 328 pg/mL) than obese twins (720 pg/mL, SD = 143 pg/mL; P = .003). Arg51Gln-polymorphism of the ghrelin gene was equally distributed between the twin groups. However, there were significant differences in genotype frequencies at the Leu72Met polymorphism between the discordant and obese-concordant groups (P = .003) and between the discordant and lean-concordant groups (P = .011), but not between the 2 concordant groups. In the discordant group, there were fewer Met carriers (4%) than among the obese (17%) or the lean-concordant groups (15%). Plasma total ghrelin levels are affected by acquired obesity independent of genetic background. The Leu72 allele is particularly common among monozygotic twins discordant for obesity, suggesting that this ghrelin allele is more permissive in the regulation of energy balance. The ghrelin gene may thus play a role in the regulation of variability of body weight, such that Leu72 allele carriers are more prone to weight variability in response to environmental factors.

  5. Afraid to help: social anxiety partially mediates the association between 5-HTTLPR triallelic genotype and prosocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltenberg, Scott F; Christ, Christa C; Carlo, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    There is growing evidence that the serotonin system influences prosocial behavior. We examined whether anxiety mediated the association between variation in the serotonin transporter gene regulatory region (5-HTTLPR) and prosocial behavior. We collected self-reported tendencies to avoid certain situations and history of helping others using standard instruments and buccal cells for standard 5-HTTLPR genotyping from 398 undergraduate students. Triallelic 5-HTTLPR genotype was significantly associated with prosocial behavior and the effect was partially mediated by social anxiety, such that those carrying the S' allele reported higher levels of social avoidance and lower rates of helping others. These results are consistent with accounts of the role of serotonin on anxiety and prosocial behavior and suggest that targeted efforts to reduce social anxiety in S' allele carriers may enhance prosocial behavior.

  6. Bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity in fruits of clone and ungrafted genotypes of yellow mombin tree Compostos bioativos e capacidade antioxidante de frutos de genótipos clones e pés-franco de cajazeira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Vanessa Gomes da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Yellow mombin is a fruit tree that grows spontaneously in the Semi-Arid Northeastern Brazil. Its fruits are still extractively exploited. The pulp of yellow mombin fruit stands out regarding the commercial aspect due to the characteristic flavor and aroma felt when consumed in diverse ways. This study aimed to evaluate the presence of bioactive compounds, total extractable polyphenols, and antioxidant activity of yellow mombin fruits (Spondias mombin, L., from clone and ungrafted genotypes. The fruits were harvested at commercial maturity from twelve yellow mombin tree genotypes from an experimental orchard located at the municipality of Joao Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil, and evaluated for chlorophyll, carotenoids, yellow flavonoids, total extractable polyphenols, and antioxidant activity, which was measured by the β-carotene/linoleic acid method. The antioxidant activity showed a percentage of inhibition of oxidation higher than 75% for all genotypes evaluated at the time of 120 minutes. The fruits from clone genotypes showed a higher percentage of antioxidant activity.A cajazeira é uma árvore frutífera de ocorrência espontânea no Semiárido Nordestino e seus frutos são ainda explorados de forma extrativista. A polpa do fruto da cajazeira assume posição de destaque no que tange ao aspecto comercial, em função do aroma e do sabor característicos que oferece quando degustada nas mais variadas formas. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a presença de compostos bioativos e polifenóis extraíveis, e a atividade antioxidante de frutos da cajazeira (Spondias mombin, L, provenientes de genótipos clones e pés-franco. Os frutos foram colhidos na maturidade comercial de doze genótipos de cajazeiras provenientes de pomar experimental localizado no Município de João Pessoa-PB, Brazil, e avaliados quanto ao teor de clorofila, carotenoides, flavonoides amarelos e polifenóis extraíveis totais, sendo a atividade antioxidante avaliada pelo

  7. THE FASTEST GROWING LEAST DEVELOPED COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wioletta NOWAK

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents trends in economic growth and development in twelve least developed countries from 2006 to 2015. The study is based on the data retrieved from the World Bank Database. During the analysed 10 years, seven Asian (Myanmar, Lao PDR, Bhutan, Cambodia, Timor-Leste, Bangladesh, and Afghanistan and five African (Ethiopia, Rwanda, Angola, Sudan, and Mozambique LDCs had average annual GDP per capita growth rates higher than 4.0%. GDP has been largely generated through the services and industry sectors. A few LDCs sustained strong growth mainly because of foreign assistance and in other countries remittances were a significant source of development finance. Resource rich countries recorded high inflows of foreign direct investment. In a few fast growing LDCs the state has been heavily engaged in economy. The analysed LDCs substantially improved their development indicators.

  8. Response of water use efficiency and carbon emission to no-tillage and winter wheat genotypes in the North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yujie; Gao, Chao; Han, Huifang; Li, Quanqi

    2018-04-20

    No-tillage management practices reduce net CO 2 losses from farmland and keep soil from degrading, but also decrease winter wheat grain yield and water use efficiency (WUE) in the North China Plain (NCP). Suitable management practices, namely, the choice of genotypes, could enhance crop yield and WUE; however, how the WUE and CO 2 exchange responds to no-tillage practices and winter wheat genotypes remains unclear. In the 2015-2016 and 2016-2017 winter wheat growing seasons in the NCP, a field experiment was carried out, and tested two tillage methods (no-tillage with mulching and conventional tillage) and two winter wheat genotypes ('Tainong 18' and 'Jimai 22'). The goal of the study was to identify the relationship between winter wheat grain yield, water consumption, and carbon emissions in no-tillage practices. The results showed that, compared to conventional tillage, no-tillage significantly reduced the net CO 2 -C cumulative emissions and water consumption; however, the grain yield was significantly reduced by 6.8% and 12.0% in the first and second growing seasons, respectively. Compared with Jimai 22, Tainong 18 had a compensatory effect on the yield reduction caused by no-tillage. As a result, the yield carbon utilization efficiency (R) and WUE were the highest in no-tillage with Tainong 18 (NT18), and the carbon emission per unit water consumption was the lowest in NT18. The results support the idea that a combination of no-tillage with genotype can improve the regulation of soil carbon emissions and water consumption of winter wheat, thus, providing theoretical support for sustainable crop production and soil development in the NCP. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Reasons for the Fast Growing Seawater Desalination Capacity in Algeria

    KAUST Repository

    Drouiche, Nadjib

    2011-05-24

    Seawater/brackish water desalination has been widely adopted by the Algerian Government in the last few years to supply potable water to municipality for various purposes mainly for domestic and industrial uses especially in areas where demand is high due to shortage of fresh water resources, rapid population growth and development of industry and tourism. Ten years ago, desalination was confined to the industrial use only especially in oil and gas industry as the country was relying on rain water and other available sources to supply fresh water to municipalities. Due to chronic drought conditions, the Ministry of Water Resources reviewed the national water strategy and a strong option for desalination was adopted where an ambitious program was thus put into action. Sixteen mega-plants, with capacities ranging from 100,000 to 500,000 m3 per day, primarily based on Reverse Osmosis technology, were launched in the last few years making the Algerian desalination program one of the world\\'s fastest growing markets. Five desalination plants, including the Africa\\'s largest seawater reverse osmosis project with a total capacity of 200,000 m3 per day, are already in operation and the remaining projects are either under construction or in commissioning. An integrated water resources management was also adopted as additional option to cuter the increasing water demand as there is also a great potential for water reuse and conventional water treatment. An additional benefit of this would be reducing the volume of treated wastewater disposed into the environment. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  10. Thermal manipulation during embryogenesis has long-term effects on muscle and liver metabolism in fast-growing chickens.

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    Thomas Loyau

    Full Text Available Fast-growing chickens have a limited ability to tolerate high temperatures. Thermal manipulation during embryogenesis (TM has previously been shown to lower chicken body temperature (Tb at hatching and to improve thermotolerance until market age, possibly resulting from changes in metabolic regulation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of TM (12 h/d, 39.5°C, 65% RH from d 7 to 16 of embryogenesis vs. 37.8°C, 56% RH continuously and of a subsequent heat challenge (32°C for 5 h at 34 d on the mRNA expression of metabolic genes and cell signaling in the Pectoralis major muscle and the liver. Gene expression was analyzed by RT-qPCR in 8 chickens per treatment, characterized by low Tb in the TM groups and high Tb in the control groups. Data were analyzed using the general linear model of SAS considering TM and heat challenge within TM as main effects. TM had significant long-term effects on thyroid hormone metabolism by decreasing the muscle mRNA expression of deiodinase DIO3. Under standard rearing conditions, the expression of several genes involved in the regulation of energy metabolism, such as transcription factor PGC-1α, was affected by TM in the muscle, whereas for other genes regulating mitochondrial function and muscle growth, TM seemed to mitigate the decrease induced by the heat challenge. TM increased DIO2 mRNA e